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(DNG CHO N THI TN C H 2011)







































Bm sn. 22.03.2011

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CHUYN : VIT PHNG TRNH MT PHNG

A. Kin thc chung
1. Phng trnh mt phng v cc trng hp c bit
- PTTQ (phng trnh tng qut) mt phng ( ) P qua
0 0 0 0
( , , ) M x y z v c vtpt (vect php tuyn)
( , , ) n A B C

l:
0 0 0
( ) : ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 P A x x B y y C z z + + =
Hay ( ) : 0 P Ax By Cz D + + + = vi
0 0 0
( ) D Ax By Cz = + +
- PTMP (phng trnh mt phng) ( ) P qua ( , 0, 0) ; (0, , 0) ; (0, 0, ) A a Ox B b Oy C c Oz e e e c phng trnh
l: ( ) : 1
x y z
P
a b c
+ + = (Phng trnh mt phng theo on chn)
- c bit:
+
2 2
0
( ) / / 0
0
A
P Ox D
B C
=

+ =


+
2 2
0
( ) / / 0
0
B
P Oy D
A C
=

+ =


+
2 2
0
( ) / / 0
0
C
P Oz D
A B
=

+ =


- Phng trnh mt phng (Oxy) l 0 z = , (Oyz) l 0 x = v (Oxz) l 0 y =
2. V tr tng i ca mt thng v mt phng:
Cho hai mt phng
1 1 1 1 1
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + = v
2 2 2 2 2
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + =
TH 1:
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2 2
( ) / /( )
A B C D
A B C D
= = =
TH 2:
1 1 1 1
1 2
2 2 2 2
( ) ( )
A B C D
A B C D
= = =
TH 3:
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
( ) ( ) 0 A A B B C C + + =
3: Phng trnh chm mt phng:
Tp hp cc mt phng ( ) cha ng thng ( ) ( ) A = c gi l chm mt phng xc nh bi
mt phng ( ) v mt phng ( )
Nu
1 1 1 1
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + = v
2 2 2 2
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + = th phng trnh mt phng ( ) l:
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
( ) : ( ) ( ) 0 m A x B y C z D n A x B y C z D + + + + + + + = (*) vi
2 2
0 m n + =
phng trnh (*) c th vit li: ( ) ( ) 0 m n + =
4. Gc v khong cch
- Gc ca 2 mt phng:
1 1 1 1 1
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + = v
2 2 2 2 2
( ) : 0 A x B y C z D + + + = l:
1 2 1 2 1 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 2 2 2
.
A A B B C C
cos
A B C A B C

+ +
=
+ + + +

- Gc gia ng thng d v mt phng (P)

3
.
sin( , ( ))
.
u n
d P
u n
=



- Khong cch t mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z n mt phng ( ) : 0 P Ax By Cz D + + + =
( )
0 0 0
0
2 2 2
,
Ax By Cz D
d M P
A B C
+ + +
=

+ +


B. Mt s dng bi tp

Dng 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im M
o
(x
o
;y
o
;z
o
) v tho mn iu kin
Loi 1 : C mt vect php tuyn
Phng php:
- Xc nh
0 0 0 0
( , , ) M x y z ca mt phng ( ) P
- Xc nh vtpt ( ; ; ) n A B C


+ Nu ( ) ( ) / /
P Q
P Q n n =


+ Nu ( )
P d
P d n u =


- p dng cng thc:
0 0 0
( ) : ( ) ( ) ( ) 0 P A x x B y y C z z + + =

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (SGK 12 Ban C Bn T89) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng
(P):
a. i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 4 M v nhn vect ( ) 2; 3; 5 n =

lm vect php tuyn


b. i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 2 M v song song vi mt phng ( ) : 2 3 4 0 Q x y z + + =
Gii:
a. Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) P i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 4 M v c vect php tuyn ( ) 2; 3; 5 n =

c phng trnh l :
2(x 1) + 3(y + 2) + 5(z 4 ) = 0 hay ( ) : 2 3 5 16 0 P x y z + + =
Cch 2:
Mt phng (P) c vtpt ( ) 2; 3; 5 n =

lun c dng 2 3 5 0 x y z D + + + = v mt phng (P) i qua


im ( ) ( ) 1; 2; 4 2.1 3. 2 5.4 0 16 M D D + + + = = .Vy mt phng ( ) : 2 3 5 16 0 P x y z + + =
b. Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) P i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 2 M song song vi mt phng ( ) Q nn mt phng ( ) P i qua im
( ) 2; 1; 2 M v c vtpt ( ) 2; 1; 3
P Q
n n = =

nn mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh:
2(x 2) 1(y + 1) + 3(z 2) = 0 hay ( ) : 2 3 11 0 P x y z + =
Cch 2 :
Mt phng (P) c vtpt ( ) 2; 1; 3
P
n =

lun c dng 2 3 0 x y z D + + = v mt phng ( ) P i qua im


( ) 2; 1; 2 M ' 1 D = hay ( ) : 2 3 11 0 P x y z + =
Hoc c th l lun v ( ) P song song vi ( ) Q nn ( ) P lun c dng 2 3 0 x y z D + + =
v ( ) P qua M ( ) : 2 3 11 0 P x y z + =


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Bi 2: (SGK Ban C Bn T92) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho mt phng ( ) c phng
trnh: 3x + 5y z 2 = 0 v ng thng d c phng trnh
12 4
: 9 3
1
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

= +


a. Tm giao im M ca ng thng d v mt phng ( )
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha im M v vung gc vi ng thng d
Gii:
a. To im ( ) M d = l nghim ca phng trnh
3(12 + 4t) + 5(9 + 3t) (1 + t) 2 = 0 t = 3 .Vy ( ) 0; 0; 2 M
b. Cch 1 :
Mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 0; 0; 2 M vung gc vi ng thng d nn mt phng ( ) i qua im
( ) 0; 0; 2 M v c vtpt

=
d
u

= (4;3;1) nn mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l:


4(x 0) + 3(y 0) + 1(z +2) = 0 hay ( ) : 4 3 2 0 x y z + + + =
Cch 2:
Mt phng ( ) c vtpt

= (4;3;1) lun c dng 4x + 3y + z + D = 0 v mt phng ( ) i qua im


( ) 0; 0; 2 M D = 2 hay ( ) : 4 3 2 0 x y z + + + =
Ch :
C th pht biu bi ton di dng nh, cho bit ta 3 im A, B, C. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P)
i qua im A v vung gc vi ng thng BC th khi
P
n BC =


Nhn xt :
- Mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n a b c =

th ( ) lun c dng ax + by + cz + D = 0
- Nu cho ( ) c dng Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 th ( ) m song song vi ( ) ( ) lun c dng
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 vi
'
0 D =
- Hai mt phng song song vi nhau th hai vtpt cng song song (cng phng) vi nhau, mt phng
vung gc vi ng thng th vtpt v vtcp cng song song (cng phng) vi nhau . iu ny l gii
ti sao trong bi 1 cu b li chn
P
n

=
Q
n

,tht vy v mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng (Q)


nn hai vtpt cng song song (cng phng) vi nhau hay
P
n


= k.
Q
n

, v k= 0 nn chn k = 1
P
n

=
Q
n

. Tng t nh th trong bi 2b ta chn k = 1


=
d
u

, t ta c nhn xt
+ Hai mt phng song song vi nhau th chng c cng vtpt
+ Nu mt phng ( ) P cha hai im A v B th AB

l mt vtcp ca mt phng ( ) P
+ Nu mt phng ( ) P vung gc vi mt phng (Q) th vtpt ca mt phng ( ) P l vtcp ca mt
phng (Q) v ngc li
+ Nu mt phng ( ) P vung gc vi vecto AB

th vecto AB

l mt vtpt ca mt phng ( ) P
- Vect php tuyn cng c th cho hnh thc l vung gc vi gi ca vect a

no , khi ta
phi hiu y a

l vect ch phng
Bi 3: (SGK Ban C Bn T92) Trong mt phng vi h to Oxyz cho im vect ( ) 6; 2; 3 a =


v ( ) 1; 2; 3 A . Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha im A v vung gc vi gi ca vect a
Hng dn:
Lm tng t nh bi 2b ta c ( ) : 6 2 3 2 0 x y z + =

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Bi 4: (SGK Ban C Bn T80) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng i
qua im ( ) 2; 6; 3 M v ln lt song song vi cc mt phng to
Gii:
Nhn xt :
- Cc mt phng to y l Oxy; Oyz; Oxz . Thot u ta thy cc mt phng ny khng thy vtpt ,
nhng thc ra chng c vtpt, cc vtpt ny c xy dng nn t cc vect n v trn cc trc Ox, Oy, Oz
ln lt l i

= (1;0;0) ; j

= (0;1;0) ; k

= (0;0;1), cc vect ny c coi l cc vtcp


- By gi ta s vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P i qua M v song song vi mt phng 0xy cn cc mt
phng khc lm tng t
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 2; 6; 3 M v song song vi mt phng Oxy mt phng ( ) P i qua M v
vung gc Oz nn mt phng (P) i qua M nhn vect
P
n

= k

lm vtpt c phng trnh l :


0(x 1) + 0(y 6) + 1(z + 3) = 0 hay ( ) : 3 0 P z + =
Cch 2:
Mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng 0xy mt phng ( ) P song song vi hai trc Ox v Oy

P
n


v
P
n

P
n

= [ i

, j

] = (0;0;1) l vtpt nn ( ) : 3 0 P z + =
Tng t (P) // Oyz v i qua im M nn ( ) : 2 0 P x =
(P) // Oxz v i qua im M nn ( ) : 6 0 P y =
Cch 3:
Mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng Oxy nn mt phng ( ) P lun c dng Cx + D = 0 v mt
phng ( ) P i qua M ( ) C. 3 D 0 + = v C = 0 nn chn C = 1 D = 3 .
Vy mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l ( ) : 3 0 P z + =
Ch :
Bi ton c th pht biu l vit phng trnh (P) i qua M // vi Ox v Oy ( ) P i qua M // vi mt
phng 0xy

Loi 2: C mt cp vect ch phng , a b

(vi , 0 a b =

c gi song song hoc nm trn mp ( ) P )
- Tm vtpt , n a b

=



- ( ) P l mp qua
0 0 0 0
( , , ) M x y z v c VTPT n


- Quay li loi 1

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 5: (SGK Ban C Bn T80) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz . Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) P i qua im ( ) 0; 1; 2 A v song song vi gi ca mi vect u

= (3;2;1) v v

= ( ) 3; 0;1
Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 0; 1; 2 A v song song vi gi ca hai vect u

= (3;2;1) ; ( ) 3; 0;1 v =


mt phng ( ) P i qua A v c
P
n

;
P
n

(vi u

v v

khng cng phng)


mt phng ( ) P i qua A v c vtpt
| | ( ) ( ) , 2; 6; 6 2 1; 3; 3
P
n u v = = =


mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l :

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1(x 0) 3(y + 1) +3(z 2) = 0 hay ( ) : 3 3 9 0 P x y z + =
Cch 2 : Lm tng t nh bi 1b khi bit ( ) 2; 6; 6
P
n =

v ( ) 0; 1; 2 A
Bi 6: (SBT Ban C Bn T99) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz . Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 2 M , song song vi trc Oy v vung gc vi mt phng
( ) : 2 3 4 0 x y z + + =
Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 2 M song song vi trc 0y v vung gc vi mt phng ( )
mt phng ( ) i qua M v c

;

n

(vi j

khng cng phng)


mt phng ( ) i qua M v c vtpt

= [ j

,

n

] = (3;0;-2)
mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
3(x 2) + 0(y + 1) 2(z 2) = 0 hay( ) : 3 2 2 0 x z =
Cch 2: Lm tng t nh bi 1b khi bit ( ) 3; 0; 2 n

v ( ) 2; 1; 2 M
Cch 3: Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n A B C


- Mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 2 M ( ) .2 .( 1) .2 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) song song vi trc Oy ( ) . 0 .0 .1 .0 0 2 n j A B C

= + + =


- Mt phng ( ) vung gc vi mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) . 0 .2 . 1 .3 0 3 n n A B C

= + + =


Gii h (1), (2) v (3) 3, 0, 2, 2. A B C D = = = =
Vy mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l : 3 2 2 0 x z =
Bi 7: (SBT Ban C Bn T98) Trong khng gian Oxyz.Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im
( ) 3; 1; 5 M ng thi vung gc vi hai mt phng ( ) : 3 2 2 7 0 x y z + + = v
( ) : 5 4 3 1 0 x y z + + =
Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 3; 1; 5 M ng thi vung gc vi hai mt phng ( ) v ( ) mt
phng ( ) i qua im M v c

;

n

(vi

khng cng phng) mt phng


( ) i qua im M v c vtpt

= [

n

,

n

] = (2;1;-2)
mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
2(x 3) + 1(y + 1) 2(z + 5) = 0 hay ( ) : 2 2 15 0 x y z + =
Cch 2: Lm tng t nh bi 1b khi bit

= ( ) 2;1; 2 v ( ) 3; 1; 5 M
Cch 3: Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n A B C


- Mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 3; 1; 5 M ( ) ( ) .3 .( 1) . 5 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) vung gc vi mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) . 0 .3 . 2 .2 0 2 n n A B C

= + + =


- Mt phng ( ) vung gc vi mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) . 0 .5 . 4 .3 0 3 n n A B C

= + + =



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T (1) v (2) ta c
3 21
, 6
2 2
C B A D B A = = th vo (3) ta c 2 A B = chn
1, 2 2, 15 B A C D = = = =
Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) l 2 2 15 0 x y z + =
Bi 8: (H B 2006) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho im A(0;1;2) v hai ng thng
1
1 1
: , ' : 1 2
2 1 1
2
x t
x y z
d d y t
z t
= +
+
= = =


= +


Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua A ng thi song song vi d v d
Gii:
Cch 1:
V ( ) ( )
1 2
0;1; 1 ; 1; 1; 2 B d C d e e v ( ) ( )
1 2
, , / / B C d d e
Vecto ch phng ca
1 2
d v d ln lt l ( ) ( )
1 2
2;1; 1 1; 2;1 u v u = =


vecto php tuyn ca ( ) l ( )
1 2
, 1; 3; 5 n u u

= =



V ( ) i qua ( ) ( ) 0;1; 2 : 3 5 13 0 A x y z + + =
s: ( ) : 3 5 13 0 x y z + + =
Cch 2:
Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n A B C


- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M ( ) .0 .1 .2 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) song song vi ng thng d ( ) ( ) . 0 .2 .1 . 1 0 2
d
n u A B C

= + + =


- Mt phng ( ) song song vi ng thng d

( ) ( ) '
. 0 .1 . 2 .1 0 3
d
n u A B C

= + + =


T (1) v (2) ta c 2 , 4 3 C A B D A B = + = th vo (3) ta c 3 A B = chn
1, 3 5, 13 A B C D = = = =
Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) l 3 5 13 0 x y z + + =
Nhn xt:
Nu im A d e (hoc
'
A d e ) th bi ton tr thnh vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha d (hoc
'
d )
v song song vi
'
d (hoc d )

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1:
a. Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho 3 im ( ) ( ) ( ) 3; 4;1 , 2;3; 4 , 1; 0; 2 . M N E Vit phng trnh
mt phng ( ) i qua im E v vung gc vi MN.
( thi tt nghip BTTHPT ln 2 nm 2007)
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 1; 2;1 K v vung gc vi ng
thng
1
: 1 2
1 3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

.
( thi tt nghip THPT ln 2 nm 2007)

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s: a. ( ) : 3 5 0 x y z + + = b. ( ) : 2 3 8 0 x y z + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho im ( ) 1; 1; 0 M v mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh:
2 4 0. x y z + = Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua M v song song vi ( ) P
s: ( ) : 2 2 0 x y z + + =
( thi tt nghip THPT h phn ban nm 2007)
Bi 3: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 2; 3;1 M v vung gc vi hai mt phng
( ) ( ) : 2 2 5 0 v : 3 2 3 0 P x y z Q x y z + + + = + + =
(Sch bi tp nng cao hnh hc 12)
s: ( ) : 3 4 19 0 x y z + =
Bi 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 2;1; 1 M v qua giao tuyn ca hai mt phng:
4 0 v 3 1 0. x y z x y z + = + =
(Sch bi tp nng cao hnh hc 12)
s: ( ) : 15 7 7 16 0 x y z + =

Dng 2 : Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im M
1
(x
1
;y
1
;z
1
) v M
2
(x
2
;y
2
;z
2
) ng thi tho mn
iu kin
a. Vung gc vi mt phng
b. Song song vi ng thng d (hoc trc Ox, Oy, Oz)
c. C khong cch t im M ti l h
d. To vi mt gc ( ) Q mt gc

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (SGK Ban C Bn T80) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) i qua hai im ( ) ( ) 1; 0;1 , 5; 2; 3 M N v vung gc vi mt phng ( ) : 2 7 0 x y z + =
Gii:
Cch 1 :
Mt phng ( ) i qua hai im M(1;0;1); N(5;2;3) v vung gc vi mt phng ( )
mt phng ( ) i qua im M v

MN ;

n

(vi MN v

khng cng phng)


mt phng ( ) i qua im M v c vtpt

= [ MN ,

] = ( ) 4; 0; 8 = 4( ) 1; 0; 2

mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
1(x 1) + 0(y 0) 2(z 1) = 0 hay ( ) : x 2z + 1 = 0
Cch 2:
Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n A B C


- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 1; 0;1 M ( ) .1 .0 .1 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 5; 2;3 N ( ) .5 .2 .3 0 2 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) vung gc vi mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) . 0 .2 . 1 .1 0 3 n n A B C

= + + =


T (1) v (2) ta c 2 , C A B D A B = = + th vo (3) ta c 2 0 B = chn
1, 0 2, 1 A B C D = = = =

9
Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) l 2 1 0 x z + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua hai im
( ) 4; 1;1 M ; ( ) 3;1; 1 N v cng phng (song song) vi trc Ox
Gii:
Cch 1 :
Mt phng (P) i qua im ( ) 4; 1;1 M ; ( ) 3;1; 1 N v cng phng vi trc Oxmt phng (P) i qua
im M v
P
n MN

;
P
n

(vi v i

khng cng phng)


mt phng (P) i qua im M v nhn vtpt
P
n

= [ , i

] = ( ) 0; 2; 2 = ( ) 2 0;1;1
mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
0(x 4) + 1( y + 1) + 1(z 1) = 0 hay (P): y + z = 0
Cch 2: Lm tng t bi 1 (cch 2) iu kin y l
P
n


Bi 3: (SBT Ban Nng Cao T126) Trong mt phng Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng (Q) i qua hai
im ( ) ( ) 3; 0; 0 , 0; 0;1 A C v to vi mt phng Oxy mt gc = 60
o

Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng (Q) i qua A, C v to vi mt phng Oxy mt gc bng 60
o
nn mt phng (Q) ct mt phng
Oxy ti im B(0;b;0) Oy e khc gc to O b = 0
mt phng (Q) l mt phng theo on chn c phng trinh l :
1
1 3
= + +
z
b
y x
hay (Q): bx + 3y + 3bz 3b = 0
mt phng (Q) c vtpt
Q
n

= (b;3;3b)
Mt phng 0xy c vtpt k

= (0;0;1) .Theo gi thit ,ta c


|cos (
Q
n

,
k

)| = cos60
o

2
1
9 9
3
2
=
+ + b b
b

26
3
26
9
9 9 6
2 2
= = + + = b b b b b
Vy c hai mt phng tho mn l :
(Q
1
) : x 26 y + 3z 3 = 0
(Q
2
) : x + 26 y + 3z 3 = 0
Cch 2: v Ae Ox v C e Oz
Gi AB l giao tuyn ca mt phng (Q) v mt phng 0xy .T O h OI AB .
Theo nh l ba ng vung gc ta c AB CI

0
60 OIC =
Trong A vung OIC ta c OI = OC.tan

OIC = 1.tan60
o
=
3
3

Trong A vung OAB ta c
2 2 2
1 1 1
OB OA OI
+ =
2 3 2
1
3
1
3
3
1
OB
+ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
OB =
26
3

B
1
(0; 26 ;0) e Oy hoc B
2
(0; 26 ;0) e Oy .Vy c hai mt phng (Q) tho mn l
1
1 3
26
3
= +
z y x
hay (Q) : x 26 y + 3z 3 = 0

10
Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz . Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua hai im
( ) ( ) 2;1; 3 , 1; 2;1 M N v song song vi ng thng d c phng trnh l:
1
: 2
3 2
x t
d y t
z t
= +


Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) i qua hai im ( ) ( ) 2;1; 3 , 1; 2;1 M N v song song vi ng thng d
mt phng ( ) i qua im M v n MN

;

n

d
u

(vi MN

v
d
u

khng cng phng)


mt phng ( ) i qua im M v c vtpt

= [ MN

,
d
u

] = ( ) 10; 4;1
mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
10(x 2) 4(y 1) + 1(z 3) = 0 hay ( ) : 10 4 19 0 x y z + =
Cch 2:
Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) ; ; n A B C


- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 2;1; 3 M ( ) .2 .1 .3 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 1; 2;1 N ( ) ( ) .1 . 2 .1 0 2 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) song song vi ng thng d ( ) ( ) . 0 .1 .2 . 2 0 3
d
n u A B C

= + + =


T (1) v (2) ta c
1 3 1 7
,
2 2 2 2
C A B D A B = = + th vo (3) ta c 2 5 A B = chn
1 19
5, 2 ,
2 2
A B C D = = = =
Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) l
1 19
5 2 0 10 4 19 0
2 2
x y z x y z + = + =
Bi 5: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz, cho cc im A(-1;1;0), B(0;0;-2) v C(1;1;1). Hy vit
phng trnh mt phng (P) qua hai im A v B, ng thi khong cch t C ti mt phng (P) bng
3 .
Gii:
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 1;1; 0 A ( ) ( ) . 1 .1 .0 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 0; 0; 2 B ( ) ( ) .0 .0 . 2 0 2 A B C D + + + =
T (1) v (2) ta c ( )
1
,
2
C A B D A B = =
Nn mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l ( ) ( )
1
0
2
Ax By A B z A B + + + =
Theo gi thit
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
( )
2 2
2
2 2
1
7 2
; 3 3 5 2 7 0 1
5
1
2
A B A B A B
A A
d I P A AB B
B B
A B A B
+ + +
= = = = . =

+ +




11
Vi 1
A
B
= chn ( ) 1, 1 1, 2 : 2 0 A B C D P x y z = = = = + + =
Vi
7
5
A
B
= chn ( ) 7, 5 1, 2 : 7 5 2 0 A B C D P x y z = = = = + + + =
Nhn xt:
Gi O c b a n = = ) ; ; ( l vct php tuyn ca (P)

V (P) qua A(-1 ;1 ;0) pt ( ) ( ) ( ) : 1 1 0 P a x b y cz + + + =

M (P) qua B(0;0;-2) 2 0 2 a b c b a c = =

Ta c PT ( ) ( ) : 2 2 0 P ax a c y cz c + + + =
( ) ( )
2 2
2 2 2
2
; 3 3 2 16 14 0
7
( 2 )
a c a c
d C P a ac c
a c
a a c c
+ =
= = + =

=
+ +

TH 1: c a = ta chn 1 = = c a Pt ca ( ) : 2 0 P x y z + + =

TH 2: c a 7 = ta chn a = 7; c = 1 Pt ca ( ) : 7 5 2 0 P x y z + + + =
Bi 7: Trong khng gian vi h trc to Oxyz cho im A(1;0;1), B(2;1;2) v mt phng
( ) : 2 3 3 0 Q x y z + + + = . Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A, B v vung gc vi (Q).
HD:
Ta c (1;1;1), (1; 2; 3), ; (1; 2;1)
Q Q
AB n AB n

=



V ; 0
Q
AB n

=


nn mt phng (P) nhn ;
Q
AB n



lm vc t php tuyn
Vy (P) c phng trnh x 2y + z 2 =0
Bi 8: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho 2 im I( 0;0;1) v K( 3;0;0). Vit phng trnh mt phng qua
I, K v to vi mt phng (xOy) mt gc bng
0
30
Gii:
Gi s mt phng cn c dng : ( ) : 1 ( , , 0)
x y z
a b c
a b c
+ + = =
( ) 1 ( ) 3 ( ) : 1
3 1
x y z
Do I c v do K a
b
e = e = + + =

( )
( )
( )
0
0
0
0
.
1 1 3 2
( ; ;1) (0; 0;1) cos 30
3 2
.
x y
x y
x y
n n
n v n k b
b
n n

= = = = =




( ) : 1
3 1
3 2
2
x y z
+ =
Bi 9: (H B 2009 ) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho t din ABCD c cc nh
( ) ( ) ( ) 1; 2;1 , 2;1; 3 , 2; 1;1 A B C v ( ) 0; 3;1 D . Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A, B sao cho
khong cch t C n mt phng (P) bng khong cch t D n mt phng (P)
Gii:
Cch 1:
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 ax by cz d a b c + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =



12
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 1; 2;1 A ( ) .1 .2 .1 0 1 a b c d + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 2;1; 3 B ( ) ( ) . 2 .1 .3 0 2 a b c d + + + =
T (1) v (2) ta c ( )
3 1 5
,
2 2 2
c a b d a b = + = +
Nn mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l ( )
3 1 5
0
2 2 2
ax by a b z a b
| |
+ + + + =
|
\ .

Theo gi thit ( ) ( ) , , d C P d D P =


( )
2 2
2 2 2 2
3 1 5 5 3 1 5 5
.2 . 1 .1 .0 .3 .1
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
3 1 3 1
2 2 2 2
2 4
3
2 0
a b a b a b a b a b a b
a b a b a b a b
a b
a b a b
b
| | | |
+ + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
=
| | | |
+ + + + + +
| |
\ . \ .
=
=

=


Vi 2 4 a b = chn ( )
1
4, 2 7, 15 : 4 2 7 15 0 a b c d P x y z = = = = + + =
Vi 2 0 b = chn ( ) ( )
2 2
3 5 3 5
0, 1 , : 0 : 2 3 5 0
2 2 2 2
b a c d P x z P x z = = = = + = + =
Cch 2: Xt hai trng hp
TH1 : (P) // CD. Ta c : AB ( 3; 1; 2), CD ( 2; 4; 0) = =


(P) cPVT n ( 8; 4; 14) hay n (4; 2; 7)
(P) : 4(x 1) 2(y 2) 7(z 1) 0
4x 2y 7z 15 0
= =
+ + =
+ + =


TH2 : (P) qua I (1;1;1) l trung im CD
Ta c AB ( 3; 1; 2), AI (0; 1;0)
(P) c PVT n (2;0;3)
(P) :2(x 1) 3(z 1) 0 2x 3z 5 0
= =
=
+ = + =


p s: ( )
1
: 4 2 7 15 0 P x y z + + = v ( )
2
: 2 3 5 0 P x z + =
Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h trc to Oxyz cho im ( ) ( ) 1; 0;1 , 2;1; 2 A B v mt phng
( ) : 2 3 3 0 Q x y z + + + = . Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A, B v vung gc vi (Q).
s: ( ) : 2 2 0 P x y z + =
Bi 2: Lp phng trnh mp(P) i qua ( ) ( ) 0;3; 0 , 1; 1;1 M N v to vi mt phng ( ): 5 0 Q x y z + + =
mt gc vi
1
cos
3
=
Bi 3: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua ( ) ( ) 1; 1;3 , 1; 0; 4 M N v to vi mt phng
( ): 2 5 0 Q x y z + + = mt gc nh nht .
s: ( ): 4 0 P y z + =
Bi 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua hai im ( ) ( ) 1; 2; 3 , 2; 2; 4 M N v song song vi Oy.
(Ti liu n thi tt nghip nm 2009)

13
s: ( ) : 2 0 x z + =
Bi 5: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho mt phng ( ) : 2 3 7 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh
mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) ( ) 1;1; 0 , 1; 2; 7 A B v vung gc vi (P).
(Ti liu n thi tt nghip nm 2009)
s: ( ) : 11 8 2 19 0 x y z + + =

Dng 3: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua ba im M
o
(x
o
;y
o
;z
o
) M
1
(x
1
;y
1
;z
1
) v M
3
(x
3
;y
3
;z
3
)
khng thng hng cho trc
Phng php:
Cch 1:
- Tm hai vecto
0 1 0 2
, M M M M


- Tm vtpt
0 1 0 2
, n M M M M =



- ( ) P l mt phng qua
0
M v c VTPT n


Cch 2:
- Gi s phng trnh mt phng ( ) P l ( ) 0 1 Ax By Cz D + + + =
2 2 2
( 0) A B C + + =
- V ( ) P i qua ba im
0 1
, M M v
2
M thay ta vo phng trnh (1) c h 3 n, 3 phng trnh
theo , A B v C. Gii h ny ta c , A B v C
- Thay vo phng trnh (1) ta c phng trnh mt phng ( ) P

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (SGK Ban C Bn T80) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) i qua ba im M( ) 3; 0; 0 ; ( ) 0; 2; 0 N v ( ) 0; 0; 1 P
Gii:
Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) i qua ba im ( ) 3; 0; 0 M ; ( ) 0; 2; 0 N v ( ) 0; 0; 1 P mt phng ( ) i qua im M
v

MN

;

n

MP

(vi MN

v MP

khng cng phng)


mt phng ( ) i qua im M v nhn vtpt

= [ MN

, MP

] = (2;3;6)
mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
2(x + 3) + 3(y 0 ) + 6(z 0) = 0 hay ( ) : 2x + 3y + 6z + 6 = 0
Cch 2:
Gi s mt phng ( ) c dng
2 2 2
0 ( 0) Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
- Mt phng ( ) i qua M( ) 3; 0; 0 ( ) ( ) . 1 .0 .0 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 0; 2; 0 N ( ) ( ) .0 . 2 .0 0 2 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) i qua ( ) 0; 0; 1 P ( ) ( ) .0 .0 . 1 0 3 A B C D + + + =
Gii h (1), (2) v (3) ta c A = 2, B = 3, C = 6 v D = 6 .
Vy mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l 2 3 6 6 0 x y z + + + =
Cch 3:
Nhn thy M( ) 3; 0; 0 e Ox ; N( ) 0; 2; 0 e Oy v P( ) 0; 0; 1 e Oz nn phng trnh mt phng ( ) l
mt phng theo on chn c dng :
14
1
1 2 3
=

z y x
hay ( ) : 2 3 6 6 0 x y z + + + =

Dng 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng trung trc ca on MN, bit M v N c to cho trc
Phng php:
- Tnh ta trung im I ca MN v tnh MN


- Mt phng trung trc ca on MN l mt phng i qua I v c vtpt
P
n MN =


- Bit mt im v mt vtpt ta c phng trnh mt phng cn tm

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (SGK Ban C Bn T80) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh trung trc
ca on thng AB vi A(2;3;7) v B(4;1;3)
Gii:
Cch 1:
Gi I l trung im ca on thng AB I(3;2;5) .Mt phng trung trc (P) ca on AB i trung im
I ca A,B v vung gc vi on thng AB mt phng trung trc (P) ca on AB i qua I v nhn
vect AB

= ( ) 2; 2; 4 = 2( ) 1; 1; 2 lm vtpt
mt phng trung trc (P) c phng trnh l:
1(x 3) 1(y 2) 2(z 5 ) = 0 hay ( ) : 2 9 0 P x y z + =
Cch 2: (Phng php qu tch )
Mi im M(x;y;z) thuc mt phng trung trc (P) ca on AB MA = MB
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2
2 3 7 4 1 3 MA MB x y z x y z = + + = + +
2 9 0 x y z + =
Cch 3:
Mt phng trung trc (P) nhn AB

lm vtpt lun c dng x y 2z + D = 0 ,v I e mt phng trung


trc 3 2 2.5 + D D = 9 mt phng trung trc (P) c phng trnh l : x y 2z + 9 = 0
Cch 4:
Mt phng trung trc (P) nhn AB

lm vtpt lun c dng x y + 2z + D = 0 v mt phng (P) cch u


( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , , A B d A P d B P =

4 1 1
' 7 . 2 3 2
+ +
+ + D
=
4 1 1
' 3 . 2 1 4
+ +
+ + D
9 ' 13 ' + = + D D D = 9
Vy mt phng trung trc (P) c phng trnh l: 2 9 0 x y z + =
Nhn xt :
- Bi ton ny thc cht l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua mt im v vung gc gi ca
mt vect (thuc dng 1)
- Vect i qua hai im cho trc c coi l mt vtcp ca ng thng

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho 2 im ( ) ( ) 1; 4; 5 , 3; 2; 7 E F . Vit phng trnh mt
phng ( ) l trung trc ca on thng EF.
( thi tt nghip THPT h phn ban ln 2 nm 2007)
s: ( ) : 3 5 0 x y z + + =

15
Dng 5: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) song song v cch u hai hai ng thng (
1
A ) v (
2
A )
cho trc
Phng php:
- Mt phng (P) song song vi hai ng thng
1 2
v A A nn c vtpt
1 2
;
P
n u u

=



- mt phng (P) cch u hai ng thng
1 2
v A A nn (P) i qua trung im ca I ca MN vi
1 2
M v N eA eA ...Quay v dng 4

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (HSP HN 2 98) Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai ng thng c phng trnh l
d :

=
=
+ =
t z
t y
t x
2
1
2
v d :

=
= +
0 3
0 2 2
y
z x

a. Chng minh rng d v d cho nhau
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) song song v ng thi cch u d v d
Gii:
a. Chn im M(2;1;0) e d v d c vtcp ( ) 1; 1; 2
d
u =

,chn im N(0;3;1) e d v d c vtcp


( )
'
2; 0;1
d
u =

.Tnh n

= [
d
u

,
' d
u

] = ( ) 1; 5; 2 (vi
d
u

v
' d
u

khng cng phng) v ( ) 2; 2;1 MN =


. Xt ( ) . 1. 2 5.2 2.1 10 0 n MN = = =


d v d cho nhau
b. Gi I |
.
|

\
|
2
1
; 2 ; 1 l trung im ca M v N .Mt phng (P) song song v cch u d v d
mt phng (P) i qua I v c vtpt
P
n

= n

mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :


1(x 1) 5(y 2) 2 |
.
|

\
|

2
1
z = 0 hay (P) : x + 5y + 2x 12 = 0
Nhn xt :
- Mt phng (P) song song v ng thi cch u d v d thc cht l mt phng trung trc ca on M v
N nn c th p dng cc cch bi (dng 4 )
Bi 2: Vit phng trnh mt phng cch u hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
bit:

1
2
: 2
3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

v
2
1 2 1
:
2 1 5
x y z
d

= =
Gii:
ng thng d
2
c phng trnh tham s l:
1 2 '
2 '
1 5 '
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +

= +


vect ch phng ca d
1
v d
2
l:
1 2
(1;1; 1), (2;1; 5) u u = =


VTPT ca mp( ) l
1 2
. (6; 7; 1)
d d
n u u

= =



pt mp( ) c dng 6x 7y z + D = 0
ng thng d
1
v d
2
ln lt i qua 2 M(2; 2; 3) v N(1; 2; 1)
( , ( )) ( , ( )) | 12 14 3 | | 6 14 1 |
| 5 | | 9 | 7
d M d N D D
D D D
= + = +
+ = + =


16
Vy PT mp( ) l: 3x y 4z +7 0 =

Dng 6: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) song song v cch u hai mt phng (Q
1
) v Q
2
(vi Q
1
v
Q
2
song song vi nhau)
Ch :
- S dng cng thc khong cch
- Khong cch gia hai mt phng song song chnh l khong cch t mt im thuc mt phng ny ti
mt phng kia

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai mt phng (P) v (Q) c phng trnh l
(P) : 3x y + 4z + 2 = 0 v (Q) : 3x y + 4z + 8 = 0
Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) song song v cch u (P), (Q)
Gii:
V
P
n

=
Q
n

= (3;-1;4) v 2 = 8 nn (P) // (Q), chn im M(0;2;0)e(P) v im N(0;8;0)e(Q)


Mt phng ( ) song song vi (P) v (Q) lun c dng 3x y + 4z + D = 0, v ( ) cch u (P) v (Q)
nn ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , d M d N =

16 1 9
' 0 . 4 2 0 . 3
+ +
+ + D
=
16 1 9
' 0 . 4 8 0 . 3
+ +
+ + D
8 ' 2 ' = D D D = 4
Vy mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :3x y + 4z + 4 = 0

Dng 7: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) tip xc vi mt mt cu (S) v tha mn mt iu kin cho trc
Phng php:
- Bc 1: Xc nh tm I v bn knh R ca mt cu (S) v vtpt hoc vtcp
- Bc 2: T iu kin cho trc xc nh vtpt
P
n

, gi s ( ) ; ;
P
n a b c =

khi mt phng ( ) P c dng


'
ax 0 by cz D + + + = vi
'
0 D = (1)
- Bc 3: Mt phng (P) tip xc vi mt cu (S) ( ) ( )
, d I P R = , t y c phng trnh theo D,
gii phng trnh (ti tuyt i) c D thay vo (1) ta c phng trnh mt phng ( ) P cn tm
- Bc 4: Kt lun (thng c hai mt phng tha mn)
Ch : iu kin cho trc l
- Song song vi mt phng ( ) Q cho trc
P Q
n n =


- Vung gc vi ng thng d cho trc
P d
n u =


- Song song vi hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
cho trc
| |
1 2
,
P
n u u =


- Vung gc vi hai mt phng ( ) Q v ( ) R cho trc
| |
1 2
,
P
n n n =


- Song song vi ng thng d v vung gc vi mt phng ( ) Q cho trc ,
P d Q
n u n =



Ch :
Nu mt phng ( ) P tip xc vi mt cu (S) ti ( ) M S e th mt phng ( ) P i qua im M v c VTPT
l MI




Bi tp gii mu:


17

Bi 1: (SGK Ban C Bn T93) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz. Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) tip xc vi mt cu (S) c phng trnh ( )
2 2 2
: 10 2 26 170 0 S x y z x y z + + + + + =
v song song vi hai ng thng

5 2
: 1 3
13 2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


7 3 '
: 1 2 '
8
x t
d y t
z
= +


Gii :
Ta c ( ) 2; 3; 2
d
u =

v ( )
'
3; 2; 0
d
u =

.
Mt cu (S) (x 5)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
+ (z + 13)
2
= 25
mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 5; 1; 13 I v bn knh R = 5
Mt phng ( ) song song vi d v d
mt phng ( ) c

d
u

;

n

' d
u

(vi
d
u

v
' d
u

khng cng phng )


mt phng ( ) c vtpt

= [
d
u

,
' d
u

] = (4;6;5)
mt phng ( ) lun c dng 4x + 6y + 5z + D = 0
Mt phng ( ) tip xc vi mt cu (S) d(I,( )) = R
5
25 36 16
' ) 13 .( 5 ) 1 .( 6 5 . 4
=
+ +
+ + + D
77 5 52 ' = D D = 52 5 77
Vy c hai mt phng ( ) tha mn bi l :
( )
1
: 4x + 6y + 5z + 51 + 5 77 = 0
( )
2
: 4x + 6y + 5z + 51 5 77 = 0
Bi 2: (SBT Ban Nng Cao T138) Trong khng gian Oxyz. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) tip xc
vi mt cu (S) v vung gc vi ng thng d c phng trnh ln lt l :
(S): x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
10x + 2y + 26z 113 = 0 v
5 1 13
:
2 3 2
x y z
d
+ +
= =


Gii:
ng thng d c vtcp ( ) 2; 3; 2
d
u =

.
Mt cu (S) (x 5)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
+ (z + 13)
2
= 308
mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 5; 1; 13 I v bn knh 308 R =
Mt phng (P) vung gc vi ng thng d nn c vtpt ( ) 2; 3; 2
P d
n u = =


mt phng (P) lun c dng 2x 3y + 2z + D = 0
Mt phng (P) tip xc vi mt cu (S) ( ) ( )
, d I P R =
2.( 5) 3.( 1) 2.( 13) '
308 ' 13 5236 ' 13 5236
4 9 4
D
D D
+ +
= = =
+ +

Vy c hai mt phng (P) tha mn u bi l :
(P
1
): 2x 3y + 2z + 13 + 5236 = 0
(P
2
): 2x 3y + 2z + 13 5236 = 0
Bi 3: (SGK Ban Nng Cao T90 HGTVT 1998 ) Trong khng gian Oxyz. Vit phng trnh
mt phng (P) song song vi mt phng (Q) v tip xc vi mt cu (S) c phng trnh ln lt l :
( ) : 4 3 12 1 0 Q x y z + + = v ( )
2 2 2
: 2 4 6 2 0 S x y z x y z + + =
Gii:

18
Mt phng (Q) c vtpt ( ) 4; 3; 12
Q
n =

.
Mt cu (S) (x 1)
2
+ (y 2)
2
+ (z 3)
2
= 16
mt cu (S) c tm I(1;2;3) v c bn kinh R = 4
Mt phng (P) song song vi mt phng (Q)
mt phng (P) lun c dng 4x + 3y 12z + D = 0
Mt phng (P) tip xc vi mt cu (S) ( ) ( )
, d I P R =
4.1 3.2 12.3 ' ' 26
4 ' 26 52
' 78
16 9 144
D D
D
D
+ + =
= =

=
+ +


Vy c hai mt phng tha mn u bi l :
(P
1
): 4x + 3y 12z + 78 = 0
(P
2
): 4x + 3y 12z 26 = 0
Bi 4: (Ti Liu n Thi Tt Nghip 2009) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz . Vit phng trnh
mt phng ( ) song song vi trc Oz, vung gc vi mt phng (P): x + y + z = 0 v tip xc vi mt
cu (S): x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
2x + 2y 4z 3 = 0
Gii:
Mt phng (P) c vtpt
P
n

= (1;1;1) .
Mt cu (S) (x 1)
2
+ (y + 1)
2
+ (z 2)
2
= 9
mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 1; 1; 2 I v c bn knh R = 3
Mt phng ( ) song song vi trc Oz v vung gc vi mt phng (P)
mt phng ( ) c

;

n

P
n

(vi k

v
P
n

khng cng phng )


mt phng ( ) c vtpt

= [ k

,
P
n

] = ( ) 1; 1; 0
mt phng ( ) lun c dng x y + D = 0
Mt phng ( ) tip xc vi mt cu (S) ( ) ( )
, d I P R =
1.1 1.( 1) '
3 ' 2 3 2 2 3 2
1 1
D
D D
+
= + = =
+

Vy c hai mt phng tho mn u bi l:
( )
1
: x y 2 + 3 2 = 0
( )
2
: x y 2 3 2 = 0
Bi 5: (SBT Ban Nng Cao T126) Trong khng gian vi h to O xyz cho mt cu
(S): x
2
+ y
2
+ z
2
6x 2y + 4z + 5 = 0 v im M(4;3;0) .Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) tip xc vi
mt cu (S) v i qua im M
Gii:
V M(4;3;0) e (S) nn mt phng (P) i qua M v tip xc vi mt cu (S) l mt phng i qua M v
nhn ( ) 1; 2; 2 IM =

lm vtpt vi ( ) 3;1; 2 I l tm ca mt cu (S)


mt phng (P) c phng trnh l:
1(x 4) + 2(y 3) + 2(z 0 ) = 0 hay (P): x + 2y + 2z 10 = 0
Bi 6: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho mt cu
2 2 2
( ) : 2 6 4 2 0 S x y z x y z + + + = . Vit
phng trnh mt phng (P) song song vi gi ca vc t (1; 6; 2) v

, vung gc vi mt phng
( ) : 4 11 0 x y z + + = v tip xc vi (S).
Gii:
Ta c mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 1; 3; 2 I v bn knh 4 R =
Vc t php tuyn ca ( ) l (1; 4;1) n


V ( ) ( ) P v song song vi gi ca v

nn nhn vc t (2; 1; 2)
p
n n v = . =

lm vtpt.

19
Do ( ) : 2 2 0 P x y z m + + =
V (P) tip xc vi (S) nn
21
( , ( )) 4 ( , ( )) 4
3
m
d I P d I P
m
=
= =

=


Vy c hai mt phng: ( )
1
: 2 2 21 0 P x y z + = v ( )
2
: 2 2 3 0 P x y z + + =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) tip xc vi mt cu
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 2 1 1 9 S x y z + + + = v vung gc vi ng thng
1
: 1 2
1 3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


s: 2 3 7 3 14 0 x y z + + = v 2 3 7 3 14 0 x y z + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 4 2 4 7 0 S x y z x y z + + + =
v hai ng thng
4 0
:
3 1 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

+ =

v
1 2
:
1 2 2
x y z
d
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( )


l tip din ca (S) ng thi song song vi d v d.
s: 4 7 12 2 0 x y z + + = v 4 7 12 2 0 x y z + =
Bi 3: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) ( ) / / : 2 2 4 0 P x y z + + = v tip xc vi mt cu (S) c
phng trnh:
2 2 2
2 2 4 3 0 x y z x y z + + + + =
s: 2 2 17 0 x y z + + = v 2 2 1 0 x y z + =
Bi 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng( ) ( ) / / : 2 2 1 0 P x y z + + = v tip xc vi mt cu (S)
c phng trnh: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 1 2 4. x y z + + + =
s: 2 2 6 0 x y z + + = v 2 2 6 0 x y z + =
Bi 5: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) tip xc vi mt cu
( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 4 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = v vung gc vi ng thng
1 2
:
1 2 2
x y z
d
+
= =


s: 2 2 6 0 x y z + + = v 2 2 12 0 x y z + =
Bi 6: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) song song vi
2 1
:
1 3 1
x y z
d
+
= =

, vung gc vi
( ) : 2 1 0 P x y z + + = v tip xc vi mt cu ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
: 2 1 9 S x y z + + + =
s: 4 3 5 11 15 2 0 x y z + + + + = v 4 3 5 11 15 2 0 x y z + + + =
Bi 7: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 4 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + + =
v hai ng thng
2 2 0
:
2 0
x y
d
x z
+ =

v
'
1
:
1 1 1
x y z
d

= =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) l tip
din ca (S) ng thi song song vi d v d.
s: 3 3 2 0 y z + + = v 3 3 2 0 y z + + + =
Bi 8: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz, lp phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua hai im ( ) 0; 1; 2 , A
( ) 1; 0; 3 B v tip xc vi mt cu ( ) S c phng trnh:
2 2 2
( 1) ( 2) ( 1) 2 x y z + + + =


20
Dng 8: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha mt ng thng A cho trc v tho mn iu kin
Loi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng A v vung gc vi mt phng ( )
Phng php:
1. Tm VTPT ca ( ) l n

v VTCP ca A l u
A


2. VTPT ca mt phng ( ) l: n n u
A
= .


3. Ly mt im M trn A
4. p dng cch vit phng trnh mt phng i qua 1 im v c 1 VTPT
Ch : Thc cht y l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua hai im v vung gc vi mt mt
phng
Loi 2: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng A v song song vi A ( A, A cho nhau)
Phng php:
1. Tm VTCP ca A v A l u
A

v
'
u
A


2. VTPT ca mt phng ( ) l:
'
n u u
A A
= .


3. Ly mt im M trn A
4. p dng cch vit phng trnh mt phng i qua 1 im v c 1 VTPT
Ch : Thc cht y l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua hai im v song song vi mt
ng thng
Loi 3: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng A v 1 im M
Phng php:
1. Tm VTCP ca A l u
A

, ly 1 i m N trnA. Tnh ta MN


2. VTPT ca mt phng ( ) l: n u MN
A
= .


3. p dng cch vit phng trnh mt phng i qua 1 im v c 1 VTPT
Ch : Thc cht y l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua ba im phn bit cho trc
Loi 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng A v to vi mt phng ( ) (hoc ng
thng d ) mt gc
Loi 5: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng A v cch mt im M khng thuc A
mt khong h

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (SBT Ban Nng Cao T125) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz .Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) P
a. i qua im ( ) 2;1; 1
o
M v qua giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) Q v ( ) R c phng trnh ln lt l:
4 0 x y z + = v 3 1 0 x y z + =
b. Qua giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) : 3 2 0 x y z + = v ( ) : 4 5 0 x y + = ng thi vung gc
vi mt phng ( ) : 2 7 0 x z + =
Gii:
a. Cch 1:
Gi A l giao tuyn ca (Q) v (R) c phng trnh
A :

= +
= +
0 1 3
0 4
z y x
z y x


21
chn hai im
3 11
; ;0
2 2
M
| |
|
\ .
v
3 11
; 0;
2 2
N
| |
eA
|
\ .

Mt phng (P) i qua giao tuyn ca (Q) v (P) mt phng (P) cha giao tuyn A
mt phng (P) i qua ba im M
o
; M v N
(P) i qua im M
o
v c vtpt
P
n

= [
0
M M

,
0
M N

] = ( ) 7 ; 7 ; 15
4
11
4
77
;
4
77
;
4
165

= |
.
|

\
|
(vi
0
M M

v
0
M N

khng cng phng )


mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
15(x 2) 7(y 1) + 7(z + 1) = 0 hay ( ) : 15 7 7 16 0 P x y z + =
Cch 2:
Gi A l giao tuyn ca ( ) Q v ( ) R A c phng trnh

4 0
:
3 1 0
x y z
x y z
+ =
A

+ =


Chn hai im
3 11
; ; 0
2 2
M
| |

|
\ .
v
3 11
;0;
2 2
N
| |

|
\ .
eA
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


- Mt phng ( ) P i qua
3 11
; ; 0
2 2
M
| |

|
\ .
( )
3 11
. . .0 0 1
2 2
A B C D
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

- Mt phng ( ) P i qua
3 11
; 0;
2 2
N
| |

|
\ .
( )
3 11
. .0 . 0 2
2 2
A B C D
| |
+ + + =
|
\ .

- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 2;1; 1
o
M ( ) ( ) .2 .1 . 1 0 3 A B C D + + + =
Gii h (1), (2) v (3) ta c ( ) 15, 7, 7, 16 : 15 7 7 16 0 A B C D P x y z = = = = + =
Cch 3: S dng phng php chm (tham kho phn sau)
Nhn xt: Thc cht bi ton ny chnh l bi ton ny chnh l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i
qua ba im (trong hai im cn li thuc giao tuyn ca hai mt phng)
b. Cch 1:
Gi A l giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) A c phng trnh
A:

= +
= +
0 5 4
0 2 3
y x
z y x

Chn hai im ( ) M 5; 0; 13 v N(1;1;0) e A
Mt phng (P) i qua giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ), ( ) v vung gc vi mt phng ( )
mt phng (P) cha giao tuyn A v vung gc vi mt phng ( )
mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt
P
n

= [ MN

,

n

] = ( ) 1; 22; 2
mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
1(x 5) + 22(y 0 ) 2(z + 13) = 0 hay (P) : x 22y + 2z + 21 = 0
Hoc c th tnh ,
P
n u n
A
=



Nhn xt:
Thc cht bi ton ny chnh l bi ton ny chnh l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua hai
im v vung gc vi mt mt phng (trong hai im cn li thuc giao tuyn ca hai mt phng)
Cch 2:
. Gi A l giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) A c phng trnh

22
A:

= +
= +
0 5 4
0 2 3
y x
z y x

Chn hai im ( ) 5; 0; 13 M v ( ) 1;1; 0 N eA
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 5; 0; 13 M ( ) ( ) .5 .0 . 13 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 1;1; 0 N ( ) .1 .1 .0 0 2 A B C D + + + =
T (1) v (2) ta c
4
13
A B
C

= v D A B =
Nn mt phng ( ) P c vtpt
4
; ;
13
P
A B
n A B
| |
=
|
\ .


Mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) 2; 0; 1 n

, mt phng ( ) P vung gc vi ( )
( )
4
. .2 .0 . 1 0 22
13
P
A B
n n A B A B

| |
+ + = =
|
\ .

chn 1, 22 2, 21 A B C D = = = =
Vy mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l 22 2 21 0 x y z + + =
Cch 3: S dng phng php chm (tham kho phn sau)
Bi 2: (H A 2002) Trong khng gian vi h to vung gc Oxyz cho hai ng thng
1
2 4 0
:
2 2 4 0
x y z
x y z
+ =
A

+ + =


2
1
: 2
1 2
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +

= +


Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P cha ng thng
1
A v song song vi ng thng
2
A
Gii:
Cch 1:
Chn ( ) M 0; 2; 0 e A
1
v A
1
c vtcp
1
u

= (2;3;4), A
2
c vtcp
2
u

= (1;1;2)
Mt phng (P) cha ng thng A
1
v song song vi ng thng A
2

mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt
P
n


= [
1
u

,
2
u

] = (2;0;-1)
mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
2(x 0 ) + 0(y + 2) 1(z 0 ) = 0 hay 2 0 x z =
Hoc C th tnh vtpt l
2
,
P
n MN u

=


vi
1
, M N eA
Cch 2:
Chn hai im
4 8
; 0;
3 3
M
| |
|
\ .
v ( ) 0; 2; 0 N
1
eA
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


- Mt phng ( ) P i qua
4 8
; 0;
3 3
M
| |
|
\ .
( )
4 8
. .0 . 0 1
3 3
A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( ) 0; 2; 0 N ( ) ( ) .0 . 2 .0 0 2 A B C D + + + =
T (1) v (2) ta c
1 3
2 4
C A B = v 2 D B =
Nn mt phng ( ) P c vtpt
1 3
; ;
2 4
P
n A B A B
| |
=
|
\ .



23
ng thng
2
A c vtcp ( )
2
1;1; 2 u =

, mt phng ( ) P song song vi ng thng


2
A

2
1 3
. .1 .1 .2 0 5 0
2 4
P
n u A B A B B
| |
+ + = =
|
\ .

chn
1
1, 0 , 0
2
A B C D = = = =
Vy mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l
1
0 2 0
2
x z x z = =
Cch 3: S dng phng php chm (tham kho phn sau)
Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P i qua giao tuyn ca hai
mt phng ( ) : 3 0 x y z + = v ( ) : 3 5 1 0 x y z + + = ng thi song song vi mt
phng( ) : 2 3 0 x y z + + =
Gii:
Cch 1:
Gi A l giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) A c phng trnh
A :

= + +
= +
0 1 5 3
0 3
z y x
z y x

Chn M A e |
.
|

\
|

3
4
;
3
4
; 3
Mt phng (P) i qua giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) ng thi song song vi mt phng ( )
mt phng (P) cha giao tuyn A v song song vi mt phng ( )
mt phng (P) i qua im M v lun c dng: x + y + 2z + D = 0
( ) P i qua im M nn 3 + |
.
|

\
|

3
4
+ 2 |
.
|

\
|

3
4
+ D = 0 D = 1
Vy mt phng (P) c phng trnh x + y + 2z + 1 = 0
Hoc: Mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt ,
P
n u n
A

=



Hoc: Mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt ,
P
n MN n


=


vi , M N eA
Cch 2:
Gi A l giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) A c phng trnh

3 0
:
3 5 1 0
x y z
x y z
+ =
A

+ + =


Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


Chn hai im ( )
1
7; 0; 4 M v ( )
2
1; 2; 0 M eA
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( )
1
7; 0; 4 M ( ) ( ) .7 .0 . 4 0 1 A B C D + + + =
- Mt phng ( ) P i qua ( )
2
1; 2; 0 M ( ) ( ) .1 . 2 .0 0 2 A B C D + + + =
T (1) v (2) ta c
3
2
B A
C
+
= v 2 D B A =
Nn mt phng ( ) P c vtpt
3
; ;
2
P
B A
n A B
+ | |
=
|
\ .


Mt phng ( ) c vtpt ( ) 1;1; 2 n

, mt phng ( ) P song song vi ( )

P
n

cng phng
2 . 2
3
1 1
A B B A +
= = chn 1, 1 2, 1 A B C D = = = =

24
Vy mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh l 2 1 0 x y z + + + =
Cch 3: S dng phng php chm (tham kho phn sau)
Nhn xt :
Thc cht bi ton ny chnh l bi ton ny chnh l bi ton vit phng trnh mt phng i qua mt
im v song song mt mt phng (trong mt im cn li thuc giao tuyn ca hai mt phng)
Bi 5: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai im ( ) ( ) 1; 3; 2 , 3; 7; 18 A B v mt phng
( ) : 2 1 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh mt phng cha AB v vung gc vi mp (P).
Gii:
Gi (Q) l mt phng cn tm
Ta c ( 2, 4, 16) AB =

cng phng vi ( 1, 2, 8) a =


Mt phng (P) c vtpt
1
(2; 1;1) n =


Mt phng (Q) cha ng thng AB v vung gc vi mt phng (P) nn c
vtpt ( ) ( ) , 6;15; 3 3 2; 5;1
Q
n n a

= = =



Chn vtpt ca mt phng (Q) l
2
(2, 5,1) n =


Mp(Q) cha AB v vung gc vi (P) i qua A nhn
2
(2, 5,1) n =

l vtpt c phng trnh l:


2(x + 1) + 5(y 3) + 1(z + 2) = 0 2x + 5y + z 11 = 0

Bi 6: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho hai ng thng d v d

ln lt c phng trnh l:
d : z
y
x =

=
1
2
v d :
1
5
3
2
2

+
= =
z
y
x
.
Vit phng trnh mt phng ) ( i qua d v to vi d

mt gc
0
30
Gii:
- ng thng d i qua im ) 0 ; 2 ; 0 ( M v c vtcp (1; 1;1) u


- ng thng d

i qua im ) 5 ; 3 ; 2 ( ' M v c vtcp '(2;1; 1) u


Gi s mt phng ) ( c vtpt ( ; ; ) n A B C =


Mt phng ) ( phi i qua im M v c vtpt n

vung gc vi v u
ng thi to vi ng thng d

mt gc
0
30 tc l
2
1
60 cos ) ' ; cos(
0
= = u n
Ta c h

=
+ +
+
= +
2
1
6
2
0
2 2 2
C B A
C B A
C B A

=
+ =

+ + + =
+ =
0 2 ) ( 6 3 2
2 2 2 2 2
C AC A
C A B
C C A A A
C A B

Gii phng trnh
2 2
2 0 ( )(2 ) 0
2
A C
A AC C A C A C
A C
=
= + =

=

.
- Nu C A = , chn 1 A C = = , khi 2 = B , tc l (1; 2;1) n =

v mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l


0 ) 2 ( 2 = + + z y x hay 2 4 0 x y z + + =
- Nu C A = 2 , chn 2 , 1 = = C A , khi 1 = B , tc l (1; 1; 2) n =

v mt phng ( ) c phng trnh


l 0 2 ) 2 ( = z y x hay 2 2 0 x y z + =
Bi 7: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho hai ng thng
1
1 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =

v
2
2 1
:
1 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng cha


1
d v hp vi
2
d mt gc 30
0


25
Gii:
Gi s mt phng ( ) P c dng :
( )
2 2 2
0 0 Ax By Cz D A B C + + + = + + =
mt phng ( ) P c vtpt ( ) ; ;
P
n A B C =


Trn ng thng
1
d ly 2 im ( ) ( ) 1; 0; 1 , 1;1; 0 M N
Do ( ) P qua , M N nn:
0 2
0
A C D C A B
A B D D A B
+ = =


+ + = =


Nn ( ) : (2 ) 0 P Ax By A B z A B + + + = .
Theo gi thit ta c
0
2 2 2 2 2 2
1. 1. 1.(2 )
1
sin30
2
1 ( 1) 1 . (2 )
A B A B
A B A B
+
= =
+ + + +

2 2 2 2
2 3 2 3(5 4 2 ) 21 36 10 0 A B A AB B A AB B = + + =
D thy 0 B = nn chn 1 B = , suy ra:
18 114
21
A

=
Vy c 2 mt phng tha mn:
18 114 15 2 114 3 114
0
21 21 21
x y z

+ + =

.
Bi 8: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho 2 ng thng c phng trnh:
1 2
2 3 5 0 2 2 3 17 0
: :
2 0 2 2 3 0
x y z x y z
d v d
x y z x y z
+ = =

+ = =


Lp phng trnh mt phng i qua
1
d v song song vi
2
d .
Gii:
Gi (Q) l mt phng cn tm
ng thng
1
d v
2
d c vtcp ln lt l
1 2
(1; 1; 1); (1; 2; 2) u u = =


Mt phng (Q) i qua
1
d v song song vi
2
d nn c vtpt l
1 2
, ( 4; 3; 1) 1(4;3;1)
Q
n u u

= = =



Chn (4;3;1)
Q
n =

v
1
(2; 1; 0) I d e
Mt khc:
2
(0; 25;11) J d e ta thy ( ) (0; 25;11) J Q e
Vy mt phng (Q) c phng trnh l
( ) : 4( 2) 3( 1) 0 ( ) : 4 3 5 0 Q x y z hay Q x y z + + + = + + =
Bi 9: Cho ng thng
2 0
:
1 0
y
d
z
=

+ =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P i qua d v to vi mt phng


Oxy mt gc
0
45
s: Mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) : 2 1 0 P y z + + =
Bi 10: Vit phng trnh mt phng i qua ng thng
2 0
:
1 0
x y z
d
x y
=

+ =

v cch im ( ) 0; 0; 2 M
mt khong
1
2
h =
s: C hai mt phng tha mn l 1 0, 5 4 3 1 0 x y x y z + = + =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai im ( ) ( ) 1;3; 2 , 3;7; 18 A B v mt phng
( ) : 2 1 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh mt phng cha AB v vung gc vi mp (P).

26
s: 2 5 11 0 x y z + + =
Bi 2: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cha ng thng
8 11 8 30 0
:
2 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

v c khong cch
n im ( ) 1; 3; 2 A bng 29
Bi 3: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) cha trc Oz v to vi mt phng ( ):2 5 0 Q x y z + = mt gc
0
60
s: ( ) ( )
1 2
: 3 0 ; :3 0 P x y P x y + = =
Bi 4: Vit phng trnh mt phng () cha
1 1 2
:
2 1 5
x y z
d
+
= = sao cho khong cch t ( ) 5;1; 6 A
n () ln nht.
s: ( ) : 2 1 0 x y z + + =
Bi 5: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A( 1; 2; 2) v B(1; 6 ; 4) bit khong cch
t M (3 ;2; 1) n mt phng (P) bng 11
Bi 6: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho ng thng d c phng trnh
3
1
2
1
1
2
=
+
=
z y x
v
mt phng ( ) : 3 2 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha d v vung gc vi (P).
( thi tt nghip THPT nm 2007)
s: ( ) : 3 5 0 x z =
Dng 9: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha hai ng thng
1
A v
2
A ct nhau hoc song song
vi nhau
Loi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha 2 ng thng ct nhau A v A
Phng php:
1. Tm VTCP ca A v A l u
A

v
'
u
A


2. VTPT ca mt phng ( ) l:
'
n u u
A A
= .


3. Ly mt im M trn A
4. p dng cch vit phng trnh mt phng i qua 1 im v c 1 VTPT
Loi 2: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha 2 song song A v A
Phng php gii
1. Tm VTCP ca A v A l u
A

v
'
u
A

, ly , ' M N eA eA
2. VTPT ca mt phng ( ) l: n u MN
A
= .


3.p dng cch vit phng trnh mt phng i qua 1 im v c 1 VTPT

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (H D 2005) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho hai ng thng
1
1 2 1
:
3 1 2
x y z
d
+ +
= =

v
2
2 0
:
3 12 0
x y z
d
x y
+ =

+ =

. Chng minh d
1
v d
2
song song vi nhau .Vit
phng trnh mt phng (P) cha c hai ng thng d
1
v d
2

Gii:
- Chng minh d
1
v d
2
song song vi nhau ,ta c
d
1
i qua im M(1;-2;-1) v c vtcp
1
u

= (3;-1;2)

27
d
2
c vtcp
2
u

= (3;-1;2) =
1
u

v M
1
e d
2
vy d
1
// d
2

- Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cha c d
1
v d
2

Cch 1:
chn hai im N(-3;5;0) v Q(12;0;10) e d
2
. Mt phng (P) cha d
1
// d
2
mt phng
(P) i qua ba im M,N v Q mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt ,
P
n MN MQ

= =


( ) ( ) 75; 55; 85 5 15;11; 17 = = (vi MN

v MQ

khng cng phng )


mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
15(x 1) + 11(y + 2) 17(z + 1) = 0 hay (P) : 15x + 11y 17z 10 = 0
Cch 2:
chn N(-3;5;0) e d
2
.Mt phng (P) cha d
1
// d
2
mt phng (P) i qua im M v c vtpt
P
n

=
[
1
u

, MN

] = (15;11;-17) (vi
1
u

v MN

khng cng phng)


mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
15(x 1) + 11(y + 2) 17(z + 1) = 0 hay (P) : 15x + 11y 17z 10 = 0
Cch 3: S dng phng php chm (tham kho)
Mt phng (P) cha d
1
// d
2
mt phng (P) i qua im v cha d
2

Mt phng (P) e chm mt phng xc nh bi d
2
c dng
(x + y z 2) + (x + 3y 12) = 0 (
2
+
2
= 0)
( + )x +( + 3 )y z 2 12 = 0 v M e(P)
( + ).1 + ( + 3 )(-2) (-1) 2 12 = 0 - 2 - 17 = 0 chn = 17 v = -2
Vy mt phng (P) c phng trnh l : 15x + 11y 17z 10 = 0
Bi 2: (SBT Ban C Bn T115) Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai ng thng
d
1
:
4
5
3
2
2
1
=

+
=
z y x
v d
2
:

=
+ =
+ =
t z
t y
t x
2 1
2 2
3 7

a. Chng minh rng d
1
v d
2
cng nm trong mt mt phng ( )
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( )
Gii:
a. Chn M
1
(1;-2;5)e d
1
v d
1
c vtcp n

= (2;-3;4) ,chn M
2
(7;2;1) e d
2
v d
2
c vtcp
2
u

= (3;2;-2). Tnh
n

= [
1
u

,
2
u

] = (-2;16;13) v
1 2
M M

= (6;4;-4)
Xt n

.
1 2
M M

= (-2).6 + 16.4 +13.(-4) = 0


d
1
v d
2
cng nm trn mt phng ( ) ,mt khc ta c
1
u

=
2
u

d
1
v d
2
ct nhau
b. Cch 1:
Mt phng ( ) cha d
1
v d
2
mt phng ( ) i qua M
1
v c vtpt n

= n


mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :
- 2(x 1) + 16(y + 2) + 13(z 5) = 0 hay ( ) : 2x 16y 13z + 31 = 0
Cch 2:
C th ly vtpt n

= [
1
u

,
1 2
M M

] = (-4;32:26) = -2(2;-16;-13)
Mt phng ( ) i qua M v c vtpt n

mt phng ( ) c phng trnh l :


2x 16y 13z + 31 = 0
Cch 3:
Chuyn d
1
v dng tng qut l d
1
:

= +
= + +
0 7 3 4
0 1 2 3
z y
y x
chn I |
.
|

\
|
3
7
; 0 ;
3
1
e d
1
.Mt phng ( ) cha d
1
v
d
2
l mt phng i qua ba im M
1
,M
2
v I
hng dn : Lm tng t nh dng
Cch 4: S dng phng php chm (tham kho)
Mt phng ( ) cha d
1
v d
2
mt phng ( ) cha d
1
v i qua im M
2
e d
2


28
hng dn : Lm tng t nh bi 1 (cch 3) dng
Nhn xt :
Bi 3: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho 2 ng thng c phng trnh:
1 2
5 2
7 0
: 1 :
2 3 16 0
5
x t
x y z
d y t v d
x y z
z t
= +
+ + =
=

+ + =


Vit phng trnh mt phng cha
1 2
d v d
Gii:
Gi s mt phng cn lp l (Q) ta c:

1
1 2
( ) ( )
(5;1; 5) ; (5; 2; 0) (0;1; 5)
. (0;1; 5) ( ) : 3( 5) 5( 1) 5 0
( ) : 3 5 25 0
Q d
M d N d MN
v n u MN Q x y z
hay Q x y z
e e =

= = + + =

+ + =



Dng 10: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng ( ) Q v cch mt phng ( ) Q
mt khong h
Ch :
S dng cng thc khong cch t mt im n mt mt phng

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng ( ) : 2 0 Q x y z + = v cch n mt
khong 3 h =
Gii:
Mt phng ( ) P song song vi mt phng ( ) Q c dng 0 x y z C + + =
Ly im ( ) ( ) 2; 0; 0 M Q e .
Ta c ( ) ( ) ( )
2 1
, , 3
5
3
m m
d P Q d M P
m
+ =
= = =

=


Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) Q cn tm l 1 0; 5 0 x y z x y z + + = + =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) ( ) / / P Q v cch ( ) P mt khong h trong cc trng hp sau:
a. Mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh 2 2 0 x y z + = v 3 h =
b. Mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh 4 0 x = v 2 h =
s:
a. 2 2 9 0; 2 2 9 0 x y z x y z + + = + =
b. 2 0; 6 0 x x = =

Dng 11: Vit phng trnh mt phng i qua im v to vi hai ng thng
1 2
d v d (hoc hai
mt phng ( ) ( )
1 2
P v P ) cc gc v
Ch :
S dng cng thc gc gia hai mt phng

29
Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) P i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 3 M v to vi mt phng Ox, Oy cc gc
tng ng l
0 0
45 , 30
Gii:
Gi ( ) ; ; n A B C

l vtpt ca mt phng ( ) P . Cc vtcp ca trc Ox v Oy l ( ) 1; 0; 0 i

v ( ) 0;1; 0 j

.
Theo gi thit ta c h
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
0
2 2 2
1
sin 45
2 2 2
1
sin30
2
A
A B A B
A B C
B C B A B C
A B C

= =


= =
+ +


= = +

= =

+ +

Chn 1 B = ta c 2, 1 A C = =
Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) P i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 3 M l
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) 2 1 2 3 0; 2 1 2 3 0 x y z x y z + = + =
Bi 2: Cho mt phng ( ) P c phng trnh 2 0 x y z = v im ( ) 2; 3;1 M . Vit phng trnh mt
phng ( ) Q i qua M vung gc vi mt phng v to vi mt phng mt gc
0
45
Gii:
Gi ( ) ; ; n A B C

l vtpt ca mt phng ( ) Q . Theo gi thit ta c h phng trnh


2 2 2
2 0
1
2
A B C
A
A B C
=

+ +
. Gii h trn ta c ( ) ( ) 1;1; 0 , 5; 3; 4 n n


Vy phng trnh mt phng ( ) Q i qua im ( ) 2; 3;1 M l
1 0 x y + + = hoc ( ) ( ) ( ) 5 2 3 3 4 1 0 x y z + + =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt phng mt ( ) Q trong cc trng hp sau:
a. Vung gc vi cc mt phng ( ) ( )
1 2
, P P c phng trnh ln lt l 2 0; 1 0 x z x y z + = + + = v i
qua gc ta
b. To vi cc mt phng ( ) ( )
1 2
, P P c phng trnh ln lt l 2 0; 1 0 x z x y z + = + + = cc gc
tng ng l
0
45 = v gc vi
1
cos
3
= ng thi i qua gc ta
s:
a. 0 x z = b. 0; 0 x z = =

Bi tp gii mu tng hp:


30
Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho im ( ) 10; 2; 1 A v ng thng d c phng
trnh
1 2
1 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +

. Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A, song song vi d v khong cch t d ti (P) l
ln nht.
Gii:
Gi H l hnh chiu ca A trn d, mt phng (P) i qua A v( ) / / P d , khi khong cch gia d v (P) l
khong cch t H n (P).
Gi s im I l hnh chiu ca H ln (P), ta c HI AH > HI ln nht khi I A
Vy (P) cn tm l mt phng i qua A v nhn AH lm vc t php tuyn.
) 3 1 ; ; 2 1 ( t t t H d H + + e v H l hnh chiu ca A trn d nn ) 3 ; 1 ; 2 ( ( 0 . = = u u AH d AH l vc t
ch phng ca d) ) 5 ; 1 ; 7 ( ) 4 ; 1 ; 3 ( AH H
Vy (P): ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 7 10 2 5 1 0 P x y z + + =
7 5 77 0 x y z + =
Bi 2: Cho ng thng D c phng trnh:
2
: 2
2 2
x t
D y t
z t
= +

= +

.Gi Al ng thng qua im ( ) 4; 0; 1 A


song song vi d v ( ) 2; 0; 2 I l hnh chiu vung gc ca A trn D. Trong cc mt phng qua A, hy vit
phng trnh ca mt phng c khong cch n l ln nht.
Gii:
Gi (P) l mt phng i qua ng thng A, th ( ) //( ) P D hoc
( ) P D . Gi H l hnh chiu vung gc ca I trn (P). Ta lun c
IH IA s v IH AH .
Mt khc
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( )
, , d D P d I P IH
H P
= =


Trong mt phng ( ) P , IH IA s ;
do max IH IA H A = . Lc ny (P) v tr (P
0
) vung
gc vi IA ti A.
Vect php tuyn ca (P
0
) l ( ) 6;0; 3 n IA = =

, cng phng vi ( ) 2; 0; 1 v =

.
Phng trnh ca mt phng (P
0
) l: ( ) ( ) 2 4 1. 1 2 9 0 x z x z + = = .
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
1 3
:
1 1 4
x y z
A = = v im
( ) 0; 2; 0 . M Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im M song song vi ng thng A ng thi
khong cch gia ng thng A v mt phng (P) bng 4.
Gii:
Gi s ( ; ; ) n a b c

l mt vect php tuyn ca mt phng (P).


Phng trnh mt phng ( ) : 2 0 P ax by cz b + + + = .
ng thng A i qua im A(1; 3; 0) v c mt vect ch phng (1;1; 4) u =



31
T gi thit ta c
2 2 2
. 4 0
/ /( ) (1)
| 5 |
4 ( ; ( )) 4 (2)

n u a b c
P
a b
d A P
a b c

= + + =
A

+
= =


+ +


Th 4 b a c = vo (2) ta c
2 2 2 2 2
4
( 5 ) (2 17 8 ) 2 8 0
2
a
c
a c a c ac a ac c
a
c

+ = + + =


Vi 4
a
c
= chn 4, 1 8 a c b = = = . Phng trnh mt phng ( ) : 4 8 16 0. P x y z + =
Vi 2
a
c
= chn 2, 1 2 a c b = = = . Phng trnh mt phng ( ) : 2 2 4 0. P x y z + + =
Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng (P) v ng thng d ln lt c phng
trnh: ( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z = v
1 2
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =


1. Vit phng trnh mt cu c tm thuc ng thng d, cch mt phng (P) mt khong bng 2 v vt
mt phng (P) theo giao tuyn l ng trn c bn knh bng 3.
2. Vit phng trnh mt phng (Q) cha ng thng d v to vi mt phng (P) mt gc nh nht.

Gii:
1. ng thng A c phng trnh tham s l: : 1 2 ;
2
x t
y t t R
z t
=

A = + e

= +


Gi tm mt cu l I. Gi s ( ; 1 2 ; 2 ) I t t t + + eA
V tm mt cu cch mt phng (P) mt khong bng 3 nn:
2
| 2 1 2 4 2 2 | | 6 5 |
3
( ; ) 3
7 3 3
3
t
t t t t
d I
t

+ +
A = = =


C hai tm mt cu:
2 1 8 7 17 1
; ; ; ; ;
3 3 3 3 3 7
I I
| | | |

| |
\ . \ .

V mt phng (P) ct mt cu theo ng trn c bn knh bng 4 nn mt cu c bn knh l R = 5.
Vy phng trnh mt cu cn tm l:
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 1 8 7 17 1
25 ; 25
3 3 3 3 3 3
x y z x y z
| | | | | | | | | | | |
+ + + = + + + + =
| | | | | |
\ . \ . \ . \ . \ . \ .

2. ng thng A c VTCP ( 1; 2;1) u =

c phng trnh tng qut l:


2 1 0
:
2 0
x y
x z
+ + =
A

+ =


Mt phng (P) c VTPT (2; 1; 2) n =


Gc gia ng thng (A) v mt phng (P) l:
| 2 2 2 | 6
sin
3
3. 6


= =
Gc gia mt phng (Q) v mt phng (Q) cn tm l
6 3
cos 1
9 3
= =
Gi s (Q) i qua A c dng: m(2x + y + 1) + n(x + z 2) = 0 (m
2
+ n
2
> 0)
(2m + n)x + my + nz + m 2n = 0

32
Vy gc gia (P) v (Q) l:
2 2
| 3 | 3
cos
3
3. 5 2 4
m
m n mn
o = =
+ +

m
2
+ 2mn + n
2
= 0 (m + n)
2
= 0 m = n.
Chn m = 1, n = 1, ta c: mt phng (Q) l: x + y z + 3 = 0
Bi 5 : Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ( ) 1; 2; 3 . M Lp phng trnh( ) mt phng i qua M
ct ba tia Ox ti A, Oy ti B, Oz ti C sao cho th tch t din OABC nh nht.
Gii :
Mt phng ct 3 tia Ox, Oy, Oz ti A(a;0;0), B(0;b;0), C(0;0;c) c dng ( ) ( ) : 1, , , 0
x y z
a b c
a b c
+ + = >
Do M ( ) e nn:
cos
3
1 2 3 6
1 3. 162
y
abc
a b c abc
+ + = > >
Th tch:
min
3
1
27 27 6
6
9
a
V abc V b
c
=

= > = =


Mt phng cn tm ( ) : 6 3 2 18 0 x y z + + =
Bi 7: Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) qua O, vung gc vi mt phng ( ) : 0 Q x y z + + =
v cch im ( ) 1; 2; 1 M mt khong bng 2
Gii:
Phng trnh mt phng (P) qua O nn c dng : Ax + By + Cz = 0 vi
2 2 2
A B C 0 + + =
V (P) (Q) nn 1. 1. 1. 0 0 A B C A B C C A B + + = + + = = (1)
Theo :
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2
; 2 2 ( 2 ) 2( )
A B C
d M P A B C A B C
A B C
+
= = + = + +
+ +
(2)
Thay (1) vo (2) , ta c :
2
0
8AB 5 0
8
B =
5
B
B
A
=

+ =



(1)
0 . B C A = = Chn 1, 1 A C = = th ( ) : 0 P x z =

8
B =
5
A
. Chn
(1)
A 5 , B 1 3 C = = = th ( ) : 5 8 3 0 P x y z + =
Bi 8: Trong khng gian Oxyz, cho mt cu (S) v mt phng (P) c phng trnh
(S):
2 2 2
4 4 2 16 0 x y z x y z + + + = ; ( ) : 2 2 1 0. P x y z + + = Vit phng trnh mt phng (Q) song
song vi (P) v khong cch t tm mt cu (S) n mt phng (Q) bng 3.

Gii:
(S):
2 2 2
4 4 2 16 0 x y z x y z + + + =
(S) c tm I(2;2;-1)
phng trnh mt phng (Q) c dng: 2 2 0 x y z D + + = iu kin 1(*) D =

( , ( )) 3 d I P =
2 2 2
| 2.2 1.2 2( 1) |
3
2 1 ( 2)
D + +
=
+ +

1
| 8| 9
17
D
D
D
=
+ =

=


Kt hp vi iu kin (*) ta c D = -17

33
Vy phng trnh ca ( ) : 2 2 17 0 Q x y z + =
Bi 9: (H D 2010) Trong khng gian to Oxyz, cho hai mt phng (P): x + y + z 3 = 0 v (Q): x
y + z 1 = 0. Vit phng trnh mt phng (R) vung gc vi (P) v (Q) sao cho khong cch t O n
(R) bng 2.

Gii:
PVT (1;1;1)
P
n =

; PVT (1; 1;1)


Q
m =

; PVT (2; 0; 2) 2(1; 0; 1)


R
k n m = . = =


Phng trnh (R) c dng : x z + D = 0. Ta c : d (0;(R)) = 2 2 2 2
2
D
D = =
Phng trnh (R) : 2 2 0 2 2 0 x z hay x z + = =
Bi 10: Trong khng gian Oxyz, cho mt cu (S) c phng trnh ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 2 3 14 x y z + + + + + = v
im ( ) 1; 3; 2 M . Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua sao cho (P) ct (S) theo mt giao tuyn l
ng trn c bn knh nh nht.
Gii:
Ta thy M thuc min trong ca (S) v (S) c tm ( ) 1; 2; 3 , 14 I R = . Do ,
(P) qua M ct (S) theo mt giao tuyn l ng trn c bn knh nh nht
2 2
R IH nh nht (H l hnh chiu vung gc ca I trn mt phng (P)) IH ln nht
( ) 0;1; 1 M H IM =

l VTPT ca (P). Vy (P) c phng trnh l 1 0. y z + =


Bi 11: Trong khng gian Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cha ng
thng
2 0
:
2 6 0
x y
d
x z
=

sao cho giao tuyn ca mt phng (P) v mt


cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 2 1 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = l ng trn c bn knh r = 1.
Gii:
Mt phng (P) cha d c dng: m(x y 2) + n(2x z 6) = 0
( ) : ( 2 ) 2 6 0 P m n x my nz m n + =
- Mt cu (S) c tm I(-1; 1; -1), bn knh R = 2.
- (P) ct (S) theo mt ng trn giao tip (C) c bn knh r = 1
2 2
( ; ) 3 d I P R r = =
2 2
2 2 2
2 2 6
3 4 7 3. 2 5 4 .
( 2 )
m n m n m n
m n m n mn
m n m n
+
= = + +
+ + +

2 2
5 22 . 17 0 m mn n + + =
Cho
2
17
1 5 22 17 0 1
5
n m m m hay m = + + = = =
Vy, c 2 mt phng (P):
1
2
( ) : 4 0
( ) : 7 17 5 4 0
P x y z
P x y z
+ =

+ =


Bi 12: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho mt phng : 2 5 0 d x y z + = . Vit phng trnh mt phng (P)
qua giao tuyn ca d v mt phng Oxy v (P) to vi 3 mt phng ta mt t din c th tch
bng
125
36
.
Gii:
Phng trnh mt phng Oxy: z = 0
Phng trnh mt phng (P) thuc chm xc nh bi d v Oxy c dng:
( ) 2 5 0 m x y z nz + = ( ) ( ) : 2 5 0 P mx my m n z m + + =

34
- Giao im A, B, C ca (P) v 3 trc Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt c ta :
5 5
; 0; 0 , (0; 5; 0), 0; 0;
2
m
A B C
m n
| | | |

| |
+
\ . \ .

- Th tch t din OABC bng
125 1 1 5 5 125
. . . . .5.
36 6 6 2 36
m
V OAOBOC
m n
= = =
+

3 1, 2
3
3 1, 4
m n m m n
m n m
m n m m n
+ = = =
+ =

+ = = =


Vy, c 2 phng trnh mt phng (P):
1
2
( ) : 2 3 5 0 ( 1; 2)
( ) : 2 3 5 0 ( 1; 4)
P x y z m n
P x y z m n
+ = = =

= = =


Bi 13: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho im G(1;1;1)
a. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) qua G v vung gc vi OG
b. Mt phng (P) cu (1) ct cc trc Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt ti A,B,C.
Chng minh rng : ABC l tam gic u.
Gii:
a. Do
( )
( ) nn (1;1;1; )
P
OG P n OG = =


( ) :1( 1) 1( 1) 1( 1) 0 hay ( ) : 3 0 P x y z P x y z + + = + + =
b. V trc
0
Ox : (3; 0; 0)
0
y
A
z
=


Tng t: (0;3;0) (0;3;0) B v C
Ta c: 3 2 AB BC CA ABC = = = A l tam gic u
Bi 14: (SGK Ban Nng Cao T89) Trong khng gian Oxyz . Vit phng trnh mt phng (P)
i qua im G(1;2;3) v ct cc trc to Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt ti A, B, C sao cho G l trng tm ca
tam gic ABC
i qua im H(2;1;1) v ct cc trc to Ox,Oy,Oz ln lt ti A, B, C sao cho H l trc tm ca tam
gic ABC
Gii:
a. Gi giao im ca mt phng (P) v cc trc O x,Oy,Oz ln lt l A(a;0;0),B(0;b;0),C(0;0;c) vi a,b,c
> 0
Trng tm G ca tam gic ABC c to l:
G |
.
|

\
|
3
;
3
;
3
c b a
G(1;2;3) a = 3,b = 6,c = 9
Vy mt phng (P) c phng trnh l :
1 = + +
c
z
b
y
a
x
1
9 6 3
= + +
z y x
hay (P) : 18x + 3y + 2z 18 = 0
b. Ta c AB CH (v H l trc tm ca AABC) v AB OC (v OC (Oxy)) AB) AB OH
(1)
tng t BC OH (2) .T (1) v (2) OH (ABC) .
Vy mt phng (ABC) (P) i qua H v nhn OH = (2;1;1) lm vtpt c phng trnh l :
2(x 2) + 1(y 1) + 1(z 1) = 0 hay (P) : 2x + y + z 6 = 0
Bi 15: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im D(1; 1; 1)
v ct ba trc ta ti cc im M, N, P khc gc O sao cho D l trc tm ca tam gic MNP.
Gii:
Theo gi thit ta c M(m; 0; 0) eOx , N(0; n; 0) eOy , P(0; 0; p) e Oz.

35
Ta c :
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
1; 1; 1 ; ; ; 0
.
1; 1; 1 ; ; 0; .
DP p NM m n
DP NM m n
DN n PM m p DN PM m p

= =
= +


= = = +



.
Phng trnh mt phng ( ) 1
x y z
P
m n p
+ + = . V D e(P) nn:
1 1 1
1
m n p

+ + = .
D l trc tm ca AMNP
. 0
0
3
. 0 0
3
( ) ( ) 1 1 1
1
DP NM DP NM
m n
m
DN PM DN PM m p
n p
D P D P
m n p

=
+ =

=

= + =

= =
e e

+ + =




Kt lun, phng trnh ca mt phng ( ) : 1
3 3 3
x y z
P + + =

.
Bi 16: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho 2 ng thng d:
1
2 1 1
x y z
= =

v
d:
1 2
1 2 1
x y z +
= = . Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) vung gc vi d, ct trc Oz v d theo mt on
thng c di nh nht.
Gii:
Do mt phng (P) vung gc vi d, nn c pt 2x y + z + c = 0
Mt phng (P) ct Oz ti A(0; 0; -c), ct d ti B(1- c; -2c; -2-c)
Theo gi thit
2
2 2

1 124 124
5 2 5 5
5 25 25
AB c c c
| |
= + = + >
|
\ .

suy ra AB nh nht khi
1
5
c = tha mn.
Vy phng trnh mt phng (P): 2x y + z + 1/5 = 0
Bi 17: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng A:
1
1 1 4
x y z
= = v im ( ) 0; 3; 2 M .
Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) qua M, song song A v khong cch gia ng thng
A v mt phng (P) bng 3.
HD:
Gi s phng trnh mt phng (P) c dng Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
T gi thit ta c h
2 2 2
3 2 0
4 0
3
B C D
A B C
C D
A B C

+ =

+ + =

+ +

2
8
B C
B C
=


TH 1: 2 B C = chn 1, 2 2, 8 C B A D = = = =
TH 2: 8 B C = chn 1, 8 4, 26 C B A D = = = =
( ( ; ) ( , ) d P d M P A = , vi M(0; 0; 1)eA)
Vy c 2 mp (P) tha mn l: 2 2 8 0; 4 8 26 0. x y z x y z + = + + =

36
Bi 18: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz , cho mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 4 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = v hai
ng thng ( ) ( )
1
2
: 1
x t
y t t R
z t
=

A = e

, ( )
2
1
:
1 1 1
x y z
A = =

. Vit phng trnh tip din ca mt cu ( ) S ,


bit tip din song song vi c hai ng thng ( )
1
A v ( )
2
A .
Gii:
Mt cu ( ) S c tm ( ) 1; 1; 2 , 3 I R =
ng thng ( ) ( )
1 2
, A A ln lt c cc vct ch phng ( ) ( ) 2; 1;1 , 1; 1;1 u v = =


( ) mp P c vct php tuyn ( ) , 0; 1; 1
P
n u v

= =


( ) : 0 P y z m + + = ( ) me
( ) ( )
3 2 3 3
, 3
2
3 3 2
m m
d I P R
m

= +
= =
=


Vy ( )
1 2
( ) : 3 3 2 0; : 3 3 2 0 P y z P y z + + + = + + =
Bi 19: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz , cho cc im ( ) ( ) 0; 3; 0 , 4; 0; 3 B M . Vit phng trnh
mt phng ( ) P cha , B M v ct cc trc , Ox Oz ln lt ti cc im A v C sao cho th tch khi t
din OABC bng 3 ( O l gc to ).
Gii:
Gi , a c ln lt l honh , cao ca cc im , A C .
V ( ) 0; 3; 0 B Oy e nn ( ) : 1
3
x y z
P
a c
+ + = .
( ) ( )
4 3
4;0; 3 1 4 3 M P c a ac
a c
e = = (1)

1 1 1
. .3. 3 6
3 3 2 2
OABC OAC
ac
V OB S ac ac
A
= = = = = (2)
T (1) v (2) ta c h
4
6 6 2
3
4 3 6 4 3 6 3
2
a
ac ac a
c a c a c c
=
= = =
v v

= = = =


Vy ( ) ( )
1 2
2
: 1; : 1
4 3 3 2 3 3
x y z x y z
P P + = + + =


Bi 20: Cho im M(1; 2; 3). Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) bit rng (P) ct ba trc Ox, Oy, Oz ln
lt ti A, B, C sao cho M l trng tm ca tam gic ABC.
Gii:
Do A, B, C ln lt thuc Ox, Oy, Oz nn ta gs A(x
A
; 0 ; 0), B(0 ; y
B
; 0), C(0 ; 0 ; z
C
).
V M l trng tm ca tam gic ABC nn ta c

= + +
= + +
= + +
M C B A
M C B A
M C B A
z z z z
y y y y
x x x x
3
3
3

=
=
=
9
6
3
C
B
A
z
y
x
.
Mt phng (P) i qua A(3 ; 0 ; 0), B(0 ; 6 ; 0), C(0 ; 0 ; 9)
Nn (P) c phng trnh l 1
9 6 3
= + +
z y x
. 0 18 2 3 6 : ) ( = + + z y x P
(phng trnh mt phng theo on chn)

37
Bi 21: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz cho hai im (0; 1; 2) M v ( 1;1;3) N . Vit phng
trnh mt phng (P) i qua M, N sao cho khong cch t ( ) 0; 0; 2 K n (P) t gi tr ln nht
Gii:
Gi ( ) , , n A B C =


( )
2 2 2
0 A B C + + =
l mt vect php tuyn ca mt phng (P).
Phng trnh mt phng (P) c dng;
( ) ( ) 1 2 0 2 0 Ax B y C z Ax By Cz B C + + + = + + + =
( ) ( ) 1;1; 3 3 2 0 2 N P A B C B C A B C e + + + = = +
( ) ( ) : 2 2 0 P B C x By Cz B C + + + + =
Khong cch t K n mp(P) l: ( ) ( ) ,
2 2
4 2 4
B
K P
B C BC
d =
+ +

- Nu B = 0 th d(K,(P)) = 0 (loi)
- Nu 0 B = th ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1
,
2
4 2 4
2 1 2
B
d K P
B C BC
C
B
= = s
+ +
| |
+ +
|
\ .

Du = xy ra khi B = C. Chn C = 1 v B = 1
Vy phng trnh mt phng (P): x + y z + 3 = 0
Bi 22: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho im A(1;2;0), B(0;4;0), C(0;0;3) . Vit phng trnh
mt phng (P) cha OA, sao cho khong cch t B n (P) bng khong cch t C n (P)
Gii:
Mt phng (P) c PT dng: Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 (A
2
+ B
2
+ C
2
= 0)
V (P) cha OA suy ra (P) i qua 2 im O(0;0;0) v A(1; 2; 0).
0 0
2 0 2
D D
A B A B
= =


+ = =


Vy mp(P) c phng trnh l: 2 0 Bx By Cz + + =
Theo gi thit th: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 2
4 3
, ,
5 5
B C
d B P d C P
B C B C
= =
+ +


3
4 3 4 3
4
B
B C B C
C
= = =

Chn C = 4 suy ra B = 3
Vy c 2 mp tho mn: ( ) ( )
1 2
: 6 3 4 0 ; : 6 3 4 0. P x y z P x y z + + = + =
Bi 23: Trong h trc Oxyz cho M(2;4;1). Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) qua M v ct cc trc Ox,
Oy, Oz ti A, B, C tng ng vi honh , tung v cao dng sao cho 4OA = 2OB = OC.
Gii:
A,B,C l im nm trn Ox, Oy, Oz tng ng c honh , tung v cao dng v
4OA = 2OB = OC suy ra A(a;0;0) , B(0;2a;0) v C(0;0;4a) vi 0 a >
Phng trnh (ABC) 1 4 2 4 0
2 4
x y z
x y z a
a a a
+ + = + + =
(ABC) qua M(2;4;1) suy ra 4.2 +2.4 +1 4a = 0
17
4
a =
Vy phng trnh (ABC) l 4 2 17 0. x y z + + =



38
Bi 24: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz. Cho mt cu (S) : ( ) ( ) 9 2 1
2 2 2
= + + + z y x .
Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) vung gc vi ng thng
1
:
1 2 2
x y z
d

= =

v ct mt cu (S) theo
ng trn c bn knh bng 2 .
Gii:
(S) c tm ) 2 , 0 , 1 ( J bn knh R = 3
+ ng thng d c vtcp (1, 2, 2) u

, (P) vung gc vi t a nn (P) nhn

u lm vtpt
Phng trnh mt phng (P) c dng : 2 2 0 x y z D + + =
+ (P) ct (S) theo ng trn c bn knh r = 2 nn ( ) ( )
2 2
, 5 d J P R r = =
nn ta c :
1 2.0 2.( 2) 5 3 5
5
3
5 3 5
D D
D

+ + = +
=
=


KL : C 2 mt phng : (P
1
) : 0 5 3 5 2 2 = + + z y x v (P
2
) : 0 5 3 5 2 2 = + z y x
Bi 25: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho mt cu (S) c phng
trnh 0 11 6 4 2
2 2 2
= + + + z y x z y x v mt phng () c phng trnh 2x + 2y z + 17 = 0. Vit
phng trnh mt phng () song song vi () v ct (S) theo giao tuyn l ng trn c chu vi bng 6t.
Gii:
Do (|) // (o) nn (|) c phng trnh 2x + 2y z + D = 0 (D= 17)
Mt cu (S) c tm I(1; 2; 3), bn knh R = 5
ng trn c chu vi 6t nn c bn knh r = 3.
Khong cch t I ti (|) l
2 2 2 2
5 3 4 h R r = = =
Do
D
D
D
D (l oai ) 2 2 2
2.1 2( 2) 3
7
4 5 12
17
2 2 ( 1)
+ +
=
= + =

=

+ +

Vy (|) c phng trnh 2x + 2y z 7 = 0
Bi 26: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 4 4 5 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = , mt phng
(Q): 2x + y 6z + 5 = 0. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P). Bit rng mt phng (P) i qua A(1;1;2),
vung gc vi mt phng (Q) v tip xc vi mt cu (S).
Gii:
Mt phng (P) qua A(1;1;2) c phng trnh : ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 2 0 ( 0) a x b y c z a b c + + = + + =
Mt cu (S) c tm I(1;-2;2) bn knh R = 2
Mt phng (Q) c VTPT (2;1; 6) Q n =


Ta c (P) vung gc vi (Q) v tip xc (S) nn
2 2 2
2 6 0
3
2
a b c
b
a b c
+ =

+ +

2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2 6
2
2 6 2 6
(I) 2
5
9 4 4 4 3 10 0
5
11
2
a c
a c b
b c
a c b a c b
b c
b c
b a b c b bc c
b c
a c
=

= =

= =

= =
= + + + =

=

=



Chn c = 0 th a = b = 0 (loi)
Nn 0 c = . T (I) Phng trnh mt phng ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) : 2 1 2 1 2 0 P c x c y c z + + =


39
2 2 6 0 x y z + + =
Hoc ( ) ( ) ( )
11
1 5 1 2 0 11 10 2 5 0
2
c x c y c z x y z + = + =
Bi tp tng hp t gii:

Bi 1: Cho im ( ) 2; 5; 3 A v ng thng
1 2
: .
2 1 2
x y z
d

= = Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) cha d sao cho khong cch t A n ( ) ln nht.
s: 4 3 0 x y z + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho hai ng thng d v d ln lt c phng trnh :
2
:
1
y
d x z

= =

v
2 5
: 3
2 1
x z
d y
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng ) ( i qua d v to vi d


mt gc
0
30
s: 2 4 0 ; 2 2 0 x y z x y z + + = + =
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz, cho cc im A(-1;1;0), B(0;0;-2) v C(1;1;1). Hy vit
phng trnh mt phng (P) qua hai im A v B, ng thi khong cch t C ti mt phng (P) bng
3 .
s: 2 0 ; 7 5 2 0 x y z x y z + + = + + + =
Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho M(1;2;3).Lp phng trnh mt phng i qua M ct ba
tia Ox ti A, Oy ti B, Oz ti C sao cho th tch t din OABC nh nht.
s: 6 3 2 18 0 x y z + + =
Bi 5: Cho ng thng d c phng trnh:
2
: 2
2 2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

.Gi A l ng thng qua im A(4;0;-1)


song song vi d v I(-2;0;2) l hnh chiu vung gc ca A trn d. Trong cc mt phng qua A, hy vit
phng trnh ca mt phng c khong cch n d. l ln nht.
s: 2x - z - 9 = 0 .
Bi 6: Trong kgian vi h ta Oxyz cho im A(10; 2; -1) v ng thng d c phng
trnh
1 2
1 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +

. Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A, song song vi d v khong cch t d ti (P) l
ln nht.
s: 7 5 77 0 x y z + =
Bi 7: Cho im ( ) 2; 5; 3 A v ng thng
1 2
: .
2 1 2
x y z
d

= = Vit phng trnh mt phng
( ) cha d sao cho khong cch t A n ( ) ln nht.
s: 2 2 15 0 x y z + + =
Bi 8: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
1 3
:
1 1 4
x y z
A = = v
im ( ) 0; 2; 0 . M Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im M song song vi ng thng A ng
thi khong cch gia ng thng A v mt phng (P) bng 4.
s: 4 8 16 0 x y z + = hay 2 2 4 0. x y z + + =
Bi 9: Vit phng trnh mt phng cch u hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
bit:

40
1
2
: 2
3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

v
2
1 2 1
:
2 1 5
x y z
d

= =
s: 3 4 7 0 x y z + =
Bi 10: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
2 0
:
2 6 0
x y
d
x y
=

v
mt cu( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 2 1 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = . Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cha d sao cho giao
tuyn ca mt phng (P) v mt cu (S) l ng trn c bn knh r = 1.
Bi 11: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 4 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = v hai
ng thng
( )
1
2 2 0
:
2 0
x y
x z
+ =
A

=

, ( )
2
1
:
1 1 1
x y z
A = =


Vit phng trnh tip din vi mt cu (S), bit n song song vi A
1
v A
2
.
Bi 12: Lp phng trnh mt phng cha ng thng
8 11 8 30 0
2 0
x y z
x y z
+ =

v tip xc vi mt
cu( )
2 2 2
: 2 6 4 15 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = .
Bi 13: Cho mt cu (S): ( )
2 2 2
: 10 2 26 170 0 S x y z x y z + + + + + = ;
2
5 2
: 1 3
13 2
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =

= +

v
1
1 1
7
: 1 2
8
x t
y t
z
= +

A =


Vit phng trnh ) ( tip xc mt cu (S) v song song vi
1
A v
2
A
Bi 14: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua hai im ( ) 1; 2; 3 A v ( ) 2; 3; 4 B v ct mt cu
( )
2 2 2
: 2 6 4 15 0 S x y z x y z + + + + = theo giao tuyn l mt ng trn c chu vi 8
Bi 15: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) song song vi hai ng thng
1
5 1 13
:
2 3 2
x y z
d
+ +
= =



2
7 1 8
:
3 2 0
x y z
d
+ +
= =

ng thi tip xc vi mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 10 2 26 113 0 S x y z x y z + + + + =
Bi 16: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im ( ) 2, 3,1 A v vung gc vi mt phng
( ) : 1 0 Q x y z + + = ng thi tip xc vi mt cu ( )
2 2 2
: 2 2 4 1 0 S x y z x y z + + + + + =
Bi 17: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im ( ) 2,1, 1 A ng thi song song vi hai ng
thng
1 3 5
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =

;
2 1 0
:
3 2 3 1 0
x y z
x y z
+ =
A

+ + =


Bi 18: Lp phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua ng thng
1 2
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =

v to vi mt phng
( ) : 2 2 2 0 Q x y z = mt gc nh nht
Bi 19: Lp phng trnh mt phng i qua hai im ( ) ( ) 0; 0;1 ; 3; 0; 0 A B ng thi
a. To vi mt phng Oxy mt gc 60
o

b. Vung gc vi mt phng ( ) : 2 3 1 0 P x y z + + =
Bi 20: Lp phng trnh mt phng i qua giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) : 1 0 P x y z + + + =
v mt phng ( ) : 2 3 2 0 Q x y z + + = ng thi

41
a. i qua A (1,3,-2)
b. Vung gc vi mt phng: ( ) : 2 4 1 0 x y z + + =
c. Song song vi ng thng
1 3 5
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =


Bi 21: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta vung gc Oxyz, cho ( ) 2; 5; 3 A v ng thng
1 2
:
2 1 2
x y z
d

= =
1. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) Q cha d sao cho khong cch t A n ( ) Q ln nht.
2. Vit phng trnh mt cu ( ) S c tm nm trn ng thng d ng thi tip xc vi hai mt
phng( ) ( ) : 3 4 3 0, : 2 2 39 0 x y x y z + + = + + = .
Bi 22: Trong cc mt phng i qua cc im ( ) ( ) 1; 2; 1 , 1;1; 2 A B ,vit phng trnh mt phng ( )
to vi mt ( ) xOy mt gc nh nht.
S: ( ) : 6 3 5 7 0 x y z + + =
Bi 23: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 4 A
v ct chiu dng ca cc trc ta Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt M, N, P khc gc ta sao cho t din
OMNP c din tch nh nht
s: ( ) : 1
3 6 12
x y z
+ + =
Bi 24: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im
( ) 1; 2; 3 M v ct cc trc ta Ox, Oy, Oz ti A, B, C sao cho
2 2 2
1 1 1
OA OB OC
+ + nh nht
s: ( ) : 2 3 14 0 x y z + + =
Bi 25: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) i qua im ( ) 2; 5; 3 M
v ct chiu dng ca cc trc ta Ox, Oy, Oz ln lt A, B, C sao cho OA OB OC + + nh nht
s: ( ) : 1
2 6 10 5 10 15 3 6 15
x y z
+ + =
+ + + + + +

Bi 26: Trong cc mt phng i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 0 A v song song vi ng thng
1 2 1
:
1 1 1
x y z
d
+ +
= =

. Vit phng trnh mt phng ( ) to vi mt phng ( ) xOy mt gc nh nht


s: ( ) : 2 1 0 x y z + + =
Bi 27: Trong cc mt phng i qua ( ) 1;1; 1 A v vung gc vi mt phng ( ) : 2 2 0 x y z + + = . Vit
phng trnh mt phng to vi Oy mt gc ln nht.
s :
( )
( )
: 0
5 1
: 3 0
2 2
y z
x y z

+ =

+ + =



CHUYN : VIT PHNG TRNH NG THNG TRONG
KHNG GIAN

1. Vit phng trnh tham s hoc chnh tc

42
- vit phng tham s hoc chnh tc ta phi bit c mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z v mt vtcp
( ) ; ; u a b c =

phng trnh tham s


0
0
0
x x at
y y bt
z z ct
= +

= +

= +

vi t R e l tham s
phng trnh chnh tc
0 0 0
x x y y z z
a b c

= = (khi , , 0 a b c = )
2. Vit phng trnh tng qut ca ca ng thng
Cch 1: ng thng d chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng phn bit gi s
( )
1 1 1 1
: 0 a x b y c x d + + + = v ( )
2 2 2 2
: 0 a x b y c x d + + + = . Khi ( ) ( ) d = hay
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
0
:
0
a x b y c z d
d
a x b y c z d
+ + + =

+ + + =


- Tm vecto ch phng u

ca ng thng d
Cch 1.1: Vtcp ; u n n

=


vi n

v n

ln lt l vtpt ca ( ) v ( )
Cch 1.2: Chn hai im M v N phn bit thuc ng thng d, khi vtcp u

cng phng vi vecto


MN

hay vecto MN

chnh l vtcp ca d
Cch 2: T phng trnh chnh tc hoc tham s chuyn v phng trnh tng qut

Cc dng bi tp

Dng 1: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z v tha mn iu kin cho
trc
Phng php:
Loi 1: C mt vtcp cho trc, khi iu kin l
- C mt vecto ( ) ; ; u a b c =

cho trc
- Song song vi mt ng thng d cho trc
d
u u
A
=


- Vung gc vi mt mt phng (P) cho trc
P
u n
A
=



Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h trc to Oxyz. Cho tam gic ABC c ( ) ( ) 1; 2; 3 , 2;1; 0 , A B
( ) 0; 1; 2 . C Vit phng trnh tham s ng cao tng ng vi nh A ca tam gic ABC.
Gii:
Gi d l ng cao tng ng vi nh A ca AABC
d l giao tuyn ca ( ) ABC vi ( ) qua A v vung gc vi BC.
Ta c: ( ) 1;3; 3 AB =

, ( ) 1;1; 5 AC =

, ( ) 2; 2; 2 BC =

v ( ) , 18;8; 2 AB AC =



mp( ) ABC c vtpt ( )
1
, 3; 2;1
4
n AB AC = =



mp( ) c vtpt ( )
'
1
1;1;1
2
n BC = =



- ng thng d c vtcp ( )
'
, 1; 4; 5 u n n

= =





43
Vy phng trnh ng thng
1
: 2 4
3 5
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta cc vung gc Oxyz, cho 3 im A(0,0,1); B(-1,-2,0) ;
C(2,1,-1).
1. Vit phng trnh ca mt phng (P) i qua 3 im A,B ,C
2. Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng i qua trng tm ca tam gic ABC v vung gc vi mt
phng (P).
3. Xc nh chn ng cao h t A xung ng thng BC
Gii:
1. Phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua A,B,C.
Ta c VTP (P) l: , (5, 4, 3)
P
n AB AC


= =


Phng trnh mt phng (P): 5x 4y + 3z 3 = 0
To trng tm tam gic ABC l
1 1
; ;0
3 3
G
| |

|
\ .

ng thng d i qua G v d (P):
(5, 4, 3)
P d
a n = =


Phng trnh tham s ca d l:
1
5
3
1
4
3
3
x t
y t
z t

= +


2. Chn ng cao H h t A xung ng thng BC.
Ta c: (3, 3, 1) BC =


Phng trnh tham s ca BC l:
1 3
2 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +


Ly ( ) 1 3 ; 2 3 ; H t t t BC + + e
H l hnh chiu ca A
19
. 0 3(1 3 ) 3(2 3 ) 1(1 ) 19 8
8
HABC t t t t t = + + = =


Vy
5 14 8
; ;
19 19 19
H
| |

|
\ .

Bi 3: (H B 2009) Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho mt phng (P): x 2y + 2z 5 = 0 v
hai im A(-3;0;1), B(1;-1;3). Trong cc ng thng i qua A v song song vi (P), hy vit phng
trnh ng thng m khong cch t B n ng thng l nh nht
Gii:
Ta c (4; 1; 2); (1; 2; 2) P AB n = =


Pt mt phng (Q) qua A v // (P) : 1(x + 3) 2(y 0) + 2(z 1) = 0
x 2y + 2z + 1 = 0. Gi A l ng thng bt k qua A
Gi H l hnh chiu ca B xung mt phng (Q). Ta c :
d(B, A) > BH; d (B, A) t min A qua A v H.

44
Pt tham s
1
: 1 2
3 2
x t
BH y t
z t
= +

= +


Ta H = BH (Q) tha h phng trnh :
1 , 1 2 , 3 2
10 1 11 7
; ;
2 2 1 0 9 9 9 9
x t y t z t
t H
x y z
= + = = +
| |
=

|
+ + =
\ .


A qua A (-3; 0;1) v c 1 VTCP ( )
1
26;11; 2
9
a AH
A
= =


Phng trnh
3 0 1
:
26 11 2
x y z +
A = =



p s: ng thng c phng trnh l
3 0 1
:
26 11 2
x y z +
A = =



Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh chnh tc ca ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1;1; 2 M v song song vi ng
thng
3 2 7 0
:
3 2 3 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

+ + =


p s:
1 1 2
:
2 4 5
x y z
A = =


Bi 2: Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1;1;1 M v vung gc vi mt phng
( ) : 2 3 12 0 P x y z + + =
p s:
1
: 1 2
1 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +

= +


Bi 3: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho ba im ( ) ( ) 1;3; 2 ; 1; 2;1 A B v ( ) 1;1;3 C . Vit phng trnh ng
thng d i qua trng tm ca tam gic ABC v vung gc vi mt phng cha tam gic
p s:
1 3
: 2
2
x t
d y
z
=


Bi 4: Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 1 A v song song vi ng thng giao tuyn
ca hai mt phng ( ) : 3 0 x y z + + = v ( ) : 2 5 4 0 x y z + =
p s:
1 4
: 2 7
1 3
x t
d y t
z t
= +



Loi 2: C mt cp vecto khng cng phng cho trc, khi iu kin l
- C mt cp vecto ch phng a

v b

cho trc
- Vung gc vi hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
cho trc | |
1 2
; u u u
A
=


- Song song vi hai mt phng (P
1
) v (P
2
) cho trc | |
1 2
; u n n
A
=



45
- Vung gc vi mt ng thng d v song song vi mt mt phng (P) | | ;
d P
u u n
A
=


- Nu i qua hai im phn bit v A B u AB
A
=


Ch :
- Nu gi thit l vung gc vi mt vecto c

bt k th hiu c

l vtcp,
- Nu gi thit l song song vi mt vecto d

th hiu d

l vtpt

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1;1; 2 A song song vi mt phng
( ) : 1 0 P x y z = v vung gc vi ng thng
1 1 2
:
2 1 3
x y z
d
+
= =
Gii:
- Mt phng (P) c vtpt ( ) 1; 1; 1
P
n =

v ng thng d c vtcp ( ) 2;1; 3


d
u =


- ng thng A song song vi mt phng (P) v vung gc vi ng thng d nn c vtcp
( ) , 2; 5; 3
P d
u n u
A

= =



- ng thng A i qua ( ) 1;1; 2 A v c vtcp u
A

c phng trnh l
1 2
: 1 5
2 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +


Ch :
Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 1: ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im A v song song vi mt phng (P)
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im A v vung gc vi ng thng d
Cch 2: T phng trnh tham s chuyn v phng trnh tng qut
Bi 2: Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1;1;1 M ng thi vung gc vi hai
ng thng
1
1 2
:
8 1 1
x y z
d
+
= = v
2
2 3 0
:
1 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

+ + =


Gii:
- ng thng
1
d c vtcp ( )
1
8;1;1 u =

v
2
d c vtcp ( )
2
2; 3;1 u =


- ng thng A vung gc vi hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d nn c vtcp ( )
1 2
, 4; 6; 26 u u u
A

= =



- ng thng A i qua ( ) 1;1;1 M v c vtcp u
A

c phng trnh l
1 4
: 1 6
1 26
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =


Ch :
Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 1: ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M v vung gc vi ng thng d
1

- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M v vung gc vi ng thng d
2
Cch 2: T phng trnh tham s chuyn v phng trnh tng qut

Bi tp t gii:

46
Bi 1: Vit phng trnh chnh tc ng thng A i qua ( ) 1; 2;5 M ng thi song song vi hai mt
phng ( ): 3 5 8 0 P x y z + + = v ( ): 2 1 0 Q x y z + =
p s:
1 2 5
:
4 7 5
x y z +
A = =


Ch :
Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 1: ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M v song song vi mt phng (P)
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M v song song vi mt phng (Q)
Cch 2: T phng trnh tham s chuyn v phng trnh tng qut
Bi 2: Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua im ( ) 2; 1;1 A v vung gc vi hai ng thng ln
lc c vtcp l ( )
1
1;1; 2 u =

v ( )
2
1; 2; 0 u =


p s:
2 4
: 1 2
1
x t
d y t
z t
=

= +


Bi 3: (H TCKT 1999) Vit phng trnh chnh tc ca ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1;1; 2 A song
song vi mt phng (P) v vung gc vi ng thng d bit
( ) : 1 0 P x y z = v
1 1 2
:
2 1 3
x y z
d
+
= =
p s: Adng chnh tc l
1 1 2
2 5 3
x y z +
= =



Dng 2: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z ct ng thng d v tha
mn iu kin cho trc
iu kin cho trc l
- Vung gc vi ng thng
1
A cho trc
- Song song vi mt mt phng (P) cho trc
Ch :
- Nu gi thit l vung gc vi mt vecto c

bt k th hiu c

l vtcp,
- Nu gi thit l song song vi mt vecto d

th hiu d

l vtpt
Phng php chung:
Trng hp 1: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 1: Xc nh cc vtcp v vtpt
ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im
0
M v cha ng thng d
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im
0
M v tha mn iu kin cho trc
Kt lun :
- Nu ( ) ( ) th bi ton c v s nghim
- Nu ( ) ( ) = th / /d A th bi ton v nghim, A ct d th A l ng thng cn dng
Trng hp 2: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tham s hoc chnh tc
Cch 2: Xc nh cc vtcp v vtpt
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im M
0
v tha mn iu kin cho trc (hin nhin mt phng ( ) cha
ng thng A)

47
- Gi ( ) M d = , ta M l nghim ca h
+ Nu khng tn ti giao im th bi ton v nghim
+ Nu c v s nghim (tc l ( ) d c ) th bi ton c v s nghim
+ Nu c nghim duy nht th tnh vecto
0
M M


Kt lun: ng thng A i qua im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z v tha mn iu kin cho trc chnh l ng
thng i qua im
0
M v c vtcp
0
M M


Cch 3: Xc nh cc vtcp v vtpt
- Do ng thng A i qua im
0
M v ct ng thng d nn chn im M d e nn ng thng A
chnh l ng thng
0
M M
- Tnh vecto
0
M M


- T iu kin cho trc ta dn n mt phng trnh bc nht theo tham s t, tm t
0
M M


Kt lun: ng thng A chnh l ng thng i qua im
0
M v c vtcp
0
M M


Ch :
- Vi cch ny th ng thng d phi dng tham s (nu d dng tng qut hay chnh tc th chuyn
v dng tham s)
- Ta im M phi theo tham s t
- tm ta im M ta c th lm nh sau ng thng A ct ng thng d nn M d e , tnh
0
M M

, t iu kin cho trc tm ra c im M, suy ra ng thng A




Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Cho im ( ) 1; 2; 3 A v hai ng thng
1
2 2 3
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =

v
2
1 1 1
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua A, vung gc vi d


1
v ct d
2

Gii:
ng thng
2
d c phng trnh tham s
2
1
: 1 2
1
x t
d y t
z t
=

= +

= +


ng thng d
1
c vtcp l: ) 1 ; 1 ; 2 ( = u

, Gi B l giao im ca d vi d
2
th
( )
2
1 ;1 2 ; 1 B d B t t t e + + ) 4 ; 1 2 ; ( = t t t B A


Theo gi thit
1 1
. 0 1 d d ABu t = =



Vy d qua ( ) 1; 2; 3 A c vtcp (1; 3; 5) AB =

nn phng trnh l:
5
3
3
2
1
1

=
z y x

Bi 2: Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua M(1;1;1) ct ng thng
1
2 1
:
3 1 2
x y z
d
+
= =


v vung gc vi ng thng
2
2 2
: 5
2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

( R t e ).
Gii:
- Vtcp ca d
2
l ( )
2
2; 5;1 u =

v cng l vtpt ca mp(P) i qua M v vung gc vi d


2
.

48
Phng trnh mp (P) l: 0 2 5 2 = + + z y x
- Gi N l giao im ca d
1
v mp(P) nn ( ) ( )
1
2 3 ; ;1 2 N t t t P d + =
Thay vo phng trnh mp(P) th ( ) 1 5; 1; 3 t N =
- ng thng d cn lp pt c VTCP ( ) 3;1; 1 u =

do ( ) 6; 2; 2 MN =


Vy phng trnh ng thng d l:
1
1
1
1
3
1

=
z y x
(v d d
2
)
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho, ng thng
1 2
:
1 2 1
x y z
d

= = v mt phng (P): x
+ 3y + 2z + 2 = 0. Lp phng trnh ng thng d' i qua im M(2; 2; 4), song song vi mt phng (P)
v ct ng thng d.
HD:
Chn ( ;1 2 ; 2 ) ( 2; 2 1; 2) N d N t t t MN t t t e + + =

.
( )
1 3 3
/ / ( ) . 0 ( ) 1 (1;3;3) ' :
1 1 1
P
x y z
MN P MN n do M P t N d

= e = = =


.
Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz, cho cc im ( ) 1;1;1 A v ng thng
1 1
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh ng thng A qua A v ct d, sao cho khong cch t gc to
O n A nh nht.
Gii:
ng thng A thuc mp (P) qua A v cha d, nn ( ) : 3 2 4 0 P x y z + = .
Gi H l hnh chiu vung gc ca O ln (P). To H tha mn h:
3
2
6 4 2
; ;
7 7 7
3 2 0
x t
y t
H
z t
x y z
=

=
| |

|
=
\ .

+ =


Gi K l hnh chiu vung gc ca A ln A: ( ; ) d A AK AH A = >
khong cch nh nht th K H H eA . Suy ra Aqua A,H nn c pt :
1 2 1
:
1 3 9
x y z
A = = , d thy Act d nn Al ng thng cn tm.
Bi 5: Trong khng gian vi h trc Oxyz, cho hai mt phng ( ) : 5 0 x y + = , ( ) : 3 0 y z + + = , im
M(1; 1; 0). Vit phng trnh ng thng d qua M vung gc vi giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) , ng thi
d ct ( ) v ( ) ln lt ti A, B sao cho M l trung im ca AB.
Gii:
ng thng d thuc mt phng (P) qua M v vung gc vi giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) .
Phng trnh (P): 0 x y z + = .
Ly i xng ( ) qua M c ( ') : 1 0 x y + + = . Suy ra B l giao im ca ba mt phng
( ) P , ( ) v ( ') . To B l nghim ca h
0
1 4 5
3 0 ; ;
3 3 3
1 0
x y z
y z B
x y
+ =
| |
+ + =

|
\ .

+ + =


Vy ng thng qua B, M l ng thng d cn tm:
1 1
2 7 5
x y z
= = .

49
Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh tham s ng thng A i qua ( ) 1; 2; 3 A ng thi A vung gc vi d1 v ct
2
d bit
1
6 2
: 1 4
4
x t
d y t
z t
=

= +

v
2
1 2 3
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =


p s:
1 6
: 3 23
5 11
x t
y t
z t
=

A =

= +


Bi 2: (CGT 2005) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz. Cho im ( ) 1; 2 1 M , ng thng
3 3
:
1 3 2
x y z
d

= = v mt phng ( ) : 3 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua im
M song song vi mt phng (P) v ct ng thng d
Bi 3: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua im ( ) 1; 2; 3 A vung gc vi vecto ( ) 6; 2; 3 a

v
ct ng thng
2
1 1 3
:
3 2 5
x y z
d
+
= =


p s: Adng chnh tc l
1 2 3
2 3 6
x y z + +
= =

, dng tng qut l


6 2 3 1 0
3 28 13 4 0
x y z
x y z
+ =

+ + =



Dng 3: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z vung gc v ct ng
thng d cho trc (chnh l trng hp c bit ca dng 2)
Phng php:
Trng hp 1: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Xc nh vtcp ca ng thng d
ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im
0
M v cha ng thng d
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im
0
M v vung gc vi ng thng d
Trng hp 2: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tham s hoc chnh tc
- ng thng A i qua
0
M ct ng thng d ti im M d e tc l
0
M M A (M chnh l hnh
chiu ca
0
M trn ng thng d)
- Tm ta im M theo tham s ca ng thng d, tnh vecto
0
M M


- T iu kin
0 d
d M M u A


ta c phng trnh bc nht theo t, tm t suy ra c ta
im M v vecto
0
M M


Kt lun : ng thng A chnh l ng thng i qua im
0
M v c vtcp
0
M M


Hoc
- Mt phng ( ) i qua im
0
M v vung gc vi ng thng d
- Tm ta im ( ) M d =
- ng thng A chnh l ng thng i qua im
0
M v c vtcp
0
M M



Bi tp gii mu:


50
Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho im ( ) 2;1; 0 M v ng thng d c phng
trnh:
1 2
1
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +

. Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A i qua im M, ct v vung gc vi


ng thng d.
Gii:
Gi H l hnh chiu vung gc ca M trn d, ta c MH l ng thng i qua M, ct v vung gc vi d.
V H e d nn ta ca (1 2 ; 1 ; ) (2 1; 2 ; ) H t t t MH t t t + + = +


ng thng d c mt vect ch phng l ( ) 2;1; 1 u =

,
V ( )
2
. 0 2. 2 1 1( 2 ) ( 1)( ) 0
3
d
MH d MN u t t t t = + + + = =


Suy ra
1 4 2
; ;
3 3 3
MH
| |
=
|
\ .

.
ng thng MH A l ng thng i qua im ( ) 2;1; 0 M nhn MH

lm vtcp c phng trnh tham


s
2
1 4
2
x t
y t
z t
= +


Bi 2: Trong khng gian Oxyz. Cho im ( ) 2; 0; 1 A , mt phng ( ) : 2 1 0 P x y z + + = v ng thng
1
: 2
2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


1. Vit phng trnh mt cu tm A tip xc vi mt phng (P)
2. Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A qua A, vung gc v ct ng thng d.
Gii:
1. K hiu R l bn knh mt cu tm A( 2; 0; 1), tip xc vi mt phng (P)
Th
( )
2 2 2
2.2 0 1.1 1
, ( ) 6
2 1 1
R d A P
+ +
= = =
+ +

Vy phng trnh ca mt cu: ( ) ( ) 6 1 2
2 2 2
= + + z y x
2. Gi H l hnh chiu vung gc ca A trn d th H(1 + t; 2t; 2 + t).
Khi ( ) 1 ; 2 ;1 AH t t t = + +


ng thng d c vc t ch phng ( ) 1; 2;1 u =


. 0 0 AH d a AH t = =


Nn ( ) 1; 0; 2 H v ( ) 1; 0;1 AH =


Do , phng trnh ng thng A l ng thng i qua im A v c vtcp AH

c phng trnh tham


s l
2
0
1
x t
y
z t
=

= +



Bi tp t gii:


51
Bi 1: (H B 2004) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho im ( ) 4; 2; 4 A v ng thng
3 2
: 1
1 4
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

. Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua im A, ct v vung gc vi ng thng d


p s:
4 2 4
:
3 2 1
x y z + +
A = =


Dng 4: Vit phng trnh ng thng A ct hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d v tha mn iu kin cho
trc ( vi
1
d v
2
d l hai ng thng cho nhau )
iu kin cho trc l:
- i qua mt im M cho trc khng thuc
1
d v
2
d
- Song song hoc vung gc vi ng thng d cho trc
- Vung gc hoc vung gc vi mt phng (P) cho trc
V mt s iu kin khc
Phng php chung:
Trng hp 1: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 1:
ng thng A chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng ( ) cha ng thng
1
d v tha mn iu kin cho trc
- Mt phng ( ) cha ng thng
2
d v tha mn iu kin cho trc
Kt lun:
- Nu( ) v ( ) song song hoc trng vi nhau th bi ton c v s nghim
- Nu ( ) v ( ) ct nhau th
+ Nu
1
/ /d A hoc
2
/ / d A th bi ton v nghim
+ Nu A ct
1
d v A ct
2
d th A chnh l ng thng cn dng
Trng hp 2: Nu bi yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng A dng tng qut
Cch 2:
- Mt phng ( ) cha ng thng
1
d v tha mn iu kin cho trc
- Gi ( )
2
M d = , ta im M l nghim ca h
+ Nu khng tn ti giao im th bi ton v nghim
+ Nu c v s nghim (tc l ( )
2
d c ) th bi ton c v s nghim
+ Nu c nghim duy nht th ng thng A chnh l ng thng i qua M v tha mn iu kin
cho trc (tr v dng 1 loi 1)
Trng hp c bit khi
1
d v
2
d u dng tham s
Cch 3:
- Gi s A ct
1
d v
2
d ln lt ti A v B, khi
1
A d e v
2
B d e
- Khi ng thng AB A u
A

cng phng vi AB


- T iu kin cho trc xc nh c ta im A, B
V d :
+ Nu iu kin l i qua im M th A, B, M thng hng
+ Nu iu kin l song song vi ng thng d th AB

cng phng vi
d
u


+ Nu iu kin l vung gc vi mt phng (P) th AB

cng phng vi
P
n


- ng thng A chnh l ng thng ng thng i qua A v nhn vecto AB

lm vtcp


52
Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Cho hai ng thng c phng trnh
1
2 3
: 1
3 2
x z
d y
+
= + = v
2
3 7 1
:
1 2 1
x y z
d

= =


Vit phng trnh ng thng ct d
1
v d
2
ng thi i qua im ( ) 3;10;1 . M
Gii:
Gi ng thng cn tm l d v ng thng d ct hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
ln lt ti im
( ) ( )
1 2
2 3 ; 1 ; 3 2 3 ; 7 2 ;1 A a a a d v B b b b d + + + e + e
Do ng thng d i qua ( ) 3;10;1 M MA kMB =


( ) ( ) 3 1; 11; 4 2 , ; 2 3; MA a a a MB b b b = + =


3 1 3 1 1
11 2 3 3 2 11 2
4 2 2 4 1
a kb a kb a
a kb k a k kb k
a kb a kb b
= = =

= + + = =


+ = + = =


( ) 2; 10; 2 MA =


Phng trnh ng thng AB l:
3 2
10 10
1 2
x t
y t
z t
= +


Ch :
Hai ng thng phn bit th c hai tham s khc nhau
Bi 2: Trong khng gian to Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 2 5 1 0 P x y z + = v hai ng thng
d
1
:
1 1 2
2 3 1
x y z +
= = v d
2
:
2 2
1 5 2
x y z +
= =


Vit phng trnh ng thng d vung gc vi (P) ng thi ct hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
.
Gii:
Phng trnh tham s ca d
1
v d
2
l:
1 2
1 2 2
: 1 3 ; : 2 5
2 2
x t x m
d y t d y m
z t z m
= + = +

= + = +


= + =


Gi s d ct d
1
ti ( ) 1 2 ;1 3 ; 2 M t t t + + + v ct d
2
ti ( ) 2 ; 2 5 ; 2 N m m m + +
( ) 3 2 ; 3 5 3 ; 2 2 . MN m t m t m t + +


Do d (P) c VTPT (2; 1; 5)
P
n =

nn
3 2 2
: 3 5 3
2 2 5
P
m t k
k MN kn m t k
m t k
+ =

- = + =


c nghim
Gii h tm c
1
1
m
t
=

suy ra M(1; 4; 3)
ng thng d l ng thng i qua im M v c vtcp
d P
u n =

nn c phng trnh tham s l
1 2
: 4
3 5
x t
d y t
z t
= +



53
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho ng thng
1
1
: 1 2 ; ( )
1 2
x t
d y t t R
z t
= +

= + e

= +

, ng thng d
2
l
giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) : 2 1 0 P x y = v ( ) : 2 2 5 0 Q x y z + + = . Gi I l giao im ca d
1

v d
2
. Vit phng trnh ng thng d
3
qua A(2;3;1), ng thi ct hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
ln lt ti
B v C sao cho tam gic BIC cn nh I.
Gii:
ng thng d
2
c phng trnh tham s:
2
2 2
2
1 2 ; ( )
3 2
x t
y t t R
z t
=

= + e


Ta im
1 2
I d d = l nghim ca h ( )
1
1 2 1;1;1
1 2
2 1 0
2 2 5 0
x t
y t I
z t
x y
x y z

= +

= +

= +

+ + =


Ta c ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
1 ;1 2 ;1 2 , ; 1 2 ;3 2 B t t t d C t t t d + + + e + e
(iu kin: B khc I, C khc I
1 2
0, 1 t t = = )
- Tam gic BIC cn nh I ( ) ( )
1
2
(1) 1
... 2;3;3 , 2;3; 1
2
[ , ] 0 (2)
IB IC t
B C
t
AB AC
= =



=
=
.

ng thng d
3
l ng thng i qua B v c vtcp ( ) 0; 0; 4 BC =

c phng trnh tham s l


3
2
: 3 ; ( )
1 2
x
d y t R
z t
=

= e

= +


Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 2 2 3 0 x y z + =
v hai ng thng
1
4 1
:
2 2 1
x y z
d

= =

;
2
3 5 7
:
2 3 2
x y z
d
+ +
= =

.
a. Chng t ng thng
1
d song song mt phng ( ) v
2
d ct mt phng ( )
b. Tnh khong cch gia ng thng
1
d v
2
d
c. Vit phng trnh ng thng A song song vi mt phng ( ) , ct ng thng
1
d v
2
d ln lt
ti M v N sao cho 3 MN = .
Gii:
a.
1 2
1 2
qua (4;1;0) qua ( 3; 5;7)
: ; :
VTCP (2; 2; 1) VTCP (2; 3; 2)
A B
d d
u u


= =

v ( ) c vtpt (2; 1; 2) n =


Do
1
. 0 u n =

v ( ) A e nn ( )
1
/ / d
Do
2
. 3 0 u n = =

nn
2
d ct ( ) .

54
b. V
1 2
[ , ] ( 1; 2; 2) , ( 7; 6; 7) u u AB = =

1 2
1 2
1 2
[ , ].
(( ), ( )) 3
[ , ]
u u AB
d d d
u u
= =




c. Phng trnh mt phng ( ) cha ng thng
1
d v song song vi mt phng ( ) c phng trnh
( ) : 2 2 7 0 x y z + =
Gi
2
( ) ( ) (1;1; 3) N d N = ;
1
(2 4; 2 1; ), (2 3; 2 ; 3) M d M t t t NM t t t e + + = +


Theo gi thit ta c
2
3 9 1 (1;1; 3), (1; 2; 2) MN MN t N NM = = = =

.
ng thng A cn tm l ng thng i qua N v c vtcp NM

c phng trnh
1 1 3
1 2 2
x y z
= =


Bi 5: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho 2 ng thng c phng trnh
1 2
3 1 0
1
: :
2 1 0 1 2 1
x z
x y z
d v d
x y
+ = +
= =

+ =


a. Chng minh
1 2
d v d cho nhau.
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng d ct c
1 2
d v d v song song vi
4 7 3
:
1 4 2
x y z
A = =


Gii:
a.
1 2 1 1 2 2
(1; 2;1) ; (1; 2; 3) (0; 1; 0) ; (0;1;1) u u v M d M d = = e e


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
(0; 2;1) . . 8 0 cho nhau M M u u M M d v d

= = =



b. Gi s
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
( ; 1 2 ; ) ( ;1 2 ;1 3 ) d d A A t t t v d d B B t t t = + = +
( ) ( ) ( )
2 1 1 2 2 1
2 1 1 2 1 2
1 2
( ; 2 2 2 ;1 3 )
1 3 1
Do song song
1 2 2
2; 1 2; 3; 2 : 1; 1; 4 1; 4; 2
AB t t t t t t
t t t t t t
d u AB
t t A B AB
A
= +

A || = =
= = =


ng thng d chnh l ng thng i qua A v c vtcp AB

c phng trnh l
2 3 2
1 4 2
x y z
= =


Bi 6: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho 2 ng thng
1 2
; d d v mt phng (P) c
phng trnh
1 2
1 1 2 2 2
: :
2 3 1 1 5 2
x y z x y z
d v d
+ +
= = = =

; ( ) : 2 5 1 0 P x y z + =
a. Chng minh
1 2
d v d cho nhau v tnh khong cch gia chng.
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng A vung gc vi (P), ct c
1 2
; d d
Gii:
a.
1 2 1 1 2 2
Ta c : (2; 3;1) ; (1; 5; 2) v ( 1;1; 2) ; (2; 2; 0) u u M d M d = = e e


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
(3; 3; 2) . . 62 0 cho nhau M M u u M M d v d

= = =



khong cch
1 2
1 2
1 2
. .
62
( , )
195
.
u u MN
d d d
u u


= =





b. Gi s
1 1 1 1 2
(2 1;3 1; 2) d A A t t t v d B A = + + A =

55
2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1
( 2;5 2; 2 ) ( 2 3;5 3 3; 2 2)
2 3 5 3 3 2 2
Do ( ) (2; 1; 5)
2 1 5
P
B t t t AB t t t t t t
t t t t t t
P n AB
+ =

A = || = =


bn c gii tip
Phng trnh ng thng cn tm l
1 4 3
:
2 1 5
x y z
A = =


Bi 7: (GTVT 2001) Trong khng gian vi h trc ta -cc vung gc Oxyz cho im
( 1;3; 2) A v hai ng thng:
1
1 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d

= =

v ( )
2
1
: 3
3 2
x t
d y t t
z t
= +

= + e

= +


1. Vit phng trnh ng thng

A qua A ct

1 2
d v d
2. Tnh ta cc giao im ca

A vi
1 2
d v d
Gii:

1. ng thng A qua A ct
1
d v
2
d
1
d qua B(1, 1, 0) c VTCP
1
(2, 1,1) a =

v
2
d qua C(1, 3, 3) c VTCP
2
(1,1, 2) a =


Gi l mt phng qua A v cha
1
d
, ( 2, 3,1)
1
n AB a


= =



Phng trnh ( ) : 2 3 5 0 x y z + + = :
Gi (P) l mt phng qua B v cha
2
d
2
, ( 1; 3; 2)
P
n AC a

= =


Phng trnh ( ) : 3 2 4 0 x y z + + =
ng thng A l giao tuyn ca ( ) v ( ) phng trnh:
2 3 5 0
:
3 2 4 0
x y z
x y z
+ + =
A

+ + =


2. To giao im ca A v
1
d tha:
2 3 5 0 1
3 2 4 0 1
1 1 0
2 1 1
x y z x
x y z y
x y z z

+ + = =

+ + = =


=

= =


To giao im ca A v
2
d tha:
2 3 5 0
3 2 4 0 0
1 2
3 1
3 2
x y z
x y z x
x t y
y t z
z t
+ + =

+ + = =


= + =


= + =

= +


Vy cc giao im l (1, 1, 0); (0, 2, 1).
Bi 8: (HGTVT HCM 2001) Trong h ta trc chun Oxyz cho hai ng thng
1
A v
2
A c
phng trnh l

56
1
8 23 0
:
4 10 0
x z
x y
=
A

=

v
2
2 3 0
:
2 2 0
x z
x y
+ =
A

+ + =


Vit phng trnh ng thng A song song vi trc Ox v ng thi ct c
1
A v
2
A
Gii:
Gi l mt phng cha
1
A v song song vi Ox.
Gi l mt phng cha
2
A v song song vi Ox.
Suy ra: A =
( ) cha
1
A nn phng trnh c dng:
( ) ( ) ( ) 8 23 4 10 0 8 4 23 10 0 m x z n x y m n x ny mz m n + = + =
Theo gi thit Ox // ( ) 8m + 4n = 0
Chn 1 2 m n = = nn ( ) : 2 3 0 y z =
Tng t ( ) : 1 0 y z + =
Vy
2 3 0
:
1 0
y z
y z
=
A

+ =


Bi 9: Trong khng gian Oxyz c 2 mt phng ( ) : 3 12 3 5 0 P x y z + = ,
( ) : 3 4 9 7 0 Q x y z + + = v 2 ng thng:
1 2
5 3 1 3 1 2
: ; :
2 4 2 2 3 4
x y z x y z
d d
+ + +
= = = =

.
Vit phng trnh ng thng d song song vi hai mt phng (P) v (Q) v ct hai ng
thng d
1
v d
2
.
Gii:
(P) c php vect
'
(3;12; 3) 3(1; 4; 1) 3 ,
P P
n n = = =

vi
'
(1; 4; 1)
P
n =


Mt phng (Q) c php vect (3; 4; 9)
Q
n =


ng thng d
1
c vect ch phng
1
(2; 4; 3) u =


ng thng d
2
c vect ch phng
2
( 2; 3; 4) u =


Gi:
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
'
'
' '
' '
1 2
( ) ( )
/ /( ), / /( )
( ) ,
P Q
P P Q Q
d P d Q
u u
A
A =

c c



Suy ra d l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
( )
'
P v
( )
'
Q
ng thng c vect ch phng
/ /
[ ; ] (32; 12; 16) 4(8; 3; 4) 4 P Q u n n u = = = =


vi
/
(8; 3; 4). u =


mp (P
/
) c cp vect ch phng
1
u

v
/
u

nn c php vect:
/
/
1 [ ; ] (25; 32; 26) P n u u = =


- Phng trnh mp (P
/
) cha (d
1
) i qua im A (-5;3; -1)
1
d e vi
'
P
n

l:
25(x + 5) + 32(y 3) + 26(z + 1) = 0
/
( ) : 25 32 26 55 0 P x y z + + + =
mp (Q
/
) c cp vect ch phng
2
u

v
'
u

nn c php vect:
/
/
2 [ ; ] (0; 24; 18) Q n u u = =


Phng trnh mp (Q
/
) cha (d
2
) i qua im B (3;-1; 2)
2
d e vi
/
Q n

l:
Q
P
Q
/

P
/


1
u

2
u

B
d
2

d
1

A

q
n

p
n


57
/
0( 3) 24( 1) 18( 2) 0 ( ) : 4 3 10 0 x y z Q y x + + = + =
Ta c:
/ /
( ) ( ). P Q A =
Vy, phng trnh ng thng
25 32 26 55 0
:
4 3 10 0
x y z
y z
+ + + =
A

+ =


Bi 10: Trong khng gian to Oxyz, cho mt phng (P): 2x y 5z + 1 = 0 v hai ng thng
1
1 1 2
:
2 3 1
x y z
d
+
= = ,
2
2 2
:
1 5 2
x y z
d
+
= =


Vit phng trnh ng thng d vung gc vi (P) ng thi ct hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
.
Gii:
Phng trnh tham s ca d
1
v d
2
l:
1 2
1 2 2
: 1 3 ; : 2 5
2 2
x t x m
d y t d y m
z t z m
= + = +

= + = +


= + =


Gi s d ct d
1
ti ( ) 1 2 ;1 3 ; 2 M t t t + + + v ct d
2
ti ( ) 2 ; 2 5 ; 2 N m m m + +
( ) 3 2 ; 3 5 3 ; 2 2 . MN m t m t m t = + +


Do d (P) c VTPT (2; 1; 5)
P
n

nn :
p
k MN kn - =

3 2 2
3 5 3
2 2 5
m t k
m t k
m t k
+ =

+ =

c nghim
Gii h tm c
1
1
m
t
=

Khi im M(1; 4; 3) Phng trnh


1 2
: 4
3 5
x t
d y t
z t
= +

tho mn bi ton

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Lp phng trnh ng thng A song song vi ng thng d v ct hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d
bit

1 5
:
1 1 3
x y z
d

= = ;
1
1 2 3
:
2 3 4
x y z
d

= = v
2
1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= =


p s: A dng chnh tc
1
1 1 3
x y z
= = , dng tng qut
5 2 2 0
2 4 4
x y z
x y z
+ =

+ +


Bi 2: Vit phng trnh ng thng A ct hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d ng thi vung gc vi mt
phng (P) bit
( ) : 3 10 0 P x y z + + = ;
1
1 2 3
:
2 3 4
x y z
d

= = v
2
1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= =


p s: : 1
3
x t
y t
z t
=

A = +


Bi 3: Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua ( ) 1;1; 0 A v ct hai ng thng
1
1 1
1
:
0
x t
d y t
z
= +

v
2
2
0
: 0
2
x
d y
z t
=

= +



58
p s: :
0
x t
d y t
z
=


Bi 4: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai ng thng
1
2 0
:
2 5 0
y
d
x z
=

v
2
1
: 3
4
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua im ( ) 1; 3; 0 M ng thi ct
1
d v
2
d
p s: Bi ton v nghim
Bi 5: Vit phng trnh ng thng d vung gc vi mt phng (Oxz) v ct hai ng thng

1
1 1
1
: 4
3
x t
d y t
z t
=

= +

v
2
2 2
2
1 2
: 3
4 5
x t
d y t
z t
=

= +


Bi 6: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho hai ng thng

1
2 0
:
2 5 0
y
x z
=
A

=

v
2
1 2
: 3
4
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =

= +


Vit phng trnh ng thng d ct hai ng thng
1
A v
2
A v song song vi trc Oz
p s:
1
3
: 2
1
x
d y
z t
=

= +


Bi 7: (HXD 1998) Vit phng trnh ng thng d vung gc vi mt phng (P) v ct hai ng
thng
1
d v
2
d bit
( ) : 1 0 P x y z + + = ;
1
1 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =

v
2
2 1 0
:
2 2 1 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

+ + =


p s:
2 1 0
:
2 3 1 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =


Bi 8: (H A 2007) Cho 2 ng thng
1 2
1 2
1 2
: ; : 1
2 1 1
3
x t
x y z
d d y t
z
= +
+
= = = +


a. Chng minh d
1
, d
2
cho nhau
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng d vung gc vi mt phng (P): 7x + y 4z = 0 v ct c 2 ng
thng d
1
, d
2

HD:
a. Xt tch
1 2
. 21 0 u u MN

= =



1 2
cho nhau d v d
b.
2 1
:
7 1 4
x y z
d
+
= =



Dng 5: Vit phng trnh ng thng A nm trong mt phng (P) v ct hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d
Phng php :
- ng thng A nm trong mt phng (P) v ct ng thng
1
d ti im A ( )
1
A P d =

59
- ng thng A nm trong mt phng (P) v ct ng thng
2
d ti im B ( )
2
B P d =
- Tm ta im A v B v tnh vecto AB


Kt lun: ng thng A l ng thng i qua A v nhn vecto AB

lm vtcp

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng
1
1 1 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =


2
1 2 1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d
+
= = v mt phng ( ) : 2 3 0. P x y z + = Vit phng trnh chnh tc ca ng
thng A, bit A nm trn mt phng (P) v A ct hai ng thng d
1
, d
2
.
Gii:
ng thng
1
d v
2
d c phng trnh tham s l
1
1 1
1
1 2
: 1
1
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

v
2
2 2
2
1
: 2
1 2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

= +


Gi A = d
1
(P) suy ra A(1; 0 ; 2) ; B = d
2
(P) suy ra B(2; 3; 1)
ng thng A tha mn bi ton i qua A v c vtcp (1; 3; 1) u AB
A
= =


Phng trnh chnh tc ca ng thng A l:
1 2
1 3 1
x y z
= =


Bi 2: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz cho mt phng( ) : 4 3 11 26 0 P x y z + = v 2 ng thng:
1 2
3 1 4 3
: :
1 2 3 1 1 2
x y z x y z
d v d
+
= = = =


a. Chng minh
1 2
d v d cho nhau.
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng A nm trong (P) ct c
1 2
d v d .
HD:
a. Ta c
1 2 1 2 2 2
( 1; 2; 3), (1;1; 2) (0; 3; 1) ; (4; 0; 3) u u v M d M d = = e e


1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2
(4; 3; 4) . . 23 0 M M u u M M d v d

= = =


cho nhau
b. Gi s
1 2
( ) ( 2; 7; 5) ( ) (3; 1;1) d P A A v d P B B = =
phng trnh ng thng
2 7 5
:
5 8 4
x y z
AB
+
= =


Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta cc vung gc Oxyz cho mp (P): x 2y + z 2 = 0 v hai
ng thng :
1 3 2
:
1 1 2
x y z
d
+ +
= =

v
'
1 2
: 2
1
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

= +


Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng A nm trong mt phng (P) v ct c hai ng thng d v
d . CMR d v d cho nhau v tnh khong cch gia chng .
HD:
Mt phng (P) ct d ti im A(10 ; 14 ; 20) v ct d ti im B(9 ; 6 ; 5)
ng thng cn tm i qua A, B nn c phng trnh l
9
6 8
5 15
x t
y t
z t
=



60
+ ng thng d i qua M(-1;3 ;-2) v c VTCP ( ) 1;1; 2 u


+ ng thng d i qua M(1 ;2 ;1) v c VTCP ( ) ' 2;1;1 u


Ta c : ( ) ' 2; 1;3 MM =

v ' , ' 8 0 MM u u

= =


suy ra d v d cho nhau
Khi :
( )
' , '
8
, '
11
, '
MM u u
d d d
u u


= =






Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh ng thng A nm trong mt phng ( ) : 2 0 y z + = v ct hai ng thng
1
1
:
4
x t
d y t
z t
=

v
'
'
2
2
: 4 2
1
x t
d y t
z
=

= +


p s:
''
''
''
1 4
: 2
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =


Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
1
1
: 1
3
x
d y
z t
=

= +

v
2
2 2
2
: 2
0
x t
d y t
z
= +


Vit phng trnh ng thng d ct hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d , ng thi
1
d d v d to vi mt phng
( ) : 2 3 0 P x y + = mt gc bng 60
o

p s : C hai ng thng d tha mn l

( )
( )
'
'
1 2 3
: 1 2 3 1
0
x t
d y t
z

= + +

= +

v
( )
( )
''
''
1 2 3
: 1 2 3 1
0
x t
d y t
z

= +

= +


Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai mt phng
( ) : 3 12 3 5 0 P x y z + = ; ( ) : 3 4 9 7 0 Q x y z + + = v hai ng thng

1
5 3 1
:
2 4 3
x y z
d
+ +
= =

v
2
3 1 2
:
2 3 4
x y z
d
+
= =

.
Vit phng trnh ng thng A song song vi hai mt phng (P) v (Q) ng thi ct hai ng thng
d
1
v d
2
p s:
25 32 26 55 0
:
4 3 10 0
x y z
y z
+ + + =
A

+ =



Dng 6: Vit phng trnh ng thng A nm trong mt phng (P), bit A i qua ( ) A d P = v
vung gc vi ng thng d
Phng php:
- Tm ta im ( ) A d P =

61
- ng thng A nm trn (P) v vung gc vi d nn c vtcp ,
P d
u n u
A

=



- ng thng A i qua A v c vtcp u
A

nn c ptts
Ch :
Nu yu cu vit phng trnh A dng tng qut th chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) P v
( ) Q , trong mt phng ( ) Q l mt phng i qua im A v vung gc vi ng thng d

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho mt phng ( ) : 1 0 P x y z + + = v
1
:
1
x
z
=
A

=


Tm giao im A ca ( ) P v A. Vit phng trnh ng thng d i qua A nm trong ( ) P v vung gc
vi A
Gii:
- Giao im ( ) A P = A l nghim ca h ( )
1 0 1
1 1 1;1; 1
1 1
x y z x
x y A
z z
+ + = =

= =


= =


- Gi (Q) l mt phng i qua A v vung gc vi A khi d chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng (P)
v (Q)
- Mt phng (Q) i qua A v c vtpt ( )
1
0;1;0
Q
n u = =

c phng trnh l 1 y =
- Phng trnh giao tuyn d ca (P) v (Q) l
1 0 0
1 1
x y z x z
y y
+ + = + =


= =


V t x t z t = = th d phng trnh tham s 1
x t
y
z t
=



Tng t: Cho mt phng ( ) P v ng thng d c phng trnh l
( ) : 2 1 0 P x y z + + = v
1 2
:
2 1 3
x y z
d
+
= =

. Vit phng trnh ca ng thng A i qua giao im


ca ( ) P v d, vung gc vi d v nm trong ( ) P
M rng dng 6:

Dng 7: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua Ae(P), nm trong (P) v vung gc vi ng
thng d
Phng php gii:
- Tm VTCP ca d :
d
u

v VTPT ca (P):
P
n


- ng thng A c VTCP l
d P
u u n
A
= .


- Vit phng trnh ng thng A qua A v c VTCP va tm c trn.
Ch :
Nu yu cu vit phng trnh A dng tng qut th chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng ( ) P v
( ) Q , trong mt phng ( ) Q l mt phng i qua im A v vung gc vi ng thng d


62
Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: (HDB 2007) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz . Cho ng thng
3 2 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+ +
= =


v mt phng ( ) : 2 0 P x y z + + + =
a. Tm giao im M ca d v ( ) P
b. Vit phng trnh ca ng thng A nm trong mt phng ( ) P sao cho d A v khong cch t M
ti A bng 42
Gii:
a. Ta c phng trnh tham s ca d l:
3 2
2
1
x t
y t
z t
= +

= +

to im M l nghim ca h
3 2
2
1
2 0
x t
y t
z t
x y z
= +

= +

+ + + =

(tham s t)
(1; 3; 0) M
b. Li c VTPT ca ( ) P l (1;1;1)
P
n

, VTCP ca d l (2;1; 1)
d
u

.
V A nm trong ( ) P v vung gc vi d nn VTCP , (2; 3;1)
d P
u u n
A
= =



Gi ( ) ; ; N x y z l hnh chiu vung gc ca M trn A, khi ( 1; 3; ) MN x y z = +

.
Ta c MN

vung gc vi u
A

nn ta c phng trnh: 2x 3y + z 11 = 0 (1)


Li c ( ) N P e (2) v gi thit 42 MN = (3)
T (1), (2) v (3) ta c h:
2 2 2
2 0
2 3 11 0
( 1) ( 3) 42
x y z
x y z
x y z
+ + + =

+ =

+ + + =


Gii h ta tm c hai im ( ) 5; 2; 5 N v ( ) 3; 4; 5 N
Nu ( ) 5; 2; 5 N ta c phng trnh
5 2 5
:
2 3 1
x y z + +
A = =


Nu ( ) 3; 4; 5 N ta c phng trnh
3 4 5
:
2 3 1
x y z + +
A = =


Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h trc Oxyz, cho mt phng( ) : 1 0 P x y z + + = , ng thng
2 1 1
:
1 1 3
x y z
d

= =

. Gi I l giao im ca d v (P). Vit phng trnh ca ng thng A nm
trong (P), vung gc vi d v cch I mt khong bng 2 3 .
Gii:
Mt phng (P) c vc t php tuyn (1;1; 1)
P
n =

v d c vc t ch phng (1; 1; 3) u =


) 4 ; 2 ; 1 ( ) ( I P d I =
V A A c A d P); ( c vc t ch phng ; ( 4; 2; 2) 2( 2;1; 1)
P d
u n u
A

= = =



Gi H l hnh chiu ca I trn A ( ) H Q e l mt phng qua I v vung gc A
Phng trnh ( ) : 2( 1) ( 2) ( 4) 0 2 4 0 Q x y z x y z + = + + =
Gi
1 1
) ( ) ( d Q P d = c vcto ch phng
1
; (0; 3; 3) 3(0;1;1)
P Q
u n n

= = =




63
v
1
d qua I phng trnh ca
1
1
: 2
4
x
d y t
z t
=

= +

= +



Ta c
1
(1; 2 ; 4 ) (0; ; ) H d H t t IH t t e + + =



Theo gi thit

=
=
= =
3
3
2 3 2 2 3
2
t
t
t IH
TH 1:
1
7
1
5
2
1
: ) 7 ; 5 ; 1 ( 3

A =
z y x
pt H t

TH 2:
1
1
1
1
2
1
: ) 1 ; 1 ; 1 ( 3

=
+
=

A =
z y x
pt H t
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz , cho ng thng
2 4
: 3 2
3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

= +

v mt phng
( ) : 2 5 0 P x y z + + + = . Vit phng trnh ng thng A nm trong ( ) P song song vi d v cch d
mt khong l 14 .
Gii:
Chn (2;3;3), (6;5; 2) A B d e m A, B nm trn ( ) P nn ( ) d P c .
Gi u

vect ch phng ca
1
d qua A v vung gc vi d th
d
P
u u
u u




nn ta chn [ , ] (3; 9; 6) 3(1; 3; 2)
P
u u u = = =

. Phng trnh ca ng thng
1
2 3
: 3 9 ( )
3 6
x t
d y t t R
z t
= +

= e

= +

:
A l ng thng qua M v song song vi d . Ly M trn
1
d th (2 3 ;39 ;3 6 ) M t t t + + .
Theo gi thit:
2 2 2 2
1 1
14 9 81 36 14
9 3
AM t t t t t = + + = = =
Vi ( )
1
1 1 6 5
1; 6; 5 :
3 4 2 1
x y z
t M
+
= A = =
Vi ( )
2
1 3 1
3; 0; 1 :
3 4 2 1
x y z
t M
+
= A = =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh ng thng A i qua im A(1;1;0), nm trong mt phng (P): 3x 2y 1 = 0
v vung gc vi ng thng
11 16
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =


Bi 2: Vit phng trnh ca ng thng d i qua im ( ) 3; 1;1 A nm trong mt phng
( ) : 5 0 x y z + = v hp vi ng thng mt gc 45
o
vi
2
:
1 2 2
x y z
A = =

64
p s: Phng trnh tham s ca
1
1 1
1
3 7
: 1 8
1 15
x t
d y t
z t
= +

v
2
2 2
3
: 1
1
x t
d y t
z
= +

= +


Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 4 3 11 0 P x y z + = v hai ng thng
1
3 1
:
1 2 3
x y z
d
+
= =

,
2
4 3
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= = . Chng minh rng d
1
v d
2
cho nhau. Vit phng trnh
ng thng A nm trn (P), ng thi A ct c d
1
v d
2
.
HD:
To giao im ca d
1
v (P): A(2;7;5)
To giao im ca d
2
v (P): B(3;1;1)
Phng trnh ng thng
2 7 5
:
5 8 4
x y z +
A = =



Bi 4: Cho hai ng thng:
1
3 2
: 1
5
x t
d y t
z t
= +

v
2
3 3 1
:
2 1 1
x y z
d
+
= =


a. Chng t rng d
1
v d
2
song song nhau.
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng (o) cha d
1
v d
2
.
c. Tnh khong cch gia d
1
v d
2

d. Vit phng trnh ng thng Abit Asong song vi d
1
; Acch u d
1
, d
2
v A ( ) c
p s: b. ( ) : 4 0 y z + = c. ( )
1 2
8 3
,
3
d d d =
Bi 5: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 4 0 P x y z + + = v hai im ( ) 3; 3;1 A ;
( ) 0; 2;1 B
a. Vit phng trnh ng thng d, bit d nm trong mt phng (P) v mi im ca d cch u hai im
A v B
b. Tm ta im I AB e ( ) I B = sao cho ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , d I P d B P =
p s:
a. d cch u A, B nn d thuc mt phng trung trc ca on AB nn
4 0
:
3 7 0
x x x
d
x y
+ + =

+ =


b.
3 5
; ;1
2 2
I
| |
|
\ .


Dng 8: Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca hai ng thng cho nhau
1
d v
2
d
Phng php:
Nu yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng d dng tng
Cch 1:
- Tm mt im
1
A d e , mt vtcp
1
u

v mt im
2
B d e , mt vtcp
2
u


- Gi d l ng vung ca
1
d v
2
d , khi d c mt vtcp
| |
1 2
, u u u =


ng thng d chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng (P) cha d v
1
d nn (P) i qua A v c vtpt | |
1
,
P
n u u =


- Mt phng (Q) cha d v
2
d nn (Q) i qua B v c vtpt | |
2
,
P
n u u =


Kt lun: ng thng d chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng (P) v (Q)

65
Cch 2:
- Tm mt im
1
A d e v mt vtcp
1
u


- Gi d l ng vung ca
1
d v
2
d , khi d c mt vtcp | |
1 2
, u u u =


- Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cha d v
1
d nn (P) i qua A v c vtpt | |
1
,
P
n u u =


- Gi ( )
2
M P d = , ta M l nghim ca
2
d v (P)
Kt lun: ng thng d l ng thng i qua B v c vtcp u


Nu yu cu vit phng trnh ng thng d dng tham s hoc chnh tc
Cch 3: Khi
1
d v
2
d dng tham s
- Gi s A v B l chn ng vung gc chung ca
1
d v
2
d , tc l d AB
- Tm ta im A v B theo tham s ca
1
d v
2
d
- T iu kin
1
d d v
2
d d , suy ra
1
2
AB u
AB u


Ta ca A v B
Kt lun: ng thng d chnh l ng thng i qua A v nhn vecto AB

lm vtcp
Cch 4: Khi
1
d v
2
d cho nhau v vung gc vi nhau
ng thng d chnh l giao tuyn ca hai mt phng
- Mt phng (P) cha ng thng
1
d v vung gc vi ng thng
2
d
- Mt phng (Q) cha ng thng
2
d v vung gc vi ng thng
1
d

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca hai ng
thng:
1
7 3 9
:
1 2 1
x y z
A = =

v
2
3 7
: 1 2
1 3
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =

:
Gii:
Phng trnh tham s ca
1
7 '
: 3 2 '
9 '
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +

:
Gi M v N ln lt l giao im ca ng vung gc chung vi A
1
v A
2

' ' '
(7 ; 3 2 ; 9 ) M t t t + + v ( ) 3 7 ;1 2 ;1 3 N t t t + +
VTCP ln lt ca A
1
v A
2
l ( ) 1; 2; 1 a =

v ( ) 7; 2; 3 b =


Ta c:
. 0
. 0
MN a MN a
MN b MN b

=


=



. T y tm c t v t

To ca M, N.
ng vung gc chung chnh l ng thng MN.
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz , cho hai ng thng
1
2 2
: 3
x t
d y
z t
=

v
2
2 1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= =

.
a. Chng minh rng hai ng thng
1 2
, d d vung gc nhau nhng khng ct nhau .

66
b. Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca
1 2
, d d .
Gii:
a. Thay x.y.z trong phng trnh ca
1
d vo phng trnh ca
2
d ta c :

2 3 1
1 4
1 1 2
t t
t t

= = = . =

v nghim .
Vy
1
d v
2
d khng ct nhau .
Ta c:
1
d c vtcp
1
( 2; 0;1) u =

;
2
d c vtcp
2
(1; 1; 2) u =


V
1 2
. 0 u u =

nn
1
d v
2
d vung gc nhau .
b. Ly
1
(2 2 ;3; ) M t t d e ,
2
(2 ;1 ; 2 ) N m m m d + e
Khi : ( 2 ; 2 ; 2 ) MN m t m m t = +


MN vung vi
1 2
, d d
1
2
. 0 0
5 4 2
(2; 3; 0), ( ; ; )
1/ 3 3 3 3
. 0
MN u t
M N
m
MN u

= =


=
=



2 3
:
1 5 2
x y z
MN

= = l phng trnh ng thng cn tm .
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta 0xyz cho hai ng thng :
1
2 1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= =

,
2
2 2
: 3
x t
d y
z t
=


Vit phng trnh mt cu c ng knh l on vung gc chung ca d
1
v d
2
Gii:
Cc vc t ch phng ca d
1
v d
2
ln lt l ( )
1
1; 1; 2 u =

v ( )
2
2; 0;1 u =

( - 2; 0; 1)
C M( 2; 1; 0) e d
1
; N( 2; 3; 0) e d
2
Xt
1 2
; . 10 0 u u MN

= =


suy ra d
1
cho d
2
Gi A(2 + t; 1 t; 2t) e d
1
, B(2 2t; 3; t) e d
2

( )
1
2
1
. 0
5 4 2
; ; , 2;3;0 3
3 3 3
. 0
' 0
ABu t
A B
ABu
t

= =
| |

|
\ . =


ng thng Aqua hai im A, B l ng vung gc chung ca d
1
v d
2
.
Ta c
2
: 3 5
2
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +


PT mt cu nhn on AB l ng knh c dng:
2 2 2
11 13 1 5
6 6 3 6
x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: (H YDHCM 1998) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
7 3 9
:
1 2 1
x y z
d

= =

v
2
3 3 1
:
7 2 3
x x z
d

= =


Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d
p s:
3 2 6 0
:
5 34 11 38 0
x y z
x y z
=
A

+ =



67
Bi 2: (HH 1997) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
3 0
:
1 0
x y z
d
y z
+ + =

+ =

v
2
2 2 9 0
:
1 0
x y z
d
y z
+ =

+ =


Chng minh rng
1
d v
2
d vung gc vi nhau. Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca hai
ng thng
1
d v
2
d
p s:
4 9 0
:
1 0
x y z
y z
+ =
A

+ =


Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
: 1 1 d x y z = + = v
2
: 1 1 d x y z + = =
Tm ta im
1
A d e v
2
B d e sao cho ng thng
1 2
, AB d AB d
p s:
1 5 3
; ;
4 4 4
A
| |

|
\ .
v
1 7 3
; ;
4 4 4
B
| |
|
\ .

Bi 4: (HSPHN 1998) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
2
: 1
2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

v
2
2 2 0
:
3 0
x z
d
y
+ =


a. Chng minh rng
1
d v
2
d cho nhau. Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d
b. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) cch u
1
d v
2
d
p s: a.
2 3
:
1 5 2
x y z
d AB

= =
b. (P) chnh l mt phng trung trc ca on AB c phng trnh 5 2 12 0 x y z + + =


CHUYN : VIT PHNG TRNH MT CU

. Phng trnh chnh tc ca mt cu (S)
Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt cu (S) c tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v c bn knh R khi mt cu
(S) c phng trnh l
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
x a y b z c R + + = (1)
c bit khi I O th ( )
2 2 2 2
: S x y z R + + =
. Phng trnh tng qut ca mt cu (S)
T (1) khai trin ra ta c
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 (2) x y z ax by cz a b c R + + + + + = t
2 2 2 2
d a b c R = + + khi
( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 0 3 x y z ax by cz d + + + = iu kin
2 2 2
0 a b c d + + >
(3) l phng trnh ca mt cu c tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v bn knh
2 2 2
R a b c d = + +
. V tr tng i ca mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z vi mt cu (S)
Cch 1: Phng tch ca mt im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z vi mt cu (S)
Gi s phng trnh mt cu (S) dng tng qut, khi
Phng tch ( ) ( )
2 2 2
0 0 0 0 0 0 0
, 2 2 2 M S x y z ax by cz d = + + +
- Nu 0 > im
0
M nm ngoi mt cu (S)

68
- Nu 0 < im
0
M nm trong mt cu (S)
- Nu 0 = im
0
M nm trn mt cu (S)
Cch 2: Tnh khong cch t tm I n im
0
M v so snh vi bn knh R
- Nu
0
IM R > im
0
M nm ngoi mt cu (S)
- Nu
0
IM R < im
0
M nm trong mt cu (S)
- Nu
0
IM R = im
0
M nm trn mt cu (S)
V. V tr tng i ca mt phng (P) v mt cu (P)
Tnh khong cch d IH = t tm I n mt phng (P) v so snh vi bn knh R
- Nu ( ) ( ) d R P S > = C mt phng (P) khng ct mt cu (S)
- Nu ( ) ( ) ( ) d R P S C < = mt phng (P) ct mt cu (S) theo giao tuyn (thit din) l mt
ng trn (C), ng trn ny
+ C tm H l hnh chiu ca tm I trn mt phng (P)
+ Bn knh
2 2
r R d =
c bit khi (P) i qua tm ca mt cu (S) th , I H R r v ng trn (C) c gi l ng trn ln
- Nu ( ) ( ) d R P S M = = mt phng (P) tip xc vi mt cu (S) ti im M khi mt
phng (P) gi l tip din v im M gi l tip im
V. V tr tng i ca ng thng A v mt cu (S)
Tnh khong cch d IH = t tm I n ng thng A v so snh vi bn knh R
- Nu ( ) d R S > A = C ng thng A khng ct mt cu (S)
- Nu ( ) { } , d R S A B < A = ng thng A ct mt cu (S) ti hai im A, B
- Nu ( ) d R S M = A = ng thng A tip xc vi mt cu (S) ti im M khi im M
gi l tip im

Cc dng bi tp:

Loi 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu
vit phng trnh mt cu ta phi xc nh c tm v bn knh sau s dng cng thc (1) hoc
(2)
Dng 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) dng n gin
a. C tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v bn knh R cho trc
b. C ng knh AB vi ( )
1 1 1
; ; A a b c v ( )
2 2 2
; ; B a b c cho trc
c. C tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v i qua im ( )
0 0 0 0
; ; M x y z cho trc
Phng php:
a. S dng cng thc (1) hoc (2)
b. V AB l ng knh nn
Cch 1:
- Tm I l trung im ca A, B ta im I
- Bn knh
2
AB
R =
Kt lun: Phng trnh mt cu (S)
Cch 2: Phng php qu tch
Gi s ( ) ( ) ; M x y S e khi ta c . 0 MA MB MAMB =

, t y ta c phng trnh mt cu (S)
Cch 3: Da vo nh l pitago

69
Gi s ( ) ( ) ; M x y S e khi ta c
2 2 2
MA MB MA MB AB + = , t y ta c phng trnh mt cu
(S)
c.
Cch 1:
- C tm ( ) ; ; I a b c
- Bn knh
0
R IM =
Cch 2: Gi s ( ) ( ) ; M x y S e khi ta c
2 2
0 0
IM IM R IM IM = = = , t y ta c phng trnh
mt cu (S)
Cch 3:
- Mt cu (S) c tm ( ) ; ; I a b c c dng ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
x a y b z c R + + = (1)
- V im ( )
0
M S e nn thay ta im
0
M vo (1) c bn knh R

Bi tp gii mu:


Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho hai ng thng :
1
2 1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= =

v
2
2 2
: 3
x t
d y
z t
=


Vit phng trnh mt cu c ng knh l on vung gc chung ca d
1
v d
2

Gii:
Cc vc t ch phng ca d
1
v d
2
ln lt l ( )
1
1; 1; 2 u

v ( )
2
2;0;1 u


C ( )
1
2;1; 0 M d e , ( )
2
2; 3; 0 N d e
Xt
1 2
; . 10 0 u u MN

= =



Vy d
1
cho d
2

Gi ( )
1
2 ;1 ; 2 A t t t d + e v ( )
2
2 2 ; 3; B t t d e
Ta c
1
2
1
. 0
3
. 0
' 0
ABu t
ABu
t

= =


5 4 2
; ;
3 3 3
A
| |

|
\ .
v ( ) 2; 3; 0 B
ng thng A qua hai im A, B l ng vung gc chung ca d
1
v d
2
.
Ta c
2
: 3 5
2
x t
y t
z t
= +

A = +


Phng trnh mt cu nhn on AB l ng knh c dng:
2 2 2
11 13 1 5
6 6 3 6
x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng:

2
5
1
1
3
4
:
1

+
=

=
z y x
d

1 3
3
1
2
:
2
z y x
d =
+
=

Vit phng trnh mt cu c bn knh nh nht tip xc vi c hai ng thng d
1
v d
2

Gii:
Gi s mt mt cu S(I, R) tip xc vi hai ng thng d
1
, d
2
ti hai im A v B khi ta lun c

70
IA + IB AB v AB ( )
1 2
, d d d du bng xy ra khi I l trung im AB v AB l on vung gc chung
ca hai ng thng d
1
, d
2
Ta tm A, B :
'
AB u
AB u


Aed
1
, Bed
2
nn: A(3 + 4t; 1- t; -5-2t), B(2 + t; -3 + 3t; t)
AB

(.) A(1; 2; -3) v B(3; 0; 1) I(2; 1; -1)


Mt cu (S) c tm I(2; 1; -1) v bn knh R = 6
Nn c phng trnh l: ( )
2
2 2
2 ( 1) ( 1) 6 x y z + + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz cho 2 im A(0;-1;1) v B(1;2;1). Vit phng trnh
mt cu (S) c ng knh l on vung gc chung ca ng thng AD v ng thng cha trc Ox.
Gii:
Lp phng trnh ng thng i qua AB ta c:
: 1 3
1
x t
AB y t
z
=

= +

Gi ( ;3 1;1) M t t AB e
V N(s;0;0) thuc Ox ( ;3 1;1) MN t s t =

.
V :
1
3
MN AB
t s
MN Ox

= =


Ta tm c :
1 1 1 1
( ; 0;1) , ( ;0; 0) ( ; 0; )
3 3 3 2
M N O l trung im ca MN.
V
1
2 2
MN
R = = .
Vy: ( )
2 2 2
1 1
: ( 3) ( )
2 4
S x y z + + =

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c ng knh l on vung gc chung ca
1
d v
2
d bit

1
d :
2
4
x t
y t
z
=

v
2
d :
'
3 '
0
x t
y t
z
=


p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 2 1 2 4 S x y z + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho ng thng
1
2
:
4
x t
y t
z
=

A =

,
2
A l giao tuyn ca 2 mt
phng ( ) : 3 0 x y + = v ( ) : 4 4 3 12 0 x y z + + = . Chng t hai ng thng
1 2
, A A cho nhau v
vit phng trnh mt cu nhn on vung gc chung ca
1 2
, A A lm ng knh.
HD:
Gi AB l ng vung gc chung ca
1 2
, A A ,
1 2
(2 ; ; 4) , (3 ; ; 0) A t t B s s eA + eA
AB A
1
, AB A
2
(2;1; 4), (2;1;0) A B
Phng trnh mt cu l:
2 2 2
( 2) ( 1) ( 2) 4 x y z + + =

71

Dng 2: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i qua hai im ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
; ; , ; ; M x y z M x y z v tho mn
iu kin cho trc
a. Tm I thuc mt ng thng A cho trc
b. Tm I thuc trc Ox (hoc Oy hoc Oz)
Phng php 1:
a. Khi ng thng A dng tham s
Cch 1:
- V I eA nn ta c ta im I theo tham s t
- V
2 2
1 2 1 2
IM IM R IM IM = = = , gii phng trnh theo tham s ta c t, thay t vo A ta c
ta im I bn knh
1
R IM =
Cch 2: Khi ng thng A dng tng qut
- Gi s ( ) ; ; I a b c eA khi ta c
( )
1 1 1 1
2 2 2 2
0
1
0
a a b b c c d
a a b b c c d
+ + + =

+ + + =


- V ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
2 IM IM R IM IM = = = . Gii h (1) v (2) ta c ta im I bn knh
1
R IM =
Ch : C th chuyn A v dng tham s p dng cch 1 v ngc li
Cch 3:
- Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) trung trc ca on
1 2
M M
- V ( ) I P = A nn ta I l nghim ca A v (P)
- Bn knh
1
R IM =
Phng php 2:
Gi s phng trnh mt cu (S) c dng
2 2 2
2 2 2 0 x y z ax by cz d + + + = c tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v bn
knh
2 2 2
R a b c d = + +
- V ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
; ; 2 2 2 0 1 M x y z S x y z ax by cz d e + + + =
- V ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
; ; 2 2 2 0 2 M x y z S x y z ax by cz d e + + + =
- T iu kin cho trc ta c phng trnh (3). Gii h (1), (2) v (3) ta c a, b, c, d t suy ra
phng trnh mt cu
Ch : Nu dng phng trnh mt cu dng chnh tc s dn n h ba phng trnh bn l a, b, c v R
b. Lm tng t

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i qua hai im ( ) ( ) 2; 4;1 , 2; 0; 3 A B v
c tm I thuc ng thng
1 2 3
:
2 1 2
x y z
d
+
= =


Gii:
- Trong khng gian Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt cu ( S ) i qua hai im A(-2 ; 4 ; 1), B(2 ; 0 ; 3 ) v c
tm I thuc ng thng (d):
x 2-t
y 3t
z 1 6t
=

= +


- V mt cu (S) qua hai im A, B nn tm I ca mt cu thuc mt trung trc ca AB.
Trung im ca AB l : K (0 ; 2 ; 2 ). Vecto ) 2 ; 4 ; 4 ( AB =



72
Phng trnh mp trung trc ca AB : ( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 4 2 4 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 x y z x y z + + = + + =
Ta c I l giao im ca ng thng ( d ) v mp trung trc ca AB nn ta tm I tha :
2
3
1 6
2 2 2 0
x t
y t
z t
x y z
=

= +

+ + =

Gii h trn ta c
3 21
; ; 22
2 2
I
| |

|
\ .

Bn knh mt cu (S) :
2 2
2
3 21 967
2 19
2 2 2
IB
| | | |
= + + =
| |
\ . \ .

Phng trnh mt cu ( )
2 2
2
3 21 967
: ( 22)
2 2 2
S x y z
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

Bi 2: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho 2 im A(1 ; 2; 2), B(3 ; 2; 0) v mt
phng ( ) : 2 2 1 0 x y z + =
a. Vit phng trnh mt phng (|) i qua 2 im A, B v vung gc vi (o);
b. Gi d l giao tuyn ca (o) v (|). Vit ptrnh mt cu c tm thuc d v i qua 2 im A, B.
Gii:
a. mp(o) c 1 vect php tuyn (2; 2; 1) n

; (4; 0; 2) AB =


mp(|) c 1 vect php tuyn l \ (4; 0;8) n n AB

= . =


phng trnh mp(|): x + 2z 3 = 0
b. Gi () l mp trung trc ca AB th ()i qua trung im M(1 ; 2 ; 1) ca AB v c 1 vect php tuyn
(4; 0; 2) AB =


PT mp(): 2x z 1 = 0.
Gi I l tm mt cu th I l giao im ca 3 mt phng (o), (|), ()
to I l nghim ca h:
( )
2 2 1 0
2 3 0 1;1;1
2 1 0
x y z
x z I
x z
+ =

+ =


Bn knh mt cu 6 R IA = = PT mt cu:
(x 1)
2
+ (y 1)
2
+ (z 1)
2
= 6
Tng t :
Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua im i qua im ( ) 2; 4; 1 A , ( ) 0; 2;1 B v tm I thuc ng thng
1 2
: 2
1
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +


p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 3 1 2 19 S x y z + + =

Dng 3: Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua ba im ( ) ( )
1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2
; ; , ; ; M x y z M x y z , ( )
3 3 3 3
; ; M x y z v tho
mn iu kin
a. Tm I nm trn mt mt phng (P) cho trc
b. Ct mt phng (P) theo giao tuyn l mt ng trn c bn knh cho trc
c. Tip xc vi mt mt phng (P) cho trc

73
Phng php 1:
Gi s phng trnh mt cu (S) c dng
2 2 2
2 2 2 0 x y z ax by cz d + + + = c tm ( ) ; ; I a b c v bn
knh
2 2 2
R a b c d = + +
- V ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
; ; 2 2 2 0 1 M x y z S x y z ax by cz d e + + + =
- V ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
; ; 2 2 2 0 2 M x y z S x y z ax by cz d e + + + =
- V ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3
; ; 2 2 2 0 3 M x y z S x y z ax by cz d e + + + =
- T iu kin cho trc ta c phng trnh (3). Gii h (1), (2), (3) v (4) ta c a, b, c, d t
suy ra phng trnh mt cu
Ch : Nu dng phng trnh mt cu dng chnh tc s dn n h 4 phng trnh 4 l a, b, c v R
Phng php 2:
- Gi s ( ) ; ; I a b c
- V mt cu (S) i qua ba im
1 2 3
, , M M M nn
3 2 1
IM IM IM R = = =

2 2
1 2 1 2
2 2
3 2
3 2
IM IM IM IM
IM IM
IM IM
= =



=
=


(1)
- T iu kin cn li ta c phng trnh (2), Gii h (1) v (2) ta c ta tm I
- Bn knh
1
R IM =

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i qua ba im
( ) ( ) 2; 4;1 , 2; 0; 3 A B ( ) 0; 2; 1 C v c tm I thuc mp(P) c phng trnh: x + y z + 2 = 0.
Gii:
Cch 1:
V mt cu (S) qua hai im A, B nn tm I ca mt cu thuc mt trung trc ca AB.
Trung im ca AB l : K (0 ; 2 ; 2 )
Vecto (4; 4; 2) AB =


Phng trnh mp trung trc ca AB : ( ) ( )( ) ( ) 0 4 2 4 2 2 0 2 2 2 0 x y z x y z + + = + + = ( 1 )
V mt cu (S) qua hai im B,C nn tm I ca mt cu thuc mt trung trc ca BC.
Trung im ca BC l : J (1 ; 1 ; 1 )
Vecto ( 2; 2 ; 4) BC =


Phng trnh mp trung trc ca BC : ( )( ) ( )( ) ( )( ) 1 2 1 2 1 4 0 2 2 0 x y z x y z + + = + + = (2)
Theo gi thit tm I thuc mp(P): x + y z + 2 = 0 (3)
Vy ta I tha h phng trnh ( 1 ) , ( 2 ) , ( 3 ). Gii h ny ta c I( -1 ; 1 ; 2).
Bn knh mt cu ( S ) : 11 IA =
Vy phng trnh mt cu ( S ): 11 ) 2 ( ) 1 ( ) 1 (
2 2 2
= + + + z y x

Cch 2:
Gi s ( ) ; ; I x y z theo gi thit ta c h
( )
( )
2 2
2 2
IA IB
IA IB IC
IB IC
I P
I P
=
= =

=

e

. Gii h ny ta s c tm I v bn knh ca mt cu

Bi tp t gii:


74
Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua im ( ) ( ) ( ) 2; 4; 0 , 1;1; 4 , 3;1; 0 A B C v tm I nm trn mt
phng ( ) : - 3 0 P x y z + + =
Bi 2: Cho ( ) : 2 2 5 0 P x y z = v cc im A(0, 0, 4) ; B(0, 2, 0). Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua
O, A, B v tip xc vi mp (P)
p s: ( )
2 2 2
: 4 2 4 0 S x y z x y z + + = v ( )
2 2 2
19
: 2 4 0
2
S x y z x y z + + + =
Bi 3: (H D 2004) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ba im ( ) ( ) ( ) 2; 0;1 ; 1; 0; 0 ; 1;1;1 A B C
v mt phng ( ) : 2 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i qua ba im A, B, C v c tm nm
trn mt phng (P)
p s: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
: 1 1 1 S x y z + + =
Bi 4: Cho mt phng ( ) : 2 2 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua ba im ( ) 1; 0; 0 , A
( ) ( ) 0;1; 0 , 0; 3; 2 B C v ct mt phng (P) theo giao tuyn l mt ng trn c bn knh bng 1
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
: 1 1 2 5 S x y z + + = v ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
: 4 4 1 26 S x y z + + + =
Bi 5: Cho ba im ( ) ( ) ( ) 0; 0; 0 , 0; 0; 4 , 2; 0; 0 O A B v mp( ) : 2 2 5 0 P x y z + + = . Lp phng trnh
mt.cu (S) i qua ba im O, A, B v c khong cch t tm I n mt phng (P) bng
5
3


Dng 4: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi mt mt phng (P) ti tip im ( )
1 1 1 1
; ; M x y z cho
trc v tho mn iu kin
a. C bn knh R cho trc
b. Khong cch t tm I n im ( )
2 2 2 2
; ; M x y z hoc n ng thng d hoc n mt phng (P) = k
(hng s) cho trc
c. Tm I thuc mt phng (Q) cho trc
d. Tm I thuc mt ng thng A cho trc
e. C tm ( ) ; ; I a b c cho trc
Phng php chung:
i vi cc cu a, b, c, d ta ch cn xc nh ta tm I
- Vit phng trnh tham s ng thng A i qua im ( )
1 1 1 1
; ; M x y z v vung gc vi mt phng
(P)
- V I eA nn ta c ta im I theo tham s t, t iu kin cho trc ta c mt phng trnh
theo t, gii phng trnh ny tm c t, t c ta im I
- Bn knh
1
R IM = hoc ( ) ( )
, R d I P =

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
1 2
: 2
1
x t
d y t
z
= +

v mt phng
( ) : 2 2 1 0 P x y z + = .
a. Vit phng trnh mt cu c tm nm trn d, bn knh bng 3 v tip xc vi (P) .
b. Vit phng trnh ng thng A qua M(0;1;0), nm trong (P) v vung gc vi ng thng d
Gii:

75
a. Tm mt cu l I d e nn (1 2 ; 2 ; 1) I t t +
Theo : Mt cu tip xc vi (P) nn

2(1 2 ) 2 2( 1) 1
( ; ( )) 3 6 3 3 0, 1
4 1 4
t t
d I P R t t t
+ +
= = = + = = =
+ +

0 t = th ( ) 1; 0; 1 I
2 2 2
1
( ) : ( 1) ( 1) 9 S x y z + + + =
1 t = th ( ) 1; 2; 1 I
2 2 2
2
( ) : ( 1) ( 2) ( 1) 9 S x y z + + + + + =
b. VTCP ca ng thng (d) l (2; 2; 0) 2(1;1;0) u = =


VTPT ca mt phng l (2;1; 2) v =


Gi u
A

l VTCP ca ng thng A th u
A

vung gc vi , u n

do ta chn
[ , ] ( 2)(2; 2;1) u u v
A
= =

.
Vy
Qua M(0;1;0)
1
: :
vtcp [ , ] ( 2)(2; 2;1) 2 2 1
x y z
u u v
A

A A = =

= =




Bi tp t gii :

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi mt phng ( ) : 2 2 8 0 P x y z + + = ti ( ) 1; 2; 2 A v
c khong cch t tm I ca mt cu n im ( ) 2; 3; 0 B bng 5
Bi 2: Cho hai mt phng (P): x y + z + 5 = 0 v (Q): 2x + y + 2z + 1 = 0. Vit phng trnh mt cu c
tm thuc mt phng (P) v tip xc vi mt phng (Q) ti ( ) 1; 1; 1 M
Bi 3: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c bn knh bng 3 v tip xc vi (P): 2x + 2y + z + 3 = 0 ti
M( 3; 1; 1)
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
: 1 3 2 9 S x y z + + + = v ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
2
: 5 1 9 S x y z + + + + =
Bi 4: Cho ng thng :
1 2
3 1 1
d
x y z +
= = v mt phng ( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z + + =
Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm nm trn ng thng d, tip xc vi mt phng (P) v c bn knh
bng 1.
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
1
: 2 3 1 1 S x y z + + + + + = v ( )
2 2 2
2
8 9 1
: 1
5 5 5
S x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Dng 5: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi hai mt phng (P) ; (Q) v tho mn iu kin
a. Tm I thuc mt ng thng A cho trc
b. Ti mt tip im tng ng l ( ) ( ) ; ; M x y z P e
Phng php:
a. Cch 1: Khi ng thng A dng tham s
- Tm I eA nn ta c ta tm I theo tham s t
- V mt cu (S) tip xc vi (P) v (P) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , d I P d I Q = , gii phng trnh ny c tham s
t, t suy ra ta tm I
- Bn knh ( ) ( )
, R d I P =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
Cch 2: Khi ng thng A dng tng qut
- Gi s ( ) ; ; I a b c , tm I eA nn ta c phng trnh (1)
- V mt cu (S) tip xc vi (P) v (P) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , d I P d I Q = (2)
- Gii h (1) v (2) c a, b v c , t c ta tm I

76
- Bn knh ( ) ( )
, R d I P =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
Ch :
- C th chuyn A v dng tham s p dng cch 1 v ngc li
- Khi hai mt phng (P) v (Q) song song vi nhau th ta c th tnh bn knh R nh sau
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 , , R d P Q d A Q = =
b. Cch 1:
- Vit phng trnh tham s ca ng thng d i qua im M v vung gc vi mt phng (P), I d e
nn ta c ta tm I theo tham s t
- V mt cu (S) tip xc vi (P) v (P) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , d I P d I Q = , gii phng trnh ny c tham s
t, t suy ra ta tm I
- Bn knh ( ) ( )
, R d I P =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
Cch 2: Tm ta hnh chiu N ca im M ln mt phng (Q), khi MN chnh l ng knh ca
mt cu (S), quay v dng 1
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho hai mt phng( )
1
: 2 2 3 0 P x y z + = ; ( )
2
: 2 2 4 0 P x y z + = v
ng thng
2 4
:
1 2 3
x y z
d
+
= =


Lp phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm I d e v tip xc vi hai mt phng ( ) ( )
1 2
, . P P
Gii:
ng thng d c phng trnh tham s l
2
: 2
4 3
x t
d y t
x t
=

= +


( ) 2 ; 2 ; 4 3 I d I t t t e + l tm ca mt cu (S)
Mt cu (S) tip xc vi ( ) ( )
1 2
, P P ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 2
, ; d I P d I P =

=
=
+ = +
1
13
16 10
3
1
3 9
3
1
t
t
t t
( ) ( )
1 2 1 2
11; 26; 35 ; 1 ; 2;1 38 ; 2 I I R R = = =
Vy c hai mt cu cn tm:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
1
: 11 26 35 38 S x y z + + + = v ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2
2
: 1 2 1 2 S x y z + + + =


Bi 2: Cho hai mt phng( ) ( ) : 2 2 5 0; : 2 2 13 0. P x y z Q x y z + + = + = Vit phng trnh ca mt
cu (S) i qua gc ta O, qua im ( ) 5; 2;1 A v tip xc vi c hai mt phng (P) v (Q).
Gii :
Gi I(a;b;c) l tm v R l bn knh ca mt cu (S). T gi thit ta c:

77
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
, ,
OI AI
OI AI d I P d I Q OI d I P
d I P d I Q

= = = =


Ta c:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
5 2 1
10 4 2 30 (1)
OI AI OI AI a b c a b c
a b c
= = + + = + +
+ + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
| 2 2 5|
, 9 2 2 5 (2)
3
a b c
OI d I P a b c a b c a b c
+ +
= + + = + + = + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
| 2 2 5| | 2 2 13|
, ,
3 3
2 2 5 2 2 13 ( )
2 2 4 (3)
2 2 5 2 2 13
a b c a b c
d I P d I Q
a b c a b c
a b c
a b c a b c
+ + +
= =
+ + = +
+ =

+ + = + +

l o i

T (1) v (3) suy ra:
17 11 11 4a
; (4)
3 6 3
a
b c

= =
T (2) v (3) suy ra:
2 2 2
9 (5) a b c + + =
Th (4) vo (5) v thu gn ta c: ( )( ) 2 221 658 0 a a =
Nh vy 2 a = hoc
658
221
a = .Suy ra: I(2;2;1) v R = 3 hoc
658 46 67
; ;
221 221 221
I
| |

|
\ .
v R = 3.
Vy c hai mt cu tha mn yu cu vi phng trnh ln lt l:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 1 9 x y z + + = v
2 2 2
658 46 67
9
221 221 221
x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 2 2 5 0 P x y z + + = v mt phng
( ) : 2 2 13 0. Q x y z + = Vit phng trnh ca mt cu (S) i qua gc ta O, qua im A(5;2;1) v
tip xc vi c hai mt phng (P) v (Q).
Gii:
Gi I(a;b;c) l tm v R l bn knh ca mt cu (S). T gi thit ta c:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , ,
, ,
OI AI
OI AI d I P d I Q OI d I P
d I P d I Q

= = = =


Ta c:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2
5 2 1
10 4 2 30 (1)
OI AI OI AI a b c a b c
a b c
= = + + = + +
+ + =

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
2 2 2 2 2 2
| 2 2 5 |
, 9 2 2 5 (2)
3
a b c
OI d I P a b c a b c a b c
+ +
= + + = + + = + +
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
| 2 2 5 | | 2 2 13 |
, ,
3 3
2 2 5 2 2 13 ( )
2 2 4 (3)
2 2 5 2 2 13
a b c a b c
d I P d I Q
a b c a b c
a b c
a b c a b c
+ + +
= =
+ + = +
+ =

+ + = + +

l o i

T (1) v (3) suy ra:
17 11 11 4a
; (4)
3 6 3
a
b c

= =

78
T (2) v (3) suy ra:
2 2 2
9 (5) a b c + + =
Th (4) vo (5) v thu gn ta c: ( )( ) 2 221 658 0 a a =
Nh vy 2 a = hoc
658
221
a = .Suy ra: I(2;2;1) v R = 3 hoc
658 46 67
; ;
221 221 221
I
| |

|
\ .
v R = 3.
Vy c hai mt cu tha mn yu cu vi phng trnh ln lt l:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 1 9 x y z + + = v
2 2 2
658 46 67
9
221 221 221
x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz hy lp phng trnh mt cu c tm thuc Ox ng thi tip
xc vi hai mt phng: 0 3 4 3 = + + y x v 0 3 2 2 = + + z y x
HD:
Gi s I(a;0;0). Ta c:
3
3 2
5
3 3 +
=
+ a a

19 / 24 6 = v = a
Vy phng trnh mt cu l: ( ) 9 6
2 2 2
= + + + z y x v:
361
9
19
24
2 2
2
= + + |
.
|

\
|
+ z y x

Bi tp t gii:
Bi 1: Cho ( )
1
: 3 4 3 0 P x y + + = , ( )
2
: 2 2 39 0 P x y z + + = ; : 0
1
d
x t
y
z
=
=
=

. Vit phng trnh mt cu c


tm I thuc (d) v tip xc vi ( ) ( )
1 2
, P P .
p s: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
: 191 1 12996 S x y z + + + + = v ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1
: 11 1 36 S x y z + + + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai mt phng ( ) : 6 3 2 35 0 x y z = v
( ) : 6 3 2 63 0 x y z + = .Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi hai mt phng trn, bit
( ) 5; 1; 1 A l mt tip im
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 1 2 1 0 S x y z + + + =
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z + + = . Vit phng trnh
mt cu (S) c tm thuc trc Ox, tip xc vi mt phng (Oyz) v (P)
p s: C hai mt cu tha mn l
( ) ( )
2
2 2
1
: 2 4 S x y z + + = v ( )
2
2 2
2
2 4
:
5 25
S x y z
| |
+ + + =
|
\ .

Bi 4: Vit phng trnh mt cu c tm I thuc ng thng d v tip xc vi hai mt phng (P) v (Q),
bit
2 4 7 0
:
4 5 14 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ =

+ + =

; ( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z + = ; ( ) : 2 2 4 0 Q x y z + =
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 1 3 3 1 S x y z + + + =

Dng 6: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm I(a;b;c), ct mt phng (P) cho trc theo giao tuyn l
mt ng trn v tho mn iu kin
a. ng trn c din tch cho trc
b. ng trn c chu vi cho trc
c. ng trn c bn knh cho trc

79
Ch : Din tch ca ng trn 2 S r = , chu vi ng trn
2
p r =
Phng php: Xc nh bn knh R ca mt cu (S)
a. - Tnh ( ) ( )
, d I P IH = , t gi thit v din tch ta c bn knh r ca ng trn (C)
- Bn knh
2 2
R IH r = +
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
b. - Tnh ( ) ( )
, d I P IH = , t gi thit v chu vi ta c bn knh r ca ng trn (C)
- Bn knh
2 2
R IH r = +
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
c. - Tnh ( ) ( )
, d I P IH =
- Bn knh
2 2
R IH r = +
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong h trc ta Oxyz cho mp ( ) :2 2 15 0 x y z + + = v im J(-1;-2;1). Gi I l im i
xng ca J qua ( ) . Vit phng trnh mt cu tm I, bit n ct ( ) theo mt ng trn c chu vi l
8.
Gii:
Gi I(a;b;c) ta c:
( 1; 2; 1). IJ a b c = + +

Do ( )
2 3
1 2 1
2 3 2 1 2
a b
a b c
IJ n
c b

= + + +
|| = =

=



Nhng trung im M ca IJ li nm trn ( ) nn ta c : ( ) 4 v 5; 4; 5 b I =
Ta tnh c khong cch t I n ( ) l IO=3.
V chi vi
0
2 8 R = = nn
2 2 2 2
0
4 ' ' 4 3 5 R R IA IO AO = = + = + =
Vy ( )
2 2 2
:( 5) ( 4) ( 5) 25 S x y z + + + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian ta Oxyz , lp phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm thuc mt
phng ( ) : 3 2 1 0 Q x y z + + = v giao ca mt phng ( ) : 6 0 P x y z + = vi mt cu (S) l ng
trn c tm ( ) 1; 2; 3 H v bn knh 8 r = .
Gii:
Gi s mt cu (S) c tm I ,bn knh R
Phng trnh IH:
1
2
3
x t
y t
z t
= +

(V IH i qua H v vung gc vi (P))


Do ( ) I IH Q = Ta I(0;1;2)
2 2
3 67 IH R r IH = = + = Phng trnh mt cu (S): ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 2 67 x y z + + =

Bi tp t gii:

80
Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ):5 3 0 P x y z + + = , ( ) : 2 3 0 Q x y z + + =
v A:
2 3 3
1 1 2
x y z +
= =

. Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) bit (S) c tm I l giao im ca (P) v A
ng thi mt phng (Q) ct mt cu (S) theo mt ng trn c chu vi l 2
p s: ( ) ( )
2 2
2
( ) : ( 1) 2 1 4 S x y z + + + =
Bi 2: (H Lm Nghip 2001) Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
1 2
:
1 2 1
x y z
d
+
= =

v mt phng (P): 2xy 2z 2 = 0. Vit phng trnh mt cu c tm I thuc


ng thng d, tm I cch mt phng (P) mt khong bng 2 v mt cu ct mt phng (P) theo giao
tuyn l ng trn c bn knh bng 3
p s: ( )
2 2 2
1
1 2 13
: 13
6 3 6
S x y y
| | | | | |
+ + + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

( )
2 2 2
2
11 14 1
: 13
6 3 6
S x y y
| | | | | |
+ + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .

Bi 3: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm I thuc ng thng d v ct mt phng (P) theo thit din l
mt ng trn ln c bn knh bng 4, bit

1 0
:
2 0
x z
d
y
+ =

v ( ) : 0 P y z =
p s: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
: 1 2 2 16 S x y z + + + =

Dng 7: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi mt ng thng A cho trc v tho mn iu
kin
a. C tm I(a;b;c) cho trc
b. Ti tip im M(x;y;z) thuc A v c tm I thuc ng thng d cho trc
Phng php:
a. - ng thng A tip xc vi mt cu (S) ( ) , d I R A =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
b. - Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im M v vung gc vi ng thng A
- Ta tm ( ) I P = A l nghim ca phng trnh
- Bn knh ( ) , R IM d I = = A


Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1:Trong khng gian Oxyz cho cc ng thng
1 2 3
:
2 3 1
x y z
d

= = v
3
' :
2 3 1
x y z
d
+
= =

.
Vit phng trnh mt cu tm ' I d e , bn knh bng 3 3 v tip xc vi d
HD:
( ) ' 2 ; 3 ; 3 I d I t t t e +
( ) ( ) , 3 3 0;0; 3 d I d I = hoc
7 21 23
; ;
5 10 10
I
| |

|
\ .
suy ra phng trnh mt cu

81
Bi 2: Trong khng gian Oxyz cho ng thng
1 2
:
1 1 1
x y z
d
+
= = v mt
phng( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z + + = . Lp phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm nm trn d, tip xc vi mt phng
(P) v i qua im ( ) 2; 1; 0 A

HD :
Gi I l tm ca (S) v ( ) 1 ; 2 ; I d I t t t e + +
Ta c ( ) ( )
1
,
7
13
t
d I P AI
t
=

=

=


Vy c hai phng trnh mt cu l
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
2 2 2
1 2
20 19 7 121
: 2 1 1 1; :
13 13 13 139
S x y z S x y z
| | | | | |
+ + + = + + + =
| | |
\ . \ . \ .


Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, vit phng trnh mt cu ( ) S bit (S) c tm I l giao im
ca mt phng ( ):5 7 2 1 0 P x y z = v ng thng
1
: 6 2
2
x t
d y t
z t
= +

ng thi mt cu ( ) S tip xc
vi ng thng
4 3
: 5 5
3 4
x t
y t
z t
= +

A =


p s: ( )
2
2 2
( ) : ( 3) 2 9 S x y z + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng d v A, bit

1 2
: 2
3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

v
3 1 0
:
3 2 7 0
x y
x y z
+ =
A

+ =


Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi ng thng d ti ( ) 3;1;3 H v c tm I eA
p s: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
: 1 2 18 S x y z + + + =

Dng 8: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi hai ng thng
1
A ,
2
A v tho mn iu kin
a. C tm I thuc ng thng d cho trc
b. C tm I thuc mt phng (P) cho trc
c. Ti hai tip im tng ng l M(x
1
;y
1
;z
1
) v N(x
2
;y
2
;z
2
) cho trc
Phng php:
a. Cch 1:
- Khi ng thng d dng tham s, tm I thuc ng thng d ta I theo tham s ca d
- ng thng
1
A v
2
A tip xc vi mt cu (S)
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
1 2 1 2
, , , , d I d I d I d I A = A A = A ta c mt phng trnh theo tham s, t ta c
ta tm I

82
- Bn knh ( )
1
, R d I = A
Cch 2:
- Chuyn d,
1
A v
2
A v dng tham s v tm vtcp ca
1
A v
2
A
- Tm I thuc ng thng d ta I theo tham s ca d
- Gi s mt cu (S) tip xc vi ng thng
1
A v
2
A ti A v B
1
A eA v
2
BeA
ta A v B theo tham s ca ng thng
1
A v
2
A
- T iu kin gi thit ta c
1 1 1
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
. 0
. 0
IA IA u IAu
IB IB u IBu
IA IB
IA IB IA IB

A =


A =


=
= =






ta tm I, im A v im B
- Bn knh R IA =
b. Gi s ( ) ; ; I a b c l tm ca mt cu (S)
- Tm I thuc mt phng (P) nn ( ) 0 1 Aa Bb Cc D + + + =
- Vit phng trnh mt phng (Q) i qua im I v vung gc vi ng thng
1
A
- Vit phng trnh mt phng (R) i qua im I v vung gc vi ng thng
2
A
Ta tm I l giao ca ba mt phng (P), (Q) v (R), gii h ta c ta tm I
Bn knh ( )
1
, R d I = A
c.
Cch 1:
- Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) i qua im I v vung gc vi ng thng
1
A
- Vit phng trnh mt phng (Q) i qua im I v vung gc vi ng thng
2
A
- Vit phng trnh (R) l mt phng trung trc ca on M, N
Ta tm I l giao ca ba mt phng (P), (Q) v (R), gii h ta c ta tm I
Bn knh
1
R IM =

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng
1
4 1 5
: ;
3 1 2
x y z
d
+
= =

1 3
3
1
2
:
2
z y x
d =
+
=

Vit phng trnh mt cu c bn knh nh nht tip xc vi c hai ng thng d
1
v d
2

Gii:
Gi s mt mt cu S(I, R) tip xc vi hai ng thng d
1
, d
2
ti hai im A v B khi ta lun c
IA IB AB + > v ( )
1 2
, AB d d d > du bng xy ra khi I l trung im AB v AB l on vung gc chung
ca hai ng thng d
1
, d
2
Ta tm A, B :
'
AB u
AB u



1 2
, A d B d e e nn: ( ) ( ) 3 4 ;1 ; 5 2 , 2 ; 3 3 ; A t t t B t t t + + +
AB

(.) A(1; 2; -3) v B(3; 0; 1) I(2; 1; -1)


Mt cu (S) c tm I(2; 1; -1) v bn knh R= 6
Nn c phng trnh l: ( )
2
2 2
2 ( 1) ( 1) 6 x y z + + + =

83
Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng
1
d v
2
d , bit

1
1
: 2
3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= +

= +

v
2
2
:
2
x u
d y u
z
=


a. Chng minh rng
1
d v
2
d cho nhau
b. Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi hai ng thng
1
d ,
2
d v c tm I thuc ng thng
: 2
6
x v
d y v
z v
=

= +


p s: b. ( ) ( )
2 2
2 1 13 43
: 1
2 2 2
S x y z
| | | |
+ + + =
| |
\ . \ .

Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng d
1
v d
2
, bit :

1
1 2
: 2 t R
3 3
x t
d y t
z t
= +

= + e

= +

v
2
2
: 3 2
1 3
x u
d y u
z u
= +

= +

= +


a. CMR hai ng thng cho nhau.
b. Vit phng trnh ng vung gc chung ca d
1
v d
2
.
c. Tnh khong cch gia d
1
v d
2

d. Lp phng trnh mt cu tip xc vi d
1
, d
2
v c tm thuc mt phng ( ) : 2 0 P x y z + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho hai ng thng

1
2 1
:
1 1 2
x y z
d

= = v
2
2 2
: 3
x t
d y
z t
=


a. Vit phng trnh mt phng (P) song song v cch u hai ng thng d
1
v d
2

b. Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) tip xc vi d
1
v d
2
ti hai tip im ln lt l ( ) ( ) 2;1; 0 ; 2; 3; 0 A B

Dng 9: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm I(a;b;c) v ct ng thng A cho trc ti hai im A,
B tho mn iu kin
a. di AB = mt hng s
b. Tam gic IAB l tam gic vung
c. Tam gic IAB l tam gic u
Phng php: Ch cn xc nh bn kinh R ca mt cu
a. - Xc nh ( ) , d I IH A = , v IAB A cn ti I nn
2
AB
HB =
- Bn knh
2 2
R IH HB = +
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
b. - Xc nh ( ) , d I IH A = , v IAB A vung cn nn

0
45 HBI =
- Bn knh
0
sin 45
IH
R =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)
c. - Xc nh ( ) , d I IH A = , v IAB A u nn

0
60 HBI =

84
- Bn knh
0
sin 60
IH
R =
Kt lun v phng trnh mt cu (S)

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz cho im A(1; 3; 4) v ng thng d:

=
+ =
+ =
t z
t y
t x
2
6 2
2 3
.
Lp phng trnh mt cu tm A ct ng thng d ti hai im M, N sao cho MN = 8
Gii:
Gi H l hnh chiu ca A ln d => H(3 + 2t; 2 + 6t; 2 t), u (2; 6; -1) l vc t ch phng ca d. Khi
) 2 ; 2 ; 3 ( 0 . H u AH =
Xt tam gic vung HAM, c HM = 4, AH = 3 nn AM = 5 = R, vi R l bn knh ca mt cu tha mn
bi ton
Vy phng trnh mt cu cn lp l (x 1)
2
+ (y 3)
2
+ (z 4)
2
= 25

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 2; 3; 1 I sao cho (S) ct ng thng d
5 4 3 20 0
:
3 4 8 0
x y z
d
x y z
+ + =

+ =

ti hai im A, B tha mn 40 AB =
Bi 2: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm ( ) 1; 0; 3 I v ct ng thng
1 1 1
:
2 1 2
x y z +
A = = ti hai
im A v B sao cho tam gic IAB vung ti I

Dng 10: Vit phng trnh mt phng (S) c tm I thuc ng thng
1
A v ct ng thng
2
A ti
hai im A,B sao cho ( ) ; ; H x y z l trung im ca A,B v AB = hng s
ang cp nht

Dng 11: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i xng vi mt cu (S) cho trc qua
a. Mt im M(x;y;z) cho trc
b. Mt mt phng (P) cho trc
c. Mt ng thng A cho trc
Ch : Mt cu
( )
'
S i xng vi ( ) S v tha mn iu kin c cng bn knh tc l
'
R R = , ch khc
ta tm tc l
'
I I =
Bi ton quy ny v bi ton im i xng vi im qua mt im, qua mt mt phng hoc qua mt
ng thng

Bi tp t gii:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho im ( ) 1; 2; 3 A v mt cu
( )
2 2 2
: 4 2 2 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + = .Vit phng trnh mt cu
( )
'
S i xng vi mt cu (S) qua im
A

85
p s:
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
' 2
: 3 5 3 S x y z + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho mt phng ( ) : 5 0 P x y z + = v mt cu
( )
2 2 2
: 2 4 2 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + = . Vit phng trnh mt cu
( )
'
S i xng vi mt cu (S) qua mt
phng (P)
p s:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
'
: 3 4 1 3 S x y z + + + =
Bi 3: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
3 0
:
1 0
x y z
d
y z
+ + =

+ =

v mt cu
( )
2 2 2
: 2 4 2 3 0 S x y z x y z + + + = . Vit phng trnh mt cu
( )
'
S i xng vi mt cu (S) qua
ng thng d
p s:
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
'
: 3 2 1 9 S x y z + + + =

Dng 12: Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) i qua bn im A; B; C; D c to cho trc
Phng php:
Cch 1: Gi s phng trnh mt cu c dng tng qut, khi ta A, B, C v D thuc mt cu (S) ta
c 4 phng trnh 4 n l a, b, c, v d, gii h ny ta c phng trnh ca mt cu (S)
Ch : Nu ta s dng phng trnh chnh tc s dn n h 4 phng trnh 4 n l a, b, c, v R, gii h
ny ta c phng trnh mt cu (S)
Cch 2:
- Gi s tm ( ) ; ; I a b c
- V A, B, C v D thuc mt cu (S) nn IA IB IC ID R = = = =
2 2
2 2
2 2
IA IB
IA IB
IC IB IC IB
ID IB
ID IB
=
=

= =


=
=


gii h ny ta c a, b, v c t c ta tm I v bn knh I IA =

Bi tp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz, cho ba im A(2;0;0), C(0;4;0), S(0; 0; 4).Tm ta im
B trong mp(Oxy) sao cho t gic OABC l hnh ch nht. Vit phng trnh mt cu i qua bn im O,
B, C, S.
Gii:
OABC l hnh ch nht B(2; 4; 0)
Ta trung im H ca OB l H(1; 2; 0), H chnh l tm ng trn ngoi tip tam gic vung OCB.
+ ng thng vung gc vi mp(OCB) ti H ct mt phng trung trc ca on OS (mp c phng trnh
z = 2 ) ti I
I l tm mt cu i qua 4 im O, B, C, S.
+ Tm I(1; 2; 2) v bn knh ( )
2 2 2 2 2
1 2 2 3 : ( 1) ( 2) ( 2) 9 R OI S x y z = = + + = + + =
Bi 2: Trong khng gian vi h to Oxyz cho ba im A(1;1;0), B(0;2;0), C(0;0;2). Vit phng trnh
mt phng (P) qua gc to O v vung gc vi BC. Chng minh rng AABC vung v vit phng
trnh mt cu ngoi tip t din OABC
Gii:
Ta c (0; 2; 2) BC =

. mp(P) qua O(0;0;0) c vtpt (0; 2; 2) BC =


( ) ( ) ( ) : 2 0 2 0 0 0 P y z hay y z + = =

86
( 1;1; 0)
( 1; 1; 2)
AB
AC
=
=

. 0 AB AC =

. Suy ra tam gic ABC vung ti A (1)
CM tng t tam gic OBC vung ti O (2)
T (1) & (2) Suy ra 4 im A, B, C, O cng thuc 1 mt cu ng knh BC
nn tm I l trung im ca BC 0;1;1), 2 I R =
PT mt cu: ( ) ( )
2 2
2
1 1 2 x y z + + =

Bi tp tng hp gii mu:

Bi 1: Trong khng gian vi h trc ta Oxyz cho 2 ng thng c phng trnh:
1 2
5 2
: : 2
0
x t x s
d y t v d y
z z s
= =

= =


= =

. Vit phng trnh mt cu (S) c tm I thuc d
1
v I cch d
2
mt
khong bng 3. Bit rng mt cu (S) c bn knh bng 5.
Gii:
V I thuc d
1
nn ( ) ; ; 0 I t t
2
2 2
2
2
.
( 2; 0;1)
(5 ; 2; 0) ( )
(5; 2; 0)
6 30 45
. ( 2;5 ; 2 4) ( ) 3
5
0 (0; 0; 0)
5 (5; 5; 0)
d
u IM
u
d c IM t t d I d
Qua M u
t t
u IM t t t d I d
t I
t I

=
= =

+

= + + = =

=



Vy c hai phng trnh mt cu tha mn iu kin bi ton l:
2 2 2 2 2 2
1 2
( ) : 25; ( ) : ( 5) ( 5) 25 S x y z S x y z + + = + + + =
Bi 2: Tm tp hp tm cc mt cu i qua gc ta v tip xc vi 2 mt phng c phng
trnh ln lt l: ( ) ( ) : 2 4 0 : 2 6 0 P x y v Q x y + = + + =
Gii:
Ta nhn thy (P) song song vi (Q) nn ( ) ( ) ( )
2 , . R d P Q =
Ly M(0;2;0) thuc (P) ta c: ( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
, , 2 5 5 d P Q d M Q R = = = .
Lc ny phng trnh mt cu c dng: ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2
5 x a y b z c + + =
V C i qua O(0;0;0) nn:
2 2 2 2 2 2
5 ( ) : 5 a b c I S x y z + + = e + + =
Mt khc: Mt phng song song v cch u (P) v (Q) c phng trnh:
( )
( 2 4) ( 2 6)
: 2 1 0
2
x y x y
x y
+ + + +
= + + =

87
Do
2 2 2
2 1 0 ( )
( ) ( ) :
( ) 5
x y I
I S
I S x y z

+ + = e
e

e + + =

(C nh )
Bi 3: Trong KG cho mt cu (S) i qua 4 im: A(0;0;1), B(1;0;0), C(1;1;1), D(0;1;0). V mt cu (S)
i qua 4 im:
1 1 1
'( ; 0; 0), '(0; ; ), '(1;1; 0), '(0;1;1)
2 2 2
A B C D . Tm di bn knh ng trn giao tuyn ca
2 mt cu .
Gii:
Ln lt ta lp cc phng trnh mt cu vi dng tng qut chung l:
2 2 2
2 2 2 0 x y z ax by cz d + + + + + + =
Vi (S) ta c:
2 2 2
1 2 0
1 2 0
1
; 0 0(1)
1 2 0 2
3 2 2 2 0
c d
a d
a b c d x y z x y z
b d
a b c d
+ + =

+ + =

= = = = + + =

+ + =

+ + + + =


Vi (S)
2 2 2
1
0
4
1
7 1 7 1 7
0
; ; 2 2 0(2)
2
4 4 2 2 2
2 2 2 0
2 2 2 0
a d
b c d
a c b d x y z x y z
a b d
b c d

+ + =

+ + + =
= = = = + + + + =

+ + + =

+ + + =


T (1) v (2) ta thy mt phng cha ng trn giao tuyn c phng trnh:
( ) : 9 9 4 0 x y z + + =
Vy phng trnh ng trn giao tuyn cn tm l:
2 2 2
9 9 4 0
( ) :
1 1 1 3
( ) ( ) ( )
2 2 2 4
x y z
C
x y z
+ + =

+ + =


Bi 4: Trong khng gian vi h ta Oxyz, cho ng thng
1 1
:
3 1
x y
d z
+
= = v mt
phng ( ) : 2 2 2 0 P x y z + + = . Lp phng trnh mt cu S ( ) c tm nm trn ng thng d c bn
knh nh nht tip xc vi P ( ) v i qua im A(1;-1;1)
Gii:
Mt phng (P) tip xc mt cu (S) nn:
( ) ( )
2
0 1
5 3
, 37 24 0
24 77
3
37 37
t R
t
d I P R t t
t R
= =
+

= = =

= =


V (S) c bn knh nh nht nn ta chn ( ) 0 1 1; 1; 0 t R I = =
Vy phng trnh mt cu ( ) ( ) ( )
2 2
2
: 1 1 1 S x y z + + + =




88
LI KT
Vit phng trnh Mt phng ng thng Mt cu trong khng gian l mt phn
khng th thiu trong cc k thi TN C H, chnh v th ti bin son (c tham kho thm cc
ti liu) chuyn ny gip cc em hc sinh c thm kin thc chun b cho cc k thi sp ti v cc
bn ng nghip c thm ti liu ging dy
Tuy nhin nng lc v kinh nghim cn thiu, tui i cn tr, ti liu di nn c i ch
nh my nhm. Rt mong cc bn hc sinh v cc bn ng nghip gp kin, b sung thm gip
ti v cc bn hon thin hn Xin chn thnh cm n

Gp theo a ch Email: Loinguyen1310@gmail.com hoc a ch: Nguyn Thnh Long
S nh 15 Khu ph 6 Phng ngc tro Th x bm sn Thnh ph thanh ha



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