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Overview Of the two main topics studied in calculus - differentiation and integration - we have so far only studied derivatives of complex functions. We now turn to the problem of integrating complex functions. The theory you will learn is elegant, powerful, and a useful tool for physicists and engineers. It also connects widely with other branches of mathematics. For example, even though the ideas presented here belong to the general area of mathematics known as analysis, you will see as an application of them one of the simplest proofs of the fundamental theorem of algebra.

6.1 Complex Integrals In Section 3.1 we saw how the derivative of a complex function is defined. We now turn our attention to the problem of integrating complex functions. We will find that integrals of analytic functions are well behaved and that many properties from calculus carry over to the complex case. We introduce the integral of a complex function by defining the integral of a complex-valued function of a real variable

Definition 6.1 (Definite Integral of a Complex Integrand). Let u(t) and v(t) are real-valued functions of the real variable t for (6-1)

where . Then .

We generally evaluate integrals of this type by finding the antiderivatives of u(t) and v(t) and evaluating the definite integrals on the right side of Equation (6-1). That is, if and , we have (6-2) .

Example 6.1. Show that

.

Solution. We write the integrand in terms of its real and imaginary parts, i.e., . Here, and . The integrals of u(t) and v(t) are

, and . Hence, by Definition (6-1),

Explore Solution 6.1.

Example 6.2. Show that

.

Solution. We use the method suggested by Definitions (6-1) and (6-2).

We can evaluate each of the integrals via integration by parts. For example,

Adding gives . Therefore,

to both sides of this equation and then dividing by 2 . Likewise,

. Explore Solution 6.2.

Complex integrals have properties that are similar to those of real integrals. We now trace through several commonalities. Let and be continuous on .

then we get (6-4) Similarly. then . then (6-6) . denotes a complex constant. and . and integrate f(t) over these .3. that is (6-3) If we divide the interval into subintervals by using (6-1). We start by writing Using Definition (6-1). Let us verify property (6-5).Using Definition (6-1). if (6-5) If the limits of integration are reversed. we write the left side of Equation (6-5) as which is equivalent to . The integral of the product f(t)g(t) becomes (6-7) Example 6. we can easily show that the integral of their sum is the sum of their integrals.

. where . equation (62) takes on the familiar form (6-8) . We note . Use Equation (6-8) to show that Solution. In Section 6. It is worthwhile to point out the similarity between equation (6-2) and its counterpart in calculus. We seek a function F with the property that that satisfies this requirement.Therefore. For now.4 we show how to generalize this extension to analytic functions of a complex variable. Since . Suppose that U and V are differentiable on and . Example 6. Explore Solution 6. so .4. We can view Equation (6-8) as an extension of the fundamental theorem of calculus. we simply note an important case of Equation (6-8): (6-9) . .3.

2). When we recognize this expression as the real part of . Explore Solution 6. Extra Example 1. however.1 Example 6.which is the same result we obtained in Example 6. Using ordinary calculus techniques to evaluate . for example.1. Complex Integrals Formulas.4.4 illustrates the potential computational advantage we have when we lift our sights to the complex domain. Let real variable t for (6-1) where u(t) and v(t) are real-valued functions of the . Then . the solution comes quickly. benefit from a thorough working knowledge of complex analysis. but with a lot less work.2. Exercises for Section 6. . . This is just one of the many reasons why good physicists and engineers. required a lengthy integration by parts procedure (Example 6. Show that Explore Solution for Extra Example 1. Remark 6. in addition to mathematicians.

Use Equations (6-1) and (6-2) to find 1 (a). .We generally evaluate integrals of this type by finding the antiderivatives of u(t) and v(t) and evaluating the definite integrals on the right side of Equation (6-1). and . Now integrate u(t) and v(t) and obtain . Given the real functions u(t) and v(t) with and . expand the integrand into it's real and imaginary parts . Solution. we use the formula . See text and/or instructor's solution manual. Solution 1 (a). First. Here we have . . if and . and . . we have (6-2) Exercise 1. . That is. Answer.

Aside.Compute values for U(t) and V(t) Compute the real definite integrals Evaluate the complex definite integral We are done. The details for this computation are: . We can let Mathematica double check our work.

and the last image point . In the interval the right endpoint is is .Some points . for in the interval of integration and their images .

1 (c). Answer . . Solution 1 (c). 1 (b). the independence of path for integration of an analytic function (in Section 6. or whether you are permitted to use a complex variable ( computing the integral. Matlab and Mathematica use complex variable based computations.2). After we have developed the topics of contour integrals (in Section 6.4) then we will be able to revisit this integral and use the more straightforward computation: Remark. Aside. and established the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (in Section 6. . .3). ) and complex functions in The three popular software packages Maple. It is important to understand whether you are permitted to use only real variables in computing an integral.We are really done.

First. and . Here we have . and . Compute values for U(t) and V(t) Compute the real definite integrals . Given the real functions u(t) and v(t) with and .Solution. use the identity to expand the integrand . Now integrate u(t) and v(t) and obtain . we use the formula .

Evaluate the complex definite integral We are done. Aside. We can let Mathematica double check our work. The details for this computation are: .

2).Some points . the independence of path for integration of an analytic function (in Section 6. for in the interval of integration and their images . Aside.3). and the last image point In the interval the right endpoint is is We are really done. and established the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (in Section 6.4) then we will be able to revisit this integral and use the more straightforward computation: . . After we have developed the topics of contour integrals (in Section 6.

Exercise 3. . Matlab and Mathematica use complex variable based computations. . Solution 1 (e). Establish the following: 4 (a). Given that on . . It is important to understand whether you are permitted to use only real variables in computing an integral. ) and complex functions in The three popular software packages Maple. Show that Solution 3. or whether you are permitted to use a complex variable ( computing the integral. Identity (6-4) . Identity (6-3) and are continuous . 1 (e). Exercise 4.Remark. Exercise 2. provided . Let be integers. Show that . 4 (b). 1 (d).

. 4 (d). Solution 5. Let . Identity (6-6) . Show that . Identity (6-7) . where u and v are differentiable. Exercise 5.4 (c).

the point starts at the initial point . We will use concepts first introduced in Section 1.6.2 Contours and Contour Integrals In Section 6. which is a type of curve that is adequate for the study of integration. then moves continuously from to as t increases and the curve is given an orientation. Recall that to represent a curve C we used the parametric notation (6-10) for .6. which we indicate by drawing arrows along the curve. If C is simple.1. . If is the only point of intersection.1 we learned how to evaluate integrals of the form . and ends up at the terminal point . Figure 6. we define and evaluate integrals of the form . We now place a few more restrictions on the type of curve to be described. where f(t) is complex-valued and C is a contour in the plane (so that z is complex. then we say that C is a simple closed curve.1 illustrates how the terms simple and closed describe a curve. except possibly when and . with ). In this section. The following discussion leads to the concept of a contour.1 . which means that whenever . Our main result is Theorem 6. with ). moves along the curve C . where x(t) and y(t) are continuous functions. which shows how to transform the latter type of integral into the kind we investigated in Section 6. Recall that C is simple if it does not cross itself. where f(t) was complex-valued and was an interval on the real axis (so that t was real. A curve C with the property that is a closed curve. As the parameter t increases from the value to the value .

The curve C defined by Equation (6-10) is said to be a smooth curve if is continuous and nonzero on the interval. If C is a smooth curve.1 The terms simple and closed used to describe curves.2 illustrates this concept. Here we require the one-sided derivatives of and to exist at the endpoints of the interval. then the slope of the tangent line to C at the point is given by . . If . If .Figure 6. which is given by the vector . the derivative is for . As in Section 6. then C has a nonzero tangent vector at each point .1. then the tangent vector is vertical. Thus a smooth curve has no corners or cusps. Hence for a smooth curve the angle of inclination of its tangent vector is defined for all values of and is continuous. Figure 6. The complex-valued function is said to be differentiable on if both and are differentiable for .

Figure 6.2 The term smooth used to describe curves.

If C is a smooth curve, then

, the differential of arc length, is given by .

The function continuous functions, so the length (6-11)

is continuous, as of the curve C is .

and

are

Now consider C to be a curve with parameterization for .

The opposite curve traces out the same set of points in the plane, but in the reverse order, and has the parametrization for Since 6.3. , .

is merely C traversed in the opposite sense, as illustrated in Figure

Figure 6.3 The curve

and its opposite curve

.

A curve C that is constructed by joining finitely many smooth curves end to end is called a contour. Let denote n smooth curves such that the terminal point of the curve coincides with the initial point of for . We express the contour C by the equation . A synonym for contour is path.

Example 6.5. Find a parameterization of the polygonal path from shown in Figure 6.4. Here is the line from , is the line from from .

, and

is the line

Figure 6.4 The polygonal path

from

.

Solution. We express C as three smooth curves, or . If we set and , we can use Equation (1-48) to get a formula for the straight-line segment joining two points: , for . When simplified, this formula becomes , for .

Similarly, the segments

are given by

, for , for Explore Solution 6.5.

, and .

We are now ready to define the integral of a complex function along a contour C in the plane with initial point A and terminal point B. Our approach is to mimic what is done in calculus. We create a partition of points that proceed along C from A to B and form the differences for . Between each pair of partition points we select a point on C, as shown in Figure 6.5, and evaluate the function . These values are used to make a Riemann Sum for the partition:

(6-12)

.

Figure 6.5 Partition points and function evaluation points for a Riemann sum along the contour C from

.

Assume now that there exists a unique complex number L that is the limit of every sequence of Riemann sums given in Equation (6-12), where the maximum of tends toward 0 for the sequence of partitions. We define the number L as the value of the integral of the function f(z) taken along the contour C.

Then . then is independent of the contour.2. Use a Riemann sum to get an approximation for the integral a the line segment joining the point Solution.Definition 6.6. . the value of the integral depends on the contour. is . for and . Note that in Definition 6. if f(z) is analytic.6 shows the points Figure 6. Set n=8 in Equation (6-12) and form the partition increment . For this situation.6 Partition and evaluation points for the Riemann sum One possible Riemann sum. Example 6. Let C be a contour. . provided that the limit exists in the sense previously discussed. where C is .3 the Cauchy-Goursat theorem will establish the remarkable fact that. In Section 6. we have a uniform For convenience we select .2 (Complex Integral). then. Figure 6.

there is a beautiful theory that allows for an easy computation of many contour integrals. we obtain an approximation for the integral: This result compares favorably with the precise value of the integral.7 shows. as Figure 6. Suppose that we have a parametrization of the contour C given by the function for . . In general.By rounding the terms in this Riemann sum to five decimal digits.7 A parametrization of the contour C by for . obtaining an exact value for an integral given by Definition 6.2 is a daunting task.6. That is. which you will soon see equals . Explore Solution 6. Fortunately. Figure 6. C is the range of the function over the interval .

Let is a continuous complex-valued function defined on a set be any parametrization of C for .valued functions over real intervals .1.1 are worth mentioning. Then . as is also shown in Figure 6.1 states. as it reduces the task to the evaluation of complex . Theorem 6.1. we would have to get the same limit regardless of how we parametrize the contour C.7. Of course. and the entire quantity looks like a Riemann sum.1.1. Assuming no difficulties. Proof. Two important facets of Theorem 6.a procedure that you studied in Section 6. then we get The quotient inside the last summation looks suspiciously like a derivative. if we're to have any hope of this happening. Suppose that containing the contour C. this last expression should equal . as defined in Section 6. this is indeed the case. according to Theorem 6.It follows that where and sum by and are the points contained in the interval with the property that . As Theorem 6. Theorem 6. If for all k we multiply the kth term in the last . . First. this transformation yields the same answer regardless of the parametrization we choose for C. Second.1 makes the problem of evaluating complex-valued functions along contours easy.

1. for . .6: the line segment joining the point .6.Example 6. Give an exact calculation of the integral in Example 6. We must compute joining by . as we claimed in Example 6. where C is a Solution.) We leave as an exercise to show that the final answer simplifies to . According to Equation (1-48). where C is the line segment . As .1 guarantees that Each integral in the last expression can be done using integration by parts. we can parametrize C . (There is a simpler way-see Remark 6. Theorem 6.7.

) Hence . where C is a the upper semicircle with Solution. etc. Explore Solution 6. Just as . Evaluate the contour integral radius 1 centered at . A convenient bookkeeping device can help you remember how to apply Theorem 6.1. The function Theorem 6. for .8. try working through Example 6.Explore Solution 6. We apply ).7. (Note: is a parametrization for C. To help convince yourself that the value of the integral is independent of the parametrization chosen for the given contour. then by the preceding paragraph we have . and .8 with .e. is equated with . for . Because with .8. and If (6-13) where are the differentials for . The expression is often called the complex differential of z.). These identities should be easy to remember because z is supposed to be a point on the contour C parametrized by z(t).. Example 6.1 with . . you can symbolically equate z with z(t) and . according to the Leibniz notation for the derivative. respectively (i.

if we write we can put Equation (6-11) into the form (6-14) so we can think of Suppose contour C. and . is a parametrization for the (6-15) where we are equating u(t) with u(z(t)).are intuitively considered to be small segments along the x and y axes in real variables. . x' with x'(t). then we can write Equation (6-15) in terms of line integrals of the real-valued functions u(t) and v(t) . and so on. Then as representing the length of . Moreover. . we can think of dz as representing a tiny piece of the contour C. If we use the differentials given in Equation (6-13). . giving (6-16) which is easy to remember if we recall that symbolically .

1.8 The two contours and joining . . Applying Theorem 6. We now multiply out the integrand and put it into its real and imaginary parts: .1as illustrated in Examples 6. we have .8. is given by the slope intercept . You should carefully apply Theorem 6.1 gives . Example 6. Show that where is the line segment from parabola joining . we can write segment as Solution.9.7 and 6. as indicated in Figure 6. The line segment joining formula . which can be written as If we choose the parametrization and and for Along . and is the portion of the . Figure 6.8 before using any shortcuts suggested by the latter.We emphasize that Equation (6-16) is merely a notational device for applying Theorem 6. .

9 (a) Explore Solution 6. (a) Use the line segment joining the points. Evaluate the contour integrals of starting at the points . hence we choose to use the function . The example in the text used the function which is difficult for hand computations but it is not a challenge for Mathematica. Remark.1 now gives joining Explore Solution 6. we can parametrize the portion of the parabola by and and so that and for Along . we have . (b) Use a portion of a parabola joining the points. Theorem 6.Similarly. .9 (b) Extra Example 1.

Explore Solution for Extra Example 2 (a) Explore Solution for Extra Example 2 (b) In Example 6.10 shows. We parametrize the semicircle and for . (a) Use the line segment joining the points. Figure 6.Explore Solution for Extra Example 1 (a) Explore Solution for Extra Example 1 (b) Extra Example 2.9. This example illustrates the situation when f(z) is not analytic. is the polygonal where is the semicircular path from . and path from . as Example 6. . shown in Figure 6.9. . (b) Use a portion of a parabola joining the points.10.9 The two contours and joining as . This outcome doesn't hold in general. Remark. (a) Show that but that . in the upper half plane. Example 6. respectively. Solution. the value of the two integrals is the same. Evaluate the contour integrals of starting at the points .

We get our answer by adding the three integrals along the three segments: . . we have . .Applying Theorem 6. one for each line segment: where in each case. Integrating over these three line segments we obtain . so and We parametrize in three parts.1.

although both integrals have the same initial and terminal points.10 (a) Explore Solution 6. then their sum can be integrated over C. and .1. and are placed end to end so that the terminal point of . Constant multiples also behave as we would expect: . If two functions f and g can be integrated over the same path of integration C. coincides with . then the contour is a continuation of . Explore Solution 6. then the integral for the opposite contour -C is Using the change of variable that (6-17) in this last equation and the property . and we have the familiar result .10 (b) Contour integrals have properties that are similar to those of integrals of a complex function of a real variable. If C is given by Equation (6-10). we obtain .Note that the value of the contour integral along isn't the same as the value of the contour integral along . which you studied in Section 6. If two contours the initial point of (6-18) If the contour C has two parametrizations for for . and .

Equation (6-20) shows that the value of a contour integral is invariant under a change in the parametric representation of its contour if the reparametrization satisfies Equations (6-19). . then we .and there exists a differentiable function (6-19) then we say that have (6-20) . Use Inequality (6-23) to show that where C is the straight-line segment from . Solution. Referring to Figure 6. is continuous on the contour C. is a continuous function of Theorem 6. . then (6-21) Proof. . and such that for . and the terms represent the . .Inequality). is a reparametrization of the contour C. Theorem 6. Here distance from the point z to the points using a geometric argument. Example 6.2 (Absolute Value Inequality). If f is continuous on C. we get .11. If the real parameter t. If then (6-23) Proof.10 and .3 (ML . We now give two important inequalities relating to complex integrals. respectively.

equals 1. Exercises for Section 6.2. . Give a parametrization of each contour. for z on C. . Figure 6.10 The distances Thus we have for z on C. Inequality (6-23) implies that . Contours and Contour Integrals Exercise 1. 1 (a). Because L.. . the length of C. as indicated in Figure 6.11.

Figure 6.12. Sketch the following curves. and . .12. Solution 2 (c). The contour for for Solution 1 (a). . . . for .11. for . 2 (c). . Where and . and . 2 (b). . Figure 6. 1 (b). as indicated in Figure 6. . The contour for for for . Where . 2 (a). Exercise 2. for .

7 simplifies to where C is a the line segment joining the . centered at 0. . Solution 3 (b).Exercise 3.13 (a) and 6. Evaluate from Figures 6. Exercise 4. Give a Riemann sum approximation for the integral by selecting points Solution 3 (a). Compute the integral exactly by selecting a parametrization for C and applying Theorem 6. where C is the positively oriented upper semicircle 3 (a).13 (a). Exercise 5. 5 (a). and and using the . as shown in with vertices . as shown Figure 6. 3 (b).13 (b). . Consider the integral of radius 1. Show that the integral point of Example 6. The polygonal path in Figures 6. The contour Solution 5 (a).13 (a). along the following contours.1. .

. as shown in with vertices .5 (b). Exercise 6.14 (a). . as Figure 6. . along the following contours. 6 (a). Evaluate from Figures 6. The polygonal path Figure 6.14 (a). as shown in Figure 6.13 (a).14 (b). The contour .13 (b). The contour C that is the upper half of the circle shown in Figures 6.14 (a) and 6. The contour Solution 5 (b). oriented clockwise.

Evaluate Solution 7 (a).6 (b). .14 (b). Evaluate Solution 7 (c). oriented clockwise. 7 (b).14 (b). (The minus sign in means the clockwise orientation. oriented counter- 7 (a).) . 7 (c). The contour C that is the left half of the circle clockwise. is the circle of radius r centered at a. . Evaluate . as shown in Figure 6. Figure 6. Exercise 7. (The minus sign in means the clockwise orientation. Recall clockwise.) 7 (d). Evaluate . . The contour that is oriented clockwise. as shown.

Let be a continuous function on the circle . where C is the portion of in the first quadrant. where C is the first quadrant portion of . . Exercise 9. . Solution 9 (a). where C is the upper half of . Solution 9 (b). . Exercise 8. Use the results of Exercise 8 with to evaluate 9 (a). 7 (f). Evaluate . Use the techniques of Example 6. where is an integer. 7 (g). Evaluate Solution 7 (e). where C s the upper half of .7 (e). . Show that . 9 (b).11 to show that 10 (a). . Exercise 10. Evaluate Solution 7 (g). .

Evaluate . where C is the straight-line segment . Evaluate . . Exercise 16. where C is the straight-line segment . Exercise 11.10 (b). Exercise 14. where C is the line segment from . . . 16 (a). be a smooth curve. Let for each of the following expressions. where C given by . . Exercise 12. . Exercise 15. . where C is the square with vertices taken with the counterclockwise orientation. Give a meaning 16 (b). Evaluate joining Solution 13. Exercise 13. Evaluate joining Solution 15. . Evaluate Solution 11. .

Exercise 20. In other words. . Exercise 18.3 The Cauchy-Goursat Theorem The Cauchy-Goursat theorem states that within certain domains the integral of an analytic function over a simple closed contour is zero. Explain how contour integrals in complex analysis and line integrals in calculus are different. . 16 (d). Use the ML inequality to show that Legendre polynomial defined on by . Evaluate that consists of the line segments from Solution 17. .16 (c). the mean value theorem for definite integrals that you learned in calculus does not hold for complex functions. An extension of this theorem allows us to replace integrals over certain complicated contours with integrals over contours that are easy to . Exercise 19. where . How are contour integrals in complex analysis and line integrals in calculus similar ? 6. Let Show that there is no number be defined on such that . where is the Solution 19. Exercise 17. . where C is the polygonal path from and .

16 illustrates uses of the terms simply connected and multiply connected. Figure 6. To begin. Recall also that a domain D is a connected open set. In other words. In Section 6. if are any pair of points in D. . Figure 6. Recall from Section 1. the other domain is unbounded and is called the exterior of C.6 that each simple closed contour C divides the plane into two domains.15 illustrates this concept. A domain D is said to be a simply connected domain if the interior of any simple closed contour C contained in D is contained in D. Figure 6. A domain that is not simply connected is said to be a multiply connected domain. we need to introduce some new concepts. then they can be joined by a curve that lies entirely in D.4 we will see that the Cauchy-Goursat theorem implies that an analytic function has an antiderivative.15 The interior and exterior of simple closed contours. One domain is bounded and is called the interior of C. We demonstrate how to use the technique of partial fractions with the Cauchy-Goursat theorem to evaluate certain integrals. there are no "holes" in a simply connected domain.evaluate. which is known as the Jordan curve theorem. In particular.

17 illustrates the concept of positive and negative orientation. then -C is negatively oriented. otherwise. If C is positively oriented. Recall that if C is parametrized so that the interior of C is kept on the left as z(t) moves around C.16 Simply connected and multiply connected domains. . C is oriented negatively (clockwise). Let the simple closed contour C have the parametrization for .Figure 6. then we say that C is oriented positively (counterclockwise). Figure 6.

and . then . Green's theorem is an important result from the calculus of real variables. If P and Q are continuous and have continuous partial derivatives at all points on C and R. Let C be a simple closed contour with positive orientation and let R be the domain that forms the interior of C. Theorem 6.Figure 6. Proof of Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering We are now ready to state the main result of this section. then . . Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected domain D. Theorem 6.4 (Greens Theorem). Let us recall that (where n is a positive integer) are all entire functions and have continuous derivatives. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Example 6.12. If C is a simple closed contour that lies in D. It tells you how to evaluate the line integral of real-valued functions.4 is in the book.5 (Cauchy-Goursat Theorem). (a) (b) . Proof of Theorem 6.5 is in the book. Proof. The Cauchy-Goursat theorem implies that. for any simple closed contour. Proof.17 Simple closed contours that are positively and negatively oriented.

22 A simple connected domain D containing the simple closed contour C that does not contain the origin. If is a simple closed contour that can be "continuously deformed'' into another simple closed contour without passing through a point where f is not analytic.12 (c) . Example 6. we state the following result. . as is .22.12 (a) Explore Solution 6. To be precise. then the value of the contour integral of f over is the same as the value of the integral of f over .13.12 (b) Explore Solution 6. Figure 6. The Cauchy-Goursat theorem implies that is analytic. We want to be able to replace integrals over certain complicated contours with integrals that are easy to evaluate.(c) Explore Solution 6. If C is a simple closed contour such that the origin does not lie interior to C. then there is a simply connected domain D that contains C in which indicated in Figure 6.

If C is a simple closed contour with positive orientation such that lies interior to C.23 The domain D that contains the simple closed contours between them. Proof of Theorem 6. Corollary 6. Figure 6. Let denote a fixed complex value. as shown in Figure 6. This result occurs several times in the theory to be developed and is an important tool for computations. .1.23. and (ii) . Proof. then (i) . then .Theorem 6. You may want to compare the proof of Corollary 6.2.6 (Deformation of Contour). If f(z) is analytic in a domain D that contains both and and the region between them. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering and and the region We now state as a corollary an important result that is implied by the deformation of contour theorem. where n is any integer except .6 is in the book. Let and be two simple closed positively oriented contours such that lies interior to .1 with your solution to Exercise 23 from Section 6.

The deformation of contour theorem is an extension of the Cauchy-Goursat theorem to a doubly connected domain in the following sense. Demonstration for (i). Theorem 6.23.26.Proof. .6. Let f(z) be analytic on a domain D that contains all the contours and the region between C and . as shown in Figure 6. Hence C is a positive orientation of the boundary of R. Let be simple closed positively oriented contours with the property that lies interior to C for and the set of interior to has no points in common with the set interior to if . Then the contour is a parametrization of the boundary of the region R that lies between so that the points of R lie to the left of C as a point z(t) moves around C. Demonstration for (ii).6 implies that . involves the introduction of several cuts and is similar to the proof of Theorem 6. which is left for the reader. as shown in Figure 6.'' The proof. Then . and Theorem 6.7 (Extended Cauchy-Goursat Theorem). We can extend Theorem 6.6 to multiply connected domains with more than one "hole. Let D be a domain that contains and and the region between them.

so Corollary 6. Proof. in the Example 6. where C is the circle taken with Solution.1 implies that . Using partial fraction decomposition gives . Show that positive orientation. .14.26 The multiply connected domain D and the contours statement of the extended Cauchy-Goursat theorem. Substituting these values into Equation (6-38) yields . so (6-38) .Figure 6. The points lie interior to C.

15. Example 6.14.27 The circle and the points . . where C is the circle taken Figure 6. Thus Explore Solution 6. as shown in Figure 6. the second integral on the right side of the above equation has the value . Solution.Explore Solution 6.27. By Corollary 6. we have In this case. Using partial fractions again. lies interior to C but does not.15. Show that with positive orientation.1. . The first integral equals zero by the Cauchy-Goursat theorem because the function is analytic on a simply connected domain that contains C.

and Corollary 6. where C is the "figure eight" contour shown Figure 6.2 .Example 6. we Using the Cauchy-Goursat theorem.1 (with compute the value of the first integral on the right side of Equation (6-39): . Show that in Figure 6.16. Property (6-17). ).28 The contour . Again. we use partial fractions to express the integral: (6-39) . Solution.

and its value is given by .3. . The theorems in this section show that an antiderivative F can be constructed by contour integration.Similarly.8 (Indefinite Integrals or Antiderivatives). the integral of an analytic function f along any contour joining is the same. The Cauchy-Goursat Theorem 6. with its derivative given by Proof. . Exercises for Section 6. As a result. then the function is well-defined and analytic in D. we can use the antiderivative formulas from calculus to compute the value of definite integrals. we find that If we substitute the results of the last two equations into Equation (6-39) we get Explore Solution 6. Theorem 6.4 The Fundamental Theorems of Integration Let f be analytic in the simply connected domain D. A consequence will be the fact that in a simply connected domain. The next two theorems are generalizations of the Fundamental Theorems of Calculus.16. If is a fixed value in D and if C is any contour in D with initial point and terminal point z. Let f(z) be analytic in the simply connected domain D.

Proof of Theorem 6.8 lets us know ahead of time that the value of the two integrals is the same. Because the integrand is an analytic function. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Theorem 6. Proof of Theorem 6. it permits you to use all the rules of integration that you learned in calculus.9 (Definite Integrals). In Example 6. change the contour to something easier. where and were different contours joining . where F(z) is any antiderivative of f(z) in D. you must be sure that the function you're dealing with is analytic in a simply connected domain containing your original and new contours. When the conditions of Theorem 6. In essence.9 is in the book. You are guaranteed to get the same answer. It is important to stress that the line integral of an analytic function is independent of path. Of course.2. Exploration.8.8 is in the book. Proof. Theorem 6.9 are met. hence one calculation would have sufficed. If you ever have to compute a line integral of an analytic function over a difficult contour. then . If and are two points in D joined by a contour C.9 gives an important method for evaluating definite integrals when the integrand is an analytic function in a simply connected domain. .9 we showed that . Theorem 6. then we obtain the following familiar result for evaluating a definite integral of an analytic function. applying it is generally much easier than parametrizing a contour. Let f(z) be analytic in a simply connected domain D. If we set in Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Remark 6.

We note that C is contained in the simply connected domain . then .2) that if .17.Example 6.18. Show that between .17. which is the open disk of radius 4 centered at the midpoint of the segment C. Example 6. .10 (see Section 3. where the principal branch of the square root function is used in both the formulas for F(z) and F'(z). Remark.9 guarantees that and is an anti-derivative of Explore Solution 6. Since is analytic in the domain . We showed in Example 3. Theorem 6. Sometimes we write this as . where C is the line segment . Solution. Show that where root function and C is the line segment joining is the principal branch of the square .

9 to conclude that is . we use Explore Solution 6. then Theorem 6. An antiderivative of Theorem 6.Solution. Example 6.18. and has an antiderivative for all z in D. .9 implies that . shown in Figure 6.19. We let be the simply connected domain which is the z-plane slit along the negative x-axis. If C is a contour in D that joins the point to the point .32. Because F(z) is entire. We know that is analytic in D.

. Show that positive orientation.20. Explore Solution 6.19 and 6. We let C be that circle with the point -1 omitted. . as shown in Figure 6. The contour C is contained in the simply connected domain D of Example 6.32 The simply connected domain D shown in Examples 6. We know that is analytic in D.32(b).19. if we let approach -1 on C through the upper half-plane and approach -1 on C through the lower half-plane.20.20. Therefore. where C is the unit circle . and has an antiderivative . Example 6. taken with Solution. for all .Figure 6.

The Fundamental Theorems of Integration 6.4. Exercises for Section 6. The derivative. will have a similar representation. Show that . Theorem 6. then . Explore Solution for Extra Example 1. .Extra Example 1. Proof. In Section 7. and let C be a simple closed positively oriented contour that lies in D. The Cauchy integral formulas are a convenient tool for evaluating certain contour integrals. Let f(z) be analytic in the simply connected domain D.2. we use the Cauchy integral formulas to prove Taylor's theorem and also establish the power series representation for analytic functions.10 is in the book.10 (Cauchy Integral Formula). The first result is known as Cauchy's integral formula and shows that the value of an analytic function f(z) can be represented by a certain contour integral.5 Integral Representations for Analytic Functions We now present some major results in the theory of functions of a complex variable. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering . If is a point that lies interior to C. Proof of Theorem 6.

Example 6.21. Here we have formula to obtain . We have and Cauchy's integral formula implies that . Example 6. . We manipulate the integral and use Cauchy's integral . Show that positive orientation. so . The point lies interior to the circle. .22. and multiplication by Explore Solution 6.21. where C is the circle with Solution. establishes the desired result. where C is the circle with Solution. Show that positive orientation.

The only zero of this and use Theorem 6. . We see that expression that lies in the interior of C is We set . . Show that positive orientation. where C is the circle with Solution.Explore Solution 6.10 to conclude that .23.22. Example 6.

We use Leibniz's rule in the proof and note that this method of proof is a mnemonic device for remembering Theorem 6.23. We now generalize Theorem 6.11 (Leibniz's Rule). Let and its partial derivative with respect to z be continuous functions for all z in G and all t in I.Explore Solution 6. Let G be an open set. . and let C be a simple closed positively oriented contour that lies in D. then for any integer . and let be an interval of real numbers. Theorem 6. and . we have .11. Let be analytic in the simply connected domain D. Proof. Theorem 6. Then is analytic for z in G.12 (Cauchy's Integral Formulae for Derivatives). Demonstration for Theorem 6.12. If z is a point that lies interior to C.10 to give an integral representation for the derivative.

We let .12 further implies that . Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Example 6. Show that. Let denote a fixed complex value. and Theorem 6. Theorem 6. if C is a simple closed positively oriented contour such that lies interior to C.24.. for any integer .10 implies that the value of . Proof of Theorem 6. then .12 is in the book. Proof. Then the first integral in Equations (6-50) is for . and (6-50) . . Solution.

12. .10 and 6.This result is the same as that proven earlier in Corollary 6. though. Explore Solution 6. Obviously.24 (b). Using Cauchy's integral formulas with .25.1. the technique of using Theorems 6. Explore Solution 6.12 is easier.25. If we set that that . We now state two important corollaries of Theorem 6. Example 6. then a straightforward calculation shows .24 (a). we conclude Explore Solution 6. where C is the circle with Solution. Show that positive orientation. .

all derivatives of exist in D. Exercises for Section 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Extra Example 1. Corollary 6. remarkably.2 states that if a complex function has the property that exists everywhere in a domain D. If partial derivatives harmonic functions. . Our first result shows that the existence of an antiderivative for a continuous function is equivalent to the statement that the integral of f(z) is independent of the path of integration. then all derivatives exists for (and therefore are analytic in D).2. This result is interesting.5. If is analytic in the domain D. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Remark 6. in the domain D. but exists nowhere. Explore Extra Solution 1. This result stated in a form that will serve as a converse to the Cauchy-Goursat theorem. . then. .3 is in the book. A real function can have the property that exists everywhere in a domain D. Proof. is a harmonic function at each point . Integral Representations for Analytic Functions 6. Proof.3. Show that the partial derivatives of are harmonic functions. as it illustrates a big difference between real and complex functions.6 The Theorems of Morera and Liouville and Extensions In this section we investigate some of the qualitative properties of analytic and harmonic functions. Corollary 6.Corollary 6. Proof of Corollary 6. then all exists and are Proof of Corollary 6.2 is in the book. .3.

Theorem 6. Proof.13 (Morera's Theorem). then we can show that the value is the integral average of the values of f(z) at points z on the circle C. Then does not attain a maximum value at any point in D.13 is in the book. Proof.15 is in the book. Cauchy's integral formula show how the value can be represented by a certain contour integral. then . If we choose the contour of integration C to be a circle with center . Proof of Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering . If f(z) is analytic in a simply connected domain D that contains the circle . Let f(z) be a continuous function in a simply connected domain D. then f(z) is analytic in D. Let f(z) be analytic and nonconstant in the bounded domain D. Proof of Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering for every closed contour in D. Theorem 6. If Proof. Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering We now prove an important result concerning the modulus of an analytic function.14 is in the book.14 (Gauss's Mean Value Theorem). Proof of Theorem 6.15 (Maximum Modulus Principle).

From the triangle inequality and the fact that (6-58) If we choose . Prove that . where . and does so only at point(s) on the boundary B. Let continuous on the closed region . If we set our domain D to be . Proof of Theorem 6.16 is in the book. it follows that . Let f(z) be analytic and nonconstant in the bounded domain D. .16 (Maximum Modulus Principle). then in D. then f(z) is and this value is assumed by f(z) at a point on the boundary of D. Proof. Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Example 6. .26. If f(z) is continuous on the closed region R that consists of D and all of its boundary points B.We sometimes state the maximum modulus principle in the following form. then assumes its maximum value. Solution.

If we set our domain D to be . then . and this value is assumed by at a point on the Explore Solution for Extra Example 2. and this Explore Solution for Extra Example 1. Let . Let f(z) is continuous on the closed region value is assumed by at a point . then f(z) is continuous on the closed region . . Explore Solution 6. Hence . and the result is established. Extra Example 1. . . This is the requirement for the Inequality (6-58) to be an equality (see Exercise 19 in Section 1. Extra Example 2.26.3). Show that on the boundary of D.so the vectors and lie on the same ray through the origin. If we set our domain D to be . Show that boundary of D.

Theorem 6. Proof of Theorem 6.18 shows that a nonconstant entire function cannot be a bounded function. All we need do now is observe that f(z) is not constant. We established this characteristic with a somewhat tedious argument in Section 5.17 is in the book.27. and hence it is not bounded. If holds for all points . Let f(z) be analytic in the simply connected domain D that contains the circle .17 (Cauchy's Inequalities). If f(z) is an entire function and is bounded for all values of z in the complex plane.18 is in the book. Proof.4. then for Proof. Proof of Theorem 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering Example 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering .Theorem 6. then f(z) is constant. Solution.18 (Liouville's Theorem). Theorem 6. . Show that the function sin(z) is not a bounded function.

4.Explore Solution 6. Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering . Proof. That is.19 (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). . are the zeros of P(z) counted according to multiplicity an A is a . Corollary 6. Let P(z) be a polynomial of degree product of linear factors. We can use Liouville's theorem to establish an important theorem of algebra.19 is in the book. Proof of Theorem 6.27. If P(z) is a polynomial of degree then P(z) has at least one zero. Theorem 6. Then P(z) can be expressed as the where constant. Proof.

Find the n zeros of the equation Explore Solution for Extra Example 3.13 . Let f(z) be a continuous function in a simply connected domain D. Extra Example 4. then f(z) is analytic in D. . The Theorems of Morera and Liouville and Extensions 6. then . Theorem 6. In Section 6. If for every closed contour in D. Let f(z) be analytic and nonconstant in the bounded domain D. Chebyshev polynomial.6 we developed the background (Theorems 6.13 (Morera's Theorem). Exercises for Section 6.18) for the proof of the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra.6.14 (Gauss's Mean Value Theorem). Find the roots of the Explore Solution for Extra Example 5. If f(z) is analytic in a simply connected domain D that contains the circle . Then does not attain a maximum value at any point in D. . . Extra Example 5.6. Theorem 6.Extra Example 3. Find the n zeros of the equation Explore Solution for Extra Example 4. Theorem 6.7 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra This section is a supplement to the textbook.15 (Maximum Modulus Principle).

Proof. If f(z) is continuous on the closed region R that consists of D and all of its boundary points B. Theorem 6.19 is in the book. are the zeros of P(z) counted according to multiplicity an A is a In Section 1. .Theorem 6. If f(z) is an entire function and is bounded for all values of z in the complex plane. Then P(z) can be expressed as the where constant. then f(z) is constant. Let f(z) be analytic in the simply connected domain D that contains the circle . Complex Analysis for Mathematics and Engineering . and does so only at point(s) on the boundary B. then assumes its maximum value.17 (Cauchy's Inequalities). formulas have been developed for the quadratic equation. . Theorem 6. then for . There is no general formula for polynomial equations higher than fourth degree (see Abel's Impossibility Theorem). Historically. If holds for all points . we introduced the formulas of Cardano and Tartaglia. Proof. Theorem 6.19 (Fundamental Theorem of Algebra). Let P(z) be a polynomial of degree product of linear factors. cubic equation and quartic equation.18 (Liouville's Theorem). Let f(z) be analytic and nonconstant in the bounded domain D. If P(z) is a polynomial of degree then P(z) has at least one zero. That is.1.4.16 (Maximum Modulus Principle). Proof of Theorem 6. Corollary 6.

. The solution of the cubic equations. Find the zeros of the equation Explore Solution for 1. . The general cubic equation has roots Exploration. The depressed cubic equation has roots Exploration. Example 1.The solution of the cubic equations.

The solution of the quartic equations. Exploration.Example 2.7 The Fundamental Theorem of Algebra . Find the n zeros of the equation Explore Solution 4. Find the zeros of the equation Explore Solution 2. . . Example 3. Find the n zeros of the equation Explore Solution 3. Mathematica can construct the solutions to the general quartic equation. Example 5. . Example 4. Find the n zeros of the equation Explore Solution 6. Extra Example 6. Exercises for Section 6. . Find the roots of the Explore Solution 5. Chebyshev polynomial.

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