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A n i n f o r m a t i o n s y s t e m i s a MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS Module‐1: Role of MIS in Organizations Organization and Information Systems Information systems are implemented within an organization for the purpose of improving the effectiveness and efficiency of that organization. An information system is a computer system that provides management and other personnel within an organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization's performance; for example, current inventory and sales. It usually is linked to a computer network, which is created by joining different computers together in order to share data and resources. It is designed to capture, transmit, store, retrieve, manipulate, and or display information used in one or more business processes. These systems output information in a form that is useable at all levels of the organization: strategic, tactical, and operational. Systems that are specifically serving general, predictable management functions are sometimes called management information systems (MIS). A good example of an MIS report is the information that goes into an annual report created for the stockholders of a corporation (a scheduled report). The administration of an information system is typically the province of the MIS or information technology (IT) department within an organization. Information Systems (IS) is an academic/professional discipline concerned with the strategic, managerial and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing and use of information, and its associated technologies, in society and organizations. As an area of study, IS bridges the multi-disciplinary business field and the interdisciplinary computer science field that is evolving toward a new scientific discipline. An information systems discipline therefore is supported by the theoretical foundations of information and computations such that undergraduate students have unique opportunities to explore the academics of various business models as well as related algorithmic processes within a computer science discipline. Typically, information systems or the more common legacy information systems include people, procedures, data, software, and hardware (by degree) that are used to gather and analyze digital information. Specifically computer-based information systems are complementary networks of hardware/software that people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create, & distribute data (computing). Computer Information System(s) (CIS) is often a track within the computer science field studying computers and algorithmic processes, including their principles, their software & hardware designs, their applications, and their impact on society. Overall, an IS discipline emphasizes functionality over design. Information technologies are a very important resource available to executives. Many companies have created a position of Chief Information Officer (CIO) that sits on the executive board with the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Chief Operating Officer (COO) and Chief Technical Officer (CTO).The CTO may also serve as CIO, and vice versa. The Chief Information Security Officer (CISO), who focuses on information security management. Information Systems (IS) is a scientific field of study that addresses the range of strategic, managerial and operational activities involved in the gathering, processing, storing, distributing and use of information, and its associated technologies, in society and BY: SANJAY KU.PANDA, FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT, ABA, BLS, MOB-+91 9437242702 PAGE-1



organizations. The term information systems is also used to describe an organizational function that applies IS knowledge in industry, government agencies and not-for-profit organizations. Information Systems often refers to the interaction between algorithmic processes and technology. This interaction can occur within or across organizational boundaries. An information system is not only the technology an organization uses, but also the way in which the organizations interact with the technology and the way in which the technology works with the organization’s business processes. Information systems are distinct from information technology (IT) in that an information system has an information technology component that interacts with the processes components. The Information systems that usually Transaction processing systems at the bottom level, followed by Management information systems, Decision support systems and ending with Executive information systems at the top. Some examples of such systems are: • • • • • • • • • • • • Data warehouses Enterprise resource planning Enterprise systems Expert systems Geographic information system Global information system Office Automation Information systems strategy Information systems management Information systems development Information systems security Information systems iteration Management of information systems and technologies is important for managers, business professionals, and other knowledge workers in today’s inter networked enterprises. Information systems play a vital role in the e-business and e-commerce operations, enterprise collaboration and management, and strategic success of businesses that must operate in an inter-networked global environment. Thus, the field of information systems has become a major functional area of business administration. (1) Foundation concepts: fundamental behavior, technical, business, and managerial concepts like system components and functions, or competitive strategies; (2) Information technologies: concepts, developments, or management issues regarding hardware, software, data management, networks, and other technologies; (3) Business applications: major uses of IT for business processes, operations, decision making, and strategic/competitive advantage; (4) Development-processes: how end users and IS specialists develop and implement business/IT solutions to problems and opportunities arising in business; and (5) Management challenges: how to effectively and ethically manage the IS function and IT resources to achieve top performance and business value in support of the business strategies of the enterprise. BY: SANJAY KU.PANDA, FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT, ABA, BLS, MOB-+91 9437242702

Information Systems have a number of different areas of work:

storage. graphics images. Information products produced by an information system can take a variety of forms. strategic business value. electronic messages. including paper reports. A system BY: SANJAY KU. ABA. • Management. • Development. MOB-+91 9437242702 . data and telecommunication technologies. audio. It emphasizes five areas of knowledge: • Foundation Concepts • Information Technologies • Business Applications • Development Processes • Management Challenges System concepts are: • Technology. video. output. That developing ways to use information technology n business includes designing the basic components of information systems. visual displays. People resources include information systems specialists and users. Data are first collected and converted to a form that is suitable for processing (input). A system is a group of interrelated components working together toward a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. hardware. Then the data are manipulated and converted into information (processing). and other forms of data. and control activities that convert data resources into information products. and audio responses. Information systems and technologies have become a vital component of successful businesses and organizations. stored for future use (storage). processing. Data resources include alphanumeric. Control is the component that monitors and evaluates feedback and makes any necessary adjustments to the input and processing components to ensure that proper output is produced.and networks to perform input. WHY INFORMATION SYSTEMS ARE IMPORTANT An understanding of the effective and responsible use and management of information systems is important for managers and other business knowledge workers in today’s global information society. Network resources include communications media and network support. That computer networks are systems of information processing components that uses a variety of hardware. as they are considered a major functional area in business operations.IS Resources and Products . Information systems constitute an essential field of study in business administration and management. multimedia documents.Hardware resources include machines and media used in information processing. and security of an organization’s information systems. text. That electronic business and commerce involves interconnected business information systems. software. software. or communicated to their ultimate user (output) according to correct processing procedures (control). data. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. That managing information technology emphasizes the quality. An Information System Model – An information system uses the resources of people. • Applications. Software resources include computerized instructions (programs) and instruction for people (procedures). BLS.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS PAGE-3 System Concepts – A system is a group of interrelated components working toward the attainment of a common goal by accepting inputs and producing outputs in an organized transformation process. image. Feedback is data about the performance of a system.PANDA.

and networks to perform input. • Output involves transferring elements that have been produced by a transformation process to their ultimate destination. system operators. data resources can include data and knowledge bases. data. MOB-+91 9437242702 . and control activities. and network resources include communications media and networks. technical. They include system analysts.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS PAGE-4 has three basic interacting components or functions. and clerical IS personnel. output. are the five basic resources of information systems. BLS. INFORMATION SYSTEM RESOURCES The basic IS model shows that an information system consists of five major resources: • People resources • Hardware resources • Software resources • Data resources • Network resources People Resources: People are required for the operation of all information systems. Hardware Resources: BY: SANJAY KU. COMPONENTS OF AN INFORMATION SYSTEM An information system model expresses a fundamental conceptual framework for the major components and activities of information systems. processing. storage. hardware resources consist of machines and media. • Data resources are transformed by information processing activities into a variety of information products for end users. •IS Specialists are people who develop and operate information systems. hardware. storage. • People resources include end users and IS specialists. software resources include both programs and procedures. System operators – monitor and operate large computer systems and networks. • Processing involves transformation processes that convert input into output. software. The information systems model outlined in the text emphasizes four major concepts that can be applied to all types of information systems: • People. An information system depends on the resources of people. hardware. These people resources include end users and IS specialists. and networks. These include: • Input involves capturing and assembling elements that enter the system to be processed. Software developers – create computer programs based on the specifications of systems analysts. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. output. software developers. processing. ABA. • Information processing consists of input. Systems analysts – design information systems based on the information requirements of end users. and other managerial. and control activities that convert data resources into information products.

Data versus Information. • Procedures . such as people. and other devices interconnected by communications media and controlled by communications software. and organized.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS PAGE-5 Hardware resources include all physical devices and materials used in information processing. and a variety of interconnected peripheral devices. BY: SANJAY KU. intranets. Thus. • Procedures–are operating instructions for the people who will use an information system. ABA. Examples of software resources are: • System software – such as an operating system program. which has been placed in a meaningful and useful context for an end user. Telecommunications networks consist of computers. A database consolidates many records previously stored in separate files so that a common pool of data records serves many applications. • Knowledge Bases . The word data is the plural of datum. More specifically. and magnetic or optical disks for storage of data resources. peripherals.physical devices (computers. The term’s data and information are often used interchangeably. and events. • Computer peripherals – which are devices such as a keyboard or electronic mouse for input of data and commands. However.all tangible objects on which data are recorded (paper. telecommunications networks.set of instructions used by people to complete a task. communications processors. things. • Program .which hold knowledge in a variety of forms such as facts and rules of inference about various subjects. places. though data is commonly used to represent both singular and plural forms. The data resources of information systems are typically organized into: • Databases . Software Resources: Software resources include all sets of information processing processed data. you should make the following distinction: Data: . Data is subjected to a “value-added” process (data processing or information processing) where: • Its form is aggregated.) •Media. and extra-nets have become essential to the successful electronic business and commerce operations of all types of organizations and their computer-based information systems. • Its content is analyzed and evaluated •It is placed in a proper context for a human user Telecommunications networks like the Internet. magnetic disks etc. MOB-+91 9437242702 .PANDA. a video screen or printer for output of information. Information: . •Machines.) Examples of hardware in computer-based information systems are: • Computer Systems – which consist of central processing units containing microprocessors. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. etc. BLS. manipulated. Data Resources: Data constitutes a valuable organizational resource. • Application software–are programs that direct processing for a particular use of computers by end users.a set of instructions that causes a computer to perform a particular task. data are objective measurements of the attributes (characteristics) .are raw facts or observations. data resources must be managed effectively to benefit all end users in an organization. typically about physical phenomena or business transactions. that controls and supports the operations of a computer system.a collection of logically related records or files.

and summarizing. cellular. Output of Information Products: • Information in various forms is transmitted to end-users and made available to them in the output activity. and manipulate data. • Storage is the information system activity in which data and information are retained in an organized manner for later use. •Once entered. hardware. The goal of information systems is the production of appropriate information products for end users. BY: SANJAY KU. BLS. MOB-+91 9437242702 . classifying.PANDA. software. Input typically takes the form of data entry activities such as recording and editing. • A continual process of correcting and updating activities must maintain quality of data stored in an information system. •An information system should produce feedback about its input. you should be able to recognize the fundamental components of information systems you encounter in the real world. processing. •Feedback is used to make adjustments to system activities to correct deficiencies. thus converting them into information for end users. and storage activities. and network resources they use. and microwave. INFORMATION SYSTEM ACTIVITIES Information processing (or data processing) activities that occur in information system include the following: •Input of data resources •Processing of data into information •Output of information products •Storage of data resources •Control of system performance Input of Data Resources: •Data about business transactions and other events must be captured and prepared for processing by the input activity. These activities organize. • The types of information products they produce. data. hardware. sorting. RECOGNIZING INFORMATION SYSTEMS As a business professional. and data resources that directly support the operation and use of a communications network). Storage of Data Resources: Storage is a basic system component of information systems. This means that you should be able to identify: •The people. software. ABA. fiber-optic cable. until needed for processing. and satellite wireless systems. • Network support (people. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. Control of System Performance: An important information system activity is the control of its performance. output. coaxial cable.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS Network resources include: PAGE-6 •Communications media (twisted-pair wire. analyze. Processing of Data into Information: •Data is typically subjected to processing activities such as calculating. data may be transferred onto a machine-readable medium such as magnetic disk or type. •Feedback must be monitored and evaluated to determine if the system is meeting established performance standards. comparing.

intranets. ABA. • Support Competitive Advantage – help decision makers to gain a strategic advantage over competitors requires innovative use of information technology. • Promote enterprise collaboration among business teams and work-groups. • A major part of the resources of an organization and its cost of doing business • A vital. Changing Environment and its impact on Business For managerial end users. and challenging career opportunity for many men and women. • Implement electronic commerce systems among businesses and their customers and suppliers. An internet worked e-business enterprise depends on intranets. e-business enterprises rely on such technologies to: • Re-engineer and revitalize internal business processes. and other business stakeholders. • Support Decision Making – help decision makers to make better decisions and attempt to gain a competitive advantage. dynamic. and customer service and satisfaction.PANDA. and other networks to support every step of the commercial process. Developing IS Solutions: BY: SANJAY KU. suppliers. the Internet. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. and collaboration among the members of networked teams and work-groups. extranets. An internet worked e-business enterprise uses the Internet. and between an enterprise and its trading partners (extranets) – have become the primary information technology infrastructure that supports the business operations of many companies. electronic commerce. • An important ingredient in developing competitive products and services that give an organization a strategic advantage in the marketplace. That is. and marketing and servicing of products. and enterprise communication and collaboration within a company and with its customers.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS PAGE-7 THE FUNDAMENTAL ROLES OF IS APPLICATIONS IN BUSINESS Information systems perform three vital roles in any type of organization. services. and information over a variety of computer networks. e-business is defined as the use of Internet technologies to internet work and empower business processes. Enterprise collaboration systems involve the use of groupware tools to support communication. they support an organization’s: • Business processes and operations • Decision making by employees and managers • Strategies for competitive advantage The Major Roles of IS: Examples Three major roles of the business applications of information systems include: • Support Business Processes – involves dealing with information systems that support the business processes and operations in a business. and other networks to implement such systemsElectronic commerce is the buying and selling. the information systems function represents: • A major functional area of business that is important to a business’ success • An important factor affecting operational efficiency. Businesses are becoming e-business enterprises. MOB-+91 9437242702 . • A major source of information and support needed to promote effective decision making by managers. coordination. BLS. The Internet and Internet-like networks – inside the enterprise (intranets). extranets. employee productivity and morale.

you will be responsible for proposing or developing new or improved use of information systems for your company. • Job requirements in information systems are continually changing due to dynamic developments in business and information technology. marketing. and implemented using some form of systematic development process. BY: SANJAY KU. MOB-+91 9437242702 . highly paid. FACULTY IT & MANAGEMENT. and make improvements to maintain the business value of a system. • A dynamic. ABA. as organizations continue to expand their use of information technology. finance. • Employment surveys continually forecast shortages of qualified information systems personnel in a variety of job categories. • Employment opportunities in the field of information systems are excellent. • A key component of the resources. and challenging career opportunities.MBA-207: MIS & ERP (2010) NEW SYLLABUS PAGE-8 Developing successful information system solutions to business problems is a major challenge for business managers and professionals today. • Several major activities must be accomplished and managed in a complete IS development cycle. • An important contributor to operational efficiency. rewarding. As a business professional. and human resource management. • A major functional area of business that is as important to business success as the functions of accounting. infrastructure. operations management. and challenging career opportunity for millions of men and women. • A vital ingredient in developing competitive products and services that gives an organization a strategic advantage in the global marketplace. designed. • A major source of information and support needed to promote effective decision making by managers and business professionals. • Information technology and its uses in information systems have created interesting. and capabilities of today’s internet worked e-business enterprise. • Acquiring and learning how to use the software required to implement the new system. Most computer-based information systems are conceived. employee productivity and customer service and satisfaction. • Investigating the economic or technical feasibility of a proposed application.PANDA. BLS.

service offerings and foreign investments in India.The ITES and its influence ITES. In short. data entry. health care. this Internet service provider aims in providing B2B ecommerce solutions. Armed with technology and manpower. administration. these services are provided from eenabled locations. The growth of IT enabled Services (ITES) has opened windows for job opportunities. is defined as outsourcing of processes that can be enabled with information technology and covers areas like finance. data conversion including finance and accounting and HR services. transcription/translation services Objectives of ITES The main objectives of ITES are : • • Enabling business strategy Achieving an organization's business goals ITES Services: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Medical Transcription Document Processing Data Entry and Processing Data Warehousing IT Help Desk Services Application Development Enterprise Resource Planning Telecommunication Services Back office operations Call Centers Content Development / Animation Data Processing Engineering and Design Geographic Information System Services Human Resource Services Insurance sector Legal Databases Payroll Remote Maintenance Revenue Accounting . telecommunication. manufacturing etc. Back office operations/revenue accounting. Customer Interaction services including call centers. HR. Information Technology Enabled Service.

within which an organization arranges its lines of authority and communications. controlled. In a centralized structure. and coordinated. and how information flows between levels of management. the decision making power is concentrated in the top layer of the management and tight control is exercised over departments and divisions. relation ship • Global standard of functioning ITES Structure The Organization: Structure Organizational structure determines the manner and extent to which roles.biggest challenge Advantages of ITES • Career growth development • Global reach. Formal and informal framework of policies and rules. This structure depends entirely on the organization's objectives and the strategy chosen to achieve them.• Support Centers • Web site services Challenges in ITES • Qualified manpower • Quality manpower • Trained manpower • Man power retention. and responsibilities are delegated. In a decentralized structure. the decision making power is distributed and the departments and divisions have varying degrees of autonomy. power. and allocates rights and duties. An .

organization chart illustrates .

decision making and sharing helpful information within departments. It also contributes to job satisfaction. it shows the relationships between areas and individuals needed to achieve more efficient operations while attaining the goals of the organization.The structure in a business will act as the backbone and support concerning decision making and other processes. Organizational structure provides the guidelines for the system of reporting that drives an organization. The organizational structure should be put in place at the start of an organization. It defines how the company will function. it encourages teamwork and high levels of performance. that encourages employees to be supportive. what is expected of employees and the chain of command. cooperative and hard working. or environment. By grouping people within their specific areas of expertise. This allows for effective communication. The structure clarifies the areas of responsibility and the individuals that will work together. . dividing it into areas or departments that are responsible for certain aspects of the organization's purpose. A well designed organizational structure can create a climate.

it is just one element of data in the telephone directory. like a telephone directory or census records. Information is usually the processed outcome of data. In computer terms. which. concepts. In other words. Data may be a collection of facts lying in storage. information and its attributes Data refers to raw. The raw input is data and it has no significance when it exists in that form. things. or even pictures. analysis. Computers have made the processing function much easier. Large quantities of data can be processed quickly through computers aiding in the conversion of data to information. characters. A collection of these data which conveys some meaningful idea is information. These are the inputs for the system to give a meaningful interpretation. it gains significance. perception. data in a meaningful form is information. Data can be in the form of numbers.Data. and how. objects. it is derived from data. knowledge. his or her telephone number is a piece of information. It can mean ‘to give’. An element of data may constitute information in a specific context. symbols. or anything relevant to the topic concerned. Information can be a mental stimulus. otherwise. when you want to contact your friend. information to support managers in their decision making. events. for example. The examples of data can be facts. figures. It may provide answers to questions like who. or even an instruction. Data refers to the lowest abstract or a raw input which when processed or arranged makes meaningful output. Information is data that have been put into a meaningful and useful context and communicated to a recipient who uses it to make decisions. It also means giving form to an idea or fact. unevaluated facts. More specifically speaking. Information is a concept and can be used in many domains. This meaningful organization is information. Raw data enter the system and are transformed into the system's output. In the realms of mathematics and geometry. characters. which means ‘to instruct’. The word information was derived from Latin. It can be about facts. symbols. It is the group or chunks which represent quantitative and qualitative attributes pertaining to variables. what. the terms data and given are very often used interchangeably. . When data is collated or organized into something meaningful. Information can be explained as any kind of understanding or knowledge that can be exchanged with people. why. This is how the term was derived for use in computer area. when. etc. representation. images. Data is the plural of the Latin word datum. that is. symbols. or numbers are data. or statistics. Information involves the communication and reception of intelligence or knowledge. The verb from which it is derived is informare.

of the directorate of extension. and budgets for various extension services (2) Statewide monitoring and evaluation of activities completed . Summary: 1. plans. Data by itself alone is not significant. and whether it is visible or hidden. a system or person monitors the daily temperatures and records it.e. (2) In database management systems. or investigation. metadata) to code elements (e. Observations and recordings are done to obtain data. For example. the patterns in the temperatures are analyzed and a conclusion about the temperature is arrived at. return values. 3. For example. if it contains numeric data.g. etc. they indicate whether the file is readonly. whether it needs to be backed up. it has the numeric attribute. while analysis is done to obtain information. members. (4) A language construct that programmers use to add additional information (i. ministry of agriculture Types of Information Needed (1) Information on human resources.. the term attribute is sometimes used as a synonym for field. a field can have various attributes. In a word processing application. communication. Attributes (1) A characteristic. For example. the temperature of the days is data.Data is often obtained as a result of recordings or observations. Information is significant by itself. directors. joint directors. So information obtained is a result of analysis. every file has a file attribute that indicate several properties of the file. Finally when it is to be converted into meaningful information. 2. When this data is to be collected. joint commissioners.. modules. types. In database systems. Data is the lowest level of knowledge and information is the second level. (3) In DOS systems. assemblies. and parameters) to extend their functionality The level of people and their information needs Levels Central Groups Extension commissioner. an underlined word would be said to have the underline attribute.

State Director of agriculture. etc) · Comparison of relative costs and relative effectiveness of alternative extension delivery methods · Analysis of economic returns to farmers who adopt recommended practices as compared to those who do not Types of Decisions and information Information Systems perform important operational and managerial support roles . Examples of ways that an extension organization uses information from a decision-making information system are as follows: · Change in specific farm outputs (yields. joint directors. activities. additional (1) District wide information on extension director. etc. practices) following selected extension activities · Change in staff productivity following selected interventions (inservice training. etc department of agriculture (2) Research-extension linkages and coordination with other allied departments such as animal husbandry and horticulture District agricultural officers (DAOs) (1) Information on extension resources and constraints at subdivision and block levels (2) Training requirements of staff at subdivision and block levels (1) Field demonstration programmes. activities planned and implemented by subject-matter specialists (SMSs) (zone) at the block level (2) Technical programme and constraints identified at the block level (1) Performance of VEWs in terms of achievements in extension activities (2) Field-level problem of assessment of beneficiaries' response to various extension programmes District Subdivision Subdivisional agricultural officers Block (county) Agricultural extension officers Information regarding these various attributes helps managers to make more enlightened decisions. of the state programmes. better transport. expenditures.

in businesses and other organizations. Therefore. Such operations support systems (OSS) produce a variety Support of Business operations OPERA SUP SYS . several types of information systems can be classified conceptually as either: C INFORMATION TECHN M AG EN AN EM T SU PPOR T SYSTEM S • Operations Support Systems • Management Support Systems Operations Support Systems Prespecified R eporting For M anagers M anagement Inform ation syste s m Interactive D ecision Support D ecision Support syste s m Inform ation Tailored For Executives E xecutive Inform ation syste s m Information systems are needed to process data generated by and used in business operations.

). They support the decision-making needs of strategic (top) is processed immediately after a transaction occurs.Process control systems are systems. Enterprise collaboration systems help of: • Collaborate. Enterprise Collaboration Systems .Management support systems focus on providing information and support for effective decision making by managers.sales receipts etc. Conceptually.of information products for internal and external use.transactions data is accumulated over a period of time and processed periodically. They provide managerial end users with information products . purchases. The role of a business firm’s operations support systems is to: • Effectively process business transactions • Control industrial processes • Support enterprise communications and collaboration • Update corporate databases Transaction Processing Systems (TPS) Focus on processing the data generated by business transactions and operations. Examples include petroleum refineries and the assembly lines of automated factories.and operating (supervisory) communicate ideas • Share resources • Co-ordinate our cooperative work efforts as members of the many formal and informal process and project teams The goal of enterprise collaboration systems is to use information technology to enhance the productivity and creativity of teams and work-groups in the modern business enterprise. TPS process transactions in two basic ways: •Batch Processing . • Real-time (or online) processing . inventory changes). Management Support Systems (MSS) . Further processing by management information systems is usually required. which make use of computers to control ongoing physical processes. TPS also produce a variety of information products for internal or external use (customer statements. tactical (middle) management. Process Control Systems (PCS) . which adjust the physical production process. employee paychecks. several major types of information systems support a variety of decision-making responsibilities: • Management Information Systems (MIS) • Decision Support Systems (DSS) • Executive Information Systems (EIS) Management information systems are the most common form of management support systems. However. Transaction processing systems record and process data resulting from business transactions (sales.Enterprise collaboration systems are information systems that use a variety of information technologies to help people work together. These computers are designed to automatically make decisions. they do not emphasize producing the specific information products that can best be used by managers.

predictable management functions are sometimes called management information systems (MIS).that support much of their day-to-day decision-making needs. for example. MIS provide a variety of pre specified information (reports) and displays to management that can be used to help them make more effective. Executive information systems provide top and middle management with immediate and easy access to selective information about key factors that are critical to accomplishing a firm’s strategic objectives. It is designed to capture. Information products provided to managers include displays and reports that can be furnished: • On demand • Periodically. Information has a great impact on decision making. categorization of information on the basis of nature and characteristics. manipulate. These systems output information in a form that is useable at all levels of the organization: strategic. Other Classifications of Information Systems: Several other categories of information systems that support either operations or management applications include: • Expert Systems • Knowledge Management Systems • Functional Business Information Systems • Strategic Information Systems • Cross-functional Information Systems Information System. according to a predetermined schedule • Whenever exceptional conditions occur Decision support systems provide managerial end users with information in an interactive session on an adhoc (as needed) basis. The administration of an information system is typically the province of the MIS or information technology (IT) department within an organization. and hence its value is closely tied to the decisions that result from its use. structured types of day-to-day decisions. tactical. which is created by joining different computers together in order to share data and resources. For most information systems. It usually is linked to a computer network. and operational. Systems that are specifically geared toward serving general. store. An information system is a computer system that provides management and other personnel within an organization with up-to-date information regarding the organization's performance. transmit. computer-based information system that uses decision models and specialized databases to assist the decision-making processes of managerial end users. current inventory and sales. Managers generate the information they need for more unstructured types of decisions in an interactive. particularly those supporting middle and top . A good example of an MIS report is the information that goes into an annual report created for the stockholders of a corporation (a scheduled report). EIS are easy to operate and understand. and or display information used in one or more business processes. retrieve.

sales force automation. product management. customer relationship The classification is based on the level of support that the information system provides in the process of decision making. HRM websites on the Internet or corporate intranets have become important tools for providing HR services to present and . and market research. and (4) decision-taking information system. training and development. Then manufacturing resource planning systems help plan the types of resources needed in the production process. sales management. (2) predictive information system. and thus simplify. and compensation administration. and new channels of distribution. Marketing information systems support traditional and ecommerce processes and management of the marketing function. MIS in Human Resource Management. MIS in Marketing. marketing information systems assist marketing managers in electronic commerce product development and customer relationship decisions. the resulting decisions often relate to events that are not strictly defined and involve probabilities that cannot be quantified. targeted marketing. For example. Major types of marketing information systems include interactive marketing at e-commerce websites. Human resource information systems support human resource management in organizations. Mason and Swanson (1981) describe four categories of management information systems: (1) databank information system. or machines with some humanlike work capabilities (robotics). Thus. Information plays an important role in all four stages of the decision process. They include information systems for staffing the organization. automate. and integrate many of the activities needed to quickly produce high-quality products to meet changing customer demands. advertising and promotion. (3) decisionmaking information system. Computer-based manufacturing information systems help a company achieve computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). Finally. controlling a physical process (process control). manufacturing execution systems monitor and control the manufacture of products on the factory floor through shop floor scheduling and control systems. a machine tool (numerical control). MIS in Manufacturing. computer-aided design using collaborative manufacturing networks helps engineers collaborate on the design of new products and processes. The decision-making process often is obscure and the outcomes are scaled by multiple and incomparable dimensions. as well as in planning advertising and sales promotion strategies and developing the e-commerce potential of new and present products. Classification of Management Information Systems There are various types of management information systems.

region.prospective employees. online investment management. and store any item of data which might be potentially useful to the decision maker. capital budgeting. and aggregation level. and general ledger systems. . reliability. timeliness. and print media releases regarding selected farm technologies by time period and region or area Characteristics of Information system The characteristics of good information are relevance. payroll. Examples of common accounting information systems include order processing. or area are as follows: · Number of farms · Number of units of arable land (hectares. inventory control. report. Financial information systems include cash management. accounts receivable. MIS in Accounting and Finance. acres) · Average farm size · Amounts of selected farm inputs applied annually · Production per year on a unit of land for selected crops A second example of data that might be recorded in a database (this time involving data internal to the organization) is as follows: · Number of extension staff by category and assigned to a particular village. usability. The responsibility of this information system is to observe. classify. region. fedans. region. and analyze business transactions and events for the management of the business enterprise. Databank Information System. or area · Number of on-farm trials conducted for selected farm technologies by region or area · Number of radio. Information systems in finance support financial managers in decisions regarding the financing of a business and the allocation of financial resources within a business. or area · Number of work hours devoted by staff to selected concerns for a particular village. costeffectiveness. accuracy. and financial forecasting and planning. Examples of the kind of data that might be recorded in such a database for a given village. Accounting information systems record. exhaustiveness. or area · Total extension salary costs and other expenses by village. region. or area · Number of demonstrations conducted for selected farm technologies by village. accounts payable. region. TV.

Otherwise. For example. information about the weather conditions in Paris in January is relevant if you are considering a visit to Paris in January. . Timeliness refers to the currency of the information presented to the users. a general estimate of how much staff time was devoted to a particular activity may be all that is needed. the information is not relevant. The importance of accurate data varies with the type of decisions that need to be made. we describe the information system as a real-time system. It might also be relevant if it reaffirms a previous decision. When this amount of time is very short. Accuracy is measured by comparing the data to actual events. However.Information is relevant if it leads to improved decision making. Payroll information must be exact. If it does not have anything to do with your problem. Currency of data or information is the time gap between the occurrence of an event in the field until its presentation to the user (decision maker). Approximations simply will not suffice. it is irrelevant.