You are on page 1of 9

1544 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO.

3, MARCH 2010
[22] X.-D. Wang and H.V. Poor, Wireless Communication Systems: Advanced
Techniques for Signal Reception. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall,
2004.
[23] C.-C. Tu and B. Champagne, “Subspace blind MIMO-OFDM channel
estimation with short averaging periods: Performance analysis,” in Proc.
IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., Mar. 2008, pp. 24–29.
[24] E. de Carvalho, J. Cioffi, and D. Slock, “Cramer-Rao bounds for
blind multichannel estimation,” in Proc. IEEE Global Commun. Conf.,
Dec. 2000, vol. 2, pp. 1036–1040.
[25] 3rd Generation Partnership Project, Technical Specification Group
Radio Access Network; Spatial Channel Model for Multiple-Input
Multiple Output Simulations (Rel. 6), 3GPP TR 25.996 Technical Report
V6.0.0 (2003-09), 2003.
[26] D. A. Harville, Matrix Algebra From a Statistician’s Perspective.
New York: Springer-Verlag, 1997.
Performance Analysis of Fixed-Gain
Amplify-and-Forward Relaying With MRC
Nam H. Vien, Student Member, IEEE, and
Ha H. Nguyen, Senior Member, IEEE
Abstract—Relay transmission has recently attracted much attention
since it can offer spatial diversity with single antenna terminals. This
paper addresses the performance of a multiple-relay systemwith fixed-gain
amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying in Nakagami-mfading. A tight upper
bound on the average symbol error probability (SEP) is obtained for a
system with K relays and when the maximal ratio combining (MRC)
is used at the destination. Based on the obtained bound, a maximum
diversity order of m(K+ 1), where mis the fading parameter, is shown.
Moreover, the problem of power allocation (PA) to minimize the SEP
upper bound is investigated. Numerical results illustrate significant gains
provided by the proposed PA over equal PA (EPA) under various channel
conditions.
Index Terms—Amplify-and-forward (AF) protocol, diversity order,
maximum ratio combining (MRC), Nakagami-m fading, performance
analysis, power allocation (PA), relay communications.
I. INTRODUCTION
Recently, relay communication has attracted a lot of research in-
terest due to its ability to offer spatial diversity while still satisfying
the size and power constraints of mobile devices [1]–[9]. The benefit
comes from the cooperation of relays in a network to assist trans-
mission from the source to the destination. This is because, with the
assistance of relays, the transmission from the source to the destination
can be performed over a virtual antenna array [3], [4].
The most popular signal processing methods at relays are decode-
and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF). For DF, cooperative
relays first try to decode the received information and then regenerate
a new version to transmit to the destination [3], [10]–[12]. On the
other hand, for AF, the relays retransmit scaled versions of the received
information to the destination without decoding them. Therefore, AF
Manuscript received May 27, 2009; revised September 27, 2009 and
November 26, 2009. First published January 19, 2010; current version pub-
lished March 19, 2010. This work was supported by a Natural Sciences and
Engineering Research Council of Canada Discovery Grant. The review of this
paper was coordinated by Dr. C. Yuen.
The authors are with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineer-
ing, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK S7N 5A9, Canada (e-mail:
nam.vien@usask.ca; ha.nguyen@usask.ca).
Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online
at http://ieeexplore.ieee.org.
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2010.2040755
needs no sophisticated processing at the relays or the destination [3],
[5], [13]. To limit the transmit power at the relays, the received signal at
each relay can be amplified with a varying or fixed gain. The varying-
gain relaying scheme maintains the constant transmit power at the
relays at all times, but it requires knowledge of the instantaneous
channel gains of all the source–relay links. To reduce the complexity
at the relays, the fixed-gain relaying scheme has been proposed, which
maintains the long-term average transmit power at each relay [6].
For AF relaying, optimal maximal ratio combining (MRC) has
been considered in [4], [6], and [14]–[16]. In [14] and [15], the
performance of a single-relay system with a multiple-antenna desti-
nation is considered. In [14], under Rayleigh fading, the maximum
diversity orders with varying and fixed gains are shown to be 2N
and N + 1, respectively, where N is the number of antennas at the
destination. For Nakagami-m fading, the exact MRC performance
for the fixed-gain relay system is derived with the help of Kampe
de Feriet’s function in [15]. For multiple-relay systems with a single
antenna in both transmitter and receiver, the work in [4] investigates
the symbol error probability (SEP) for AF with the varying gains
at relays and with the varying MRC at the destination. In [16], the
performance of relay systems with fixed-gain relays over generalized
fading channels is determined by using the geometric-mean (G-M)
bound on the instantaneous signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This bound
is then used to evaluate the outage and error probabilities by using
the well-known moment generating function (MGF) approach. Using
the same technique as in [4], the authors in [6] consider the outage
probability behaviors of the relay systems with both varying and fixed
gains in Nakagami-m fading at the high SNR region. The work shows
that when the fading severity difference between the source-to-relay
and the relay-to-destination channels exists, both strategies can achieve
the same diversity gain, whereas the fixed-gain AF relaying strictly
loses some coding gains. However, the limitation of the method used
in [4] and [6] is that it can only predict the asymptotic performance of
the systems at the high SNR region, whereas in some applications, the
performance at low and medium SNRs might be more important [17].
It should be pointed out that the foregoing works on AF relay
systems assume that the total transmit power is uniformly allocated
over the source and the relays, i.e., equal power allocation (EPA).
Obviously, the performance of such AF systems with EPA is inferior
to that with optimal power allocation (OPA) among the source and all
the cooperating relays [18]. Such OPA schemes have recently been
considered in [18]–[22]. However, all the previously proposed OPA
schemes are restricted to Rayleigh fading channels. It is well known
that the Nakagami-m distribution provides a much better fitting for
the fading channel distributions than the Rayleigh distribution in many
scenarios [23]. In fact, it includes the Rayleigh distribution (m = 1)
as a special case [23].
Motivated by the foregoing observations, this paper first obtains a
tight upper bound on the SEP for fixed-gain AF multiple-relay systems
with MRC at the destination. It is illustrated that the obtained bound is
effective over a wide range of channel settings. It is also shown that the
MRC can achieve the maximum diversity order of m(K + 1). Based
on the minimization of the obtained bound on the SEP performance,
a novel power allocation (PA) scheme is proposed. In particular,
under the assumption that all the channel statistics are available at the
destination, the proposed PA coefficients can easily be calculated at the
destination and then fed back to the source and relays during a startup
phase. The proposed PA demonstrates significant performance gains
over EPA.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II describes
the system model under consideration. The upper bound on the overall
0018-9545/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010 1545
SEP is derived in Section III. The proposed PA is described in
Section IV. Conclusions are given in Section V.
Notation: x

is the complex conjugate of x, and Re(x) takes
the real part of complex number x. For a random variable (RV)
X, p
X
(·) denotes its probability density function (pdf), and E{X}
denotes its expectation. The circularly symmetric complex Gaussian
RV with variance σ
2
is denoted by CN(0, σ
2
). The Q-function
is defined as Q(x) = (1/

2π)


x
exp(−t
2
/2)dt. The notation
E
1
(x) is used to denote the exponential integral, i.e., E
1
(x) =


x
(exp(−t)/t)dt. Γ(x) represents the gamma function, i.e., Γ(x) =


0
exp(−t)t
x−1
dt, Re(x) > 0. The incomplete gamma function is
denoted by γ(α, x), i.e., γ(α, x) =

x
0
exp(−t)t
α−1
dt, Re(α) > 0.
II. SYSTEM MODEL
Consider a multirelay system with a source S, K relays (R
k
)
K
k=1
,
and a destination D. All nodes are equipped with a single-antenna
transmitter and a receiver. Information is sent from S to D with the
help of (R
k
)
K
k=1
. The system is half-duplex, in which (R
k
)
K
k=1
cannot
transmit and receive at the same time. Frequency-flat slow fading is
assumed throughout this paper. The channel coefficients (a
SR
k
)
K
k=1
,
(a
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
, and a
SD
represent independent Nakagami-m fading with
mean-square values (Ω
SR
k
)
K
k=1
, (Ω
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
, and Ω
SD
, respectively.
Therefore, the normalized received SNR of the PQ link without power
scaling, i.e., γ
PQ
= ¯ γ|a
PQ
|
2
, (PQ) ∈ {(SR
k
)
K
k=1
, (R
k
D)
K
k=1
, SD}
with ¯ γ = E
s
/N
0
, has the following pdf [24, Eq. (14.4-35)]:
p
γ
PQ

PQ
) =
m
m
γ
m−1
PQ
¯ γ
m
PQ
Γ(m)
exp



PQ
¯ γ
PQ

(1)
where m is the Nakagami-m fading parameter and assumed to be an
integer.
1
The average SNR of the PQ link, i.e., ¯ γ
PQ
, is equal to ¯ γΩ
PQ
.
Transmission to D is done in (K + 1) time slots. In the first time
slot, S broadcasts the signal s with the average transmitted power

ε
s
E
s
to (R
k
)
K
k=1
and D, where 0 ≤ ε
s
≤ K + 1 is the scaling
power coefficient at S. The received signals at R
k
, y
SR
k
, and at D,
y
SD
, are, respectively, given as
y
SR
k
=

ε
s
E
s
a
SR
k
s + z
SR
k
(2)
y
SD
=

ε
s
E
s
a
SD
s + z
SD
(3)
where z
SR
k
and z
SD
represent additive white Gaussian noise
(AWGN) and are modeled as independent identically distributed
CN(0, N
0
) RVs.
For AF with fixed-gain relays, R
k
applies a fixed scaling to the
received signal from, S regardless of the fading amplitude of the first
hop to maintain the long-term average transmitted power at R
k
. The
received signals y
R
k
D
at D from time slot 2 to time slot (K + 1) are
given as
y
R
k
D
= G
k
a
R
k
D

ε
s
E
s
a
SR
k
s + z
SR
k

+ z
R
k
D
k = 1, . . . , K (4)
where z
R
k
D
is CN(0, N
0
) and represents AWGN at D. The fixed gain
G
k
can be expressed as [13]
G
2
k
= ε
k
E
s
/

ε
s
E
s
Ω
SR
k
+ N
0

= ε
k
¯ γ/

ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
+ 1

(5)
1
For simplicity of analysis and presentation, it is assumed that the Nakagami
fading parameter m is the same for all links. The analysis method in this paper,
however, can be extended to the case where all the links have unequal fading
parameters.
which makes the long-term average SNR at R
k
be ε
k
¯ γ, where
0 ≤ ε
k
≤ K + 1 is the power scaling coefficient at R
k
. Therefore,
the total power E
tot
used in the system is computed as
E
tot
=

ε
s
+
K
¸
k=1
ε
k

E
s
. (6)
For convenience, the corresponding SNR is defined as
¯ γ
tot
= E
tot
/N
0
. Let us normalize (ε
s
+
¸
K
k=1
ε
k
) to be (K + 1) so
that the total power is equal to (K + 1)E
s
, which is the same as that in
EPA in which all the source and relays transmit at the same power E
s
.
The destination implements the optimal MRC detector as in [14],
[21], and [22]. The corresponding SNR at the output of the detector is
γ = ε
s
γ
SD
+
K
¸
k=1
G
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D
/

¯ γ + G
2
k
γ
R
k
D

. (7)
III. ERROR PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS
For simplicity of presentation, the following analysis considers
M phase-shift-keying (M-PSK) constellation. However, the method
and the main results can easily be generalized to an arbitrary 2-D
constellation [such as M quadratic-amplitude modulation (M-QAM)].
The average SEP for M-PSK is given by [23, Eq. (8.22)]
P
s
=
1
π
(M−1)π/M

0
M
γ

−sin
2
(π/M)/ sin
2
θ

dθ (8)
in which
M
γ
(−t) = E
γ
{exp(−tγ)} (9)
is the MGF of the instantaneous received SNR at D given in (7). To
calculate P
s
as in (8), one needs to take the expectation of exp(−tγ)
over all the channel SNRs, i.e., γ
SD
, (γ
SR
k
)
K
k=1
, and (γ
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
,
and then compute the integral [see (8)] over finite limits. Due to the
complexity of such an exact computation, the interest here is to obtain
a tight upper bound on the SEP. It is given in the following lemma.
Lemma 1: For the K-relay system with the received SNR at D
γ given in (7), M-PSK modulation, and Nakagami-m fading, the
average SEP P
s
is upper bounded as
P
s

1
π
(M−1)π
M

0
¸
1
(tε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1)
m
K
¸
k=1
(A
k,1
(t) −A
k,2
(t)
+ B
k,1
(t))
¸
t=sin
2
(π/M)/ sin
2
θ
dθ (10)
where A
k,1
(t), A
k,2
(t), and B
k,1
(t) are given as
A
k,1
(t) =
1
Γ(m)

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
×


2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1
exp

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

× E
1

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

+
m−1
¸
l=1


2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1−l

m−1
l

1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010
×
¸
1
l!
l
¸
p=1
(p −1)!


m
¯ γ
SR
k

l−p

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

−p
+
(−m/¯ γ
SR
k
)
l
l!
exp

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

× E
1

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

¸¸
(11)
A
k,2
(t) =
exp


m¯ γ
G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

Γ
2
(m)

m
2
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
×
m−1
¸
l=0
(¯ γ/G
2
k
)
l
l!

2¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s

m−l
×

m−1
¸
p=0
p≥m−l

m−1
p


2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1−p
×
p+l−m
¸
q=0

p+l−m
q

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

p+l−m−q
×
q!


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

q+1
m−1
¸
p=0
p=m−l−1

m−1
p

×


2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1−p
×exp


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

×E
1


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

+
m−1
¸
p=0
p≤m−l−2

m−1
p


2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1−p
×
¸
1
(m−p−l−1)!
m−p−l−1
¸
q=0
(q−1)!
×



s
2

m
¯ γ
SR
k

m−p−l−q−1
×

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

−q
+



s
2

m
¯ γ
SR
k

m−p−l−1
(m−p−l−1)!
×exp


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

×E
1


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

¸¸
(12)
B
k,1
(t) =
¸
m

¯ γ
SR
k


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

m
×
Γ

m, m¯ γ/

G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

Γ(m)
. (13)
Proof: See Appendix A.
A closed-form expression for the upper bound in (10) seems hard
to obtain. However, for the simplest case when there is only one relay
R with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh
fading (m = 1), the bound can be simplified by using the Chernoff
bound as follows:
P
s

1
2



2¯ γ
G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR
exp

2¯ γ
G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR

×E
1

2¯ γ
G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR


2¯ γ exp


¯ γ
G
2
¯ γ
RD

G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
RD
×exp

ε
s
2
+
1
¯ γ
SR

2¯ γ
G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
RD

×E
1

ε
s
2
+
1
¯ γ
SR

2¯ γ
G
2
ε
s
¯ γ
RD

+
exp


¯ γ
G
2
¯ γ
RD

1 +
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
2




1

1 +
ε
s
¯ γ
SD
2
. (14)
The fixed-gain G is computed as G = ε
1
¯ γ/(ε
s
¯ γ
SR
+ 1), where ε
s
and ε
1
are the scaling coefficients at S and R, respectively. Note that
symbol error probability is identical with bit error probability (BEP)
for the case of BPSK.
For the case of EPA, i.e., ε
s
= ε
1
= 1, and in the high SNR region,
(14) can further be approximated as
P
s
¯ γ→∞

1
2







2¯ γ
¯ γ¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
SR
1

η +
2¯ γ
¯ γ¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
SR


2¯ γ exp


¯ γ

¯ γ
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
RD

¯ γ
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR
1
1 +

1
2
+
1
¯ γ
SR

2¯ γ
¯ γ
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
RD
+
exp

−¯ γ

¯ γ
¯ γ
SR
¯ γ
RD

1 +
¯ γ
SR
2







1

1 +
¯ γ
SD
2

¯ γ→∞

2
¯ γ
SD

1
¯ γ
RD
+
exp(−¯ γ
SR
/¯ γ
RD
)¯ γ
RD
¯ γ
SR
(¯ γ
SR
+ ¯ γ
RD
)

(15)
where the inequality 1/(1 + x) < exp(x)E
1
(x) ≤ 1/(η + x) ∀ x >
0, 0 < η < 1 [25] has been used. The approximated bound in (15)
is strikingly simple when compared with the original bound in (10)
while still maintaining its tightness (as seen later in Figs. 1 and 2).
It can clearly be seen from the bound in (15) that the overall perfor-
mance slope decays with the exponent of 2 in the log–log scale. The
expression also shows how the channel qualities, i.e., ¯ γ
SR
, ¯ γ
RD
, and
¯ γ
SD
, contribute to the overall performance in this special case.
For the general case, the upper bound can easily be calculated
by numerical integration techniques since the right-hand side (RHS)
of (10) only involves a single integral with finite limits. Figs. 1–3
show the tightness of the derived bound on the performance of MRC
with BPSK modulation.
2
The total power ¯ γ
tot
is equally distributed
2
For K = 2, it is assumed that Ω
SR
1
= Ω
SR
2
= Ω
SR
and that Ω
R
1
D
=
Ω
R
2
D
= Ω
RD
.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010 1547
Fig. 1. Simulation results, upper bounds, and G-M lower bounds on the SEP
performance: (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (0, 0, 0) dB.
Fig. 2. Simulation results, upper bounds, and G-M lower bounds on the SEP
performance for one relay: (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (20, 0, 0) dB.
among the source and relays in these special cases. For the case
that (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (0, 0, 0) dB, Fig. 1 reveals that the derived
bound and its simplified version (for the case of (m = 1, K = 1))
are reasonably tight when compared with the simulation results.
For all the four cases of (m = 1, K = 1), (m = 2, K = 1), (m =
1, K = 2), and (m = 2, K = 2), all the corresponding bounds lie
within 0.7 dB of the simulation curves. Fig. 1 also plots the G-M
lower bound obtained in [16]. It can be seen that the G-M lower bound
is also quite tight over the whole range of SNR. The tightness of the
G-M lower bound in this case is a consequence of the fact that the
equality condition of the G-M lower bound holds when γ
SR
i
= γ
R
i
D
,
i = 1, . . . , K, i.e., balanced channels. However, the G-M lower bound
becomes very loose when the channels are unbalanced, i.e., Ω
SR
i
=
Ω
R
i
D
, i = 1, . . . , K, as can clearly be observed in Figs. 2 and 3. In
contrast, our derived bound can maintain its tightness over a wide
range of channel settings. As shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the proposed
bounds and its simplified version [for the case of (m = 1, K = 1)]
still lie within about 1.5 dB of the simulation results for all the four
cases of (m = 1, K = 1), (m = 2, K = 1), (m = 1, K = 2), and
(m = 2, K = 2) when (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (20, 0, 0) dB.
3
3
The tightness of the proposed bound can also be seen with other channel
conditions, such as (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (0, 20, 0) dB. However, due to
space limitations, the figures are omitted.
Fig. 3. Simulation results, upper bounds, and G-M lower bounds on the SEP
performance for two relays: (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
) = (20, 0, 0) dB.
To give an insight into the SEP performance, the following propo-
sition establishes the achievable diversity order of the relay system by
further examining its bound in Lemma 1.
Proposition 1: For the K-relay system with the received SNR at
D γ given in (7), M-PSK modulation, and Nakagami-m fading, the
average SEP P
s
is bounded as
(k
s
¯ γ)
−m(K+1)
¯ γ→∞
P
s
¯ γ→∞
(
¯
k
s
¯ γ)
−m(K+1)
(16)
where
¯
k
s
and k
s
are nonnegative constants that depend on

SR
k
, Ω
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
and Ω
SD
.
Proof: See Appendix B.
Since both upper and lower bounds in Proposition 1 are proportional
with (1/¯ γ)
m(K+1)
, one can conclude that MRC with fixed-gain relays
can offer the maximum diversity order of m(K + 1) in the high SNR
region. Furthermore, the achievable diversity order does not depend on
the locations of (R
k
)
K
k=1
.
IV. POWER ALLOCATION AND ILLUSTRATIVE RESULTS
Exercising PA to optimize the performance (such as error or outage
probabilities) of relaying systems has extensively been studied in the
literature (see, e.g., [10], [18], [19], [21], and [22]). In most cases,
using the exact performance analysis as the optimization objective
for the PA problem is not tractable. As such, it is common to rely
on the performance bounds, e.g., upper bounds on the average SEP
[10] or on the pair-wise error probability [19], [21], as they are more
favorable to analyze. Given the tightness of the bounds, it is expected
that the PA obtained based on the bounds also works well for the actual
performance.
This section investigates the effects of PA on the SEP performance
of the relay system under consideration. Here, the goal is to minimize
the SEP upper bound, which is given in (10). The proposed PA scheme
only requires that the destination knows the channel statistics, i.e.,

SR
k
)
K
k=1
, (Ω
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
, and Ω
SD
, to compute the SEP upper bound.
Having all the needed information, the destination then computes
the power coefficients for the source and relays and notifies all the
nodes of their transmission powers via low-rate feedback channels.
The optimization problem is formulated as follows.
Problem Statement 1: For the given channel statistics (Ω
SR
k
)
K
k=1
,

R
k
D
)
K
k=1
, and Ω
SD
and the total power constraint E
tot
, determine
the PA coefficients (ε
OPA
s
, (ε
OPA
k
)
K
k=1
) to minimize the upper bound
on P
s
given in (10) while satisfying the total power constraint E
tot
=

OPA
s
+
¸
K
k=1
ε
OPA
k
)E
s
= (K + 1)E
s
.
1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010
Fig. 4. Power gains of the proposed PA over EPA for one relay (predicted
by the SEP bound). Three cases of Ω
SR
= {−20, 0, 20} dB correspond to the
(+, o, ∗) markers, respectively.
Unfortunately, an analytical solution for the foregoing PA problem
appears to be intractable, even with high SNR approximations. Here,
we resort to numerical search based on the SEP upper bound obtained
in Lemma 1. It should be emphasized that the bound contains simple
nonlinear functions, i.e., the gamma function Γ(x) and the exponential
integral function E
1
(x), which are readily available in many com-
puting softwares (e.g., Matlab). Common computing softwares (e.g.,
Matlab) provide both Gaussian quadrature and simple techniques, such
as the Newton–Cotes formula. These techniques can readily be adapted
to calculate the integral expression in Lemma 1. Once the SEP upper
bound is computed, the numerical search for the OPA can easily be
carried out. For the simplest case of one-relay system, the line search
method [26] is used to find the optimal values numerically. However,
when there are more than one relay in the system, we rely on the
brute-force search to find out the optimal power coefficients for S
and (R
k
)
K
k=1
, i.e., ε
OPA
s
and (ε
OPA
k
)
K
k=1
. Furthermore, in practical
implementation, the OPA coefficients can be obtained in advance for
typical channel statistics (Ω
SR
k
)
K
k=1
, (Ω
R
k
D
)
K
k=1
, and Ω
SD
and then
built into a lookup table.
As a first example, consider a single-relay system, i.e., K = 1.
To cover a wide range of possible channel settings, i.e., the triple
mean-squared values (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
), we first normalize Ω
SD
to
be 0 dB. For the SR link, three possible cases are the following:
1) R is farther to S than D; 2) R and D are equidistant to S; and
3) R is closer to S than D. These three settings are assumed to
correspond to Ω
SR
= −20, 0, and 20 dB, respectively. For each value
of Ω
SR
, a range of Ω
RD
, i.e., Ω
RD
∈ (Ω
SR
−20 dB, Ω
SR
+ 20 dB),
is investigated.
4
Fig. 4 shows the power gains of the proposed PA over
EPA for m = 1 and 2, respectively, under the target BEP of 10
−4
.
For a wide range of the relative gap between Ω
RD
and Ω
SR
, i.e.,
ΔΩ
RD-SR
= (Ω
RD
−Ω
SR
)dB, the predictable gains are promising,
i.e., up to 2.3 dB for m = 1 and 2.7 dB for m = 2. When the RD link
is better than the SR link, i.e., ΔΩ
RD-SR
= 20 dB, the proposed PA
can offer gains of at least 1.5 and 2.3 dB for m = 1 and 2, respectively.
As shown in Fig. 4, the proposed PA also provides power gains when
Ω
SR
is −20 dB and ΔΩ
RD-SR
is low, e.g., ΔΩ
RD-SR
= −20 dB. This
is explained as follows. Due to the very poor quality of the indirect
channels when compared with that of the direct link (Ω
SD
= 0 dB
4
Other settings reported in [7], [10], and [21] only consider the case that the
three nodes S, R, and D are in a 2-D space, which puts a constraint on the set

SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
), for example, [7, Eq. (22)]. On the other hand, we study in
this paper the more general case, i.e., three nodes are in 3-D space, which has
no constraint on the set (Ω
SR
, Ω
RD
, Ω
SD
).
Fig. 5. Performance comparison of one relay with the proposed PA (dashed
line) and EPA (solid line). ΔΩ
RD-SR
= 20 dB. The cases of Ω
SR
=
(−20, 0, 20) dB correspond to the (+, o, ∗) markers, respectively.
here), it is helpful to assign a large amount of power to the source
in the first time slot rather than distribute power equally between
the source and the relays. The overall performance is then mainly
determined by the direct transmission during the first time slot. As a
result, the performance gain offered by the proposed PA over EPA can
be large. On the other hand, when the indirect links are getting better
(say ΔΩ
RD-SR
= 0 dB), the imbalance between the indirect and direct
channels’ qualities is decreasing. The proposed PAtends to converge to
EPA, and consequently, there is not much performance improvement
when using the proposed PA instead of EPA. A similar explanation
applies for the other cases that Ω
SR
is 0 or 20 dB.
Similarly, for the two-relay system, i.e., K = 2, our results
5
also
show that the proposed PA can offer even more power gains over EPA
when compared with the single-relay systems, e.g., 3.5 and 4.5 dB
for m = 1 and m = 2, respectively. Such larger gains are reasonable
since with more relays in the system, there is more freedom to allocate
power between the relays and the source.
Next, simulation results are provided to confirm the power gains
predicted by the bound (presented in Fig. 4). For each specific value
of Ω
SR
, various values of ΔΩ
RD-SR
are investigated. The particularly
important values are those corresponding to the boundary and middle
values, i.e., ΔΩ
RD-SR
= −20, 0, and 20 dB. Therefore, the following
simulation results shall focus to validate the performance gains at these
values.
For the single- and two-relay systems, Figs. 5 and 6 compare the
performance of EPA and the proposed PA for the two values of m
when the RD channel is better than the SR channel (ΔΩ
RD-SR
=
20 dB). The OPA coefficients for the source and relays are presented
in Table I(a). For the single-relay system under Rayleigh fading, i.e.,
m = 1, and in the three cases in which Ω
SR
= 20, 0, and −20 dB,
the proposed PA can offer gains of about 2, 1.6, and 1.2 dB, respec-
tively, over the EPA. These gains are in good agreement with the gains
predicted in Fig. 4 (based on the bound). For m = 2, the improvement
of the proposed PA over EPA is also very promising, i.e., about 2.5,
2, and 1.8 dB for Ω
SR
= 20, 0, and −20 dB, respectively, similar to
that predicted in Fig. 4. For the two-relay system, the benefits of the
proposed PA are illustrated in Fig. 6. As can be seen from Fig. 6, for
both values of m, the gains are at least 3 dB, as predicted.
Fig. 7 demonstrates the performance gains by the proposed PA
when Ω
SR
= −20 dB and ΔΩ
RD-SR
= −20 dB. The optimal power
coefficients for the sources and relays are given in Table I(b). The
5
Due to space limitations, the figure is omitted.
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010 1549
Fig. 6. Performance comparison of two relays with the proposed PA (dashed
line) and EPA (solid line): ΔΩ
RD-SR
= 20 dB. The cases of Ω
SR
=
(−20, 0, 20) dB correspond to the (+, o, ∗) markers, respectively.
TABLE I
PA COEFFICIENTS (ε
OPA
s

OPA
1
AND ε
OPA
s

OPA
1

OPA
2
FOR K = 1
AND 2, RESPECTIVELY). (a) ΔΩ
RD-SR
= 20 dB. (b) ΔΩ
RD-SR
= −20 dB
Fig. 7. Performance comparison of SEP performance between the (dashed
line) proposed PA and (solid line) EPA. Ω
SR
= −20 dB, and ΔΩ
RD-SR
=
−20 dB.
channel settings investigated in Fig. 7 represent the case that the
RD and SR fading channels are very poor when compared with
the direct link SD. However, one can still obtain significant gains of
about 2.5, 2.8, 3, and 4.5 dB for (K = 1, m = 1), (K = 1, m = 2),
(K = 2, m = 1), and (K = 2, m = 2), respectively. These gains
also agree with that predicted based on the SEP bound (see Fig. 4).
It is worthwhile to point out that the cases of (m = 2, K = 1) and
(m = 2, K = 2) have almost the same performance with the proposed
PA in the SNR range shown in Fig. 7. It can be verified that at the
very high SNR region the two curves depart and have their decaying
exponents to be 4 and 8, respectively, as proven in Proposition 1.
Fig. 8. Performance comparison of SEP performance between varying- and
fixed-gain relaying systems.
Finally, Fig. 8 compares the performance of the “optimal” PA
proposed by Zhao et al. [22] with our proposed PA. It should be
noted that the authors in [22] consider the varying-gain relay system
where the transmit power at the relays is maintained constant at all
time. The varying gain requires the relays to know the instantaneous
channel gains of all the source–relay links, whereas the fixed gain only
requires the source–relay statistics available at the relays. Since the
OPA algorithm in [22] predetermines the power for S, i.e., ε
s
E
s
, in the
first time slot, the comparison only makes sense if the system has more
than one relay, and the relays are at different locations, i.e., K > 1,
Ω
SR
i
= Ω
SR
j
, or Ω
R
i
D
= Ω
R
j
D
, where i = j, and i, j = 1, . . . , K.
For the two-relay system, consider the case where R
1
is closer to S
than D, whereas R
2
is closer to D than S. The case is assumed to
correspond to Ω
SR
1
= Ω
R
2
D
= 0 dB and Ω
SR
2
= Ω
R
1
D
= 20 dB.
The OPA coefficients, i.e., ε
OPA
s

OPA
1

OPA
2
, are found to be
6
1.8/0.1305/1.0695 and 1.8/0.3/0.9 for the varying- and fixed-gain
relay systems, respectively. Fig. 8 shows that, in this setting, the
varying-gain system performs better than the fixed-gain system, as
expected. It is interesting to see that at BEP = 10
−3
, the gains offered
by our algorithm and by Zhao et al. over the EPA are the same, i.e.,
about 0.5 dB. It should be noted that the performance gains depend
on the channel setting. When the channels from S to R
1
and R
2
to D
are worse, the performance of the fixed-gain relaying approaches that
of the varying-gain relaying. Both algorithms tell us that less power
should be allocated to R
1
and more power to R
2
. For example, for the
case
7
of Ω
SR
1
= Ω
R
2
D
= −20 dB and Ω
SR
2
= Ω
R
1
D
= 20 dB, one
obtains ε
OPA
s

OPA
1

OPA
2
= 2.1/0.0135/0.8865 and 2.1/0.1/0.8 for
the varying- and fixed-gain relaying, respectively. Both varying- and
fixed-gain relaying performance curves are almost identical, and the
gain over the EPA is about 2 dB at BER = 10
−3
.
V. CONCLUSION
In this paper, an upper bound on the SEP has been derived for the
multiple-relay systems with fixed-gain AF relaying and MRC. It was
shown that the tightness of the bound is maintained over a wide range
6
Note that the performance of the OPA in [22] depends on the predetermined
power coefficient ε
s
at the source. However, the issue of optimizing ε
s
is not
addressed in [22]. As such, in comparison between the OPA in [22] and our
proposed PA, the same power allocation obtained from our proposed PA is also
applied for the case of OPA.
7
Again, due to space limitations, the figure for such a channel setting is
omitted.
1550 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010
of channel settings, even when the source–relay and relay–destination
channels are unbalanced. The bound also shows that MRC can achieve
the maximum diversity order of m(K + 1). Based on the obtained
bound, a novel PA scheme was proposed. Extensive simulation was
conducted, and the results are in good agreement with the gains
predicted based on the bound and shown to provide a significant saving
of total transmitted power.
APPENDIX A
PROOF OF LEMMA 1
To calculate the upper bound on the average SEP P
s
, one needs
to evaluate the MGF M
γ
(−t) first. Then, the resulting MGF can be
applied into (8). The MGF M
γ
(−t) is computed as
M
γ
(−t) =E
γ
SD
{exp(−tε
s
γ
SD
)}
K
¸
k=1
E
γ
SR
k

R
k
D
×
¸
exp

−tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D
/

¯ γ + G
2
k
γ
R
k
D
¸
=
K
¸
k=1
(A
k
(t) + B
k
(t)) /[tε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1]
m
. (17)
The term A
k
(t) on the right-hand side of (17) is calculated as
A
k
(t) =

0
¯ γ/G
2
k

0
exp
¸

tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D

¯ γ + G
2
k
γ
R
k
D

¸
×p
γ
R
k
D

R
k
D
)p
γ
SR
k

SR
k
) dγ
R
k
D

SR
k
(18)

0
¯ γ/G
2
k

0
exp

−tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D
/(2¯ γ)

×p
γ
R
k
D

R
k
D
)p
γ
SR
k

SR
k
) dγ
R
k
D

SR
k
=

0
m
m
Γ(m)¯ γ
m
R
k
D
×



Γ(m)

tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
/(2¯ γ) + m/(¯ γ
R
k
D
)

m
−exp


¯ γ
G
2
k

tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
2¯ γ
+
m
¯ γ
R
k
D

×
m−1
¸
l=0
Γ(m) (¯ γ/G
2
k
)
l
Γ(l + 1)

tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
(2¯ γ)
+
m
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−l



×p
γ
SR
k

SR
k
) dγ
SR
k
=A
k,1
(t) −A
k,2
(t). (19)
After some manipulations on the right-hand side of (19), A
k
(t) can be
bounded as
A
k
(t) ≤ A
k,1
(t) −A
k,2
(t) (20)
where A
k,1
(t) and A
k,2
(t) are specified in (11) and (12), respectively.
To arrive at (20), one can use [27, eqs. (3.351.1), (3.351.3), (3.352.4),
and (3.353.2)].
The term B
k
(t) in (17) is expressed as
B
k
(t) =

0

¯ γ/G
2
k
exp
¸

tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D

¯ γ + G
2
k
γ
R
k
D

¸
×p
γ
R
k
D

R
k
D
)p
γ
SR
k

SR
k
)dγ
R
k
D

SR
k
(21)

0

¯ γ/G
2
k
exp



s
γ
SR
k
2

×p
γ
R
k
D

R
k
D
)p
γ
SR
k

SR
k
) dγ
R
k
D

SR
k
=
¸
m

¯ γ
SR
k
(tε
s
/2 + m/¯ γ
SR
k
)

¸
m
Γ

m,
m¯ γ
G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

Γ(m)
=B
k,1
(t) (22)
where (22) is computed with the aid of [27, eqs. (3.351.2) and
(3.351.3)].
Substituting (17), (20), and (22) into (8) completes the proof of
Lemma 1.
APPENDIX B
PROOF OF PROPOSITION 1
The Chernoff bound can be used to upper bound the probability P
s
by setting θ in (10) to π/2 as follows:
P
s

M −1
M

sin
2
(π/M)ε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1

m
×
¸
K
¸
k=1
(A
k,1
(t) −A
k,2
(t) + B
k,1
(t))
¸
t=sin
2
(π/M)

M −1
M

sin
2
(π/M)ε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1

m
×
¸
K
¸
k=1
(A
k,1
(t) + B
k,1
(t))
¸
t=sin
2
(π/M)
. (23)
The term A
k,1
(t) in (19) can be calculated and bounded as
A
k,1
(t) =
m
2m
Γ(m)¯ γ
m
SR
k
¯ γ
m
R
k
D

2¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s

m
×

0
γ
m−1
SR
k

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
exp



SR
k
¯ γ
SR
k


SR
k
<
m
2m
Γ(m)¯ γ
m
SR
k
¯ γ
m
R
k
D

2¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s

m

0
exp



SR
k
¯ γ
SR
k


SR
k

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

(24)
=
1
Γ(m)

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
exp

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

×E
1

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

(25)
IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010 1551
<
1
Γ(m)

2m
2
¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
×
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D
2m
2
¯ γ + ηtG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
SR
k
¯ γ
R
k
D
(26)
where the inequality (24) follows from the fact that
γ
m−1
SR
k

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
<

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m−1

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

m
=1

γ
SR
k
+
2m¯ γ
tG
2
k
ε
s
¯ γ
R
k
D

. (27)
The equality (25) is evaluated with the help of [27, eq. (3.532.4)],
and (26) comes from the following inequality: 1/(1 + x) <
exp(x)E
1
(x) ≤ 1/(η + x), ∀ x > 0, 0 < η < 1 [25].
Substituting B
k,1
(t) and the upper bound on A
k,1
(t) in (22) and
(26), respectively, to (23) results in (16) in Proposition 1.
For the lower bound, one also needs to evaluate the MGF M
γ
(−t)
and then apply the resulting MGF into (8). Using the result in (17), the
MGF M
γ
(−t) is calculated and lower bounded as
M
γ
(−t) =E
γ
SD
{exp(−tε
s
γ
SD
)}
K
¸
k=1
E
γ
SR
k

R
k
D
×
¸
exp

−tG
2
k
ε
s
γ
SR
k
γ
R
k
D
/

¯ γ + G
2
k
γ
R
k
D
¸
=
K
¸
k=1
[A
k
(t) + B
k
(t)]
[tε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1]
m

K
¸
k=1
A
k
(t)
[tε
s
¯ γ
SD
/m + 1]
m
(28)
where A
k
(t) and B
k
(t) are given in (18) and (21), respectively. The
inequality [see (28)] is due to the fact that B
k
(t) ≥ 0.
The term A
k
(t) is then lower bounded as
A
k
(t) ≥

0
¯ γ/G
2
k

0
exp

−tε
s
γ
SR
k
/2

×p
γ
R
k
D

γ
R
k
D

p
γ
SR
k

γ
SR
k


R
k
D

SR
k
=

0
exp

−tε
s
γ
SR
k
/2

Γ(m)
γ

m,
m¯ γ
G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

×
m
m
γ
m−1
SR
k
¯ γ
m
SR
k
Γ(m)
exp



SR
k
¯ γ
SR
k


SR
k
(29)
=
m
m
γ

m, m¯ γ/G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

Γ(m)¯ γ
m
SR
k


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

−m
(30)
where (29) and (30) are computed with the help of [27, eqs. (3.531.1)
and (3.531.3)], respectively.
Substituting (28) and (30) into (8), one has the lower bound on the
average SEP for M-PSK as follows:
P
s

m
m(K+1)
π [Γ(m)]
K
¯ γ
m
SD
K
¸
k=1
γ

m,
m¯ γ
G
2
k
¯ γ
R
k
D

¯ γ
m
SR
k
×
(M−1)π
M

0


1


s
+
m
¯ γ
SD

m
K
¸
k=1
1


s
2
+
m
¯ γ
SR
k

m


t=
sin
2
(π/M)
sin
2
θ
dθ.
(31)
As clearly seen in (31), one can conclude that the lower bound on
P
s
is proportional to (1/¯ γ)
m(K+1)
in the high SNR region. Therefore,
the proof of the lower bound in (16) is completed.
REFERENCES
[1] A. Sendonaris, E. Erkip, and B. Aazhang, “User cooperation
diversity—Part 1: System description,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 51,
no. 11, pp. 1927–1938, Nov. 2003.
[2] J. N. Laneman and G. W. Wornell, “Distributed space–time-coded proto-
col for exploiting cooperative diversity,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 49,
no. 10, pp. 2415–2425, Oct. 2003.
[3] J. N. Laneman, D. N. C. Tse, and G. W. Wornell, “Cooperative diversity
in the wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior,” IEEE
Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 50, no. 12, pp. 3062–3080, Dec. 2004.
[4] A. Ribeiro, X. Cai, and G. Giannakis, “Symbol error probabilities for
general cooperative links,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 3,
pp. 1264–1273, May 2005.
[5] D. Chen and J. N. Laneman, “Modulation and demodulation for coopera-
tive diversity in wireless systems,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5,
no. 7, pp. 1785–1794, Jul. 2006.
[6] Y. Li and S. Kishore, “Asymptotic analysis of amplify-and-forward relay-
ing in Nakagami fading environments,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun.,
vol. 6, no. 12, pp. 4256–4262, Dec. 2007.
[7] W. Cho, R. Cao, and L. Yang, “Optimum resource allocation for amplify-
and-forward relay networks with differential modulation,” IEEE Trans.
Signal Process., vol. 56, no. 11, pp. 5680–5691, Nov. 2008.
[8] V. K. Bhargava and K. B. Letaief, “Special issue on cooperative commu-
nications,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 1777–1778,
May 2008.
[9] D. S. Michalopoulos, G. K. Karagiannidis, and G. S. Tombras, “Sym-
bol error probability of decode and forward cooperative diversity in
Nakagami- m fading channels,” J. Franklin Inst., vol. 345, no. 7, pp. 723–
728, Oct. 2008.
[10] W. Cho and L. Yang, “Optimum resource allocation for relay networks
with differential modulation,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56, no. 4,
pp. 531–534, Apr. 2008.
[11] T. Wang, G. Giannakis, and R. Wang, “Smart regenerative relays for link-
adaptive cooperative communications,” IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. 56,
no. 11, pp. 1950–1960, Nov. 2008.
[12] N. Vien, H. Nguyen, and T. Le-Ngoc, “Diversity analysis of smart relay-
ing,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Technol., vol. 58, no. 6, pp. 2849–2862, Jul. 2009.
[13] R. U. Nabar, H. Bolcskei, and F. W. Kneubühler, “Fading relay channels:
Performance limits and space–time signal design,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas
Commun., vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 1099–1109, Aug. 2004.
[14] H. Mheidat and M. Uysal, “Impact of receive diversity on the performance
of amplify-and-forward relaying under APS and IPS power constraints,”
IEEE Commun. Lett., vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 468–470, Jun. 2006.
[15] H. Shin and J. Song, “MRC analysis of cooperative diversity with fixed-
gain relays in Nakagami-m fading channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless
Commun., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2069–2074, Jun. 2008.
[16] G. Karagiannidis, “Performance bounds of multihop wireless communi-
cations with blind relays over generalized fading channels,” IEEE Trans.
Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 498–503, Mar. 2006.
[17] A. Avestimehr and D. Tse, “Outage capacity of the fading relay channel in
the low-SNR regime,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 53, no. 4, pp. 1401–
1415, Apr. 2007.
[18] A. Host-Madsen and J. Zhang, “Capacity bounds and power allocation
for wireless relay channels,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 6,
pp. 2020–2040, Jun. 2005.
1552 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 59, NO. 3, MARCH 2010
[19] Y. Jing and B. Hassibi, “Distributed space–time coding in wireless relay
networks,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 3524–3536,
Dec. 2006.
[20] Y. Yao, X. Cai, and G. Giannakis, “On energy efficiency and optimum
resource allocation of relay transmissions in the low-power regime,” IEEE
Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 2917–2927, Nov. 2005.
[21] M. Fareed and M. Uysal, “BER-optimized power allocation for fading
relay channels,” IEEE Trans. Wireless Commun., vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 2350–
2359, Jun. 2008.
[22] Y. Zhao, R. Adve, and T. Lim, “Improving amplify-and-forward relay net-
works: Optimal power allocation versus selection,” IEEE Trans. Wireless
Commun., vol. 6, no. 6, pp. 3114–3123, Aug. 2007.
[23] M. K. Simon and M.-S. Alouini, Digital Communication Over Fading
Channels, 1st ed. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press, 2000.
[24] J. G. Proakis, Digital Communications, 4th ed. New York: McGraw-
Hill, 2001.
[25] T. Wang, A. Cano, and G. B. Giannakis, “Link-adaptive cooperative
communications without channel state information,” in Proc. IEEE Mil.
Commun. Conf., Oct. 2006, pp. 1–7.
[26] S. Boyd and L. Vandenberghe, Convex Optimization. Cambridge, U.K.:
Cambridge Univ. Press, Mar. 2004.
[27] L. S. Gradshteyn and L. M. Ryzhik, Tables of Integrals, Series and
Products, 7th ed. New York: Academic, 2007.
Nakagami-mPhase–Envelope Joint Distribution:
A New Model
Michel Daoud Yacoub, Member, IEEE
Abstract—The aim of this paper is to propose an improvement on the
Nakagami-mcomplex signal model presented elsewhere in the literature.
By introducing what here is named a phase parameter, a more general and
realistic framework is obtained. However, with an additional parameter,
the formulations are still found in simple and closed-form expressions.
With another physically based consideration, which, incidentally, further
simplifies the formulations, the phase parameter is written as a function
of the fading parameter, and the expressions are found in an even more
compact manner. With the proposed fading model, higher order statistics
are then derived, particularly those related to the phase crossing rate.
Index Terms—Higher order statistics, Nakagami-mdistribution, phase
crossing rate (PCR), phase–envelope distribution, phase statistics.
I. INTRODUCTION
The derivation of the envelope probability density function (pdf)
of the basic fading models, namely, Rayleigh [1], Hoyt [2], and
Rice [3], produced, as an intermediate step, the corresponding joint
phase–envelope pdf. In contrast to this, for the envelope-based models,
such as, for instance, Nakagami-m [4], κ-μ [5], and η-μ [5], no
information on the phase distribution was provided, since the aim
was purely the signal envelope. Thus, for these cases, the phase
characterization is an open matter and, therefore, subject to debate.
In an attempt to fill such a gap, models for the complex signals in
the Nakagami-m [6], η-μ [7], and κ-μ [8] environments have been
proposed, and the corresponding phase and envelope pdf’s, both jointly
and marginally, have been obtained.
Manuscript received July 11, 2009; revised September 10, 2009,
November 19, 2009, and January 7, 2010. First published January 15, 2010;
current version published March 19, 2010. The review of this paper was
coordinated by Dr. K. T. Wong.
The author is with the Wireless Technology Laboratory, Department of Com-
munications, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, State University
of Campinas, 13083-852 Campinas-SP, Brazil (e-mail: michel@wisstek.org).
Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TVT.2010.2040641
The envelope and phase distributions are useful in the study of a
variety of topics in communications systems, such as radar clutter
modeling, signal detection, and others [9]–[15]. More specifically,
the phase statistics have found applications, for instance, in the es-
timation of probabilities of error for M-phase signaling over fading
channels using diversity [16] and in the detection of M-ary phase-
shift keying signal constellations [17]. In some situations, the joint
phase–envelope distribution may be used to facilitate the determination
of high-order statistics in multibranch diversity scenarios [18]. In
coherent communication systems, error performance is drastically
influenced by the carrier phase estimation. In such a case, rather than
laying hold of the exact distribution of the phase, the distribution
of the difference between the true phase and its estimation may be
used. This approach has been applied in [19]–[21] for Ricean and
Nakagami-m applications, in which cases, the phase-difference pdf’s
were arbitrarily considered to be Gaussian or Von Mises (Tikhonov
[22]) distributed. A phase-difference distribution for the Nakagami-m
case was derived in [23], where the phases of the Nakagami-m signals
were also arbitrarily assumed to be uniform. Recently, a simulator
for the phase pdf, as derived in [6], has been proposed in [24] that
yielded accurate autocorrelated properties. The exact Ricean phase
pdf was used in [25], in which the optimum scheme that maximizes
the ergodic capacity of a multiple-input–single-output system was
investigated. The phase distribution for fading signals is indeed a very
interesting and challenging topic and has long been attracting the
attention of several researchers. (See [26], [27], and references therein
for a discussion on the appropriateness of the use of a uniform phase
distribution in the sum of random vectors.)
As is widely known, Nakagami-m is an empirical model that
is proposed as an approximation to an extremely intricate problem
concerning the statistics of a signal, which is the resultant of the super-
position of complex random vectors whose distributions are unknown.
In [4] and [28]–[30], such a superposition has been interpreted as a
random walk process in the complex plane. Departing from this most
general mathematical condition and then carrying out approximations
“sufficiently good enough for engineering problems” [4, p. 15], the
Nakagami-m envelope pdf was derived. The phase pdf of the sum
of the vectors in the complex plane was then obtained in [29], [31],
and [32]. It turns out that the resulting pdf is rather intricate, being
given in terms of the statistics of the quadrature components, namely,
mean values, variances, and correlation coefficient. The simplifications
in [4] were a mathematical manipulation directly carried out in the
derivation process of the envelope pdf, i.e., it had no connection with
the physical model of the complex signal. Therefore, no information
on the corresponding resultant phase can be extracted from this
process. Departing from the general phase pdf reported in [29], [31],
and [32], and trying to simplify it in an attempt to follow a path
similar to that of the envelope case, a substantial number of simplified
scenarios are possible (e.g., [29]). All these scenarios would involve
considerations on the pertinence or relevance of the parameters, in
terms of which the phase pdf is described. It is noted, however, that
if those envisaged scenarios are then mapped back onto the definition
of the complex signal, then attaining the exact Nakagami-m envelope
pdf from the modified model is certainly compromised. Of course,
one may always propose the trivial solution, namely, assuming 1) the
envelope to be Nakagami-m distributed and 2) an independent phase
distribution of any given choice, from which in-phase and quadrature
components can be found. An infinite number of possible solutions
can be found in this case. In [6], a novel approach for the Nakagami-
m complex signal was proposed. It is based on the widely used
fading model that describes the Nakagami-m envelope in terms of
0018-9545/$26.00 © 2010 IEEE

e. The system is half-duplex. (6) For convenience. γ(α. Therefore. S regardless of the fading amplitude of the first hop to maintain the long-term average transmitted power at Rk .. x) = 0 exp(−t)tα−1 dt. Transmission to D is done in (K + 1) time slots. can be extended to the case where all the links have unequal fading parameters. Conclusions are given in Section V. E1 (x) = ∞ (exp(−t)/t)dt. The fixed gain Gk can be expressed as [13] G2 = εk Es / εs Es ΩSRk + N0 = εk γ / εs γSRk + 1 ¯ ¯ k (5) exp 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k 2m¯ γ − 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ m 1 l −− 1 For simplicity of analysis and presentation. Due to the complexity of such an exact computation. (ΩRk D )K . and at D. respectively. pX (·) denotes its probability density function (pdf).2 (t) k=1 + Bk.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. (8. Re(α) > 0. The circularly symmetric complex Gaussian RV with variance σ 2 is denoted by CN (0. and Re(x) takes the real part of complex number x. the following analysis considers M phase-shift-keying (M -PSK) constellation.1 (t) = 1 Γ(m) × 2m2 γ ¯ 2 tGk εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ 2m¯ γ − 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ × E1 m 1 − m where zRk D is CN (0. The Q-function √ ∞ is defined as Q(x) = (1/ 2π) x exp(−t2 /2)dt. respectively. [21]. ySRk .1 (t). however. N0 ) and represents AWGN at D. The incomplete gamma function is 0 x denoted by γ(α. i. the interest here is to obtain a tight upper bound on the SEP. Rk applies a fixed scaling to the received signal from. The destination implements the optimal MRC detector as in [14]. γSD .e. the normalized received SNR of the PQ link without power ¯ scaling. Lemma 1: For the K-relay system with the received SNR at D γ given in (7). γPQ . one needs to take the expectation of exp(−tγ) over all the channel SNRs. the corresponding SNR is defined as K γtot = Etot /N0 . N0 ) RVs. The channel coefficients (aSRk )K . Ak. γPQ = γ |aPQ |2 . where 0 ≤ εs ≤ K + 1 is the scaling k=1 power coefficient at S. . i. ySD . i. and (γRk D )K . MARCH 2010 1545 SEP is derived in Section III. Notation: x∗ is the complex conjugate of x. i. SD} k=1 k=1 with γ = Es /N0 .4-35)]: ¯ mγPQ exp − pγPQ (γPQ ) = m γPQ Γ(m) ¯ γPQ ¯ m−1 mm γPQ which makes the long-term average SNR at Rk be εk γ . S YSTEM M ODEL Consider a multirelay system with a source S. The notation E1 (x) is used to denote the exponential integral.1 (t) are given as Ak.1 (t)) t=sin2 (π/M )/ sin2 θ dθ (10) where Ak. Information is sent from S to D with the help of (Rk )K . and [22]. σ 2 ). has the following pdf [24. Re(x) > 0. Eq. and E{X} denotes its expectation. Γ(x) represents the gamma function. where ¯ 0 ≤ εk ≤ K + 1 is the power scaling coefficient at Rk . are.e.. k=1 k=1 Therefore. Let us normalize (εs + k=1 εk ) to be (K + 1) so ¯ that the total power is equal to (K + 1)Es . The proposed PA is described in Section IV. (Rk D)K . The received signals yRk D at D from time slot 2 to time slot (K + 1) are given as yRk D = Gk aRk D εs Es aSRk s + zSRk + zRk D k = 1. and ΩSD . and aSD represent independent Nakagami-m fading with k=1 mean-square values (ΩSRk )K . All nodes are equipped with a single-antenna transmitter and a receiver. The corresponding SNR at the output of the detector is K γ = εs γSD + (Rk )K . the method and the main results can easily be generalized to an arbitrary 2-D constellation [such as M quadratic-amplitude modulation (M -QAM)]. i. The received signals at Rk .e. K (4) is the MGF of the instantaneous received SNR at D given in (7). The analysis method in this paper. it is assumed that the Nakagami fading parameter m is the same for all links. 3.2 (t). k=1 (aRk D )K . m−1 + l=1 m−1 l . It is given in the following lemma. in which (Rk )K cannot k=1 k=1 transmit and receive at the same time.e.1 (t) − Ak.. and Nakagami-m fading.. Eq. (PQ) ∈ {(SRk )K . In the first time slot. the average SEP Ps is upper bounded as (M −1)π M Ps ≤ 1 π 0 1 (tεs γSD /m + 1)m ¯ K (Ak. . √ S broadcasts the signal s with the average transmitted power εs Es to (Rk )K and D. 59. The average SEP for M -PSK is given by [23. VOL.e.22)] (M −1)π/M (1) in which 1 Ps = π 0 Mγ − sin2 (π/M )/ sin2 θ dθ (8) where m is the Nakagami-m fading parameter and assumed to be an ¯ ¯ integer. To calculate Ps as in (8). For a random variable (RV) X. and Bk. E RROR P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS For simplicity of presentation. (14. i. For AF with fixed-gain relays. the total power Etot used in the system is computed as K Etot = εs + k=1 εk Es .1 The average SNR of the PQ link. k=1 k=1 and then compute the integral [see (8)] over finite limits. K relays and a destination D. is equal to γ ΩPQ . However. .. (γSRk )K . ¯ k k (7) III. NO. . II. Γ(x) = x ∞ exp(−t)tx−1 dt. k=1 k=1 G2 εs γSRk γRk D / γ + G2 γRk D . M -PSK modulation. Frequency-flat slow fading is assumed throughout this paper.. x). which is the same as that in EPA in which all the source and relays transmit at the same power Es . given as ySRk = ySD = εs Es aSRk s + zSRk εs Es aSD s + zSD (2) (3) Mγ (−t) = Eγ {exp(−tγ)} (9) where zSRk and zSD represent additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) and are modeled as independent identically distributed CN (0.

where εs and ε1 are the scaling coefficients at S and R. εs = ε1 = 1. and in the high SNR region. the bound can be simplified by using the Chernoff bound as follows: Ps ≤ 2¯ γ 2¯ γ 1 exp 2 ⎩ G2 εs γRD γSR ¯ ¯ G2 εs γRD γSR ¯ ¯ 2¯ γ G2 εs γRD γSR ¯ ¯ 1 εs + 2 γSR ¯ 1 εs + 2 γSR ¯ RD × E1 γ exp −G2m¯ γ ¯ (11) ⎧ ⎨ Ak. m¯ / G2 γRk D γ k¯ Γ(m) (13) . 1–3 show the tightness of the derived bound on the performance of MRC ¯ with BPSK modulation. It can clearly be seen from the bound in (15) that the overall performance slope decays with the exponent of 2 in the log–log scale. 1 and 2). A closed-form expression for the upper bound in (10) seems hard to obtain.. it is assumed that Ω SR1 = ΩSR2 = ΩSR and that ΩR1 D = ΩR2 D = ΩRD . 59. the upper bound can easily be calculated by numerical integration techniques since the right-hand side (RHS) of (10) only involves a single integral with finite limits. (14) × tεs 2 m + γSR ¯ q+ 1 k p=0 p=m−l−1 m−1 p 2m¯ γ × − 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ ×exp ×E1 m 1 p −− ¯ ¯ The fixed-gain G is computed as G = ε1 γ /(εs γSR + 1). γSR . However. contribute to the overall performance in this special case. The ¯ expression also shows how the channel qualities. i. ¯ For the general case. For the case of EPA. Figs. VOL.2 The total power γtot is equally distributed 2 For K = 2. i. 3. 0 < η < 1 [25] has been used. where the inequality 1/(1 + x) < exp(x)E1 (x) ≤ 1/(η + x) ∀ x > 0. for the simplest case when there is only one relay R with binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) modulation and Rayleigh fading (m = 1).1 (t) = m × γSRk ¯ m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ . MARCH 2010 × 1 l! l p=1 m (p − 1)! − γSRk ¯ l p − 2m2 γ ¯ 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ − p + (−m/¯SRk )l γ 2m2 γ ¯ exp 2 l! tGk εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k m2 γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ 2¯ γ tG2 εs k m l − m Proof: See Appendix A.2 (t) = k Rk D Γ2 (m) m−1 × E1 × exp m 1 p −− − γ ¯ 2¯ exp − G2 γ γ ¯ RD × l=0 (¯ /G2 ) γ k l! l G2 εs γSR γRD ¯ ¯ 2¯ γ G2 εs γRD ¯ 2¯ γ G2 εs γRD ¯ 1 εs γSD ¯ 2 m−1 × p=0 p≥m−l m−1 p 2m¯ γ − 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ × E1 p l m q +− − p+l−m × q=0 p+l−m q q! 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k m−1 + γ ¯ exp − G2 γ ¯ ⎫ ⎬ 1+ εs γSR ¯ 2 ⎭ 1+ . NO. (14) can further be approximated as γ →∞ ¯ m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ m−1 p 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k 2m¯ γ − 2 tGk εs γRk D ¯ m 1 p −− Ps 2¯ γ 1 ¯¯ ¯ 2 ⎪ γ γRD γSR ⎪ γ ¯ ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎨ ⎩ 1 η+ 2¯ γ γ γRD γSR ¯¯ ¯ γSR ¯ SR m−1 + p=0 p≤m−l−2 2¯ exp − γ − γ ¯ γ ¯ γ ¯ γSR ¯ γRD ¯ 1 1+ γ γ ¯ ¯ γSR RD SR ¯ γ exp −¯ γ ¯ γSR RD ¯ γSR ¯ 2 γ ¯ × 1 (m−p−l−1)! m−p−l−1 (q−1)! q=0 m p l q− − −− 1 ⎫ ⎪ ⎪ ⎬ 1 2 + 1 γSR ¯ γ ¯ γSR ¯ 2¯ γ γRD ¯ + 1 γSD ¯ 2 1+ m tεs × − − 2 γSRk ¯ × 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k m −tεs − γSR 2 ¯ k ⎪ 1+ ⎪ ⎭ − q γ →∞ ¯ ≈ 2 γSD ¯ 1 γ γ exp(−¯SR /¯RD )¯RD γ + γRD ¯ γSR (¯SR + γRD ) ¯ γ ¯ (15) m p l 1 − −− + (m−p−l−1)! m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k (12) m ×exp ×E1 Bk.. respectively.e. The approximated bound in (15) is strikingly simple when compared with the original bound in (10) while still maintaining its tightness (as seen later in Figs. γRD .1546 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. Γ m. and ¯ γSD . Note that symbol error probability is identical with bit error probability (BEP) for the case of BPSK.e.

K. Simulation results. the following proposition establishes the achievable diversity order of the relay system by further examining its bound in Lemma 1. 3. our derived bound can maintain its tightness over a wide range of channel settings. one can conclude that MRC with fixed-gain relays γ can offer the maximum diversity order of m(K + 1) in the high SNR region. NO. 20. The tightness of the G-M lower bound in this case is a consequence of the fact that the equality condition of the G-M lower bound holds when γSRi = γRi D . using the exact performance analysis as the optimization objective for the PA problem is not tractable. 0) dB. K = 1)) are reasonably tight when compared with the simulation results. 2 and 3. P OWER A LLOCATION AND I LLUSTRATIVE R ESULTS among the source and relays in these special cases. e. the figures are omitted. upper bounds on the average SEP [10] or on the pair-wise error probability [19]. (εOPA )K ) to minimize the upper bound s k k=1 on Ps given in (10) while satisfying the total power constraint Etot = K (εOPA + k=1 εOPA )Es = (K + 1)Es . i. ¯ where ks and k s are nonnegative constants that depend on (ΩSRk ..e. the achievable diversity order does not depend on the locations of (Rk )K . Proposition 1: For the K-relay system with the received SNR at D γ given in (7). ΩRD . ΩSD ) = (0. K = 1). The optimization problem is formulated as follows. Fig. MARCH 2010 1547 Fig. K = 1)] still lie within about 1. (ΩRk D )K . In most cases. i. 0. the destination then computes the power coefficients for the source and relays and notifies all the nodes of their transmission powers via low-rate feedback channels. Furthermore. . and G-M lower bounds on the SEP performance for two relays: (ΩSR . [18]. and Nakagami-m fading. and G-M lower bounds on the SEP performance: (ΩSR . K = 2).5 dB of the simulation results for all the four cases of (m = 1. and (m = 2. ΩRD . 0) dB. 1. 1 also plots the G-M lower bound obtained in [16]. due to space limitations. the average SEP Ps is bounded as ¯ (ks γ )−m(K+1) γ →∞ ¯ γ →∞ ¯ Ps ¯ ¯ (ks γ )−m(K+1) (16) Fig. balanced channels. which is given in (10). (m = 1. ΩRD . all the corresponding bounds lie within 0. For the case that (ΩSR . However. ΩSD ) = (20. 3. 0) dB. k=1 IV.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. and (m = 2. Here. It can be seen that the G-M lower bound is also quite tight over the whole range of SNR. K = 1). .. Problem Statement 1: For the given channel statistics (ΩSRk )K . 0. [21].e. as can clearly be observed in Figs. 2. 2 and 3..g. K = 1). 0) dB.. i = 1. 0. . ΩSD ) = (0. (m = 1. upper bounds. K = 2). (m = 2.3 3 The tightness of the proposed bound can also be seen with other channel conditions. k=1 k=1 Having all the needed information. K = 1). The proposed PA scheme only requires that the destination knows the channel statistics. Simulation results. e. . Fig. upper bounds. ΩRD . K = 2). .7 dB of the simulation curves. [21]. and G-M lower bounds on the SEP performance for one relay: (ΩSR . As such. 0. K = 2) when (ΩSR . Since both upper and lower bounds in Proposition 1 are proportional with (1/¯ )m(K+1) . i. To give an insight into the SEP performance. [10]. the G-M lower bound becomes very loose when the channels are unbalanced. As shown in Figs. ΩRD . ΩSRi = ΩRi D . (ΩSRk )K . This section investigates the effects of PA on the SEP performance of the relay system under consideration. as they are more favorable to analyze. Exercising PA to optimize the performance (such as error or outage probabilities) of relaying systems has extensively been studied in the literature (see. i = 1. and [22]). the goal is to minimize the SEP upper bound. For all the four cases of (m = 1.g. ΩSD ) = (20. ΩSD ) = (20. such as (ΩSR . k=1 Proof: See Appendix B. K. Simulation results. ΩRk D )K and ΩSD . Fig. [19]. 1 reveals that the derived bound and its simplified version (for the case of (m = 1. However.. M -PSK modulation. upper bounds. and ΩSD . ΩRD . k=1 (ΩRk D )K . ΩSD ) = (0. 59. it is expected that the PA obtained based on the bounds also works well for the actual performance. s k . . 0) dB. . to compute the SEP upper bound. 0. In contrast. Given the tightness of the bounds. 0) dB.e. determine k=1 the PA coefficients (εOPA . the proposed bounds and its simplified version [for the case of (m = 1. . it is common to rely on the performance bounds. VOL. (m = 2. and ΩSD and the total power constraint Etot .

Due to the very poor quality of the indirect channels when compared with that of the direct link (ΩSD = 0 dB 4 Other settings reported in [7]. the following simulation results shall focus to validate the performance gains at these values. even with high SNR approximations. which puts a constraint on the set (ΩSR . For each value of ΩSR .. i.g. 3. It should be emphasized that the bound contains simple nonlinear functions. which are readily available in many computing softwares (e. 0. various values of ΔΩRD-SR are investigated. our results5 also show that the proposed PA can offer even more power gains over EPA when compared with the single-relay systems. ΩRD . Fig. respectively. On the other hand. we rely on the brute-force search to find out the optimal power coefficients for S and (Rk )K .3 dB for m = 1 and 2.and two-relay systems. 4 shows the power gains of the proposed PA over EPA for m = 1 and 2.. over the EPA. ΔΩRD-SR = 20 dB. respectively. 4 (based on the bound).5. Next.. These techniques can readily be adapted to calculate the integral expression in Lemma 1.. For the SR link.. 20) dB correspond to the (+. The particularly important values are those corresponding to the boundary and middle values. ∗) markers. ΩSD ). i. the OPA coefficients can be obtained in advance for typical channel statistics (ΩSRk )K .7 dB for m = 2. ΩRD .5 and 4. and [21] only consider the case that the three nodes S. there is more freedom to allocate power between the relays and the source.e. consider a single-relay system. R. the imbalance between the indirect and direct channels’ qualities is decreasing. Performance comparison of one relay with the proposed PA (dashed line) and EPA (solid line). a range of ΩRD . o. MARCH 2010 Fig. ΩRD ∈ (ΩSR − 20 dB. These three settings are assumed to correspond to ΩSR = −20. and 1. Eq. As a result. VOL. the benefits of the proposed PA are illustrated in Fig. and − 20 dB. the improvement of the proposed PA over EPA is also very promising.3 dB for m = 1 and 2. o. i. 20} dB correspond to the (+. Here.e. 4. . ΩSD ).e. we study in this paper the more general case. in practical s k=1 k k=1 implementation. A similar explanation applies for the other cases that ΩSR is 0 or 20 dB. Matlab) provide both Gaussian quadrature and simple techniques. Therefore. 2) R and D are equidistant to S. [10].4 Fig. respectively. the performance gain offered by the proposed PA over EPA can be large..e.. 6. When the RD link is better than the SR link. ΔΩRD-SR = −20. the triple mean-squared values (ΩSR . similar to that predicted in Fig. i. i. 0. as predicted.e. i... ΔΩRD-SR = (ΩRD − ΩSR )dB.8 dB for ΩSR = 20.g. i. 1. For a wide range of the relative gap between ΩRD and ΩSR . 7 demonstrates the performance gains by the proposed PA when ΩSR = −20 dB and ΔΩRD-SR = −20 dB.. Common computing softwares (e. e. i. As can be seen from Fig.6. we first normalize ΩSD to be 0 dB. 2. and − 20 dB. As a first example.e. (22)]. for example. three nodes are in 3-D space.1548 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. and 3) R is closer to S than D. 6. which has no constraint on the set (ΩSR . 3. it is helpful to assign a large amount of power to the source in the first time slot rather than distribute power equally between the source and the relays.5 and 2. up to 2. such as the Newton–Cotes formula. K = 1.. To cover a wide range of possible channel settings. for the two-relay system. the proposed PA can offer gains of at least 1. K = 2. The optimal power coefficients for the sources and relays are given in Table I(b). m = 1.g. Once the SEP upper bound is computed. εOPA and (εOPA )K .. i. ΩSD ). is investigated. respectively. NO. ΩRD . the predictable gains are promising. respectively. 5 and 6 compare the performance of EPA and the proposed PA for the two values of m when the RD channel is better than the SR channel (ΔΩRD-SR = 20 dB)..e. The cases of ΩSR = (−20. However. and 20 dB. Power gains of the proposed PA over EPA for one relay (predicted by the SEP bound).e. [7.2 dB. when the indirect links are getting better (say ΔΩRD-SR = 0 dB). Such larger gains are reasonable since with more relays in the system. there is not much performance improvement when using the proposed PA instead of EPA. and 20 dB. 4. 0. 4). i. ΔΩRD-SR = 20 dB. e. respectively. For m = 2. For each specific value of ΩSR . ΔΩRD-SR = −20 dB.e. for both values of m. The proposed PA tends to converge to EPA. i. The overall performance is then mainly determined by the direct transmission during the first time slot. and 1. ΩSR + 20 dB). and ΩSD and then k=1 k=1 built into a lookup table. the figure is omitted. 0.e. i. (ΩRk D )K . here). 59. the proposed PA can offer gains of about 2. simulation results are provided to confirm the power gains predicted by the bound (presented in Fig. Figs. three possible cases are the following: 1) R is farther to S than D. Matlab). Three cases of ΩSR = {−20. 4. On the other hand. 0. Furthermore. The 5 Due to space limitations. the proposed PA also provides power gains when ΩSR is −20 dB and ΔΩRD-SR is low. Fig. 5. the line search method [26] is used to find the optimal values numerically. These gains are in good agreement with the gains predicted in Fig.e. we resort to numerical search based on the SEP upper bound obtained in Lemma 1. For the two-relay system. ∗) markers. and in the three cases in which ΩSR = 20.5 dB for m = 1 and m = 2.. when there are more than one relay in the system.e. As shown in Fig.. the numerical search for the OPA can easily be carried out. 0. The OPA coefficients for the source and relays are presented in Table I(a). an analytical solution for the foregoing PA problem appears to be intractable. respectively. For the simplest case of one-relay system. the gains are at least 3 dB.e. respectively. the gamma function Γ(x) and the exponential integral function E1 (x). i..g. Similarly. For the single-relay system under Rayleigh fading. about 2. This is explained as follows. For the single. and D are in a 2-D space. Unfortunately.. and consequently. under the target BEP of 10−4 .

The cases of ΩSR = (−20.5 dB for (K = 1. K = 2) have almost the same performance with the proposed PA in the SNR range shown in Fig. It was shown that the tightness of the bound is maintained over a wide range 6 Note that the performance of the OPA in [22] depends on the predetermined power coefficient εs at the source.3/0. and the gain over the EPA is about 2 dB at BER = 10−3 .5. εs Es . (K = 2. Both algorithms tell us that less power should be allocated to R1 and more power to R2 .1/0. . an upper bound on the SEP has been derived for the multiple-relay systems with fixed-gain AF relaying and MRC.8865 and 2. NO. (b) ΔΩRD-SR = −20 dB Fig. consider the case where R1 is closer to S than D. Performance comparison of SEP performance between the (dashed line) proposed PA and (solid line) EPA. 8.0135/0.. The OPA coefficients. respectively.1/0. When the channels from S to R1 and R2 to D are worse.1/0. However. m = 2). R ESPECTIVELY ). (K = 1.e. 59. respectively. i. and ΔΩRD-SR = −20 dB. 3. . ∗) markers. VOL.8/0. K. for the case7 of ΩSR1 = ΩR2 D = −20 dB and ΩSR2 = ΩR1 D = 20 dB. The case is assumed to correspond to ΩSR1 = ΩR2 D = 0 dB and ΩSR2 = ΩR1 D = 20 dB. C ONCLUSION In this paper. Finally.and fixed-gain relaying performance curves are almost identical. as proven in Proposition 1. It should be noted that the authors in [22] consider the varying-gain relay system where the transmit power at the relays is maintained constant at all time. one obtains εOPA /εOPA /εOPA = 2. 0. the same power allocation obtained from our proposed PA is also applied for the case of OPA. V. K = 1) and (m = 2. Both varying. It is worthwhile to point out that the cases of (m = 2. These gains also agree with that predicted based on the SEP bound (see Fig. The varying gain requires the relays to know the instantaneous channel gains of all the source–relay links. ΩSR = −20 dB. and i. due to space limitations. 6. 20) dB correspond to the (+. whereas R2 is closer to D than S. . over the EPA are the same. where i = j. TABLE I PA C OEFFICIENTS (εOPA /εOPA AND εOPA /εOPA /εOPA FOR K = 1 s s 1 1 2 AND 2.e. or ΩRi D = ΩRj D .8/0. i. the varying-gain system performs better than the fixed-gain system. respectively. m = 2). εOPA /εOPA /εOPA . about 0. whereas the fixed gain only requires the source–relay statistics available at the relays. MARCH 2010 1549 Fig. As such.and fixed-gain relay systems. 7 represent the case that the RD and SR fading channels are very poor when compared with the direct link SD. the performance of the fixed-gain relaying approaches that of the varying-gain relaying. Performance comparison of SEP performance between varying.and fixed-gain relaying. (a) ΔΩRD-SR = 20 dB.0695 and 1.e. in comparison between the OPA in [22] and our proposed PA. in the first time slot. It is interesting to see that at BEP = 10−3 . Performance comparison of two relays with the proposed PA (dashed line) and EPA (solid line): ΔΩRD-SR = 20 dB. and 4. i. channel settings investigated in Fig. respectively. 4). Since the OPA algorithm in [22] predetermines the power for S. Fig. [22] with our proposed PA. o.1305/1.9 for the varying. the figure for such a channel setting is omitted. It should be noted that the performance gains depend on the channel setting. For example.. are found to be6 s 1 2 1. Fig.. as expected. For the two-relay system. 2. and the relays are at different locations. It can be verified that at the very high SNR region the two curves depart and have their decaying exponents to be 4 and 8.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. respectively. one can still obtain significant gains of about 2.e. 8 shows that. . K > 1. 3. . However. and (K = 2. the gains offered by our algorithm and by Zhao et al. the comparison only makes sense if the system has more than one relay.8.. ΩSRi = ΩSRj . the issue of optimizing εs is not addressed in [22]. i. j = 1. 7. m = 1). 7 Again.and fixed-gain relaying systems.8 for s 1 2 the varying. m = 1). in this setting. 7. 8 compares the performance of the “optimal” PA proposed by Zhao et al.5 dB. Fig.

The bound also shows that MRC can achieve the maximum diversity order of m(K + 1).2)]. even when the source–relay and relay–destination channels are unbalanced. the resulting MGF can be applied into (8).2 (t) are specified in (11) and (12). Then. (23) + m/(¯Rk D ) γ tG2 εs γSRk m k + 2¯ γ γRk D ¯ l Γ(m) (¯ /G2 ) γ k The term Ak. eqs. (19) 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γR D ¯ k k m mγSRk exp − γSRk ¯ ∞ dγSRk After some manipulations on the right-hand side of (19). The term Ak (t) on the right-hand side of (17) is calculated as 2 ¯ ∞ γ /Gk Ak (t) = 0 0 exp − tG2 εs γSRk γRk D k γ + G2 γRk D ¯ k (18) A PPENDIX B P ROOF OF P ROPOSITION 1 The Chernoff bound can be used to upper bound the probability Ps by setting θ in (10) to π/2 as follows: Ps ≤ M −1 M sin2 (π/M )εs γSD /m + 1 ¯ K m × pγRk D (γRk D )pγSRk (γSRk ) dγRk D dγSRk 2 ¯ ∞ γ /Gk ≤ 0 0 exp −tG2 εs γSRk γRk D /(2¯ ) γ k × pγRk D (γRk D )pγSRk (γSRk ) dγRk D dγSRk ∞ × k=1 (Ak.1 (t) − Ak.351.352. 59. and (22) into (8) completes the proof of Lemma 1. one needs to evaluate the MGF Mγ (−t) first.3)]. The MGF Mγ (−t) is computed as K The term Bk (t) in (17) is expressed as ∞ ∞ Bk (t) = 0 γ /G2 ¯ k exp − tG2 εs γSRk γRk D k γ + G2 γRk D ¯ k (21) × pγRk D (γRk D )pγSRk (γSRk )dγRk D dγSRk ∞ ∞ ≤ 0 γ /G2 ¯ k exp − tεs γSRk 2 × pγRk D (γRk D )pγSRk (γSRk ) dγRk D dγSRk m Mγ (−t) = EγSD {exp(−tεs γSD )} k=1 EγSRk .2 (t). a novel PA scheme was proposed.1). VOL. and the results are in good agreement with the gains predicted based on the bound and shown to provide a significant saving of total transmitted power. respectively. and (3.1 (t) = m2m Γ(m)¯SRk γRk D γ m ¯m ∞ 2¯ γ tG2 εs k m × l=0 Γ(l + 1) tG2 εs γSR k k (2¯ ) γ + m γR D ¯ k ⎥ ⎦ × 0 m−1 γSRk γSRk + × pγSRk (γSRk ) dγSRk = Ak.4). Based on the obtained bound. 2m γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k (25) 2 .353. Extensive simulation was conducted. To arrive at (20). A PPENDIX A P ROOF OF L EMMA 1 To calculate the upper bound on the average SEP Ps .2) and (3. Ak (t) can be bounded as Ak (t) ≤ Ak.3). (3. 3.1 (t) − Ak.γRk D = m γSRk (tεs /2 + m/¯SRk ) ¯ γ Γ m. eqs.351.1 (t) − Ak. (3. (20).2 (t) + Bk. (3.1 (t)) t=sin2 (π/M ) = 0 m Γ(m)¯Rk D γm m ≤ M −1 M sin (π/M )εs γSD /m + 1 ¯ K 2 m ⎡ ⎢ Γ(m) tG2 εs γSRk /(2¯ ) γ k γ ¯ − exp − 2 Gk m−1 ×⎣ × m k=1 (Ak.1 (t) = k=1 (Ak (t) + Bk (t)) /[tεs γSD /m + 1]m .351.351.1 (t) and Ak.1 (t)) t=sin2 (π/M ) . (3. m¯ γ G2 γR D ¯ k k Γ(m) (22) × exp −tG2 εs γSRk γRk D / γ + G2 γRk D ¯ k k K = Bk. MARCH 2010 of channel settings. ¯ (17) where (22) is computed with the aid of [27.2 (t) (20) 2¯ γ m2m < Γ(m)¯SRk γRk D tG2 εs γ m ¯m k m exp − mγSR γSR ¯ k k dγSRk 0 γ γSRk + tG22m¯ ε γ ¯ k s Rk D (24) = 1 Γ(m) × E1 2m γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k 2 m exp where Ak.1 (t) + Bk.1 (t) in (19) can be calculated and bounded as ⎤ m−l Ak. Substituting (17). NO. one can use [27.1550 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.

1927–1938. Tse. no. ∀ x > 0. 4. vol. Sel.. one can conclude that the lower bound on γ Ps is proportional to (1/¯ )m(K+1) in the high SNR region. MARCH 2010 1551 < 1 Γ(m) × 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k m Substituting (28) and (30) into (8). 4. 2020–2040. 2003. W. Inf. 6. 498–503. 5. Commun. Jun. and G. Theory. Avestimehr and D. Wang. 2007. Mheidat and M. VOL. Giannakis. Cho. [16] G. pp. Theory. R. Theory. H. 1264–1273. 2003. Oct. 2008. pp. [5] D. Bhargava and K. Theory. Nov. pp. 2009. Kneubühler. Cao. Commun. Wireless Commun. no. S. [7] W. pp. 2006. pp. 10. Inf. Laneman. 7. and G. 5. The term Ak (t) is then lower bounded as 2 ¯ ∞ γ /Gk Ak (t) ≥ 0 0 exp −tεs γSRk /2 × pγRk D γRk D pγSRk γSRk dγRk D dγSRk ∞ = 0 exp −tεs γSRk /2 Γ(m) γ m. Nov. 2069–2074. W. vol. Tombras. “Special issue on cooperative communications. respectively. respectively. Kishore. 12. and F. “Performance bounds of multihop wireless communications with blind relays over generalized fading channels. N. [8] V. and L. and G.” IEEE Trans. Vien. 0 < η < 1 [25].1 (t) and the upper bound on Ak. 4256–4262. pp. The inequality [see (28)] is due to the fact that Bk (t) ≥ 0. 51. Wireless Commun. Giannakis. vol. 2849–2862. vol. S. 56. N. 3. [9] D. G.. vol. 6.IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY.3)]. Wornell. 10. Le-Ngoc. (3.1) and (3. Host-Madsen and J. X. respectively. Jun. 2006. 2005. the MGF Mγ (−t) is calculated and lower bounded as K Mγ (−t) = EγSD {exp(−tεs γSD )} k=1 EγSRk . 345. “Distributed space–time-coded protocol for exploiting cooperative diversity.” IEEE Trans. “Outage capacity of the fading relay channel in the low-SNR regime. pp. “Impact of receive diversity on the performance of amplify-and-forward relaying under APS and IPS power constraints. 5680–5691. [3] J. and R. =1 γSRk + 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γRk D ¯ k The equality (25) is evaluated with the help of [27. vol. (27) As clearly seen in (31). 6. W. Veh. Song. and B. 531–534. pp. Shin and J. no. k=1 m¯ γ G2 γR D ¯ k k γSRk ¯m where the inequality (24) follows from the fact that m−1 γSRk ⎡ ⎣ 1 tεs + γm ¯SD m K tεs 2 ⎤ 1 m + γSR ¯ m k γSRk + m 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γR D ¯ k k 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γR D ¯ k k m−1 × 0 ⎦ sin2 (π/M ) t= sin2 θ dθ. 2415–2425. vol. pp. “Optimum resource allocation for relay networks with differential modulation. N.531.” IEEE Trans. pp. Oct. no. Lett. Yang. vol. 6. Aug. Nguyen. Laneman and G. “Smart regenerative relays for linkadaptive cooperative communications.” IEEE Trans. 1777–1778. vol.” IEEE Commun. Substituting Bk. vol. 4. < k=1 γSRk + 2m¯ γ tG2 εs γR D ¯ k k m γSRk + (31) . [13] R. Jun. 49. no. Nabar. H. (3. pp. Michalopoulos. Zhang.. 51. “Diversity analysis of smart relaying. Commun. Using the result in (17). vol. no. the proof of the lower bound in (16) is completed. one also needs to evaluate the MGF Mγ (−t) and then apply the resulting MGF into (8). G. 50. no. no.4)]. [14] H. 2007.” IEEE Trans. 1950–1960.. May 2005. 2004. 1785–1794. [18] A.” IEEE Trans. to (23) results in (16) in Proposition 1.” IEEE Trans. “MRC analysis of cooperative diversity with fixedgain relays in Nakagami-m fading channels. May 2008. Letaief.” IEEE Trans. 58. pp. Technol.” IEEE Trans. no. no.. Jul. R EFERENCES [1] A. D. 56. 7. no. [4] A. Sendonaris. K.” J. eqs.. no. Inf. 468–470. Cho and L.” IEEE J. Karagiannidis. Li and S. m¯ /G2 γRk D γ k¯ Γ(m)¯SRk γm m tεs + 2 γSRk ¯ (30) where (29) and (30) are computed with the help of [27. Wang. vol. “Symbol error probability of decode and forward cooperative diversity in Nakagami. “Optimum resource allocation for amplifyand-forward relay networks with differential modulation.. 2004. no. Apr. 22. no.” IEEE Trans. Yang. “Symbol error probabilities for general cooperative links. pp. no. 3.532. 53. Aazhang. Apr. Mar. Dec. Wornell. Dec. Cai. [15] H. [11] T. 1401– 1415. vol.. pp. Signal Process. vol. pp. 6.” IEEE Trans. [10] W. For the lower bound. [12] N. Therefore. 6. 11. 12. Tse. Wireless Commun. Bolcskei. “Capacity bounds and power allocation for wireless relay channels. Wireless Commun. 11.” IEEE Trans. [17] A. and (26) comes from the following inequality: 1/(1 + x) < exp(x)E1 (x) ≤ 1/(η + x). “Modulation and demodulation for cooperative diversity in wireless systems. Nov.γRk D × exp −tG2 εs γSRk γRk D / γ + G2 γRk D ¯ k k K = k=1 [Ak (t) + Bk (t)] ≥ [tεs γSD /m + 1]m ¯ K k=1 Ak (t) [tεs γSD /m + 1]m ¯ (28) where Ak (t) and Bk (t) are given in (18) and (21). Inf. and T. 2008..” IEEE Trans. Karagiannidis. 5. vol. “Asymptotic analysis of amplify-and-forward relaying in Nakagami fading environments. Jul.. 2006. pp. 7.. B. Areas Commun. m¯ γ G2 γRk D ¯ k × m−1 mm γSRk γSRk Γ(m) ¯m exp − mγSRk γSRk ¯ dγSRk −m (29) = mm γ m. C. “User cooperation diversity—Part 1: System description. Uysal. . 11. [2] J.. no. pp. U. no. N. Wireless Commun. K. Chen and J. 1099–1109. 2008. [6] Y. vol. 56. 3. 723– 728. 2008. Ribeiro.” IEEE Trans. E. 7. vol.. no. Wireless Commun. “Fading relay channels: Performance limits and space–time signal design.. eq.m fading channels. NO. 2008. one has the lower bound on the average SEP for M -PSK as follows: (26) mm(K+1) π [Γ(m)]K γSD ¯m (M −1)π M 2m2 γ ¯ tG2 εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ k 2 + ηtGk εs γSRk γRk D ¯ ¯ K Ps ≥ γ m.1 (t) in (22) and (26). Franklin Inst. pp. Erkip.531. “Cooperative diversity in the wireless networks: Efficient protocols and outage behavior. 3062–3080.” IEEE Trans. Laneman. vol. 59.

2040641 The envelope and phase distributions are useful in the study of a variety of topics in communications systems. and [32]. no information on the corresponding resultant phase can be extracted from this process. and trying to simplify it in an attempt to follow a path similar to that of the envelope case. such as. (See [26]. By introducing what here is named a phase parameter. IEEE Mil. phase statistics. With another physically based consideration. It is based on the widely used fading model that describes the Nakagami-m envelope in terms of 0018-9545/$26. mean values. T.1552 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY. pp. the corresponding joint phase–envelope pdf. MARCH 2010 [19] Y. 2009. New York: Wiley-IEEE Press. then attaining the exact Nakagami-m envelope pdf from the modified model is certainly compromised. the Nakagami-m envelope pdf was derived. Wireless Commun. such a superposition has been interpreted as a random walk process in the complex plane. Manuscript received July 11. error performance is drastically influenced by the carrier phase estimation. namely. rather than laying hold of the exact distribution of the phase. namely. Commun. 3114–3123. “Improving amplify-and-forward relay networks: Optimal power allocation versus selection. Digital Communications. no. Departing from this most general mathematical condition and then carrying out approximations “sufficiently good enough for engineering problems” [4. Nakagami-m distribution. for these cases. one may always propose the trivial solution. The review of this paper was coordinated by Dr. Wong.. Dec. Nov. 6. a simulator for the phase pdf. NO. State University of Campinas. pp. which. 4th ed. Conf. [27] L. An infinite number of possible solutions can be found in this case. revised September 10. further simplifies the formulations. Giannakis. Giannakis. November 19. vol.” IEEE Trans.00 © 2010 IEEE . a substantial number of simplified scenarios are possible (e. the phase characterization is an open matter and. it had no connection with the physical model of the complex signal.e. the distribution of the difference between the true phase and its estimation may be used. with an additional parameter. however. Jun. It is noted. assuming 1) the envelope to be Nakagami-m distributed and 2) an independent phase distribution of any given choice.g. 2008. 2005. 1st ed. and κ-μ [8] environments have been proposed. phase crossing rate (PCR). 2007. 7. phase–envelope distribution. X. Boyd and L. New York: Academic.” in Proc. 4. variances. Oct. p. Digital Communication Over Fading Channels. a novel approach for the Nakagamim complex signal was proposed. 2917–2927. particularly those related to the phase crossing rate. Cai. Index Terms—Higher order statistics. The phase distribution for fading signals is indeed a very interesting and challenging topic and has long been attracting the attention of several researchers. Wireless Commun. Aug. which is the resultant of the superposition of complex random vectors whose distributions are unknown. the joint phase–envelope distribution may be used to facilitate the determination of high-order statistics in multibranch diversity scenarios [18]. κ-μ [5].. vol. Rayleigh [1]. the phase-difference pdf’s were arbitrarily considered to be Gaussian or Von Mises (Tikhonov [22]) distributed. 2004. no. and T. In coherent communication systems. Wireless Commun. 13083-852 Campinas-SP. B. and others [9]–[15]. This approach has been applied in [19]–[21] for Ricean and Nakagami-m applications. IEEE Abstract—The aim of this paper is to propose an improvement on the Nakagami-m complex signal model presented elsewhere in the literature. and G. Alouini. Lim. I. First published January 15. in the estimation of probabilities of error for M -phase signaling over fading channels using diversity [16] and in the detection of M -ary phaseshift keying signal constellations [17]. [24] J. 5. Simon and M. Yao.” IEEE Trans. for instance. 7th ed. being given in terms of the statistics of the quadrature components. and January 7. Hassibi. Zhao. Of course. Nakagami-m [4]. Hoyt [2]. Wang. I NTRODUCTION The derivation of the envelope probability density function (pdf) of the basic fading models. It turns out that the resulting pdf is rather intricate. the phase statistics have found applications. S. 6... incidentally. All these scenarios would involve considerations on the pertinence or relevance of the parameters. A. [31]. In [4] and [28]–[30]. 2010. and Rice [3]. 6. vol. pp. U. Vandenberghe. from which in-phase and quadrature components can be found. Proakis. K. where the phases of the Nakagami-m signals were also arbitrarily assumed to be uniform. produced. pp. for instance. Therefore. subject to debate. models for the complex signals in the Nakagami-m [6]. 2350– 2359. “On energy efficiency and optimum resource allocation of relay transmissions in the low-power regime. [20] Y. Gradshteyn and L. 1–7. R. More specifically. 2010. 2000. Tables of Integrals. Brazil (e-mail: michel@wisstek. Digital Object Identifier 10. η-μ [7]. The phase pdf of the sum of the vectors in the complex plane was then obtained in [29]. [29]). 2006. the formulations are still found in simple and closed-form expressions.” IEEE Trans. [26] S. Mar. VOL.” IEEE Trans. “BER-optimized power allocation for fading relay channels. School of Electrical and Computer Engineering. vol.K.. “Link-adaptive cooperative communications without channel state information. G. “Distributed space–time coding in wireless relay networks.. signal detection.org).1109/TVT. Recently. and correlation coefficient. Jing and B. The author is with the Wireless Technology Laboratory. New York: McGrawHill. [27]. [25] T.-S. K. Press. that if those envisaged scenarios are then mapped back onto the definition of the complex signal. as derived in [6]. Ryzhik. such as radar clutter modeling. and the corresponding phase and envelope pdf’s. In contrast to this. 2010. as an intermediate step. and η-μ [5]. Cambridge. Department of Communications. no. In [6]. no information on the phase distribution was provided. In an attempt to fill such a gap. Nakagami-m Phase–Envelope Joint Distribution: A New Model Michel Daoud Yacoub. higher order statistics are then derived. Fareed and M. [23] M. In some situations. M. Wireless Commun. and references therein for a discussion on the appropriateness of the use of a uniform phase distribution in the sum of random vectors. The exact Ricean phase pdf was used in [25]. Thus. Convex Optimization. a more general and realistic framework is obtained. Departing from the general phase pdf reported in [29].) As is widely known. Nakagami-m is an empirical model that is proposed as an approximation to an extremely intricate problem concerning the statistics of a signal. [31]. A phase-difference distribution for the Nakagami-m case was derived in [23]. Series and Products. for the envelope-based models. Uysal. both jointly and marginally. therefore. The simplifications in [4] were a mathematical manipulation directly carried out in the derivation process of the envelope pdf.. and G. pp. since the aim was purely the signal envelope. Cano. 12. in terms of which the phase pdf is described. 2006. 2001. the phase parameter is written as a function of the fading parameter. current version published March 19. 2007. i. With the proposed fading model. In such a case. Adve. 6. Member. 15]. However.: Cambridge Univ. [22] Y. 2009. has been proposed in [24] that yielded accurate autocorrelated properties. 59. 2009. have been obtained. in which the optimum scheme that maximizes the ergodic capacity of a multiple-input–single-output system was investigated. no.2010. in which cases. [21] M. namely. 3524–3536. 3. and [32]. and the expressions are found in an even more compact manner.