Global Marketing Management

Strategies Memasuki Pasar global dan ekspansi

Tujuan pembelajaran: Mengidentifikasi kriteria sleksi pasaran luar negeri Memahami alternatif pasar yang dapat dimasuki perusahaan. lisensi.investasi & kepemilikan Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 2 . Mengenal aktivitas ekspor sebagai sebuah proses pengembangan dari waktu ke waktu Memahami strategi memasuki pasar yang berbeda: sourcing.

Decision Criteria for IB Political risk Market access Factor cost & conditions Shipping consideration Country infrastructure Foreign Exchange Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 3 .

. Harus didasarkan pada beberapa kriteria: Karkteristik pasar Aspek biaya Rancangan undang-undang tarif.. kewajiban & batasan non-tarif dalamperdagangan Tingkat kepentingan kriteria seleksi tergantung pada berbagai industri dan pasar Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 4 .Selesi Pasar Asing .

Pelayanan 6. Biaya pengiriman dan waktu 4.Kritria Selesi Pasar 1. Akses memasuki pasar 3. Tingkatan penilaian & Qualitas kompetisi 5. Potensi pasar 2. Kesesuaian produk Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 5 .

2. 4. 7. 6. 8.Prtanyaan kritis untuk profil pasar produk: The 9 W´s 1. 9. 3. Siapa pembeli produk kita? Siapa yang tidak membeli produk kita? Kebutuhan apa atau fungsi apa yang dipenuhi dengan produk kita? masalah apa yang dipecahkan oleh produk kita? Apa yang dibeli konsumen saat ini untuk memuaskan kebutuhan atau memecahkan masalah dimana produk kita ditargetkan Berapa harga yang mempu dibayar untuk produk yang dibeli saat ini? Kapan rpoduk kita dibeli? Dimana produk kita dibeli? Mengapa produk kita dibeli? Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 6 . 5.

A Multi-Stage Selection Process Approx. 150 countries Markets which drop out due to restrictions („must“ criteria) Source: adapted from D. 1989 Markets which are filtered out based on a first set of selection criteria Markets which are filtered out based on a second set of selection criteria Potential foreign target markets Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 7 .U. Schneider. and R. Datenbankgestützte Marktselektion: Eine methodische Basis für Internationalisierungs-strategien.G. Stuttgart.J. Müller.

.Visiting the Potential Market . is essential after assessment & selection of potential market(s) goals: to confirm (or contradict) assumptions regarding market potential to gather additional (primary) data to develop a marketing plan in co-operation with the local agent or distributor Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 8 ..

Production Abroad Ownership and Control 100 % Ownership & Strategic Alliances Ownership Equity Joint Ventures Licensing 0 0 Franchising Control Management Contracts 100 % Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 9 .

Direct Exporting Direct market representation via wholesalers or retailers or directly to the consumers Independent representation independent distributor Piggyback marketing distribution through another distributor´s channel Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 10 .

domestic & international. are regarded as equally worthy of consideration... .. explores the feasibility of exporting (may bypass stage 2). evaluates the global market potential. . . All markets... is an experienced exporter to one or more markets.. is unwilling to export. 2. 7.... 5.. . Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 11 . exports to one or more markets on a trial basis.. . . 6.. . 3.Exporting: A Developmental Process Stages of the firm 1. pursues country or region focused marketing.. fills unsolicited export orders (export seller).. 4.

Export-Related Problems Logistics Legal procedure Servicing exports Sales promotion Foreign market intelligence Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 12 .

Factor costs & conditions Logistics Country infrastructure Political risk Market access Exchange rate. 2. 4. availability & convertibility of local money Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 13 . 6.Sourcing Decision Factors 1. 5. 3.

license fees or other form of compensation” Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 14 .Licensing “contractual arrangement whereby one company (licensor) makes an asset available to another company (licensee) in exchange for royalties.

Franchising A form of licensing “a company permits its name. cultural design and operations to be used in establishing a new firm or store.” Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 15 . logo.

Joint Ventures Company run by two or more partner firms Risk is shared and different value chain strengths are combined Influence depends on degree of ownership Good opportunity to build on local know-how JV finds greater acceptance by local authorities Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 16 .

Wholly-owned Subsidiaries/Acquisition Represents the most extensive engagement abroad Subsidiary is either established through the creation of a new facility or the acquisition of an existing firm Company has complete decision power & control Investor achieves greater flexibility In many countries majority or 100% ownership by foreign companies is forbidden Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 17 .

Strategi Perluasan Pasar Narrow focus: concentrated markets/concentrated countries Country focus: diverse markets/concentrated countries Country diversification: concentrated markets/diverse countries Global diversification: diverse markets/diverse countries Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 18 .

Sekali pasar luarnegri yang potensial dipilih. Keegan: Global Marketing Management Chapter 8 / 19 . perusahaan harus memutuskan untuk memasuki paar tersebut company has to decide how to enter this market.Ringkasan Pemilihan pasar luar yang potensial harus didasarkan pada evaluasi kriteria yang mempengaruhi potensi keberhasilan di luar negeri disecra teliti. atau kesesuaian product . seperti potensi pasar. kemudahan memasuki pasar.

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