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Part 1

Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods
Part 2

Eye-Tracking: Research Areas and Applications

Daniel C. Richardson Department of Psychology, Stanford University

Michael J. Spivey Department of Psychology, Cornell University

To appear in

Encyclopedia of Biomaterials and Biomedical Engineering Wnek. G. & Bowlin, G. (Eds.)



Eye-Tracking: Characteristics and Methods

Eye movements are arguably the most frequent of all human movements (Bridgeman, 1992). Large ballistic scanning movements called saccades typically occur 3-4 times every second. As one early researcher put it, “there seems to be an almost ceaseless twitching, as if rest for more than an instant were the one thing not to be endured” (Stratton, 1906). Indeed, virtually all animals with developed visual systems actively control their gaze using eye or head movements (Land, 1995). This frenetic movement is a consequence of the enormous amount of visual information that is available to an organism. Rather than devote resources to processing it all in detail, evolution appears to have selected a solution whereby small portions of the visual world are inspected in a rapid sequence (Treue, 2001). Consequently, the human eye monitors a visual field of about 200º, but receives detailed information from only 2º (Levi, Klein, & Aitsebaomo, 1985). This region, about the size of a thumbnail at arm’s length, is called the fovea, and is jerked around at speeds of up to 500º a second, during which its sensitivity drops to near blindness levels (Matin, 1974; Thiele, Henning, Kubischik, & Hoffmann, 2002). During the 200-300 milliseconds it is at rest, however, over 30,000 densely packed photoreceptors in the fovea provide high acuity color vision. Eye movements, therefore, are fundamental to the operation of the visual system. ‘Eye movement research’ relates to a patchwork of fields more diverse than the study of perceptual systems, however. Due to their close relation to attentional mechanisms, saccades can provide insight into cognitive processes such as language comprehension, memory, mental imagery and decision making. Eye movement research is of great interest in the study of neuroscience and psychiatry, as well as ergonomics, advertising and design. Since eye movements can be controlled volitionally, to some degree, and tracked by modern technology with great speed and precision, they can now be used as a powerful input device, and have many practical applications in human-computer interactions.


History & Methods
The first data regarding eye movements were obtained either through introspection or by the experimenter observing a subject’s eye using a mirror, telescope or peep hole. These methods were dubious, of course, since any feature of the eye being studied could be obscured by the eye doing the studying. The first significant advance, therefore, was the invention of mechanical devices that would translate the eye’s movements into permanent, objective records of its motion. (Taylor, 1971) At the end of the nineteenth century, eye movement research served a pressing theoretical need. As Delabarre wrote, “[m]any problems suggest themselves to the psychologist whose solution would be greatly furthered by an accurate method of recording the movements of the eye” (Delabarre, 1898). Phenomena such as visual illusions and aesthetic preferences were commonly explained away in terms of eye movements, and yet there was little data beyond introspection to support these hypotheses. In some of the first empirical studies, Javal (1879) used mirrors to observe the eye movements of subjects while reading, and was the first to note that the eyes moved in a series of ‘jerks’. These fixations were counted by placing a microphone on a closed eyelid while the subject read monocularly. Each time the bulge of the moving cornea bumped the microphone, a saccade could be counted (Lamare & Javal reported in Tinker, 1928). An approximate measure of the location of these fixations could be obtained by inducing an afterimage in the subject’s eye with a bright light, and then asking them to report the location of the afterimage as they read (Erdmann & Dodge, 1898). Such observational methods, however, were limited by the accuracy and memory of the person making the observations (Dodge, 1906). An objective record of the motion of the eyes was required. Since “plaster of Paris will attach itself firmly and immovably to any moist surface”, Delabarre (1898) was able to fix a small moulded cap to a sufficiently “cocainized eye”. A wire ran from the cap to a lever, which drew the horizontal movements of the eye on the smoked surface of a kymograph cylinder. With his lids propped open, the subject (usually Delabarre himself) could read text through a hole drilled in the cap. It was reported that the cap “will not detach itself until it becomes thoroughly soaked with tears”. “As to whether there is any danger to the eye to be feared from using it in this manner,” Delabarre writes, “I cannot say with assurance”. He reports that he was able to record his own eye movements for up to an hour, and suffered no ill effects after a week’s recuperation. Huey (1898) simultaneously developed a similar mechanical method to study the behaviour of subjects reading an article in the magazine Cosmopolitan. By varying the 3

Goldthwait. used photography to record the movements of the eye accurately and non-invasively. Stoy. To overcome these flaws Dodge and Cline (1901) invented a device to produce “a group of what we may justly claim to be the first accurate measurements of the angle of velocity of the eye movements under normal conditions. however. Later technology allowed the reflection beam from a single eye to be split. Given that the eye has neither of these characteristics. Further developments in the 1920s in labs at Chicago and Stanford allowed two photographical recordings to be made simultaneously. Totten. 1933. as it became known. he found that ‘the number of jerks was shown to be a function of the matter read rather than of the arc described by the eye’s rotation’. Behind this slit was a photographic plate that moved vertically. In this way. the reflection of a ray of light bouncing off the bulge of the cornea will move as the eyes move. and individual and cultural differences 4 . regulated by the escape of air from a cylinder. 1925). this plate showed time on the y-axis and horizontal motion of the eye on the x-axis. or the horizontal eye movements of one eye could be recorded with the vertical movements of another. 1971). he conjectured that they maybe so fast that “ we really do not see foveally what we read except at the few points on the ordinary line where the eye pauses. In Dodge’s first device. Whilst a thread of research continued for a couple of decades investigating the relationship between mental imagery and eye movements (H. a light ray would be reflected at a constant angle despite rotations. 1921). 1916. yet their mechanical devices were criticised for impeding motion and straining the eye. When developed. Clark. producing the first two dimensional eye movement records (Gilliland. its vertical and horizontal components measured and recombined in the form of a fixation dot recorded on a film reel. habits.” Dodge’s method. Perky. Although the temporal resolution of his apparatus was too poor to measure the speed of the eye movements. and the same basic technique continued to be used into the 1970s (Taylor. 1910.distance between the subject and the text.” Huey and Delabarre were able to gain valuable first insights into the function and characteristics of eye movements. If the eye were a perfect sphere and rotated about its center. 1935) the vast bulk of eye movement research in the first half of the century investigated the processes. a vertical line of light was bounced off the cornea and fell on a horizontal slit. 1930. head position could be recorded by reflecting a light off a bead on a pair of spectacles (Miles & Shen. This methodology allowed researchers such as Buswell (1935) to produce some of the first two-dimensional scan paths of subjects inspecting images.

Morrissette. a non-optical method employed a scleral search coil: a contact lens embedded with two orthogonal wire coils that would perturb a magnetic field surrounding the subject’s head (D. A tiny plane mirror could be attached to the surface of the contact lens. Tinker. the iris is large and often obscured by the eye lid. Researchers found that rather than using sticky plaster of Paris. and that is primarily used in animal research. invasive techniques of Delabarre (1898) and Huey (1898) for recording eye movements. 1941. To avoid a tear film clouding the lens. a host of techniques were developed in which the eye was scanned with a television camera. and certain distinct features were electronically detected and localised. All the methods described so far for recording eye movements are more precisely stated as methods for recording movements of the eye in relation to the head. In the early 1970s. a device could be tightly clamped to the eye using suction. This bright circle can then be more easily detected by a scanning technique (Merchant. & Dhedin. An alternative is to scan for the lack of reflectance from the pupil (“dark-pupil” tracking). Unfortunately. although there can be low contrast between this black circle and dark-brown irises. Parquet. and its reflection could be recorded much as a corneal reflection. researchers needed to ensure that the head was absolutely stationary and employ severe methods of restraint. These draconian means were obviated by the innovation in the 1970s of simultaneously measuring two optical 5 . these stalks could produce their own light source if fitted with small lamps (Byford. Stone. 1962) or glowing radioactive tritrium (Nayrac. This method will give a very rapid measure of horizontal eye movement (Young. 1964). the boundary between the white sclera and the coloured iris. Fender (Fender. Robinson. If the pupil is lit directly from the front. researchers also mounted the mirrors on stalks that protruded out from the eye (Fender. as it does in poorly taken flash photographs. 1964) found that sodium bicarbonate would osmose through the tissue of the eye and create negative pressure. 1963). 1970). 1946. The 1960s saw a renaissance of turn-of-the-century. Finally. 1979. Leclerco. & Porterfield. 1928. and vertical eye movements in particular are difficult to track with this method. In order to infer where the subject was looking in the world. As well as reflecting with mirrors. Walker. all but the last have dropped out of use. 1974). 1933). their output will vary according to the amount of white sclera exposed. the light will bounce off the back of the retina and appear very bright (“bright-pupil” tracking). These methods are most sensitive to high contrast. If small electronic photoreceptors are aligned near the limbus. A. Milbled. and so one technique scanned the image of the eye for the limbus.involved in reading (Jacobson & Dodwell. 1969). Yarbus (1965) used a tiny valve to withdraw fluid from under a contact lens. Due to the discomfort produced by these contact lens methods.

Like contemporary systems (Lambert. The relative positions of the pupil and the corneal reflection change when the eye rotates around its vertical (B) and horizontal (C) axes. the place in the world where the subjects was actually looking (see Figure 1). As described above. when the head moves and the eye is stable (D). This relationship does not change. & Hall. and so produced more accurate gaze tracking. 1974) the Honeywell oculometer was able to calculate what location on a screen was being fixated. point of regard can be extrapolated. Since the position of the corneal reflection in relation to the center of the pupil remains constant during head translation. The corneal reflections produced by different eye-head positions. Whilst such devices still needed to restrain the head with a bite bar or chin rest. Since these features behaved differently under head movement and eye rotation. 6 .characteristics of the moving eye. they allowed slight movements of the head to be deconfounded from eye movements. Monty. The corneal reflection appears as a bright white dot. however. whilst being so non-invasive that the subject was often not aware of its presence in the room. but moves with eye rotation. Figure 1. Merchant and Morrisette (34) employed a scanning method to detect the center of a brightly lit pupil. their differential could be used to calculate the ‘point of regard’. just to the right of the pupil (A). brighter corneal reflection. The same technique was also used to find the smaller.

7 . and modern computers can sample at up to 1000Hz. 1995) (see Figure 2). analogue signal was sampled at a rate of 300Hz in initial incarnations. thus allowing pointof-regard to be superimposed on the scene camera's image regardless of where or how the subject moves (Ballard. The advantage of the Purkinje eye tracker is that since it is only limited by the speed of the servomotors. Recent table-mounted remote optical eyetrackers have also been developed that allow some natural head movement while sitting in front of a computer screen for two-dimensional stimulus presentation. 1995. The first. Spivey Knowlton. & Pelz. is the corneal reflection. The degree to which the mirrors had to be moved is directly related to eye rotation and is independent of head translation. 1994. Hayhoe. 1973). new headband-mounted eyetrackers point an additional "scene camera" at the subject's field of view from the subject's perspective.and body-movements is where much of the technological advancement in eye-tracking takes place in the current state of the art. although the head still must be held in place with a chin rest or bite bar so that the eye can be detected by the equipment. Tanenhaus. A second image is reflected off the rear surface of the cornea. and the brightest. Eberhard. & Sedivy.  While systems like the Dual Purkinje eyetrackers require that a subject's head be immobilized by a chinrest or bitebar.A similar logic lay behind the development of the dual Purkinje image eye tracker (Cornsweet & Crane. it is remarkably fast and accurate. The continuous. The balance between obtaining a high-precision record of an observer's point-of-regard and allowing natural head. The dual Purkinje image eye tracker measures the disparity between the first and the fourth images by adjusting a series of mirrors with servomotors until the two images are superimposed upon electronic photoreceptors. Light bouncing off the eye produces a series of reflections. Land & Lee. and another two by the front and rear of the lens. The four Purkinje images all have different motions in relation to eye rotation.

with cross hairs on the pupil and corneal reflection is shown in the top right. Zola. The next advance in eye movement research came when a cluster of researchers in the 1970s were able to overcome these limitations by coupling the system that was measuring eye movements with the system that was presenting stimuli to the subjects (McConkie & Rayner. however. This relationship between peripheral information and saccades has intrigued researchers. or if stimuli were presented tachistoscopically before an eye movement could occur.Figure 2. with the subject’s point of gaze superimposed. The visual system receives highly detailed information from the small part of the visual field that the eye is fixating at that moment. Reder. 1975. the visual system’s sensitivity is greatly reduced. McConkie and colleagues (McConkie & Rayner. One particularly important. and the screen display refreshed. & Burns. 1975. To trigger a change in the visual stimulus during that brief period. method in eyetracking concerns not just the eyetracker itself but the yoking of the eye-position signal with real-time stimulus presentation: gaze-contingent display paradigms. McConkie. The eye monitor. During the 30-50 milliseconds that the eyes take to saccade to a new location. Rayner. 1978) were able to produce ‘saccade-contingent display 8 . can be seen in the bottom right. the appropriate stimulus change calculated by the computer. 1973). The view from the scene camera. and yet the target for each detailed fixation is planned on the basis of information gathered from low-resolution peripheral vision. Its influence could only be assessed. Using a limbus reflection system that sampled eye position every millisecond. 1975. if subjects were instructed to hold their eyes still. Wolverton. A subject wearing a light. head-mounted eye tracker. and frequently used. the saccade must be detected within a few milliseconds of onset.

but also a way for the subject’s eye-movement behavior to manipulate a device. perhaps. Although eye tracking techniques were refined in the following decades. It has had a far greater impact. The technology provides not merely a device for a scientist to study a subject’s eyemovement behavior. Such advances have placed fewer constraints on experimental subjects. In such experiments. to make a permanent.control’. The advent of gaze-contingent paradigms are a highly significant advance in eye movement research. and hence the amount of information that a subject detected peripherally could be assessed. there were no comparable breakthroughs until the advent of digital technology and image processing in the 1970s. such that modern researchers are able to record the eye movements of freely moving subjects carrying out everyday tasks. cheaper eye trackers. The potential ubiquity of such devices underscores the need for a solid understanding of the cognitive and perceptual processes that govern human eye movements. We speculate that further developments will produce smaller. the characters of a line of text could be changed while a subject was reading. that may well populate a range of human-computer interfaces. 1901) revolutionary invention allowed researchers. objective record of a subject’s eye movements using a non-invasive method. for the very first time. in its practical applications. Conclusion Dodge and Cline’s (Dodge & Cline. 9 .

imagination. Moreover. and even pathology.Eye-Tracking: Research Areas and Applications Introduction In this brief review of the research fields and practical applications of eye-movement technology. natural scenes. from social interaction to jet plane navigation. planning a saccade toward a location improves processing at that location. Perhaps as a result of this tight integration with a spectrum of perceptual and cognitive processes. 1980) was thought to be a mechanism behaviourally and neurally dissociable from eye movement control. and neuropsychological evidence from single cell recordings suggesting that they utilize overlapping neural systems (Corbetta. we will begin by considering studies of the relationship between eye movements and attentional mechanisms. The link between attending to a location and launching a saccade to it is intuitive. Findlay. Craighero. reasoning and decision-making. 10 . 1998). There is behavioural evidence that covert attention directed in one direction can lead to deviations in orthogonal saccades (Sheliga. regardless of whether or not the saccade is launched (Hoffman & Subramaniam. In addition to perceptual demands. 2001). 1998). Riggio. Shepherd. 1994. The relationship between visual perception and language has historically interested researchers. & Rizzolatti. This spotlight of covert attention (Posner. yet it is equally clear that while fixing the eyes on one location. 1995. language processing is a cognitive task. expertise. it is highly likely that spatial attention and saccade planning are closely coupled during natural unconstrained eye movement (Findlay & Gilchrist. 1980). & Hockey. Sheliga. eye movements are richly intertwined with behaviour in a variety of task domains. Spatial Attention And Scene Perception Attending to a location in space aids processing of a stimuli at that location (Posner. in such experimental paradigms. and we will review studies of eye movements during spoken language comprehension and production. and we shall see how eye movements are also implicated in cognitive processes such as memory. and indeed. and has neural correlates such as modulating the activity and sensitivity of neurons across the visual cortex (Treue. differences between the eye movements of individuals can reveal differences in aptitude. We will then examine how the relationship plays out as observers view more complex. Moreover. Riggio. Typically. However. a subject is required to fixate one location and direct their attention to another whilst psychophysical and neuropsychological measures are taken. spatial attention can be directed to other locations. 1986). as well as during the more specialized case of reading. & Rizzolatti. 1995).

These findings have been recently replicated on a large scale. Firstly. Ruddock. & McCarley. there is evidence 11 . Clark. 1991. Wooding and colleagues installed an autonomous eye tracker in a public museum in London. The semantic content of the scene itself can also attract attention. 1996. A. 2000. Choate.” from knowledge. 1985). “What had the family been doing before the visitor arrived?”. Purdy. such as a farmyard animal in a hospital. and has identified two main components (Henderson. and asked them different questions. Rensink. & Gale. Rensink. & Clark. Yarbus (1965) presented various subjects with Ilya Repin’s painting “An Unexpected Visitor”. & Wooding. & Tipper. Contemporary research aims to quantify what determines such regions of interest. A second influence on scene perception comes “top-down. 1978). an absence of eye movement. 1997). 2001). Simons & Levin. Robinson & Fuchs. They too found that only a small set of regions in a work of art were reliably fixated by viewers. O'Regan. 1999) have been found to be closely correlated with fixation likelihood. memories. Posner. Deubel. Although observers are surprisingly poor at detecting large changes across scenes under some circumstances (Bridgeman. Peterson. 1935). Irwin. In an early demonstration of this effect. some form of short-term memory for saccade location must be retained (Leek. Wang. such as “What are the ages of the people in the painting?”. with a lower level of simulation. & Stark. 2000. If there are out-of-place objects in a scene. & Vaughan. 2003). beliefs or goals that the viewer may bring to the image. 2003. O'Regan. How are these coupled mechanisms of attention and eye movement deployed when a scene is viewed? Early eye movement recordings showed that a subject’s fixations would center on interesting or informative areas of the image. 2002. these anomalies are frequently fixated (Loftus & Mackworth. but improved stimulus detection at that location (Moore & Armstrong. 1995. 1975. 2002). Li. 1997) and local contrast (Reinagel & Zador. 1999. 2001). 1996. Irwin. Wooding. 2003. and. & Clark. Hendry. Kramer. Muggelstone. Rafal.evidence shows that microstimulation of neurons in the frontal eye fields can cause both a saccade to a certain location (D. O’Regan. Ruddock. & Rensink. statistical properties of the image such as high spatial frequency (Mannan. and “How long had the visitor been away?” The scanpaths differed dramatically according to the question. 2003. In order to scan a scene efficiently. Mannan. and collected data from over 5000 subjects looking at works from the National Gallery (Wooding. These “bottom-up” properties can be analysed to produce a ‘salience map’ of any given image. 2002). leaving blank or uniform regions uninspected (Buswell. 1969). Moore & Fallah. Reppa. & Wooding. which may correspond to a neural representation in visual cortex (Itti & Koch. It is not clear exactly what kind of memory representation is constructed from these successive fixations (Henderson & Hollingworth.

1988. eye fixations during reading last approximately 200-250 milliseconds (Pollatsek. and eye movements was rediscovered in the 1970s (Holzman. 1995). although this can be better expressed here in terms of a span of 7 to 9 letter spaces. now known as schizophrenia. however..that eye-fixation patterns are related to this form of scene recognition (Henderson & Hollingworth. 1984). Rayner. Reading saccades span on average about 2 degrees of visual angle. 1974). McDowell. Loughland. Clementz. 1999. Wingerson. 1978. Green. 1980). however. 1996). & Wixted. find it difficult to maintain these smooth pursuit movements. Claypoole. Ventre Dominey. & Hughes. The chances of an individual word being fixated vary according to whether it is a content word (85%) or a function word (35%) (Carpenter & 12 . & Dalery. abnormalities in eye movements can be seen in children susceptible to schizophrenia by the age of six. Lastly. but the human eye can also rotate slowly and smoothly when tracking a moving object. Harris. Sereno & Holzman. 2000.. and make a saccade in the opposite direction. Williams. Reading The general characteristics of eye movements during perception have been studied in great depth during the process of reading (Rayner. These eye-movement differences are of great interest to researchers attempting to relate schizophrenia to dysfunction in specific brain mechanisms (Radant. more than ten years before the highest risk for onset of psychosis (Ross. Diefendorf and Dodge (1908) observed a deficit in smooth pursuit eye movements in patients with ‘praecox dementia’. Schizophrenic patients. & Collins. 1973. Cowley. 1981). schizophrenic subjects perform faster than controls (Karoumi.. and to clinicians diagnosing and treating the disorder. Holzman et al. The relationship between this disorder. Gooding. Eye movements have contributed to our understanding of the functioning of the visual system and attentional mechanisms. Schrock. 1998). Hollingworth. 2001. 2003). since the number of letters covered remains largely invariant despite differences in text size or distance (Morrison & Rayner. & Gordon. In the early years of eye movements research. 1997). saccade eye movements than control subjects. They have also provided insight into abnormal brain functioning. In an ‘antisaccade’ task. During a saccade the eye moves in a rapid ballistic motion. In general. For example. schizophrenics also show different exploratory eye movements and scan paths when viewing faces and stimuli with emotional valence (Shimizu et al. Nelson & Loftus. subjects must inhibit an eye movement towards a suddenly appearing stimulus. On tasks that demand such predictive eye movements. & Roy Byrne. 1998. something that schizophrenics find relatively difficult (Fukushima et al. and launch more predictive. 1999. & Henderson. Proctor. 2003).

Tanenhaus. however. 1976). These regressive saccades are thought to be related to difficulties in processing an individual word. and in relationship to the length of the word. 1929. The text appears normal at the reader’s fixation point and within a window of a certain character length. 1986. dyslexics and non-dyslexics. These features of eye movements during reading . Morris. 1989. conceptual difficulty of the text (Jacobson & Dodwell. readers can accurately re-fixate the part of the text that generated confusion (Kennedy & Murray. As well as being an important data source about language processing. reading is impaired. 1981. Schmauder. The size of this ‘perceptual span’ has been investigated using a gaze contingent paradigm (McConkie & Rayner. 1987. in these cases.and fifth-graders. Eurich. & Frazier. & Ferguson. Rayner. 1981. McConkie. & Rayner. Well. 1998). Eye movements also vary as a function of the legibility of the text (Kolers. and occurrence of regressions . Robinson. Rayner.can be used to infer moment-by-moment cognitive processing of a text by the reader (Just & Carpenter. Sereno. 1980). or difficulties in processing the meaning or structure of a sentence. & et al. 1991). This asymmetry in the perceptual span is reversed for languages that are printed left to right (Pollatsek. Miles & Bell. 1975). Murray & Kennedy. but 8 letter words fixated almost always (Rayner & McConkie. and even graduate students and professors (Dixon. 1983). Although readers typically move their eyes forward when reading. 1993). Duchnicky. when the window extends 3-4 letters to the left of fixation and 14-15 letters to the right. Tinker. F. & Kello. Rayner. & Pollatsek. Bolozky. fixating previous letters or words. 1933a. Trueswell. lexical ambiguity. for this reason. Differences in eye-movement patterns can be distinguished between fourth. P. syntactic ambiguity. word frequency. 1990). suggesting that there is a perceptual span of around 18 characters centered asymmetrically around the fixation point (McConkie & Rayner. 1980). 1988). Carlson. Details of the cognitive processes of pronoun resolution and co-reference. 1981). A reader will gather information from text at and around this fixation point. saccade lengths. but beyond that the text is garbled. see Rayner. 13 . Tinker. 1948.Just.. Rayner. eye movements can reveal significant differences between individuals. successful and unsuccessful third-grader and undergraduates. Saccades typically land between the beginning and middle of a word (Morris. & Zola. With a small window.gaze durations. 1928). 1981). with 2-3 letter words being skipped 75% or the time. Morrison & Inhoff. 1983. 1976. Reading is unaffected. 1933b. and discourse factors can all by gleaned from analyses of eye-movement patterns (for a review. 1927). 1979. and whether it is being read silently or out loud (Levy Schoen. and rotated for those that run vertically (Osaka & Oda. approximately 10-15% of saccades move backward. syntactic difficulty of the text (Ferreira & Clifton.

candle.  (The same results are found with a wide variety of objects and object names. As a consequence. 1995). 2002).  For example. In analysis of face-to-face communication. Mutual gaze has two consequences. which is at the limit of the visual acuity of the eye. 2001). subjects look more accurately and more quickly to the bag of candy. it correlates with many interpersonal factors. Friesen. 2004). the study of eye movements while reading has considerable practical applications in education psychology (McKane. & Tanenhaus. and a spoon." subjects occasionally look first at the candle (because of the overlap in the first few phonemes between "candy" and "candle") and then at the bag of candy to pick it up (Allopenna. Smilek. a candle.  One of the important finding with this paradigm demonstrated how spoken word recognition is an incremental process. occurs within rich visual contexts. an envelope. at the timescale of milliseconds. Humans are remarkably sensitive to changes in where others are looking. Eye movement research provided some of the first compelling demonstrations of the real-time interdependence between spoken language processing and visual perception (Tanenhaus et al. is not present in the display. research has mainly focused on one variable – eye contact between a speaker and listener. Sellars. and the interplay between linguistic processes and visual perception is of increasing interest to psycholinguists and vision researchers (Henderson & Ferreira.g. Ristic. a subject wears a  headband-mounted eyetracker and typically follows spoken instructions to move objects around on a table or on a computer screen. Language In A Visual And Social Context Language use. 2003). Tanenhaus. Eberhard. penny and pencil. This kind of real-time interaction between visual and linguistic processing is also seen in eye-movement patterns during syntactic processing (Spivey. Campana. in a sufficiently constrained visual context. more often than not. Gibson and Pick (1963) demonstrated that a subject can detect a millimeter displacement of a viewer’s gaze away from the bridge of the subject’s nose. Magnuson. & McNeil. & Tanenhaus. 2004). 1998). and even natural unscripted conversation (Brown-Schmidt. The gaze direction of others is a powerful attentional cue. In these paradigms. & Sedivy. e. that is profoundly influenced by the visual context. spoken language production (Griffin & Bock.  When the object with the phonologically competing name.)  The timing of the eye movements suggests that. spoken word recognition can be achieved in the listener before the word is even finished being spoken.. Firstly. Maples. 2000). Eye movements also reveal social characteristics and processes of face-to-face communication. towel and tower. however. and being instructed to "Pick up the candy.1932). 14 . yet is only beginning to be studied empirically (Kingstone. when facing a display containing a bag of candy.. & Eastwood.

Early empirical investigations found that the frequency of eye movements increases during mental imagery. the timing of mutual gaze is used to coordinate dialogue. Richardson and Spivey (2000) demonstrated that subjects will systematically fixate particular empty spaces when questioned about the semantic content of a linguistic event that had previously taken place at that location. Clark. Stoy. Kosslyn. The speaker will periodically cast looks at the listener. Memory. Dement. and an increase in rapid fluttering of the eyes while sleeping correlates with vividness of dreams (Antrobus & Antrobus. Shapiro. and parallel behaviour has been shown in infants as young as six months of age (Richardson & Kirkham. Minor. Bavelas and colleagues (Bavelas & Chovil. This result holds even when the locations move around before the question period. and Dreaming Due to their selective and rapid sampling of the visual world. Secondly. Behrmann. Clark. A. The location which had previously been associated with that information received significantly more fixations. While viewing an empty grid. 1995. a listener will look more at the speaker than vice versa. Kan.such as attractiveness. or dreams about that experience. These results suggest that the location of cross-modal events is spatially indexed by the brain. it has also been found that memory processes often recruit eye movements (Spivey & Geng. Researchers have long been intrigued by the relationship between eye movements during a perceptual experience. 1996). 1930. & Thompson-Schill. Solomon. Imagery. 1962). the listener is likely to respond with a nod or ‘mhm’. 1971) held that a mental 15 . Roffwarg. such that relevant locations can be re-fixated when a memory of the event is activated. typically. Totten. 2002) found that. eye movements must recruit memory processes in order to build up some representation of the visual world (Irwin. authority. Goldthwait. Holden. Muzio. 1916. & Johnson. & Brown. subjects answered a question about one of those facts. In this way. 2001). and perceived sincerity (Argyle. 1935). Barsalou. Subjects were presented with video clips of four people relating short pieces of factual information. & Steinschriber. 2000. Goodenough. & Jeannerod. A specific account of this relation during picture recognition. Bavelas. 1969. Coates. in press. Martin. The clips appeared in each of four regions of a grid. Zacks. 1999. 2004). particularly that of a spatial nature (H. At this point. 2001). eye movements are employed as part of the composite signal used in the collaborative act of conversation (H. 1959. 1976). 1910. 1933. & Fisher. Contemporary neuroscience suggests that to some degree memory representations recapitulate perceptual processes (Barsalou. 1990). prompting the speaker to continue. Perky. imagines. and eye movements that occur when one remembers. Conversely. H. ‘scanpath theory’ (Noton & Stark. creating a period of mutual gaze.

A. & 16 . Hersen. Walker. where it has devolved into a series of popular myths and dubious therapeutic techniques. & Day. A picture is recognised partially by replaying the memory of this sequence of eye movements and visual stimulation and comparing it the present stimulus. 1985. Jupp. There have also been claims that eye movements can be used to help alleviate the symptoms of post-traumatic stress syndrome. Spivey and colleagues (Spivey & Geng. Shapiro (1995.representation of a given perceptual experience is comprised of a sequence of sensory and motor activities. Recent work suggests that not only are eye movements engaged by a memory of a specific perceptual experience. de Groot. The claim is that this looking behaviour would disrupt the eye movement pattern associated with the traumatic memory. suggesting that 'lower-level' motor actions such as eye movements can accompany 'higher-level' cognitive processes because. & Spanos. Bandler and Grinder (1975) proposed the theory of ‘neurolinguistic programming’. but also cognitive acts of imagination. when they remembered sounds they looked horizontally. Spivey. Although Bandler and Grinder’s observations. Brandt & Stark. 1985. Farmer. NLP stated that these eye movements to particular locations corresponded to areas of the brain that were being used. a story about a train pulling out of the station and a story about the apartments in a forty-story building). Salas. Poffel & Cross. The directionality of saccades corresponded to the directionality of the narratives. rather than being separate functions that are triggered by a mental state. The notion of a systematic relationship between eye movements and mental activity has percolated into a wider realm. 1985. They observed that when patients were visualising they tended to look up. or while their eyes were closed. 2000) asked subjects to listen to short narratives describing events extending either horizontally or vertically (for example. Thompson. Richardson. It is hotly contested whether such methods produce objective improvements (Acierno. and when they looked downward and to the left they were ‘accessing their feelings’. & Cunningham. Tremont. Subjects eye movements were recorded while they looked at a blank white screen. The predictions of this model were borne out by the finding that scanpaths of subjects inspecting an abstract pattern bore a strong similarity to scanpaths of subjects looking at a blank display and recalling the pattern (S. Tyler. 1982. & Miller. motor actions may be fundamental components of the mental state. 1989. diminishing the visual aspect of the memory and desensitising the patient to the memory. 1997). 1989). 2001. theories and grasp of neuroanatomy have been discredited (Elich. Gumm. & Young. NLP is still the basis of a large therapeutic industry. Rooney. whereby patients recalled a traumatic episode whilst following a moving stimulus (such as the therapists hands) with their eyes. Van Hasselt. 2002) developed the technique of ‘eye movement desensitization and reprocessing’.

& Tinker. 1995). 1969. Macnamara. 1984). Milton. & Berkowitz. 1952. 1941). rather than the specific effect of eye movement manipulation (Hyer & Brandsma. indeed. It was soon realized that eye-movement technology could use used to identify factors that determine the amount of attention allocated to different advertisements (H. Moray & Rotenberg. Hata. 1984. it could be the case that this is due to the general therapeutic practices employed. and 17 . But eye-movement research can inform the study of more complex behaviors. Martin. 1994. Whilst they have been empirically shown to help some patients (Forbes. Kolers et al. & Rohmert. Good visual design is important in a wide range of activities. Brooks.. 1994. Leermakers & Boschman. 1940. Becker. Eye Movements In The Service Of Complex Tasks The research we have discussed so far investigates relatively passive acts of perception and information processing. since it is the case that gaze durations to competing advertisements correlate with later product choice (Lohse. Early research indicated that eye movements away from the direction of heading were related to steering errors of pilots (G. 1993). and later. 1981. 1979). a range of studies employed eye-tracking to study the effectiveness of different instrumentation panels (Haider. efficient perception. when they are placed next to vital traffic signs. 1944. 1997). Similarly. Steinke. Silver. Such measures have predictive value. eye-tracking technology can reveal what different sources of information the subject is using. 2000. In these cases. Wallis & Samuel. and rapid decision-making are crucial while driving or piloting a vehicle. Karslake. The eye movements of radar operators (Gerathewohl. Luczak. how frequently they are sampled. 1987. Clear instrumentation. MacGregor & Lee. Consumer behavior rests on an interplay between immediate perceptual factors and decision-making processes that can be seen in eye-movement behavior. Creamer. 1989. 1940). and how they affect decisions. 1995. Menozzi. 1992).Meuser. & Rycroft. 1990). gunners (Brues & Damon. Hagstrom. 1961). Wilson. such as selecting a commercial product. Anderson. Swanston & Walley. Treistman & Gregg. Such research has even been used to investigate the ways in which people experience Japanese formal gardens (Ohno. & Kondo. 1980. Yamamoto & Kuto. different computer user interfaces (Deffner. their over-effectiveness can also be seen in eye movements (Boersema & Zwaga. playing cricket or flying a jet plane. Brandt. 1952) have been recorded and used to evaluate operator skill and equipment design. 1946) and pilots (Kamyshov & Lazarev. 1982. Oswalt. 1997). & Obenchain. 1997. 1995. F.

and more likely to look at the ball and the hole (Vickers. Underwood. Ballard. Participants 18 . Brocklehurst. They can also reveal the more mundane strategies we employ while carrying out everyday tasks. Thurston. and leave it there for approximately three seconds (Land & Lee. and saccadic performance was claimed to correlate with batting averages in little-leaguers (Trachtman. 1970. Crevits. & Clark. & Ballard. 1941). Hayhoe. 1973). Underwood. Particularly difficult perceptual-motor tasks. Wildenbeest. 2000). The batsmen fixated the ball at its time of release and then made a saccade to where they anticipated the bounce. Pook. G. Land and Hayhoe (2001) found that eye movements are tightly linked with moment-to-moment goals and sub-tasks. Bensinger. Such task related fixations have been examined in detail using the block-copying task developed by Ballard. who have to judge the trajectory of a fast bowl with an unpredictable bounce and spin on the basis of half a second viewing time. Land and McLeod (2000) studied the scanpaths of cricket batsmen. The direction of the tangent point relative to the car heading is a good predictor of the curvature of the road. Eye movements do not only reveal the strategies of highly trained sportsmen. In these eye-tracking experiments. Goethals. H. subjects were given the job of constructing a pattern of colored blocks. such as cornering. While this anticipatory behaviour is not present in novice drivers (Dishart & Land. The better batsmen were faster at making this predictive eye movement. 1998. 2001). skilled golfers are less likely to look at the club. Hayhoe. & Harbin. 1989. 2003). & Kondo. during putting. such as making a sandwich. This is in contrast to the passive perception of a static scene or picture. & Crundall. 1998). in professional race-car drivers it is advanced to the point that the head is rotated proportionally to the estimated car rotation speed. Hayhoe and colleagues (Ballard et al. Sato. 1992). One or two seconds before normal car drivers enter a curve. Differences in oculomotor responses can been seen between professional and amateur athletes (Harbin. Haraguchi. Finer analyses investigated what information sources people use. & Musch. The pattern was displayed in the “model area” of a board. 1997. they direct their gaze to the tangent point on the inside of each bend. Mourant & Rockwell. such that it is brought in line with the expected tangent points (Land & Tatler. 1972. and how frequently they were sampled during different driving conditions (Kito. have come under close scrutiny. Durst. Erickson. when eye movements may be drawn by areas of high contrast or spatial frequency (Henderson. Robinson. Lenoir. 2003). 1972) .. Chapman.saccade frequency was employed as a measure of fatigue in long-distance truck drivers (Specht. 1989. Funatsu. 1995. More specific analyses have examined differences in scanpaths between novices and experts. For example. & Rao. 1994).

Watson. 2004). Participants would commonly fixate the model. gaze-contingent version of the block-copying task. & Fitneva. Yamamoto. & Tamura. The subjects rarely noticed this property change. Since fixations indicate what parts of the visual world are salient to the user. and then placed in the workspace. Hodges. and copied the pattern in the “workspace area”.. Walker. further demonstrating that subjects rely upon fixating external information rather than mentally storing it (Spivey. allowing users to select icons and menus in a graphical user interface. however. and then place the block in the workspace. eye gaze replaced the hand operated mouse. 1995). Thus two fixations per block were made on the model . each block in turn could be located in the resource area. 2003). then fixate and pickup a correctly colored block from the resource area. The strategy used by participants.took blocks from the “resource area”. Given the speed and frequency of naturally occurring eye movements. Santella & DeCarlo. Richardson. 1996. 1997). In a to extract color information. there is no clear equivalent of a 19 . The participants’ hand actions were recorded. and a headband-mounted eye tracker recorded their eye movements to obtain a window on the strategy used in the task. It takes very little training for naïve users to employ their gaze as a means to control a computer (Stampe & Reingold.. Interactive applications The relationship between eye movements and cognitive processing has been employed as a tool to improve ergonomic design and computer interfaces (Kramer & McCarley. fixate the model again. one to extract relative spatial location information (Ballard et al. most often entailed the minimal possible memory demands. would be to remember the color and location of one block from the model. This is a strategy of indexing. 1998). place it in the workspace. collect it from the resource. 1997).. A second method. 2002. Regions that are not fixated can be rendered at a far lower level of detail (Ohshima. & Worden. and their close relation to perceptual and cognitive processing. eye movement information can be used to tailor visual displays. and hence eye tracking can be used to make valuable computation shortcuts. 1995). they also have the potential to be a efficient and expressive input device In the first applications of this technology. and then consult the model again for the next block. Whilst gaze is also faster than a mouse. The emergence of gaze contingent eye tracking has allowed eye movements to be further employed as means to interact with such systems (Duchowski. and other properties can be “looked up” as they are needed (Ballard et al. which is a less memory-intensive option. One method participants could use is to look at the model area and memorize the pattern. whereby just the location of an object is maintained in working memory. the colour of a block was changed during a subject’s saccade (Hayhoe et al. 2002).

This technology can be employed by users who are unable to operate standard input devices due to physical disability (Frey. White. Since the technology has become highly efficient. and so everything they looked at would be chosen. typically 600-1000. If the dwell time is very carefully calibrated to be just longer than a normal fixation. then users report an eerie sense that the system knows what they want to do before they do (Jacob. 1991). If a long enough dwell time is used. Initially. & Snuggs. Conclusion Eye movements are driven both by properties of the visual world and processes in a person’s mind. & Olivieri. Compared to the single data point provided by a buttonpress reaction time.button press. & Hutchinson. There are currently limitations to such implementations. Heynen. Blinks were found to be unnatural for users. In order to be a successful. Although such applications are currently in their infancy. 1990).. this most frequent of all human behaviours could turn out to provide the most fluid and expressive interface between humans and computers. Dimattia. and so dwell times were used as a selection criteria. systems have been developed where the user selects a word or phrase from a hierarchical menu (Chapman. the eye movements of a subject can provide researchers with a rich. 1991). and the movements of a user’s eyes can be used to issue commands or tailor computational processes. real time communication tool. this can be avoided. eye movements are an invaluable tool for psychologists. 1996). It can take severely disabled users many months to learn this form of interaction (Gips. Curran. The speed of eye typing is typically a character a second (Kahn. 1999). dynamic data source concerning the temporal dynamics and psychological processes that led up to the response. Accuracy issues limit the size of buttons on the screen. One such application is ‘Eye-typing. Uniquely poised between perception and cognition. as they allow for detailed measurements of how a user is interacting with a device. since they have had little experience actively controlling devices.’ in which users can enter characters by fixating on a the keys of a virtual keyboard (Majaranta & Raiha. such that a whole alphabet cannot always be employed at once (Frey et al. 20 . 1990). such information can now be fed back into devices in real time. 2002). this led to the ‘Midas touch’ problem: users could not distinguish between items they wanted to visually inspect and items they wanted to select. These properties are also of great value to designers and engineers.

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