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# Hydromax

Windows Version 16

User Manual

© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 - 2011

**License and Copyright
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Hydromax Program © 1985-2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hydromax User Manual © 2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems‟ distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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Contents

Contents

License and Copyright...................................................................................................... iii Contents .............................................................................................................................. v About this Manual .............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 Input Model .............................................................................................................. 3 Analysis Types ......................................................................................................... 4 Analysis Settings ...................................................................................................... 4 Environment Options ............................................................................................... 4 Stability Criteria ....................................................................................................... 5 Output....................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2 Quickstart ........................................................................................................... 7 Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart .............................................................................. 7 Large Angle Stability Quickstart ............................................................................. 8 Equilibrium Condition Quickstart ............................................................................ 9 Specified Condition Quickstart .............................................................................. 10 KN Values Quickstart ............................................................................................ 10 Limiting KG Quickstart ......................................................................................... 11 Floodable Length Quickstart .................................................................................. 12 Longitudinal Strength Quickstart ........................................................................... 13 Tank Calibrations Quickstart ................................................................................. 13 MARPOL oil outflow Quickstart ........................................................................... 14 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart............................................................................ 15 Chapter 3 Using Hydromax .............................................................................................. 16 Getting Started ....................................................................................................... 16 Installing Hydromax .................................................................................... 16 Starting Hydromax ....................................................................................... 16 Hydromax Model ................................................................................................... 17 Preparing a Design in Maxsurf .................................................................... 18 Opening a New Design ................................................................................ 21 Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File ............................................... 22 Effect of Zero Point change ......................................................................... 24 Updating the Hydromax Model ................................................................... 26 Hydromax Sections Forming ....................................................................... 27 Checking the Hydromax model ................................................................... 30 Setting Initial Conditions ............................................................................. 34 Working with Loadcases.............................................................................. 38 Modelling Compartments ............................................................................ 51 Tank sections ............................................................................................... 61 Forming Compartments ............................................................................... 62 Compartment Types ..................................................................................... 68 Sounding Pipes ............................................................................................ 69 Damage Case Definition .............................................................................. 71 Key Points (e.g. Down Flooding Points) ..................................................... 74 Margin Line Points ...................................................................................... 76 Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments ................................. 76 Floodable Length Bulkheads ....................................................................... 77 Stability Criteria........................................................................................... 77 Analysis Types ....................................................................................................... 77 Upright Hydrostatics .................................................................................... 78 Large Angle Stability ................................................................................... 80 Equilibrium Analysis ................................................................................... 87

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Contents

Specified Conditions .................................................................................... 90 KN Values Analysis..................................................................................... 92 Limiting KG................................................................................................. 95 Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks.................. 98 Floodable Length ....................................................................................... 102 Longitudinal Strength ................................................................................ 105 Tank Calibrations ....................................................................................... 107 MARPOL Oil Outflow .............................................................................. 112 Probabilistic Damage ................................................................................. 115 Starting and Stopping Analyses ................................................................. 137 Batch Analysis ........................................................................................... 138 Analysis Settings .................................................................................................. 141 Heel ............................................................................................................ 141 Trim ........................................................................................................... 142 Draft ........................................................................................................... 144 Displacement ............................................................................................. 145 Specified Conditions .................................................................................. 145 Permeability ............................................................................................... 145 Tolerances .................................................................................................. 146 Analysis Environment Options ............................................................................ 147 Fluids Analysis Methods ........................................................................... 148 Density of Fluids........................................................................................ 150 Waveform .................................................................................................. 152 Grounding .................................................................................................. 153 Stability Criteria......................................................................................... 154 Damage ...................................................................................................... 154 Analysis Output.................................................................................................... 155 Reporting ................................................................................................... 155 Copying & Printing.................................................................................... 157 Select View from Analysis Data ................................................................ 159 Saving the Hydromax Design .................................................................... 159 Exporting ................................................................................................... 160 Chapter 4 Stability Criteria ............................................................................................. 163 Criteria Concepts.................................................................................................. 163 Criteria List Overview ............................................................................... 163 Types of criteria ......................................................................................... 166 Criteria Procedures ............................................................................................... 167 Starting the Criteria dialog ......................................................................... 167 Resizing the Criteria dialog ....................................................................... 168 Working with Criteria ................................................................................ 168 Editing Criteria .......................................................................................... 170 Working with Criteria Libraries................................................................. 172 Criteria Results ..................................................................................................... 174 Criteria Results Table ................................................................................ 174 Report and Batch Processing ..................................................................... 176 Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 176 Definitions of GZ curve features ............................................................... 176 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 179 Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference ..................................................................................... 181 Windows .............................................................................................................. 181 Assembly View and Property Sheet .......................................................... 181 View Window ............................................................................................ 181 Loadcase Window...................................................................................... 183

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................ 214 Definition and calculation of form parameters .. 195 Window Toolbar ........................................................................................................... 211 Window Menu ..................................................................................................................................................................... 223 MTc or MTi .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 221 Prismatic Coefficient ............................................................................. 202 Case Menu .............................................................................................................. 196 View (extended) Toolbar ................ 188 Report Window ................... 228 Parent Calculations................................................................. 224 Integration of wetted surface area ..................................................... 217 Beam ................................... 194 Edit Toolbar ................ 197 Edit Menu ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 226 Appendix C: Criteria Help.............................................................................................................................................................................. 219 Midship and Max Area Sections ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 207 Data Menu................ 197 File Menu ................... 195 Design Grid Toolbar ............................................................................................................. 220 Block Coefficient .................................................................................................. 194 Analysis Toolbar .................................................................... 195 Visibility Toolbar ......................... 191 Toolbars ............. 216 Length .................................................... 196 Design Grid Toolbar ..................................... 223 Immersion ........................... 224 Appendix B: Criteria file format .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Render Toolbar ......................... 212 Help Menu .......... 185 Graph Window............................................................... 223 RM at 1 deg....................................................................................... 223 Maximum deck inclination ......... 204 Analysis Menu .... 195 Edge VIsibility Toolbar .................................................................................. 184 Results Window ......... 222 LCG and LCB .................................................................................................................................................................. 222 Trim angle ...................................................................................... 224 Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations ....................................... 216 Coefficient parameters ...................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 221 Waterplane Area Coefficient ......................................................................... 196 Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar ..................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 214 Nomenclature ............................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Menus .............................................................................................................................................. 228 vii ............................................................ 183 Input Window ............................................................................................................ 194 File Toolbar........................................................... 200 View Menu ......................................................................................................................... 218 Draft ............................................................................................................ 221 Section Area Coefficient ............................................................................. 204 Display Menu..................................................................................................................................................................... 212 Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters ......................................................................Contents Damage Window ....................................................................................... 196 Report Toolbar .................................... 214 Measurement Reference Frames .................................................................................... 194 View Toolbar .......................................

.............................. 240 Parent Stability Criteria .................................................................................................................... 228 GM calculators.................. 242 GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Note on unit conversion ............................................................................. 275 Heeling arm............ 228 Angle calculators .................................................................................................................................................. 301 ISO 12217-1:2002(E) ................................................................................................................. 291 Stand alone heeling arm criteria ........... 312 Beta Testing ...................................... 299 USL code (Australia) ........................... 309 Quality Assurance ............................... 312 Testing of Upgrades ......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 285 Other combined criteria ............. 312 But we're not Perfect ..................................................................................... 232 Heeling Arm Definition ................................................................................................ 295 Dynamic stability criteria .. 297 IMO Code on Intact Stability A....................................................................................................... 292 Appendix D: Specific Criteria .. 307 File Extension Reference Table ........................................................ 229 Parent Heeling Arms .................................................................. 290 Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria ...................................... 308 Appendix F: Quality Assurance ................. 307 Analysis settings reference table ........................................75(69).................................................. 260 Heeling arm criteria ....... 242 Criteria at Equilibrium ..........................................................................................................Contents Selecting a calculation in a criterion .......................... 297 IMO HSC Code MSC...................................... 312 Index .......................................................... ................................................................................................................................................... 295 Heeling arms for specific criteria ......................................................................................................................................................................................................... 243 Heeling arm criteria (xRef) ................................ 309 Verification of Algorithms ..................................................... 309 Quality Principles ... 291 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria ...................................................... 302 ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation......................................................36(63) ..................................................................................... 232 Parent Heeling Moments ......................... 309 Structured Programming ......... 313 viii ........................................................................................................................................ 312 Version Control.......................... 281 Derived heeling arm criteria .................................. 264 Multiple heeling arm criteria ........ combined criteria....................................................................................... 304 Appendix E: Reference Tables ........................................................................ 309 Testing of Implementation ..... 295 Capsizing moment .......................................................................................................................................................749(18) amended to MSC............................................

Page 1 . Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Explains how to use Hydromax' powerful floatation and hydrostatic analysis routines to best advantage. please read the owner's manual supplied with your computer. If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft Windows® interface. Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Gives details of Hydromax' windows and each of Hydromax' menu commands.About this Manual About this Manual This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatic and stability analyses on your Maxsurf design. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hydromax functionality and its interface to Maxsurf Chapter 2 Quickstart Gives a quick walk through the analysis tools available in Hydromax. Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated with Hydromax. This will introduce you to commonly used terms and the basic techniques for using any computer program.

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Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction Hydromax is a hydrostatics. Other input consists of: tank sounding pipes. Hydromax is designed in a logical manner. such as downflooding points. rendering or transparent rendering. The loadcase allows static weights and tankfillings to be specified and calculates the corresponding weights and centres of gravity as well as the total weight and centre of gravity of the vessel under the specified loading condition. A number of environmental setting options and modifiers add further analysis capabilities to Hydromax. This includes: compartments and key points such as downflooding points and margin line. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the effects of damage. immersion and embarkation points. Hydromax‟ analysis tools enable a wide range of hydrostatic and stability characteristics to be determined for your Maxsurf design. Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. This direct transfer preserves the three-dimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model. Page 3 . Hydromax adds extra information to the Maxsurf surface model. the model can be displayed using hull contour lines. Loadgroups may also be created and cross referenced into loadcases. which makes it easy to use. This allows visual checking of compartments and shows the orientation of the vessel during analysis. Input Model Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax. The following steps are followed when performing an analysis: Input model Analysis type selection Analysis settings Environment options Criteria specification and selection Run analysis Output Hydromax operates in the same graphical environment as Maxsurf. A number of loadcases can be created. key points. eliminating the need for time-consuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets. margin lines and section modulus. stability and longitudinal strength program specifically designed to work with Maxsurf. centre of gravity and free surface moment.

Settings that are not relevant to the selected analysis type are greyed out in the Analysis menu. whereas the longitudinal strength analysis requires a detailed load distribution. Analysis Settings The analysis settings describe the condition of the vessel to be tested. For example: the upright hydrostatics analysis simply requires a range of drafts. or a range of heel angles for a large angle stability analysis. The following analysis settings are available: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Permeability Specified condition The analysis settings are specified prior to running the analysis. Page 4 . different analyses may require different settings.Chapter 1 Introduction Analysis Types Hydromax contains the following analysis tools: Upright hydrostatics Large angle stability Equilibrium analysis Specified Condition analysis KN values and cross curves of stability Limiting KG analysis Floodable Length analysis Longitudinal Strength analysis Tank Calibrations MARPOL oil outflow Probabilistic damage (Hydromax Ultimate only) Although common analysis settings are used where possible. Environment Options Environmental options are modifiers that may be applied to the model or its environment that will affect the results of the all the hydrostatic analysis types. a range of drafts in the case of upright hydrostatics. For example. The analysis settings for each analysis type are explained in detail in the analysis synopsis below.

copied and printed).Chapter 1 Introduction Depending on the analysis being performed. All results are accumulated in the Report window (which can be saved. For a brief overview of the different analysis that Hydromax has available. Limiting KG and Floodable length analyses also use stability criteria. Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time. These criteria are either derived from the properties of the stability curve calculated from a Large Angle Stability analysis or from the vessel‟s orientation and stability properties calculated from an Equilibrium analysis. Page 5 . Heeled and trimmed hullforms and water plane shapes may be printed. or as graphs of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. continue reading Chapter 2 Quickstart. gravity and buoyancy are also displayed. or output directly to a Word document. Hydromax has a generic set of parent criteria from which virtually any stability criterion can be customized. The centres of flotation. Output Views of the hull are shown for each stage of the analysis. either in tabular form. In addition. The criteria checks are summarised in tables listing the status (pass/fail) of each criterion as well as the margin. Hydromax has an extensive range of stability criteria to determine compliance with a wide range of international stability regulations. complete with immersed sectional areas and actual waterlines. different environmental options may be applied to the Hydromax: Type of Fluid Simulation Density (of fluids) Wave form Grounding Intact and Damage condition Stability Criteria Hydromax has the capability to calculate compliance with a wide range of stability criteria. The criterion settings and intermediate calculation data may also be displayed if required.

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heel is fixed at zero heel. For each analysis type. Hydromax contains the following analysis types Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Condition Specified Condition KN Values Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage Each analysis has different settings that may be applied Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified condition Permeability Loadcase Tank and compartment definition Hydromax offers different environment options that may be applied to the analyses Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Hydromax offers an extensive range of stability criteria that are applicable to equilibrium. Displacement and centre of buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during the analysis. a list of the required settings as well as the available environment options is given. large angle stability. Page 7 . trim is fixed at a user defined value and draft is varied in fixed steps. Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart For Upright Hydrostatics. The Analysis types section describes each of the analysis types.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 2 Quickstart This chapter will briefly describe each analysis type and its output. limiting KG and Floodable length analysis. settings and environment options in more detail.

if the model is free-to-trim. including upright GM. Page 8 . Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve. Large Angle Stability Quickstart For the analysis of Large Angle Stability. curves of form and sectional area at each draft are available. For more detailed information please see: Upright Hydrostatics on page 78. the horizontal distance between the centres of gravity and buoyancy. curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first downflooding point. the centre of gravity against the centre of buoyancy such that the trimming moment is zero.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Upright hydrostatics requirements Range of drafts to be analysed VCG (for calculation of some stability characteristics such as GMt and GMl only) Trim Upright hydrostatic options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) The results are tabulated and graphs of the hydrostatic data. These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria have been selected. Large angle stability requirements Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Large angle stability options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of stability criteria The key output value is GZ (or righting lever). displacement and centre of gravity are specified in the loadcase. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms a GZ curve. A range of heel angles are specified and Hydromax calculates the righting lever and other hydrostatic data at each of these heel angles by balancing the loadcase displacement against the hull buoyancy and.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A number of other graphs may be selected from the pull-down list in the graph window. For more detailed information please see: Large Angle Stability on page 80. Equilibrium analysis requirements Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Equilibrium analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of equilibrium criteria Equilibrium analysis result table lists the hydrostatic properties of the model. Note that some of these graphs have parameters that may be adjusted in the Data Format dialog If large angle stability criteria have been selected for analysis. as is the freeboard to any defined key points. to calculate the displacement and the location of the centre of gravity. Equilibrium Condition Quickstart Equilibrium Analysis uses the Loadcase. integrated from upright) Variations of other hydrostatic and form parameters may be plotted against heel angle. Maximum safe steady heel angle The sectional area curve at each of the heel angles tested may also be displayed. If a wave form has been specified there will be a number of columns. these results will also be reported in the criteria results table and they may lead to additional curves being displayed on the GZ curve. heel and trim that satisfy equilibrium and reports the equilibrium hydrostatics and a cross sectional areas curve. Hydromax iterates to find the draft. Downflooding angles for any key points. Remember that you can access this data in tabular form by double clicking in the graph window: Dynamic stability curve (Area under GZ curve. margin line and deck edge will also be computed and tabulated. Any equilibrium criteria will also be evaluated and their results reported. Page 9 . each column contains the results for a different position of the vessel in the wave as given by the wave phase value. margin line and deck edge. The sectional area curve is also calculated.

and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's effective Vertical Centre of Gravity. for which the hydrostatic properties of the model are to be calculated. KN Values Quickstart KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if its VCG is unknown. can be set. you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts (these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more detailed information please see: Equilibrium Analysis on page 87. KN Values Analysis Requirements Page 10 . The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula: GZ = KN . Specified Condition Requirements Specified Conditions Input Dialog If fixed trim is specified. Specified Conditions options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) The output for the specified condition consists of a curve of cross sectional areas and hydrostatics of the vessel in the specified condition. Specified Condition Quickstart In the specified condition each of the three degrees of freedom. They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the height of the centre of gravity is known. For more detailed information please see Specified Conditions on page 90.KG * sin(Heel) where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy and the Centre of Gravity.

The selected stability criteria are evaluated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Estimate of VCG (provides more accurate result if free-to-trim) TCG (if required) KN Values Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Output is in the form of a table of KN values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability. Hydromax runs several Large Angle Stability analyses at different KGs. Limiting KG Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Stability criteria for which limiting KG is to be found TCG (if required) Limiting KG Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Laodcase (in case of initial loading of damaged tanks) Key points (if required for criteria) Margin line and deck edge (if required for criteria) Page 11 . this may be specified. At each of the specified displacements. Limiting KG Quickstart The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the centre of gravity (maximum KG) for which the selected stability criteria are just passed. If the analysis is performed free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known. the centre of gravity is increased until one of the criteria fails. For more detailed information please see KN Values Analysis on page 92. The computed KN results will then give a more accurate estimate of GZ for KG close to the estimated VCG since the effects of VCG on trim have been more accurately accounted for. This may be done for a range of vessel displacements.

only damage criteria will be evaluated. only intact criteria will be evaluated. such as angle of maximum GZ. If the analysis is unable to converge for a certain displacement this will be noted and the next displacement tried. Only relevant criteria will be used. The VCG is also required to ensure accurate balance of the CG against the CB at high angles of trim. In addition a range of permeabilities may be specified. Floodable Length Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed VCG Range of permeabilities to be analysed Trim (free. As well as the standard deck edge and margin line immersion criteria (one of which must be specified) the user can also add criteria for maximum trim angle and minimum required values of longitudinal and transverse metacentric height.trim to either initial trim or specified LCG) Floodable length criteria to be tested Margin line and deck edge (required for criteria) Floodable Length Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Page 12 .to. however at least one large angle stability criterion is required.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced as well as tabulated results indicating which stability criteria limited the VCG. if the intact condition is used. i. Floodable Lengths may be computed for a range of displacements. Some criteria.e. are very insensitive to VCG and may prevent the analysis converging. For more detailed information see Limiting KG on page 95. the LCG may be specified directly or calculated from a specified initial trim. this may be done in the Batch Analysis mode. if a damage case is chosen. Floodable Length Quickstart This analysis mode is used to compute the maximum compartment lengths based on user-specified equilibrium criteria. A check will be made to ensure that any selected equilibrium criteria are passed. If limiting curves are required for each of the stability criteria individually.

graphs of allowable shear and bending moment are superimposed on the graph. Tabulated results may be customised using the Data Format dialog: Page 13 . Tank calibrations may be calculated for a range of trim and heel angles. The data is also presented graphically. the shear force and bending moment on the vessel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The output is in the form of tabulated Floodable Lengths for each displacement and permeability. That data is then used to calculate the bending moment and shear force on the vessel. Longitudinal Strength Quickstart Hydromax calculates the net load from the buoyancy and weight distribution of the model. taking into account the vessel trim and heel. If defined. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily. Tank ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe and in a similar manner. the position of the fluid in the tank will be computed so that the fluid surface is parallel with the external seawater surface. centre of gravity and free surface moment (FSM).e. For more detailed information please see Floodable Length on page 102. Tank Calibrations Quickstart Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. i. The condition to be viewed may be selected from the Results toolbar. The results for a single condition are shown in the results table. soundings are measured from the bottom of the sounding pipe to the free surface. Tank calibrations may be performed for a range of heel and trims. The data is tabulated for each of the stations as defined in Maxsurf. For more detailed information please see Longitudinal Strength on page 105. Hydromax uses its fluid simulation mode to calculate the actual position of the fluids in the tanks. Longitudinal Strength Analysis Requirements Loadcase (including distributed loads if required) Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Longitudinal Strength Analysis Options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation is always used for Longitudinal Strength analysis Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Allowable shear and bending moment The longitudinal strength graph and tables contain all information on weight and buoyancy distribution.

a table of capacities.117(52). These results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Page 14 . The “Start Analysis” button will send the tabulated results to the Report. For more detailed information please see Tank Calibrations on page 107. edit any values as required.141(54). the resulting oil outflows will be calculated automatically. volumes etc. Then in the MARPOL results data table.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank calibration analysis requirements Tank definitions Sounding pipe definition (if required) Sounding intervals for calibration levels Trim range Heel range Tank calibration analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation always selected Damage: Intact case always selected What to calibrate (Analysis | Calibration options) For each tank. is calculated. Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog. MARPOL Oil Outflow Quickstart MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC.

Probabilistic damage analysis requirements Loadcase definitions Tank and compartmentation definition Main probabilistic damage analysis parameters and criteria setup Subdivision definitions Heel angle range for GZ curve calculation Trim Probabilistic damage analysis options Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Key points Margin line and deck edge For more detailed information please see the Probabilistic Damage section on page 115.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more detailed information please see MARPOL Oil Outflow on page 112 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart Attained index using probabilistic damage analysis may be computed. Page 15 .

You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences. The following preferences are stored in the registry: Page 16 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This chapter describes Getting Started Hydromax Model Analysis Types Analysis Settings Analysis Environment Options Analysis Output Getting Started This section contains everything you need to do to start using Hydromax Installing Hydromax Starting Hydromax Installing Hydromax Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program. start the program with the Shift key depressed. or you may simply want to revert back to the default configuration. Note: Before installing any program from the Maxsurf suite for the first time. then follow the instructions on screen. Windows Registry Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. Simply select Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under Programs in the Start menu. Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu. click OK. please read the purchase letter (also referred to as installation manual). It is possible for this data to become corrupted. Starting Hydromax After installation. doing this will reset all the preferences. To clear the Hydromax preferences.

the next step is to check the Hydromax settings and initial analysis conditions.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Colour and line thickness settings of contours and background Fonts Window size and location Size of resizing dialogs (alternatively. Setting Initial Conditions Depending on the analysis performed. you may need to set up the following additional model data: Page 17 . these may be reset by holding down the shift key when activating them) Density of fluids Heel angles for large angle stability. Preparing a Design in Maxsurf Opening a New Design Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File Updating the Hydromax Model Hydromax Sections Forming Checking the Hydromax model After checking the Hydromax model. It is recommended to save your customized densities with your project using the File | Save Densities As command. All hydrostatic calculations use this. Hydromax Model This section describes how to open a Maxsurf model in Hydromax and provides some important information to ensure that your model is correctly interpreted by Hydromax. KN and Limiting KG analyses Permeabilities for floodable length analysis Location of files Units for data input and results output Convergence tolerance (Error values) Maximum number of loadcases Reporting preferences Note: The default density for the fluid labelled "Sea Water" is stored in the windows registry. Check the density of seawater after resetting your preferences.

The Frame of reference should not be changed in Hydromax. The perpendiculars define the longitudinal positions of the vessel‟s draft marks and cannot be coincident. In Hydromax you have the option of displaying longitudinal measurements such as LCB or LCF from the model zero point or amidships. By convention. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog. the vessel‟s bow is on the right. Setting the Frame of Reference It is vital that the Frame of Reference is correctly setup in Maxsurf before attempting to analyse the model in Hydromax.g.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Working with Loadcases Modelling Compartments Forming Compartments Compartment Types Damage Case Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points (e. A consistent zero point and frame of reference should be used for the model throughout the Maxsurf suite. Down Flooding Points) Margin Line Points Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments Stability Criteria Preparing a Design in Maxsurf There are several important checks that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a design in Hydromax: Setting the Zero Point Setting the Frame of Reference Surface Use Skin Thickness Outside Arrows Trimming Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Setting the Zero Point Ensure that the zero point is correctly setup in Maxsurf. However it is possible to specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. midships is automatically defined midway between the perpendiculars. The base line is the datum from which the drafts and KG are measured. Page 18 . The frame of reference cannot be changed in Hydromax. in the profile and plan views. the baseline and the datum waterline. The frame of reference defines the fore and aft perpendiculars.

it is not included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax. Thickness can be specified differently for each hull surface. To include skin thickness.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP.e. Skin Thickness Hull Shell Internal Structure If skin thickness is to be used in hydrostatic calculations. If a surface is defined as internal structure. The following table describes the difference between each surface use in Hydromax: Included: Hydrostatic sections Selection of tank/compartment boundaries Skin thickness applied to the surface Verify that all surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are defined as Internal Structure. Surface Use In Maxsurf you can choose between two types of surface use Hull Hull surfaces are used to define the watertight envelope of the hull. the internal structure surface should be placed to model the inside of the tank if the tank wall has significant thickness. Page 19 . internal surfaces will be ignored in the forming of hydrostatic sections. Internal structure Internal structure surfaces are used for all other surfaces (any surfaces which do not make up the watertight envelope) and also surfaces which are to be used in Hydromax to define the boundaries of tanks and compartments that have complex shapes. resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. ensure that the thickness and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. Note Tank boundaries made from internal structures surfaces do not have skin thickness. i. Skin thickness for hull surfaces will be treated so that the hull sections go to the outside of the plate whilst any tanks are trimmed to the inside of the plate. To activate skin thickness in Hydromax ensure that the “Include Skin Thickness” option is selected when reading the file or calculating the hull sections.

The surface direction may be flipped by clicking on the end of the arrow. Also see: Hydromax Sections Forming on page 27 Checking the Hydromax model on page 30 Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as the following requirements for the Maxsurf model are observed: Page 20 . Correct Section with no opening. At any longitudinal position on the hull. the deck). Correct section with one opening: this section will be closed across the top. Trimming Ensure that all surfaces are trimmed correctly. Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command from the Maxsurf Display menu to define which direction points outwards (towards the seawater) for each surface.g. you should have completely closed transverse sections or sections with at most one opening (e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Outside Arrows The surfaces‟ outside arrows define the orientation of the surfaces.

a maximum of one gap in a transverse section through the hull. i.e.e. Page 21 . Opening a New Design File opening in Hydromax is window specific. then select Open Design from the File menu. e. the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be ticked. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. if any) is explained in Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File.g. internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull sections in Hydromax Note: For groups internal structure surfaces that will be used to define tank (or compartment boundaries) the same requirements apply. trim away the excess regions of the surface. The meaning of (ignore existing data.msd). Include Plating Thickness At this stage. the part of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion. Also see: Checking the Hydromax model on page 30. i.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge. Hydromax will automatically look for compartment definition files when you are in a Compartment Definition window and a loadcase in a Loadcase window. any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog may be included. Choose a Maxsurf design file (. ensure that the design view window is active. The following dialog will appear: Calculate new Sections Choosing Calculate Sections will calculate the specified number of sections through the hull. Use Trimmed Surfaces If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces. Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off Check surface use. preferably by bonding the edges together Where surfaces intersect. To open a design for analysis.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Stations When calculating stations. Hydromax recognises this precision setting and will and set the Surface Precision button accordingly. Reducing the precision of the sections can greatly improve performance. The precision at which the design was saved in Maxsurf is included in the Maxsurf design file (. Surface Precision The Surface Precision options has two functions: Setting for calculating the hydrostatic sections Setting used to form new compartments or tanks. Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File After saving the Maxsurf design file for the first time in Hydromax. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in Maxsurf. Hydromax also allows saving of all input and output files into individual files. by specifying one station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this discontinuity can be modelled very accurately. The upper limit for the number of stations is 200. For example. To open an existing design. you may select how many stations should be used. compartment definition. if it was known that a design had a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships. conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to higher accuracy results. usually at relatively small impact on the accuracy of the hydrostatics. Note: The accuracy of the results depends much more on the number of sections than the accuracy at which the sections are calculated. sounding pipes etc. This is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or bow thrusters that need to be accurately modelled and may need a locally denser station spacing to do so. avoiding any errors inherent in the integration of evenly spaced stations.msd). a “Hydromax Design file” (. Therefore it is recommended not to change the precision setting when opening the Maxsurf design file in Hydromax. key points. Note: Maxsurf surface trimming information may vary for different precisions. Reducing the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy. there are two options: Page 22 . The Hydromax design file will consist of the hydrostatic sections and all input data such as loadcases.hmd) is created. It also allows designs with significant longitudinal discontinuities in their sectional areas to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity.

hmd file is found.hmd file. The Calculate Sections dialog now has the option to read the sections from the file. For example: when opening OSV. See: Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for more information. i.hmd file with the same name as the . loadcases. You will load your existing sections. key points etc. loadcases and compartment definitions etc. Ensure “Read existing data and sections” is selected and click OK. are not automatically incorporated. This contains hydrostatic sections information and all input information from last time the . This means that changes to the hull shape in the Maxsurf Design file.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Double click on the . the OSV.hmd file was saved. Notes: 1) When selecting “Read existing data and sections (do not update geometry)” the Maxsurf surface information is not recalculated. Page 23 . compartment definitions. Hydromax will now open the . it will look for a .msd.e.msd file. damage cases. When Hydromax opens a .hmd file from any Windows explorer window Use the Hydromax Open command form the file menu and select the .msd file An existing Hydromax design consists of a number of files with different file extensions.msd file.

loadcase. the tanks and centre of gravity (from the loadcase) have remained in their same locations relative to the zero point. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307. data is then created in Hydromax and that data all saved in the . Page 24 . In previous versions of Hydromax this could cause problems because the loadcase and tank data maintained their position relative to the zero point. Note that whilst the margin line and key points have remained in their same locations relative to the hull. data is automatically read from the . the zero point has been moved (in Maxsurf) to the aft-perpendicular and the DWL. Effect of Zero Point change The description below relates to what happens in the following situation: A hull model is generated in Maxsurf Tank and load etc. The first image shows the model as initially defined in Hydromax with the zero point amidships and at the baseline. You will have to reload your individual loadcases and compartment definition files etc after you have selected this option and pressed OK. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. data is defined in Hydromax.hmd file. Do not choose this option if you wish to keep the additional Hydromax data and you have not yet saved them as individual files as if the model is saved in Hydromax the .hmd file (as is done when you chose Save when the drawing window is top most). where as the key points and margin line remained in the same position relative to the hull. The model is closed in Hydromax The model is opened in Maxsurf and for some reason the location of the zero point is changed The model is reopened in Hydromax and the tank and load etc.hmd file will be overwritten and any existing data lost. Etc. In the second image. The two images from Hydromax 13 show this problem.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 2) Calculate new sections (ignore existing data. if any) means that Hydromax will recalculate the hull sections and ignore any data stored in the . Hydromax 13 behaviour It may sometimes occur that the model zero point location is changed in Maxsurf after tank.hmd file. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf.

Note that this is only possible with Hydromax models that have been saved from the new version of Hydromax (because the new version of Hydromax now saves the zero point independently so that it can check for changes). Selecting “yes” will maintain the position all the Hydromax data relative to the hull. if the zero point has changed. Now. Hydromax 14 behaviour To rectify this problem. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf.hmd file. Hydromax will display the following message: If the zero point is moved in Maxsurf. essentially just the zero point it moved. when loading a .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Effect of Zero point change in Maxsurf 13. This of course means that the numerical values of the various data are changed: Page 25 . you will now be prompted. Hydromax now detects if the zero point has been modified in Maxsurf when the model is reopened in Hydromax.

Thus the tanks and loads etc. Page 26 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Click “yes” to maintain position of tanks. will move relative to the hull. Updating the Hydromax Model To update the hydrostatic sections to the latest Maxsurf Design File. Click “no” to maintain position relative to zero point. it is more likely that this option would be selected if it was realised that the zero point for the tank plan were slightly different than the zero point of the lines plan and a small correction to the zero point was required. This function can also be used to include/exclude surface thickness or change the number of sections and to change use/not use trimmed surfaces without reloading the Maxsurf Design File. Selecting “no” will move all data other than the margin line with the zero point. loads etc relative to the hull. The “Recalculate Hull Sections” command recalculates Hull surfaces as well as Tank Boundary surfaces (Internal Structure surfaces in Maxsurf). Any tanks and loadcases will also be updated with this command. but their numerical values will remain the same: The example shown is quite extreme. select “Recalculate Hull sections” in the analysis menu after reloading the Maxsurf Design File with the “read existing data and sections from file” option selected.

This is not an acceptable shape. using “Read existing data and sections” to make sure the loadcase. the section must be made up of closed. called “Hydromax sections”. This means that if the model is simultaneously being edited in Maxsurf and Hydromax. one opening is acceptable and this will be automatically closed with a straight line. Note: The golden rule is that for any longitudinal position. Furthermore. Hydromax will try to resolve any problems with the model definition in the manner outlined in the following sections. Hydromax Sections Forming Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of cross sections taken through the Maxsurf model surfaces. Whilst it is always preferable to give Hydromax a completely closed model with no ambiguities. or can be unambiguously closed. it is necessary to: 1) save and close the model in Hydromax 2) save in Maxsurf 3) open in Hydromax. contours cannot be contained wholly within another contour. Where a section consists of an open shell (e. however. This section outlines the section forming process used in Hydromax and may be helpful when preparing a Maxsurf design for Hydromax. If.g. an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments will be connected. non-intersecting (and non-self-intersecting) contours. 4) use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” from the analysis menu. compartment definition etc remain part of the Hydromax design file. the section is made up of two line segments.g. a hull surface with no deck). The same is true for groups of internal surfaces that have been selected to define a tank boundary. having both a gap at the centreline as well as an open deck). (e. In practice. Page 27 . Hydromax will automatically close the section with a straight line connecting the opening ends. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed. Hydromax will automatically form these sections.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Changes to the Maxsurf design are only recalculated after the new Maxsurf design has been re-loaded into Hydromax. “hydrostatic sections” or just “sections”.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the example above. if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf the design would cease to be ambiguous. Page 28 . Multiple surfaces that are trimmed correctly. bonded together or use compacted control points will not cause any problems when opened in Hydromax. Hydromax will form a closed section through multiple surfaces by linking the curve segments together.

because there are too many dependencies in the program. Ambiguous Sections (e. Hydromax will make an attempt to remove excess portions of the curve to form a single continuous contour. However this is not always possible so it is much better practice to trim the model correctly manually.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A section through a multihull containing a single closed contour A section comprising two closed contours Hydromax will link curve segments together if they are only separated by a small amount. bulwarks) A common example of ambiguous sections is a model with multiple decks. Hydromax closes the outside contour and trims remnants Page 29 . decks. Where surfaces intersect. Hydromax will have difficulties distinguishing the intended main deck. The user cannot change these tolerances.g.

The following tools are available to validate the Hydromax model. To prevent ambiguities it is recommended to trim the bulwark in Maxsurf. These sections should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines. Therefore. Checking the Hydromax model Before starting any analysis you should check whether Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your design. Show Single Hull Section In the body plan view. For more information see the Maxsurf manual. In particular. You can then click in the inset box to view the sections. but this depends on the height of the bulwark relative to the rest of the section. This is done by selecting Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan view from the Display menu. look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax has interpreted the shape correctly. If the bulwark‟s volume is expected to influence the hydrostatic calculations. Page 30 . the bulwark‟s volume has to be properly modelled in Maxsurf by modelling both the outside and the inside of the bulwark. Show Single Hull Section Checking the Sectional Area Curve Using Rendering to Check the Model Note: Sections that are not formed correctly cause the majority of problems with Hydromax models. checking your sections after opening the design in Hydromax is strongly recommended. you can step through the sections one-by-one to verify that they have been correctly calculated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The example above has bulwarks. Incorrect sections in the model will give incorrect results. the left and right arrow cursor keys will enable you to step through the sections one-by-one. generally these will be treated correctly by Hydromax and removed. This works the same as the Maxsurf body plan window and is an extremely powerful tool to validate your Hydromax model.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Checking the Sectional Area Curve Another way of checking the Hydromax model is to perform a specified condition analysis at quite deep draft and look carefully at the sectional area curve in the graph window. This is not a foolproof method since it does not necessarily highlight problems in the non-immersed part of the hull. which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of the model which have not been properly defined. This Cross Sectional Area curve indicates there may be a problem with section forming from 12 m to 16 m. Select Render from the Display menu whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections: Page 31 . If this displays any unexpected spikes or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape. Using Rendering to Check the Model The model may also be rendered.

Further detailed checking of hull and tank/compartment sections When checking that your model is correct. As long as the sections are formed correctly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: In rare instances incorrect rendering may occur. This does not necessarily mean that the model is incorrect. the model is correct. you are interested in whether the sections are correct. To do this go to the body plan view in Hydromax and select “Show Single Section”: Page 32 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Then to check that the tanks are OK. only tank sections near the current hull section are shown: Page 33 . then you can show all of them. leave the view as it is. but turn on the visibility of all the tanks of interest (if there are few tanks. In the single section view. if there are many it may help to hide some and check a few at a time).

Note: Before you run any analysis using Hydromax. Hydromax uses the aft perpendicular and forward perpendicular together with the baseline and the zero point for all calculations and gives the results in the units specified in the display menu. it is important that you set up the required initial conditions for the design. Coordinate System Hydromax uses the Maxsurf coordinate system: Longitudinal Transverse Vertical View window Page 34 +ve forward +ve starboard +ve up View direction -ve aft -ve port -ve down .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Setting Initial Conditions All Hydromax calculations are performed in the frame of reference of the model.

loadcase and other input values. This should be done in Maxsurf and not in Hydromax. some analysis results will be meaningless or may even fail to complete. See: Setting the Zero Point and Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18. If these are not in the correct positions. Immersed depth measurements are made perpendicualar to the free-surface. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Body plan Plan Profile From the stern. Note: Changing the zero point in Maxsurf will not update the compartment definition. should you require drafts to be calculated at other locations. looking fwd From above. Drafts are always measured to the Baseline in the centre plane of the vessel. Port side above the centreline (this the opposite direction to Maxsurf) From Starboard. bow to the right. Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Page 35 . Changing the zero point after you have started analysing the model in Hydromax is not recommended. you may specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. Draft and trim are measured on the forward and aft perpendiculars. Draft Marks Drafts are automatically calculated at the perpendiculars and amidships. Frame of Reference and Zero Point It is essential that a frame of reference be specified.

Middle or fwd end of the actual waterline. User-defined draft locations and new toolbar button Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. neither of these values has changed and neither are affected by the user-defined draft locations. Amidships location. You may also select the draft. Finally you can chose whether you want the LCB and LCF to be displayed as a length or as a percentage of the waterline or LPP length as specified in the Length for Coefficients. You can also specify whether you want the forward (towards the bow) or the aft (towards the stern) to have a positive sign.e. i. The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the specified Zero Point. Customising Coefficients In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax User-defined Draft Marks Note that the Trim is still defined as the difference between the drafts at the perpendiculars and the Midship draft (used to define the range of immersions for the Upright Hydrostatics analysis) is the mean of the drafts at the perpendiculars. Page 36 . Fwd Perpendicular or from the Aft. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. beam and sectional area to be used for calculation of these coefficients. Drafts can only be defined when the vessel is rotated to the DWL (Display | Set vessel to DWL). Aft Perpendicular.

criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. In addition to the length and weight (mass) units. Page 37 . Units may be changed at any time. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. units for force and speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. may also be set.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data | Coefficients dialog Setting Units The units used may be specified using the Units command.

click on the update Loadcase button and ensure that the hull is at the DWL by selecting “Set vessel to DWL”: Page 38 . The exception to this is if tanks have not yet been formed or the vessel is still rotated from the result of an analysis. Any changes to the loadgroup are then automatically incorporated into any loadcases that reference them. Loadgroups are special loadcases that contain no tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Other Initial Conditions See: Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148 Density on page 150 Working with Loadcases Loadcases define the loading condition of the vessel. Static weights that make up the vessel lightship are specified here as well as tank filling levels. expressed as either a percentage of the full tank capacity or as a weight. These may be used to define groups of fixed weights (such as the steel weight or lightship weight) in a single location which may then be cross-referenced into a loadcase. A loadgroup is included in a loadcase simply by specifying the loadgroup name in the “Item Name” column. Loadcases automatically contain all the tanks defined in the Tank definition. The loadcase will normally update the column totals automatically as weights or tank loadings are changed. If the loadcase does not update.

Page 39 . The default loadcase will contain a lightship entry and an entry for each tank (with a default filling of 50%).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The individual loads can be displayed graphically: Creating a new Loadcase File To create a load case. A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase window. Then select “New Load Case” from the File menu or press Ctrl+N. switch to the loadcase view by selecting Loadcase from the Loadcase sub-menu in the Window menu.

an existing loadcase may be used as a template when creating a new loadcase. Create New Loadcases based on Template To avoid rework. select the Loadcase you wish to use as a template Bring the loadcase you wish to use as a template to the front for example by clicking on the tab on the bottom select File | New First.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The tabs in the bottom of the window can be used to skip through the different loadcases in the design. you will be asked for a new Loadcase name after which the following dialog appears: Page 40 . In the loadcase window. To do this.

Alternatively. Naming and Saving a Loadcase A loadcase can be given any name by saving it to a separate file where the loadcase filename will be used as the loadcase name and displayed on the tab in the loadcase window. you will either have to close an existing loadcase. or close an existing loadcase. Once a loadcase has been created from a template loadcase. Note The template is only used during the creation of the loadcase. Select File | Open Load Case Page 41 . Loading a Saved Loadcase You can load a saved loadcase into your loadcase window by: Select an empty tab in the loadcase window that you wish to load the loadcase into Empty tab. Select Edit Loadcase from the Case menu Changing the name in the Loadcase Properties dialog. you should either increase the maximum number of loadcases (see below). If there are no blank tabs left.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A new loadcase will appear in one of the blank (…) loadcase tabs. The next time you use the File | Save Loadcase command you will be asked to confirm the loadcase file name. or add more loadcases using the Case | Max. changes made in the template are NOT automatically changed in the loadcase derived from it. If there are no empty tabs. Number of Loadcases command.

effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require. For each item in the list you can specify a quantity. A new load will be inserted into the table above the currently selected row. and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table (or simply click directly in the cell you wish to edit). Page 42 . In most cases. click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to delete are selected. for example "Lightship". Setting the Maximum Number of Loadcases The maximum number of loadcases (up to twenty-five) that can be loaded in Hydromax at any one time is set by selecting “Max. you could specify the quantity and unit weight. Number of Loadcases” from the Case menu. and the total weight of crew would be automatically calculated. The weight of each item should be entered in the next column. You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. you will only need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. Each loadcase can be selected and used for analysis.hml file you wish to open. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and restart Hydromax before you can load the design. then select Delete Load. You can repeat this process for as many loads as you wish. For example: if the item was “crew” with a weight per unit. If you want to remove a load from the table. Each may be saved and loaded independently. Editing Loads Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load. and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu (or highlight the complete row by clicking the grey cell to the left of the row and press the Delete key). Closing a Loadcase Select the tab of the loadcase you wish to close in the Loadcase window Select File | Close Load Case Adding and Deleting Loads To add an extra load to the loadcase. You may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require. you will receive a warning and the file will not be loaded. For convenience of use. a sensible number is recommended.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select the . simply click anywhere in the row you want to remove. If you wish to delete several loads simultaneously. Select Add Load from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. This is used to calculate the total weight of that item. Note: When loading a design that has more loadcases than the maximum you have currently set in Hydromax.

) character in the Item Name field. you can do so by entering a negative quantity – this can be useful if you want to apply a pure moment to the model by applying equal magnitude. you may have to use Analysis | Update Loadcase ( button) to update the subtotals and subsubtotals. are measured from the Zero Point. heading or sub-total lines in the table. press enter and the total LCG will be automatically re-calculated and displayed in the bottom row of the table. Loadcase Formatting Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank.) character. Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for the item. Longitudinal Strength or Equilibrium analysis are selected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The weight must always be positive. as with all other measurements in Hydromax. Page 43 . apostrophe („) or full-stop(. Insert row | Delete row | Sort rows | Move row(s) up | Move row(s) down Sort selected columns After moving loads. fluid type (for tanks) etc. Loadcase Sorting A number of tools are available for controlling the order in which items and tanks occur in the loadcase. The CG position will also be shown and updated in the View windows if Large Angle Stability. To ensure data consistency. After you type in this number. subtotals and subsubtotals. Adding Component or Heading Lines Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a period (. but opposite sign loads to the vessel in the loadcase. You may move selected items and tanks up and down in the loadcase. Adding Blank Lines A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a dollar ($). you may also sort selected items by name. If for some reason you wish to have an upward (negative) load. Hydromax does this automatically prior to running an analysis. Note: Levers.

Sub-subtotals must start with the text “subsubtotal”. The unit mass is the sum of all the masses of the full tanks and the quantity is the sum of the masses divided by the sum of the full tank masses. Quantity and Unit mass for sub total rows If a sub total includes only tanks. Loadcase Colour Formatting Different colours can be defined for fixed mass items and tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Adding Totals or Subtotals A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case. Use the Display | Data Format dialog: Page 44 . tanks may be displayed in the same colour as the fluid they contain (As defined in Analysis | Fluids dialog). alternatively. Sub-subtotals Sub-sub-totals may also be inserted. When tanks are grouped by fluid type this can be useful for calculating the total tank capacity for that fluid type. Grouping Similar Tanks Use the move items UP or Down commands in the Edit menu to adjust the row order in the loadcase. View | Colours and lines menu when Loadcase window is frontmost Loadcase format It is possible to select which columns are displayed in the loadcase window. then the quantity and unit mass items will be included. To do this the item name field must commence with the word „total‟ or „subtotal‟.

Page 45 . the forward and aft limits will be moved by the same amount. If the longitudinal arm is changed in the Loadcase window. For an evenly distributed load. The aft limit and forward limit columns only appear when Longitudinal Strength analysis is selected and the distributed loads will only have an effect on the results in this analysis mode. Arm” column defines the longitudinal position of the centre of the load. the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft limits.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Relative density and Fluid Type which allow you to override the default tank densities as defined for each tank in the Compartment Definition window. Moment columns (mass * lever) can be displayed if desired. Longitudinally Distributed Loads Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the aft limit and forward limit cells. The “Long. the fore and aft limits define the longitudinal extents of the load. This can be useful for vessels such as product carriers which may have cargos of different types of fluids with different densities.

Red = green and divided in the centre. but within the middle third 1/3 of the centre. Trapezium shaped distributed load. Tanks will be automatically treated as distributed loads for the longitudinal strength calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Evenly distributed loads. Red = Green divided within middle 1/3 of centre. the load distribution becomes triangular. For trapezium shaped distributed loads the centre of gravity is not midway between the boundaries. at these extrema. Page 46 . they will be automatically included in the loadcases (but not in Loadgroups which do not contain tanks). Tank Loads When you create tanks using the compartment definition. the centre of gravity should lie within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. Note: Since the load is distributed as a trapezium.

This is useful if you wish to define a detailed lightship mass distribution but do not want to have it displayed in full in each loadcase. select Update Loadcase from the Analysis menu or toolbar. For the example above this means that the lightship mass distribution would be defined as a Loadgroup and then this Loadgroup could be referenced in any number of loadcases. Updating tank values in the loadcase Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition. Loadgroups It is possible to cross-reference one loadcase from another. The tank Unit Mass is the tanks mass at 100% filling. Also see: Update Loadcase on page 206 Loadcase cross-referencing. a sounding or a weight. we have defined the following rules: A special type of Loadcase called a Loadgroup has been defined.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks have a quantity value. expressed as a percentage of the full capacity and a weight column. The Loadcase properties dialog (Case menu) is used to define a loadcase as a Loadgroup: Page 47 . To prevent the problems of recursively including the same loadcase and also prevent tanks from being included more than once. When a tank is changed in the Compartment definition table. A Loadgroup does not contain tanks Only a Loadgroup can be referenced Only a Loadcase can reference a Loadgroup. the Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the Loadcase information. It also means that this lightship mass distribution would only need to be defined and edited in one location instead of in each loadcase. question marks may be shown in the loadcase momentarily while the tank‟s new volumetric properties are being calculated. volume. Loadgroups may be analysed in the same way as Loadcases – but remember the tanks are implicitly empty in a Loadgroup. Tank level can be given as either a percentage of full capacity. A Loadcase can reference any number of Loadgroups A Loadgroup is referenced in a Loadcase by typing the name of the Loadgroup to be referenced in the Item column You can factor the referenced Loadgroup by changing the value of the Quantity column in the Loadcase. To update the loadcase for changes in tank loads.

The Lightship load group can then be cross-referenced into any loadcase Page 48 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This lightship Loadgroup contains the lightship mass distribution along the ship.

This allows you to load the same tanks with different fluids in different Loadcases – as might be the case for a product carrier. Loadcase density override It is now possible to override the default tank fluid densities as defined in the Compartment definition window. By default use tank defined densities: Page 49 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The referenced Loadgroup is automatically calculated and the appropriate values included in the Loadcase: Note: Loadgroup naming The cross-referencing of loadgroups in a loadcase is case insensitive. for instance.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Type in a valid (>0.0) specific gravity and it will override the tank value: Type in any string that doesn‟t begin with an “L” for the fluid and it will revert back to the tank value: Type in some thing that begins with an “L” and it will revert back to the “Private” density of the loadcase item. Page 50 .

thus the actual vessel CG is recalculated accounting exactly for the static shift of the fluids in slack tanks. Workshop structure Workshop can save a Loadgroup that contains the masses of all the structural parts. Actual Hydromax uses the free surface moment for the current fluid level of the tank in upright condition. When the corrected VCG method is selected in the analysis menu.3 for the calculation of the free surface moment. This method approximates the movement of fluid due to heeling and is based on the fluid shift in a 50% full rectangular. making the tanks‟ free-surface parallel to the sea surface. this section contains a number of important sections that the user should be aware off when modelling tanks: Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Tank and Compartment Permeability on page 59 Creating a Compartment definition file (. Fluid simulation If the Fluid simulation option is selected in the analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Free surface correction If the corrected VCG fluid option has been chosen. it is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a Hydromax Loadcase. Select New Compartment Definition from the File menu Page 51 . box-shaped-tank. divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. The options available are Maximum Hydromax will use the maximum free surface moment of the tank in upright condition for all fluid levels.htk) Select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments. at every step of the analysis. User specified A user specified value is used for all levels and heel angles. IMO Hydromax uses IMO MSC75. For other shapes and fillings of tanks it will not correctly approximate the free surface moment.(69) Ch 3. This can be loaded into Hydromax and referenced in any Loadcase. Besides a general explanation on how to model tanks using the compartment definition table. no correction is made to the upright VCG. Hydromax calculates the actual position of the fluid in the tanks taking into account heel and trim. Instead. Modelling Compartments This section will describe in detail how to model different types of tanks and compartments.

See Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67 for some recommendations regarding setting the boundary box. Thus it is not necessary to make the tanks fit the hull manually – this is done automatically by Hydromax. The column headings in the Compartment Definition table include terms such as 'F Bottom. This box will be called the Boundary Box. Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete will delete the currently selected compartment(s). the top and bottom. Each value defines one of the six planes of the tank. Box shaped compartments can be formed from the numerical values in the compartment definition table. Compartments may be added or deleted by Select Add or Delete Compartment from the Edit menu. in other words the two ends of the compartment. and the port and starboard limits of the tank. Hydromax will form the sections that define the tanks and compartments. You will notice that aft columns contain the word "ditto". make sure you have created a Compartment definition file. Adding and Deleting Compartments Before you can start adding compartments.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This will give you a new set of compartment definitions with one default tank. The boundary box is made up of the fore and aft extremities of the tank. This is done by finding the intersection of the tank bounding box and the hull. see above. 'A Top'. When the “Update Loadcase” command from the Analysis menu is used. Page 52 . or an analysis started. Modelling Box Shape Tanks Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. resulting in a parallel tank. This means that the value is identical at the aft end of the tank to the forward end. 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for Forward and Aft. The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the Delete key may also be used to add and delete entries respectively.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Tapered Tanks

The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. If you wish to define tapered compartments, it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the points defining the forward and aft ends of the compartment. If a different value is entered in one of the “ditto” columns, a tapered tank will result. Tanks can be tapered or sloped in Plan or Profile views. Hydromax does not have a mechanism for creating a sloped tank boundary in the Body Plan view.

By changing the “ditto”-input fields, tapered tanks can be formed

Note: Tapering can be done in Plan and in Profile view. Tapered tanks in Body Plan view have to be created using a boundary surface. See Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54.

Linked Tanks

Tanks and compartments may be linked. This means that although they are defined as separate tanks, they act as a single tank with a common free surface. To link tanks, compartments or non-buoyant volumes, first make them the same type as the parent and give them the same name. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked tank row. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type column. Linked tanks and compartments do not have to be physically linked in space. However, the fluid in a linked tank or damaged compartment is always assumed to be able to flow freely between the linked volumes.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces

Tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes may have their boundaries defined by surfaces as well as being constrained to particular dimensions. This allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped tanks.

Forming tanks using boundary surfaces

The surfaces to be used to define the tank boundaries are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the middle of the Compartments Definition table. A dialog will appear that allows you to select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. If a tank uses boundary surfaces, the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column is coloured blue.

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If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment, tick next to the surface name in the Boundary Surface list. Note that symmetrical surfaces appear twice as there will be a starboard and a port side copy of the surface. The Starboard surface is first in the list and the Port surface second. The port surface is also identified with the suffix (P) after the name. Note: Only internal structure surfaces appear in the boundary surfaces list. Symmetrical surfaces are duplicated, with the port-side surface having “(P)” appended to the surface name. After selecting the internal surfaces, it is necessary to type in the extents of the boundary box. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the Boundary Surface. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. Also see: Forming Compartments on page 62 Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67

Modelling External Tanks

External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax. However, it is normally possible to add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model, which will enclose the external tanks. The tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax.

Additional box-shaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Non-Buoyant Volumes

Non-buoyant volumes are effectively permanently flooded compartments. These parts of the hull can normally be modelled using trimmed hull surfaces. However, there are occasions where it is more convenient to use non-buoyant volumes. In some cases, where the volume to be flooded forms sections within the hydrostatic section, this is the only option, e.g. waterjet ducts. The choice whether to use trimmed surfaces or nonbuoyant volumes is primarily determined by the length of the non-buoyant volume relative to the length of the vessel. Using trimmed hull surfaces When the length of the non-buoyant volume, relative to the length of the model, is large enough; the non-buoyant volume can be calculated accurately from the hull sections. If possible, trimmed surfaces should be used. The picture below is a good example of when to use trimmed surfaces.

Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces

Using tank type: Non-buoyant volume In some cases using trimmed surfaces is just not possible. For example, when the sections of the non-buoyant volume are entirely enclosed within the hull sections (as is the case for a water jet duct) the use of a non-buoyant volume is the only way in which these features can be modelled.

Water-jet ducts modelled as non-buoyant volumes

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Another occasion when non-buoyant volumes should be used, is when the length of the compartment relative to the length of the hull is too small to calculate its volume from the hull sections. A good example of this is a bow thruster on a long ship. If the vessel is very long, and the thruster duct is of small diameter, there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model). In this case you are better off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a non-buoyant volume. For example: in the image below the bow thruster volume is only calculated with one section.

For more information, see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67. Tip: Besides increasing the number of sections through the bow thruster from 1 to 12, modelling the thruster duct as a non-buoyant volume has the additional advantage of being able to specify a Tank and Compartment Permeability, and hence also account for the thruster.

Bow thruster tube modelled as two non-buoyant volumes Tanks within Compartments

When a tank is defined within a compartment, Hydromax will automatically deduct the volume of the tank from the compartment volume using a “linked neg. (negative) compartment”. This is necessary for damage cases where the compartment is flooded and the volume of the tank should be treated completely separately from the compartment. Linked negative compartments are deleted and recreated whenever a tank or compartment is added, deleted or modified. Negatively linked compartments are displayed on the bottom of the Compartment Definition table solely for reference purposes and are not under direct user control. This means that linked negative compartments cannot be added, deleted or modified.

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Linked negative compartments are named based on both the parent compartment as well as the tank from which the linked negative compartment was derived. For example a linked negative compartment might be named “Compartment3 (Stbd Hydr Oil)” to reflect that it is derived from the intersection of Compartment3 with the Stbd Hydr Oil tank.

Tanks Overlapping

As mentioned earlier in this manual, only compartments and non buoyant volumes or tanks can overlap with each other. Tanks or compartments of the same type (eg two tanks) can not overlap. A tank and a non-buoyant volume are also not allowed to overlap. Hydromax will first try to form tank sections and then check whether these sections overlap tank sections of adjacent tanks. When two conflicting or overlapping tanks or compartments are detected during the forming process, you will receive an error message:

Notice that the compartment definition row number of the tank is given in brackets i.e. tank #8 intersects tank #3.

Troubleshooting Overlapping Tanks Sometimes the reason for the conflict can be quite simple: eg an overlapping boundary box. However, when you are modelling tanks using boundary surfaces, the surface boundaries act as a boundary between two adjacent tanks and the bounding box extents are allowed to overlap. In these cases, it can be quite difficult to see why the tanks overlap, especially if you have a large number of tanks already defined.

By temporarily deleting all tanks except for the one that does not form, it often becomes clear why the tank overlaps. In the case of the image above, the tank‟s fwd most section goes all the way to the CL (probably because the fwd boundary box extent is just fwd of the boundary surfaces or exactly on the edge of a boundary surface). This causes this particular tank to “overlap” with surrounding tanks.

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compartments typically have structure (other than plate stiffeners) and equipment inside. and the other when it is damaged. The compartment permeability is applied when the compartment is flooded in a damage condition and the non-buoyant volume permeability is applied at all times since it is always flooded. 60% and the upper compartment a permeability of 95%. Do NOT save!! Open saved Comp def file Fix compartment. Compartments and non-buoyant volumes have only one permeability. In the case of damaged tanks and compartments. The lower compartment will have a permeability of. In case of large variations in permeability within a compartment it is recommended to model separate linked compartments with separate permeability to increase accuracy. for example. which is used when the tank is intact. eg by selecting additional boundary surfaces Close comp def file. Page 59 .and an upper engine room compartment. thought it is listed in both columns. Save & move on to next compartment. the permeability fraction is also applied to the free-surface-moment contribution of that tank or compartment. inspect tank sections Try to fix tank definition. one.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Procedure to Fix Overlapping Tanks: Save Model Go into Comp def window Save comp def Delete all tanks except for one you wish to investigate form tanks. Relative Density of Tank Fluids Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative Density column of the Compartment Definition table.. the engines and equipment could also be modelled individually as empty tanks. Permeability of Compartments As opposed to tanks. Now that you know how to fix it. Tank and Compartment Permeability Tanks may have two permeabilities. Depending on the level of accuracy required. For example an engine room with engines and auxiliaries at the tanktop could be divided up in a lower.

Assembly view can be used to show and hide tanks/compartments Using damage cases. Compartment and Tank Visibility When creating complicated tank plans. turn off the display of intact tanks and compartments. auto complete is used. the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column. you can use damage cases to quickly change the display to show certain tanks. selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner: Define a damage case Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display. Tanks and Surface Thickness If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness. all entries for that fluid in the compartment definition are automatically updated. hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the tank. Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog (see Density of Fluids on page 150). Page 60 . so it is normally only necessary to type the first few letter of the name). If the tank defines a cargo tank that will carry different liquid cargoes. it is often useful to check individual tanks. Compartment and Tank Ordering The tank definition order can be adjusted in a similar way to loads in the loadcase. Note: Thickness of boundary surfaces are not taken into account. compartments and non-buoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness and its projection direction: the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell. the default density specified here in the compartment definition may be overridden in the loadcases. Select the rows you wish to use and use the Edit | Move Items Up or Down commands (there is no provision for sorting tanks alphabetically). If a fluid type is entered. You can either control the tank visibility through the Assembly window. either as the name or as one of the single letter codes (when entering the name. the tanks. or if you prefer. Groups of linked tanks and compartments will be moved together.

Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the damage case window. Only tank sections that lie on or near the current station are shown – this makes it easier to verify that the tanks have been formed. You can make the damage case window quite small and tile it next to the perspective view. Use this to quickly turn tanks on and off by changing their damage status. Using a damage case to quickly change the tank and compartment visibility Tank sections When in Tank Calibration mode. tank sections are also displayed in the Bodyplan view when the “Show single section” option is selected. Page 61 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other properties).

Understanding these processes may assist you in rare situations where the tank forming does not work as expected. First a step-by-step outline of the tank forming process is given.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Forming Compartments Tanks and compartments are formed automatically by Hydromax (once the tank extents and any boundary surfaces have been defined) by selecting Recalculate Tanks and Compartments from the Analysis menu. The water ballast tanks have a margin plate on the side. followed by the tank section insertion process. Step-by-Step Tank Forming Process As an example. The formed status of a tank (yes or no) is shown in the last column of the compartment definition table. the starboard waterballast tank below will be created using boundary surfaces. Starting point: Hydromax Hull sections with an internal surface and a bounding box Also see: Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54 and the Maxsurf manual on internal structure surfaces Page 62 . This section describes the internal tank-forming process that Hydromax uses to form tanks. An example of a port and starboard waterballast tank with a pipe tunnel at the centreline. Hydromax uses three input items to form the compartment Boundary surfaces (if defined) Boundary box Hydromax Hull sections Starting position The starboard tank margin plate is modelled using an Internal Structure surface from Maxsurf.

Make sure that the boundary surfaces: Form a closed section contour.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 1: Close Internal Structure Surface Hydromax will close the Internal Structure Surface contour by drawing a straight line between the ends of the opening. Step 2: Clip to Boundary Surface Using the closed surface section contour Hydromax can now form a closed compartment section. the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. Hydromax will use the trimmed internal structure surface. or There is no more than one opening – the opening will be closed with a straight line Note: Hydromax will close the section contour of the selected boundary surfaces only. Usually the internal structure surfaces are best to be left untrimmed. Often a tank is not formed as expected because only one side of the internal structure surface was selected for example the portside (p). Hydromax uses the same method for forming the tank section from the boundary surfaces as for forming the hydrostatic sections through the hull. As with the hull sections. The tank or compartment looks like this at this stage: Page 63 . Another common cause of unexpected results is trimming. If you selected “use trimmed surfaces” while opening the Maxsurf model. The area inside the selected surfaces will define the tank contour.

The boundary box is formed from the numerical input in the Compartment definition table. Step 4: Clip to Boundary Box Finally the compartment section is clipped to the boundary box. In practice additional surfaces would be required.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 3: Clip to Hull Hydromax will clip the compartment section to the hull. it is not really realistic because it would not be possible to define a tank above the surface-bounded double bottom tanks. More realistic surface-bounded tanks Whilst the above example shows the principles by which surface-bounded tanks are formed. A more realistic example is shown in the following section. In this example the vessel has both wing and double bottom tanks with non-rectangular cross-sections thus requiring them to be defined by boundary surfaces – see blow: Page 64 .

BottomClosure (P). TankBilgePlate (S) Page 65 . TankWing (P). OuterClosure (S). TankTop. TankTop (P) Double Bottom (P) TankTop (P).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sketch of tank cross-sections Five surfaces have been defined to define the tank boundaries: Tank Boundary surfaces defined in Maxsurf The following surfaces need to be selected for the different tanks so that closed sections are generated (or at most one section) Hold (C) TankWing. BottomClosure (S). TankBilgePlate (S) Wing Ballast (P) TankWing (P). TankBilgePlate (P) Wing Ballast (S) TankWing (S). OuterClosure (P). TankBilgePlate (P) Double Bottom (S) TankTop (S).

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydromax tank definition Surfaces for Hold (C) (top is closed automatically) Page 66 .

In most cases. Hydromax will normally place twelve sections between the forward and aft limits defining the tank. Also see Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box For tanks near the ship‟s extremities it is good practise to set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits in the compartment table to just inside the hull surface (say 1mm). additional sections will be inserted into the tank so that the tank section spacing match the hull section spacing. this will be done automatically by Hydromax. The following example illustrates why: Page 67 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Surfaces for double bottom tanks Surfaces for wing tanks (top is closed automatically) Number of Sections in Tanks The volume of a tank or compartments is calculated by integrating section properties along the length of the tank. If this results in a section spacing greater than the spacing for the hull spacing. Thus it is important to have a sufficiently large number of sections to accurately model the tank.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If the boundary box is set like this: The number of hull sections is dependent on the section spacing in the model. the longitudinal extents should not be set to extreme values. Page 68 . Also see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Forming Compartments on page 62 Compartment Types Five compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition table . This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank.tanks. linked compartments and non-buoyant volumes. For internal structure surfaces that are used as boundary surface. But if the boundary box is set just inside the forward limit of the bulbous bow: To recap – Near the ship‟s extremities. linked tanks. compartments. they should be set to just inside the extents of the hull surfaces to ensure that at least 12 sections are used to calculate the tank volumes. Note that transversely and vertically there are no such restrictions. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the boundary surface.

In addition. They are ideal for defining water-jet ducts. if a tank is damaged. Page 69 . Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when the tank is formed (either by running an analysis. However. The default sounding pipe is placed at the longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. etc. Non-Buoyant Volumes Are only used to specify compartments of the vessel which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline. Edit Sounding Pipes To customise a sounding pipe.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks Will be included in the tank calibration output and are automatically added to the loadcase. any changes to the sounding pipe due to tank geometry changes will also have to be made manually. c or n) in the Type column of the Compartment Definition table and then press Enter. If the lowest point of the tank is shared between several locations (e.g. they can be remote from one another. allowing inclined. the bottom of the tank is flat either longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aft-most low point and as close to the centreline as possible. moon pools. and essentially behave as damaged compartments. In this case the tank linking simulates tanks with cross connections. Linked Compartments Work in the same way as linked tanks. Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked. Automatically created sounding pipes will be recalculated if the tank geometry changes. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. or using one of the following commands: Analysis | Recalculate Tanks and Compartments. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. once the sounding pipe has been edited manually. Compartments Are only used to specify compartmentation for damage. you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input window. type the first character of the tank type (t. any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged. The top of the sounding pipe is taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is assumed to be straight and vertical. To change the type of a tank. bent or curved sounding pipes to be modelled. They do not have a separate entry in the loadcase. This allows you to damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together and damaging the parent compartment. Linked Tanks Will have their volume added to the parent tank with the same tank name. One sounding pipe per tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe. or Analysis | Update Loadcase. This will automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type. Sounding Pipes Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. shown below.

offset and height of the vertex can be edited. Page 70 . Calibration Increment Hydromax allows user definable increments (or: intervals) for tank soundings. To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe. then click on the first row of a particular sounding pipe and choose Edit | Add or use the Ctrl+A key combination. Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of the depth of the tank. or by clicking on the icon in the window toolbar. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in the table and selecting Edit | Delete or by hitting the Delete key. If no increment is entered.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax You can activate this window by selecting from the Windows | Input | Sounding Pipes menu. make the sounding pipe type User Defined. by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window. In this case the Sounding Pipes table will display “Auto” in the Calibration Increment column for the tank. This is done by specifying a numerical value for the increment for each tank in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Input window.e. A new row will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position. it is not acceptable to have S-bends in the sounding pipes. Type the value of the desired calibration increment in the Calibration Spacing cell for the tank calibration you wish to modify. Note that each successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i.

Hydromax allows the user to set up a number of damage cases. select the intact case column. Each new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog. Several damage cases may be added in one go by selecting a number of columns. Damage Case Definition In all but the floodable length and tank calibration analysis modes. Renaming a Damage Case The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case when the damage case window is active. Page 71 . make the Damage window active and select Add Damage Case from the Case menu. Adding a Damage Case To add a damage case. the current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar – see below. Note that it is not possible to delete the intact case. The new damage case is added after the currently selected damage case column.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note Increments are measured along the sounding pipe. soundings will step evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe. Volumes that are permanently flooded should be defined as non-buoyant volumes. to insert a damage case immediately after the intact case. Hydromax is capable of including the effects of user-defined damage. not along the vertical axis of the tank. simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu. If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles. Deleting a Damage Case To delete damage cases.

and all values set to zero. all damaged tanks and compartments will be displayed in damaged tank or damaged compartment colour respectively. Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level. The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage case. select Intact as the current damage case. turning off all damage in all the damage cases (use the fill down command) and then pasting back in the original data from where it was stored in the spreadsheet. When tanks have been damaged. In the Loadcase Window damaged tanks are displayed with the label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column. This is simply done by copying all the damage case data to a spread sheet. Displaying Damage Cases When a damage case is selected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Selecting a Damage Case The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar. This is also the case for the Floodable Length analysis which effectively sets up its own longitudinal extent of damage. Note: Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. you should toggle the damage status of the damaged tanks. If you have linked tanks or compartments or added tanks within compartments after the definition of a damage case. These colours can be specified in the View | Colours and lines menu. This is because Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. Any tank fluids are treated as having been completely replaced by seawater up to the equilibrium waterline. Hydromax assumes that all compartment definition has been done after the tanks have been defined. Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. To perform analyses for the intact vessel. Page 72 . Note that carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the intact case to be selected. their weights and levers are no longer displayed in the Loadcase window and the word „Damage‟ is displayed in the quantity column.

Extent of Damage Cases The damaged compartments can automatically be set by using the Case | Extent of damage command.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Loadcase Window displays damaged tanks and excludes them from any calculations. Select the column of the damage case you wish to specify the extent of damage for and choose Extent of Damage from the case menu: Page 73 .

The other types of points have their freeboard measured but are not used for the evaluation of the downflooding angle and are for information only. click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select Delete. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as flooded tanks or compartments. click and drag over the rows you want deleted. A new point will be inserted below the currently selected row in the table. Down Flooding Points) Key points such as downflooding points and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the Key Points window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Defining the damaged compartments by specify the extent of damage. select New Key Points from the File menu. You will be given a default point. which is used in criteria evaluation. Page 74 . Key points may be placed asymmetrically. choose Add from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. There are several types of Key Points: Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. Specify the extent of the damage – any tanks or compartments that lie partially or wholly within the extent of damage will be automatically flagged as damaged: Automatically generated damage case from using Extent of Damage command. To delete more than one point at a time. Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides must have both key points added to the table. Adding Key Points To start adding downflooding points go to the Key Points table. Key Points (e. a positive offset is to starboard and a negative offset is to port. To add additional key points to the table. Deleting Key Points To delete a Key point. The points may be displayed in the Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or not they are immersed.g.

The type of Key Point may be selected from the combo-box in the Type column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Links to Tanks or Compartments Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments. which are damaged in the currently selected damage case. a transverse offset from the centreline. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you require. Editing Key Points Key points are defined by entering a name. a longitudinal position. These downflooding points will appear italicised and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the DF Angles table of the Results window: Page 75 . and the selected rows will be deleted. All points are entered relative to the zero point. and a height. Select the tank or compartment from the combo-box in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select Delete from the Edit menu.

In addition to the Key Points results. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). the freeboards after an Equilibrium or Specified Condition analysis. The downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis. The modulus value is not currently used as deflections are not calculated. It is only necessary to modify the height value of the margin line points. Allowable shear force and/or bending moment can be specified at each point. Asymmetric margin lines and deck edges are not supported. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shear forces and bending moments for each section.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window. Note: Linking a downflooding point to a tank does not mean that Hydromax will consider a tank damaged when the downflooding point is submerged. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described in Adding Key Points and Deleting Key Points on page 74. This form of automatic flooding is not supported in Hydromax yet. In the Name column the longitudinal position where immersion first takes place (or the lowest freeboard) is given. Immersed points are highlighted in red in the Freeboard column. One or more points can be entered in this window. If necessary. selecting Snap Margin Line to Hull in the Analysis menu will project all of the points horizontally onto the hull surface. Page 76 . immersion angles or freeboards (depending on the analysis) are also given for the margin line and deck edge. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. Once this has been done for all the points that need to be changed.

Analysis Types After specifying the input values and checking the Hydromax model. The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using Open and Save from the File menu. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be evaluated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and after an Equilibrium analysis. For more information see Floodable Length on page 102. Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG and Floodable Length analysis. The Bulkheads are automatically sorted by longitudinal position. The following analysis types are available in Hydromax: Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Analysis Specified Conditions KN Values Analysis Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage Also. bring the Modulus table to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus window frontmost.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments. the analysis can be performed. Floodable Length Bulkheads Bulkheads entered in the Input window are used for Floodable Length analysis in order to optionally plot the compartment lengths in the floodable length graph for easy verification that the critical compartment lengths are not exceeded. some general information is given on: Page 77 . Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the key points. Please refer to Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163 for information on defining and selecting criteria. These allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable shear and/or moment. In this section the different analysis types available in Hydromax will be described.

specify range of drafts for analysis Trim from the Analysis menu. Page 78 . the available options depends on the current results table or graph: Data format dialog for Upright hydrostatics table and graph Upright Hydrostatics Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of drafts. one or more graphs may be shown – select the graph to be displayed from the pull-down menu in the Graph window. Choosing Upright Hydrostatics Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. at zero or other fixed trim.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Starting and Stopping Analyses Batch Analysis The required analysis settings and environment options will be discussed separately and in more detail in the next two sections of this chapter. you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts command from the Analysis menu. Upright Hydrostatic Analysis Settings The following analysis settings apply for Upright Hydrostatic Analysis: Draft from the Analysis menu. Following each analysis. The Data Format dialog can be used to specify what is displayed in some graphs and tables.

the LCG also affects these measurements). Upright Hydrostatics Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the upright hydrostatics analysis: Density from the Analysis menu Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Upright Hydrostatic Results Page 79 . When a design is first opened. the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in Maxsurf.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Initial and final drafts can be entered. Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL. The Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc (if the vessel is trimmed. together with the number of drafts to be used.

Large Angle Stability Settings The following analysis settings apply for Large Angle Stability Analysis: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Heel from the Analysis menu. to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria. select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu If criteria are being evaluated. Choosing Large Angle Stability Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar. Page 80 . Large Angle Stability Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of heel angles either with or without trim or free-to-trim. the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen accordingly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The curves of form are shown on a separate graph and the sectional area may be show for any of the drafts: see Select View from Analysis Data on page 159.

However. Also see: Heel on page 141 in the Analysis Settings section. Some criteria require calculations of GZ at negative heel. you can enter negative values and test full 360 degrees of stability if you wish. Large Angle Stability Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the large angle stability analysis: Fluid simulation of tank fluids centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Stability Criteria Large Angle Stability Results Large Angle Stability Analysis results are: Hydrostatic data table for each angle of heel GZ curve Dynamic stability (GZ area) curve Graph of hydrostatic parameters against heel angle Graph of max. The criteria are only evaluated on the side of the graph that corresponds to positive heel angles. For example: when using a -180 to 180 heel range. deck edge and margin line Curve of areas at each heel angle Page 81 . the results may be two angles of vanishing stability. safe steady heel angle Stability Criteria evaluation Downflooding angles to key points.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note You can select positive heel direction (port or starboard). the one that would be reported in the criteria would be the one with a positive heel angle (even if the one at negative heel occurred at an angle closer to zero).

Graph of maximum safe steady heeling angles for sailing vessels These calculations are derived from the value of GZ at a critical heel angle. Large Angle stability Graph. Shows the variation of hydrodynamic properties with heel angle. Curves of Form. for example the angle of downflooding or angle of deck edge immersion. you can display the maximum safe heeling angle curves by selecting the graph type in the pull-down menu. features such as downflooding angle are also included on the graph. Page 82 . Curve of Areas Shows the curve of areas for the currently selected heel angle (use Display | Select view from data to chose the heel angle from the GZ results table).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Dynamic stability Graph A graph of the GZ area integrated from upright may be plotted. Once a GZ curve has been calculated.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The parameters for the calculation can be modified in the Display | Data Format dialog (this graph must be selected in the topmost window): Page 83 .

Page 84 . 45 and 60kts. Finally you can adjust the axis limits. It can often be useful to duplicate this criterion in the GZ criteria that are evaluated. You can also change the shape of the heeling arm curve and the gust ratio.derived wind heeling arm” criterion. This will give you the same result as for the gust limiting line. This is because normally you will have computed a GZ curve for a wider heel range than you would wish to display in this graph – it is uncommon to sail a vessel with a steady heel angle of greater than 40 degrees. MCA require downflooding but you can include additional criteria if desired. In the lower-left. you can specify the squall wind speeds (you can add any number) The default gives three wind speeds of 30. This allows you to specify the critical condition that should not be exceeded due to a gust or squall. The first part of the dialog is almost exactly the same as the “Angle of equilibrium .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis options for the calculation of Maximum steady heel angles (Display | Data Format).

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The same safe angle of heel to prevent downflooding in the event of a gust (16. especially at the lower heel angles – typically steps of 1degree. Full details of the calculations can be found in: Page 85 . To obtain smooth curves. the GZ curve should be calculated at small intervals of heel. the most common reason for this is that the GZ curve has not been calculated up to a sufficiently high angle of heel and downflooding angle cannot be found.5 deg) is found. it may not be possible to evaluate the curves. Under some circumstances.

Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. as opposed to the immersion angle which is when the cross the waterline in a downward direction. Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 159. Wellicome and Shenoi. Emergence angles of the key points is also calculated – this is where they cross the waterline in an upward direction to become dry. Adison Wesley Longman 1998. the large angle stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. hence if there is any asymmetry. A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero degrees of heel. ISBN 0-582-36857-X STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET available from the MCA. the first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph.gov. For more information on how to customize the display of the criteria results. Claughton. please refer to the Results Window on page 185 in the reference section.uk Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window. Only the positive downflooding angles are displayed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sailing Yacht Design: Practice. In addition. For the margin line and deck edge the longitudinal position at which immersion first occurred is provided. see: Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the Key Point Data table of the Results window.mcga. www. Page 86 . the Key Points Data table lists the downflooding angles of the margin line. ed. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. These downflooding points will appear italicised. Downflooding Angle After a Large Angle Stability analysis. Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the currently selected damage case. deck edge and defined Key Points. becoming wet.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Equilibrium Analysis

Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft, heel and trim of the hull as a result of the loads applied in the table in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a waveform.

Choosing Equilibrium Analysis

**Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.
**

Equilibrium Analysis Settings

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

**Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18
**

Equilibrium Analysis Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Equilibrium analysis:
**

Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria

Equilibrium Results

**Equilibrium Results are:
**

Hydrostatic data Freeboard of key points, deck edge and margin line Criteria evaluation Wave phase animation Curve of areas

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Hydrostatic data

Height/freeboard above free surface The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. The freeboard is for the vessel condition currently displayed in the Design view and is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions analysis. The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free surface; hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into account.

Freeboard of key points.

Negative freeboards, i.e. where the Key Points are immersed are displayed in red. The longitudinal positions at which the minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified. Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window.

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Equilibrium Animation in Waves If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves, the Equilibrium analysis will automatically phase-step the waveform through a complete wavelength. This gives ten columns of results, one for each position of the wave crest. If necessary the results of this phase stepping can be animated giving a simple, quasi-static simulation of the hull motion in waves (Display | Animate). Note: This simulation only includes static behaviour at each wave phase, and does not cover dynamic or inertial forces. This can be done using Seakeeper.

Equilibrium Concept

The definition of equilibrium is “Position or state where object will remain if undisturbed”. You can distinguish equilibrium into two types:

Stable, when disturbed the object will return to its equilibrium position Unstable, when disturbed the object will not return to its equilibrium position

Stable equilibrium

Unstable equilibrium

With ships, an unstable equilibrium can exist when the KG > KM, i.e. the centre of gravity is above the metacentre (negative GMt). In real world a ship in unstable equilibrium will roll from the upright unstable equilibrium position to a position of stable equilibrium and assume an “angle of loll”. Since Hydromax starts the equilibrium analysis in upright position, it has no way of determining whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable. This means that unstable equilibrium may be found instead of the stable equilibrium. Therefore it is recommend to check the value of GMt yourself after doing an equilibrium analysis or perform a Large Angle Stability analysis and look at the slope of the GZ curve through the equilibrium heel angle.

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Unstable equilibrium

Stable equilibrium ”Angle of loll”

The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with negative initial GMt. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25 degrees. If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero, Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero degrees of heel. In practice, it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. To do this, first ensure that the tolerances (Edit | Preferences) are set as sensitive as possible. This will ensure that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position. Then create a very small heeling moment by offsetting one of the weight items in the loadcase window TCG by just a fraction. The equilibrium analysis will now find the stable equilibrium position. Note: It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. This is most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when upright. The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely by a small amount.

Specified Conditions

Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the vessel by specifying the heel, trim and immersion. Heel can be specified by either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. Trim can be specified by the actual trim measurement, or the LCG and VCG. Immersion can be specified by either the displacement or the draft.

Choosing Specified Conditions

Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.

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Specified Conditions Settings

**The settings required for Specified Condition analysis are:
**

Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu

Three Sets of variables are provided, labelled Heel, Trim and Immersion. One choice must be made from each of these groups. Hydromax will then solve for the vessel hydrostatics at the conditions specified.

Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button. Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18 Specified Conditions on page 145 in the Analysis Settings section. Note: If the fluid simulation has been turned on in a previous analysis mode, then the VCG obtained from the loadcase will not include the free surface correction; the “Get Loadcase Values” button will return exactly the displacement and CG as displayed in the current loadcase window. The specified condition analysis itself ignores tank fillings and does no correction to VCG.

Specified Conditions Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Specified Condition analysis:
**

Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar

Specified Conditions Results

The specified conditions results are the same as equilibrium analysis results except that criteria are not evaluated, i.e. hydrostatic data and key points freeboard are calculated.

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KN Values Analysis

KN Values Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of heel angles and displacements to produce the cross curves of stability diagram.

Choosing KN Values Analysis

**Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
**

KN Values Analysis Settings

**The analysis settings required for KN Values analysis are:
**

Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu Displacement from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis and specify estimate of VCG if known

The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and Limiting KG analyses. To set the range of angles, select Heel from the Analysis menu. A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement command from the Analysis menu. Initial and final displacements can be entered, together with the number of displacements required.

Displacement range dialog

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Traditionally. see: Trim on page 142 Also see KN Value Concepts on page 94 KN Values Analysis Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Page 93 . If a VCG estimate is specified. the KN values are still presented in the normal manner with the KN values calculated as follows: KN(φ) = GZ(φ) + KG_estimated sin(φ) For information on Trim settings for KN Analysis. However if the analysis is being calculated free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim dialog The VCG can also be entered (specified from the vertical zero datum). the accuracy of the KN calculations (for VCGs in the vicinity of the estimated VCG) may be improved by calculating the GZ curve using the estimated VCG position – this will reduce the error in the trim balance due to the vertical separation of CG and CB because this vertical separation is specified more accurately than simply assuming the VCG at the baseline. KN calculations are calculated assuming the VCG at the baseline (K).

GZ = KN . GZ.KG sin(φ) Page 94 . may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the desired displacement) for any specified KG using the following equation: .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax KN Values Analysis Results KN curves calualated at each heel angle Immersion angles calculated at each displacement KN Value Concepts The righting lever.

select range for calculation of GZ curves Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN analysis. To set the range of angles. see: Trim on page 142 Page 95 . Limiting KG Settings The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are: Displacement from the Analysis menu. Some criteria. The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and KN analyses. Limiting KG Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected stability criteria. select range for analysis Heel from the Analysis menu. After each cycle. are extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen. the selected criteria are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered. Choosing Limiting KG Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. See Large Angle Stability on page 80 for further details. notably angle of maximum GZ. GZ curves are calculated for various KG values. select Heel from the Analysis menu. When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability analysis. For information on Trim settings for Limiting KG Analysis. it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the free-totrim options and CG are the same.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax M Z G B’ B N K Note: KN values can also be referred to as “Cross curves of stability”.

) Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed. The Limiting KG analysis also checks that any selected equilibrium based criteria are passed at each VCG that it tries. you must still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. Limiting KG vs displacement graph The Limiting KG value is measured from the baseline. Page 96 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Since Limiting KG can be quite a time consuming analysis. you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability calculations. it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis). so if there is any form of asymmetry. As well as the limiting KG. (However this will cause some loss of accuracy. which is not necessarily the same as the zero point. the minimum GM. Limiting KG Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Criteria Limiting KG Results Limiting KG analysis results are Limiting KG values. for each displacement and the limiting criterion. Criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve. trim and centre of gravity are given in the results table. draft amidships. However.

Hydromax will continue doing this until the limiting KG value has been iterated to within 0. If any of the criteria fail. Hydromax will lower the KG and try again. If this tolerance is not achieved in a certain number of iterations. However. rather than the heeling arm is constant). problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form – most commonly heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a moment. Also see: Convergence Error on page 146 in the Analysis Settings section. For example in the case where the heeling moment. the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements (where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement. In this case. run a large angle stability analysis and check the selected criteria. If the criteria pass. Hydromax will start with a set start KG value (e. Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessel‟s VCG.g. since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its definition within Hydromax. Page 97 . this is because they do not necessarily refer to the final KG and would be misleading. this can be done in the Batch Analysis. Hydromax will move on to the next displacement. Limiting KG Concepts Hydromax will iterate to a KG value that just passes all criteria you have specified in the criteria dialog. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax After a Limiting KG analysis has completed.1mm. the results in the Criteria results table display “Not Analysed”. Where these values are explicit in the criterion‟s definition in Hydromax. the correct values of displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. Hydromax will raise the KG value and try to make the criteria fail. 1 meter). If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the displacements and the corresponding limiting KG.

Hydromax must have at least one criterion that will improve by reducing the VCG. it is often required to specify a required TCG. Example calculations It is probably simplest to explain this functionality by means of an example. However. this is because when they are damaged the ballast or cargo is assumed to be totally lost from the vessel. the mass and CG of the intact vessel after deducting the masses of cargo or ballast in any tanks that will be damaged. This functionality has been in Hydromax for many years. which must therefore be offset. That is the specified displacement will be that of the intact vessel and that the resulting LCG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax When performing a Limiting KG analysis. Hydromax assumes that raising the VCG will make criteria more likely to fail and that reducing the VCG will make the criteria more likely to pass. 2. This is used to compute required TCG. Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks The set up of the Limiting KG analysis parameters has been modified to facilitate setting up the required TCG when calculating the Limiting KG for a damaged vessel where liquid cargo tanks initially carrying cargo or ballast water are damaged. If this method is selected Hydromax will look at the mass and CG of cargo or ballast in tanks which will be damaged during the analysis. The second option is for the used to specify the required TCG directly. This is because to perform a sensible search. In this case. Note that we are only concerned about the tanks that will be damaged and that initially contain cargo or ballast.e. Current loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks: This means that the currently selected Loadcase will be used to define the volume of cargo or ballast in tanks before damage is applied. Hydromax will evaluate any equilibriumbased criteria that are selected for testing and act accordingly. this should be zero). For Limiting KG calculations for a damaged vessel where some of the damaged tanks were initially non-empty. (Although seawater enters these damaged areas. at least one GZbased criterion must also be selected. Page 98 . this is not seen as an additional mass because damage is computed by the lost buoyancy method. the intact vessel is upright (zero heel). The second method was available in older versions of Hydromax and it is the first method that provides the additional functionality: 1. if only these types of criteria are selected. This is because under most circumstances. i. This is not necessarily the case for equilibrium-based criteria such as freeboard requirements or for GZ-based criteria such as Angle of maximum GZ. Note that all results and input data will be assumed to be for the intact vessel. If the vessel has an off-centre intact TCG. TCG and KG will also be for the intact vessel. Hydromax assumes that damaged tanks lose all liquid cargo or ballast that they may have been carrying and their buoyancy is lost from the vessel – analysis is done by the lost buoyancy method rather than the added mass method. this can be specified below (if the vessel is symmetrical and initially upright. however the specified displacement and CG corresponds to that of the intact vessel with damaged tanks empty.) Two methods of specifying the required TCG are possible. The tanks would generally provide a transverse moment that must be balanced by the mass of the vessel. Hydromax may have difficulty in finding a true limiting KG and specify convergence errors.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The following sample calculations demonstrate how the new Limiting KG options may be used. In this case we shall use free to trim.25m by the stern. This is done by defining a loadcase and switching to the intact mode to specify the tank filling levels. Use a loadcase to specify the initial quantities of fluids in tanks Setting the Displacements Secondly we need to define the displacement range we wish to calculate the Limiting KG for. This is done in the Displacements dialog: Displacement dialog Setting the Trim options We now need to specify the trim options we wish to use. A vessel with a port-side tank that are initially full will have this tank damaged. Initial tank loadings First we need to define how much cargo is in the tanks that will be damaged. the specified TCG is zero: Page 99 . Importantly we shall also specify that the current loadcase should be used to determine the required TCG and because the vessel is symmetrical. We wish to find the maximum VCG that the intact vessel may have in order to pass the selected stability criteria. Here we have specified that the tank is 80% full before the damage is applied. but with an initial vessel trim of 0.

We also need to determine which way we should heel the vessel and in doubt should try heeling the vessel in both directions to see which will give the worst result.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim and TCG specification Running the Analysis We now need to select the damage case to be evaluated. In this case large port-side tanks are to be damaged. Results from Limiting KG analysis Limiting KG results Validation of results The results can be validated by completing a Large Angle Stability analysis with the specified displacement and CG. these are filled significantly above the waterline so loss of ballast from these tanks will cause a list to Starboard. the stability criteria that need to be passed and a suitable range of heel angles to be computed to evaluate the criteria. so the analysis should be done in this direction. In this case the baseline (K) is at – 356. It must be remembered that these are KG results not VCG so when checking the VCG must be calculated.845mm Page 100 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Model baseline Computed VCG values We can now set up a loadcase for one of the displacements. it can be seen that (as expected) the stability criterion is passed with a very small margin. Remember that these are the intact vessel displacement and CG: Loadcase to check calculated Limiting KG When the analysis is run. Page 101 .

Page 102 . the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel and is also applied to the free-surface when calculating the reduction of waterplane area and inertia. either initial trim or specified LCG) Displacement. Choosing Floodable Length Select Floodable Length from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. select range Bulkhead location (if applicable) 1. The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN and Limiting KG analyses. This means that the vertical separation of CG and CB is accounted for in the trim balance. The Floodable Length may be computed for a range of displacements and compartment permeabilities. The results are presented as the maximum length of compartment plotted (or tabulated) against the longitudinal position of the compartment‟s centre.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Criterion is passed with a small margin Floodable Length The Floodable Length analysis allows you to calculate the longitudinal distribution of maximum length of compartments that can be flooded with the vessel still passing specified equilibrium criteria. see: Trim on page 142. The analysis is always carried out free-to-trim. Floodable Length Analysis Settings The initial conditions required for Floodable Length analysis are: Trim (free-to-trim. For information on Trim settings for Floodable Length Analysis. The permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. Traditionally the criterion of margin line immersion is used to compute the Floodable Length curve. The VCG must also be specified since the Floodable length analysis is very sensitive to accurate trim calculations. but the centre of gravity can either be specified directly in the Trim dialog or it is computed from the specified initial trim. select range and specify VCG Permeability.

Floodable Length Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage: no damage case may be selected as this is automatically defined by the analysis. The Intact condition is automatically selected and the Damage toolbar is disabled Criteria from the Analysis menu. Note that internally. select which criteria should be evaluated Criteria must be specified from the analysis menu. (The raw graph data can be accessed by double clicking the graph. All compartment standards up to the maximum specified will be plotted. Page 103 . These are used to compute the Floodable Lengths.) There are several graph plot options available in the Data | Data format dialog (when the floodable length graph is topmost). The vessel profile (centreline buttock) may also be displayed. Hydromax will treat the vessel sinking or the trim exceeding +/-89º as a criterion failure. Floodable Length results The results of the analysis are given in tabulated format at the stations defined in the Maxsurf Design Grid as well as graphical format. The tabulated data is linearly interpolated from the graphical data.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This permeability is unrelated to the permeability when defining compartments and is only used for floodable length calculations.

Vessel profile (shown in light grey) Floodable Length Bulkheads locations are specified in a table in the Input window. the following dialog will be displayed. This process may be visualised by turning on the display of the Hydromax sections. The vessel sinking or the criteria failing in the intact condition could cause this. If the analysis is unable to find a condition where the vessel passes the selected criteria. Floodable Length Concepts The analysis is performed by defining a flooded compartment. Page 104 . The graph updates in real time as you adjust the bulkhead locations so once you have calculated the floodable lengths. with the centre of the compartment at a section under investigation. The compartment is then moved progressively forward along the vessel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Floodable lengths graph options: Fix the y-axis so that it is the same scale as the x-axis. you can quickly adjust the bulkhead locations so that the vessel meets the required compartment standard. The length of this flooded compartment is increased section-by-section until one of the criteria is failed. Plot the different compartment standards up to a specified maximum value.

Longitudinal Strength Settings The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Distributed loads using the Loadcase window When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a specified waveform. Choosing Longitudinal Strength Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. See the Loadcase Longitudinally Distributed Loads section on page 45 for more details. Longitudinal Strength Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria. A trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of the load. it is recommended that a minimum of 100 sections be used for most situations. two extra columns appear in the Loadcase window. Longitudinal Strength Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window. These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Speed versus Accuracy The analysis will be both considerably more accurate and slower with a larger number of sections in the Hydromax model. The speed of the analysis can be increased quite considerably by increasing the allowable tolerances in the Edit | Preferences dialog. allowable shears and moments from Input window Page 105 .

allowable shear forces and bending moments are overlayed on the graph. buoyancy. Longitudinal Strength Results The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of mass. are given positive values. damage and non-buoyant volumes and grounding loads. Upward acting forces such as buoyancy and grounding reactions are given negative values. Grounding reaction Loas buoyancy due to damaged tanks and compartments and Non-Byoyant Volumes (NBV) Mass + Buoyancy + Grounding + Damage (and NBV) x Shear Force = NetLoad ( x)dx AftSt Page 106 . the net load. shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull are computed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note that Hydromax will always use the fluid simulation method when performing a longitudinal strength analysis. From these. If defined. Downward acting masses. Name of Curve Mass Buoyancy Grounding Damage/NBV Net Load Shear Description Vessel mass / unit length Buoyancy distribution / unit length = immersed cross sectional area * density. Damaged tanks and compartments reduce the buoyancy. such as normal masses in the loadcase or lost buoyancy due to damage. For more information on how Hydromax can take fluids in tanks into account see Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148.

Also see: Page 107 . You can display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results sub-menu under the Window menu. at a range of capacities. Note Make sure you have defined sections in your model in Maxsurf. Without this. alternatively double-clicking in the graph will give you all the data as plotted. any point loads in the loadcase will be applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load. This data is also displayed in the “Long. Tank Calibrations Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in the Compartment window. Strength” tab in the Results window. Tanks are taken into account as distributed loads as well based on their mass distribution that is calculated from the tank sections. Tank Calibration Input Tank definitions and boundaries Permeability Fluid type The above data are specified in the Compartment and Sounding Pipes definition tables. the longitudinal strength table will be empty. Note: For the purposes of strength calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Moment Bending Moment = Allowable shear and moment x ShearForce( x)dx AftSt Allowable shear and bending moments as specified in the input Modulus table. Choosing Tank Calibrations Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Relative Density of Tank Fluids on page 59 Tank Calibration Settings Trim range. You may chose which columns are displayed using the Data Format dialog: Page 108 . angle or trim measurement Heel angle range Which items to be calibrated: Analysis | Calibration options dialog Analysis | Calibration options dialog: Compartments and Non-buoyant volumes may be calibrated if desired Tank Calibration Environment Options Calibration intervals – see Sounding Pipes Tank Calibration Results If a range of heel (and / or trim) angles have been defined. you may select which are displayed in the results table and graph using the Results toolbar. If Compartments or Non-buoyant volumes have also been calibrated. they are shown in grey.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the Window | Graphs menu each tank can be selected for display in the Graph window. the wetted surface area of the tank and the free-surface area. These include the tank inertias about their centre of gravity. For more information see Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference. Tank calibration calculations A number of data are calculated for the tanks. Page 109 .

will exacerbate this phenomenon): Figure a Zero trim Figure b Trim by bow. The following notation is used: x longitudinal-axis y transverse-axis z vertical axis Calculation of tank inertias. the top of the tank is only included when the tank is pressed-full. near-full tank Figure a shows a sounding pipe that extends the whole height of the tank. see below (increasing the trim. nearempty tank Figure c Trim by bow.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The wetted surface area of the tank includes only that part of the tank that is wet by the fluid in it at the corresponding sounding level. Here all tank filling levels will have a valid sounding. Figure b shows the vessel with (bow down) trim and a small amount of fluid in the tank. there are ranges of tank volumes that will show the same sounding/ullage. The inertias are in fact “volume inertias” in that they are not multiplied by the density of the fluid in the tank. which is effectively what is happening in the figures below). (The same effect can occur if the sounding pipe does not reach the lowest or highest point in the tank – remember that this can change as the vessel trims. Page 110 . where M and dm indicate an integration over the volume of fluid in the tank. Sounding pipes and tank calibration results If the vessel is trimmed. These points occur when the tank is near empty or near full. with the vessel at zero trim. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels which all show zero sounding.

… . 85%.9%. 100%} of the full capacity of the tank. 10%. 99. see below. To specify the interval. if the sounding pipe extends above or below the maximum and minimum fluid levels. if the 1% level does not intersect the sounding pipe. Tank calibrations for severely trimmed vessels. “F”. you will get readings which have the same capacity but different soundings. 0.1%.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Figure c shows the vessel with the same trim. 5%. “Max” or a numerical value in the “Calibration Spacing” column of the Sounding Pipe definition table. only – {100%} In automatic mode the increments along the sounding pipe are chosen depending on the height of the tank to give approximately 20 soundings. type “A”. this gives intervals of {0%.0m). sounding pipe does not cover full range of tank capacities. 5%. 90%. 98% and 100% full levels do not intersect the sounding pipe. Sounding intervals The sounding intervals for the calibration table may be: Automatic. 85%. In the results out lined in red. 100%} Max. Similarly if the 97. Alternatively you may specify a precise sounding step (this is the step along the sounding pipe. Page 111 .9%. the sounding will be given as zero. User defined Fredyn – {0%.9%. giving soundings of 0. Finally a “Fredyn” sounding list may be generated. the sounding pipe is in the middle of the tank and extends from the bottom to the top of the tank.1%.0m but different capacities – the fluid levels are all above the top of the sounding pipe.0m but different capacities (the last but one calibration point is the fluid remaining in the tank when the sounding is 0. In a similar way. 95%. … . not the vertical step of the tank level). the last two results are below the bottom of the sounding pipe. In the blue results. 95%. The profile view of the tank in the trimmed vessel is shown on the right. 98% and 100% full. 10%. These effects will be noted in the tank calibration results if they are extreme enough since Hydromax always adds calibrations at 1%. 90%.9%. 0. 97. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels that all show maximum sounding. 99. there are four results which all have a sounding of 1. but with the tank nearly full. the maximum sounding will be displayed.

this sounding pipe starts at the vessel zero point and projects vertically upwards. Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Define the tanks in the Compartment definition window then choose the MARPOL analysis mode. Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog (see below). Page 112 . 95. 90. 10. Fredyn sounding pipe The tank calibration intervals required by Fredyn are (as a percentage of full capacity) {0. MARPOL Oil Outflow MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC.117(52). If only the 100% full values are required “Max” may be specified for the calibratin spacing.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Backward compatibility with earlier versions of Hydromax If the model is saved with Fredyn calibration intervals and is loaded into an earlier version of Hydromax.9}. 99. Fredyn calibration intervals The tank calibrations normally follow regular length intervals along the sounding pipe. 5. A common sounding pipe is used for “Fredyn tanks”.0. all soundings for “Fredyn tanks” use this common sounding pipe.0.0. ….0.141(54). you must change the calibration intervals to Automatic or a positive value otherwise Hydromax will crash during the tank calibration analysis. MARPOL Options dialog (Analysis menu) The MARPOL options dialog allows the user to select the tanks that should be included in the analysis for both MARPOL Regulations. To use these intervals.1. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC. type “Fredyn” in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Definition table: Specification of Fredyn calibration intervals Note that Compartments and non-buoyant volumes are always calibrated at the calibration intervals required by Fredyn.

For this reason the data input and results are combined in one table. When you select a Regulation with the radio buttons. Further each tank has the option for being included in the computation for outflow due to side. for this reason the user should carefully review the values generated by Hydromax. MARPOL Tank measurements If the “Update all tank measurements” check-box is ticked. The table is in the MARPOL tab of the Results window: Page 113 . Due to the nature of some of the measurements.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank selection for the MARPOL analysis The list of selected tanks is different for both Regulations since Regulation 12A is for fuel tanks and Regulation 23 applies to cargo tanks. MARPOL Results and additional Input Because the calculations of the MARPOL analysis are very quick they are done in realtime as input data is edited by the user. the corresponding list of selected tanks will be displayed in the grid. it is not possible to guarantee that Hydromax will be 100% accurate in interpreting the measurements as defined in the MARPOL documents. then Hydromax will attempt to measure the required tank parameters (over-writing any that have previously been manually edited).and bottom-damage.

the default being 1000kg/m3. the nominal fuel oil density is specified by the user. the deadweight is computed as the difference in displacements between the deepest loadline draft and the lightship draft (or may be specified directly). If a parameter is modified. it is possible to revert back to the Hydromax calculated value or default by typing „H‟ or double clicking: Reverting back to default/calculated parameter values For full definitions of the parameters. Regulation 23 calculates the nominal oil density as the deadweight divided by the total tank capacity. The deepest loadline draft is taken as the DWL draft. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax MARPOL calculations: Results Window The table is split into three parts: main Hull parameters. Parameters that can be edited are shown in black. Page 114 . Furthermore the inert gas overpressure may be specified for Regulation 23. For Regulation 12A. Main Hull Parameters Different parameters are shown depending on the Regulation being used. those which cannot are shown in grey. which affects bottomdamage outflow in Regulation 12A. the lightship draft is used to calculate the deadweight for Regulation 23 and the partial draft. oil outflow due to Side damage and finally oil outflow due to Bottom damage.

These should be carefully checked since these can be difficult for Hydromax to automatically measure in some cases.damage. the MARPOL data may be saved. then bottomdamage tanks. listing first side-damage tanks.216(82) can be applied to both dry cargo and passenger ships whilst MSC. Page 115 . it is also saved in the main .and bottom. Probabilistic Damage IMO Probabilistic damage Hydromax support for Probabilistic damage according to both IMO MSC.19(58) is applicable to dry cargo vessels only. For tanks which are to be considered for both side. For full definitions of the parameters. It is advisable to copy any manually edited data to a spreadsheet or text file if you only want to update the measurements of some tanks.216(82) and IMO MSC.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Main hull parameters required for each Regulation Tank Parameters Calculations are shown further down.hmd file when the design is saved. The user-editable tank parameters are the main dimensions which affect the probability of damage. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments Saving With the MARPOL sheet active. Note: Hydromax will overwrite user-edited tank parameters! Remember that any data that you change manually will be overwritten by Hydromax if the “Update all tank measurements” option is ticked in the MARPOL options dialog. MSC. these values are linked so it is only necessary to edit them in one location.19(58) .

Flow through – Typical Use-case The following section shows how the probabilistic damage analysis might typically be used. a p-factor can be calculated. The attained subdivision index can then be compared with a required subdivision index to see if the vessel achieves a sufficiently high degree of safety. User defines the damage zones they wish to consider in the Damage window | Zones table Once 2 and 3 have been completed. Maxsurf model is loaded as normal User defines (first selecting File | New to open the Probabilistic damage data table) other ship data required for the probabilistic damage analysis in the Damage window | Global table. It is useful to have this interaction because if the p Factor is too large for a particular zone. When the Zones have been defined the user can then define which tanks are damaged in each zone in the Damage window | Zone damage table. Hydromax runs a large angle stability analysis for each combination of loadcase and damage and collates the results to calculate the attained index. The user can then perform the probabilistic damage analysis. The vessel‟s attained subdivision index is the sum of the products of the pfactors with their corresponding s-factors. This is then compared with the required index. The GZ curves are calculated for a large number of different damage conditions and several load cases.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage – Principles Essentially the probabilistic damage analysis performs a number of large angle stability analyses and uses the IMO criterion to determine an s-factor that depends on certain parameters of the GZ curve. the p-factors Damage window | p Factors table are automatically calculated and displayed as the zone data is modified. A first pass at this can be automatically generated using the Case | Extent of damage command. User defines the bulkheads and deck values for single and groups of adjacent zones. The log file parameters may be specified in the Edit | Preferences dialog: Page 116 . For each condition. The same log file is used for each analysis so it is important to either change the name or copy the file at the end of the analysis if the results are to be kept. the user may decide to refine the zone arrangement. During the analysis each GZ curve and details on the evaluation of the s-factor may be saved in a log file.

Page 117 . The probabilistic damage input sheets are in the damage window after the normal damage condition sheet.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage result logging options (Edit | Preferences) Finding the probabilistic damage input sheets.

For this reason it is also possible to save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file (in a similar way to the other Hydromax input data). Chose the Probabilistic Damage analysis mode from the pull-down or Analysis menu: Page 118 .hmd file.1 and if the file were read into an earlier version of Hydromax and saved. these data would be lost. Bring one of the probabilistic damage tables to the front to enable File menu items Probabilistic damage – Inputs In this section we shall look at the input parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis. most of the settings that are applicable to the Large Angle Stability analysis are also applicable to the Probabilistic Damage Analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A Probabilistic Damage toolbar button is available in the Windows toolbar which will take the user back to the last used probabilistic damage input table: Probabilistic damage – Saving input parameters The probabilistic damage data is saved in the . ensure that one of the probabilistic damage data sheets in the Damage window is on top. Settings for Probabilistic damage GZ curve calculation Since the analysis essentially consists of a large number of GZ curve calculations. To load or save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file. However this is new to version 14.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Selecting Probabilistic Damage anlysis mode

Once you have selected the probabilistic damage analysis mode, you can define the heel angle range and trim settings to be used as well as any environmental parameters such as waveform (as well as the fluid analysis method to be used). During probabilistic damage analysis, it is possible to check the vessel heeling to both port and starboard. This is useful if the tanks contain ballast or cargo and it is uncertain in which direction the vessel will list when damaged (or indeed the vessel may list to different directions depending on the loadcase and damage). Hydromax will calculate the GZ curve in both directions and, if the criteria can be evaluated in both directions, the lowest s-factor will be taken. If the criteria can only be evaluated in one direction, then this value for the s-factor will be taken. It is recommended to evaluate at least one negative heel angle and the direction of heel should correspond to the side of the vessel that is being damaged (see below):

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Heel angle specification (as per Large Angle Stability)

Use either fixed trim or free to trim to loadcase. s-factor calculation

The s-factors are calculated by stability criteria. The Probailistic damage analysis has its own set of criteria (though the same parent criteria are also available in the large angle stability analysis criteria). When the analysis mode has been set to Proababilistic Damage, you will see the criteria that are used for this analysis. The number of parent criteria is reduced to only those which can calculate the s-factor. Also some “Default” criteria are supplied, you can add or modify these should you so desire. When running the analysis, Hydromax will look at the probabilistic criteria that have been selected and warn you if there are any problems.

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Probabilistic Damage Criteria Manager with Parent and Default criteria

**The following rules should be observed when defining the probabilistic damage criteria:
**

As with the normal criteria manager, changes made to the parent (bold) criteria are not saved. If you need to modify any of the criteria you should make your own copies of the parent criteria A set of Default criteria are provided – these can be modified and changes will be saved. Only one criterion should be selected and it should correspond to the IMO Resolution being used. (Strictly, you may have up to one of each MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) criteria selected and Hydromax will automatically use the appropriate one – according to the selected Resolution in the Global sheet – but for clarity, it is probably best practive to just have a single criterion selected.) The criteria should always be selected for Damage analysis. Hydromax will automatically update some of the criteria parameters according to corresponding parameters in the probabilistic damage setup. However it is still good practice to review criteria parameters before starting the analysis. This is particularly true for the MSC.216(82) Resolution where the vessel type and heeling moments must be defined correctly. The criteria window can be closed with either of the close buttons.

For further information on how the s-factors are calculated and the different parameters, please refer to the Criteria Help section for the appropriate criteria (and heeling arms).

Main parameters and calculation of required subdivision index

The other parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis are defined in the last four tables in the Damage window:

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Additional tables in the Damage window define the remaining Probabilistic damage input data

Depending on the selected IMO Resolution, different rows and columns will be displayed in the tables; both MSC.216(82) and MSC.19(58) are provided, A.265 VIII is not included. Tool tips have been added to provide a more detailed explanation of the input parameters and also the options available.

Tool tips for Global data sheet Global table

This table is used to define the main parameters for the probabilistic damage anlysis as well as provide some intermediate calculations. Input data are shown in black whilst results are shown in grey. Depending on the Resolution and vessel type, some rows may be hidden.

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Global table – MSC.216(82) Dry Cargo vessel and Passenger vessel

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Global table – MSC.19(58) Dry Cargo

Row Resolution -MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) Deepest subdivision draft (summer loadline) Loadcase Partial subdivision draft Loadcase Light service draft Loadcase Type -- Cargo or Passenger Lifeboat capacity N_1 Permitted max. num. of persons in excess of N_1: N_2 max. moulded breadth at or below deepest subdivision draft: B max. number of adjacent zones to consider min. p-Factor of damage to consider

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Description IMO Resolution to be used.

Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the deepest subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the partial subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the light subdivision draft. not required for MSC.19(58). Vessle type. not required for MSC.19(58). Number of persons for whom lifeboats are provided. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Number of persons inclusing officers and crew that the vessel is permitted to carry in excess of N_1. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Parameter not currently used.

Specifies the upper limit of the number of adjacent zones that should be damaged. If you wish to limit the analysis by p-factor only, then specify the number of zones here (see min p-factor below). Specifies the minimum p-factor for which an analysis should be performed. The maximum a condition can contribute to the

this can speed up the analysis. Fore and aft extents of the zone boundaries are input by the user and the length and centre of the zone is automatically calculated. the boundaries of adjacent zones are automatically updated if required. with a number of complete rows selected) to add or delete zones. It is normal to begin the Zone numbering at the stern. If the vessel trim exceeds this value. Conditions whose pfactor is below this minimum will not be evaluated. use Edit | Add or Delete (or Ctrl+A or Del key. Specifies which side of the vessel will be damaged (when automatically generating the zone damage).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax max. The heel direction in the Heel setup should correspond to the side of the vessel being damaged. If you wish the analysis to be purely limited by the number of adjacent zones (see above) then specify a small negative value. The subdivision length is taken as the limits of the length defined by the zones. This can speed up the analysis. The extent of damage is assumed to go all the way to the centreline but you may specify which side of the vessel is damaged. If the the p-factor is very small the contribution to the attained index will be negligible and there is little point in carrying out the analysis. but the option to start from the bow is also allowed in Hydromax The next table (Zones) allows for the definition of the longitudinal damage zones. As for other similar tables. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. vertical extent of damage Damaged side -Starboard or Port Zone 1 located at bow or stern? Longitudinal Zone definition attained index is the p-factor. This will ensure that conditions with zero p-factor will still be evaluated. trim angle to consider Limit vertical extent of damage? max. as are the zone names. then the s-factor will be taken as zero (irrespective of the GZ curve). Damage zones defined by fwd and aft boundaries Zones may be shown in the drawing views (this display option is only available in Probabilistic Damage analysis mode): Page 125 .

The last column shows whether a particular condition will be tested (if the p-factor is sufficiently large and the maximum number of adjacent zones is not exceeded).19(58) made in the Global table. This will help the user to determine the maximum number of adjacent zones that should be analysed. the probability of damaging a longitudinal zone or group of adjacent zones is calculated as well as the cumulative probability. it probably makes more sense to limit the analysis by specifying a desired minimum p-factor rather than a number of adjacent zones. A subtotal for the pfactor for a given number of adjacent zones is given as well as a cumulative to total for all the p-factors. P-Factors From the damage zone calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage zones (stbd. This can easily be done by specifying the maximum number of adjacent zones as the number of zones defined. In practice. The columns displayed depends on the choice of Resolution: MSC.216(82) or MSC. side damage) shown in pink. Page 126 . All combinations of adjacent zones are calculated at this point.

This is because where the side-shell or bulkhead is not parallel to the centerline. the inner limit being at a distance side-shell offset minus b from the centreline. The b-values are defined not only for each individual zone. measured from the side-shell. If no b-values are specified. it is also possible to define sub-zones due to longitudinal bulkheads (transverse subdivision) and decks (vertical subdivision). the zone will be damaged up to (but not across) the centreline. Note that there is one extra r-factor than the number of bulkheads – this represents the probability of damaging to the centerline. there is a special way of calculating the b-value and this needs to be done for each set of adjacent zones. but also for groups of adjacent zones. The r-factors are then calculated for each of the b-values that have been defined. Page 127 . The side-shell offset value defaults to the maximum halfbeam of the vessel. I have followed IMO notation by specifying the penetration depth from the side-shell (rather than specifying the offset from the centerline). A column is provided for the user to specify the side-shell offset (from the centerline) and this is used only to draw the transverse extents of the damage zone.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax p-factor calculations for individual and groups of zones Sub zones due to transverse and vertical subdivision As well as the main longitudinal subdivision. The sum of all r-factors should be unity (a check is provided). Transverse sub-zone definition and R-Factors Transverse sub-zone definition allows the user to limit the damage penetration to a certain distance into the vessel towards the centerline.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Longitudinal bulkhead definition and corresponding r-factors Page 128 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Visualisation of zones and sub-zones: sub-zones shown dashed. This can also be seen in rendered view to quite effectively visualize the damage. The currently selected zone or sub-zone is shown in bold as well as any damage for that zone. selected zone shown in bold. Clicking in a zone or sub-zone in the table highlights the zone graphically Page 129 .

Loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. Page 130 . Note that during the full probabilistic damage analysis. The loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. the v-factors will be automatically recalculated for the loadcase under consideration. Thus we introduce the concept of the currently selected Loadcase for the displayed vfactors.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Vertical sub-zone definition and V-Factors Similarly decks may be defined to create vertical subdivision of the zones. but these also depend on the draft of the vessel. The corresponding v-factors are calculated.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Deck definition and corresponding v-factors Page 131 .

Once the automatic damage is defined. but has been added for convenience should the user wish to manually run large angle stability analyses for the same damage cases.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage The zone damage sheet specifies which tanks are damaged for a given zone. Definition of whats damaged in each zone Once the zones are defined the user can select the Case | Extent of damage command and this will automatically generate the zone damage according to which tanks lie within the zone boundaries. Damage cases will be added up to the maximum number of adjacent zones specified in the Global tab. From this Hydromax can work out what should be damaged for any combination of adjacent damaged zones. Automatic definition of damage for each zone Additionally the user may automatically generate damage cases for the Zone damage that has been defined damage configurations within the maximum number of adjacent zones range and above the minimum p-factor will be added. This stage is not required for the probabilistic analysis. The Damage window must be on top for this command to work. if the pfactor exceeds the minimum values specified (again in the Global tab). Page 132 . this can be modified by the user should this prove to be necessary (or it can be defined from scratch by the user). The “Zone damage” tab of the Damage window must be on top to enable this command.

but those of the currently selected zone. The zone is selected by clicking in the corresponding column of the Zone Damage table.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Automatic creation of damage cases using the damage defined for each zone Visualization of zone damage When in Probabilistic damage analysis mode the damaged tanks and compartments displayed are not those of the current damage case. Page 133 .

the permeability values are copied from the Compartment definition.216(82) Regulation 7-3.2: MSC. but these can be overridden (for the probabilistic damage analysis only) for each draft if desired. Page 134 .216(82) Regulation 7-3. but they are not updated if they are then changed in the Compartment definition window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage visualisation Probabilistic damage permeabilities It is possible to define different permeabilities to be used for tanks and compartments for the different load conditions – as required for “cargo compartments” in MSC. the permeabilities are the same as the damage permeabilities given in the Compartment Definition table. When you generate new probabilistic damage data. By default.2 Thess values are defined in the Permeabilities table in the Probabilistic Damage window.

the permeability used for any damaged tanks is shown: Probabilistic damage – Analysis Once the analysis parameter data has been defined. it is worth checking that the heel direction (Analysis | Heel) is correct and also check that the s-factor calculation parameters are corerect (Analysis | Criteria) Pre-run checks When trying to run the probabilistic damage analysis. The following checks are made: Page 135 . Hydromax will make several checks to see if the analysis parameters have been correctly set up.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the log file. These are not exhaustive tests but should pick up critical errors.

Note that only one criterion may be selected. this is reported and the s-factor given as zero. The required index is also shown as well as pass/fail status.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax That loadcases that have been specified exist That the vessel type is correct in the criteria (if MSC. excessive trim occur or the large angle stability analysis fail to converge. If Hydromax finds no criteria selected but a suitable one is available (but unselected) then it will prompt the user to use this one: Analysis Large angle stability analyses are computed for each combination of loadcase and zone damage up to either the specified maximum number of adjacent zones or the minimum specified p-factor. Basic data pertinent to calculation of the s-factor is also presented as well as a total Attained subdivision index at the bottom of the table. Page 136 .216(82) is being used) That the correct s-factor criterion has been selected. Should the vessel sink.

Hydromax will flash and beep to indicate that the analysis has been completed. floating the hull to equilibrium conditions where required. If you have stopped the analysis. Hydromax will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced. you can resume calculation by selecting Resume Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic analysis results Probabilistic damage – Future developments The probabilistic damage analysis is still under development and new features will be added in subsequent versions of Hydromax. Calculations may be interrupted at any time by selecting Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. If you are not interested in seeing the progress of the analysis. The start. switch to a table window and maximise it to speed up the analysis. Should the analysis take longer than about 45 seconds. The drawing of the vessel at each step of the analysis can be quite time consuming. The logfile location is specified in the Preferences dialog: Page 137 . pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar: Probabilistic damage Log file All the intermediate results. including all the GZ results and criteria evaluation for each loadcase / damage case combination are logged during the analysis. There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is finished. choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified. Starting and Stopping Analyses To start the analysis. You can also switch application by clicking in the window of any background program. Hydromax will redraw the contents of the windows to display the current hull position for each iteration.

Limiting KG and KN calculations can be made for each damage condition. For the Limiting KG analysis you may also check the Limiting KG for each criterion individually. The aim of the batch processing function is to: Page 138 . With a single command. There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to both port and starboard.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic Damage analysis logging Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Concepts Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG. Further. Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases. Facilitate time consuming Limiting KG analyses. Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation. Facilitate testing with heel to port and starboard for vessels with asymmetric loading and/or damage conditions (or hulls).e. key points. i. file name etc. criteria and analysis parameters for the required analyses have been set up. Before you can perform a Batch Analysis it is recommended that you run a number of Analyses manually to check whether the Model has been defined correctly and all Analysis Settings and Environment conditions have been set correctly. Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs. Batch Analysis – Procedures Once the loadcases.: analysis parameters. Enable Limiting KG and KN analyses to be performed automatically for all damage cases. the Batch Analysis is started Analysis | Start Batch Analysis Page 139 . especially where results for all individual criteria are required. damage cases.

Also see: Reporting on page 155. heel angles etc. The report is stored in memory and if you have insufficient memory.5 m: first select the Large Angle Stability analysis type from the analysis menu set the trim to Fixed trim and 0. Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other. Batch Analysis Settings Analysis parameters such as trim. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. graphs and tables is avoided. it is not possible to go back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax. Warning: Sending the results to the Report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system resources. For large batch analysis. Once the analysis is complete. if you want the Large Angle Stability to use a fixed trim of 0. only the results of the final analysis will be stored in Hydromax.5 m then select Analysis | Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Environment Options (Criteria) Any Analysis Environment Options specified prior to a Batch Analysis will be used during the Batch Analysis. Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of these are also output to the text file. For example. are set in the normal way for each analysis type included in the Batch analysis. At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether the results of a batch analysis should go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file. it is advisable not to include the results in the report. This is because time consuming redrawing of the design windows. you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis. Page 140 . Batch Analysis Results Before analysis starts. the batch analysis will automatically create a Word document. When the option for Sending the results to Word is selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Batch analysis runs all combination of loadcases and damage cases. Tip: Under most operating systems. see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. minimising Hydromax can reduce the time required to perform the calculations. it is possible that your computer will become very slow to respond and under some circumstances with certain operating systems even cause Hydromax to crash. this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further processing.

In hydrostatic analysis. Combinations of both are also possible. Heel and Draft.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Settings In the previous sections opening and preparing a model in Hydromax was discussed together with descriptions of the different Analysis types. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore the required LCG and TCG) are calculated from the underwater hullshape at each draft. or it can match a specified displacement and centre of gravity by varying the heel. trim and draft by varying the displacement and centre of gravity. For an equilibrium analysis all degrees of freedom are derived from the centre of gravity and Displacement. For example: it can match a specified heel. there are three degrees of freedom: Trim. Hydromax matches the trim. The heel steps must be positive. trim and draft. In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be specified. For example: the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and stepping through a series of fixed drafts. Heel The Heel dialog from the analysis menu is used to specify the range of heel angles to be used for Large Angle Stability. heel and draft with the vessel‟s mass and centre of gravity or visa versa. because vertical centre of gravity is also important and also because most of the variables are coupled. The following table is a very simplified representation of the degrees of freedom and their weight counterpart: Degree of Freedom Draft Trim Heel Weight Displacement Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG) Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG) 1 2 3 In fact it is a rather more complicated situation than that suggested by the table above. This way the volume of the displaced hull matches the required mass and the centres of gravity and buoyancy lie one above the other in a vertical line. This section will describe the following analysis settings: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified Conditions Permeability Hydromax will allow specification of only those analysis settings that apply to the currently selected analysis type. Page 141 . KN and Limiting KG analyses. If only one set of steps is required. The various analysis types and settings can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a fixed value and deriving the others from the analysis. simply put 0 in the other steps. Heel angles between 180 and +180 may be specified.

it is advisable to test at least one negative heel angle. Hydromax will not do any curve fitting and linear interpolation will be used. etc. to ensure that the equilibrium angle is identified.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses always use a free trimming (and free heeling) analysis so that there is no trimming (or heeling) moment applied to the vessel at the final equilibrium. damage. (For the Specified Condition analysis.. If all the heel angle intervals are 10 deg or less. Note: The heel angles to be used are specified independently for each analysis mode. It is possible that the GZ at zero heel may be very slightly positive (due to asymmetry or rounding error) for this reason. If any step is greater than 10 deg. Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics. Hydromax will fit a cubic spline to the GZ curve and use this to interpolate for values between the tested heel angles. key points. Page 142 . then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to port to find the most pessimistic condition. the trim may be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog. loading. Note: For the angle of equilibrium to be found (when analysing criteria). Select Trim in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog. It is good practise to start the heel range at an angle of approximately -30°.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape. Large Angle Stability. This is to allow roll back angle criteria to be evaluated correctly. Floodable Length and Tank Calibrations. at say -5 degrees. it is essential that the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. Trim For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is free-to-trim or has fixed trim. and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel direction. KN Analysis Limiting KG. This can be a source of apparent differences in the results from the different analyses.

Specification of different trim options is dependent on the type of analysis currently selected. This applies to all analyses that carry out a large angle stability-type analysis (Large Angle Stability. In this case. For the Floodable Length analysis. the vessel is not free-totrim as it heels. 3. this analysis will tend to overestimate ship stability properties such as GZ. Free to trim to loadcase – the analysis trims the vessel to the CG specified in the loadcase. specified initial trim. Fixed trim – the analysis is carried out at a fixed. intact vessel trim will be the same. Although considerably faster. Page 143 . but the LCG will be different. Floodable Length. Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value Using this method. This is for when a range of displacements is used for the analysis: Limiting KG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Essentially there are three options for trim: 1. Fixed trim (KN and Limiting KG analyses only). KN. The TCG and VCG are specified directly. This option is available for all analyses that have a loadcase: Large Angle Stability. intact vessel floats at a specified trim. Probabilistic Damage. Thus. for each displacement. so cannot be specified. for each displacement. KN. Equilibrium. the VCG is being found by the analysis. In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. Limiting KG. the LCB of the intact vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed. The LCG is calculated using this value and the VCG. Probabilistic Damage) as well as Upright Hydrostatics and Tank Calibrations 2. This it is possible to specify the LCG either directly or so that the upright. the upright. Calculations at each heel angle of the large angle stability analysis are then done free-to-trim using the derived LCG and VCG. heel is not considered thus TCG cannot be specified. all three components of the CG need to be know. Free to trim to specified CG – this is again free-to-trim but the CG is specified in the dialog. The analysis is carried out with the specified fixed trim. Longitudinal Strength.

because the analysis is very sensitive to trim.) In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. but the upright vessel trim will be different. any liquid cargo should also be removed from the model. Thus. VCG for trim balance The VCG. the VCG will be used to calculate the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. the VCG will only have an effect if the analysis is free-to-trim. Draft The draft dialog is used to specify the range of drafts to be used for the Upright hydrostatics analysis. This LCG is then used to compute the free-to-trim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed. For KN analysis. Current Loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks (los mass during analysis) Finally. It will be used to determine the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. (As the trim angle increases the longitudinal movement of the centre of gravity due to its vertical position becomes more important. for each displacement. For Floodable Length calculations. a specified constant LCG is maintained for each displacement. This is especially useful when evaluating the Limiting KG of a damaged vessel that had cargo or ballast in tanks which are subsequently damaged. Also. for the Limiting KG analysis. It will also be used to improve the accuracy of the KN results. so to be consistent. measured from the vertical zero datum (not necessarily KG). Page 144 . may be specified. the VCG is needed to provide an accurate balance of the trimming moment. the LCG will be the same.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value With this method. TCG value The TCG option allows you to specify an off-centreline centre of gravity for Limiting KG and KN calculations. the actual VCG is used and the VCG input field will state “not applicable”. there is an option to automatically adjust the displacement and LCG of the vessel so that liquid cargo of damaged tanks is removed from the model. The TCG can be either specified directly or calculated from the tank loadings defined in the current loadcase. This is for consistency with the lost buoyancy analysis method: the buoyancy contribution of damaged tanks is removed from the model. which are always calculated free-to-trim.

and/or calculating the weights of fluids in tanks in the loadcase. This permeability is unrelated to compartment. The Permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. Individual Permeability of Tanks and Compartments The individual permeability of each compartment (or tank) is specified in the Compartment definition table. Page 145 . tank or non-buoyant volume permeability and is only used for floodable length calculations. The permeabilities may be sorted by double clicking on the permeability column heading. tank and non-buoyant volume permeabilities are used when calculating the effects of damage. and is specified in terms of KG – i.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The VCG specified in the draft dialog is used for the calculation of upright stability characteristics such as GMt only. from the baseline. Limiting KG and Floodable Length calculations. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel. Specified Conditions The specified conditions analysis setting is only available for the specified condition analysis. The last set of permeabilities used will be recalled from the registry when Hydromax is started. Displacement The displacement dialog is used to specify the range of displacements to be used for the KN. Permeability The Permeabilities are set in a table in the Permeability dialog. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or delete rows from the table. The compartment. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum. See Specified Conditions on page 90.e.

Also convergence may be poor if the trim angle approaches 90 . If convergence to within the acceptable error has not been achieved. Convergence Error Hydromax will attempt to solve most analysis to within the ideal tolerance.00001% and 0. Hydromax will display a warning. calculation tolerances can be set.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Also see: Modelling Compartments on page 51 Tolerances In the Edit | Preferences dialog. This defines the tolerances that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish iteration during Large Angle Stability Equilibrium analysis Specified conditions KN calculations Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Ideal tolerances can range between 0. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog will be displayed. If this is not achieved within a certain number of iterations. Note This warning is not displayed during batch analysis. but the acceptable error has been achieved.0%. Acceptable tolerances can range from 0.001% to 1.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). One of the most common causes of non-convergence is if the specified displacement exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. Acceptable tolerances should always be greater than Ideal tolerances. The warning is also not shown when accessing Hydromax from a VBA macro using the Automation interface Page 146 . Hydromax will continue. instead the warning is written in the batch file. The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current iteration are provided for information.

heel angle curve. The analysis will also fail to converge if the trim becomes excessive. producing a highly non-linear waterplane area vs. you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing the analysis. this limit is increased to +/-89º.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If there is a convergence problem. If the search is unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time. If you choose to continue. All analyses other than Floodable Length will fail if the trim exceeds +/-45º. in the case of the Floodable Length analysis. This problem can sometimes occur if the specified displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom. but will allow you the option of continuing the search. which appears not to be due to sinking. Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely. then the following dialog will be displayed. draft plot. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give you a warning. this section describes the analysis environment options available in Hydromax in more detail: Page 147 . trim angle curve or moment to heel vs. Other causes of non-convergence can be non-linear moment to trim vs. Note: There are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the maximum allowable number of iterations. Analysis Environment Options The analysis can be performed in different environments.

3.2 Free surface effects should be considered whenever the filling level in a tank is less than 98% of full condition. i. You may set different limits for each of the different free surface moment types other than “User Specified”. if the filling level is less than or equal to the lower limit or the filling level is greater than or equal to the upper limit. filling level is 98% or above. In addition it is possible to ignore the free surface moment if the VCG correction for a single tank. This functionality is accessed through the Analysis | Fluids dialog: Fluid Analysis dialog If the corrected the VCG method is used. (see IMO IS Code) 3. Free surface effects need not be considered where a tank is nominally full .3.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluids Analysis Methods Density Waveform Grounding Stability Criteria Damage Fluids Analysis Methods Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of simulating any fluids contained in tanks or compartments. The upper limit is clearly stated by IMO as 98%. It is possible to specify the range of filling levels for which free surface moments should be applied in the loadcase. due to the free surface moment is less than a specified amount. the FSM is applied if the filling level is within the exclusive range specified. This requires that a nominal minimum displacement be specified. (see IMO IS Code) Page 148 .10 The usual remainder of liquids in empty tanks need not be taken into account in calculating the corrections. This is applicable to the “IMO” free surface moment type only. but the code provides some flexibility in interpretation for the lower limit. Selecting Fluids in the Analysis menu opens the Fluids Analysis dialog. the free surface moment will be zero.e. provided that the total of such residual liquids does not constitute a significant free surface effect.e.i.3.

as it corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification societies worldwide. not those from the actual second moment of area of the inclined tank waterplane. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim. see Working with Loadcases on page 38. This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design. Note Most documented stability criteria assume that the corrected VCG method has been used. There are several FSM types available. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum free surface moments of the tanks. the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells for corrected fluid VCG. For more information. calculated in the upright condition. authorities have not adopted this more accurate calculation of the shift in centre of gravity due to fluid movement.01m min where M fs is the free surface moment of the tank in question and is the ship displacement at the minimum mean service draft of the ship without cargo. Note that the upright free surface moments as shown in the loadcase are used. Fluid analysis method: Use corrected VCG Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the upright hull (zero trim and zero heel). need not be included in the correction: M fs / min 0. Although the computational potential is available. Note: Tank Calibration results In the tank calibration results the free-surface moment based on the transverse second moment of area of the tank waterplane is given for all filling levels. In this case.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 3. This is because the actual free surface moment to be used to determine the VCG in a loadcase depends on the method being used and also the heel angle in question (in the case of the IMO correction). Note: Calculation of GM GM values always use the centre of gravity corrected for free surface moments even if the “simulate fluid” option has been chosen. Page 149 . The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free surface is calculated by summing the free surface moment of all the tanks and dividing by the total vessel displacement (the free surface moment to be applied is specified in the loadcase).3.9 Small tanks which satisfy the following condition using the values of "k" corresponding to an angle of inclination of 30°. if required. with 10% stores and minimum water ballast.

When fluid simulation method is selected. or non-dimensional relative density (specific gravity). free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are normally not displayed in the loadcase.e. however the results are significantly more accurate. The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the analysis. Density of Fluids Where necessary. KG. or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly different from the upright case (i. the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog. Conversions are performed automatically. and GM. filled to the volume specified in the loadcase. Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the specified capacity. When fluid simulation is used in one of these analyses. Specific gravity is calculated relative to a fluid having a density of 1000. Large Angle Stability. The new LCG. Density using the current units. Otherwise the complete tank will be shown. or wide shallow tanks). density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of volume. may be specified. the actual fluid level in the tank. fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a loadcase. i. When selected. It is particularly useful at high angles of heel or trim.e. The penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer. will be displayed in the View window.0 kg/m3. VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in the calculation of GZ. This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. Page 150 . Alternatively. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle being analysed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluid analysis method: Simulate fluid movement This method is a faithful simulation of the static movement of the centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. tall narrow tanks. Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength (the Longitudinal Strength analysis always uses fluid simulation).

you would change the density of "Sea Water" to 1000. if you wanted to carry out an analysis for a vessel in fresh water. fluid code. The name and code for the first entry. All other entries may be edited (the same restrictions area applied as when editing through the Density dialog).0 kg/m3. blue components and are probably much more easily edited in the Density dialog. Thus. The four columns.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax By assigning a code to the fluid you can easily apply the fluid type in the Compartment Definitions table. Note that only the custom fluids may have their names changed.0250 1. Saving and Loading Densities Densities listed in the Density table can be saved and loaded using the File menu. each separated by a tab character. colour respectively (the colour is in hexadecimal for the red. Sea Water Water Ballast Fresh Water Diesel Fuel Oil Lube Oil ANS Crude Gasoline leaded S B W D F L C G 1. Tank calibrations results and loading conditions will also be updated. specific gravity.9443 0. Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated automatically when the density of the fluid is changed in the Density dialog. it is necessary to change the density of this fluid.8883 0. There is one row for each of the 18 fluid types.0000 0. Note The vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming the vessel is floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water".0250 1.8400 0. These are fluid name. green.7499 6D00FF00FF00 6D006D00FF00 FF005F005F00 FF005B00FF00 6D00FF006D00 7F007F007F00 3F003F003F00 FF0000007F00 Page 151 . Sea Water. cannot be changed (any changes made will be ignored). If the vessel is to float in a different fluid. The densities file may be edited manually if desired. This is the first fluid in the list printed in bold font.9200 0.

7471 0.0000 1.0000 1.9130 1.8203 0. wave height and phase offset can be specified.607 √ Wavelength [m] This is the metric equivalent of the US Naval standard wave height: Wave height [ft] = 1. or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform.0000 1.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Unlead. JFA MTBE Gasoil Slops Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Custom 5 U J M GO SL C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 0.8524 0. you can always reset the densities to their default values in the Densities dialog. the waveheight reduces linearly with wavelength given by the formula: Wave height = 0. To specify a waveform. If a waveform is specified.075875 Wavelength Page 152 .7499 0. select the Waveform command from the Analysis menu: The water plane can be specified as flat. Also see: Windows Registry on page 16 Waveform Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as well as for a level water plane. The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL. the wavelength. Gas.0000 1.1 √ Wavelength [ft] For short waves of wavelength less than 64m. If the wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a value in metres of: Wave height [m] = 0.0000 FF007F007F00 7F007F00FF00 F600FA00C900 FF00FF007F00 FF006F00FF00 D6000300D600 D600D6000300 0300D600D600 D60003000300 DF00DF00DF00 If you make an error.

Grounding Grounding is an additional analysis environment option for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal Strength analysis. Page 153 . the wave height may be modified. For example. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable length. a phase offset of 0. both of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL. the sum of the buoyancy and the grounding reactions equals the loadcase displacement.5. The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the DWL. Remember that KG is measured in the upright vessel reference frame (normal to the baseline). The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull accordingly. The value of KG. this will bring the effective centres of gravity and the centre of buoyancy in line vertically. this will be reflected in the results: The displacement column will show the total grounding reaction force in brackets. with a wavelength equal to the waterline length. as a proportion of the wavelength. GMt and GMl are all calculated to the effective centre of gravity. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Once a wavelength has been set. whilst GMt and GMl are the actual vertical separation of the metacentres above the centre of gravity in the trimmed reference frame normal to the sea surface. will give a single wave crest at amidships. The effective centre of gravity will be modified by the grounding reactions – a mass is effectively being removed from the vessel. Damage can be specified concurrently with grounding. If the vessel touches one or both grounding points.

The vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point. For more information see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163. When two grounding points are entered. Damage You can specify whether the model is to be analysed in intact or damaged condition using the Analysis Toolbar. the second grounding point is the aft grounding point. Note: Fixed zero heel during grounding analysis The equilibrium analysis will only consider the longitudinal balance of moments.e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull and therefore constrain the heel to zero. The length of the grounding points is only used when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis and not to determine the pivot point. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be seen as the “environment of authorities” that the ship will be deployed in. i. Also see: Damage Case Definition on page 71 Page 154 . the first point (edit boxes on the left) must refer to the forward grounding point. the vessel will not be balanced in heel and the vessel will remain upright (zero heel) even if the transverse metacentric height is less than zero.

if the option to Stream the report to Word has been selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog a word document is automatically generated after a Batch Analysis. Select the option to send the results to the report window if you require Graphs. After you have run an analysis a Word document is created and opened automatically.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Output Hydromax will produce the following output data: Hydromax model visualisation Result data tables per analysis Graphs per analysis Report o o o Report window Streamed directly to a Word document Report Templates In this section: Reporting Copying Select View from Analysis Data Saving the Hydromax Design Exporting Reporting Hydromax has several options to do your reporting: Batch Analysis text file and/or streaming to Report window Automatically generate a report in the Report Window for each analysis run Automatically Streaming results to Word Manually copy and paste tables and graphs from the Results Window and Graph Window The most efficient method depends on the number of loadcases and damage cases you have to analyse and the output you require. it is recommended to use batch analysis. Form small number of loadcases and damage cases you can do a manual copy and paste of the results into a report. Additionally. Streaming results to Word It is possible to stream the Analysis results directly to Word. To do this: Edit | Preferences Select the option to Send the Report to Word This will send the Report document to Word instead of to the Report window. This also applies to Batch Analysis. Batch Analysis results saved as text files do not include graphs. For large numbers of cases. This then allows you to validate the results at the same time. Page 155 .

With report templates. Simply tick the box „Use Word Templating‟. This feature is only available when sending reports to Microsoft Word. See the dialog box below as an example: The Word Template File specified should be in . tables.dot Page 156 . etc) is placed. instead of just dumping the results of each analysis into a Word document.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Report Templates Hydromax offers the ability to customise reports through a Report Template. Please note that Send Report to Word must be enabled before you can enable this option.dot or . or you can build your own template. You can use one of the sample templates provided. This gives you much greater control over how the analysis results are output than with the normal Send Report to Word option and allows you to customise your own report template document. it is possible to use template keywords to specify where in the document the analysis results go and where each element of the output (such as graph. Two Report Templates have been included to get you started: StabilityBooklet. To turn on Report Templating you need to select it in the Preferences dialog box.dotx/dotm (for Word 2007) format and will be used when creating any future reports.

On Windows XP/Server 2003 the default location for the report templates is: C:\Program Files\Maxsurf 14\Report Templates\ On Windows Vista.dot and then use it customise their own report template. copying and pasting data to and from Excel spreadsheets allows you to use the full spreadsheet capabilities of Excel on your Hydromax model. Data Format on page 207 for tips on how to specify what should be displayed and customise how to display tables (vertical or horizontal).dot This document is a good starting point for creating your own customised template. Page 157 . HMReportTemplate. These allow you to easily add and remove the analysis keyword blocks. Both of these templates contain macros and toolbar items to make life easier when you design your own template. Copying & Printing A range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as spreadsheets and word processors is provided through copy and paste functions. It contains an introduction to how templates are created and configured. Note: To edit a report template in Microsoft Word you will need to start Microsoft Word and then open the template directly using the File menu. It also includes all of the basic analysis blocks and variables to get you started. The location of these report templates varies depending on which operating system you are using. This data transfer works both ways: e. due to new security changes we‟ve had to move this to an alternative location that every user has write access to – so you can find it at: C:\Users\Public\Documents\Maxsurf\Maxsurf14\Report Templates\ Tips: See: Copying Tables on page 158 for tips on how to include the table header in a copy paste to for example Excel Graph Formatting on page 190 for tips on how to format your graph prior to copying to another application. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window. Copying Hull Views Pictures of the hull in the View windows may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy command from the Edit menu. Users can start with StabilityBootlet.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This is an example of a complete Stability Booklet template – this document is the default Word Template file for new users and is recommend for users wanting to quickly create a Stability Booklet. Simply double-clicking on a template document opens up a new document based on the template (which is not what you want).g.

otherwise click the Cancel button. additionally. but the selection will be reflected in the printout. To do this. Print Preview The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. it is possible to ensure that the graph is plotted to a sensible scale so that measurements can be made directly from the graph. You will be asked if you want to print the graph to scale or to fill the page: The scale used will depend on the length units that are currently selected. Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page Setup command from the File menu.0cm. The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button. Page 158 . Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes. Simply select a cell. 2. then the graph will be plotted so that the grid lines are at one of the following intervals (If the current length units are imperial then similar intervals will be used. Note: Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed. To print the page click the Print button. will also copy the column headings. If these are metric. row.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report window. The printing may be forced to be black and white. column. Choose the Colours button and select the options required.5cm.0cm. Graph Printing to Scale When printing the graph. 5. use Ctrl+I. Printing Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed. but they will be inches instead of cm.): 1. Views of the hull in the View window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf. hold the shift key down when selecting the print command for the graph. 2. range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command or Ctrl+C. The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work.0cm. a bitmap of the current image may be saved by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I Copying Tables Tables may be copied to the clipboard. To copy a simple bitmap image of the view at the current resolution. Simply bring the window you wish to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu.

may also be saved separately. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax.g. In the View window the hull will be displayed in the selected position. it is recommended to also save the Hydromax input files separately. The Select View from Data can also be used to display the Curve of Areas graph for each intermediate analysis stage. Saving the Hydromax Design Hydromax design data may be saved Saving in a Hydromax Design File Saving Input Files separately Saving in a Hydromax Design File To save the design in one file. Page 159 .hmd file with the same name as the design. compartment definition. ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File menu. the data in the individual tables such as loadcases.. For example: the angle of downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Stability table in the results window. each step from the analysis can be visualised when the analysis has completed. E. key points etc. selecting the column at the required heel angle and select “Select View From Data” in the Display menu.hmd file automatically every time you press Save from any of the design windows. The Hydromax data is saved in a .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Exporting a Bitmap Image You may also export a bitmap of the rendered perspective view with the File | Export | Bitmap Image command. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307. This can also be done for Upright Hydrostatics and the different wave phase calculations for an Equilibrium analysis in a waveform. see Graph type on page 189. damage cases. This gives the option of loading common data into different design files. for comparing the characteristics of vessels which have only minor differences in hull shape and identical tank layouts and loadcases. Saving Input Files separately In addition to saving all the data together. Note Although all Hydromax model data is saved in the . Select View from Analysis Data For most analyses.

you can save it in a file on disk. the data generated may be saved as a text file. This allows the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or with any other hull. select Save Compartment Definition from the File menu. Saving Results to a File Once you have performed an analysis. bring the Input window to the front and choose the compartment definition table. meaning that they can be read directly into spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells. Excel or other programs. bring the Input window to the front and choose the required input table. Exporting The data export function in Hydromax is similar to Maxsurf. The Results files are saved as tab delimited text. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. Some Hydromax-specific export features are described below. select Save from the File menu. ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and choose Save Load Case from the File Menu. To save the data. Saving Input Window Tables To save a input window table to a file.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Saving Loadcases to a File Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet. Saving Damage Cases to a File Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage Cases As from the file menu. Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window. Page 160 . Select Save or Save As from the File Menu. Saving Compartment Definitions to a File To save a compartment definition to a file. ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the table containing the data you wish to save. Selecting this option saves all the loads displayed in the current tab in the Loadcase window. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be done in Word. To save the loadcase table.

In addition. a major change to the Hydromax file structure was made. All key points will become downflooding points in the version 8 file and any tank sounding pipe information will be lost.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data export dialog in Hydromax. Exporting the Model to Hydromax Version 8. Note: The layer name is the same as the compartment name. Page 161 .0 can be exported using the File | Export menu so that it is compatible with Hydromax version 8. For more information on data export of DXF and IGES. Hydromax models created in versions greater than version 8. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer. DXF export Contains all lines displayed in the active design window as closed poly-lines.0 After Hydromax version 8. each tank.0. please see the “Output of Data” section in the Maxsurf manual. so it is important to have unique compartment names. This export function is particularly useful to export tank arrangement drawings.

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explanation of terms and definitions See also: Appendix B: Criteria file format Appendix C: Criteria Help Appendix D: Specific Criteria Criteria Concepts Hydromax includes a wide range of template criteria (or: parent criteria) as well as predefined custom criteria such as IMO. Stability criteria are evaluated for Large Angle Stability. only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are displayed in the Results table). However. import and edit their criteria sets. A fixed sub-set of criteria is used for the Floodable length analysis and these criteria are accessed in their own. Users may save. i.: if the intact case is being computed. Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations. Criteria Results. These criteria are listed using in a tree control on the left-hand side of the criteria dialog. explanation how to work with the Hydromax criteria dialog to create your own custom set of criteria. Criteria Procedures. Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). Page 163 . predefined custom criteria and user created custom criteria. This makes it quick and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria parameters. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added. This section describes how this list of criteria can be divided up in to Parent heeling arms. Criteria List Overview Hydromax includes a wide range of criteria. only the criteria that are selected for evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Chapter 4 Stability Criteria This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. The following sections will be discussed: Criteria Concepts. Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. an overview of what capabilities Hydromax offers with regards to stability criteria. i. It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email. only criteria that are applicable are added to the report. DNV. Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria. Although all criteria are displayed in the criteria table. simplified dialog. ISO and more. This ensures that the correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the lower right hand corner of the dialog.e. Parent criteria. HSC. similarly for the damage cases.e. This section also explains how all criteria can be divided up into two different criteria types: equilibrium and GZ curve based. and after a Large Angle Stability analysis only GZ based criteria are added to the report. criteria evaluation results Nomenclature.

Those heeling moment are then used in a number of different criteria. the roll-back angle required for the IMO IS code Severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. Page 164 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria tree list Parent Calculations This folder contains calculations that are required for certain criteria parameters. The Hydromax criteria list contains Parent Heeling Arms that can be copied into a custom criteria folder and then cross-referenced into the stability criteria. Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog Parent Heeling Arms In most cases a ship is subject to specific heeling moments. These calculations may be referenced in certain criteria. for example.

since the heeling arm is defined in one place. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved. it is only displayed once in the GZ graph and not duplicated for each criterion that uses it. delete or add criteria to the Parent Criteria group. This is explained in the section on Working with Criteria on page 168. they are displayed in bold text in the Criteria list. these are the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived. Parent Criteria The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in Hydromax. Most specific criteria are locked. Custom Criteria You can create your own set of criteria in the tree as well. To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria. those that are not locked require your ship design data to be input. Predefined Custom Criteria A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. This is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the “My custom criteria” group or any other group you create. Furthermore some newer heeling arm criteria are only available for cross-referenced heeling arms and a greater variety of heeling arm definitions are available through cross-referencing. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The advantage of using cross-referenced Heeling Arms is that a heeling arm is now defined (and edited) in only one place. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. This folder can be found in the Maxsurf root directory: c:\program files\Maxsurf. Page 165 . Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename. they will always revert to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. This ensures that all criteria which use a specific heeling arm use exactly the same heeling arm. Also see Working with Criteria Libraries on page 172 Appendix D: Specific Criteriaon page 291. This is because the parent criteria are intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria. Another benefit is that.

Note that there is some cross-over between the criteria types. For a criterion to be used in the search for maximum VCG in the Limiting KG analysis.g. it must be a LAS criterion. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve. This can be measured from the GZ curve by looking for an up-crossing of the GZ=0 axis. etc. All folders must have unique names (even if the parent folders have different names). create separate folders to store related criteria. Combined GZ heeling arm criterion. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. trim angle. notably angle of equilibrium heel.g. The equilibrium heel angle is also a fundamental output of the Equilibrium analysis. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. For example. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. metacentric height. A check is also made to ensure that any selected Equilibrium criteria are passed. but they cannot be included directly in the search algorithm. The same also applies for GMt. once in the form of an Equilibrium criterion and again as a Large Angle Stability criterion. e. These icons are derived from the parent criterion type. Equilibrium criterion. You will notice that different icons are used to differentiate between different types of criteria. The different types of criteria and their icons are described below: Folder icon. This is because it is only this type of criteria that is more likely to pass as VCG is reduced.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Types of criteria There are two fundamental types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. GZ area criterion GZ criterion with heeling arm GZ area criterion with heeling arm GZ criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations GZ area criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations Combined GZ criterion. For this reason. STIX. See next: Criteria Procedures Page 166 . These criteria are evaluated only after an equilibrium analysis has been performed. These criteria make measurements from the GZ curved obtained from a Large Angle Stability analysis. GZ criterion. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve including a heeling arm. etc. e. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. Weather criterion. area under GZ curve between specified limits. angle of maximum GZ. freeboard measurements. in some criteria sets some criteria are included twice.

To bring up the Criteria dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Procedures This section describes how to work with the stability criteria dialog. select Criteria from the Analysis menu: or use the Criteria button. . in the analysis toolbar: Page 167 . Starting the Criteria dialog Resizing the Criteria dialog Working with Criteria Editing Criteria Working with Criteria Libraries Starting the Criteria dialog The criteria dialog allows you to select which criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and change their parameters.

Note that if. Working with Criteria In the Concepts section it was explained how the criteria are listed in a tree list. in the unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog. Page 168 . This section explains how to create and customise your own criteria from the Parent Heeling Arms and Criteria provided with Hydromax. Resizing the Criteria dialog The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. The criteria command will bring up the Floodable Length Criteria dialog when the Floodable Length analysis is selected. This behaviour is the same as all other resizing dialogs. the dialog size can be reset by holding down the “Shift” key when you open the dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria dialog is shown below: Note: The Floodable Length analysis uses its own set of criteria.

this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. Click on the “-” sign to collapse the group (or double click on it). Locking is used for criteria belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed. Page 169 . Click on an item’s name or icon to select it Once selected. click again on the on the item’s name to edit its name Some short-cut keys for the tree list: Tree control smart keys Alt+Keypad * Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad + Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad Up Arrow Down Arrow Space Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu Function Recursively expands the current group completely Expands the current group Collapses the current group Move one item up tree Move one item down tree Include criterion for analysis Several options are available by right-clicking on a criterion or criterion group: Criterion right-click menu Include for Analysis: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated. Damage: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for damaged conditions. If a criterion is locked. Lock: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Using the Criteria Tree List The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer: Click on the “+” sign to expand the folder (or double click on it). Intact: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for intact conditions.

As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be made and the original will not be deleted. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. right-click on the group and choose Include for Analysis from the menu. If there are groups with the same name. To select an entire group. Defining new Custom Criteria and Groups New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Add Group: Add a new criterion group. Alternatively. Delete: Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and sub-groups within the group. you can hold down the CTRL-key while moving the criteria you will copy the criteria. all criteria that should be in a group of that name will end up in the first one and none in the second. If duplicate group names exit. in which case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not). then clicking again in the label. Paste: Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location Rename: Renames the criterion or group. Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the right-click context menu (see above). This may also be done by selecting the label. Moving Criteria Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the left-mousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the right-click context menu (see above). Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on your mouse. Cut: Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. Copying criteria You can use the Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu to copy and paste criteria. Editing Criteria The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the top-right of the dialog: Page 170 . This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. Selecting the Criteria for Analysis Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion. then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results. By holding down the Ctrl button a copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion. Copy: Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names.

have a grey background. Check Boxes in Criteria Properties Section of Criteria Dialog There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on their context. However. use the File | Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before making any changes in the Criteria dialog. for example. In other cases. Edit the parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree. Please note that the criteria are updated as you change their data and that there is no “Cancel” function for this dialog. click on the criterion‟s name in the tree and the criterion‟s parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. at least one must be selected. the check boxes act as radio buttons and only one may be selected. The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold. or click the dialog‟s Close button. The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a criterion parameter. those which cannot be edited. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion: In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually exclusive. where the items are mutually exclusive. If in doubt.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criterion details table To edit the parameters for a specific criterion. This occurs. with the “Value of GMt at” criterion: Page 171 .

Intact criteria are only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments or tanks in the damage case). Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated. Working with Criteria Libraries It is possible to load and save the criteria.hcr. which consists of the Parent criteria and a “My Custom Criteria” group. A third option which is not yet implemented is WOD (Water on deck) this checkbox has no effect. you will be prompted to locate a criteria file: You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the default criteria. If this file cannot be found. By default this is c:\program files\Maxsurf\ Hydromax Criteria Library. Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting the required comparison from a combo-box in the criterion row of the details table: Description Shall be greater than Shall not be less than Shall be less than Shall not be greater than Damage and Intact Symbol > ≥ < ≤ Logical test Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). for example. whereas another may state “Shall not be less than…”. built into Hydromax are not saved. Page 172 . Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called: “Hydromax Criteria Library. The parent criteria. For example one criterion may state “Shall be greater than…”. These options may either be set using the right-click menu or by ticking the appropriate boxes in the bottom of the dialog: Intact and Damage tick-boxes. Default Criteria Library File When starting.hcr” from the directory in which the Hydromax program resides. only the criteria that you create or import will be saved. GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria: Criterion Pass/Fail Test There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included.

all criteria are still available. The default criteria library will be over-written with the new criteria so if you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria library.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The default criteria library will be automatically updated every time the criteria dialog is closed. Page 173 . Importing Criteria and Specific Criteria Files New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them – choose Import Criteria from the File menu. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. Saving Criteria It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file. or Ctrl select to select multiple files in the Open Hydromax Criteria dialog. it is important to ensure that the group names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. This can be useful when you are defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining criteria sets for different vessels. Even if you loaded an alternative file. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. If this does occur. the imported criteria will be found in the original groups. not in the new groups. updates will be saved in the default criteria library. That way. See Saving Criteria below. either overwriting the existing one or creating a new one. so if you want to save any further changes you will have to resave as described above. you must save them in a new file first. Further updates will. A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. Note that when keeping your existing criteria. however. This will simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file. when at a later stage you need to re-analyse the project. continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that was opened when Hydromax was first started. Note It is good practise to save the criteria file with the project in the project folder. You can import several criteria files in one go using Shift. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing criteria: If you choose “Yes” your existing criteria will be kept. if you choose “No”. all existing criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you are opening.

angle of equilibrium.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria File Format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . Criteria Results After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. This allows you to edit criteria parameters or selected criteria and re-evaluate using the existing analysis results. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. etc. criteria are evaluated and the results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window.hcr. This is normally due to an insufficient range of heel angle having been used. Criteria Results Table The tested criteria are listed one above the other. Criteria can also be re-evaluated without having to redo the analysis when “Close and Recalculate” is selected in the criteria dialog. Chose the Display | Data Format command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed: Page 174 . Values that could not be calculated.g. Intermediate values are displayed. have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. Editing this file will also allow you to add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your criteria. After calculation the relevant criteria are also added to the Report. Results may be displayed in “Verbose” or “Compact” format (see above).: angle of vanishing stability. e. The typical format of the file is given in the following file: c:\Program Files\Maxsurf\\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp. The format for the results table and the report are specified separately.. The file is a normal PC text file.html.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Stability criteria results window: compact format Stability criteria results window: verbose format Page 175 .

only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch file. Note: The metacentre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed directly from the vessel‟s hydrostatic properties (i. the third graph shows the GZ curve with a heeling arm overlayed. freeboard measurements. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. water-plane inertia and immersed volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. Page 176 . are not added to the Report (although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table). metacentric height. trim angle. There are two distinct types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis.e. Definitions of GZ curve features Some typical GZ curves are shown below. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon.e. Criteria that are not relevant. angle of maximum GZ. etc. area under GZ curve between specified limits. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Report and Batch Processing As noted earlier. For example damage criteria during intact analysis or Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis are not added to the report. This gives an accurate result that is not dependent on the heel angles and intervals tested during the analysis. Also see Reporting on page 155 Batch Analysis on page 138 Nomenclature This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria. etc. For example. any criteria that have a “not analysed” result. i.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Typical GZ curve Unusual GZ curve with double peak Page 177 .

this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight cabin.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed GZ Definitions The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve: Angle of vanishing stability Angle of vanishing stability with heeling arm curve Downflooding angle Equilibrium angle Equilibrium angle with heeling arm curve First peak in GZ curve The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with negative slope. In some cases. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs. The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at which a downflooding point becomes immersed. The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has positive slope. Page 178 . The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve and where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has negative slope. the GZ curve may have multiple peaks.

80665ms-2 Roll back angle The maximum slope of an initially horizontal. the heeling arm curves will have different shapes.e. the Gust Ratio is the ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the steady wind heeling arm. This is typically used to assess the effects of external heeling moments. i. combined effect of heel and trim. which is superimposed on the GZ curve. If a criterion uses a roll back angle. the resulting heel angle after the roll back has been applied is more negative than the original. flat deck at the resultant vessel heel and trim. the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater than 90° and less than -90°. centripetal effects of tuning. Commonly used in wind and weather criteria to account for the action of waves rolling the vessel into the wind. If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero. Used for some wind heeling criteria. Note that the centre of gravity used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright condition.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GML or GMT GZ Curve Heeling arm curve Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse metacentre and centre of gravity. The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative. the heeling arm is made zero. it is often necessary to calculate the GZ curve for negative angles of heel. Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum Positive angle at which the value of (GZ . not the slope of the GZ curve. rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle. which are applied to the vessel. Depending on the moment that they represent. Often a roll back angle is measured from some equilibrium position. if the cos function goes negative. 1998 CODATA recommended value for standard acceleration of gravity A negative heel angle change.heel arm) is a maximum Maximum GZ Maximum GZ above heeling arm curve Glossary The table below describes some commonly used terms: Angle of heel measured from upright. The location of the metacentre is computed from the water-plane inertia. Deck Slope / maximum slope Gust Ratio g = 9. The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against vessel heel angle A curve of heeling lever. passenger crowding. Page 179 . etc. These include the effects of wind.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

**Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
**

This chapter contains brief descriptions of the tools available in Hydromax:

Windows Toolbars Menus

Windows

Hydromax uses a range of graphical, tabular, graph and report windows.

View Window Loadcase Window Damage Window Input Window Results Window Graph Window Report Window

Assembly View and Property Sheet

An assembly view has been added to Hydromax, this makes it easier to control the visibility of individual tanks and surfaces. The Properties sheet can be used to change tank properties of the tank currently selected in the Assembly or design View.

View Window

The View window displays the hull, frame of reference, immersed sections of the hull and any compartments, and the centroids of gravity, buoyancy, and flotation. These positions are represented by: cb cg cf K centre of buoyancy centre of gravity centre of flotation location of keel (K) for KN during KN analysis

You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or the View toolbar. The Zoom, Shrink, Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. If a Perspective view is shown, you may also use the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions. You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility command from the Display menu. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained, one is used for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank calibration analysis is selected.

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If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out, it will display the hull shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current step of the analysis. After an analysis, the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window. The view of the tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes can be toggled between an outline view and a view of the sections.

Perspective view

In the perspective view, the model may be rendered.

The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised, especially when the hull shell is made transparent.

The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu, with further lighting options in the Render toolbar. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual for more information on the different rendering options available in perspective view.

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Note: Fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that is required from Hydromax. For this reason, it is best to turn off sections, and especially waterlines, when performing an analysis. You may then turn them on again after the analysis has completed. For fastest performance, e.g. when running in Batch mode, minimise the Hydromax window so that no redrawing occurs.

Loadcase Window

In the Loadcase window a spreadsheet table of all loads and tanks is displayed.

Using the tabs on the bottom of the window allow you to quickly browse through the different loadcases. Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank, heading or sub-total lines in the table. For more information see Working with Loadcases on page 38. The columns that are displayed may be selected using the Display | Data Format dialog.

Damage Window

The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in each damage case. There is always an Intact case, which cannot be edited, this is the default condition. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be defined as non-buoyant volumes.

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Input Window

The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered. The tables in the Input window contain the:

Compartment Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points Margin Line Points Modulus Points Bulkhead locations

The input window contains tabs on the bottom that allow you to quickly browse through the different input tables.

Compartment Definition

This table can be used to define the tanks and compartments in the Hydromax models. For more information see Modelling Compartments on page 51 in the Analysis Input section.

Sounding Pipes

This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. Default values are provided but these may be edited if necessary.

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Key Points

**There are several types of Key Points:
**

Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points

**Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle, which is used in criteria evaluation.
**

Margin Line Points

The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. If necessary, the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line).

Modulus Points

This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment during the longitudinal strength calculations.

Bulkheads

See Floodable Length Bulkheads on page 77. Results Window

The Results window contains ten tables, one for each of the different analysis types plus criteria results and key points results tables. When switching mode, the currently selected results table will change to reflect the current analysis mode. Note that results are never invalidated if analysis options are modified – it is up to the user to ensure that the results are recalculated as necessary.

Setting the Data Format

It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are displayed. To do this, choose Data Format from the Display menu.

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Items that are selected with a tick will be displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. or so that each draft is on a separate row. You may change the display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations. but are not displayed. select Data Format from the Display menu. Items that are not selected are still calculated during the analysis cycle. the data can be formatted so that each draft has a column of results. The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to Equilibrium or Specified condition. The data available for display depends on the analysis. To change the format. with Upright Hydrostatics. Key Points Data Result Window Key points data is calculated for Large Angle Stability. Equilibrium and Specified condition Analysis.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference A dialog similar to the one above will appear. For example. Page 186 . Data Layout Most analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the printed page. and select either the horizontal or vertical layout button.

the results can be displayed in verbose format. Page 187 . The results may be displayed in compact format: Alternatively. Criteria results are not displayed in this table after a Limiting KG analysis. where all the intermediate calculations are shown. by selecting the desired format in the Display | Data format dialog. The results of the criteria evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses. they will be evaluated during Large Angle Stability.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Stability Criteria Result Window If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu. Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses.

different graphs are available. Hydromax will automatically display the graph that displays the result of the current analysis when you select Graph from the Windows menu or press the toolbar button. Only the graphs that are applicable to the current analysis can be displayed. Upright Hydrostatics Analysis: Hydrostatics Curves of Form Curve of areas – different graph for each draft tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Large angle stability Analysis Righting Lever (GZ) Curve of areas – different graph for each heel angle tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Max steady heel angle Large angle stability (hydrostatic data other than GZ) Curves of Form Dynamic stability (GZ area) Equilibrium Analysis: Curve of areas Specified condition Analysis: Curve of areas KN Values Analysis: Cross curves (KN) Limiting KG Analysis: Limiting KG Floodable length Analysis: Floodable length Longitudinal strength Analysis: Longitudinal strength Curve of areas Tank Calibration One graph for each tank For many graphs you can select what is plotted and other options with the Display | Data Format dialog. Depending on the analysis mode.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Graph Window The Graph window displays graphs. which show the results of the current analysis. Page 188 . Graphs can be copied using the Edit | Copy command. Alternatively you can select a specific graph using the Windows | Graphs menu item.

Longitudinal Strength. as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be displayed. use the mouse to click anywhere on the curve. Page 189 . Hydromax will ignore the exact position you click on the curve to allow reading all related interpolated values along the black dashed line. Note: Because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees. Click anywhere on the dashed line and drag it with the mouse. The area is integrated from zero heel angle to the location of the graph slider. Interpolating Graph Data To display an interpolated value from one of the curves. Tip: You can use the Select View from Analysis Data option (page 159) to see the Curve of Areas for each heel angle and/or intermediate stage during the analysis. GZ Graph The GZ value. Curve of Areas. Note: In case multiple curves are plotted in the same graph you can switch between the curves by clicking on them.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of length. Area and corresponding heel angle can be measured by using the slider. Righting Lever (GZ curve). Floodable Length and Tank Capacities. These can all be displayed via the Graphs item in the Windows menu. Curves of Form. The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the curve name and co-ordinates of the mouse on the curve. the area is always given in units of length.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Graph type Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being performed.radians. the slider data is displayed at the bottom of the Graph window. These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics.

Especially in the case of the sectional area curve. Copying Graphs You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the Copy command or Ctrl+C. Page 190 . If you wish to prevent this curve fitting. add a heel angle interval of greater than 10˚ as the final step. Also see: Copying Tables on page 158. The View | Font command allows you to change the text size and font size.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note The lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium angle). Note that the picture is placed in the clipboard as a meta-file which can be resized in Word or Excel. a parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at the specified heel angles. Graph data The graphed data can be obtained by double clicking on the graph. this double click can be extremely helpful to export the analysis data to for example Excel fro further processing. Thus if you require the area between two limits. Curve fitting for GZ graph A curve fit will be performed if all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10˚. Since the graph data contains more data points than most tables in the results window. This can sometimes be useful if you expect a discontinuity in the GZ curve. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the calculated GZ points. If this is the case. Graph Formatting When you are in the Graph window you can use the View | Colours and lines dialog to change the colours of the curves in the graph as well as the background. you must subtract the area at the lower limit from the area at the higher limit. where there is no tabular data available.

Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before any analyses have been made. this will facilitate generating a table of contents and also allows you to re-format the various styles (or import a custom set of styles using the style organiser in Word). it is recommended that the report window be used only to accumulate the results. Report Window Hydromax contains a Report window. choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this paper size. once the tables have been placed into the report. inserted tables will be automatically formatted to fit the current page set up. these should be saved and opened in a word processor such as Microsoft Word or Open Office for formatting: set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses the same column widths. You can for example choose the landscape Page Setup prior to running an analysis to make the tables fit better. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set up. their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print set up. both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split. This window is used to create a progressive summary of the analyses that have been carried out. This is important because. Editing a Report The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view. so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables from being split). printed. the graph can be edited by right clicking on the graph and selecting “edit picture”. Page 191 . Copy and Paste. This report can be edited via Cut. copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word.).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note When the graph is pasted in Microsoft Word®. Use the Format | Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for the different levels of heading in the document. Once all the results have been gathered in the report window. As the built-in report window only has basic editing and formatting functionality. do the same for the graph widow. Underneath all of this you have your actual editing area. fonts etc. However. as well as a ruler showing you tab stops. indentation and margin widths. the File | Page setup command allows you to customise the page orientation and size you wish to use for reporting. saved to and recalled from a disk file. Report Window Page Setup When you are in the Report window. However.

but it is strongly recommended not to use any of the formatting commands in the Report window. in metric and in inches . The toolbar contains the following items: Font combo box Font Size combo box Bold Italic Underline Colour Left Justify Centre Justify Right Justify Bullet Use this to change the current font Use this to change the current font size Use this to toggle the Bold style Use this to toggle the Italic style Use this to toggle the Underline style Use this to set Text Colour Use this to set Left Justification Use this to set Centre Justification Use this to set Right Justification Use this to toggle Bullet Points The Ruler comes in two formats.the format you have displayed on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the Display menu to change this).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The information below is provided for reference. The format shown below is metric. Page 192 . or the section of text that is currently highlighted. The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings.

Normally. The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow. the new results will be appended to the end of the report which may then be resaved). simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler. This is useful if you wish to append an analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. (Load in the old report. To clear a tab position. Keyboard Support for Reports In addition to menu support. the tab command is then applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text. hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the left. perform the analyses. hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The Ruler allows you to set left. To move a tab position using the mouse. To create a decimal tab stop. simply click the left mouse button on the tab symbol on the ruler. To create a right tab stop. While the mouse button is depressed. The tab stops are very useful for creating columns and tables. centre. The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow. there are also several useful keystrokes that are available while editing the report. To create a left tab stop. The left tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right. Page 193 . However. The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. These are listed below for convenience: Ctrl+B Toggle Bold on/off Ctrl+U Toggle Underline on/off Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+Enter Position at the top of the report Position at the bottom of the report Insert a page break Opening and Saving the Report The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu commands with the report window highlighted. click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab positions. The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab marker. The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. and decimal tab stops. a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. To create a centre tab stop. drag the tab to the desired location and release the mouse button. click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. right.

by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it into the report at the desired location. Page 194 . You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tip of what the icon does. Ensure that the colors selected will be easily visible in the white background of the report view. the image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square.Delete Row | Sort Loadcase Rows – Move Loadcase/Tank Row up – Move Loadcase/Tank Row Down View Toolbar The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Zoom – Shrink – Pan – Home View – Rotate – Assembly window. Toolbars Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used functions. To overcome this problem. it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98). File Toolbar The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: New – Open – Save – Cut – Copy – Paste – Print Edit Toolbar The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Add Row . The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window. then copy it from Word back into the Hydromax report window. This is very easily done. paste the image into Microsoft Word first.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Pasting images into the report Sometimes.

– NBV – Tank Names – Tank Fluid Level – Tank Sections – Tank Outlines | Probabilistic Damage Zones * NBV = Non Buoyant Volume Page 195 . loadcase and damage case: Analysis Type – Current Loadcase – Current Damage Case The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands: Criteria (dialog) | Start Analysis – Pause Analysis – Resume Analysis | Update Tank Values in Loadcase The “Update Tank Values in Loadcase” is exactly the same as the menu command for “Recalculate Tanks and Compartments on page 206. Analysis Toolbar The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis. – Linked Negative Compartment. The Assembly window is not available in Hydromax.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The Rotate command is only available in the Perspective window. Window Toolbar Allows quick switching between commonly used windows: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan | Loadcase – Damage Case | Compartment – Downflooding – Margin Line – Modulus – Bulkheads | Results for Current Analysis – Criteria Results – Key Point Results | Graph – Report Design Grid Toolbar The Design Grid toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views Frame of Reference (always on) | Toggle Design Grid Visibility Design Grid | Design Grid Labels | Design Grid Tickmarks Visibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Sections – Datum Waterline – Waterlines | Key Points – Margin Line | Loadcase mass items | Tanks – Damaged Tanks – Compartments – Damaged Compart.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Edge VIsibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Hull Surface Edges – Internal Surface Edges – Feature Edges – Bonded Edges Render Toolbar Render – Render transparent – Toggle custom light 1 – Toggle custom light 2 – Toggle custom light 3 – Toggle custom light 4 – Customise light settings Report Toolbar Spool results to report View (extended) Toolbar Set Home View – Colour – Font – Preferences – Properties Design Grid Toolbar Display Frame of Reference (always on) – Display Design Grid – Show Grid – Show Labels – Show Ticks Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar Add surface areas to loadcase – Preferences | Heel – Trim – Draft – Displacement – Displacement – Specified Condition – Permiability – Fluid simulation – Densities – Waveform – Grounding – Batch Analysis Data Format – Units – Coefficients – Set to DWL – Set View from Data –Visibility Dialog – Show Single Section Page 196 .

When the Compartment Definition table is frontmost. Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current Maxsurf design. The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax. Save Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk. the New command will create a new loading condition. File Menu Edit Menu View Menu Case Menu Analysis Menu Display Menu Data Menu Window Menu Help Menu File Menu The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing. Import Allows import of file types other than Maxsurf design files Page 197 . New Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost. Menus The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax program.g: when the Loadcase Condition is the frontmost window. Select the design you wish to open. New creates a new compartment definition. e. Close The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window. the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to the frontmost input window. If a design is already open. Open When no design is open. click the Open button. Hydromax will ask whether you wish to save any changes. Save As Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new filename preventing the original file from being overwritten. selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list of available Maxsurf designs.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference This toolbar provides a number of buttons for commonly used commands in case you should wish to customise your toolbars.

Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part with one byouant component. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the layer name being the same as the compartment name. Any container parts with elements with negative effectiveness will be read in as tanks. Hydromax v8. Page 198 . Because the GHS file does not contain a full. To enable the export command. A full GHS model file may be imported directly into Hydromax for analysis. The DXF file will be displayed in the design views. chose Edit | Activate GHS export. GHS If you have a Hydrolink license. The buoyant hull part with the most sections is loaded from the GHS file. IGES exports the NURB surface data. interconneceted. bmp or png) file into the background of any of the Hydromax design views. Linked negative tanks are not supported in Hydromax. gif. tanks and compartments and key points are all exported. each tank.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference nuShallo Allows direct import of a nuShallo pan file. the geometry is locked: the tank geometry is locked and tanks cannot be added to the model. The hull. It is possible that this might cause problems for some models where the section through the hull at a certain location contains more than one closed contour. you may export the Hydromax model to a GHS geometry file. In subsequent versions of Hydromax we will add the capability to divide the main buoyant hull into different components. but will be removed in subsequent versions: Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part. so it is important to have unique compartment names). The full model including critical points. Export Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file formats such as: DXF or IGES DXF exports sections as closed poly-lines. The following limitations currently apply. GHS Allows direct import of a GHS geometry file. three-dimensional model of the hull. In addition. The buoyant hull is exported as a single part with a single buoyant component (Non-buoyant volumes are included in this part as components with negative effectiveness). See the Maxsurf manual for more information. Import Image Background Enables you to import an image file (jpg. All other cotainers are read in as tanks.0 file Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of Hydromax. Sail parts are ignored Import DXF Background Enables you to import a DXF file into Hydromax to use as construction lines. tanks and sounding pipes are read from the GHS file.

The most important part of the procedure is setting up the groups required in the mesh file. as this information is required for the export. To export use the File|Export|Fredyn… command. Before doing the Fredyn export ensure you have specified the desired trim and heel ranges. The following files will be generated . Page 199 . any number of groups may be added and for each group. hull form and compartment definitions into Fredyn input files.txt: Mesh file representing the current hull shape. This command is only available when the Perspective window is frontmost with rendering turned on.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Export Bitmap Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified resolution. After assigning the .out: Tank calibration results and compartment definitions . all with the name you specify in the “Fredyn Export XML” dialog. For more information on each of the fields in the table click on the Help button on the right hand side of the dialog. The Export will generate 3 files. Current criteria may be kept or discarded. the following dialog will appear: “Fredyn group definition” dialog This dialog is where the user will specify the values for the variables used to generate the mesh file that defines the geometry of the hull. Fredyn Hydromax is able to export data suitable for input into Fredyn. Fredyn mesh group definition When exporting from Hydromax to Fredyn you will be asked to name the . exporting Hydromax calibration results. and performed a tank calibration. Contours will be formed through the selected surfaces and then trimmed back to the bounding box.xml file and also the location to which it should be saved. In the group definition dialog. The groups are defined by selecting the surfaces to be measured and defining a boundary box that defines the limiting extents of the group. Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified Import Main Criteria Imports criteria from the selected criteria files.xml: Containing compartment definition .xml file name.

which have not been saved to disk. Copy The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows. see Density of Fluids on page 150. Cut Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data windows. It is good practice to save the criteria library with each project in a project folder. Page 200 . Save Prob Damage Criteria As As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria. Save Densities As Saves the Fluid densities table data. results tables and graph window. If you have any data or results. but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing windows or data windows. Exit Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows. input tables. Undo Undo may be used with desk accessories. The whole library may be saved by right clicking on the root “Criteria” branch. Load Densities Loads density table data previously saved from Hydromax – can be useful for synchronising the densities on several computers. Page Setup The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Save Main Criteria As Exports the current criteria set to the specified file. Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them before quitting. Edit Menu The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables. Rest Prob Damage Criteria to defaults Results the probabilistic damage criteria to their default values. including the design view. Import Prob Damage Criteria As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria. Print The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the screen. Note that a branch of the criteria tree may be saved in its own file by right-clicking on the branch folder in the Criteria dialog tree. this is not normally necessary as this is done after any major changes to the criteria definition.

Insert Row Insert a new row into the current table in the Report. Paste cannot be used in the View. margin line point etc.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Paste Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables. Table Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window. Graph or Results windows. Merge Cells Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report. If no rows are selected. Delete Cells Delete current cell. column or row or a range of cells. Cell Border Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report. Split Cell Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report. Sort Items Sorts the selected rows in the Loadcase window Page 201 .). otherwise all selected rows will be deleted. Show Grid Toggle table grid lines in the Report. the last row in the window will be deleted. Cell Shading Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report. or the Report window. Add The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables (Load. Delete The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables. Select All Selects the entire Report. Fill Down Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet. Row Positioning Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report. columns or rows in the Report. Insert New Table Create a new table in the Report. tank.

View Menu The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows. then select Set Home View from the View menu. Also see: Tolerances on page 146 Streaming results to Word on page 155. Preferences The Hydromax preferences dialog allows you to set your analysis tolerances (or: error values) and select the option to stream the report to a Microsoft Word document. Move Items Down Moves the selected rows down (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables. Home View Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size. Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available. Shrink.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Move Items Up Moves the selected rows up (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. and Pan to arrange the view. It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. Shrink Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows by a factor of two. Page 202 . which is a virtual trackball which lets you freely rotate a design in the Perspective view window. Pan Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window. Zoom The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen. Rotate Activates the Rotate command. Set Home View Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. To set the Home View. use Zoom.

Remember to always be careful when using colour. When Loadcase window is frontmost. Status Bar Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen. Graph.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Colours and lines The Colours and lines function allows you to set the colour and thickness of the lines. Colours for the loadcase items can be set. To change the colour click in the box and select a new colour from the palette. labels. Page 203 . See Loadcase Colour Formatting on page 44. Toolbar Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off. Loadcase. The item‟s current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog. The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report. Curve of Areas. and graphs. which may be used to view parameters of selected objects (such as tanks). select the item whose colour you wish to change. Assembly Show or hide the assembly tree view. Properties Displays the properties sheet. To Change the thickness select the thickness from the drop down list. and Results windows. It is very easy to get carried away with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with. In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues. Font Font command allows you to set the size and style of text. From the scrollable list.

Add Damage case Add another damage case Delete Damage case Delete the selected damage cases Edit Damage case Edit the properties of the selected damage case Extent of Damage Automatically finds the breached tanks and compartments due to a cuboid extent of damage (or in the case of Probabilisitic damage. See Working with Loadcases on page 38. number of Loadcases Specify the number of loadcase tabs – this requires a restart to activate the changes made. Create cases from Zone Damage Automatically creates damage cases based on the zones that have been defined for Probabilistic damage analysis.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Full Screen Maximises screen usage. It also contains commands to set the input data and analysis settings and environment options required for the current analysis. Analysis Menu The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. Loadcases are created. (This is only required if you want to manually recreate some or all of the Proabilistic damage analysis conditions. the zone or sub-zone).) Max. Case Menu Commands associated with the Loadcases and Damage cases Edit Loadcase Edit the properties of the current Loadcase (name and whether it is a loadcase or Loadgroup). temporary damage conditionas are created automatically. when running Probabilistic damage analysis. opened and closed through the file menu. Page 204 .

Fluids Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid Movement method when treating the fluid contained in slack tanks. free-to-trim to loadcase. This can be fixed trim. Density This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note: It is good practice when preparing to run analysis to work down the Analysis menu starting at the top and checking all of the settings and environment options. KN and Limiting KG analyses. Heel Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish Hydromax to step through. KG for the upright hydrostatics is also specified in this dialog. Specified Condition Allows you to specify Heel. Displacement The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values. Calibration Options Specify whether compartments and non-buoyant volumes should also be calibrated. The vertical centre of gravity to be used for KN and Floodable Length analyses is specified here. Waveform The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms. CG. Trim. See Density on page 150. Displacement and Draft for the Specified Condition analysis. Permeability The range of permeabilities used for the Floodable Length analysis are set using this command. Limiting KG and Floodable Length can be set using this command. free-to-trim specifying initial trim value and free-totrim specifying LCG position. Trim Allows the specification of the trimming mode to be used for the analysis. Separate ranges are used for Large Angle Stability. See Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148. Draft The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this command. Page 205 . MARPOL Options Select MARPOL Regulation and specify which tanks should be incuded in the MARPOL oil outflow analysis.

Grounding Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length for use with the Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses. Note: To be able to update the Hydromax model to changes made in Maxsurf see Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for a step-by-step procedure you can follow.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Criteria The criteria menu item will bring up the criteria dialog. When the floodable length analysis is selected. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. Recalculate Hull Sections Deletes all existing hull. Set Analysis Type Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the sub-menu. it is better to use “Recalculate Hull Sections” after re-opening the Maxsurf model to make sure the latest internal structure surfaces are being used as well. tank and compartment sections and recalculates them from the hull surface data and compartment definition. if you wish to recalculate at a different precision. This is particularly useful if the underlying Maxsurf model has been modified. It then updates the loadcase with the correct capacities and free surface moments for the tanks. Page 206 . the criteria command will bring up a Floodable Length Criteria dialog with criteria that only apply to floodable length analysis. If any of the tank boundaries are made up from boundary surfaces. See Criteria on page 163. Update Loadcase Checks for changed tanks and makes sure that any tanks and compartments that have not been formed are correctly calculated. Also see: Tank Loads on page 46 Recalculate Tanks and Compartments Forces all tanks and compartments to be re-formed from their initial definition. Also see: Margin Line Points on page 76. Also recalculates totals and subsubtotals after a row sorting or moving command. This allows you to specify which criteria will be checked during the analysis. or if you wish to modify whether skin thickness or trimming options are applied. This command also updates the loadcase. Snap Margin Line to Hull Project all of the margin line points horizontally onto the hull surface.

Data Format Data Format allows you to choose which data are tabulated and graphed (Upright Hydrostatics. Start Batch Analysis Hydromax will run the selected analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases using the batch processing command. A dialog box allows you to choose from a range of stability variables. Results are written to a tab delimited text file as specified by the user at the start of the analysis. equilibrium condition and KN values. Hydrostatic results Data format dialog Used to select display options for Criteria results: Page 207 . Note that the analysis may not have been completed and in the case of large angle stability. The analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu. also. Display Menu The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data. Equilibrium and Specified Condition). Stop Analysis This command halts the analysis at the current iteration. Resume Analysis If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis. Spool to Report Send the results of the analysis to the report upon completion. any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect. which are displayed in the graphics and other windows. This should be turned on before commencing the analysis to ensure that results are added to the report when the analysis is completed. See Setting the Data Format on page 185. Stability. Resume Analysis may be used to restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Start Analysis Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Criteria table Data format dialog Used to select which columns are displayed in the Loadcase window: Loadcase Data format dialog When the Max. Safe heeling angle angles graph is shown as a result of a Large Angle Stability analysis the Data Format dialog may be used to customise the graph layout: Page 208 .

the Design View will change to match the condition in the selected row or column in the Results window. This is to ensure that tank data in the Loadacase are for the vessel in the upright condition. Simply highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and select “Select View From Data”. labels. and other items in the design view may be set by using this dialog. hull contours. This is required for automatic update of the Loadcase (note that if you do not rotate back to the DWL. the Loadcase will not update while editing – only when start another analysis).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Max safe heeling angle Data format dialog May be used to customise the Floodable length graph: Floodable length Data format dialog Set Vessel to DWL Rotates the vessel back to upright and to DWL after an analysis has been completed (or Select View from Data used). Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. Visibility The visibility of tanks. Select View from Data This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with one of the sets of data in Results window. not for tanks with the vessel at the final heel and trim of the last analysis. The view may be set from any of the results from Upright Hydrostatics. Prob damage zones Toggle the visibility of the probabilistic damage zones. compartments. Page 209 .

This command is not available for images in the perspective window. Show Image Shows the image in the current view window. a trimmed state at the end of an equilibrium analysis. the section chosen can be changed by pressing the left or right cursor keys on your keyboard. Background Controls whether the background DXF construction lines and the background images are displayed or not. The grid can only be displayed when the vessel is in upright position on its design waterline. Tools for positioning and scaling the background image are also here. as well as a control box. Hide Image Hides the background image in the current view window. The option to display the grid will be greyed out when the ship is currently displayed in.. Show DXF Shows the DXF background. similar to the one in Maxsurf. Design Grid The grid submenu allows you to hide the grid or show the grid with or without station grid labels. Set Image Zero Point Sets the image zero point. Switching analysis type puts the boat back into upright position on its design waterline. The commands in the submenu are only available when a background image or DXF has been imported. Delete Image Deletes the background image in the current view window. This allows you to rapidly step through the hull sections from bow to stern. Alternatively. Also see: Show Single Hull Section on page 30 Page 210 .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Individual Loadcase masses Toggle the visibility of the individual mass items in the current loadcase. Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan Selecting the Show Single Hull Section item from the Display menu will change the display in the Body Plan window to show only one section through the hull. in the top right corner of the window. for example. The background may be loaded from an existing DXF file using the Import function in the File menu. Set Image Reference Point Sets the image reference point. The section being displayed can be chosen by clicking on the section indicators at the top of the control box. See the Maxsurf manual for more details Hide DXF Hides the DXF background. Delete DXF background Deletes the DXF background.

when a waveform has been specified and an equilibrium analysis is selected or after a Large Angle Stability analysis over a heeling range. Roll and Yaw indicators.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Render When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may be toggled on and off to render the surfaces. In addition to the length and mass units classes. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information. the animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases. Render Transparent When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent option may be toggled on and off. Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window. You may set the initial viewing position in the Perspective View window using the Pitch. You are not expected to change the Design Grid in Hydromax. If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves. through the range of heel angles specified. units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation. You are not expected to change the Frame of Reference in Hydromax. Coefficients Allows you to customise how you wish to calculate the coefficients as well as the display format for the LCB and LCF. When Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving the mouse from side to side. giving a simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through the wave. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. For example. Page 211 . Data Menu Units The units used may be specified using the Units command. Hold the shift key down while selecting the command to save the animation. Animate This command is available for any analysis that steps through several steps. may also be set. Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the model semi transparent so that the rendered tanks and compartments within the model may be viewed. See Setting Units on page 37 for more information. Frame of Reference Access to the Frame of Reference is intended for information only. Design Grid Access to the Design Grid is intended for information only. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves.

It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. Help Menu Provides access to Hydromax Help. The Graph window displays a number of different graphs. The Loadcase window allows you to enter a series of component weights. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of Gravity for Stability. Hydromax Help Invokes Hydromax Help. they may be changed using the Frame of Reference command. Window Menu For the items in this menu. Page 212 . depending on which analysis mode is currently active. The selected design window will then be brought to the front. See: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18. together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from the zero point. Graph Brings the selected Graph window to the front. View Direction Select the desired view direction from the sub-menu.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those defined in the Maxsurf model. Selecting the item brings the appropriate window to the front. Tile Horizontal Layout all visible windows across the screen. Loadcase Brings the Loadcase window to the front. Tile Vertical Layout all visible windows down the screen. KN and Equilibrium analysis. Results Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and display the desired table. Margin Line Points or Modulus table. Arrange Icons Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Maxsurf program window. Key Points. Input Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display the Compartment Definition. This will ensure that a consistent frame of reference is used in all the programs. each represents a Hydromax window. Cascade Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Hydromax Automation Reference Invokes the Automation Reference help system. Online Support Provides access to a wide range of support resources available on the internet. Check for Updates Provides access to our website with the most recent version listed. About Hydromax Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using. Page 213 .

Here the baseline is no longer horizontal and neither are the perpendiculars vertical. Measurement Reference Frames Results in Hydromax are given from the vessel‟s zero point. these axis systems are no longer parallel. there are two frames of reference: Ship or upright frame of reference The “ship” or “upright” reference frame is that of the upright vessel with zero-trim. Here the baseline is horizontal and the perpendiculars are vertical. AM. World or trimmed frame of reference The “world” or “trimmed” reference frame is that of the trimmed vessel.) is achieved in Hydromax. However. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the baseline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the baseline. Definition and calculation of form parameters Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in Hydromax. static waterline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the waterline Rotated reference frame (red) and measurements in the two reference frames: Measurements in the upright vessel reference frame (green) and trimmed reference frame (blue) When the vessel is upright (zero trim and zero heel) these axis systems are parallel. CP. etc.Appendix A Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the horizontal. Page 214 . and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur. because Hydromax treats trim exactly (the hull is rotated not sheared when trim occurs). However if the vessel is trimmed or heeled or rotated in both directions simultaneously.

KM is not equal to KB+BM (BM is in a different axis system to KB and KM. Thus the metacentre is always vertically (in the earth-fixed axis system) above the centre of buoyancy by a distance BM = I / vol where I is the second moment of area of the waterplane. and only if the vessel is upright are the axis systems parallel and hence the equation holds). that are explicitly vertical. in general. This is because if the vessel is trimmed and if the VCG and VCB are not the same. Similarly. Measurements such as BM. LCG is not equal to LCB – if both LCB and LCG are measured in the ship-axis system (of course if they are measured in the earthfixed axis system then they are the same.e. GM. These include longitudinal centres of gravity. Page 215 .Appendix A Ship-Fixed and Earth-Fixed(world) axis systems The majority of measurements are given in the “ship” frame of reference. floatation and buoyancy (LCG. then there will be a sin(trim angle) term introduced. GM is the true vertical separation of the metacentre and the centre of gravity with the vessel inclined and are always measured normal to the water surface. in generally for the vessel to be in equilibrium. The same is true of TCB and TCG if the vessel is heeled. are measured in the “world” frame of reference. It is for this reason that. i. LCB). LCF. and measurements from the keel such as KB and KG.

Length of design waterline Length between perpendiculars length of waterline under investigation Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest point on the design) Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under investigation Coefficient parameters There are several options for calculating hullform coefficients. measured in upright reference frame. These can be modified in the Data | Coefficients dialog shown below: Page 216 . measured in the trimmed reference frame Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of buoyancy. Length overall Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy. measured normal to the baseline. parallel to baseline. parallel to baseline. measured in upright reference frame. parallel to baseline. Longitudinal Centre of Floatation. Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of gravity. Longitudinal Centre of Gravity.Appendix A Nomenclature Amax Ams A AWP BOA BWL B b GM KB KG LOA LCB LCF LCG LWL LBP L T0 T t Maximum immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation Immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation amidships Immersed cross-section area: Amax or Ams as selected by user Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below waterline) Maximum waterline beam at design waterline Maximum beam of waterline under investigation Waterline beam of station under investigation Metacentric height: vertical distance from centre of gravity to metacentre. measured in upright reference frame. measured normal to the baseline.

Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel. this may be different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the position of the rudder post. In addition. it may be more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body. it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline length at that draft (L). for calculations at drafts other than the DWL. LWL and LOA quite different. In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. In some cases. features such as bulbous bows and overhangs can make the LBP. The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the intersection of the DWL with the bow. Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars. will also be different from the LOA (overall length).Appendix A Length The datum/design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to float under normal circumstances. Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Page 217 . particularly for resistance prediction purposes. or possibly the transom. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients.

vessel with tumble-home or blisters). For the section shown below. the beam of the individual hulls may be required. in others.g. and this may be of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam (remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the same as that of a single demihull). For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and draft of the section in question. you can select various beams: Page 218 . Vessel with tumble-home Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. Multihull beams You may choose which beam should be used from the following list: In the reported hydrostatics. In some cases the overall beam is of importance. However. submarine.Appendix A Beam It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients. the beam used would be the sum of B1. Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. there may be times when it is appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e. For the case of a monohull this will be the normal waterline beam. B2 and B3.

it will be less than the extents value. It should be noted that the section area will. include the appendages. Both depths are measured in upright position. For a monhull. this will be the same as the extents value.Appendix A Calculated beams The values “Beam extents” are those that measure the beam across the maximum port and starboard extents of the vessel. but for a multihull. For a catamaran this would be from the outside of the port demihull to the outside of the starboard demihull. Normally this datum is the lowest part of the upright hull. The other beam values are calculated by summing the breadth of waterline crossings as described above. Draft The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. For a monhull without tunnels. In Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line. You may select which depth should be used for the calculation of form parameters. Hydromax uses these values for computing coefficients. However. including the option of measuring the draft to the baseline – this gives the option of ignoring appendages such as fin keels when determining the draft to be used to calculate the form parameter (if the baseline is defined to the bottom of the canoe body for example). However. for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts. Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form coefficients. this would simply be the distance from the port side to the starboard side. this is often the case when form parameters are calculated. there are also occasions when the immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft.: Page 219 . the datum may be elsewhere. however.

perpendicular to the heeled waterline (see figure below). however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. In Hydromax. the position midway between the perpendiculars is defined as midships. Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Midship and Max Area Sections It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars. the section with greatest cross-sectional area may also be of particular interest.Appendix A Draft measurements Draft measurement at heel angle When the vessel is heeled. the draft is measured through the intersection of the upright waterline and the centreline. It is for this reason that as the heel approaches 90degrees. Page 220 . Draft measured along the inclined perpendicular lines Immersed depth and Draft measurements The images below show the difference between the draft measurements (which are made in the inclined centreline plane of the vessel) and the immersed depth measurements (which are made normal to the free-surface). Essentially the draft is measured along the heeled and trimmed perpendiculars on the centreline. the draft becomes very large. For vessels with no parallel mid-body.

In Hydromax midships is midway between the perpendiculars. or may be defined according to another standard – this may be important for hulls with significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. you may select which section area should be used: Hydromax uses the station with the maximum immersed cross-sectional area at the waterline under consideration. The section area coefficient used by Hydromax. LWL or some effective length. Block Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as: "the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume of a rectangular prism with length." However. the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity. such as CP and CM. is calculated at either the station with maximum cross-sectional area or the midship section area (as defined in the Coefficients dialog). beam and draft used vary between authorities. CB L B T Section Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as: "The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships.Appendix A When computing form coefficients." It should be noted that. for sections that have significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. Hydromax uses the length beam and draft as selected in the Coefficients dialog to compute the block coefficient. The beam may be at amidships or the maximum moulded beam of the waterline. Length may be LBP. The beam used is that obtained by summing the immersed waterline crossings of the specified section. breadth and mean draft of the ship at that waterline. breadth and depth equal to the length. The beam and immersed depth of the selected section is used unless the draft to baseline option has been selected in which case this draft is used. the actual definitions of the length. Options for Section area coefficient CM A b t Prismatic Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as: Page 221 .

Therefore a difference between the LCG and the LCB value will occur when the vessel is trimmed. the LCG and LCB will be at the same longitudinal position in the global coordinate system. This is explained in the figure below: Effect of vertical separation of CG and CB on LCG and LCB measured in the Ship reference frame Page 222 . CP L A Waterplane Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as: "The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information. Hydromax uses the selected length and the selected immersed cross-section area Amax or Ams. CWP AWP L B LCG and LCB Hydromax allows you to fully customise how you want to display the LCB and LCF values." Hydromax uses the length and beam as selected. When the vessel is free-to-trim." Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used. The LCG and LCB are calculated in the “ship” or “upright” frame of reference. but not in the frame of reference.Appendix A "The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of the ship and whose cross-section equals the midship section area. see Measurement Reference Frames on page 214.

Ta . For example: The Max deck inclination is the maximum slope of the deck when combining the trim and heel angle of the vessel. Hydromax calculates the steepest slope of the deck when the ship is trimmed and/or heeled. Tf are the aft and forward drafts at the corresponding perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars. This is the same for differences in TCG and TCB values due to heeling.Appendix A Note: LCG and LCB are calculated in the vessels‟ frame of reference and therefore will have different longitudinal positions when the vessel is trimmed then for when it is upright. Trim angle The trim angle as defined by: tan 1 Ta Tf L pp where: is the trim angle. MTc or MTi The required moment to make the vessel trim one unit-length. assuming the deck inclination is zero when the vessel is in upright position. That can be either cm or inch depending on your unit settings. Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account. Page 223 . Maximum deck inclination The inclination angle is a combination of heel and trim angle. Immersion The weight required to sink the model one unit-length below its current waterline. The unitlength can be either in cm or inch depending on your unit settings.

Integration of wetted surface area At first glance. the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used – see discussion above. due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be carried out. and occur in both hand calculations. However. The only accurate numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric surface. Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable variation. calculated by RM Displ *GMt * sin(1) Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of immersed shapes. Both methods use numerical integration techniques. Different number of integration stations used. Differences in the hull definition. hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand calculations. These mainly occur from the integration method used.5% (note that. the stations should be more closely spaced. such as near the bow and stern.5 2 R 2 A' approximately 27%. it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more with 10s of significant figures. As with all numerical integration schemes. The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile between two sections. If the surface is exported as DXF poly-lines then the precision used and the number of straight-line sections used to make up the poly-line are important. where R is the radius of the circle.5% error discrepancy noted above. Where there are large changes in shape. agreement of hand calculations to within 2% is considered good). may be attributed to a number of causes: Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity. the accuracy increases as the step size is reduced. The 0. This is given analytically by: A 2 R 2 . These effects are noted from comparing the results of different hydrostatics packages on the same hullform. and number of interpolation points used to define each section. The integration method used: trapezium. and their distribution. in general. However.Appendix A RM at 1 deg The righting Moment at 1 degree heel angle. or higher order methods. differences for basic parameters such as displacement etc. and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. in a similar way that one might integrate the station cross-sectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. In general. which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the Trapezium rule. Further. Simpson. Page 224 2 . it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 3-5 significant figures. With hand calculations. it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the station girth along the length of the hull.27 . and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over the complete surface. with computer calculations. It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is given by: R2 . this is not the case. or 0. are under 0. and hence the 2 2 R2 integration of section girths underestimates by error factor of 4/ 1. note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps.

which use a number of vertical stations to define the hull. for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less. since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface. due to the greatly reduced longitudinal curvature. Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages.Appendix A However. Page 225 . Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialog in Maxsurf are the most accurate. will be subject to the error described above.

000 Page 226 .0 30.0 0. The typical format of the file is given below: Please refer to the file C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp.html for a full list of all the parameters for all the different criteria types.Appendix B Appendix B: Criteria file format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. The file is a normal PC text file.hcr. Hydromax Criteria File [units] LengthUnits = m MassUnits = tonne SpeedUnits = kts AngleUnits = deg GZAreaGMAngleUnits = deg [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = Specific Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = My Custom Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = STIX input data ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare UseLoHeel UseEquilibrium UseHiHeel UseFirstPeak UseMaxGZ UseFirstDF UseVanishingStab LoHeel HiHeel RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits STIX input data GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or… Area under GZ curve between specified heel… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan false true false false false true true 0.

The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included. e. The first section of the file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file. The common parameters for all criteria are as follows: Type Describes the type of criterion RuleName Text which specifies the rule to which the criterion belongs CritName Text which specifies the criterion‟s name CritInfo Verbose description of the criterion Locked Whether the criterion may be edited in Hydromax or not.0 The file must have “Hydromax Criteria File” in the first row. If Locked is set to true. There are two angular units: AngleUnits Specifies the units for angular measurements. range of stability GZAreaGMAngleUnits Specifies the angle units used for area under GZ graph and for GM. it is not possible to edit the criterion‟s parameters in Hydromax The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type.g.Appendix B [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab STIX input data Angle of vanishing stability Calculates the angle of vanishing stability… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp. Page 227 .rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan 0.

see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria on page 163. This allows for complex calculations to be cross referenced into criteria. Parent Calculations Special calculations are provided for some criteria parameters. If there are any other calculations that you would like implemented. The parent calculations are listed above the parent heeling arms: Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog As with other criteria and heeling arms. This information can also be found in the lower right of the Criteria Dialog in the Criteria Help section. and the IMO required GM for vessels carrying grain in bulk.Appendix F Appendix C: Criteria Help In this Appendix all individual Parent Criteria are explained in detail. please contact support@formsys. In this section: Parent Calculations Minimum GM Calculators Parent Heeling Arms Parent Heeling Moments Parent Stability Criteria For all general help on criteria or working with the criteria dialog. In the criterion select the required calculation from the pull down list: Angle calculators These calculators produce an angular measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria: Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations Heeling arm criteria (xRef) Combined Page 228 Ratio of areas type 2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas XRefHeelRatioOfAreas2 XRefHeelGenericWindHeeling . Selecting a calculation in a criterion Using a calculation in a criterion is very similar to using a heel arm: Define your custom calculation by copying it from the parent list.com with details of the required calculations. you should make a copy of the parent calculation by dragging it to your custom criteria folder. severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. Currently this has only been implemented for the IMO roll-back angle calculation used in the IMO code on Intact Stability.

267(85). combined criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm. “Sharp bilge: k = 0. The block coefficient is calculated with the current user settings for length and beam (not necessarily the waterline beam which another parameter required for the calculation). This calculation follows the function defined in the Intact Stability codes A. combined criteria (stand alone) type 2) Ratio of areas type 2 .645 B Vd 0. Input parameters for: IMO roll-back angle calculation GM calculators These calculators produce a GM measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria: Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations GZ curve criteria Value of GMt at (calc) CTStdValueOfGMAt Minimum GM calculator – Grain The required GM for vessels carrying grain.25 B 0.0”.Appendix B heeling arm criteria (xRef) Heeling arm criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm.general wind heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .0875 SF Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments Page 229 . The input parameters may be specified by the user or calculated by Hydromax for the vessel in the upright condition for the current loadcase.749(18) and MSC.23(59). as defined in IMO Resolution MSC.wind heeling arm CritHeelWindHeeling IMO roll-back angle calculator The IMO roll back angle calculator calculates the roll back angle as per the severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion as defined in the IMO Code on Intact Stability. is calculated as follows: GM L B Vd 0.7” or “Tabulated value for k” – these are auto completed so you only need to type the first letter. The method used for the k-factor can be one of three options: “Round bilge: k = 1.general wind heeling arm CritHeelRatioOfAreas2 CritHeelGenericWindHeeling Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .

055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.170: ocean service: k0 = 0. 170. k0 and k1 are constants.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. for example: For CFR 46. 170.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t Page 230 .036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.Appendix F B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement Input parameters for: Grain heeling min. 170. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline.170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0.005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows: k0 GM L k1 2 A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point.

n are the exponents for sine and cosine.0 K Where N is the number of passengers. n = 1.Appendix B Input parameters for: Wind pressure min. b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass. Input parameters for: Constant min. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m.050: GM Nb with a K tan( 0 ) Nb and m. 171. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a f B fa cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Page 231 Where (using consistent units): . An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46.

typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height.Appendix F a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline. there is a list of parent heeling arms. Parent Heeling Arms As with the criteria. please see Heeling arm criteria (xRef) on page 260. and for the Old heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified for each criterion separately. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired. Heeling Arm Definition This section describes how to define heeling arms and is valid for both the parent heeling arms that can be cross referenced into the heeling arm criteria. Page 232 . n are the exponents for sine and cosine. from which custom heeling arms may be derived: Available heeling arms and moments To learn how to cross reference these heeling arms into criteria. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value): fa k h l L 2b b0 B b1 Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax.

some criteria. Same as for the Parent criteria. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. General heeling arm General heeling arm with gust General cos+sin heeling arm User Defined Heeling Arm Passenger crowding heeling arm Wind Turning Lifting heeling Towing heeling Forces heeling arm Trawling heeling arm Grain heeling arm Areas and leavers Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Note: When you are working with the parent heeling arms. General heeling arm The general form of the heeling arm is given below: H( ) where: A cos n ( ) is the heel angle. They are defined below. Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. the Parent heeling arms will be reset to their default values each time you start up Hydromax. H steady ( ) H gust ( ) A cosn ( ) A GustRatio cosn ( ) Page 233 . General heeling arm with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. cosn describes the shape of the curve. However. GustRatio H gust H steady Both the steady and the gust heel arm have the same shape. make sure you copy them into a custom heeling arms folder before editing them. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. in this case n=0 should be used.Appendix B There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria.

the same heeling arm form may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form: H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing.) A single coefficient may be adjusted and this is used as a multiplication factor (whist the shape of the curve remains unchanged). 1. It should be noted. this is taken as the magnitude – and the heel angle is left unchanged. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. cosn describes the shape of the curve. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. These should be comma delimited for example <45 . that in this case.2 meters at 45 degrees angle of heel. General cos+sin heeling arm Some criteria. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. Page 234 . the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling arm curve. (To aid input of the data. D C tan( ) .Appendix F where: is the heel angle. require a heeling arm with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) k A cos n ( ) B sin m ( ) It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity. if only one value is supplied it is taken as the heel angle – and the magnitude is left unchanged. This heeling arm can then be cross-referenced into any of the heeling arm criteria. the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. R2 A2 B 2 and tan B A Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. First.2> for a heeling arm magnitude of 1. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. User Defined Heeling Arm A user-defined heeling arm may be used in the criteria. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) R2 1 tan 2 ( C ) . the number of points is specified and then for each point the angle and magnitude of the curve can be specified. With the heeling arm. and if a value preceded by a comma is given. notably lifting of weights.

theoretically unity A is the windage area at height h is the vessel mass P is the wind pressure H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force In the case of the wind velocity based formulation.defines shape mass length none In the case of the wind pressure based formulation.Appendix B Passenger crowding heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H pc ( ) where: n pas MD cosn ( ) n pas is the number of passengers M is the average mass of a single passenger D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option number of passengers: nPass passenger mass: M distance from centreline: D cosine power: n Wind heeling arm Description Number of passengers Units none Average mass of one passenger Average distance of the passengers from the centreline Cosine power for curve . the wind heeling arm is given by: Page 235 . the wind heeling arm is given by: Hw( ) a PA h H cosn ( ) g where: a is a constant.

The heeling arm is obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight.5 ρair CD for the velocity formulation. theoretically unity v is the vessel velocity Page 236 . an area to be added to the windage area computed by Hydromax based on the hull sections There are four options for specifying H (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified H is taken as half the mean draft. where ρair is the density of air and CD is an average drag coefficient for the windage area Pressure or Velocity (type “P” or “V”) Actual velocity of pressure . H is taken as the vertical centre of underwater lateral projected area. H is taken as the waterline Cosine power for curve . u'water area H = waterline cosine power: n Turning heeling arm Height of user defined total or additional windage area User may specify either a total windage area Or. The heeling arm is thus given by: Ht ( ) v2 a h cos n ( ) Rg where (in consistent units): a is a constant.Appendix F Hw( ) a v2 A h H cosn ( ) g where: a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area multiplied by the air density and has units of density v is the wind speed. Option constant: a Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm.depends on wind model mass/(time2 length) or length/ time length length2 length2 Units none for pressure based formulation. centre of projected lat. normally unity for pressure based formulation or 0. mass/length3 for velocity based formulation wind model wind pressure or velocity area centroid height: h total area: A additional area: A height of lateral resistance: H H = mean draft / 2 H = vert. And the other parameters are described as above.defines shape length length length length none The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal force acting on the vessel during a high-speed turn and the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn.

normally unity Vessel speed in turn Turn radius may be specified directly Or. centre of projected lat. (The weight is lifted from a stowage position onboard the vessel by a crane on the vessel. as percentage of LWL Vertical lever: h Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm. as percentage of LWL There are four options for specifying h (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified h is taken as KG .position of G above baseline in upright condition h is taken as KG less half the mean draft. as some criteria require.mean draft / 2 h = KG . R. the vessel displacement remains constant.vert.defines shape Units none length/time length % length h = KG h = KG . u'water area cosine power: n Lifting heeling arm length length length none This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position. Cosine power for curve . but there is an effective change of its centre of gravity.) The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H lw ( ) M h cos( ) v sin( ) where: M is the mass of the weight being lifted h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is the vessel mass (same units as M ) Page 237 .Appendix B R is the radius of the turn h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option constant: a vessel speed: v turn radius: R turn radius. i.e. h is taken as the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and underwater lateral projected area.

The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: Page 238 . Horizontal separation of suspension point (upper tip of lifting boom) from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel This value is positive if the horizontal shift of the weight should produce a positive heeling moment. This value is positive if the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is above the original stowage position. h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust is the vessel mass is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the heeling n arm curve is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. Angle of tow above the horizontal Cosine power for curve . Horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline.Appendix F Just before lifting the weight off the vessel’s deck The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option Mass being lifted: M vertical separation of suspension from stowage position: v Description Mass of weight being lifted Vertical separation of suspension point from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel.defines shape Units force length length angle of tow above horizontal: tau cosine power: n Forces heeling arm angle none This heeling arm can be used to model up to two forces acting on the vessel forces. It is assumed that the towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the vessel is heeled. Units mass length horizontal separation of suspension from stowage position: h length Towing heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H tow ( ) T v cosn ( g ) h sin( ) where: T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust. such as those applied due fire-fighting or manoeuvring using thrusters. This value is positive if the towline is above the thrust centre. The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option tension or thrust: T vertical separation of propeller centre and tow attachment: v horizontal offset of tow attachment: h Description Tension in towline or vessel thrust Vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust. expressed as a force. This value is positive if the offset is in the direction of the tow.

Appendix B H forces ( ) 1 A1 h1 g H cosn1 ( ) A2 h 2 H cosn2 ( ) where: A1 and A2 are two forces acting on the vessel. α λ0) i. is the vessel mass Grain heeling arm This heeling arm can be used model the effects of bulk grain shift as defined in IMO Resolution MSC. Point A = (0 deg heel. not a mass. n1 and n2 define the shapes of the heeling arms created by the two forces. B.e the heeling arm magnitude is reduced by a factor α at a heel angle of line is given below: 1. y is the transverse distance of the line of action of the trawl wire from the vessel centreline n defines the shape of the heeling arm. λ0) Point B = ( 1 deg heel. expressed as a force. It is mirrored about the heel=0 axis and is not allowed to go below zero.23(59): The heeling arm is defined by a straight line through two points A. H is the assumed vertical position of the vessel‟s centre of lateral resistance (or the centre of rotation from which the forces are applied) is the vessel mass g is acceleration due to gravity Trawling heeling arm This heeling arm can be used model the effects of trawl net snagging as defined in Annex G of the Australian NSCV requirements: H trawling ( ) m y cosn ( ) m where: m is a mass parameter determined from the breaking load of the trawl gear and the downwards angle of the trawl net. The equation of the H grain ( ) 0 1 abs (1 1 ) Page 239 . h1 and h2 are the vertical heights (from the zero point) at which these forces act.

positive upwards. For these types of heeling arms you should use the various heeling moment curves that are available – see below: Heeling moment curves Parent Heeling Moments Heeling moments work the same way as the Minimum GM Calculations in that they can be cross referenced into criteria. i. and is the vessel mass Areas and levers Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and their vertical centroids. thus. the value “A” in: H( ) M A cos n ( ) . Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Some heeling arm criteria are dependent on the displacement of the vessel for the calculation of the Heeling Arm. K.e. Page 240 . The lateral projected area and its centroid of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero heel) at the draft and trim defined in the loadcase or trim dialog. For example. where M = heeling moment Δ = displacement. The area is calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax..Appendix F The heeling arm magnitude at zero heel. wind heeling etc. StowFact is the stowage factor in units of Length3/Mass. even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical bottom of the vessel. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the Maxsurf/Hydromax co-ordinate system. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids or the total areas and vertical centroids. The advantage of using heeling moments is that they provide a constant heeling moment (varying heeling arm) as the vessel displacement changes (due to different loadcases or during a limiting KG analysis). is given by: 0 volHM StowFact Where: volHM is the assumed volumetric heeling moment due to transverse grain shift in units of Length3. which take account of the vessel displacement as required.Length. only “Hull” surfaces are included in the calculation . The vertical position of the keel. further.“Structure” surfaces are ignored. is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the Frame of Reference dialog).is manually calculated from: A .: from the model‟s vertical datum. These are in addition to the existing specific heeling arm curves for passenger crowding. λ0. increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation.

It should be noted that provided the n and m indices are both unity. thus and are the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). require a heeling moment with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) where: k A cos n ( ) B sin m ( ) is the heel angle. some criteria. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. notably lifting of weights. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm: H( ) where: A cos n ( ) is the heel angle. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. D C tan( ). For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. the same heeling moment form may be used for computing towing heeling moments of the form: H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. R 2 A 2 B and 2 tan B A Page 241 . General cos+sin heeling moment Some criteria.length) and A and B the magnitudes of the cosine and sine components of the heeling moment A B the vessel displacement (mass). It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) C R2 1 tan 2 ( ) . in this case n=0 should be used. thus the vessel displacement A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length).length) and (mass). the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included.Appendix B The following heeling moments are available in the Hydromax criteria dialog: General heeling moment General cos+sin heeling moment General heeling moment with gust User Defined Heeling Moment General heeling moment The general form of the heeling moment is given below. (mass. However. cosn describes the shape of the curve.

The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the report if you run an equilibrium analysis. This heeling moment can then be linked into a Heeling arm criteria (xRef) for evaluation. that in this case. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. GustRatio H gust H steady The general form of the heeling moment is given below. Criteria at Equilibrium These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium position of the vessel after the analysis. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. cosn describes the shape of the curve. H steady ( ) H gust ( ) where: A A cos n ( ) GustRatio cos n ( ) is the heel angle. Parent Stability Criteria The parent criteria are divided up into different categories depending on their basic types.length) and (mass). the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. Defining User Defined Heeling Moments works in much the same as for User Defined Heeling Arm. Trim or Slope at Equilibrium This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel. Option The angle of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Heel Pitch MaxSlope Units deg Page 242 . thus the vessel displacement A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling moment curve. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm. Pitch or Maximum Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck). if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. User Defined Heeling Moment With the User Defined Heeling Moment. Both the steady and the gust heel moment have the same shape. Maximum value of Heel.Appendix F General heeling moment with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. It should be noted.

This could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion. This could be used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline. are calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range.Appendix B Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Permissible value deg Minimum Freeboard at Equilibrium Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value. use a combination of both forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length Maximum Freeboard at Equilibrium Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): GMtransverse GMlongitudinal) Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) These criteria. Value of GMT or GML at Equilibrium This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a specified minimum value. Page 243 . calculated from the GZ curve.

If any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit. first peak in GZ curve. Option specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of Maximum GZ Description Value of GZ at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg length Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. The criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. angle of maximum GZ or the downflooding angle. Option in the range from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Page 244 Description Value of maximum GZ Lower limit for heel angle range. In addition to a fixed required value. then the criterion will fail. GMt is computed from waterplane inertia and immersed volume (not the slope of the GZ curve as this is inaccurate if the heel angle resolution is insufficient). Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Select calculation from list Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of GZ at Description Value of GMt at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Chose a calculation for the minimum required GM from a copy of one of the Parent calculations Permissible value Units deg deg length length Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle. or exceeds. This functionality is to allow criteria such as “The maximum GZ at 30deg or greater”. If all the upper limit values are less than the lower limit. you may also select a calculation to provide the required minimum GM. the greater of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Units deg . The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value.Appendix F Value of GMt at Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. they will be ignored when selecting the lowest. Note: Upper limit and analysis heel angle range It is required that the range of heel angles specified for the Large Angle Stability analysis is equal. the upper range heel angle specified in the criterion. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater then the required value. If you want to check the value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle.

Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is calculated. Otherwise the required value of maximum GZ varies as a hyperbolic function with the angle of maximum GZ. see graph below. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs. Option heel angle at which required GZ is constant Description If the angle of maximum GZ is greater than or equal to this value. the value of GZ at the specified angle is calculated. This is 0 . this should normally be specified and be less than or equal to the upper limit of the range of heel angles used for the Large Angle Stability analysis. Units deg Page 245 . the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value deg deg deg deg length Value of Maximum GZ Value of GZ at Specified Angle or Maximum GZ below Specified Angle If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value. the required value of GZ is constant and is taken at this specified angle.Appendix B to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Upper limit for heel angle range.

Units length deg deg length then GZ 0 must be greater than the specified. The righting moment RM is given by: RM gGZ where: is the vessel volume of displacement is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in is acceleration due to gravity = 9. Value of RM at Specified Angle or Maximum RM Below Specified Angle As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle) except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified. 0 GZ max GZ max 0 then GZ max must be greater than GZ 0 where: is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant 0 GZ max is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs 0 GZ is the GZ value at 0 and GZ max is the maximum value of GZ.80665m/s2 g GZ is the righting lever. Permissible value. This is GZ 0 . measured and compared. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to the location of the first peak in the GZ curve. constant value. Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ The angle at which the GZ was measured is listed in the results.Appendix F Option required value of GZ at this angle is limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than If If GZ max 0 Description Required value of GZ at the heel angle specified above. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to first downflooding angle. Page 246 .

The criterion is passed if the ratio is less then the required value. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Second heel angle. first heel angle. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Phi2. second heel angle. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 First heel angle. Ratio Option GZ GZ 1 2 Phi1.Appendix B Ratio of GZ Values at Phi1 and Phi2 Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 Page 247 .

then the criterion is passed. The user may choose the type of Key point to define the downflooding angle (downflooding point. Option spec. If the equilibrium angle is negative. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. immersion point). Option limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Angle of Equilibrium Description Angle of maximum GZ The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first GZ peak occurs The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first downflooding occurs Permissible value Units deg deg deg Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. heel angle angle of margin line immersion angle of deck edge immersion first flooding angle of the angle of first GZ peak angle of max. embarkation point. GZ angle of vanishing stability Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of equilibrium angle to the lesser of: Specified heel angle Angle of first immersion of the margin line Angle of first immersion of the deck edge Smallest immersion angle of the specified type of Key Point Angle of first local peak in GZ curve Angle at which maximum GZ occurs Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Page 248 . heel angle can be limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle. If the ratio is less than the required value. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of equilibrium Permissible value Units deg Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of The equilibrium angle and the lesser of the selected angles are compared. the user is advised that the vessel should be heeled in the opposite direction and the criterion is failed.g. potential downflooding point. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.: it is possible to check that the equilibrium angle does not exceed half (or any other fraction) the downflooding angle.Appendix F Angle of Maximum GZ Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value. e. Using a ratio gives more flexibility.

The actual criterion is passed if either of the individual criteria is passed. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of margin line immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Deck Edge Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. Angle of Downflooding Finds the angle of first downflooding. The criterion is passed if the computed range is greater then the required value. Option from the greater of Description Range of positive stability Lower limit Units Page 249 . This type of criterion is used to formulate criteria such as: The maximum allowable angle of equilibrium is 15 degrees in the damage condition. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of downflooding Permissible value Units deg Angle of Margin Line Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of deck edge immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Vanishing Stability Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis.Appendix B Equilibrium heel angle satisfies either This criterion is nothing more than two “Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of” criteria. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the required value. but this can be allowed to increase to 17 degrees if the deck edge is not immersed. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg Range of Positive Stability The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed.

standard The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected limits and compared with a minimum required value.standard Lower limit for integration. The criterion is passed if the area under the graph is greater than the required value. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg See Nomenclature Permissible value deg length.angle Page 250 . Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.Appendix F Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of the range See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg GZ Area between Limits type 1 . angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 1 . from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.

if the lower angle was 15 and the required area at this angle was 0. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater then the required value.6. then the required area would be given by: A A 0.55 0.3.055m.07 0.749(18) §4.055 30 30 15 max max or simplifying: 0. 1. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle 2.HSC monohull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. and A2 is the For example.5.standard GZ area between limits type 2.2.1.rad.rad and the upper angle was 30 and the required area at this angle was 0.07m.001 30 Page 251 . The required area is defined as follows: If If max max 2 : required area = A2 .36(63) §2. the upper integration limit.3. required area = A1 .2 and IMO A. 1: A2 If 1 Where: max is max 2 A1 2 A2 2 1 max : required area = . The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.Appendix B GZ area between limits type 1 .55 0. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit.

angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability lower heel angle Description GZ area between limits type 2.angle deg length.angle Page 252 .HSC monohull type Lower limit for integration.. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration. from smallest angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Minimum angle that requires a GZ area greater than..angle length. Until this angle the required GZ area is constant Value of GZ area that is required until the lower heel angle Angle from which the required GZ area remains constant onwards Value of GZ area that is required from the higher heel angle onwards Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg required GZ area at lower heel angle higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length.Appendix F Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.

HSC multihull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integrationA1 1 / max).rad. required area = A1 Where: max is 1 / max .Appendix B GZ area between limits type 2 . 1. The required area is defined below limit ( and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.1. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required value.055 30 / max Page 253 .HSC monohull type GZ area between limits type 3 . A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle For example. then the required area would be given by: A 0. if the specified angle ( 1 ) was 30 and the required area at this angle ( A1 ) was 0.36 (63) Annex 7 §1. the upper integration limit.055m.

angle Page 254 . from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Heel angle at which required GZ area is specified Value of GZ area that is required until the higher heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.Appendix F Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.HSC multihull type Lower limit for integration. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 3 .angle length.

HSC multihull type Ratio of GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0 axis. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature 3 Units 1 2 deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg Page 255 . User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 2 lower integration limit.Appendix B GZ area between limits type 3 . where “abs” means the absolute value of. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit. 2 GZ d . Area 1 Ratio = = abs Area 2 1 4 abs 3 GZ d Option Area 1 from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Area 1 to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 from the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Description Ratio of GZ area between limits Area 1 lower integration limit.

see graph below. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged. the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium and vanishing stability. Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 1 In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding angle. Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg. In the example below. GZ areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not considered positive. respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and 180 deg. User specified heel angle Permissible value 4 Units deg % This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only.Appendix F Option Area 2 to specified heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Area 1 upper integration limit. Typically. Page 256 .

the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the downflooding angle. Option Description Units Page 257 . Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 3 Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis in the given heel angle range.Appendix B Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 2 In the final example. Note that Area 2 is now A1 – A2.

Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg. where the value of GZ < 0. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 1 is positive. Area 2 is negative. If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 1 is positive. Area 2 is negative. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. abs Area 2 where “abs” means the absolute value of. And the areas are defined as follows: If both heel angle limits are ≥ zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 180deg. where the value of GZ < 0. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Page 258 . where the value of GZ > 0. where the value of GZ > 0.Appendix F Option in the heel angle range from to Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits User specified lower limit heel angle User specified upper limit heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg % Ratio = Area 1 .

If the lower heel angle limit < zero. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.Appendix B Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Positive and negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. Area 2 is negative. and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. upper limit = 0deg. Area 1 is positive. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0. upper limit = 180deg. Page 259 . Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.

GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length deg S = C sqrt( 0. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Max. but can simply select which heeling arm you wish to apply. range) Both the values of maximum GZ and range of positive stability can be clipped. except for the fact that you don‟t have to specify the heeling arm for each criterion separately. these can be cross-referenced into new heeling arm criteria: Page 260 .Appendix F Subdivision Index s-factor . The criteria themselves work much the same as the Heeling arm criteria (page 264). See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing s Units specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Upper angle of range: lesser of deg deg specified heel angle spec. Heeling arm criteria (xRef) The cross-reference heeling arm criteria are set up to allow you to define heeling arms or heeling moments in a central location and then cross-reference or link them into the criteria.MSC 19(58) Probabilistic damage s-factor according to MSC 19(58) Option Lower angle of range : the greater of Description The greater of the selected angles is be to specify the lower limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. After you have defined your heeling arms.5 GZmax . User specified heel angle See Nomenclature The lowest of the selected angles is be to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found.

as defined in IMO Resolution MSC.645 B Vd 0.23(59).25 B 0. is calculated as follows: GM L B Vd 0.Appendix B The heeling arms are cross-referenced simply by selecting the desired heeling arm from the pull-down list: For information on defining heeling arms or moments. required GM Page 261 .0875 SF Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement Input parameters for: Grain heeling min. see Minimum GM calculator – Grain The required GM for vessels carrying grain.

h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point.170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0.0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. k0 and k1 are constants.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t Input parameters for: Wind pressure min.036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline.055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle Page 262 .Appendix F Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows: k0 GM L k1 2 A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. 170.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0. for example: For CFR 46. 170. 170. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel.170: ocean service: k0 = 0.005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.

n are the exponents for sine and cosine. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. Page 263 .050: GM Nb with a K tan( 0 ) Nb and m. 171. typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a f B fa cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline. An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46. Parent Heeling Arms on page 229.0 K Where N is the number of passengers. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value): fa k h l L 2b b0 B b1 Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired. Input parameters for: Constant min. n are the exponents for sine and cosine.Appendix B m. typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass. n = 1. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height.

combined criteria.Appendix F Heeling arm criteria The preferred method is to use the xRef heeling arm criteria rather than the stand alone heeling arm criteria. This is because a wider range of heeling arm formulations is available and for some criteria. Also available are: Multiple heeling arm criteria.general heeling arm Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. GM sin( ) HA( ) Where the heel angle. In addition. these are where several criteria are applied to the same heeling arm Value of GMT at equilibrium . they only exist in xRef form. is the lesser of: a user-specified heel angle. The specified cross-referenced heel arm is then evaluated at this heel angle to give: HA( ) . angle of deck edge immersion. Finally. these are where the same criterion is applied to up to three heeling arms and/or combinations of these heeling arms Heeling Arm. . or first flooding angle of the specified key point type. Ratio of GMT and heeling arm Calculates the following ratio and the criterion is passed if the ratio exceeds the specified value.general heeling arm Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value. The heeling arm criteria available in the Hydromax Criteria dialog are listed below. GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the equilibrium heel angle. The transverse GM is taken at a user-specified heel angle or angle of equilibrium (without heel arm). Page 264 . Ratio of GMt and heel arm criterion Value of GZ at equilibrium . The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value. this angle may also be multiplied by a user-specified factor. angle of margin line immersion.

The criterion is passed if the value of (GZ .heel arm) is greater then the required value.heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle. The first downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit. Page 265 .general heeling arm Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm Finds the maximum value of (GZ .Appendix B Value of GZ at equilibrium .

930m giving a ratio of 59%. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. then the point with maximum positive GZ (where the heeling arm 0. Examples: Upper limit is 50% of angle of margin line immersion (43 / 2 = 21. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. The value of GZ at this heel angle must be greater than zero. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 0. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the maximum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. including “specified heel angle”. In the range 0 to 21. including “specified heel angle”. the maximum ratio of GZ:heel arm occurs at 21. If the heeling arm is zero or negative in the range. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. Page 266 .5 .5 ).553m and the heel arm 0.5 .Appendix F Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits.0) will be selected.

4 ). Hence the criterion is passed.5m giving a ratio of 224%.Appendix B In this case a constant heeling arm is used. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 1.3 . thus the maximum ratio occurs at the angle of maximum GZ (62. The angle and value of GZ is given for the location where it is a maximum (in the region where the heel arm is zero. the downflooding angle is 94.) Page 267 . Finally.122m and the heel arm 0. at this heel angle the heel arm is zero (thus the ratio infinite). the exact value will depend slightly on the heel angles tested in the Large Angle Stability analysis.

This criterion can be used to check that the GZ is at least as great as the heeling arm over the specified range. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . This is applied to all selected upper angle limits.Appendix F The same is true if an unusual user-defined heeling arm is used. In this case the heeling arm is zero between 50 and 70 .general heeling arm Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. including “specified heel angle”. And checks that this ratio is greater than a specified value. If a heeling arm with zero amplitude is used. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. Page 268 .Heel Arm is maximum. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. GZ Ratio = GZ 1 2 Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling arm is greatest (GZ . The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value. The heel arm is used to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ . Hence the maximum ratio reported is infinity and occurs at the angle where GZ is maximum in this heel angle range. the same criterion may be used to check that the GZ is positive over the specified range.heel arm) is maximum. Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the minimum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. positive).

Appendix B Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . The equilibrium angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and the GZ curve has positive slope.general heeling arm Page 269 . The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value.general heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the specified heeling arm. Angle of equilibrium .

selectable angle.general heeling arm Range of positive stability .Appendix F Angle of equilibrium ratio . The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in §Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm. Angle of vanishing stability . Ratio = equilibriu m specified The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following: Required angle for ratio calculation Auto complete text Marginline immersion angle MarginlineImmersionAngle Deck edge immersion angle DeckEdgeImmersionAngle Angle of first GZ peak DownfloodingAngle Angle of maximum GZ MaximumGZAngle First downflooding angle FirstGZPeakAngle Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle Angle of vanishing stability . The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.general heeling arm Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm.general heeling arm Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where the slope of the GZ curve is negative. Page 270 .general heeling arm Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with the specified heeling arm) to another. This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive stability. [Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] – [Angle of equilibrium] The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value.

The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value.Appendix B Range of positive stability .general heeling arm Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the specified heel angles. 2 Area = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm Page 271 .

Area 1 constant kArea 2 GZ area between limits type 2 .general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 . The required value is based on a constant plus a proportion of the area under the GZ curve (Area 2). Page 272 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 . 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 . 4 3 GZ ( )d . This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies‟ turning and passenger crowding criteria.general heeling arm The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed.general heeling arm The area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed (Area 1). Type 1 stands for which areas are being integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph). 4 3 GZ ( )d .Appendix F GZ area between limits type 2 .

If a gust ratio of greater than 1. then roll to leeward under a gust. For more information see: §Heel. but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium with the gust wind heeling arm. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.Appendix B Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 1 .0 is used. 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) gust heel arm( ) d gust heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Page 273 1 2 1 .e. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward (under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 2 . The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the steady wind heeling arm.general heeling arm This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).

This criterion is based on the area ratio required by BS6349-6:1989.Appendix F Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 2 .general heeling arm The ratio of the area under the GZ curve to the area under the heel arm curve is computed. Area GZ Area HA Page 274 . Areas under the GZ=0 axis are counted as negative.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 3 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. 2 1 heel arm( )d . Area GZ = Area HA = Ratio = 2 1 GZ ( )d .

wind. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . for example passenger crowding. Page 275 .multiple heeling arms Checks the ratio of GZ values as per §Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . turning.Appendix B Ratio of areas type 3 .general heeling arm Multiple heeling arm criteria These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of up to three heeling arms and their combinations. The combined heeling arms are computed by adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.

multiple heeling arms Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per §Angle of equilibrium .multiple heeling arms Angle of equilibrium . Page 276 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.Appendix F Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . Angle of equilibrium .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 1 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 1 .

multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 2 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms. 4 3 GZ ( )d . 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 .Appendix B GZ area between limits type 1 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 2 . Area 1 constant kArea 2 Page 277 .

general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 .Appendix F GZ area between limits type 2 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §Ratio of areas type 1 . Page 278 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.

multiple heeling arms Subdivision Index s-factor .MSC_216(82) The Subdivision Index s-factor as described in IMO MSC.Appendix B Ratio of areas type 1 .216(82) is computed. Page 279 . Several extra options are presented to the user.

The beginning of the range of positive stability is taken as the first positive equilibrium angles See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units Vessel type : Passenger. allowable equilibrium heel angle deg s-Moment intact displacement at subdivision draft GZ reduction Passenger heel Page 280 . heel s-Intermediate Max. If the equilibrium heel angle exceeds this value then sIntermediate is zero. User Upper angle of range: lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge s-Final Max. GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg Parameters for computing the s-Final factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Final Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sFinal Theta_min used to determine K Theta_max used to determine K Parameters for computing the sIntermediate factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Intermediate Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sIntermediate Maximum allowable equilibrium heel angle after damage. This is used to determine default parameters and which s-factors should be computed. GZ limit Range limit deg deg Max.length length deg length deg K-factor min. heel K-factor max.Appendix F Option Description Subdivision Index s-factor – MSC. Parameters for computing the sMoment factor Displacement of the intact vessel at the subdivision draft Reduction to be applied to maximum GZ Link to passenger heeling moment mass length mass.216(82) The type of vessel being analysed. Cargo. The lowest of the selected angles can be used to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability.

Page 281 . allowable equilibrium heel angle then s-Intermediate = 0 s-Moment = (GZmax – GZ reduction) .general heeling arm. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . and any values for the s-Final factor minimum and maximum heel angles may be specified. The Angle of steady heel is obtained as per §Angle of equilibrium . If User is selected. s-Final = K. for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single criteria. respectively. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. These are: 1. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 7 and 15 deg.length Vessel type: If Passenger is selected.general heeling arm This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met. The area ratio is evaluated as per § Ratio of areas type 1 . Displacement / Mheel where: Mheel is the maximum of the three selected heeling moments. then only the s-Final factor is computed and in this case. For the s-Final factor. {GZmax / limitGZmax .general heeling arm 3. Note: At least one of the individual criteria has to be selected. 2. The result is the minimum of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). All s-factors are in the range 0 <= s <= 1 Heeling arm. then s-Intermediate and s-Moment factors are computed. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. respectively. The criterion result is then the minimum value of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). Range / limitRange}1/4 where: K = 1 if equilibrium heel <= Theta_min K = 0 if equilibrium heel >= Theta_max K = {(Theta_max – equilibrium heel) / (Theta_max – Theta_min)}1/2 s-Intermediate = {GZmax / limitGZmax .length mass. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 25 and 30 deg. Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual components. Range / limitRange}1/4 if equilibrium heel > Max. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. If Cargo is selected. then all three s-factors are computed as for the Passenger ship.Appendix B moment Wind heel moment Select survival craft heel moment Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Link to wind heeling moment Link to heeling moment that defines the effect of launching survival craft Permissible minimum value for sfactor mass. combined criteria Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components.

The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. 3.general heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . a gust wind can be applied. The area ratio is evaluated as per Ratio of areas type 2 . For more information see: §Heel.general heeling arm. 1. Optionally. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. The angle of steady heel is obtained as per Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm.general wind heeling arm This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format. 2.Appendix F Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Page 282 . The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. The heeling arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power.

If this is done. a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied.Appendix B Area definition If required. all calculations are done using a reduced GZ‟ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows: GZ ' ( ) GZ ( ) B cos m ( ) This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many others of similar format): Page 283 .

4. PhiC is fixed at the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of GZ curve with heeling arm).2 IMO MSC.4.Appendix F US Navy DDS079-1: §079-1-c(9) 1.2.4.3.3. Royal Navy NES 109: §1.2. §079-1-c(9) 4. §1.general heeling arm This criterion is based on the calculations required for the Bureau Veritas criterion that ensures safety when cargo is accidentally lost while lifting. §4.2.2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria RAN A015866: §4.36(63) High-speed craft code §2. §1.1 ISO/FDIS 12217-1:2002(E) Small Non-Sailing Boats §6.3.5 IMO A. §4.749(18) Code on intact stability: §3.2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) . Area2 / Area1 must be greater than the required value phi2 .9. The criterion evaluates two checks: ratio of Area2 / Area1 and the remaining range of stability (phi3 – phi2).5.phi3 must be greater than the required value Page 284 .3.8.

The lesser of the following three options A specified. phi3 may be determined from a number of features of the GZ curve including being chosen such that Area3/Area1 is some specified value. The heeling arm is normally derived from a GZ value. the magnitude of the heeling arm is derived (rather than specified directly) from a required relationship between the GZ curve and the heeling arm curve. fixed heel angle Units Area1 integrated from the greater of (phi1) spec. GZ area or angle of equilibrium requirement.g. This angle is used to evaluate the second part of the criterion: the difference phi2-phi3 must be greater than the required value. The required ratio of Area3/Area2 used to determine the angle phi3 deg deg deg deg angle at which Area3 / Area1 is deg Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.Appendix B Option Description Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) Angle that defines the lower heel angle for the integration range of Area1. cos1. Derived heeling arm criteria For these criteria. heel angle (equilibrium angle during lifting) roll back from angle of equilibrium with heeling arm angle of equilibrium (without heel arm) Area2 integrated to the lesser of (phi2) Max. GZ derived heeling arm This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the value of GZ at a certain heel angle.3) must be specified. heeling angle due to roll taken as the lesser of (phi3) deg A roll-back angle (positive) from the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of the GZ and heeling arm curves) Roll back to the angle of equilibrium of the vessel (ignoring the heeling arm) Upper integration limit of Area2 chosen from the lesser of the seven options. For more information see: §Heel. The GZ value used to define the heeling arm is the GZ at one of the following heel angles: Page 285 . The criterion is then evaluated by comparing some requirement of the derived heeling arm with a specified value. The shape of the heeling arm (e.

1: specified angle of heel angle of equilibrium Upper integration limit. 2 2 1 GZ d A cos n d 1 A n GZ Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) heel angle GZ curve Required ratio Page 286 . A where: GZ cos n Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) Specified heel angle Value of GZ at specified heel angle Required ratio = GZ / HA A n GZ GZ area derived heeling arm type 1 This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the area under the GZ curve between specified limits.Appendix F specified angle of heel angle of first peak in GZ curve angle at which maximum GZ occurs angle of first downflooding immersion angle of margin line or deck edge The heeling arm is then calculated as described by the equation below. see below. Any negative areas (due to negative GZ) up to this minimum upper integration heel angle will be deducted from the total area under the GZ curve. The area under both the GZ and heeling arm curves is integrated between the same specified limits. The amplitude of the heeling. and is then compared with a minimum required value. Lower integration limit. which satisfies the equation below arm is then found and compared with a minimum required value. GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability It is also possible to specify a minimum heel angle for the upper integration limit. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of max. spec. heel angle 2: spec.

Page 287 .Appendix B GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves. roll back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of specified ratio. The rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the wind heeling arm. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward under the action of waves and then roll to leeward. The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a specified heel angle. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. The roll back may be specified as either: a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the wind heel arm. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. For more information see: §Heel. or roll back to a specified heel angle.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope). The amplitude of the heeling arm is then compared with a required minimum value.GZ derived wind heeling arm The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to wind pressure exceeds a certain value. angle of the first GZ peak. With the wind pressure acting on it.e. Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) .general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . A heeling arm of prescribed shape is found such that the specified area ratio is met.

the same cosine power is used for both the specified and the derived heeling arms. There are several options which can be used to define the upper and lower ranges for the area integrations. is the angle of equilibrium with a specified heeling arm. Page 288 . Angle of equilibrium . This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle. φ1. are in the specified ratio.Appendix F The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio. if the angle of steady heel is greater than the angle.GZ area derived heeling arm This criterion is used to compare the equilibrium angles with two different heeling arms. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. The first equilibrium angle. The second equilibrium angle. should be large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than …. first peak in GZ curve.derived wind heeling arm Ratio of equilibrium angles . φ2. The derived heeling arm is chosen such that the areas. The specified heeling arm is specified by an amplitude and cosine power. is the angle of equilibrium with a derived heeling arm. A1 and A2.

then the ratio φ2 : φ1 must be less than unity. Thus if it is required that φ2 be less than φ1.derived heeling arm Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 Area 1 Ratio of areas = Area 2 φ1 = Angle of equilibrium with heeling arm derived from required area ratio (purple heeling arm) φ2 = Angle of equilibrium with specified heeling arm (orange heeling arm) The criterion is passed if the ratio φ2 : φ1 is less than the required value.Appendix B Ratio of equilibrium angles . Option A n required area ratio Area1 / Area2 options options options Description Magnitude of specified heeling arm Cosine power to describe shape of both specified and derived heelning arms The required area ratio used to find the derived heeling arm magnitude Specify lower integration limit for Area1 Specify upper integration limit for Area1 Specify lower integration limit for Area2. the upper integration limit is always the angle of Units length deg deg deg Page 289 .

length length BH. beam of hull length Page 290 . Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. This value is normally less than or equal to 100%. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. sail area ISO 8666 length2 height of centroid of AS length LH. indicating that the equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm must be less than the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. 5 if the vessel. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) for exact definitions of parameters and how they should be calculated.STIX The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft. Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. zero trim condition. Hull length as defined by ISO 8666. Other criteria . are found here. zero trim condition. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. has reserve buoyancy and positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90º 0 in all other cases. . Units AS. Option delta Description Adjustment to STIX rating. positive up). which do not easily fall into the categories above. Other combined criteria Other criteria. The required input parameters are described below. either 0 or 5.Appendix F required value equilibrium with derived heel arm Specifies the maximum allowable ratio of equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm to the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm (phi2 / phi1). Note that no additional windage areas are calculated by Hydromax for this criterion. when fully flooded with water. this is not the same as the STIX variable hCE which is measured from the waterline. For more information see: §Heel. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. Height of sail area centre of effort from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline.

length waterline BWL. Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index. may be specified or calculated by Hydromax. This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and Downflooding factors. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Stand alone heeling arm criteria Angle of equilibrium . Height of centre of the lateral projected immersed area of the hull from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. but it is highly recommended to use the equivalent xRef criteria with the desired heeling arms. if no downflooding points are defined. or defined downflooding points do not immerse within the selected heel angle range. weight and location of the passengers. the angle of downflooding is taken to be the largest heel angle tested. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. They are included for compatibility with criteria sets defined in earlier versions of Hydromax. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating value rather than the STIX design category. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. this is not the same as the STIX variable hLP ). see §Passenger crowding. Hull waterline beam in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria These criteria provide some specific stand alone heeling arm criteria. Units length length length Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E).passenger crowding heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding applied. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. beam waterline height of immersed profile area centroid Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Hull waterline length in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. Page 291 . the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. The heeling arm is calculated from the number. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. Hydromax calculates this parameter at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity.Appendix B Option LWL. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Hence.

for further information also see §General cos+sin heeling arm H( ) Area 1 = Area 2 = k A cos n ( ) 2 1 B sin m ( ) .passenger crowding This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . The modified form of the heeling arm is given below. Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius.high-speed turn This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general heeling arm.Appendix F Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm. however the heel arm is the specific high-speed turning form. Ratio of areas type 1 . the only difference being the shape of the heel arm. vessel speed and height of the vessel‟s centre of gravity. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component.general cos+sin heeling arm This is a very similar criterion to § Ratio of areas type 1 . In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine and a cosine component. see §Turning. Page 292 . GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 4 3 GZ ( )d .high-speed turn heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning applied.general heeling arm. This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is used by several Navies. however the heel arm is the specific passenger crowding form. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .towing This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity).Appendix B Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) – cos+sin heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .lifting weight This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . projected area and area lever information.wind heeling arm This criterion is exactly the same as §Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .general cos+sin heeling arm. Area definition Page 293 .general cos+sin heeling arm. however the heel arm is the specific towing form. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . however the heel arm is the specific lifting of a heavy weight form.

For more information see: §Heel. Page 294 .Appendix F Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.

In Hydromax we have always sought to keep the physical significance transparent in the formulation – for this reason. at 2 . Remembering this relationship and that the slope of the dynamic stability curve is the value of GZ it is often possible to reformulate the same criterion in terms of one based on the GZ curve. This is the integral of the GZ curve where the ordinate is the area under the GZ curve integrated from zero to the heel angle in question. Dynamic stability criteria In some cases the criteria are expressed in terms of the so-called dynamic stability curve. constants such as acceleration due to gravity are explicitly shown in the formulations and consistent units are used – thus removing the need for obscure constants with strange units. From the figure above we can see that the slopes of both curves are the same at 1 and 2 . from this we can deduce that the value of GZ and Heeling arm are the same at these angles. we have tried to distil the essence of the various stability criteria and present them in their simplest form whilst preserving the physical significance of the stability characteristic under assessment. is presented in quite different ways by different regulatory bodies. In this section we look at some common criteria and demonstrate how they may be evaluated in Hydromax. The problem is to reformulate this so that this capsizing moment can be found from the GZ curve: Dynamic stability curve and Dynamic heeling arm. the values are the same indicating that the areas under each curve from 0 to 2 are the same. From these facts we can derive the following GZ and heeling arm curves: Page 295 .Appendix B Appendix D: Specific Criteria In Hydromax. In some cases. Capsizing moment Often a capsizing moment is determined from the dynamic stability curve by drawing a line through the origin which is tangent to the GZ area curve. what is essentially the same criterion. Furthermore. This is the dynamic heeling arm curve (blue) and is the integral of a constant value heeling arm. The capsizing moment is taken as the magnitude of GZ at this tangent heel angle 2 . Finally since the dynamic heeling arm is a straight line with constant slope we know that the corresponding heeling arm is a constant value.

Appendix F Stability curve. Area 1 corresponds to the area under the heeling arm curve up to the second intercept Stability curve. Area 2 corresponds to the area under the GZ curve up to the second intercept Knowing that Area1 = Area2 we can deduce that Area 3 = Area 4 in the figure below: Page 296 .

) In the following section. All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is ultimately plotted on the GZ curve...Appendix B The magnitude of the heeling arm must be chosen so that Area 3 = Area 4 So the capsizing moment can also be determined by finding the heeling moment that gives Area3 = Area4. and in the case of “moments” in mass. To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment.length.2 V02 L tonne KG d [kNm] 2 MR V0 L tonne = heeling moment in kNm = service speed in m/s = length of ship at waterline in m = displacement in tonne Page 297 .. the conversions for some common criteria have been explained.184m.2.75(69) 3. This can easily be done in Hydromax using the GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 criterion. Monaco. giving a conversion multiplier for knots to m/s of 0.749(18) amended to MSC. Thus 1 knot = 1852/3600 = 0..6 . m/s. (Note that the UK nautical mile is 6080ft = 1853. 1929).Note on unit conversion There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling arms. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is generating the heeling moment.Heeling due to turning Heeling moment defined by: MR Where: 0. IMO Code on Intact Stability A. Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or “moments” in mass. Heeling arms for specific criteria .1. Hydromax uses an internal conversion of knots to m/s based on the International Nautical mile which is defined as exactly 1852m (International Hydrographic Conference.5144444.51477333. it is necessary to divide by vessel mass. it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g ).length.

02 and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant lw1 PAZ 1000 g9.81 l w1 P tonne [m] Where: = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa Page 298 . we obtain: a V2 Rg h V02 0.2 V02 KG Lg d [m] 2 HR g 0.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: HR a V2 Rg h [m].1:1. 3.2 V02 KG L 1000 Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.2 KG Lg d 2 Equating similar terms: h V R L and KG V0 d 2 and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5.1:1 merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. H R 1000 M R / g [m]. we obtain: 510% a 0.02 Note that it suffices that a a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. Where: V R h a = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) Heeling arm defined by: L R 1. the choice of a ratio of 5.Appendix F d KG = mean draft m = height of centre of gravity above keel in m Hence the heeling arm. is given by: d 1000 2 g 0.2 510% 1.2 .

81m/s2 g9.80665 9.81 9.99966 IMO HSC Code MSC.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Page 299 .81 tonne Equating similar terms: h H and Z a g g9.Appendix B A Z tonne = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m = displacement in tonne = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration .Heeling moment due to wind pressure Heeling moment defined by: Mv 0.9.001PAZ 1000 g 1000M v / g [m].36(63) Annex 6 1.81 0.1.4 .81 The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9. we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ 1000 g9. H v HR g 0.001PAZ [kNm] = heeling moment in kNm = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m Where: Mv P A Z Hence the heeling arm. is given by: PAZ g [m] Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.

80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. we obtain: Equating similar terms: h H Z Page 300 . we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ g Equating similar terms: h H Z and a 1.3 .80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of half the lightest service draft in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. 0 Annex 7 1.Heeling due to wind Heeling arm defined by: HL1 Where: PAZ 9800 tonne [m] = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draft in = displacement in tonne HL1 P A Z m tonne The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.Appendix F Hw g h H a a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.

0002783 USL C.00068 Where the effect of wind plus gust is required. the factor a should be multiplied by the gust factor – typically 1.m] = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 Where: Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.0053 2 vkts tonnes h [tonne.000102 PA(h H ) [tonne.m] L Where: v kts tonne = vessel speed in knots = displacement in tonne Page 301 .80665 9.Wind heeling moment USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M h H P A 0.Appendix B and a g 9800 tonne 9.1.000102 1000.80665 1.8 1.4 .5.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g a Thus equating: H a PA(h H ) g 0. Hence. a becomes 1.Heeling moment due to turning USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M 0.3 .102 9.000102 PA(h H) 1000 [m] The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.0 g 0.1.1.50102 USL code (Australia) USL C.000102 PA(h H ) 1000 simplifying and rearranging: a 0. in the case of wind plus gust.1.

using annex D.0 [m] Where: = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a V2 Rg h [m].196424 R L 509% gives a value for a: R Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length. MW. is assumed to be constant at all angles of heel and shall be calculated as follows: Page 302 .80665 [ms-2]: a 0. we obtain: a V2 Rg h 0.0053 2 vkts tonnes h1 L 1000.0 simplifying and rearranging: a 5. with g = 9. whichever is the least.3g 2 R vkts L V2 tonnes 5. ISO 12217-1:2002(E) R L 0. the choice of a ratio of 509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. “6.5144 1000. The heeling moment due to wind. and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen.0053 2 vkts tonnes h1 L 1000. = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: V R h a Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.196424 509% 0.3.999798 a Note that it suffices that .196424 This section explains how the ISO 12217-1 code calculates the heeling arm and how you can replicate this calculation with a Hydromax criterion.3g R 1 1 2 L 0.0 finally. L a 0.Appendix F h L = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = waterline length of vessel in m Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.2 Rolling in beam waves and wind The curve of righting moments of the boat shall be established up to the downflooding angle or the angle of vanishing stability or 50°. expressed in newton metres.

1 m TM 1. a = 0. Hydromax‟ wind heeling arm calculation uses H for the vertical height of the hydrodynamic centre (underwater area) and h as the vertical height of the aerodynamic centre (windage area) – all measured consistently from the zero point.3 * 72 * (72 / 21.3 kg/m3 giving the expected result for heeling arm amplitude: Page 303 . Thus the lever is (h-H) in Hydromax should be the same as the (ALV / LWL + TM) lever from ISO.Appendix B MW = 0. TM is the draft at the mid-point of the waterline length. ALV is the windage area as defined in 3. h = (ALV / LWL + TM). For example. and 21 m/s for design category B. expressed in metres. vW = 28 m/s for design category A. You can calculate (ALV / LWL + TM) manually and then make sure the (h-H) value in Hydromax is the same by specifying: Velocity based heeling arm.3 * ALV * vW2.applies to the additional windage area or the total windage area depending on which option you have selected. the heeling moment is given as: MW = 0.312 m. area centroid height: h = ALV / LWL + TM = 72 / 21.55*LH * BH.” Basically they are using moment = force * lever.55 LH BH = 66 m2) Thus according to the ISO 12217 formula.3 kg/m3 Note: the centre of the windage area -h. H = 0.1 + 1.9) * 282 = 89961 Nm Thus the heeling arm = MW / Displacement = 89961 / 1037000 = 0. a = 0.0.0868 m The input for Hydromax requires: Total area A = 72 m2.9 = 5.9 m vW 28 m/s for design category A ALV 72 m2 ( this is greater than 0. Make sure you check your total windage lever in the intermediate results in the criteria results tab of the Results window. and the lever is (ALV / LWL + TM) This lever is a bit confusing so let‟s concentrate on that. positive up. supposing we have a vessel with the following characteristics: Displacement 105.7 tonne = 1037 kN LH 24 m BH 5 m LWL 21.3 ALV * (ALV / LWL + TM)* vW2 Where LWL is the waterline length.7.3.1 + 1. but shall not be taken as less than 0. where the force is calculated as 0.

ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.4: Heel due to wind action Page 304 . H.7 6. An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded.1.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. the default value is set at 1.1.1. In Hydromax. 6.2). See also the note on converting units for the definition of the heeling arms in ISO 122171:2002(E). In most cases the default required value would exceed the worst case.2) and entered into the required value field. 6. 2.Appendix F Intermediate results for the wind heeling arm. Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria. This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in Hydromax. 6. The default value is set to 49. positive upwards). Also determine the required wind speed and roll-back angle (depending on the design category) and enter these values. which depends on the category and length of vessel being tested. so this must be specified manually (it is measured from the model zero point.2: Offset-load test There are several ways of evaluating this criterion: 1. Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium.3. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum permissible value. there is no option for placing the height.3.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3 (Section 6. 6. 6. one to check that the righting moment is sufficient and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient. of the centre of lateral resistance at the bottom of the vessel.1. see Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6.3: Resistance to wind and waves Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the criterion. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium analysis. 6.3: Resistance to waves This criterion comprises two parts.

3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. the default value is set at 1.2. it should self right.6: Wind stiffness test Page 305 .2. 6.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6. the default value is set at 1.6. The default value is 130.2. Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion.3: Angle of vanishing stability Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category and vessel displacement.3).4: Stability index (STIX) Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category.2. see Tables 3 (Sections 6. The default value is set to 40 6. 6. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis. 7.7).42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.2) and entered into the required value field.6. 6.4. see Table 5 (Section 6.2) Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m 6. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward.2) and entered into the required value field.Appendix B Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per 6. If desired you can specify the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you. 7. Section 6. Determine the limiting heel angle from Table 4 (Sections 6. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.3.9). it should self right. but note the different wind speeds to be used.2. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle. Non-Sailing Boats: 6.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.2: Downflooding-height tests Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading condition. Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading condition.6. 6.6.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. 6.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6. Convert this to a heeling lever.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle.2.3: Offset-load test This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with the required offset loading condition Sailing Boats: 7.

Page 306 .Appendix F Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward. Convert this to a heeling lever. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.6. Section 6.6.7).

Links to or information on the Results tables . precision.msd Description Contains control point and surface information. colour When opening a .Maxsurf surface information . Contains hydrostatic sections information and all Input information that may also be stored separately in the files below The . trimming.e. outside arrows. The .hmd file contains all the additional information that defines the Hydromax model and you need only save this file when working in Hydromax. flexibility. not when the model is opened. i. The library is loaded when the program starts. margin lines.Appendix B Appendix E: Reference Tables This appendix contains the following reference tables: File Extension Reference Table Analysis settings reference table File Extension Reference Table The following table lists files that are used in Hydromax.g.txt Description Result tables can be saved separately Results tables can not be opened in Hydromax The report can be saved separately Report .htk . E.hmd Separate Input files Loadcase Compartments Damage cases All Input window tables Extension . Downflooding/embarkation points.hcr Description The library is not related to the Hydromax Design File. File Maxsurf Design Extension . thickness. However.Links to or information on the Report Hydromax Design . is not model related.hml . sounding pipes and modulus Output files All Result Window tables Extension . this can be done by going to the appropriate window and saving it to a separate file.hmd file does not contain: . Page 307 . if you wish to transfer loadcases or compartment definitions from one model to another.txt Description Each loadcase can be saved separately The compartment definition can be saved separately The damage case definition can be saved separately All tables in the input window can be saved as text files.rtf Library Hydromax Criteria Library Extension .msd file Hydromax looks for a .dcs . For more information see the section on criteria.Links to or information on the Stability Criteria Library .hmd file with the same name.

the current VCG is used. 2 The VCG is not required for the Limiting KG analysis. result S R LC FTTLC FTT Cannot be specified – they are a calculated resul Specific (fixed. Analysis Settings Analyses type Trim Heel Draft DisplaceLCG TCG VCG ment Upright stability Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Specified Condition KN values Limiting KG Floodable Length Tank Calibration S S/ FTTLC result S S / FTT S / FTT FTT S Upright R result S R R Upright Upright R result result S result result result n/a result LC LC S / LC R R R n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ FTT S/ FTT FTT n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ LC4 S/ LC4 n/a n/a For GM etc. the trim can be substantial and the vertical separation of CG and CB needs to be taken into account.Appendix F Analysis settings reference table The following table can be used as a reference to the various analysis settings for each analyses type. When calculating the LCG from a specified trim and displacement. During the floodable length analysis. 4 The TCG may be specified directly of derived from the lost cargo / ballast water in damaged tanks from the current loadcase. Page 308 . single) value to be set by user Varied within Range specified by user Calculates values from loadcase – specifies displacement and COG only Free-to-trim to loadcase CG Free-to-trim to LCG calculated from a specific initial trim angle or specified LCG (and VCG) 1 The VCG is used in two ways in the KN analysis. a) The VCG only has an effect on the results if the analysis is free-to-trim. b) The GZ curve is calculated for the specified VCG and then the normalised KN curve is calculated as KN = GZ + VCG*SIN(heel). 3 The VCG is required for the floodable length analysis because of its effect on trim. LC LC S / LC S1 result2 S3 n/a Where.

testing of the computer implementation of those algorithms. testing of real world problems inhouse and beta testing in the field at Hydromax user sites. Structured Programming The best defence against bugs in software is to use structured programming techniques that have been proven to improve software reliability. we summarize by saying that we utilize structured code. This following explains how Formation Design Systems has verified that Hydromax gives accurate results and what steps we take to make sure that each version of the software we ship is as reliable as possible. we follow a series of engineering and testing principles and procedures to ensure that Hydromax will produce results which are consistent with the level of accuracy and thoroughness a professional engineer applies to design work. verification of the underlying algorithms. object oriented design. Quality Principles While it is impossible to ensure that any software product is completely free of bugs.Appendix B Appendix F: Quality Assurance This appendix describes the quality assurance processes used to ensure Hydromax gives reliable and accurate results. Hydromax is a complex software system of over 400. Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions. These designs are of simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax. Quality Assurance Many Hydromax users ask us how we know that Hydromax produces the correct results. Reference Designs A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. data hiding and encapsulation and fault tolerant programming practices to enhance our software's reliability. see Reference Calculations. Without going into the technical details of our software development methodology. To this end we follow a development and testing path which includes use of structured programming techniques. we first carry out testing on the algorithms on Reference Designs – these are proven test cases with known analytical solutions. Verification of Algorithms When new design or analysis algorithms are introduced into Hydromax. Page 309 .000 lines of code and we believe our history of reliability reflects the effort we have put into using reliable coding practices.

06% -1.257 833.122 -2.00% 0.01% -0.333 833.991 Maxsurf Hi Precision 392.333 833.23% -0.874 WP Area m^2 100 100 100 100 100 VCB m -2.873852 488. I m^4 Long. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.79% % error -0.6807269 488.34279 261.00% 0.333 833.121 -2.04% -2.874 -1. I 833.01% -0.72% % error 0.Appendix F Reference Calculations Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs.57% % error -0.333333 833.33333 833.673 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision 391.875 -1.00% 0.333333 833.05% -0.00% 0.105 WP Area m^2 78.341 77.53982 78.89 % error -0.79939 261.534 78.564741 490.00% Page 310 .10% -1.39% -1.761 480.699 392.93873 485.33333 833.875 -1.121 -2. at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 392.00% 0.191 490.122 -2.00% 0.03% Analytically derived Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 10m Cylinder 10m diam.00% % error 0.01% -0.01% -0.14247 488.18% -0. comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values sphere 10m diam at 5m draft Volume m^3 261.02% -0.87385 489.357 78. I Long.532 257.875 -1.00% 0.56% -0.47% -0.118 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.57 483.88% % error -0.871 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.00% % error 0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans. I Long.00% 0.333 % error -0.522 Maxsurf Low Precision 389.308 833.764 260.25% -0. I m^4 Long.01% 0.849 VCB m -1. I 490.

22% -0.00% 0.D=0.00% 0.667 % error 0.39% % error -0. I m^4 Long.00% 0.00% 0.3773 168.92418 1. I Long.00% % error 0.00% 0. I m^4 Long.5 -2.5 -2.9375 Volume WP Area VCB m^3 m^2 m Analytically derived 9.351 Maxsurf Low Precision 9.01% -0.00% % error 0.75 168.302 14.998 -0.00% 0.09% -0.352 9.03% -0.666666 1666.00% % error 0.07% -0.00% 0.351 14.5 -2. I 1.98 -0.667 6666.Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 1000 Hydromax High Precision 1000 Hydromax Low Precision 1000 Maxsurf Hi Precision 1000 Maxsurf Low Precision 1000 WP Area m^2 200 200 200 200 200 VCB m -2.00% 0.5 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.942 -0.667 6666.26% -0.00% 0.6667 6666. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.351 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.00% 0.6667 6666.999 -0.00% 0.92527 1.4685 168.666666 1666.666666 1666.368 Hydromax High Precision 14.01% -0. I 1666.352 Maxsurf Hi Precision 9.07% -0.97% % error -0.927 1.621 % error -0.372 14. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.24% -0.04% -0.6667 6666.91 168. I Long.5 -2. LWL=15m.92875 1.00% 0.5m.352 Hydromax Low Precision 9.67% Page 311 .78% % error -0.375 15 -0.13% -0.00% Parabolic Wigley type Hull.01% -0.667 1666.B=1.63 167.

A beta release is a final test version of the program released for field testing prior to commercial release. testing is then carried out on more complex sample problems to which a solution has already been established using a proven analysis program. If the version is a development. A development version is usually only for internal use and is a very early demonstration of a possible new product or feature. it is not reliable.com and explain what you believe the problem to be. and send you a new corrected version of the program. It is the users' responsibility to correctly model the structure and assume responsibility for the results.64 But we're not Perfect We make every effort to ensure that our software will meet our users' needs and perform accurately. we will correct it as soon as practicable. An alpha release is a first public release of a program for initial testing and comment. A commercial release is a completed.5 1. Testing of Upgrades As each new version of Hydromax is released we perform a series of tests to ensure it functions correctly. we begin shipping the commercial version.6 1. It is mostly reliable but may contain some bugs. Once the beta test program is completed and all testers are happy with the program.Appendix C Testing of Implementation Once the basic algorithms have been proven correct.0 1. it is possible for errors to occur.5a2 The second alpha test release of version 1. debugged program reliable and ready for professional use. Version Control Each new version of Hydromax displays a version number indicating the version and the date the software was first shipped. AutoShip etc. To get accurate results from Hydromax. Beta Testing Immediately prior to the release of each new version of Hydromax. as with all complex software systems. This involves sending the software to practicing engineers and having them use it on design work in progress to determine its reliability for actual design use. we conduct a beta test of the software.0d1 The first development release of version 1. it is necessary for you to model the problem correctly and to correctly interpret the results produced. In the unlikely event of a problem being found. the version number may also include a letter and number suffix indicating the type and number of the release. These results may either come from Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering texts such as well as from other results carried out by Formation Design Systems or other engineers using other software products such as NAPA. These beta testers provide us with feedback on the reliability and accuracy of the program as well as its useability and suitability for everyday work. For example 1. It is highly experimental and not reliable.64 A commercial release of version 1. Page 312 . please contact our technical support staff by email at support@formsys.6b2 The second beta test release of version 1. At each release the results from these tests are compared with the results from the previous release to ensure conformance with answers which have been established as being correct. alpha test or beta test release. However. If you suspect a problem with Hydromax.

........................................................ 34 Copy . 181 Check for Updates....................................................................... 77 Analysis Menu ................... 200 Save As ................................................................ 84 Curves of Form ..................................... 184 New ................................................... 52 Creating a new Loadcase File ....................................................................................... 181 Centre of gravity ................................................................................................................ 200 Copying Graphs .. 70 Tanks............. 183 Data Format ............................ 79 Animate .... Main Import....................... 211 Hydrostatic ................................................................................................. 202 Add Damage case ..... 155 Damage Case Add...................... 204 Cell Border ................... 185 C Calibration Increment . 147 Coordinate system.....72.......... 213 B Background ............................................. 218 Beta Testing ............................................................Index Index A About Hydromax . 73 Extent of damage ............... 70 Linked Tanks ..... 313 Block Coefficient ................. 72 saving ............. 199 Save As ............................................................ 191 Copying Tables ........................ 201 Centre of buoyancy ........................................................ 62 Convergence Error ......................................................................................................... 73 Damage Window ... 205 Criteria File Format............ 36 Colour .. 212 Assembly View ................................ 70 Non-Buoyant Volumes ................................................................ 200 Criteria.... 103 KN Values Analysis ...................................................... 204 Add Load ....................................158................................................................................. 91 Tank Calibrations ............................................ 139 Beam .............................................................. 108 Upright Hydrostatics .................... 181 Centre of flotation .... 93 Large Angle Stability ....................................... calculation of........................................... 309 Toolbar ...................................... 210 Batch Analysis ........ 70 Compartments.............. 39 Criteria ............................................... 96 Longitudinal Strength .... 195 Analysis in waves ... 84 Cut.......... 181 Automation Reference ........... delete ......................... Prob Damage Import....................................................................... 150 Create cases from Zone Damage ........ 213 Activate GHS Export ............................................................................................................................ 52 Saving ................. 216 Coefficients...185........... 90 Analysis type Equilibrium ............................................................................................... 74 Rename ................... 200 Curve of Areas .................................................................................................................................................................................... 69 Compartments ...................... 204 Output ........... 200 D Damage ................................................................. 42 Add Surface Areas ................... 211 Arrange Icons ..............51................................... 82 Limiting KG .................... 212 Case Menu ....................................................... 200 Reset to defaults .... add.......................................................................................................................... 42 Coefficient parameters ... 207 Page 313 ............. 201 Cell Shading .......................... 172 Criteria.................................................. 221 Boundary Box ... 202 Allowable shears and moments .... 161 Compartment types ........... 78..................... 88 Floodable Length ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 159 Corrected VCG ........................................................................................... 174 Criteria Libraries ...................... 106 Specified Conditions ............................................. 204 Creating a Compartment definition file ............ 52 Forming .. 70 Linked ............................................................................................ 52 Bulkheads................................................................................................................................................................. 156 Settings.......... 72 Display ..... 213 Closing a Loadcase .................................... 203 Compartment Definition ........................... 161 Select......................................................................... 71 Cascade ............................................................................. 72 Delete .......................................................

....... Add................................................................................................................................ 219.......................................... 220 Draft marks .................... 189 Curves of Form ............................................................ 201 Move Items Down.... 201 Floodable Length ......... 160 Displacement....................................... 198 Export Bitmap .............................................................................. 18 Design... 159 Graph Window .................................................................................................................... 212 Hide DXF.. 189 Type ..................................................................................................... 197 Exit .................. 189 double click .......................................................... 210 Density ..... 190 get data ............. 201 Emergence Angles ......51................................. 205 Design Grid ................ 145...................... 210 Display Menu ....... 204 Edit Menu ..................................................... 189 Data interpolation................................. Export................... 214 Frame of Reference ............... 197 Open ........ 202 Sort Items ........... 190 Graph Printing to Scale ................................. 151......... 211 Deactivate GHS Export........................ 204 G GHS........................................................................... 73 Fluid analysis method .................. 20 Saving ........................................................................................................ 205 Flooding ... 205 Heeling Moments ....................................................................................................................................... Import......................... 205 Font ....... 198 ...........0 file.......................................................................... 202 Move Items Up ....................... 210 Home View ..154.. 202 Horizontal lever ...........21...................................................... 196 Edit Damage case.................... 190 Righting Lever (GZ) ..................................... 197 Save ............................ 189 Graph colours ............... 240 Help Menu ................................. coherence ..........................................................181........................................... 201 Delete Damage case ................................................... 199 Exporting .......................... 9.. 197 File Toolbar.......................... 87 Equilibrium .................................... 204 Edit Loadcase .. 18.................................... 9 Export......................... 195...................................... 207 Downflooding Angles .......Index Data layout ........... 188 Graphs .................. 150 Freeboard ............................................................................................. 194 Edit................................................ 186 Data Menu.................................................................................................0 ................18................... 198 GHS..................................................... 201 Delete ............... 199 Free Surface Moment .... 185 Linking to tanks or compartments ....... 8 H Heel ........ 12 Floodable Length Criteria dialog .............................. 200 Hydromax Version 8..................................... Page 314 Close .............. 197 Save As ............................................................... Export ......................................................................................................................................................... 88 Equilibrium Condition ......... 210 Grounding ........ 161 Extent of Damage ........................................... Export................................................................. 35 DWL ....... 198 Dynamic Stability .................................... 211 Design Grid Toolbar .............. 206 Hydromax v8.......................................................... 206 GZ ................ 162 DXF....................................................... 35............................................................ 204 Delete DXF background ............. 83 E Edge Visibility Toolbar........................................... 194 File............................................................................................................................. 75.............................. 202 Delete Cells ........................................ 211 Fredyn .................. 56 Extra Buttons Toolbar ..... 196 F File Extension Table ................................................................................................... 190 Graph Formatting ...... 205....................................................................................... 200 Edit Toolbar .... 149 Fluid VCG. 162 New ................. 197 Fill Down . 204 External Tanks ................. 80 DXF export ............................142..........................................................................................80...... 87 Downflooding points ........ 308 File Menu .................... 43 Hull Sections Recalculate ................................ 198 Graph ....................................................... 89 Full Screen ...................................... 76 Draft .. 196 Design Preparation .................................................. 146.. 205 Display Background ................................. 189 Grid .. 212 Curve of Areas ....................................................................................... 203 Form parameters ................... 151 Fluids .............51................

............................................. 161 Input Window .......... 213 Outside arrows ......................................................................... Export ....... 43 Blank lines ...................................................................... 96 Linked negative compartments . 172 Limiting KG ............................. 220 Modulus points ............................. 49 Loadcase... 198 Immersed depth........... 204 Loadcase......... surface ........................ 51 nuShallo. 212 Input Tables................................ 198 Import Image Background ........... 51 Loading a Saved Loadcase....... 46 Loadgroup ..... 201 Permeability ......................... 93 L Large Angle Stability ...... 221 Prob damage zones ............ 87 Import.............................................................................................. 20 overlap ...................... 186 KN Values.............................. 84 lateral projected area ..................................... 205 Perspective view ........................................................... 220 Immersion ......................... 22 Preferences ....... 10... 75............. LCG ... 223 Maximum shears and moments ................13............. 198 O Online Support .........16............................................... 159 Printing................ 223 Immersion Angles ...................... 14 MARPOL oil outflow ................ 44 Headings lines ................................ 197 MEPC................ 146........................................................... 44 Loadcase Sorting....................... 223 MSC..............23.......................................................... 220 Maximum deck inclination ................ 58...................... 44 Loadcase Formatting..................... 183 Loadcase............ 41 saving ....................................... 209 Page 315 ..................................................... 40 Loadcase Window.................................. 201 Midship Section ..141(54) Reg........77.................... 45 Editing loads ................. 43 Loadcase Template .............. 77 Moment to trim ....................Index I IGES..........................216(82) ...... 116 MSC..... 240 LCB.................. 303 K Key points ......................................... 113 Max................ 222 Length ...................... 11............ 161 Update ..........................................................................181.......................................... 159 Prismatic Coefficient ............ 76 editing ............. density ............................................... 214 Menus................ Workshop structure .............. 217 Libraries ............................................ 42 Renaming ................................... 212 Adding and Deleting loads..................................................................... Distributed Loads .........................38. 47 Loadcase Colour Formatting.................................................................. max.12A................ 185 Modulus Window ............... 58 Loadcase ............................................................ 35.. 43 Totals ......19(58) . 42 Distributed loads .13................................................. 206 MARPOL ................. 201 Installing Hydromax ................. Snap to hull ..................................... 16 ISO 12217-1 ...................................................... Area Section ............................................................................... 202 Paste ......................................................... formatting......... 182 Precision.................................................................................................................................................... 75 Data ........................... 113 Merge Cells ........................................................ 43 Grouping tanks .................................................................................. 82...................................... 159 Printing to scale ....... 77 Measurement reference frames ................................................................................................ 45 Loadcase........................................................................................................................... 87 deleting.......................... 34 Input ............ 59 P Page Setup............................................ 185 adding.......................................................... 38......................................................................................................................... 51 maximum number ................. 201 Insert Row ...... 47 Loadcase........................... 41 Longitudinal Strength ........... Import ....................................... 8.......117(52) Reg....... 76 Results .......... 210 Initial Conditions ................................................. 113 MEPC..... 47 Loadgroup.................................................................... 202 Print........................................... 44 Loadcase........... cross referencing .. 185 Margin Line...................... 200 Pan .............. 116 N Non-Buoyant Volume Definition ........................................................................................................................ 106 M Margin Line points.................................................... 200 Print Preview................ 197 Import DXF Background ........... column selection ............................ 198 Individual Loadcase ............. number ...... Tank loads ................... 42 Free surface correction ............ saving . 184 Insert New Table ............

.............. 249 Stability criteria............... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ....... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Saving input parameters .......................... capsizing moment............... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .. dialog ...... 270 Stability criteria............................................................. 310 Relative Density ....................................... 191 Keystrokes.......................... 206 Righting Moment ...................... 248 Stability criteria................................ 156 Results ............... 293 Stability criteria.. 181........ 202 Simulate fluid movement ....... 293 Stability criteria........................................................... Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms .... 201 Select View from Data . 15............................. 184 Calibration Increment .......... 119 Probabilistic Damage – log file...... 293 Stability criteria......................................................................... Angle of margin line immersion ........... 19 Page 316 Sounding Pipes ......................................................... 210 Sectional Area Curve ................. 161 Resume Analysis. 196 Report Window ...........269......... 84 Save ..... 91............... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .................... 31 Sections. 202 Row Positioning . 187 Stability criteria............ 211 Report Toolbar ..................................general cos+sin heeling arm ...... 151 Skin Thickness ................. 151 Render ............................................................................................ 203 Property Sheet .... 181 Q Quality Assurance ...............70................. 146 Split Cell ......................... 150 Stability criteria................. 151 Specified Condition .......... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ........... 268 Stability criteria.......................................................highspeed turn heeling arm ...... 207 Stability booklet ........................................... 201 S Safe steady heeling angles .................................... show single............. 201 Spool to Report .... check boxes ......... 248 Stability criteria............................................................ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ..................................... 16 Show DXF ...... angle calculators .......... 294 Stability criteria........... Angle of equilibrium ................passenger crowding ......... 161 Saving Densities.................60..................................................................................................................................................................................10... 160...... 117 Probabilistic Damage – Principles ... 221 Section...... Angle of maximum GZ .............. 311 Reference Designs ... 250 Stability criteria.......................................high-speed turn .............. 240 Stability criteria....................... 212 Results Window ... 60...................................... 293 Stability criteria............... 136 Probabilistic Damage – Inputs ...................................................... 228 Stability criteria. 209 Shift Key .... 209 Set Analysis Type ...... 138............ 27 Select All............ 205 Specified Conditions.... 206 Set Home View ............... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Analysis .................... 210 Show Grid .................... 70 Specific Gravity ........... 296 Stability criteria..... Angle of downflooding ......................................................towing................... Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm ..................... 224 Rotate ............ 249 Stability criteria................... Angle of vanishing stability ..................................... Angle of deck edge immersion ....................................... 201 Show single hull section ......................Index Probabilistic Damage ................................................................................... 292 Stability criteria............... 30 Shrink .....lifting weight ............... 250 Stability criteria.............................. Angle of equilibrium .............. 202 Set Vessel to DWL.............................. 193 Reporting ...... 185 Results....... Forming ... 310 Quality Principles.............. Angle of equilibrium ...................................................... 152 Section Area Coefficient ....... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ....... 282 Stability criteria..................... 78 Stability Criteria Results ....GZ derived wind heeling arm. 294 Stability criteria........ 119 Properties ................................................................................ 270 Stability criteria........................................general heeling arm .................... Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm .............. Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm ....... Areas and levers ........ 289 Reference Calculations ................ saving . 310 R Ratio of equilibrium angles – GZ area derived heeling arm................general wind heeling arm 283 ........................................................................................ 277 Stability criteria.............. 171 Stability criteria................................................. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .............................................................................. 211 Render Transparent ...... Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm .................... 288 Stability criteria....................................................................... 71 Edit .......

..... 250 Stability criteria................... 272 Stability criteria................ 253 Stability criteria......... 263 Stability criteria.. Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm..... Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm .general heeling arm .................................................... 173 Stability criteria......HSC multihull type ...... 251 Stability criteria.......... Heeling due to wind . GZ curve features .... importing .................................................... 237 Stability criteria.........................................general heeling arm .... 270 Stability criteria. 229 Stability criteria..................... 240 Stability criteria... 275 Stability criteria... Heeling due to arbitrary forces ........ 266 Stability criteria.229..165........... 239 Stability criteria..............231........................ 264 Stability criteria....... 234 Stability criteria........... 232 Stability criteria........................wind heeling arm ............ Range of positive stability . Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium ............ 178 Stability criteria.......... pass/fail test ..... parent criteria ..... 176 Stability criteria. Ratio of areas type 3 general heeling arm ..... glossary .multiple heeling arms . Other criteria .......... 170 Stability criteria......... GZ derived heeling arm .......36(63 ...................... IMO Code on Intact Stability A.... Heeling due to turning... 172 Stability criteria......... 274 Stability criteria.....172........................................................ 288 Stability criteria..... 170 Stability criteria.................. GM calculators ........ 294 Stability criteria............. 262 Stability criteria.............. 255 Stability criteria....... 268 Stability criteria...... 250 Stability criteria........ heeling arm dependency on displacement ..... 298 Stability criteria.. 244 Stability criteria.............. 170 Stability criteria................................. 235 Stability criteria.............HSC monohull type ......... 243 Stability criteria..... Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm .. Ratio of GZ area between limits ................. heeling arm units ............. 247 Page 317 . 242 Stability criteria...... General heeling arm .. Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm . minimum GM calculator – Constant ..... GZ area between limits type 3 ..... 235 Stability criteria.......................................... 286 Stability criteria................................. 179 Stability criteria.............. defining custom criteria..................... minimum GM calculator – Grain ............................ 271 Stability criteria.................... copying criteria...... Ratio of GMT and heeling arm ..... 229 Stability criteria................... Heeling due to lifting of weights ........................... 238 Stability criteria.... GZ area between limits type 1 ..................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2..... GZ area between limits type 2 .......... 261 Stability criteria..........................general heeling arm ... IMO HSC Code MSC................ Maximum value of heel...749(18) ........................................ 279 Stability criteria. 278 Stability criteria. ISO 12217 .. Heeling due to bollard-pull .................................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) ...... damage and intact settings ............... GZ area derived heeling arm type 1.......... 239 Stability criteria....... IMO roll back angle calculator .............................................. minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure .................... 236 Stability criteria...........Index Stability criteria......... list ......................... 172 Stability criteria..... 300 Stability criteria..... 238 Stability criteria....... 242 Stability criteria.. 305 Stability criteria. General cos+sin heeling arm ...................................................... 278 Stability criteria.............................. 242 Stability criteria. GZ area between limits type 2 ...................................... 243 Stability criteria... Gust ratio ........... 287 Stability criteria..... equilibrium ............ Heeling due to passenger crowding .... 163 Stability criteria........... 298 Stability criteria.............. Heeling due to grain shift 239 Stability criteria...... criteria library file ........... GZ area between limits type 1 ........ GZ area derived heeling arm type 2................. GZ area between limits type 2................................ 233 Stability criteria..... pitch or slope at equilibrium ..................... GZ definitions .......... Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms ........ minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard .... 293 Stability criteria. moving criteria ....... GZ....................................... 285 Stability criteria...................................................... Heeling due to towing ..... 172 Stability criteria....................................... non-healing arm ......... Ratio of areas type 2 general heeling arm ............ 262 Stability criteria..230. 291 Stability criteria....standard................. 273 Stability criteria.... 233 Stability criteria........ Range of positive stability general heeling arm ................................. Heeling due to trawling .... Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium .231.........multiple heeling arms ........................STIX .............. heeling arm definition ........................................................ GZ area between limits type 1 ...........................................

....... 209 Visibility Toolbar ....... 276 Stability criteria.......................................................................................... 280 Stability criteria............................................. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 ............................... results ........multiple heeling arms........................ 59 Tanks Recalculate ................... Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle .......... 246 Start Analysis ........................ 203 Trapezoidal integration ...................................................................................... 181 Visibility ....................................13........... 244 Stability criteria...........................143................ 58............. User Defined Heeling Arm ............ Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm ............................................ 144 Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value ......... 268 Stability criteria.....general heeling arm.................................... tree list .................................................................................. KN .......194.. 108 Tank Type external.........195................................................. selecting for analysis ...................... 54 complex ................................................................. 58 Tanks............................................. Subdivision Index s-factor MSC 19(58 .... Survivability Index MSC_216(82) ............................... 145 Tile Horizontal .......... 54 Non-Buoyant Areas .. 211 Update Loadcase . 79 V Validate Hydromax model . 200 Units ......................................................... 244 Stability criteria..................................................... boundary surfaces ..................................................................... 61 Page 318 Tank Calibrations ..................... 174 Stability criteria................. 145 View (extended)Toolbar ............................................................ 196 View Direction ................................. 212 View Menu ...................... deleting ...... 54 simple ....... 61 Visibility ........................................... 245 Stability criteria................................ 203 Stop Analysis .............. 206 Start Batch Analysis... 170 Stability criteria.................... 30 VCG for trim balance....................................... 16 Status Bar ........................................................... Value of maximum GZ ..................... 243 Stability criteria...................................... Value of GMt at ........... Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle ................. 153 Wave height . 194 View Window ................................................ 138.............................................................. 206 Upright Hydrostatics ............. 60 Ordering ........... 234 Stability criteria.................................... 205 sinusoidal ........................ 176 Stability criteria............................. 138........... 52 tapered.. 195 TCG................................................................37.................................................................................................................................................... 244 Stability criteria........................ 169 Stability criteria....................................................... 207 Starting Hydromax ...... USL code.. 205 Fixed .....................................7.............................................. 52 Fluids ...... 145 Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value ................................ 60 Saving ............... 53 tanks overlap ......general heeling arm ................................... 260 Stability criteria........................... 156 Surface Use ......... 27 Trim ....... Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits ................ 302 Stability criteria................................................ 207 Streaming results to Word ...................... 154 Waveform ..................................................... 257 Stability criteria............. 61 Permeability ............................................... 147 Toolbars ...................... Value of GZ at ....................... 161 Surface Thickness ...... 212 Tile Vertical ............................................................................. 212 Tolerances ..........................................Index Stability criteria............ 264 Stability criteria.............................. 153 trochoidal ...... 56 Recalculate ........... checking .......................... 265 Stability criteria.......................... 264 Stability criteria..... 20 U Undo.. 145 Trim angle ..................................................... report and batch processing .......................................... Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm .......... 196 W Waterplane Area Coefficient ....................................................... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 ........ Limiting KG....................... 19 T Table ................... 206 Tanks within Compartments ....................... 223 Trimmed surfaces.. Value of GMt or GMl at equilibrium ............................ 202 View Toolbar ........................................................................... 222 Wave definition.... 201 Tank adding... 56 linked ........ 173 Stability criteria................ saving ................ Value of GMt at equilibrium ...... 153 .

........................ 18.. 181........ report templates. 154 Wetted surface area........ 16 Word.................... 195 Windows Registry........................................... 157 Z Zero Point .......................... report streaming to ............... 156 Word...........Index Wavelength ........................ 202 Page 319 ........................ integration of ................. 35............................................... 212 Window Toolbar ................ 43 Zoom ......... 224 Window Menu ..........................................