Louis XVI of France

Louis XVI

Reign Coronation Predecessor Successor Reign Predecessor Successor Spouse

Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet King of France and Navarre 10 May 1774 – 1 October 1791 (17 years, 144 days) 11 June 1775 (aged 20) Louis XV Himself as King of the French King of the French 1 October 1791 – 21 September 1792 (356 days) Himself as King of France and Navarre Monarchy abolished National Convention
ruling legislative body of the French First Republic Louis XVII as the de jure successor and heir. Next reigning monarch in France was Napoleon I starting 1804.

Marie Antoinette Issue

Childhood. Louis Auguste de France. France 21 January 1793 (aged 38) Died Paris. and rough-playing with his younger brothers. his indecisiveness and conservatism led some elements of the people of France to eventually view him as a symbol of the perceived tyranny of the Ancien Régime and gave him the nickname Oncle Louis ("Uncle Louis"). Dauphin of France Louis XVII of France Princess Sophie Full name Louis Auguste de France House House of Bourbon Father Louis. was born in the Palace of Versailles. Louis. From an early age. the new republican government gave him the surname Capet. who died at the age of nine in 1761. and thus the grandson of Louis XV of France and of his consort. Prince-Elector of Saxony and King of Poland. LouisAuguste had been encouraged in another of his hobbies: locksmithing. comte d'Artois.[1] . and Charles-Philippe. He is the only king of France ever to be executed. said to be. and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. Although Louis XVI was beloved at first. the Dauphin of France. history. who was given the title Duc de Berry at birth. Dauphin of France Mother Marie-Josèphe of Saxony 23 August 1754 Born Palace of Versailles. He enjoyed physical activities such as hunting with his grandfather. and became fluent in Italian and English. he was tried by the National Convention. After the abolition of the monarchy in 1792. bright and handsome older brother. geography and astronomy. Louis XV. found guilty of high treason. His mother was Marie-Josèphe of Saxony. Louis-Auguste excelled in his studies and had a strong taste for Latin. he was the third son of Louis. and executed by guillotine on 21 January 1793 as "Citoyen Louis Capet". Suspended and arrested as part of the insurrection of 10 August during the French Revolution. the daughter of Frederick Augustus II of Saxony. Out of seven children. Louis-Auguste had a difficult childhood because his parents neglected him in favour of his.Marie Thérèse. Louis-Stanislas. the founder of the Capetian dynasty – which the revolutionaries interpreted as a family name. comte de Provence. France Signature Religion Roman Catholicism Louis XVI (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791. A strong and healthy boy. Queen of France and Navarre Louis Joseph. a nickname in reference to Hugh Capet. duc de Bourgogne. but very shy. Maria Leszczyńska. which was seen as a 'useful' pursuit for a child. France 21 January 1815 Burial Saint Denis Basilica.

originally in the cradle. LouisCharles and Louis-Joseph. who died of tuberculosis on 20 December 1765. who had never recovered from the loss of her husband. Marie-Thérèse. Louis-Auguste married the fourteen-year-old Habsburg Archduchess Maria Antonia (better known by the French form of her name. By Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrix of France On 16 May 1770. Family life Marie Antoinette Queen of France with her three eldest children. also from tuberculosis. from 1760 until his marriage in 1770. died on 13 March 1767. . Princess Sophie Hélène Béatrix of France. was painted out after her death.Upon the death of his father. did not prepare him for the throne that he was to inherit in 1774 after the death of his grandfather. at the age of fifteen.[2] The strict and conservative education he received from the Duc de La Vauguyon. "gouverneur des Enfants de France" (governor of the Children of France). His mother. the elevenyear-old Louis-Auguste became the new Dauphin.

the marriage was initially amiable but distant – LouisAuguste's shyness meant that he failed to consummate the union. he would have been unable to go out hunting for a few weeks after.[11] However. This marriage was met with some hostility by the French public. much to his wife's distress. it was not in fact really so until 1777. reported that the King of France had definitely declined the operation. the people of France generally regarded the Austrian alliance with dislike. 1774–1788 . at the very least. and Marie-Antoinette was seen as an unwelcome foreigner.Marie Antoinette). as late as 1777. around which controversy and argument still enshroud today.[4] Over time.[8] most often thought to be phimosis. France's alliance with Austria had pulled France into the disastrous Seven Year War. In the long run. One questioned. both in Europe and in North America. Baron Goltz. the Royal couple became the parents of four children: • • • • Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte (19 December 1778 – 19 October 1851) Louis-Joseph-Xavier-François. his second cousin once removed and the youngest daughter of the Holy Roman Emperor Francis I and his wife. the formidable Empress Maria Theresa. the couple became closer.[15] The fact was that Louis was frequently declared to be perfectly fit for sexual intercourse. placing a strain upon their marriage. who died in infancy (9 July 1786 – 19 June 1787) The Absolute Monarch of France. By the time that LouisAuguste and Marie-Antoinette were married. while his fear of being manipulated by her for Imperial purposes caused him to behave coldly towards her in public.[5] Nevertheless.[3] For the young couple. and they have continued to be so since. "Can the King do it? Can't the King do it?"[7] The reasons behind the couple's initial failure to have children were debated at that time. confirmed by Joseph II.[9] Historians adhering to this view suggest that he was circumcised[10] (the common cure for phimosis) to relieve the condition seven years after their marriage. Their consummation problems have now been attributed to other factors. the royal couple failed to produce any children for several years after this. This would not have been possible if he had undergone a circumcision. though while their marriage was reportedly consummated in July 1773. a suggestion first made in late 1772 by the royal doctors. he went out hunting almost every day.[6] whilst the situation was worsened by the publication of obscene pamphlets (libelles) which mocked the infertility of the pair. the Prussian envoy. and capable of doing "as much harm as good" to an adult male. the Dauphin (22 October 1781 – 4 June 1789) Louis-Charles (the future titular King Louis XVII of France) (27 March 1785 – 8 June 1795) Sophie-Hélène-Béatrix. Louis's doctors were not in favour of the surgery – the operation was delicate and traumatic. and in spite of all their earlier difficulty. The argument for phimosis and a resulting operation is mostly seen to originate from Stefan Zweig. it is agreed amongst most modern historians that Louis had no surgery[12][13][14] – for instance. in which France was defeated by the British. according to his journal. and during the time he was purported to have had the operation. One suggestion is that Louis-Auguste suffered from a physiological dysfunction.

at the beginning of the reign of Louis XIII. Louis was determined to be a good king. While none doubted Louis's intellectual ability to rule France. so Louis convoked the Assembly of Notables in 1787 to discuss a revolutionary new fiscal reform proposed by Calonne. and resentment to 'despotic' monarchy was on the rise. 1786 When Louis XVI succeeded to the throne in 1774. would take charge of many important ministerial functions. Radical financial reforms by Turgot and Malesherbes angered the nobles and were blocked by the parlements who insisted that the King did not have the legal right to levy new taxes. Ultimately. Because it had been so long since the Estates-General had been convened. Louis placed his reputation and public image in the hands of those who were perhaps not as sensitive to the desires of the French public as he was. Louis's attempts . the parlement de Paris agreed that "all traditional observances should be carefully maintained to avoid the impression that the Estates-General could make things up as it went along. while the Third Estate was required to wear plain. Louis dismissed him. In spite of his indecisiveness. setting the date of their opening at 1 May 1789. members of the Estates refused to remove their hats in the King's presence. he lacked firmness and decisiveness.[16] He aimed to earn the love of his people by reinstating the parlements. As a last-ditch attempt to get new monetary reforms approved. so Louis removed his to them. Necker supported the American Revolution. So.[19] This convocation was one of the events that transformed the general economic and political malaise of the country into the French Revolution. Louis also felt woefully unqualified for the job. comte de Maurepas who. He had an enormous responsibility. For example. although raised as the Dauphin since 1765. This negative turn of events signaled to Louis that he had lost the ability to rule as an absolute monarch. which began in June 1789. there was some debate as to which procedures should be followed. the King agreed to retain many of the divisionary customs which had been the norm in 1614. When the nobles were informed of the extent of the debt. stating that he "must always consult public opinion. but which were intolerable to a Third Estate buoyed by the recent proclamations of equality." Under this decision. they were shocked into rejecting the plan. With the convocation of the Estates-General. Again this failed. which had not met since 1614."[17] Louis therefore appointed an experienced advisor. Louis XVI convoked the Estates-General on 8 August 1788. in 1776. and he fell into depression. the First and Second Estates proceeded into the assembly wearing their finest garments. Turgot was dismissed and Malesherbes resigned. when the Third Estate unilaterally declared itself the National Assembly. as in many other instances during his reign. King. there were increasingly loud calls for him to convoke the Estates-General.[18] As power drifted from him. and he carried out a policy of taking out large international loans instead of raising taxes.Louis XVI by Antoine-François Callet. as the government was deeply in debt. who increased public spending to "buy" the country's way out of debt. He seemed to regard the deputies of the Estates-General with at least respect: in a wave of selfimportant patriotism. Jean-Frédéric Phélypeaux. he was not yet 20 years old. and then replaced him in 1783 with Charles Alexandre de Calonne. oppressively somber black. to be replaced by Jacques Necker. When this policy failed miserably. it was quite clear that. it is never wrong. an act of alienation that Louis would likely have not condoned. until his death in 1781. his brothers and Marie Antoinette became fellows of the masonic lodge Trois Frères à l'Orient de Versailles.

leaving opportunities for disputes and power-play with Great Britain. ammunition and guns from 1776. Spain and the Netherlands soon joined the French. Foreign policy Main articles: Franco-American alliance. French involvement in the Seven Years War had left Louis XVI a disastrous inheritance. Vergennes. While some were returned to France at the 1763 Treaty of Paris a vast swathe of North America was ceded to the British. Franco-Indian alliances. Within three short months. sign a formal Treaty of Alliance in early 1778.to control it resulted in the Tennis Court Oath (serment du jeu de paume). along with large land and naval forces. This had led to a strategy amongst the French leadership of seeking to rebuild the French military in order to fight a war of revenge against Britain. Voyer after Emile Wattier. The appearance of French fleets in the Caribbean was followed by the capture of a number of the sugar islands.[22] . and the declaration of the National Constituent Assembly on 9 July. the Foreign Secretary. 19th century. Louis XVI receives the ambassadors of Tippu Sultan in 1788. and go to war with Britain. Britain's victories had seen them capture most of France's colonial territories. Great Britain. the majority of the king's executive authority had been transferred to the elected representatives of the people's nation. in which it was hoped the lost colonies could be recovered. saw an opportunity to humiliate France's long-standing enemy. by supporting the American Revolution. The storming of the Bastille on 14 July served to reinforce and emphasize this radical change in the mind of the masses. including Tobago and Grenada. by John Trumbull. on 20 June. and in India maintained five trading posts.[21] French aid proved decisive in forcing the main British army to surrender at the Battle of Yorktown in 1781. at the Siege of Yorktown in 1781. France sent Rochambeau and de Grasse to help the Americans.[20] Concerning the American Revolution In the spring of 1776. France still maintained a strong influence in the West Indies. Louis XVI was convinced by Benjamin Franklin to secretly send supplies. as well as recover territory lost during the Seven Years' War. and French assistance to Nguyễn Ánh Surrender of Cornwallis to French (left) and American (right) troops.

[20] In 1782. The war cost 1. except the colonies of Tobago and Senegal. Louis was wholly disappointed in his aim of recovering Canada from Britain. new taxes were levied. in 1782–1783. between Louis XVI and Prince Nguyễn Ánh. France was unable to follow through with the application of the Treaty. After he was forced from office in 1781. As a consequence Bussy moved his troops to the Île de France (Mauritius) and later contributed to the French effort in India in 1783. A France-Vietnam alliance was signed through the Treaty of Versailles of 1787. In 1785. Louis XVI sealed an alliance with the Peshwa Madhu Rao Narayan.[25][26] Concerning Vietnam and Indo-China Louis XVI giving La Pérouse his instructions France also intervened in Vietnam following Mgr Pigneau de Behaine's intervention to obtain military aid. [20][24] Suffren became the ally of Hyder Ali in the Second Anglo-Mysore War against British rule in India. fighting the British fleet along the coasts of India and Ceylon. However. Concerning World Exploration Louis XVI also encouraged major voyages of exploration. he appointed La Pérouse to lead a sailing expedition around the world. financed by new loans at high interest (with no new taxes).[23] Concerning India Louis XVI also wished to expel the British from India. France gained little from the Treaty of Paris (of 1783) that ended the war. the British defeated the main French fleet in 1782 and successfully defended the island of Jamaica. 1789–1792 . Revolutionary constitutional reign. and the war ministry rebuilt the French Army. As the French regime was under considerable strain. but Mgr Pigneau de Behaine persisted in his efforts and with the support of French individuals and traders mounted a force of French soldiers and officers that would contribute to the modernization of the armies of Nguyễn Ánh.066 million livres. Necker concealed the crisis from the public by explaining only that ordinary revenues exceeded ordinary expenses.The Americans gained their independence. contributing to his victory and his reconquest of all of Vietnam by 1802. and not mentioning the loans.

political. The reasoning behind this forced departure from Versailles was the opinion the king would be more accountable to the people if he lived among them in Paris. which left him prone to paralyzing indecisiveness[citation needed]." lifestyle that symbolized much that was despised about the Ancien Régime. During these indecisive moments. "Blessed Be the night. after the removal of the royal family to Paris. the king and his family were brought by the crowd to the Tuileries Palace in Paris. and economic reforms of the revolutionaries. After the situation had been defused. King of was associated with a frivolous France and Navarre." Initially. Louis maintained a certain level of popularity by acquiescing to many of the social. "Louis XVI. they G[RATIA] FR[ANCIA] ET Name of the Lord. or in English. Minister of Foreign Affairs. his wife. After the sudden death of Mirabeau. an angry mob of Parisian working women was incited by revolutionaries and marched on the Palace of Versailles. Thus. The caption refers to the date of the Tennis Court Oath and concludes "The same Louis XVI who bravely waits until his fellow citizens return to their hearths to plan a secret war and exact his revenge.zOn 5 October 1789. As the revolution became more radical and the masses became more uncontrollable. marked a decisive break from the absolute monarchical principle that was at the heart of traditional French government. Arnault Laporte was in charge of the Civil List and he collaborated with both Montmorin and Mirabeau. several leading figures in the initial formation of the revolution began to doubt its benefits. By the queen. where the royal family lived. though central to democratic principles of later eras. the funds of the Civil List (la Liste civile). Montmorin." infiltrated the palace and NA[VARRE] RE[X] or in attempted to kill English. Beginning in 1791. Silver Ecu of Louis XVI. who the Grace of God. As a result. struck 1785 Tinted etching of Louis XVI. 1785. however. recent scholarship[citation needed] has concluded that Louis began to suffer at the time from severe bouts of clinical depression. The revolution's principles of popular sovereignty. voted annually by the National Assembly were partially assigned to secret expenses in order to preserve the monarchy. . was essentially forced into assuming the role of decision-maker for the Crown[citation needed]. the unpopular queen. Unbeknownst to the public. Obverse: (Latin) Reverse: (Latin) SIT NOMEN DOMINI During the LUD[OVICVS] XVI D[EI] BENEDICTUM 1785. Some like Honoré Mirabeau secretly plotted with the Crown to restore its power in a new constitutional form. the revolution was opposed by many of the rural people of France and by practically all the governments of France's neighbors. 1792. started to organize covert resistance to the Revolutionary forces.

Louis attempted to secretly flee with his family from Paris to the royalist fortress town of Montmédy on the northeastern border of France. and were exposed later as the armoire de fer scandal. The key figure was Marie Antoinette's brother. he still hoped to avoid war. Louis and MarieAntoinette were involved in plans of their own. The return of the royal family to Paris on 25 June 1791. Louis XVI and his family were brought back to Paris where they arrived on 25 June. recapture France.Maximilien Radix de Sainte-Foix. He was particularly irked by being kept essentially as a prisoner in the Tuileries. as well as assistance from other nations. the Holy Roman Emperor Leopold II. On one hand. dealing with other foreign heads of state in an attempt to bring about a counter-revolution. and by the refusal of the new regime to allow him to have confessors and priests of his choice rather than 'constitutional priests' pledged to the state and not the Roman Catholic Church.[28] However. Although Leopold saw the . took his place.[27] While the National Assembly worked painstakingly towards a constitution. Louis had appointed the baron de Breteuil to act as plenipotentiary. fatally weakened negotiations between the Crown and moderate politicians. where his wife was being humiliatingly forced to have revolutionary soldiers in her private bedroom watching her as she slept. Louis was nowhere near as reactionary as his brothers. Mirabeau's death. This was often done through his secretly nominated regent. the Cardinal Loménie de Brienne. coloured copperplate after a drawing of Jean-Louis Prieur The other monarchies of Europe looked with concern upon the developments in France. these schemes proved unsuccessful. and Louis's indecision. This degree of planning reveals Louis’ determination to do what he thought was right for his country beneath his superficial appearance of apathy. which declared the interest of the monarchs of Europe in the well-being of Louis and his family. Initially. Leopold and King Frederick William II of Prussia. Despite this. and he repeatedly sent messages to them requesting a halt to their attempts to launch counter-coups. On the other hand. they hoped to raise an "armed congress" with the help of the émigrés who had fled. and considered whether they should intervene. the King and Queen plotted to secretly escape from France. Louis was alienated from the new democratic government both by its negative reaction to the traditional role of the monarch and in its treatment of him and his family. However. a noted financier. although unfortunately it was for this determined plot that he was eventually convicted of high treason. with which they could return and. As tensions in Paris rose and Louis was pressured to accept measures from the Assembly against his will. the comte de Provence[citation needed] and the comte d'Artois. In effect. had recognised the king from his profile on a golden écu. and had given the alert. On 21 June 1791. either in support of Louis or to take advantage of the chaos in France. in consultation with émigrés French nobles. issued the Declaration of Pillnitz. he became more and more disturbed as it became more and more radical. flaws in its plan and lack of rapidity were responsible for the failure of the escape. in essence. they were placed under tight house arrest upon their return to the Tuileries. he had looked on the revolution with equanimity. postmaster of the town of Sainte-Menehould. The royal family was arrested at Varennes-en-Argonne shortly after Jean-Baptiste Drouet. On 27 August. he headed a secret council of advisers to the King that tried to preserve the Monarchy. and threatened vague but severe consequences if anything should befall them. Beyond escape. Viewed suspiciously as traitors.

The soldiers fled at the first sign of battle. While the revolutionary government frantically raised fresh troops and reorganised its armies. written by Louis's émigré cousin. In addition to the ideological differences between France and the monarchical powers of Europe. murdering their general[citation needed]. a mostly Prussian allied army under Charles William Ferdinand. the Legislative Assembly. The Storming of the Tuileries Palace. especially in the Austrian Netherlands and the minor states of Germany. declared war on the Holy Roman Empire first. It was taken by many to be the final proof of a collusion between Louis and foreign powers in a conspiracy against his own country. in one case. and the concern of members of the National Constituent Assembly about the agitation of émigrés nobles abroad. supported by Louis. However. voting for war on 20 April 1792. The king and the royal family took shelter with the Legislative Assembly. with Brunswick's army easily taking the fortresses of Longwy and Verdun. Contrary to its intended purpose of strengthening the position of the King against the revolutionaries. Charles François Dumouriez. where he expected the local population to rise against Austrian rule. deserting en masse and. The duke then issued on 25 July a proclamation called the Brunswick Manifesto. The imprisonment and execution of Louis. the Brunswick Manifesto had the opposite effect of greatly undermining Louis's already highly tenuous position in Paris. there were continuing disputes over the status of Austrian estates in Alsace. the revolutionary leaders in Paris viewed it fearfully as a dangerous foreign attempt to undermine France's sovereignty. after a long list of grievances was presented to it by the foreign minister.Pillnitz Declaration as an easy way to appear concerned about the developments in France without committing any soldiers or finances to change them. Duke of Brunswick assembled at Coblenz on the Rhine. In the end. The anger of the populace boiled over on 10 August when a group of Parisians – with the backing of a new municipal government of Paris that came to be known as the "insurrectionary" Paris Commune – besieged the Tuileries Palace. the Prince de Condé. In July. the revolution had thoroughly disorganised the army. 1792–1793 See also: trial of Louis XVI and execution of Louis XVI . the invasion commenced. and the forces raised were insufficient for the invasion. Dumouriez prepared an immediate invasion of the Austrian Netherlands. declaring the intent of the Austrians and Prussians to restore the king to his full powers and to treat any person or town who opposed them as rebels to be condemned to death by martial law.

his counsel. Problems listening to this file? See media help. Raymond de Sèze. 2 Pt. This was believed to have been a hiding place at the Royal apartments. The more radical members – mainly the Commune and the Parisian deputies who would soon be known as the Mountain – argued for Louis's immediate execution. The legal background of many of the deputies made it difficult for a great number of them to accept an execution without the due process of law of some sort. an accusation of high treason and crimes against the State. both as a hostage and a guarantee for the future. an ancient fortress in Paris that was used as a prison. Porticodoro / SmartCGArt Media Productions – Classical Orchestra. The Girondins were partial to keeping the deposed king under arrest. with the assistance of François Tronchet and Malesherbes. Mov. The resulting scandal served to discredit the King. delivered Louis's response to the charges. 31 "The Revolution" or "La Paix". 2. and sent to the Temple. On 26 December. the organ that housed the representatives of the sovereign people. the deposed King was brought from the Temple to stand before the Convention and hear his indictment. In November 1792. among crowded and silent streets. Louis XV. . the National Assembly declared France to be a Republic and abolished the Monarchy. the Armoire de fer (French: 'iron chest') incident took place at the Tuileries Palace. . Girondinist Minister of the Interior. where some secret documents were kept. The empty pedestal in front of him had supported a statue of his grandfather. by Jean-François Garneray (1755–1837) Louis was officially arrested on the 13 August 1792.Louis XVI imprisoned at the Tour du Temple. Paul Wranitzky: "Funeral March for the Death of the King Louis XVI" from the Symphony Op. and it was voted that the deposed monarch be tried before the National Convention. On 21 September. The existence of this iron cabinet was publicly revealed to Jean-Marie Roland. Execution of Louis XVI in the Place de la Révolution. now torn down during one of the many revolutionary riots. On 11 December.

The next day. but 380 of the Deputies voted for the immediate execution of the death penalty. mainly some means of imprisonment or exile. On Monday. the lives of the royal family should have been . The executioner. Some accounts of Louis's beheading indicate that the blade did not sever his neck entirely the first time. 288 of the Deputies voted against death and for some other alternative. He seemed about to say more when Antoine-Joseph Santerre. stripped of all titles and honorifics by the Republican Government. sculptures by Edme Gaulle and Pierre Petitot in the Basilica of Saint-Denis. attributed the restoration of the French monarchy to the sympathy that had been engendered by the execution. 21 January 1793. Jules Michelet. the verdict was a foregone conclusion – with 693 deputies voting guilty. The two writers did not share the same sociopolitical vision. the Convention. showed the marks of the feelings aroused by the revolution's regicide. even though the monarchy was rightly ended in 1792. a motion to grant Louis XVI reprieve from the death sentence was voted down: 310 of the Deputies requested mercy.[30] The image and memory of Louis Memorial to King Louis XVI and Queen Marie Antoinette. since the blade severed Louis's spine. It is agreed that while Louis's blood dripped to the ground many members of the crowd ran forward to dip their handkerchiefs in it. none for acquittal. a roll-call vote was carried out to decide upon the fate of the King. cut Louis off by ordering a drum roll. and the result was uncomfortably close for such a dramatic decision. but subject to a number of delaying conditions and reservations. but they agreed that. a general in the National Guard. The next day. This decision would be final. Citoyen Louis Capet was beheaded by guillotine on the Place de la Révolution.[29] As Louis mounted the scaffold he appeared dignified and resigned. 361 of the Deputies voted for Louis's immediate death. He declared himself willing to die and prayed that the people of France would be spared a similar fate. testified that the former King had bravely met his fate. composed of 721 deputies.On 15 January 1793. Michelet's Histoire de la Révolution Française and Alphonse de Lamartine's Histoire des Girondins. The 19th-century historian. The former King was then quickly beheaded. with 23 abstaining. in particular. voted on the verdict. Given overwhelming evidence of Louis's collusion with the invaders. Charles Henri Sanson. 72 of the Deputies voted for the death penalty. He delivered a short speech in which he reasserted his innocence and he pardoned those responsible for his death. There are also accounts of a blood-curdling scream issuing from Louis after the blade fell but this is unlikely.

• • Louis XVI in films and in literature Louis XVI has been portrayed in numerous films depicting the French Revolution. he was depicted in Marie Antoinette by Jason Schwartzman. Louisville. but many other Continental delegates disagreed. and she lobbied in Rome energetically for the canonization of her father as a saint of the Catholic Church. he was played by Jason Schwartzman. in memory of Louis XVI. For the 20th century philosopher Jean-François Lyotard the regicide was the starting point of all French thought. The Virginia General Assembly saw the King as a noble man. Louis had been described as a martyr by Pope Pius VI in 1793. Alabama. whose soldiers were aiding the American side in the Revolutionary War. shy.) There are numerous other places named "Louisville". the Virginia General Assembly bestowed this name in honor of the French king. New York. For the 20th century novelist Albert Camus the execution signaled the end of the role of God in history. survived the French Revolution. Louisville. In Jefferson in Paris. Illinois. Louis XVI was played by Michael Lonsdale who. Kentucky. is named for Louis XVI. declaring the impossibility of proving that Louis had been executed for religious rather than political reasons. Tennessee. portraying him as a libertine who has such a distaste for the peasantry he uses them as targets in skeet shooting. Jean-François Balmer gave a critically acclaimed performance as Louis XVI. Louisville. Louisville. Despite his signing of the "Civil Constitution of the Clergy". the future Duchess of Angoulême. all located in the United States. The city of Louisville. who arguably resembled him. . for which he mourned. at 64 years old. Nebraska. Marie-Thérèse-Charlotte. greatly exceeded the King's actual age. Kansas. In the two-part film La Révolution française. In Sacha Guitry's Si Versailles m'était conté. Several portrayals have upheld the image of a bumbling. whom he portrayed as an insecure. In Marie Antoinette (2006). • The Requiem in C minor for mixed chorus by Luigi Cherubini was written in 1816. the memory of which acts as a reminder that French modernity began under the sign of a crime. Louis was portrayed by one of the film's producers. In 1780. In the American supernatural television drama Moonlight.spared. he was played by Robert Morley. put an end to hopes of canonization. In Start the Revolution Without Me. More recently. Louis XVI is portrayed by Hugh Griffith as a laughable cuckold. In Ridicule.[31] His daughter. Mel Brooks played a comic version of Louis XVI in The History of the World Part 1. Lack of compassion at that moment contributed to a radicalization of revolutionary violence and to greater divisiveness among Frenchmen. the king was played by Urbain Cancelier. however. (At that time. Ohio and Louisville. yet decent and intelligent man. Louisville. such as that by Jacques Morel in the 1956 French film Marie-Antoinette reine de France and that by Terence Budd in the Lady Oscar live action film. almost foolish King. Gilbert Bokanowski (using the alias Gilbert Boka). Kentucky became the 15th State of the United States in 1792. a memorandum of the Congregation of Rites in Rome. In 1820. such as Louisville. Georgia. Kentucky was a part of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Louis XVI is mentioned as the progenitor of a vampiric bloodline who discovers a temporary cure for vampirism. In Marie Antoinette (1938). Louisville.

.He was also depicted in Titanic as being the owner of the fictional diamond Heart of the Ocean.