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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

CONCEPT OF ABSENTEEISM Punctuality in the attendance is the very basis of the well-organized stabilized and enlightened society and it forms the back bone of industrial management. No institution, however progressive can work effectively if its employee/worker is not punctual and regular in the attendance. Absenteeism is "nonattendance of employees for scheduled work. When they are expected to attend" (Huczynski and Fitzpatrick, 1989.Because absenteeism involves nonattendance from scheduled work in terms of hours and days rather than minutes, it is distinguishable from being late to work (Rhodes and Steers, 1990). There are different reasons why workers are absent from work, such as an illness, family emergency or just taking a day off. These different reasons can be categorized into unavoidable and avoidable absenteeism (also called involuntary and voluntary absenteeism) (Steers and Rhodes, 1978). Unavoidable absences are the result of conditions that are usually not under the control of the worker, such as illness, injury, transportation problems or the need to care for a sick family member. Avoidable absenteeism occurs because the employee decides to be absent from work for reasons that most employers would view as inappropriate or even illegitimate, such as to have a day off, to attend a social event, to sleep in or to recover from a hangover. For the typical U.S. worker, Klein (1986) estimated that 55 percent of absences fell into the category of unavoidable and 45 percent could be classified as avoidable. In a survey of U.S. workers, it was found that 42 percent of wealthy households, 41 percent of college-educated workers and 43 percent of those younger than 24 years old admitted that they had pretended to be sick in order to avoid work. (Lach,1999). The major reason given in the survey was that they just wanted a day off, followed closely by the need for a "mental health day." Therefore, roughly half of all absences are unavoidable, while the other half are avoidable (Brooke, 1986). Absenteeism costs correctional organizations both directly and indirectly. Direct costs include sick pay, fringe benefits that still must be paid, overstaffing (scheduling

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additional workers to fill in for those employees who are absent) and overtime to fill the position. There are many positions in correctional facilities that cannot be vacated when an employee calls in sick. This means that a person may be paid overtime to cover the position of the absent individual. The administration must spend time and effort to alter employee assignments to deal with the absence. Indirect costs include disruptions, reduced productivity, loss of expertise and experience, costs to monitor and administer the absence program, and resentment and decreased morale of other employees (Lambert et al., 2005). Absenteeism often creates a hardship for other employees, including working mandatory overtime and doing extra work because of the missing person. Absences can also result in resentment among attending employees who are shifted from one job to another, including to assignments that are less desirable or unfamiliar (Huczynski and Fitzpatrick, 1989). Even if the position is left vacant, the absence means that there will be one fewer staff member able to monitor inmates and respond to emergencies (Farkas, 1990). High levels of absenteeism can cause morale among employees to suffer, while also being costly and disruptive for the correctional institution. In summary, absenteeism, particularly if it becomes commonplace, is harmful to the overall health of a correctional organization. While the issue of absenteeism should be of concern in the field of corrections, only a handful of studies have been done on the subject. In a study of correctional stress, Gross et al. (1994) found that female correctional officers used more sick leave than male correctional officers. Among correctional officers at a New York State prison, Lombardo (1981) reported that job dissatisfaction was related to absenteeism, but only briefly discussed the matter. Venne (1997) explored the impact of 12-hour shifts on Canadian correctional officers and concluded that the shifts increased absenteeism. Lambert (2001) theorized about the importance of researching correctional staff absenteeism and postulated that job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment would be linked with correctional staff absenteeism. He also argued that it was important to determine how employees viewed the use of sick leave and how they viewed the use and impact of sick leave in their particular work areas.

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In a study of federal correctional staff, Lambert et al. (2005) observed that job stress, job satisfaction and organizational commitment were associated with the use of sick leave. Federal correctional staff who reported higher stress levels were more likely to be absent. Staff who were satisfied with their jobs and staff with greater commitment to the Federal Bureau of Prisons used fewer sick leave hours. There is a need for more research on correctional staff absenteeism. Without relevant studies, it is difficult to understand the correlates of correctional employee absenteeism and to develop possible ways to reduce it.

It refers to workers absence from their regular task when he/she is normally schedule to work. The according to Websters dictionary Absenteeism is the practice or habit of being an absentee and an absentee is one who habitually stays away from work. According to Labor Bureau of Shimla: - Absenteeism is the total man shifts lost because of absence as percentage of total number of man shifts scheduled to work. In other words, it signifies the absence of an employee from work when he is scheduled to be at work. Any employee may stay away from work if he has taken leave to which he is entitled or on ground of sickness or some accident or without any previous sanction of leave. Thus absence may be authorized or unauthorized, willful or caused by circumstances beyond ones control. Maybe even worse than absenteeism, it is obvious that people such as malingerers and those unwilling to play their part in the workplace can also have a decidedly negative impact. Indeed, as prevention is better than cure, where such a problem occurs, it is always important to review recruitment procedures to identify how such individuals came to be employed in the first place. For any business owner or manager, to cure excessive absenteeism, it is essential to find and then eliminate the causes of discontent among team members.

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Any effective absentee control program has to locate the causes of discontent and modify those causes or eliminate them entirely. In other words, if we deal with the real reasons team members stay home it can become unnecessary for them to stay away. Any investigation into absenteeism needs to look at the real reasons for it. Sometimes team members call in sick when they really do not want to go to work. They would not call you up and say, Im not coming in today because my supervisor abuses me. Or, Im not coming in today because my chair is uncomfortable. Or, Im not coming in today because the bathrooms are so filthy, it makes me sick to walk into them. Once a manager finds the real reasons for absenteeism there is another important step. Through open communication, you need to change the team members way of reacting and responding to discontent. Other problems will no doubt arise in the future. If the way of responding has not been reviewed, then the same cycle is likely to start all over again. So often absenteeism problems can be sheeted back to the supervisor level and to unsatisfactory working conditions. Without improvement in these areas, you can expect your high rate of absenteeism to continue. There is a distinction between absenteeism and absence the term absenteeism means unauthorized absence while the term absence is something of which previous intimation has been given absence means the state of being absent or away while the world absenteeism has been defined to mean the practicing of absenting oneself from duty station or estate Absence has been defined as a failure of the worker to report for the wen he is scheduled for work

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Types of absenteeism

Authorized Absenteeism: is a leave taken through permission from the concerned officer.

Unauthorized Absenteeism: is a leave taken without the permission of the concerned officer.

Willful Absenteeism: is the absence from duty by the employee willfully.

Absenteeism caused by circumstances beyond his control.

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PECULIAR FEATURES OF ABSENTEEISM


On the basis of studies undertaken certain observations may be made: y The rate of absenteeism is lowest on payment day; it increases considerably on the days following the payment of wages and bonus. The level of absenteeism is comparatively high immediately after payday. When worker either feel like having a good time or in some other cases return home to their villages family and after a holiday, has also been found to be higher than that on normal days.

Absenteeism is generally high for workers below 25 years of age and those above 40. The younger employees are not regular and punctual. Presumably because of the employment of a large no. of new comers among the younger age groups, while the older people are not able to withstand the strenuous nature of the work.

The percentage of absenteeism is higher in the night shift than in the day shift. This is so because workers in the night shift experience great discomfort and uneasiness in the course of their work than they do during day time.

Absenteeism in India is seasonal in character. It is the highest during March-AprilMay, when land has to be prepared for monsoon, sowing and also in harvest season. The rate of absenteeism is as high as 40% during this period.

The rate of absenteeism varies from department within a unit. As a size of the group increases the rate of absenteeism goes up. The peculiar style and practice of management, the composition of labour force and the culture of the organization are the reasons for this rate.

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CAUSES OF ABSENTEEISM

The Royal Commission Labour observed that high absenteeism among Indian labour is due to rural orientation and their frequent urge for rural exodus. According to Ashwathappa In modern industrial establishment the incidence of industrial fatigue, mal nutrition and bad working conditions aggravate that feeling for change among industrial worker and sometime impel them to visit their village home frequently for rest and relaxation.

The general cause of absenteeism may be summarized as below:1) MALADJUSTMENT WITH FACTORY In factory the worker finds caught within factory walls, he is bewildered by heavy traffic, by strangers speaking different and subjected to strict discipline and is ordered by complete strangers to do things which he cannot understand. As a result he is under constant strain, which cause him serious distress and impairs his efficiency. All these factors tend to persuade him to maintain his contacts with village. 2) SOCIAL AND RELIGIOUS CEREMONIES Social and religious ceremonies divert workers from workers to social activities. In large number of cases incidence of absenteeism due to religious ceremonies is more than due to any other reason. 3) HOUSING CONDITIONS Workers also experience housing difficulties. Around 95% of housing occupied by industrial workers in India is unsatisfactory for healthful habitations. This leads to loss the interest in work.

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4) INDUSTRIAL FATIGUE Low wages compel a worker to seek some part time job to earn some side income. This often result inconstant fatigue, which compels to remain absent for next day.

5) UNHEALTY WORKING CONDITION Irritating and intolerable working conditions exist in a factory. Heat, moisture, noise, vibration, bad lighting, dust fumes and overcrowding all these affect the workers health causing him to remain absent from work a long time. 6) ABSENCE OF ADEQUATE WELFARE ACTIVITIES High rate absenteeism is also due to lack of adequate welfare facilities Welfare activities include clean drinking water, canteen, room shelter, rest rooms, washing and bathing facilities, first aid appliances etc. 7) INDEBTEDNESS All those workers who undergo financial hardships usually borrow money lenders at interest rate which are very high, which often cumulates to more than 11 12 times their actual salaries. To avoid the moneylenders they usually absent themselves from work because they are unable to return the money in stipulated time. 8) IMPROPER & UNREALISTIC PERSONNEL POLICIES Due to favoritism and nepotism which are in the industry the workers generally become frustrated. This also results in low efficiency, low productivity, unfavorable relationship between employee and supervisor, which in turn leads to long period of absenteeism.

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Effects of Absenteeism at Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd.

Absenteeism leads to a number of adverse effects to the organization as well as the workers. The effects of absenteeism on the management are as follows: y Low Production: When workers remain absent the production of the organization is hampered. As far as a worker is available who can take the job of absentee it is fine or the machine is idle. This leads to low production At Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd., the workers are substituted from other sister concerns or from the same organization. Even though the work gets hampered because the worker from other organization concern is new in that organization wherein he does not work with full efficiency.

If the worker is substituted from the same organization, he does not have much experience of the job, which the absentee use to do. Due to this reason the worker cannot take up work very fast and prefect as it used to be.

i.

Harm the goodwill of the company: If the worker is absent, it might cause delay in the production and result in late delivery of the products. Because of late delivery due to absenteeism it might harm the goodwill of the company and customer might switch on to other suppliers or give less order.

ii.

Increase expenditure: In order to reduce the rate of absenteeism the management has introduced some monetary and non-monetary schemes to motivate the workers. This calls for the additional expenditure from the management.

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iii.

Complexity of wage calculation: Absenteeism of workers brings lots of complications in the wage calculation and thus it is the problem of the personnel department.

iv.

Increase in the labor cost: Absenteeism leads to increase in labor cost. If any worker remains absent from work the job assigned to him will remain unattained and hence to overcome this problem the management has to assign the same work to someone else which means an additional expenditure to the management.

v.

Effects to workers: Absenteeism not only affects the management but also has some adverse effects on the workers which they rarely realize.

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Loss of Benefits

If the worker remains absent continuously he will be deprived of the benefits like attendance bonus and other benefits received by the regular workers.

a) Affects morale of the workers: If worker remains absent for more number of days he does not feel himself to be part of the organization. He might also not be recognized even if he performs well for rest of the days. This will affect his morale. b) Insecurity of job: The management may decide to terminate the worker if he remains absent continuously. Thus absentee does not have security of his job. c) Reduction of efficiency: Continuous work adds to the efficiency of the worker. Thus if a worker remains absent he might become less efficient than what he would be if worked regularly. d) Reduce leave facilities: If worker remains absent for more number of days, he loses his leave facilities in future. Thus the worker cannot take authorized leave in future.

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Measures by the Company to Reduce Absenteeism


Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd has taken some steps in recent years to reduce the rate of absenteeism. The measures taken by the company are:

Motivational measures of attendance bonus:

As a motivation to the workers to maintain good attendance the management given attendance bonus to those who are present for the specified days in a month.

Disciplinary Action:

If worker remains absenteeism regularly is found not to be serious about its job, he is given a prior warning so that he can change his attitude. If he continues with the same, he is given another notice and still if he continues the same, then, management may terminate the worker. Prior application should be given to the concerned officer if the worker wants to take leave.

Leave With Wages:

The Company provides a specified annual leave with wages to all the workers beside casual labor

Provisions of health and hygienic condition:

The workers in Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd are provided with proper and healthy working conditions. The facilities of drinking water, canteens, rest rooms, lighting and ventilation are provided. The factory premises is kept clean, the machinery are located at convenient distances. CMR CENTER FOR BUSINESS STUDIES Page 12

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Functional Area Analysis

Human Resource Department Introduction: Men, material, money and machinery are regarded as the four important factors of production. Human beings constitute the organization at all levels and are regarded as the only dynamic factors of production. It is not difficult to handle material resources but without the efficient use of the human resource management can never accomplish its mission. Human resource is considered as the rich resource and which in turn is difficult to manage, because human minds are not constant, they like to perform act which they think is right. Human mind is a mind which readily reacts to any situation or for any acts.

Many management thinkers have tried to study the mind of the workers and evolved various principles and practices, which can help the recruitment of the organization to achieve its objective. Training the worker, induction, job satisfactions are the few among them.

To look after this the business organization start giving more importance to the Human Resource and their development. The trend started from 80s and is still continued, as they are capable to make the machine work. To look after all the activities or to look after the development of their human resource, the organization started establishing different dept. known as Personnel Department or Human Resource Development Department.

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Human resource management


Human resource management is that aspect of management having as its goal effective utilization of labor of an organization This organization has a social or human approach towards the labor. This concept recognizes labour as a human being and a significant part of the organization. The labour is treated properly. Mutual co-operation is the solutions of the common problems. The major functions of human resource management are: y y y y y y y y Manpower planning Recruitment, Selection Induction Training Performance Appraisal Increment / Incentive Promotion Leave with wages Attendance

: Manpower Planning It involves two stages. The first stage is concerned with the detailed planning of manpower, recruitment of all type and levels of employees through a period plants and the second stage is concerned with the right type of people from all sources to meet the planned requirements. So all the dept. in the organization will give their list of vacancies specifying the necessities for that dept. and accordingly these departments tap the data bank, employment offices for the requirement candidates.

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With the help of manpower planning the organization finds it easy to pursue sound procedure of recruitment and selection.

: Recruitment and Selection: Recruitment is a positive process of searching for prospective employees and stimulating them to apply for jobs in their selection. Hind Industries follow various steps of recruitment process y Advertisements are the basis for recruitment for this organization. They also recruit through employment exchange. y y Reception of application Personal Information to be given like age, qualification family background, hobbies etc. y y Interview Appointment ( 6 months training is given and after that they them into shifts and then they work independently under some guidance y y Grades are given according to their performances Salary / wages.

: Induction / Orientation Programme: It is concerned with introducing a new employee to the organization. An orientation programme will leave the employee firmly established in the new job, comfortable and relaxed in his relation with other members of the dept. This organization gives very importance for the induction programme because they believe that it takes small amount of time but it repays the firm many times over in better personal relation.

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: Performance Appraisal: It is process of evaluating an employees performance of the job in terms of its requirement. This helps in: y Improving the job performance of the employees and also to identify their potentialities. y y Knowing the areas where they require training. Deciding whether the employee is eligible for transfer, promotion, demotion etc. : Salary and Wage Administration: The employees should get adequate equitable remuneration for work done by them. The functions concerned with fixation of job wages are: y y y To evaluate jobs and determine their worth in terms of money. To collaborate with others who may formulate wage plan. To assist the formulation of policies regarding pension, plans, profits sharing programs, on monitor benefits etc. y To compare the wages of the enterprises with the industry and remove in consistence if any.

The Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd. provides various benefits like:
y ESI employee state insurance: Under this medical benefit is given they take 1.75ps from employee & 6.75ps from the company to the govt. y Provident Fund: Soon after the appointment the form is filled. It has to account family pension fund & deposit linked insurance (for 100Rs 12% is deducted) the company pays 12%. Total employees get is 24% of deposit link insurance. y Gratuity Fund: accounts to employees gratuity. Pre year 15 day salary will be given. Management pays the money. 9% interest on the total amount paid by the company will be given.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Title of the study

A study on the Employee Absenteeism in HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Statement of the problem

Analyzing the causes and repercussion of employee absenteeism in HIND ENGINEERING WORK

The method adopted was survey method. I went for in department interview of 50 employees, who are found to remain more absent, which i found through the records. Sources of data: y y Primary Source. Secondary Source.

Primary sources: Primary sources are the sources from which the original data is collected. The firsthand information was collected directly from the staff the departments and the other sources were: Secondary sources: Secondary sources are the sources in which the data are already collected and are used to solve the problem at hand. These are as follows:

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Tools of data collection for Primary data


y y y Observation. Personal Interaction. Questionnaire.

Tools of data collection for Secondary data


y y y y Company records Reports Register Books

Sample Size

Sample Size is an attempt of ways to understand the entire population without actually observing every entity within it - by choosing and observing only a sample (a sub-set) of the full population. Sample Size: 50employees

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Sampling techniques
Sampling techniques is that part of statistical practice concerned with the selection of a subset of individual observations within a population of individuals intended to yield some knowledge about the population of concern, especially for the purposes of making predictions based on statistical inference. Sampling techniques is an important aspect of data collection

Non-probability
(Convenient sampling) Non-probability sampling is any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection or where the probability of selection can't be accurately determined. It involves the selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the population of interest, which forms the criteria for selection. Hence, because the selection of elements is nonrandom, non-probability sampling does not allow the estimation of sampling errors. These conditions give rise to exclusion bias, placing limits on how much information a sample can provide about the population.

Statistical tools and techniques


y Column Graph

Pie Graph

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OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY

1. To study the organization structure and culture 2. To analyze the effects of absenteeism on the organization.
3. To examine absenteeism effects on the organization and also get the opinion of the employee and find out ways to overcome the problem of employee absenteeism

4. To know the various measures taken by the organization to prevent absenteeism. 5. To study the reasons for absenteeism in Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd 6. To derive some strategic solution to this problem called Absenteeism

Limitations of the study

 Due to the time constraint the study is made only among 50 respondents  There is a chance of personal bias which affects the original data.

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COMPANY PROFILE
The firm Hind Engineering Works is the mother industry of Hind Group of Industry three partners established Hind Engineering Works namely, Mr.M.N.Kakatkar, Mr.S.N.Kakatkar & Mr.P.N.Kakatkar.

Mr.M.N.Kakatkar was working in Arun engineering as a manager in 1950. Mr. Kakatkar resigned from Arun Engineering and joined his brother Mr.P.NKakatkar who had started auto electrical repair works at fort road Belgaum.

Mr. Kaktakar was ambitious in starting his own engineering works unit and thus with the help of friends and well-wishers borrowed loan and purchased a second hand kirloskar made lathe machine.

In the year 1963 started a firm in the name HIND ENGINEERING WORKS for undertaking jobs from various firms in Belgaum. In 1964 they approached State Bank of India for financial assistance; S.B.I sanctioned a cash credit (working capital) of Rs5000 for manufacture of crankshafts for automobiles, tractors, and compressor. The demand for crankshafts from all over India increased day byday.Arun engineering works entrusted their jobs to Hind Engineering, with this experience some of the automobile and diesel engine manufacturers approached Hind engineering to take their jobs. The

machines set up to fulfill the requirement of the customers fell short and the company again approached the State Bank of India and thus with its financial help the company purchased various required machinery.

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The company is well known for the manufacture of quality crankshafts for automobiles, tractors, compressors etc. They are in the line of manufacturing all types of crankshafts for the last 35 years and rendering services to well-known reputed concerns. They manufacture crankshafts mainly single cylinder, three cylinder, four cylinders and six cylinders which are used in air compressors, crankshafts for automobiles, tractors, diesel engines and other applicants.

The quality and timely scheduled facilities, prompt delivery of the company helped it to establish itself a good name in the field of prominent crankshaft manufacturers. As per the modern technology, the quality demand from the customers has made the company install modern technical equipment, highly skilled labor, educated technicians and various other modern testing equipment. The Company has a good blend of technical staff of experience and youth to meet modern days requirement of quality. The company is well equipped with all necessary machinery, including Induction Hardening Plant. The company has all in-house facilities, well equipped with standard room and inspection facilities. Hind Engineering Works has been decorated with various awards. It has been certified ISO-9001-2000 Quality Systems accredited by Joint Accreditation Systems of Australia and New Zealand. It also has the Quality Systems Certification. Hind Engineering Worksis a medium scale industry with a turnover of Rs.6.5 corer per annum. The company has a workforce of 225 employees. Hind Engineering Works is a model for inter personal relation through various departments formed in the company and is able to build a good rapport with its workers. With able administration, management and hard work, the company has grown into a successful firm of quality crankshaft manufacturers. It is a good example of managing men, money and material. Mahindra & Mahindra are the prominent customers on their customers list. The company is well equipped with all the necessary precision machinery, well experienced

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staff having all the facilities to undertake the manufacturing of any type of crankshaft required for automobiles, tractors, diesel engines etc.

The demand from TATA Motors is increasing day by day. Hence, the company has taken expansion programmers for the addition of imported machinery from Germany and constructed a new factory premises at Udyambag, Belgaum. The company recently started export activities to Dubai and other countries.

Hind Engineering Works are supplying crankshafts till today to the following reputed concerns. y y y y y Tata motors ltd. Voltas ltd. V.S.T tillers and tractors Bhartas earth movers ltd Greaves cotton ltd

The quality and timely schedule of the firm has established a name in the field of prominent crankshafts manufactures.

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THE GROUP VISION


Hind Engineering Works is committed to provide high quality products which will delight their customers. We shall involve all employees in quality improvement process and continuous improvement in all functions. We emphasize more on preventive measures rather than ratification of errors. We shall involve sub-contractors and guide them for achieving the required quality of products and services.

BUSINESS GROWTH PLANS THROUGH

 Product mix wide range of products  Global customer network  Technology up gradation  Manufacturing techniques standardization  Zero delivery failures

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QUALITY POLICY

The HIND GROUP is committed to meet customer requirements and strive for excellence through continual improvement of their products, processes and systems. Involve all employees and other interested parties and work with team spirit in achieving organizations objectives. Take decisions and actions based on analysis of data and information to ensure improvement and growth.

CONCEPT
HIND GROUP is working on the Japanese concept of 3 Ss. This concept includes the following 3 things,

SEIRI reorganization Sort out unnecessary items in the workplace and discard them.

SEITON neatness Arrange necessary items in good order so that they can be easily picked. For use, a place for everything and everything is in its place.

SEISO cleaning Clean your workplace completely so that there is no dust on the floor, machines and equipment.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE COMPANY

Towards the customers       Offer the most feasible solution. Offer standardized solution Competitive pricing Maintain consistence in quality Process the order in time Meeting the statutory requirement in time

Business strategy    Increase turnover and profit Be the best in the industry No market exploitation

Operations        Best environment for work Maintain consistency in quality Reduce cycle time of operation Ensure customer satisfaction Ensure safe and healthy working conditions Improve standard Meet all the statutory requirement in time

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Employees     Provide better working conditions Pay adequate and fair wages Do no employee a minor Follow labor laws

Society     Responsible corporate citizenship Involvement with surrounding community Reduce pollution and preserve the environment Provide employment opportunities

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Board of Directors

: Shri. U .M. Kakatkar [Chairman & Managing Director]

Directors

: Shri. P .N. Kakatkar [Executive Director]

: Shri. A .D. Bidiker [Executive Director Hi-Tech]

Management Team

: Shri. V .I. Kammar [Manager Marketing]

: Shri. S. R. Kulkarni [Manager Human Resource]

: Shri. V .G. Devarkar [Manager Purchase]

: Shri. S. N. Shinve [Manager Production]

: Shri. W. C. Walliitagi [Manager Quality Control]

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ABOUT THE CRANKSHAFTS


Crankshaft is the main part of the engine which is used in automobiles, tractors, compressors and diesel engines. The following are the different types of crankshafts manufactured at Hind Engineering Works.

: 697 Crankshafts These types of crankshafts are used in TATA trucks. It is the main part of the engine. With the help of the crankshaft, the engine starts. It is fitted in the engine block, and has 4 strokes. The crankshaft is fitted in the block, the connecting rod and piston helps the crankshaft to rotate in the block. The life of this crankshaft is minimum of 3 years.

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: Perkins 4 crankshafts These crankshafts are used in tractors. It is very simple to design. The life of the engine is more. It is very well known as Perkins engine all over the world. : 407 Crankshafts These crankshafts are used in the light vehicles of TATA. It is very compact and economically suitable for transporting goods up to 4 tones. It is also used in the passenger vehicles. : MDI 3000 Crankshafts These types of crankshafts are used in Mahindra jeeps. Previously, Mahindra was using Wills jeep, now they have modified the design as MDI 3000 Crankshaft, which give more life and smooth running in the engine. : BMC Crankshafts These types of crankshafts are used in the Ambassador Diesel engine. In the olden days, Ambassador Cars were of petrol engine. Since the cost of diesel is less than petrol, the BMC diesel engine is more popular. : Perkins 3 Crankshafts These types of crankshafts are used in the tractors and also in small diesel vehicles. It is very popular all over the world. The life of this crankshaft is about 5 years. It can be used after grinding for another 2 years for the same vehicle. The maintenance cost is also very less.

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Departments in Hind Auto Cranks Pvt Ltd

Human resource department.

Marketing Department

Purchase Department

Finance department

Production Department

Quality Control Department

Stores Department

Absenteeism is a habitual pattern of absence from a duty or obligation. Traditionally, absenteeism has been viewed as an indicator of poor individual performance, as well as a breach of an implicit contract between employee and employer; it was seen as a management problem, and framed in economic or quasi-economic terms. More recent scholarship seeks to understand absenteeism as an indicator of psychological, medical, or social adjustment to work. Frequent absence from the workplace may be indicative of poor morale or of sick building syndrome. However, many employers have implemented absence policies which make no distinction between absences for genuine illness and absence for inappropriate reasons. One of these policies is the calculation of the Bradford factor, which only takes the total number and frequency of absences into account, not the kind of absence.

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As a result, many employees feel obliged to come to work while ill, and transmit communicable diseases to their co-workers. This leads to even greater absenteeism and reduced productivity among other workers who try to work while ill. Work forces often excuse absenteeism caused by medical reasons if the worker supplies a doctor's note or other form of documentation. Sometimes, people choose not to show up for work and do not call in advance, which businesses may find to be unprofessional and inconsiderate. This is called a "no call" or "no show". According to Nelson & Quick (2008) people who are dissatisfied with their jobs are absent more frequently. They went on to say that the type of dissatisfaction that most often leads employees to miss work is dissatisfaction with the work itself. The psychological model that discusses this is the "withdrawal model", which assumes that absenteeism represents individual withdrawal from dissatisfying working conditions. This finds empirical support in a negative association between absence and job satisfaction, especially satisfaction with the work itself.[1] Medical-based understanding of absenteeism find support in research that links absenteeism with smoking, problem drinking, low back pain, and migraines.[2] Absence ascribed to medical causes is often still, at least in part, voluntary. The line between psychological and medical causation is blurry, given that there are positive links between both work stress and depression and absenteeism.[2]Depressive tendencies may lie behind some of the absence ascribed to poor physical health, as with adoption of a "culturally approved sick role". This places the adjective "sickness" before the word "absence", and carries a burden of more proof than is usually offered. Evidence indicates that absence is generally viewed as "mildly deviant workplace behavior". For example, people tend to hold negative stereotypes of absentees, under report their own absenteeism, and believe their own attendance record is better than that of their peers. Negative attributions about absence then bring about three outcomes: the behavior is open to social control, sensitive to social context, and is a potential source of workplace conflict.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

PURCHASE DEPARTMENT

The working of this department must be efficient for any company to keep their inventory and costs of inventory optimum and consistent. The head of this department needs to be highly experienced field worker to have complete knowledge of the prevailing costs of every requisite product in accordance with the brand and quality.

The purchase department is being headed by the purchase manager. The purchase manager is responsible for the efficiency of this department and maintaining all the records and returns. The main job of the purchase manager is to obtain the inventory report and then ascertain the quantity required to be purchased. After ascertaining the requirements, he has to release requirement notes or tenders to the companies and obtain quotations for the same. The most tricky part of the job being not only sorting out the quotations with the lowest rates, but at the same time examining the suppliers reputation is very important criterion to make sure that the supplies are regular and uninterrupted.

The purchase department also takes care of the quality of the products received and makes sure that the product supplied is the same as the product ordered. From ordering of material to the receipt of material, everything is handled by this department.

Purpose
To provide guidelines to insure that the purchased product conforms to specified requirement.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Duties and tasks of the Purchase Manager

 Planning of the requirement.  Informing the suppliers about the requirements.  Local purchases to be made as and when required.  Maintaining stock register.  Inward and outward material entries as per the ISO standards.  Maintaining ISO standard documents.  Recording of daily inventory of the raw materials, finished goods and semi-finished goods.  Recording the required materials if they reach a maximum level.  He is responsible to see that the payments are made to the vendors by the accounts department.

The inventory is issued in the first in first out method (FIFO)

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

PRODUCTION DEPARTMENT

The production department plays a vital role in the company. The HDUSTRIES manufacturers of crankshafts, which are purpose built of any type and size tailored to meet the budget requirement of each customer. The crankshafts are manufactured using the most sophisticated machinery. The company uses the latest and the most advanced machinery. The production department consists of 225 employees. The crankshafts are quality tested to ensure consistency and maintain the quality of crankshafts. The machines are arranged in a way to reduce accidents at the work place. The company follows on-the-job training method for its workers. The work of the production department is to plan, observe all the production activities concerned with the manufacturing of the product. This department sees that the employees and workers are regular to their work and carry out their job activities effectively and efficiently. Moreover, this department takes care of the machinery by maintaining the machinery whenever necessary. This helps in improving the efficiency and productivity of the machinery. This department is systematically laid out the production process which is a continuous process.

Purpose
 To achieve the targets of production set by the top management To provideguidelines for planning and manufacturing.  To provide guidelines to ensure that the production processes are planned and are carried out under controlled conditions to ensure compliance of the product to specified requirement.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Duties and tasks of the Production Manager

 Planning and working on the design requirement.  Work distribution to all the departments.  Documentation of all the records concerned to production.  Charge calculations.  Communicating with customers in relation to the product to be prepared.  Developing the product as per the design.  To maintain a friendly environment with the shop floor to enhance proper production flow.  Take part in the decision making process.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

QUALITY CONTROL DEPARTMENT

The quality control department as the name itself suggests control or checks whether the quality is maintained. This department has a crucial role to play during the production, process and the production process. The quality of the goods before using is checked and if any defects are found then the whole lot is rejected. The quality of crankshafts is checked during the production process and before packing and also after packing and during dispatching. If any defect is found, the whole lot is rejected.

OBJECTIVES
 To ensure that the quality of the products is maintained as per the standards set by the top management.  Consumers are satisfied and there should not be any complaints about the products  To ensure that the raw materials used for the production process are up to the standards.

PURPOSE
 To provide guidelines for control of nonconforming Material / Product in order to prevent its unintended use & deciding appropriate disposition action.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

DUTIES AND TASKS OF THE QC MANAGER


 To test the raw material as per the requirement  To test the companys products and prepare a product lab report and provide a proof that it is as per the requirement  To set ISO Standards  To work as per the ISO Standards  To prepare ISO Standard reports  To prepare chemical analysis

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

MARKETING DEPARTMENT

Marketing is typically seen as the task of creating, promoting and delivering goods and services to consumers at a profit. It is an important department in the company. Production of goods without adequate consumers to by the goods would be of no use. The company views marketing activity as a skill. The marketing manager is expected to have complete knowledge about the market and is able to convince the customers successfully. CUSTOMER SATISFACTION is the main aim of this department.

FUNCTIONS

 Taking an order from the customers through selfrepresentation.

 Forming the promotional activities

 Informing the R&D department about the changes for the product and providing the information to develop the product or to improve the product.

 Informing the customers about the orders and delivery period.

 Preparing the dispatch schedule.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS  Responding to the queries and complaints received from the customers.

 Informing the production department about order received and production plan.

DUTIES AND TASKS OF MARKETING MANAGER

 To meet the needs as per the customer requirements.

 Maintaining and writing the purchase order entries in purchase register.

 To submit the production department with the requirements given by the companies.

 To dispatch the finished goods through trucks or tempos as per the requirement

and write it in the dispatch register.

 Maintain CI casting stock register.

 Provide test certificate for certain products.

 Maintaining of a report of the performance of the customers.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

 Maintaining customer drawing control register and file.

 To maintain corrective action request (CAR).

 Preparation to quotations for items.

Preparation of mordant copy along with dispatch order copy.

 Maintenance of sales invoices for audit.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION


For how many years you are working with Hind Engineering
Table NO: 1

Analysis 0-1 years 1-2 years 2-5 years >5years

Actual 2 4 16 28 Graph: 1

Percentage 4 8 32 56

60%

56%

50%

40% 32% 30% Workers

20%

10% 4% 0% 0-1yrs

8%

1-2yrs

2-5yrs

>5yrs

Interpretation It can be seen that 56% of the workers at Hind Engineering WorksPvt. Ltd are working for more than 10 years whereas 32% are working for more than 5 years

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 2

How do you feel about your company?


Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor Actual 18 20 7 5 Percentage 36 40 14 10

Graph: 2
45% 40% 40% 36% 35% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% excelle t g fair 14% 10%

InterpretationIt can be seen that 40% of the workers have rated the company good and 36% of them have rated it as excellent

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 3

Do you think it offer appropriate opportunity for advancement?


Analysis Yes No Actual 42 8 Percentage 84 16

Graph: 3
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 16% 84%

InterpretationIt can be seen that 84% of the workers think opportunities are provided and 16% think company do not provide enough opportunities for development.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 4

How often you remain absent in a month?


Analysis Nil Once Twice >Twice Actual 28 10 7 5 Percentage 56 20 14 10

Graph: 4
60% 56%

50%

40%

30% 20% 20% 14% 10% 10%

0% Nil Once Twice < Twice

InterpretationIt can be seen that 56% of the workers dont remain absent but 20% remain absent once in every month.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 5

According to you what is the main reason for employees absent?

Analysis Personal Transport Secondary business Stress others

Actual 26 5 4 9 6

Percentage 52 10 8 18 12

Graph: 5

Column1

12%

personal 18% 52% 8% 10% transport secondary business stress others

InterpretationAccording to 52% of the workers personal problem is the main reason for being absent where as 18% is because of stress and 12% is because of other problems.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 6

Your views regarding the present Absenteeism Policy of HindEngineering Works Pvt. Ltd?
Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor Actual 10 32 5 3 Percentage 20 64 10 6

Graph: 6
70% 64% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 20% 10% 10% 0% excellent good fair poor 6%

InterpretationIt can be seen that 64% workers rate the present absenteeism policy as good whereas 20% rate it as excellent.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 7

Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities?


Analysis Well clear Good Fairly clear Dont know Actual 32 14 4 0 Percentage 64 28 8 0

Graph: 7
70% 64% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% well clear good fairly clear don't know 8% 0% 28%

InterpretationIt can be seen that 64% of the workers at HindEngineering Works Pvt. Ltd. are clear regarding their work responsibilities.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 8

Are you satisfied with the job provided to you?

Analysis Yes No

Actual 45 5

Percentage 90 10

Graph: 8
100% 90% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 10% 0% Yes No

InterpretationIt can be seen that 90% of the workers are satisfied with job provided to them whereas only 10% are dissatisfied.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 9

Are you satisfied with the wages offered to you?


Analysis Yes No Actual 42 8 Percentage 84 16

Graph: 9
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 16% 84%

InterpretationAccording to the graph above it is clear that 76% of the workers are satisfied with their wages whereas 24% are not satisfied.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 10

Your views regarding the working environment of HindEngineering Pvt. Ltd& work place?

Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor

Actual 6 39 3 2

Percentage 12 78 6 4

Graph: 10
90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Excellent good Fair poor 12% 6% 4% 78%

Interpretation78% workers feel that the working environment at HindEngineering Works Pvt. Ltd. is good & 12% feel it as excellent

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 11

Do you feel you are overloaded by work?

Analysis Yes No

Actual 6 44

Percentage 12 88

Graph: 11
100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Yes No 12% 88%

Interpretation12% of the workers are overloaded by the work but 88% are not overloaded.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 12

How are your relations with your superiors / co-workers?

Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor

Actual 11 32 4 3

Percentage 22 64 8 6

Graph: 12

70% 64% 60% 50% 40% 30% 22% 20% 10% 0% Excellent Good Fair Poor 8% 6%

Interpretation64% workers have good relations with the superiors whereas 22% have excellent relations with the superiors.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 13

Your superiors behavior towards your problems?

Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor

Actual 21 28 1 0

Percentage 42 56 2 0

Graph: 13
60% 56%

50% 42% 40%

30%

20%

10% 2% 0% Excellent Good Fair Poor 0%

Interpretation42% workers think that their superiors behavior toward their problems is excellent & 56% workers consider it as good.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 14

Your views regarding the facilities provided to you by Hind Engineering WorksPvt. Ltd.?

Analysis Excellent Good Fair Poor

Actual 10 35 4 1

Percentage 20 70 8 2

Graph: 14
80% 70% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 20% 10% 0% Excellent Good Fair Poor 8% 2%

Interpretation70% workers consider that facilities provided to them are good whereas 20% consider them as excellent.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

Table NO: 15

By which factor you get motivated?


Analysis Salary/Wages Actual 14 Percentage 28

Working conditions Work recognition Incentive schemes Others

10 15 10 1

20 30 20 2

Graph: 15
35% 30% 30% 25% 20% 20% 15% 10% 5% 0% salary/wages working conditions work recognition incentive schemes others 2% 20% 28%

InterpretationThe workers are motivated with Work recognition by 30%, salary by 28% and the incentive schemes by 20%.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

FINDINGS
1. It can be seen that more than half of the workers at Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd are working for more than 5 years. 2. It can be seen that most of the workers fell thatHind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltdoffer appropriate opportunity for advancement 3. It can be seen that half of the workers have rated the company good. 4. Most of the workers reason for absenteeism is personal reason 5. Most of the workers at Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd. are clear regarding their work responsibilities. 6. It can be seen that 84% of the workers are satisfied with the wages offered by Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd 7. The workers at Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd are well experienced and most of them have experience in the same organization. 8. Wages earned is on an average of Rs. 80 per day. Whereas workers expectation are Rs. 100 per day. 9. The working conditions maintained is suitable to work environment. The workers are satisfied with it and do not suggest any improvement. 10. Facilities expected by the workers are not much but some workers demand goggle, shoes, uniform and subsidized meals.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

SUGGESTIONS
Absenteeism is a serious problem for management because it involves heavy additional expenses. The management should take the following measures to reduce the rate of absenteeism:o Provide IncentivesAn incentive provides an employee with a boost to their motivation and avoid unnecessary absenteeism. Incentives like two hours of bonus pay for every month of perfect attendance can improve a lot.

o Employee Assistance ProgramIf you confront an employee about his or her frequent absenteeism and you find out that it is due to personal problems refer them to EAP.

o Sickness Reporting Tell employees that they must phone in as early as possible to inform why they are unable to make it to work and when they expect to return.

o Communication through frequent meetings: There should be frequent meetings between the management and the workers wherein the management should put forward the targets of the company to the workers and how the contribution and commitment from the workers is necessary to achieve these targets.

o Counseling Whenever the worker is absent regularly the management should counsel him to find out and study his problem if any. If the problem is genuine the management might take remedial measures to solve his problem. This will develop a sense of belongingness among the workers and develop an obligations and commitment from the worker towards the organization. The type of counseling should be done on personal basis. CMR CENTER FOR BUSINESS STUDIES Page 58

HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

o Reviewing of the job of each worker periodically: Themanagement should review the work of the each worker and if found any misplacement or the worker is not interested in that but he is interested in other work. Thus if he is fit to do the job in which he is interested, there will be job satisfaction.

o Well defined recruitment procedures: The company should evolve a good recruitment procedure; it should also judge the worker during the time of recruitment only and the jobs should be provided to a person who is serious about his work.

o Gift to family members: The management can award the families or wives of the workers who attendance has been very good. This analysis may be for 6 months or a year. The management should explain the reason for giving the award so that in the future the family members coax the worker to be present on work and not to be absent without any genuine reason.

o Complaints and suggestion box: A complaint and suggestion box can be provided so that if the workers have any complaint against the supervisors or other complaints and are hesitant to come out with it, they can just drop a written complaint in the box.

o Computerized attendance record: The attendance record at Hind Auto crank Pvt. Ltd should be comprised so that it can be analyzed quickly and easily.

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

CONCLUSION
.  The reasons of absenteeism are personal reasons like out of station, problem creeping at home or other family responsibilities, visiting their native place, which has led to the higher rate of absenteeism.

 The management has taken this problem very seriously and is taking steps to reduce this problem they are motivating the workers through schemes and incentives like attendance bonus, leave schemes. The relationship between workers, supervisors and management were found sound and the workers did not complain about any behavior of the supervisor or manager.

 Thus the reasons for absenteeism in this organization are relating to the personal problems and not the organizational problems .  In this project while identifying the reasons of absenteeism of the workers of Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd., Belgaum I got an opportunity to interact with workers to observe their behavior and attitude.

 To conclude, it can be said that, all different steps and changes adopted by the organization determine the success of the organization so the HR department is effective enough as to manage change and bring pride to the organization by making proper changes in absenteeism policy and improve in Technology.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
y Manual y Reports WEBSITES
http://www.absenteeism.com/

http://www.wikipedia.com/

http://www.scribd.com/

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

QUESTIONNAIRE

Personal Information Name.. Age. Sex.. Job status. Contact No.. 1. For how many years you are working with Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd.? (a) 0-1 yr (b) 1-2 yr (c) 2-5 yr (d) < 5 yr

2. How do you feel about your company? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

3. Do you think it offer appropriate opportunity for advancement? (a) Yes (b) No

4. How often you remain absent in a month? (a) Nil (b) Once (c) Twice (d) >Twice

5. According to you what is the main reason for employees absent? (b) Health problem / domestic reasons (c) transportation (d) secondary business (e) Stress

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

7. Your views regarding the present Absenteeism Policy of Hind Engineering Pvt. Ltd? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Dont know

8. Are you clear about your work / job responsibilities? (a) Well clear (b) Good (c) Fairly clear (d) Dont know

9. Are you satisfied with the job provided to you? (a) Yes If no specify the reason: ____________________________________________________ (b) No

10. What type of job should be provided to you?

11. Are you satisfied with the wages offered to you? a. Yes (b) No

If no what wages do you expect?

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HIND ENGINEERING WORKS

12. Your views regarding the working environment of Hind Engineering Pvt. Ltd& work place? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

13. Do you suggest any improvement in present working condition? __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ ______

14. Do you feel you are overloaded by work? a. Yes (b) No

15. How are your relations with your superiors / co-workers? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

16. Your superiors behavior towards your problems? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

17. Your views regarding the facilities provided to you by Hind Engineering Works Pvt. Ltd.? (a) Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

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18. What are the facilities you expect from the management? __________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________

19. How do you rate your working conditions? a. Excellent (b) Good (c) Fair (d) Poor

20. By which factor you get motivated? a. Salary/Wages b. Working conditions c. Work recognition d. Incentive schemes e. Others (specify)

21. How many days of work did you miss during the past twelve months? _________________________________________________________________

Any suggestions / Comments _____________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________

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