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Necessity of Turbocharger and Supercharger The turbocharger and supercharger are devices that force air into the cylinders creating a pressure that is greater than the atmospheric pressure in order to increase engine output. Generally, the engine output is determined by the amount of the air-fuel mixture, burned over a specified period of time, and becomes greater as the amount of the air-fuel mixture increases. That means in order to increase the engine output, either the engine displacement or engine speed must be increased. The problem is that as engine displacement increases, engine weight also increases and factors such as friction loss, vibration and noise of moving parts limit the increase of the engine speed. The super charger meets the opposing requirements of increasing engine output while keeping it compact and lightweight by supplying greater volumes of air and fuel without changing engine size. The devices are driven by two methods: The turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas and the supercharger is driven by the engine. Toyota adopted the turbocharger in 1980, and the supercharger in 1985 in Japan. Presently in 2002, only the turbocharger is used in overseas models. (1/1) Features of Turbocharger and Supercharger
kPa (kgf/cm2 ) 98 (1.0)
Boost pressure Supercharger
Both the turbocharger and supercharger are a kind of air pump, which force the air into the cylinder to increase the mass of the intake air. The conventional engine draws air in, using the vacuum generated when the piston goes down. The pressure inside the intake manifold becomes higher because the turbocharger or supercharger force the intake air into the cylinders at a pressure (boost pressure) higher than atmospheric pressure. Thus, the mass of the intake air into the cylinder is increased.
TURBOCHARGER Type of charger Driving method Power loss Turbine (turbine and compressor wheels) Exhaust gas pressure Small because turbocharger is driven by exhaust gas pressure. Small in low-speed ranges and large in high-speed ranges. (The causes are a small amount of exhaust gases during low engine speed.) The response during low engine speed is not as good as that of the supercharger.
SUPERCHARGER Mechanical (roots type supercharger* using one pair of cocoonshaped rotors) Engine crankshaft drive Large because supercharger is driven by crankshaft.
Charging is possible in all speed ranges.
Good response is obtained because supercharger is directly driven by crankshaft.
*The roots type supercharger is the most common type in use at present.
There is a compressor wheel on the same shaft as the turbine wheel which compresses air into the cylinders when it is rotated. The charging efficiency of a conventional engine is about 65-85% due to the resistance of the intake system and the exhaust gas remaining in the exhaust system. (1/1) Turbocharger Turbocharger Turbine wheel Actuator Compressor wheel Air flow meter Intercooler Waste gate valve Turbo pressure sensor -2- . However the charging efficiency of an engine equipped with a turbocharger or supercharger can be more than 100%. Also.REFERENCE Charging Efficiency 1. it is necessary to faithfully replace the engine oil at the determined replacement interval. Some models are equipped with an intercooler to lower the temperature of the compressed intake air and improve the charging efficiency ratio. Compression ratio The gasoline engine has a greater tendency of knocking as the compression pressure is increased. Since air is compressed to a pressure greater than the atmosphere pressure and is fed to the cylinders of a turbocharged or supercharged engine. Therefore the compression ratio of a turbocharged or supercharged engine is set lower than that of a conventional engine to prevent knocking. the compression pressure becomes higher than that of the conventional engine and knocking occurs more easily. NOTICE: Caution is necessary for handling vehicles because the turbocharger becomes extremely hot due to the exhaust gases. 2. The waste gate valve and actuator prevent the boost pressure from rising too high. Mass of air actually taken in Charging efficiency(%) = Mass of air in cylinder under standard conditions* X 100 *Standard conditions: Standard atmosphere pressure at 20 C(68 F) (1/1) Description The turbocharger is a device which uses the energy of the exhaust gas to rotate the turbine wheel at high speeds. engine output is increased. Charging efficiency The engine's ability to draw air in is called charging efficiency. Refer to the “Precautions for Turbocharger” for more information. In this way.
Therefore it is made of an ultra-heat resistant alloy or ceramic. from Air cleaner Compressor wheel to Exhaust pipe Actuator from Exhaust manifold Turbine housing Center housing Compressor housing Waste gate valve Actuator Turbine and compressor wheels The turbine wheel and compressor wheel are mounted on the same shaft. compressing the intake air into the cylinder. the compressor wheel on the same shaft also rotates. compressor wheel. turbine wheel. center housing. When the turbine wheel rotates at high speed due to the pressure of the exhaust gas from the exhaust manifold. compressor housing. actuator. waste gate valve. full-floating bearings.Full-floating bearings Turbine wheel Waste gate valve to Intake manifold Components The turbocharger consists of the turbine housing. Turbine wheel Compressor wheel to Exhaust pipe from Air cleaner from Exhaust manifold to Intake manifold -3- . etc. The turbine wheel must be heat resistant and durable because it is directly exposed to the exhaust gas and becomes extremely hot and rotates at high speeds.
the full-floating bearings are used to ensure the absorption of vibrations from the shaft and lubrication of the shaft and bearings. There is an oil channel in the housing to supply engine oil to lubricate and cool the shaft and bearings. Bearing Bearing Shaft Shaft Full-floating bearings Shaft Since the turbine and compressor wheels turn at speeds of up to 100. The full-floating bearings are lubricated by the engine oil and rotate freely between the shaft and housing to reduce friction. Full-floating bearing -4- .000 rpm.Center housing Oil channel Coolant channel Coolant channel Oil channel The center housing supports the turbine wheel and compressor wheel via the shaft. thus allowing the shaft to rotate at high speed. Also. engine coolant is circulated through the coolant channel that is built into the housing in order to prevent the engine oil temperature from rising and the engine oil from deteriorating prematurely.
It operates one turbocharger under light loads. high power output can be attained. (1/1) Turbine housing Turbine wheel Waste gate valve Compressor wheel Actuator Air cleaner Exhaust gas control valve REFERENCE Two-way Twin Turbo Two-way twin turbo features two turbochargers installed in one engine. However. it is difficult to attain efficient operation for both heavy loads and light loads. When the turbochargers are operated efficiently under light loads or low speed. 0. In this case it is only possible to attain efficiency one way or the other. The waste gate valve opens and bypasses part of the exhaust gas to the exhaust pipe in order to stabilize the boost pressure when the boost pressure reaches the specified value. When the turbochargers are operated efficiently under heavy load and high speed. The illustration at left shows 2JZ-GTE engine produced in 1993-1999.1 turbocharger Exhaust gas bypass valve Intercooler Intake air control valve -5- .2 turbocharger No. When there is only one turbocharger. approx. the twin turbo controls the exhaust gas control valve and exhaust bypass valve.7 kg/cm2). The opening and closing of the waste gate valve are controlled by the actuator. and two turbochargers for high speeds and heavy loads in order to improve engine response in all speed ranges and attain high power.Waste gate valve and actuator The waste gate valve is built into the turbine housing. engine responsiveness such as acceleration is improved. 70 kPa (approx. (1/1) Waste gate valve No.
for details.) Although the illustration on the left shows the diesel engine. and increases the maximum fuel injection volume with the engine ECU. Computer-controlled type The computer-controlled engine detects the intake air volume with the air flow meter and the intake manifold pressure with the turbo pressure sensor. ECU ECU 2 Turbine wheel Compressor wheel to Exhaust pipe Waste gate valve from Air cleaner Boost pressure (Compressed air) Boost compensator 1. fuel consumption will increase as the power output is increased. The power output does not increase until the intake air is burned completely. (1/1) -6- . For this reason.) Actuator Exhaust gas Diesel injection pump Turbine wheel Compressor wheel to Exhaust pipe Waste gate valve Boost pressure (Compressed air) from Air cleaner Air flow meter ECU ECU Actuator Air flow meter Turbo pressure sensor Exhaust gas Injector Diesel injection pump 2. the fuel injection volume is increased in proportion to the volume of the intake air in a gasoline engine. Mechanically controlled type With a diesel engine. Thus. the boost compensator increases the maximum fuel injection volume in accordance with the boost pressure. it is necessary to increase the fuel volume to burn the intake air completely. (Refer to the chapter of the diesel injection pump in the book of diesel engine. (The fuel injection volume is determined by the injection duration.1 How to Increase Fuel Injection Volume An engine equipped with a turbocharger or supercharger forces a greater volume of air into the cylinder.
Exhaust gas (from combustion chamber) to Combustion chamber Actuator -7- .Lubrication and Cooling System from Oil inlet pipe Coolant channel Oil inlet pipe 1. In this case. the oil passes through the oil outlet pipe and returns to the oil pan. and controls the boost pressure so that the boost pressure does not rise above the specified value. Lubrication system Engine oil is supplied from the oil inlet pipe to lubricate and cool the full-floating bearings inside the center housing. After that. 2. (1/1) Oil outlet pipe to Oil outlet pipe Coolant outlet pipe Coolant inlet pipe Coolant channel Oil channel from Thermostat housing to Water pump Oil channel to Oil outlet pipe from Oil inlet pipe Boost Pressure Control Turbine wheel Compressor wheel to Exhaust pipe Intake air (from air cleaner) Waste gate valve The turbocharger attains a high output by pumping compressed air into the cylinders. However engine parts will be unable to withstand the explosive force if the boost pressure rises too high. The engine coolant returns to the water pump via the coolant outlet pipe after cooling the turbocharger system. Cooling system The turbocharger is cooled by the engine coolant. The engine coolant is introduced into the coolant channel inside the center housing via the coolant inlet pipe. the waste gate valve is activated by the actuator.
the boost pressure is also controlled in accordance with the octane rating of the fuel used (premium or regular gasoline). Boost pressure control (1) Control when the boost pressure is below the specified value When the boost pressure is below the specified pressure. (1/1) -8- . HINT: With some gasoline engine. (2) Control when the boost pressure is above the specified value When the engine speed rises and the boost pressure supplied by the turbocharger exceeds the specified value (intercept point). the actuator does not operate. This causes the waste gate valve to open and part of the exhaust gas bypasses the turbine wheel. the actuator diaphragm is depressed. By allowing part of the exhaust gas to bypass the turbine wheel. the rotational speed of the turbine wheel is regulated so that the boost pressure becomes within the specified value. All the exhaust gas is therefore routed into the turbine wheel because the waste gate valve remains closed.1.
(1/1) Waste gate valve opens Boost pressure Intercept point Engine speed REFERENCE Turbocharging Indicator Lights (Some Models Only) 2 1 3 ENGINE 4 5 6 1000r/min TURBO Turbocharging indicator light (green) Over-charging warning light (amber) 1. Spring Diaphragm Boost pressure 2. The amber LED is turned on when the turbocharger exceeds the specified boost pressure. When the turbocharger operates the specified boost pressure. The difference between these two switches is the strength of the springs. and inform the driver about operating condition of the turbocharger with green and amber LEDs (Light-emitting diodes). Pressure switches Two switches are used to sense boost pressure: Lowpressure switch and high-pressure switch. the green LED is turned on.REFERENCE Relationship between Boost Pressure and Engine Speed The relationship between the boost pressure and engine speed when the accelerator pedal is fully depressed. When the boost pressure applied to the diaphragm exceeds a certain level. is shown on the left. The relationship between the boost pressure and engine speed varies according to the load placed on the engine. the switch is turned on. Turbocharging indicator lights The turbocharging indicator lights are built into the combination meter. (1/1) Moving point Fixed point -9- .
Variable Nozzle Vane Step motor The variable nozzle vane changes the flow speed and direction of the exhaust gas to optimize boost pressure from low speeds to high speeds using the engine ECU to control the pitch of the nozzle vane. which is mounted on the circumference of the turbine. the boost pressure is controlled because the flow direction of the exhaust gas changes and the efficiency rate of the exhaust gas. Turbine wheel Motor rod Linkage Unison ring Nozzle vane Flow of the exhaust gas Step motor Nozzle vane Turbine wheel Motor rod Unison ring Linkage 1. decreases.10 - . and engine output is increase even at low speeds. the excess rotation of the turbine wheel is prevented with improvement of the fuel consumption and engine output because the boost pressure is controlled to the specified pressure. In this way. (1/1) . However. Operation At low speed As the nozzle vane passage becomes narrow (closes). Flow of the exhaust gas Step motor Nozzle vane Turbine wheel Unison ring Linkage Motor rod At high speed/heavy load As the nozzle vane passage becomes wide (opens). the flow speed of the exhaust gas flowing into the turbine wheel becomes faster and the turbine wheel operates more efficiently. which is activated on the turbine wheel. the increase of boost pressure becomes faster. as the exhaust gas pressure applied to the turbine wheel is increased.
11 - . Air temperature rises when compressing the air in the turbocharger. which is compressed by the turbocharger and heated up. It also acts to control knocking.Intercooler (Some Models Only) Air-cooled type intercooler Intercooler Air-cooled type intercooler Vehicle wind stream Intercooler Compressor wheel Intercooler Water-cooled type intercooler Compressor wheel Sub-radiator Coolant Electric water pump The intercooler is mounted between the compressor wheel and engine. The illustration on the left shows the 3SGTE engine produced from 1989-1999. The charging efficiency rate is lowered because the high-temperature air expands and it is lowered. Air-cooled type intercooler The air-cooled type intercooler utilizes the vehicle wind stream or an engine cooling fan to cool the compressed air. Although it utilizes coolant. 1. It consists of the intercooler. The intercooler is in different locations depending on the model. (1/1) REFERENCE Water-cooled Type Intercooler The water-cooled type intercooler utilizes coolant to cool the intake air. (1/1) to Air intake chamber Intercooler Coolant level sensor Coolant reservoir from Turbocharger Intercooler computer Sub-radiator Electric water pump . electric water pump. and operates to cool the intake air. not introducing the coolant from the engine cooling system. There are two types of intercoolers: The air-cooled type and water-cooled type. The intercooler increases the air density by lowering the air temperature and improves the charging efficiency rate. the intercooler has its independent cooling system. Only the air-cooled type intercooler is used at present. subradiator. and intercooler computer.
(3) After the engine is placed under heavy loads. it is necessary to idle and cool the turbocharger. allow the vehicle to idle for a few minutes before shutting it off.Precautions for Turbocharger 1. (2) Since the bearings are not sufficiently lubricated just after starting a cold engine. Otherwise it causes the turbocharger to damage..Precautions on handling (1) The engine oil used for the engine equipped with the turbocharger is used for not only lubricating the engine but for lubricating and cooling the turbocharger. circulation of the oil and coolant stop. the engine oil and engine oil filter maintenance should be carried out faithfully. Thus. be sure to use the recommended engine oil. NOTICE: The turbocharger temperature does not rise too high while driving as the turbocharger is cooled by the oil and coolant. Driving condition Normal city driving High speed driving Steep mountain slopes or continue driving above 100 km/h (63 mph) Idling time Not necessary About 80 km/h (50 mph) -About 20 seconds About 100 km/h (63 mph) -About 1 minute About 2 minutes (1/3) . such as after high-speed driving or long distance driving. HINT: Refer to the Owner's Manual or Maintenance Schedule as the replacement intervals of the engine oil and oil filter vary by the model or condition under which the vehicle is used.12 - . Therefore. If the recommended engine oil is not used. As the engine oil is exposed to the heat of the turbocharger. leading to damage such as sticking. it causes the bearings of turbocharger to be damaged. When the engine is stopped immediately after high-speed driving. racing or sudden acceleration of the engine causes damage to the bearings. This causes the turbocharger to remain uncooled. For this reason. its temperature rises easily. etc.
clean out or replace the oil pipes. bang it against anything. (4) When removing and reinstalling the turbocharger. first check the following items for the cause of the problem and remedy as necessary. or grasp it by easily deformed parts. put the oil into the turbocharger oil inlet and turn the compressor wheel by hand to spread oil on the bearings. (2/3) (4) (5) (5) When replacing the turbocharger. and if necessary. such as the actuator or rod. Precautions on maintenance (1) Do not start the engine with the air cleaner or air cleaner case removed. cut the fuel supply after reassembly and crank the engine for 30 seconds to distribute oil throughout the engine. (2) In the case that the turbocharger malfunctions and must be replace. Then idle the engine for 60 seconds. too. plug the intake and exhaust ports and oil inlet to prevent dirt or other foreign materials from entering the system. (7) When overhauling or replacing the engine. (3/3) (6) .(1) 2. • Engine oil level and quality • Conditions under which the turbocharger was used • Oil lines leading to the turbocharger (3) When removing the turbocharger. do not drop it.13 - . (6) When replacing the turbocharger. check for the accumulation of carbon sludge in the oil pipes. Otherwise it will allow foreign particles to enter causing damage to the compressor wheels and turbine.
In the pre-course study. Chapter Page with Related Text Exercises Incorrect Answer All Answers Correct Next Chapter Page with Related Text Exercises Incorrect Answer All Answers Correct Return to page of related text for review Return to page of related text for review . and the basic mechanism and operation of automobiles.Exercise These are the pre-course study materials for the Frequent Service Job Course. After you finish studying all of the chapters. you will study the basic knowledge needed for repair work. please take the Examination. The objective of this course is to learn the work procedure and points of frequent service jobs.14 - .
To prevent damage. 2. Race the engine immediately after a cold engine starting in order to thoroughly lubricate the bearings before driving the vehicle. The actuator opens the waste gate valve when its diaphragm is pushed by the exhaust gas. 1. . and this prevents the boost pressure from increasing above the predetermined pressure. 2. Select the statement that is False.Question. Question The turbocharger and supercharger are devices that force air into the cylinders at a pressure that is higher than the atmospheric pressure to increase engine output.1 Mark each of the following statements True or False. The waste gate valve is open when the boost pressure is above the specified pressure. When stopping the engine after it has been driving at high load.15 - . 3. idle the engine for a few minutes. The waste gate valve is slightly open when the boost pressure is within the specified pressure. No. True or False Correct Answers 1 True False 2 True False 3 True False Question. 4. One of the functions of an intercooler is to cool the intake air that has reached a high temperature by compression. 3. Select the statement that is True. Make sure to use the recommended type of engine oil. A turbocharger is driven by the belt to increase engine output. The intake air is bypassed when the waste gate valve opens. Question. 4. do not operate the engine with its air cleaner removed.2 The following statements pertain to turbocharger control.3 The following statements pertain to the precautions for handling a turbocharger. 1.
Question. select the words that correspond to the numbers in the illustration. 4.4 The components of a turbocharger are illustrated below. 3 2 1 4 5 a) Compressor wheel b) Turbine wheel f) Full-floating bearings c) Actuator d) Waste gate valve e) Variable nozzle vane Answer: 1.16 - . 3. 2. From the following word group. .