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The Black Death

A Historical review Submitted to Social Studies II As a Final Requirement

Submitted To: Mr. Mario Delos Reyes

Submitted By: Corpuz, Abegail L. II-b/ II-Magalang

in fact. social and economic upheavals which had profound effects on the course of European history. this view has recently been questioned by some scientists and historians. Introduction The Black Death was one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. peaking in Europe between 1348 and 1350. Once infected by the Yersinia pestis bacterium. pneumonic plague (the infection in the lungs). The Black Death is categorized into three specific types of plague: bubonic plague (infection in the lymph nodes. until it left Europe in the 19th century.I. it had reached the Crimea by 1346. but this view has recently been challenged. The plague returned at various times. and septicemic plague (the infection in the blood and the most deadly of the three). It took 150 years for Europe's population to recover. This has been seen as creating a series of religious. it is estimated that victims would die within three to seven days. The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population. and some researchers. From there. However. Usually thought to have started in Central Asia. It is widely thought to have been an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. a viral hemorrhagic fever. Scientists and historians at the beginning of the 20th century assumed that the Black Death was an outbreak of the same diseases. believe that the illness was. . probably carried by fleas residing on the black rats that were regular passengers on merchant ships. resulting in a larger number of deaths. caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis and spread by fleas which primarily made use of highly mobile small animal populations like that of the black rat (Rattus rattus). or [hence] buboes). examining historical records of the spread of disease. it spread throughout the Mediterranean and Europe. reducing the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400.

There is some controversy over the identity of the disease. The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 million people. the Great Plague of 1738 (which hit eastern Europe). spreading to fleas. Summary of the Historical Event Some historians believe the pandemic began in China or Central Asia (one such location is Lake Issyk Kul) in the lungs of the bobac variety of marmot.[10][11] The Black Death is estimated to have killed 30% to 60% of Europe's population. The 14th-century eruption of the Black Death had a drastic effect on Europe's population. During this period. and the Russian plague of 1770-1772.000 Londoners. it seems to have disappeared from Europe during the 19th century. to rats. more than 100 plague epidemics swept across Europe. In either case. It may have reduced the world's population from an estimated 450 million to between 350 and 375 million in 1400. and the Great Plague of Vienna (1679). Other notable 17thcentury outbreaks were the Italian Plague of 1629±1631. approximately 25±50 million of which occurred in Europe. but in its virulent form.[4] On its return in 1603. the plague killed 38. after the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720±1722.II. merchants and soldiers carried it over the caravan routes until in 1346 it reached the Crimea in South Eastern Europe. The plague is thought to have returned every generation with varying virulence and mortality until the 1700s. and the Great Plague of Seville (1647± 1652). the Great Plague of London (1665±1666). In the late 1320s or 1330s. and eventually to humans. . Other scholars believe the plague was endemic in that area. from Crimea the plague spread to Western Europe and North Africa during the 1340s.

as the term is more likely to refer to black in the sense of glum. the bobac variety of marmot) in Central Asia. The uncertainty of daily survival has been seen as creating a general mood of morbidity. Medieval people called the catastrophe of the 14th century either the "Great Pestilence"' or the "Great Plague". lugubrious. generally thought to be caused by Yersinia pestis. foreigners. It was. argue . in which the sufferer's skin would blacken due to subepidermal haemorrhages (purpura). but it is not entirely clear where the 14th-century pandemic started. is enzootic (commonly present) in populations of ground rodents (most specifically. The plague disease. and lepers. although some speculate that it originated around northern India. a serious blow to the Catholic Church. beggars. The German physician and medical writer Justus Hecker took that idea when he described the catastrophe in 1832 in his publication "Der schwarze Tod im vierzehnten Jahrhundert". as illustrated by Giovanni Boccaccio in The Decameron (1353). Writers contemporary to the plague referred to the event as the "Great Mortality". The work was translated into English the following year. or dreadful as to denote the terribleness and gloom of the events. such as the historian Michael W. arguably. and under the influence of the cholera epidemic of that time. influencing people to "live for the moment".irrevocably changing the social structure. not to describe the late-stage sign of the disease. and others. and the extremities would darken with gangrene (acral necrosis). Dols. The popular theory places the first cases in the steppes of Central Asia. "The Black Death in the 14th century" gained widespread attention which coined the term Schwarzer Tod and Black Death in the German and English speaking worlds respectively. and resulted in widespread persecution of minorities such as Jews. Swedish and Danish chronicles of the 16th century described the events as "black" for the first time.

they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls to infect the inhabitants. famine. The 14thcentury plague is estimated to have killed one third of the population of China. in the early 14th century the population began to exceed the number that could be sustained by productive capacity of the land and farmers.[25] Whether or not this hypothesis is accurate. during which the Mongol army under Jani Beg was suffering the disease. by Mongol armies and traders making use of the opportunities of free passage within the Mongol Empire offered by the Pax Mongolica. with the result that. known as the Great Famine. In China. the Medieval Warm Period ended sometime towards the end of the 13th century. After a protracted siege.that the historical evidence concerning epidemics in the Mediterranean and specifically the Plague of Justinian point to a probability that the Black Death originated in Africa and spread to Central Asia. bringing the "Little Ice Age" and harsher winters with reduced harvests. The population dropped from approximately 120 to 60 million. taking the plague by ship into Sicily and the south of Europe. It has been argued that the famine came about as the result of a large population growth in the previous centuries. when it spread. it is clear that several preexisting conditions such as war. The Genoese traders fled. where it then became entrenched among the rodent population. and led to widespread famine. It was reportedly first introduced to Europe at the trading city of Caffa in the Crimea in 1347. Nevertheless. from Central Asia it was carried east and west along the Silk Road. struck much of North West Europe. In the years 1315 to 1317 a catastrophic famine. the 13th century Mongol conquest disrupted farming and trading. and weather contributed to the severity of the Black Death. new technological innovations such as the heavy plough and the three-field system were not as effective in clearing new fields for harvest as they were in the . In Northern Europe. In Europe.

heavy rains began to fall. which led to several years of cold and wet winters. low-level debilitating disease reduced the productivity of labourers. notably sheep and cattle. Standards of living then fell drastically. perhaps reducing the population by more than 10%. soil. oats. . 1328±1350). sometimes identified as anthrax. This situation was worsened when landowners and monarchs such as Edward III of England (r. 1327±1377) and Philip VI of France (r.Mediterranean because the north had poor. The already weak harvests of the north suffered and the seven-year famine ensued. Records recreated from dendrochronological studies show a hiatus in building construction during the period.] In the autumn of 1314. Wheat. Their scarcity resulted in malnutrition. This was the economic and social situation in which the predictor of the coming disaster. further reducing the food supply and income of the peasantry. emerged. most significantly Ypres (now in Belgium). raised the fines and rents of their tenants. Food shortages and rapidly inflating prices were a fact of life for as much as a century before the plague. In 1318 a pestilence of unknown origin. as well as a deterioration in climate. Many thousands died in populated urban centres. a typhoid (contaminated water) epidemic. causing grain prices to increase. targeted the animals of Europe. out of a fear that their comparatively high standard of living would decline. which increases susceptibility to infections due to weakened immunity. clay-like. The European economy entered a vicious circle in which hunger and chronic. The Great Famine was arguably the worst in European history. hay and consequently livestock. were all in short supply. and Europeans as a whole experienced more health problems. and so the grain output was reduced. diets grew more limited.

in our daily lives we must always know how to maintain a good or a proper hygiene and must eat fruits and vegetables for us to be strong and healthy and also to help us avoid sickness and also in being clean with ourselves we must also know how to clean our surroundings for us not to attract rats and insects that may be carrying germs and bacterias. Historical Lesson The Historical Lesson that we can learn from this Historical Event is that not in all problems that we face that supernatural things are always included but we must know or focus in things that are more essential.III. So. scientific and is believable and explainable by the things that had happened and we must also base it in our surroundings. .

. so as students we must know how to keep our surroundings clean and we must also make sure that we eat a balance diet and eat only healthy foods and this Historical Review also tells us that in every place where we are sickness and death may just be around there somewhere. Application This Historical Lesson can be applied in my personal/daily by letting me understand that common sickness are transported not only through physical contact but also of what our environment looks like. if its clean or not.IV.