# Hydromax

Windows Version 16

User Manual

© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 - 2011

**License and Copyright
**

Hydromax Program © 1985-2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hydromax User Manual © 2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems‟ distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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Contents

Contents

License and Copyright...................................................................................................... iii Contents .............................................................................................................................. v About this Manual .............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 Input Model .............................................................................................................. 3 Analysis Types ......................................................................................................... 4 Analysis Settings ...................................................................................................... 4 Environment Options ............................................................................................... 4 Stability Criteria ....................................................................................................... 5 Output....................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2 Quickstart ........................................................................................................... 7 Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart .............................................................................. 7 Large Angle Stability Quickstart ............................................................................. 8 Equilibrium Condition Quickstart ............................................................................ 9 Specified Condition Quickstart .............................................................................. 10 KN Values Quickstart ............................................................................................ 10 Limiting KG Quickstart ......................................................................................... 11 Floodable Length Quickstart .................................................................................. 12 Longitudinal Strength Quickstart ........................................................................... 13 Tank Calibrations Quickstart ................................................................................. 13 MARPOL oil outflow Quickstart ........................................................................... 14 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart............................................................................ 15 Chapter 3 Using Hydromax .............................................................................................. 16 Getting Started ....................................................................................................... 16 Installing Hydromax .................................................................................... 16 Starting Hydromax ....................................................................................... 16 Hydromax Model ................................................................................................... 17 Preparing a Design in Maxsurf .................................................................... 18 Opening a New Design ................................................................................ 21 Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File ............................................... 22 Effect of Zero Point change ......................................................................... 24 Updating the Hydromax Model ................................................................... 26 Hydromax Sections Forming ....................................................................... 27 Checking the Hydromax model ................................................................... 30 Setting Initial Conditions ............................................................................. 34 Working with Loadcases.............................................................................. 38 Modelling Compartments ............................................................................ 51 Tank sections ............................................................................................... 61 Forming Compartments ............................................................................... 62 Compartment Types ..................................................................................... 68 Sounding Pipes ............................................................................................ 69 Damage Case Definition .............................................................................. 71 Key Points (e.g. Down Flooding Points) ..................................................... 74 Margin Line Points ...................................................................................... 76 Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments ................................. 76 Floodable Length Bulkheads ....................................................................... 77 Stability Criteria........................................................................................... 77 Analysis Types ....................................................................................................... 77 Upright Hydrostatics .................................................................................... 78 Large Angle Stability ................................................................................... 80 Equilibrium Analysis ................................................................................... 87

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Contents

Specified Conditions .................................................................................... 90 KN Values Analysis..................................................................................... 92 Limiting KG................................................................................................. 95 Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks.................. 98 Floodable Length ....................................................................................... 102 Longitudinal Strength ................................................................................ 105 Tank Calibrations ....................................................................................... 107 MARPOL Oil Outflow .............................................................................. 112 Probabilistic Damage ................................................................................. 115 Starting and Stopping Analyses ................................................................. 137 Batch Analysis ........................................................................................... 138 Analysis Settings .................................................................................................. 141 Heel ............................................................................................................ 141 Trim ........................................................................................................... 142 Draft ........................................................................................................... 144 Displacement ............................................................................................. 145 Specified Conditions .................................................................................. 145 Permeability ............................................................................................... 145 Tolerances .................................................................................................. 146 Analysis Environment Options ............................................................................ 147 Fluids Analysis Methods ........................................................................... 148 Density of Fluids........................................................................................ 150 Waveform .................................................................................................. 152 Grounding .................................................................................................. 153 Stability Criteria......................................................................................... 154 Damage ...................................................................................................... 154 Analysis Output.................................................................................................... 155 Reporting ................................................................................................... 155 Copying & Printing.................................................................................... 157 Select View from Analysis Data ................................................................ 159 Saving the Hydromax Design .................................................................... 159 Exporting ................................................................................................... 160 Chapter 4 Stability Criteria ............................................................................................. 163 Criteria Concepts.................................................................................................. 163 Criteria List Overview ............................................................................... 163 Types of criteria ......................................................................................... 166 Criteria Procedures ............................................................................................... 167 Starting the Criteria dialog ......................................................................... 167 Resizing the Criteria dialog ....................................................................... 168 Working with Criteria ................................................................................ 168 Editing Criteria .......................................................................................... 170 Working with Criteria Libraries................................................................. 172 Criteria Results ..................................................................................................... 174 Criteria Results Table ................................................................................ 174 Report and Batch Processing ..................................................................... 176 Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 176 Definitions of GZ curve features ............................................................... 176 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 179 Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference ..................................................................................... 181 Windows .............................................................................................................. 181 Assembly View and Property Sheet .......................................................... 181 View Window ............................................................................................ 181 Loadcase Window...................................................................................... 183

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.................................. 217 Beam ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 223 Maximum deck inclination ............................................................................................................................ 202 Case Menu .................................... 224 Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations ..................Contents
Damage Window ............................... 195 Design Grid Toolbar ............................................... 218 Draft .................................................... 194 File Toolbar..................................... 219 Midship and Max Area Sections .... 194 Analysis Toolbar ....... 224 Appendix B: Criteria file format .................................................................................................................................................................................. 196 Report Toolbar ................................................................................................ 195 Visibility Toolbar ......................................................................................................................... 228
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......................................................................................................................... 226 Appendix C: Criteria Help.................. 196 Render Toolbar ............. 184 Results Window ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 197 Edit Menu ............................. 212 Help Menu .................. 196 Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar ........................................................................................................................................ 221 Waterplane Area Coefficient ........................................................................................................................................................................... 194 Edit Toolbar ............................... 183 Input Window .................................... 204 Analysis Menu ................................................. 191 Toolbars .............................................. 216 Length .......... 188 Report Window .......................................................................................................................................................................... 196 View (extended) Toolbar .................................................................................... 212 Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters ................................................ 223 RM at 1 deg........................................... 195 Window Toolbar ...................................... 211 Window Menu ....................................................... 185 Graph Window........................................................................ 196 Design Grid Toolbar ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 222 LCG and LCB ............................................................................................. 200 View Menu ........ 223 MTc or MTi ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 Display Menu...................................................................................................................................................................................................... 196 Menus ............. 214 Nomenclature . 214 Measurement Reference Frames ............................................. 221 Section Area Coefficient ................................................................... 222 Trim angle .......................................................................................................................................................................................... 214 Definition and calculation of form parameters .................................................................................................................................................................................................. 221 Prismatic Coefficient ....................................................................... 224 Integration of wetted surface area ........................................................................................................... 194 View Toolbar ............................... 223 Immersion ...... 220 Block Coefficient ............................. 228 Parent Calculations...................... 216 Coefficient parameters ............................................................. 195 Edge VIsibility Toolbar ..................................... 197 File Menu ............................................................................... 207 Data Menu.............................................................

......................... 302 ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation................ 307 Analysis settings reference table .............................................. 242 Criteria at Equilibrium ............................................................................................ 295 Heeling arms for specific criteria ................................................ 232 Parent Heeling Moments ........... 309 Structured Programming .................................................................. 312 Beta Testing ................................................ 299 USL code (Australia) ........................................................................................................................................... 281 Derived heeling arm criteria ... 309 Quality Assurance ................................................................. 309 Verification of Algorithms ....................................................................................................................................................... 307 File Extension Reference Table . 291 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria ... 308 Appendix F: Quality Assurance ......................................................................................................................................... combined criteria.......... 290 Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria ... 312 Testing of Upgrades ................................................ 295 Capsizing moment ............. 291 Stand alone heeling arm criteria ..........................................Contents
Selecting a calculation in a criterion ..................................................................................................................................................... 243 Heeling arm criteria (xRef) .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 312 But we're not Perfect ........................................................................................................................ 313
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..................... 228 Angle calculators ............................................................................................................................... 304 Appendix E: Reference Tables ......................................................................... 240 Parent Stability Criteria ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Note on unit conversion .... 292 Appendix D: Specific Criteria ...................... 275 Heeling arm............................................. 228 GM calculators......................................................................75(69)............................................................. 312 Index ....................... 309 Testing of Implementation .. 295 Dynamic stability criteria ................................................................................................................................... 297 IMO Code on Intact Stability A.................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 264 Multiple heeling arm criteria .................................................................................. 232 Heeling Arm Definition ............................................. 260 Heeling arm criteria ................................. 297 IMO HSC Code MSC................................................................................................................................... 229 Parent Heeling Arms ........................... ......749(18) amended to MSC.................................... 301 ISO 12217-1:2002(E) ............... 312 Version Control......................... 309 Quality Principles ..............36(63) ...................................... 242 GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) ..... 285 Other combined criteria ..............................................................

please read the owner's manual supplied with your computer. Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Explains how to use Hydromax' powerful floatation and hydrostatic analysis routines to best advantage. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hydromax functionality and its interface to Maxsurf Chapter 2 Quickstart Gives a quick walk through the analysis tools available in Hydromax. Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Gives details of Hydromax' windows and each of Hydromax' menu commands. If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft Windows® interface.About this Manual
About this Manual
This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatic and stability analyses on your Maxsurf design. Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated with Hydromax. This will introduce you to commonly used terms and the basic techniques for using any computer program.
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A number of environmental setting options and modifiers add further analysis capabilities to Hydromax. eliminating the need for time-consuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets. centre of gravity and free surface moment.
Input Model
Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax. The loadcase allows static weights and tankfillings to be specified and calculates the corresponding weights and centres of gravity as well as the total weight and centre of gravity of the vessel under the specified loading condition. the model can be displayed using hull contour lines. immersion and embarkation points. rendering or transparent rendering. Loadgroups may also be created and cross referenced into loadcases. This includes: compartments and key points such as downflooding points and margin line. Hydromax is designed in a logical manner. A number of loadcases can be created. key points. The following steps are followed when performing an analysis:
Input model Analysis type selection Analysis settings Environment options Criteria specification and selection Run analysis Output
Hydromax operates in the same graphical environment as Maxsurf. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the effects of damage.
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.Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 1 Introduction
Hydromax is a hydrostatics. Hydromax adds extra information to the Maxsurf surface model. This direct transfer preserves the three-dimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model. Hydromax‟ analysis tools enable a wide range of hydrostatic and stability characteristics to be determined for your Maxsurf design. stability and longitudinal strength program specifically designed to work with Maxsurf. such as downflooding points. Other input consists of: tank sounding pipes. which makes it easy to use. This allows visual checking of compartments and shows the orientation of the vessel during analysis. Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. margin lines and section modulus.

different analyses may require different settings.Chapter 1 Introduction
Analysis Types
Hydromax contains the following analysis tools:
Upright hydrostatics Large angle stability Equilibrium analysis Specified Condition analysis KN values and cross curves of stability Limiting KG analysis Floodable Length analysis Longitudinal Strength analysis Tank Calibrations MARPOL oil outflow Probabilistic damage (Hydromax Ultimate only)
Although common analysis settings are used where possible.
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. or a range of heel angles for a large angle stability analysis.
Environment Options
Environmental options are modifiers that may be applied to the model or its environment that will affect the results of the all the hydrostatic analysis types. The following analysis settings are available:
Heel Trim Draft Displacement Permeability Specified condition
The analysis settings are specified prior to running the analysis. a range of drafts in the case of upright hydrostatics. For example: the upright hydrostatics analysis simply requires a range of drafts. For example. Settings that are not relevant to the selected analysis type are greyed out in the Analysis menu. whereas the longitudinal strength analysis requires a detailed load distribution.
Analysis Settings
The analysis settings describe the condition of the vessel to be tested. The analysis settings for each analysis type are explained in detail in the analysis synopsis below.

copied and printed). In addition. or output directly to a Word document. gravity and buoyancy are also displayed. different environmental options may be applied to the Hydromax:
Type of Fluid Simulation Density (of fluids) Wave form Grounding Intact and Damage condition
Stability Criteria
Hydromax has the capability to calculate compliance with a wide range of stability criteria. For a brief overview of the different analysis that Hydromax has available. complete with immersed sectional areas and actual waterlines.Chapter 1 Introduction
Depending on the analysis being performed. Hydromax has a generic set of parent criteria from which virtually any stability criterion can be customized. All results are accumulated in the Report window (which can be saved.
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. Heeled and trimmed hullforms and water plane shapes may be printed. These criteria are either derived from the properties of the stability curve calculated from a Large Angle Stability analysis or from the vessel‟s orientation and stability properties calculated from an Equilibrium analysis. The centres of flotation. either in tabular form. The criterion settings and intermediate calculation data may also be displayed if required. The criteria checks are summarised in tables listing the status (pass/fail) of each criterion as well as the margin.
Output
Views of the hull are shown for each stage of the analysis. Limiting KG and Floodable length analyses also use stability criteria. or as graphs of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. Hydromax has an extensive range of stability criteria to determine compliance with a wide range of international stability regulations. Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time. continue reading Chapter 2 Quickstart.

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The Analysis types section describes each of the analysis types. For each analysis type. settings and environment options in more detail. heel is fixed at zero heel. Displacement and centre of buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during the analysis. trim is fixed at a user defined value and draft is varied in fixed steps.
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. a list of the required settings as well as the available environment options is given. Hydromax contains the following analysis types
Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Condition Specified Condition KN Values Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage
Each analysis has different settings that may be applied
Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified condition Permeability Loadcase Tank and compartment definition
Hydromax offers different environment options that may be applied to the analyses
Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage
Hydromax offers an extensive range of stability criteria that are applicable to equilibrium. limiting KG and Floodable length analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Chapter 2 Quickstart
This chapter will briefly describe each analysis type and its output. large angle stability.
Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart
For Upright Hydrostatics.

displacement and centre of gravity are specified in the loadcase. curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first downflooding point. the centre of gravity against the centre of buoyancy such that the trimming moment is zero. Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve.
Large Angle Stability Quickstart
For the analysis of Large Angle Stability. if the model is free-to-trim.
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. These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria have been selected. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms a GZ curve. Large angle stability requirements
Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage)
Large angle stability options
Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of stability criteria
The key output value is GZ (or righting lever). A range of heel angles are specified and Hydromax calculates the righting lever and other hydrostatic data at each of these heel angles by balancing the loadcase displacement against the hull buoyancy and. curves of form and sectional area at each draft are available. For more detailed information please see: Upright Hydrostatics on page 78. the horizontal distance between the centres of gravity and buoyancy. including upright GM.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Upright hydrostatics requirements
Range of drafts to be analysed VCG (for calculation of some stability characteristics such as GMt and GMl only) Trim
Upright hydrostatic options
Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage)
The results are tabulated and graphs of the hydrostatic data.

these results will also be reported in the criteria results table and they may lead to additional curves being displayed on the GZ curve. If a wave form has been specified there will be a number of columns. Remember that you can access this data in tabular form by double clicking in the graph window:
Dynamic stability curve (Area under GZ curve. integrated from upright) Variations of other hydrostatic and form parameters may be plotted against heel angle.
Equilibrium Condition Quickstart
Equilibrium Analysis uses the Loadcase. Any equilibrium criteria will also be evaluated and their results reported. as is the freeboard to any defined key points. Downflooding angles for any key points. Maximum safe steady heel angle The sectional area curve at each of the heel angles tested may also be displayed. The sectional area curve is also calculated. to calculate the displacement and the location of the centre of gravity.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
A number of other graphs may be selected from the pull-down list in the graph window. margin line and deck edge will also be computed and tabulated. For more detailed information please see: Large Angle Stability on page 80. heel and trim that satisfy equilibrium and reports the equilibrium hydrostatics and a cross sectional areas curve. Equilibrium analysis requirements
Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage)
Equilibrium analysis options
Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of equilibrium criteria
Equilibrium analysis result table lists the hydrostatic properties of the model.
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. margin line and deck edge. each column contains the results for a different position of the vessel in the wave as given by the wave phase value.
Note that some of these graphs have parameters that may be adjusted in the Data Format dialog If large angle stability criteria have been selected for analysis. Hydromax iterates to find the draft.

can be set.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
For more detailed information please see: Equilibrium Analysis on page 87. The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula: GZ = KN . Specified Conditions options
Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage)
The output for the specified condition consists of a curve of cross sectional areas and hydrostatics of the vessel in the specified condition. for which the hydrostatic properties of the model are to be calculated. They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the height of the centre of gravity is known.
Specified Condition Quickstart
In the specified condition each of the three degrees of freedom. For more detailed information please see Specified Conditions on page 90. you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts (these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog).
KN Values Quickstart
KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if its VCG is unknown. and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's effective Vertical Centre of Gravity. KN Values Analysis Requirements
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. Specified Condition Requirements
Specified Conditions Input Dialog
If fixed trim is specified.KG * sin(Heel) where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy and the Centre of Gravity.

the centre of gravity is increased until one of the criteria fails. This may be done for a range of vessel displacements. At each of the specified displacements. The computed KN results will then give a more accurate estimate of GZ for KG close to the estimated VCG since the effects of VCG on trim have been more accurately accounted for.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Estimate of VCG (provides more accurate result if free-to-trim) TCG (if required)
KN Values Analysis Options
Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage)
Output is in the form of a table of KN values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability. For more detailed information please see KN Values Analysis on page 92. If the analysis is performed free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known.
Limiting KG Quickstart
The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the centre of gravity (maximum KG) for which the selected stability criteria are just passed. this may be specified. Limiting KG Analysis Requirements
Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Stability criteria for which limiting KG is to be found TCG (if required)
Limiting KG Analysis Options
Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Laodcase (in case of initial loading of damaged tanks) Key points (if required for criteria) Margin line and deck edge (if required for criteria)
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. The selected stability criteria are evaluated. Hydromax runs several Large Angle Stability analyses at different KGs.

if a damage case is chosen. only damage criteria will be evaluated. such as angle of maximum GZ.to. i. Only relevant criteria will be used. are very insensitive to VCG and may prevent the analysis converging. however at least one large angle stability criterion is required.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced as well as tabulated results indicating which stability criteria limited the VCG. Floodable Lengths may be computed for a range of displacements. If the analysis is unable to converge for a certain displacement this will be noted and the next displacement tried.trim to either initial trim or specified LCG) Floodable length criteria to be tested
Margin line and deck edge (required for criteria)
Floodable Length Analysis Options
Fluid Densities Wave form
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. this may be done in the Batch Analysis mode. The VCG is also required to ensure accurate balance of the CG against the CB at high angles of trim. In addition a range of permeabilities may be specified. If limiting curves are required for each of the stability criteria individually. As well as the standard deck edge and margin line immersion criteria (one of which must be specified) the user can also add criteria for maximum trim angle and minimum required values of longitudinal and transverse metacentric height. the LCG may be specified directly or calculated from a specified initial trim. For more detailed information see Limiting KG on page 95. Floodable Length Analysis Requirements
Range of displacements to be analysed VCG Range of permeabilities to be analysed Trim (free. A check will be made to ensure that any selected equilibrium criteria are passed.
Floodable Length Quickstart
This analysis mode is used to compute the maximum compartment lengths based on user-specified equilibrium criteria. only intact criteria will be evaluated.e. Some criteria. if the intact condition is used.

centre of gravity and free surface moment (FSM). taking into account the vessel trim and heel. The data is also presented graphically. The condition to be viewed may be selected from the Results toolbar.
Longitudinal Strength Quickstart
Hydromax calculates the net load from the buoyancy and weight distribution of the model. i. The data is tabulated for each of the stations as defined in Maxsurf. The results for a single condition are shown in the results table. soundings are measured from the bottom of the sounding pipe to the free surface. That data is then used to calculate the bending moment and shear force on the vessel. For more detailed information please see Longitudinal Strength on page 105. Hydromax uses its fluid simulation mode to calculate the actual position of the fluids in the tanks. the shear force and bending moment on the vessel. Tank calibrations may be calculated for a range of trim and heel angles. graphs of allowable shear and bending moment are superimposed on the graph. For more detailed information please see Floodable Length on page 102. Tank ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe and in a similar manner. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily. the position of the fluid in the tank will be computed so that the fluid surface is parallel with the external seawater surface.
Tank Calibrations Quickstart
Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity.e. Tank calibrations may be performed for a range of heel and trims.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The output is in the form of tabulated Floodable Lengths for each displacement and permeability. Tabulated results may be customised using the Data Format dialog:
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. Longitudinal Strength Analysis Requirements
Loadcase (including distributed loads if required) Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage)
Longitudinal Strength Analysis Options
Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation is always used for Longitudinal Strength analysis Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Allowable shear and bending moment
The longitudinal strength graph and tables contain all information on weight and buoyancy distribution. If defined.

The “Start Analysis” button will send the tabulated results to the Report. a table of capacities.117(52).141(54). These results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms. Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog. the resulting oil outflows will be calculated automatically. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC. is calculated. volumes etc. Then in the MARPOL results data table. For more detailed information please see Tank Calibrations on page 107.
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Tank calibration analysis requirements
Tank definitions Sounding pipe definition (if required) Sounding intervals for calibration levels Trim range Heel range
Tank calibration analysis options
Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation always selected Damage: Intact case always selected What to calibrate (Analysis | Calibration options)
For each tank. edit any values as required.
MARPOL Oil Outflow Quickstart
MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC.

Probabilistic damage analysis requirements
Loadcase definitions Tank and compartmentation definition Main probabilistic damage analysis parameters and criteria setup Subdivision definitions Heel angle range for GZ curve calculation Trim
Probabilistic damage analysis options
Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Key points Margin line and deck edge
For more detailed information please see the Probabilistic Damage section on page 115.
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
For more detailed information please see MARPOL Oil Outflow on page 112
Probabilistic Damage Quickstart
Attained index using probabilistic damage analysis may be computed.

Starting Hydromax
After installation. Note: Before installing any program from the Maxsurf suite for the first time. You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences. please read the purchase letter (also referred to as installation manual).
Windows Registry
Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. To clear the Hydromax preferences. Simply select Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under Programs in the Start menu. start the program with the Shift key depressed. The following preferences are stored in the registry:
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. It is possible for this data to become corrupted. Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
This chapter describes
Getting Started Hydromax Model Analysis Types Analysis Settings Analysis Environment Options Analysis Output
Getting Started
This section contains everything you need to do to start using Hydromax
Installing Hydromax Starting Hydromax
Installing Hydromax
Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program. then follow the instructions on screen. doing this will reset all the preferences. or you may simply want to revert back to the default configuration. click OK.

Preparing a Design in Maxsurf Opening a New Design Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File Updating the Hydromax Model Hydromax Sections Forming Checking the Hydromax model
After checking the Hydromax model.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Colour and line thickness settings of contours and background Fonts Window size and location Size of resizing dialogs (alternatively. It is recommended to save your customized densities with your project using the File | Save Densities As command. these may be reset by holding down the shift key when activating them) Density of fluids Heel angles for large angle stability. you may need to set up the following additional model data:
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. Check the density of seawater after resetting your preferences.
Setting Initial Conditions
Depending on the analysis performed. KN and Limiting KG analyses Permeabilities for floodable length analysis Location of files Units for data input and results output Convergence tolerance (Error values) Maximum number of loadcases Reporting preferences
Note: The default density for the fluid labelled "Sea Water" is stored in the windows registry. the next step is to check the Hydromax settings and initial analysis conditions. All hydrostatic calculations use this.
Hydromax Model
This section describes how to open a Maxsurf model in Hydromax and provides some important information to ensure that your model is correctly interpreted by Hydromax.

The Frame of reference should not be changed in Hydromax.
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. The base line is the datum from which the drafts and KG are measured. The frame of reference cannot be changed in Hydromax.
Setting the Frame of Reference
It is vital that the Frame of Reference is correctly setup in Maxsurf before attempting to analyse the model in Hydromax. in the profile and plan views. The perpendiculars define the longitudinal positions of the vessel‟s draft marks and cannot be coincident. The frame of reference defines the fore and aft perpendiculars. By convention. Down Flooding Points) Margin Line Points Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments Stability Criteria
Preparing a Design in Maxsurf
There are several important checks that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a design in Hydromax:
Setting the Zero Point Setting the Frame of Reference Surface Use Skin Thickness Outside Arrows Trimming Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model
Setting the Zero Point
Ensure that the zero point is correctly setup in Maxsurf. However it is possible to specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog.g. the baseline and the datum waterline. In Hydromax you have the option of displaying longitudinal measurements such as LCB or LCF from the model zero point or amidships. midships is automatically defined midway between the perpendiculars. A consistent zero point and frame of reference should be used for the model throughout the Maxsurf suite. the vessel‟s bow is on the right.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Working with Loadcases Modelling Compartments Forming Compartments Compartment Types Damage Case Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points (e.

Skin Thickness
Hull Shell
Internal Structure
If skin thickness is to be used in hydrostatic calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. internal surfaces will be ignored in the forming of hydrostatic sections. Internal structure Internal structure surfaces are used for all other surfaces (any surfaces which do not make up the watertight envelope) and also surfaces which are to be used in Hydromax to define the boundaries of tanks and compartments that have complex shapes. Thickness can be specified differently for each hull surface. If a surface is defined as internal structure. i. the internal structure surface should be placed to model the inside of the tank if the tank wall has significant thickness.
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.
Surface Use
In Maxsurf you can choose between two types of surface use Hull Hull surfaces are used to define the watertight envelope of the hull. To include skin thickness. To activate skin thickness in Hydromax ensure that the “Include Skin Thickness” option is selected when reading the file or calculating the hull sections.e. ensure that the thickness and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. The following table describes the difference between each surface use in Hydromax: Included: Hydrostatic sections Selection of tank/compartment boundaries Skin thickness applied to the surface Verify that all surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are defined as Internal Structure. resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. Note Tank boundaries made from internal structures surfaces do not have skin thickness. Skin thickness for hull surfaces will be treated so that the hull sections go to the outside of the plate whilst any tanks are trimmed to the inside of the plate. it is not included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax.

Also see: Hydromax Sections Forming on page 27 Checking the Hydromax model on page 30
Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model
Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as the following requirements for the Maxsurf model are observed:
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. Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command from the Maxsurf Display menu to define which direction points outwards (towards the seawater) for each surface.
Correct section with one opening: this section will be closed across the top. The surface direction may be flipped by clicking on the end of the arrow. you should have completely closed transverse sections or sections with at most one opening (e. At any longitudinal position on the hull.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Outside Arrows
The surfaces‟ outside arrows define the orientation of the surfaces. the deck).g.
Trimming
Ensure that all surfaces are trimmed correctly.
Correct Section with no opening.

the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be ticked.
Include Plating Thickness
At this stage.e. The following dialog will appear:
Calculate new Sections
Choosing Calculate Sections will calculate the specified number of sections through the hull. if any) is explained in Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File. trim away the excess regions of the surface. the part of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. The meaning of (ignore existing data. a maximum of one gap in a transverse section through the hull. Also see: Checking the Hydromax model on page 30. i. any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog may be included.
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge. then select Open Design from the File menu. internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull sections in Hydromax
Note: For groups internal structure surfaces that will be used to define tank (or compartment boundaries) the same requirements apply.msd). Hydromax will automatically look for compartment definition files when you are in a Compartment Definition window and a loadcase in a Loadcase window.
Opening a New Design
File opening in Hydromax is window specific.g. preferably by bonding the edges together Where surfaces intersect. i. Choose a Maxsurf design file (. Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off Check surface use.e. e.
Use Trimmed Surfaces
If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces. To open a design for analysis. ensure that the design view window is active.

Reducing the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy. Therefore it is recommended not to change the precision setting when opening the Maxsurf design file in Hydromax. The upper limit for the number of stations is 200. sounding pipes etc.
Surface Precision
The Surface Precision options has two functions:
Setting for calculating the hydrostatic sections Setting used to form new compartments or tanks. by specifying one station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this discontinuity can be modelled very accurately. This is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or bow thrusters that need to be accurately modelled and may need a locally denser station spacing to do so. if it was known that a design had a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships.
The precision at which the design was saved in Maxsurf is included in the Maxsurf design file (. Reducing the precision of the sections can greatly improve performance. key points. Hydromax recognises this precision setting and will and set the Surface Precision button accordingly. To open an existing design. For example. conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to higher accuracy results.
Note: The accuracy of the results depends much more on the number of sections than the accuracy at which the sections are calculated. there are two options:
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.msd). usually at relatively small impact on the accuracy of the hydrostatics. The Hydromax design file will consist of the hydrostatic sections and all input data such as loadcases. compartment definition.
Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File
After saving the Maxsurf design file for the first time in Hydromax.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Stations
When calculating stations. avoiding any errors inherent in the integration of evenly spaced stations. Hydromax also allows saving of all input and output files into individual files. a “Hydromax Design file” (. Note: Maxsurf surface trimming information may vary for different precisions. It also allows designs with significant longitudinal discontinuities in their sectional areas to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity. you may select how many stations should be used.hmd) is created. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in Maxsurf.

loadcases.hmd file is found. are not automatically incorporated.hmd file.e. key points etc. damage cases.
When Hydromax opens a . This contains hydrostatic sections information and all input information from last time the . compartment definitions. For example: when opening OSV.
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. the OSV.hmd file was saved. The Calculate Sections dialog now has the option to read the sections from the file. See: Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for more information. it will look for a .msd file.
Hydromax will now open the .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Double click on the .hmd file with the same name as the .
Ensure “Read existing data and sections” is selected and click OK. You will load your existing sections. Notes: 1) When selecting “Read existing data and sections (do not update geometry)” the Maxsurf surface information is not recalculated.msd.hmd file from any Windows explorer window Use the Hydromax Open command form the file menu and select the .msd file.msd file
An existing Hydromax design consists of a number of files with different file extensions. This means that changes to the hull shape in the Maxsurf Design file. i. loadcases and compartment definitions etc.

Etc. data is defined in Hydromax. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. Do not choose this option if you wish to keep the additional Hydromax data and you have not yet saved them as individual files as if the model is saved in Hydromax the .hmd file will be overwritten and any existing data lost. loadcase. The first image shows the model as initially defined in Hydromax with the zero point amidships and at the baseline.hmd file. the zero point has been moved (in Maxsurf) to the aft-perpendicular and the DWL. data is automatically read from the . The model is closed in Hydromax The model is opened in Maxsurf and for some reason the location of the zero point is changed The model is reopened in Hydromax and the tank and load etc. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307.hmd file.hmd file (as is done when you chose Save when the drawing window is top most).
Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf. In previous versions of Hydromax this could cause problems because the loadcase and tank data maintained their position relative to the zero point.
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. the tanks and centre of gravity (from the loadcase) have remained in their same locations relative to the zero point. The two images from Hydromax 13 show this problem. if any) means that Hydromax will recalculate the hull sections and ignore any data stored in the . data is then created in Hydromax and that data all saved in the . Note that whilst the margin line and key points have remained in their same locations relative to the hull.
Hydromax 13 behaviour
It may sometimes occur that the model zero point location is changed in Maxsurf after tank.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
2) Calculate new sections (ignore existing data. You will have to reload your individual loadcases and compartment definition files etc after you have selected this option and pressed OK.
Effect of Zero Point change
The description below relates to what happens in the following situation:
A hull model is generated in Maxsurf Tank and load etc. In the second image. where as the key points and margin line remained in the same position relative to the hull.

essentially just the zero point it moved. Note that this is only possible with Hydromax models that have been saved from the new version of Hydromax (because the new version of Hydromax now saves the zero point independently so that it can check for changes). Hydromax now detects if the zero point has been modified in Maxsurf when the model is reopened in Hydromax.hmd file. when loading a .
Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf. Hydromax 14 behaviour
To rectify this problem.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Effect of Zero point change in Maxsurf 13. Hydromax will display the following message:
If the zero point is moved in Maxsurf. you will now be prompted.
Now.
Selecting “yes” will maintain the position all the Hydromax data relative to the hull. This of course means that the numerical values of the various data are changed:
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. if the zero point has changed.

select “Recalculate Hull sections” in the analysis menu after reloading the Maxsurf Design File with the “read existing data and sections from file” option selected.
Selecting “no” will move all data other than the margin line with the zero point. loads etc relative to the hull.
Click “no” to maintain position relative to zero point. but their numerical values will remain the same: The example shown is quite extreme.
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Click “yes” to maintain position of tanks. The “Recalculate Hull Sections” command recalculates Hull surfaces as well as Tank Boundary surfaces (Internal Structure surfaces in Maxsurf). This function can also be used to include/exclude surface thickness or change the number of sections and to change use/not use trimmed surfaces without reloading the Maxsurf Design File. Thus the tanks and loads etc. will move relative to the hull. Any tanks and loadcases will also be updated with this command.
Updating the Hydromax Model
To update the hydrostatic sections to the latest Maxsurf Design File. it is more likely that this option would be selected if it was realised that the zero point for the tank plan were slightly different than the zero point of the lines plan and a small correction to the zero point was required.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Changes to the Maxsurf design are only recalculated after the new Maxsurf design has been re-loaded into Hydromax. This section outlines the section forming process used in Hydromax and may be helpful when preparing a Maxsurf design for Hydromax.
If. non-intersecting (and non-self-intersecting) contours. a hull surface with no deck).
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. The same is true for groups of internal surfaces that have been selected to define a tank boundary. This is not an acceptable shape. an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments will be connected. Furthermore. In practice. Whilst it is always preferable to give Hydromax a completely closed model with no ambiguities. This means that if the model is simultaneously being edited in Maxsurf and Hydromax. it is necessary to: 1) save and close the model in Hydromax 2) save in Maxsurf 3) open in Hydromax. contours cannot be contained wholly within another contour. the section must be made up of closed. “hydrostatic sections” or just “sections”.
Hydromax Sections Forming
Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of cross sections taken through the Maxsurf model surfaces. compartment definition etc remain part of the Hydromax design file. called “Hydromax sections”. however. (e. or can be unambiguously closed. 4) use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” from the analysis menu. the section is made up of two line segments. Hydromax will try to resolve any problems with the model definition in the manner outlined in the following sections. Hydromax will automatically close the section with a straight line connecting the opening ends.g. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed. Hydromax will automatically form these sections.g. one opening is acceptable and this will be automatically closed with a straight line. having both a gap at the centreline as well as an open deck). Note: The golden rule is that for any longitudinal position.
Where a section consists of an open shell (e. using “Read existing data and sections” to make sure the loadcase.

Hydromax will form a closed section through multiple surfaces by linking the curve segments together.
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. bonded together or use compacted control points will not cause any problems when opened in Hydromax. if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf the design would cease to be ambiguous.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
In the example above. Multiple surfaces that are trimmed correctly.

bulwarks)
A common example of ambiguous sections is a model with multiple decks. The user cannot change these tolerances. decks. However this is not always possible so it is much better practice to trim the model correctly manually.
Hydromax closes the outside contour and trims remnants
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. because there are too many dependencies in the program.g. Hydromax will make an attempt to remove excess portions of the curve to form a single continuous contour.
Ambiguous Sections (e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
A section through a multihull containing a single closed contour
A section comprising two closed contours
Hydromax will link curve segments together if they are only separated by a small amount. Where surfaces intersect. Hydromax will have difficulties distinguishing the intended main deck.

For more information see the Maxsurf manual. This works the same as the Maxsurf body plan window and is an extremely powerful tool to validate your Hydromax model. generally these will be treated correctly by Hydromax and removed. These sections should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines.
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. look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax has interpreted the shape correctly.
Show Single Hull Section Checking the Sectional Area Curve Using Rendering to Check the Model
Note: Sections that are not formed correctly cause the majority of problems with Hydromax models. The following tools are available to validate the Hydromax model. In particular. This is done by selecting Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan view from the Display menu. You can then click in the inset box to view the sections. you can step through the sections one-by-one to verify that they have been correctly calculated. but this depends on the height of the bulwark relative to the rest of the section. Therefore. If the bulwark‟s volume is expected to influence the hydrostatic calculations. the left and right arrow cursor keys will enable you to step through the sections one-by-one.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The example above has bulwarks. To prevent ambiguities it is recommended to trim the bulwark in Maxsurf.
Show Single Hull Section
In the body plan view. the bulwark‟s volume has to be properly modelled in Maxsurf by modelling both the outside and the inside of the bulwark. Incorrect sections in the model will give incorrect results. checking your sections after opening the design in Hydromax is strongly recommended.
Checking the Hydromax model
Before starting any analysis you should check whether Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your design.

If this displays any unexpected spikes or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape. Select Render from the Display menu whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections:
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.
This Cross Sectional Area curve indicates there may be a problem with section forming from 12 m to 16 m. This is not a foolproof method since it does not necessarily highlight problems in the non-immersed part of the hull. Using Rendering to Check the Model
The model may also be rendered. which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of the model which have not been properly defined.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Checking the Sectional Area Curve
Another way of checking the Hydromax model is to perform a specified condition analysis at quite deep draft and look carefully at the sectional area curve in the graph window.

Further detailed checking of hull and tank/compartment sections
When checking that your model is correct. As long as the sections are formed correctly. the model is correct.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: In rare instances incorrect rendering may occur. you are interested in whether the sections are correct. To do this go to the body plan view in Hydromax and select “Show Single Section”:
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. This does not necessarily mean that the model is incorrect.

leave the view as it is. but turn on the visibility of all the tanks of interest (if there are few tanks. In the single section view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Then to check that the tanks are OK. only tank sections near the current hull section are shown:
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. then you can show all of them. if there are many it may help to hide some and check a few at a time).

Hydromax uses the aft perpendicular and forward perpendicular together with the baseline and the zero point for all calculations and gives the results in the units specified in the display menu. it is important that you set up the required initial conditions for the design.
Coordinate System
Hydromax uses the Maxsurf coordinate system:
Longitudinal Transverse Vertical View window
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+ve forward +ve starboard +ve up View direction
-ve aft -ve port -ve down
. Note: Before you run any analysis using Hydromax.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Setting Initial Conditions
All Hydromax calculations are performed in the frame of reference of the model.

This should be done in Maxsurf and not in Hydromax. Note: Changing the zero point in Maxsurf will not update the compartment definition. Changing the zero point after you have started analysing the model in Hydromax is not recommended. bow to the right. See: Setting the Zero Point and Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18. should you require drafts to be calculated at other locations.
Draft Marks
Drafts are automatically calculated at the perpendiculars and amidships. you may specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. loadcase and other input values. Immersed depth measurements are made perpendicualar to the free-surface. some analysis results will be meaningless or may even fail to complete. Port side above the centreline (this the opposite direction to Maxsurf) From Starboard. Draft and trim are measured on the forward and aft perpendiculars. If these are not in the correct positions. Drafts are always measured to the Baseline in the centre plane of the vessel. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog. looking fwd From above.
Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Body plan Plan Profile
From the stern.
Frame of Reference and Zero Point
It is essential that a frame of reference be specified.

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. Fwd Perpendicular or from the Aft. You can also specify whether you want the forward (towards the bow) or the aft (towards the stern) to have a positive sign. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. Finally you can chose whether you want the LCB and LCF to be displayed as a length or as a percentage of the waterline or LPP length as specified in the Length for Coefficients. The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the specified Zero Point.e. beam and sectional area to be used for calculation of these coefficients.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
User-defined Draft Marks
Note that the Trim is still defined as the difference between the drafts at the perpendiculars and the Midship draft (used to define the range of immersions for the Upright Hydrostatics analysis) is the mean of the drafts at the perpendiculars. Drafts can only be defined when the vessel is rotated to the DWL (Display | Set vessel to DWL). Amidships location. You may also select the draft. Middle or fwd end of the actual waterline. Aft Perpendicular.
Customising Coefficients
In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. neither of these values has changed and neither are affected by the user-defined draft locations. i.
User-defined draft locations and new toolbar button
Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP.

Units may be changed at any time.
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. units for force and speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. may also be set. In addition to the length and weight (mass) units. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Data | Coefficients dialog Setting Units
The units used may be specified using the Units command.

Static weights that make up the vessel lightship are specified here as well as tank filling levels. If the loadcase does not update. Loadgroups are special loadcases that contain no tanks. Loadcases automatically contain all the tanks defined in the Tank definition. These may be used to define groups of fixed weights (such as the steel weight or lightship weight) in a single location which may then be cross-referenced into a loadcase. click on the update Loadcase button and ensure that the hull is at the DWL by selecting “Set vessel to DWL”:
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Other Initial Conditions
See: Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148 Density on page 150
Working with Loadcases
Loadcases define the loading condition of the vessel. expressed as either a percentage of the full tank capacity or as a weight. Any changes to the loadgroup are then automatically incorporated into any loadcases that reference them. The loadcase will normally update the column totals automatically as weights or tank loadings are changed. A loadgroup is included in a loadcase simply by specifying the loadgroup name in the “Item Name” column. The exception to this is if tanks have not yet been formed or the vessel is still rotated from the result of an analysis.

Then select “New Load Case” from the File menu or press Ctrl+N. switch to the loadcase view by selecting Loadcase from the Loadcase sub-menu in the Window menu. The default loadcase will contain a lightship entry and an entry for each tank (with a default filling of 50%).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The individual loads can be displayed graphically:
Creating a new Loadcase File
To create a load case. A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase window.
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.

you will be asked for a new Loadcase name after which the following dialog appears:
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.
In the loadcase window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The tabs in the bottom of the window can be used to skip through the different loadcases in the design. an existing loadcase may be used as a template when creating a new loadcase. To do this. select the Loadcase you wish to use as a template
Bring the loadcase you wish to use as a template to the front for example by clicking on the tab on the bottom
select File | New
First.
Create New Loadcases based on Template
To avoid rework.

you should either increase the maximum number of loadcases (see below).
Loading a Saved Loadcase
You can load a saved loadcase into your loadcase window by:
Select an empty tab in the loadcase window that you wish to load the loadcase into
Empty tab.
Select File | Open Load Case
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.
The next time you use the File | Save Loadcase command you will be asked to confirm the loadcase file name. you will either have to close an existing loadcase. If there are no blank tabs left.
Naming and Saving a Loadcase
A loadcase can be given any name by saving it to a separate file where the loadcase filename will be used as the loadcase name and displayed on the tab in the loadcase window. changes made in the template are NOT automatically changed in the loadcase derived from it. Once a loadcase has been created from a template loadcase.
Select Edit Loadcase from the Case menu
Changing the name in the Loadcase Properties dialog. Note The template is only used during the creation of the loadcase. Alternatively.
If there are no empty tabs.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
A new loadcase will appear in one of the blank (…) loadcase tabs. or close an existing loadcase. or add more loadcases using the Case | Max. Number of Loadcases command.

A new load will be inserted into the table above the currently selected row. click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to delete are selected.
Editing Loads
Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load. Number of Loadcases” from the Case menu. You may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require. If you wish to delete several loads simultaneously.
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. you will receive a warning and the file will not be loaded.
You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. Each loadcase can be selected and used for analysis. simply click anywhere in the row you want to remove. You can repeat this process for as many loads as you wish. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and restart Hydromax before you can load the design.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Select the . Note: When loading a design that has more loadcases than the maximum you have currently set in Hydromax. For convenience of use. If you want to remove a load from the table. For each item in the list you can specify a quantity. for example "Lightship". a sensible number is recommended. This is used to calculate the total weight of that item. Each may be saved and loaded independently. you will only need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. then select Delete Load. The weight of each item should be entered in the next column.
Select Add Load from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A.
Setting the Maximum Number of Loadcases
The maximum number of loadcases (up to twenty-five) that can be loaded in Hydromax at any one time is set by selecting “Max. and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table (or simply click directly in the cell you wish to edit). In most cases. effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require. you could specify the quantity and unit weight.
Closing a Loadcase
Select the tab of the loadcase you wish to close in the Loadcase window Select File | Close Load Case
Adding and Deleting Loads
To add an extra load to the loadcase.hml file you wish to open. and the total weight of crew would be automatically calculated. For example: if the item was “crew” with a weight per unit. and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu (or highlight the complete row by clicking the grey cell to the left of the row and press the Delete key).

fluid type (for tanks) etc. heading or sub-total lines in the table. subtotals and subsubtotals. To ensure data consistency. After you type in this number. you may also sort selected items by name.) character in the Item Name field. Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for the item. are measured from the Zero Point. press enter and the total LCG will be automatically re-calculated and displayed in the bottom row of the table.) character. If for some reason you wish to have an upward (negative) load. Adding Blank Lines A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a dollar ($). apostrophe („) or full-stop(.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The weight must always be positive. You may move selected items and tanks up and down in the loadcase. The CG position will also be shown and updated in the View windows if Large Angle Stability. you may have to use Analysis | Update Loadcase ( button) to update the subtotals and subsubtotals. Note: Levers.
Loadcase Formatting
Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank. as with all other measurements in Hydromax. you can do so by entering a negative quantity – this can be useful if you want to apply a pure moment to the model by applying equal magnitude. Adding Component or Heading Lines Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a period (.
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.
Insert row | Delete row | Sort rows | Move row(s) up | Move row(s) down
Sort selected columns
After moving loads.
Loadcase Sorting
A number of tools are available for controlling the order in which items and tanks occur in the loadcase. but opposite sign loads to the vessel in the loadcase. Hydromax does this automatically prior to running an analysis. Longitudinal Strength or Equilibrium analysis are selected.

Quantity and Unit mass for sub total rows
If a sub total includes only tanks.
View | Colours and lines menu when Loadcase window is frontmost
Loadcase format
It is possible to select which columns are displayed in the loadcase window.
Loadcase Colour Formatting
Different colours can be defined for fixed mass items and tanks. When tanks are grouped by fluid type this can be useful for calculating the total tank capacity for that fluid type. then the quantity and unit mass items will be included. To do this the item name field must commence with the word „total‟ or „subtotal‟. tanks may be displayed in the same colour as the fluid they contain (As defined in Analysis | Fluids dialog). Grouping Similar Tanks Use the move items UP or Down commands in the Edit menu to adjust the row order in the loadcase. Use the Display | Data Format dialog:
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. The unit mass is the sum of all the masses of the full tanks and the quantity is the sum of the masses divided by the sum of the full tank masses. Sub-subtotals must start with the text “subsubtotal”. alternatively. Sub-subtotals Sub-sub-totals may also be inserted.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Adding Totals or Subtotals A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case.

For an evenly distributed load.
If the longitudinal arm is changed in the Loadcase window. The “Long.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The Relative density and Fluid Type which allow you to override the default tank densities as defined for each tank in the Compartment Definition window. Moment columns (mass * lever) can be displayed if desired. This can be useful for vessels such as product carriers which may have cargos of different types of fluids with different densities.
Longitudinally Distributed Loads
Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the aft limit and forward limit cells. the forward and aft limits will be moved by the same amount. the fore and aft limits define the longitudinal extents of the load. the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft limits.
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. Arm” column defines the longitudinal position of the centre of the load. The aft limit and forward limit columns only appear when Longitudinal Strength analysis is selected and the distributed loads will only have an effect on the results in this analysis mode.

but within the middle third 1/3 of the centre.
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.
Trapezium shaped distributed load.
Tank Loads
When you create tanks using the compartment definition. the centre of gravity should lie within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. Red = green and divided in the centre.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Evenly distributed loads. they will be automatically included in the loadcases (but not in Loadgroups which do not contain tanks). at these extrema.
Note: Since the load is distributed as a trapezium. Red = Green divided within middle 1/3 of centre.
For trapezium shaped distributed loads the centre of gravity is not midway between the boundaries. the load distribution becomes triangular. Tanks will be automatically treated as distributed loads for the longitudinal strength calculations.

select Update Loadcase from the Analysis menu or toolbar. A Loadgroup does not contain tanks Only a Loadgroup can be referenced Only a Loadcase can reference a Loadgroup. volume. expressed as a percentage of the full capacity and a weight column. a sounding or a weight. To prevent the problems of recursively including the same loadcase and also prevent tanks from being included more than once. Tank level can be given as either a percentage of full capacity. It also means that this lightship mass distribution would only need to be defined and edited in one location instead of in each loadcase. A Loadcase can reference any number of Loadgroups A Loadgroup is referenced in a Loadcase by typing the name of the Loadgroup to be referenced in the Item column You can factor the referenced Loadgroup by changing the value of the Quantity column in the Loadcase. The Loadcase properties dialog (Case menu) is used to define a loadcase as a Loadgroup:
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.
When a tank is changed in the Compartment definition table. To update the loadcase for changes in tank loads.
Updating tank values in the loadcase
Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition. question marks may be shown in the loadcase momentarily while the tank‟s new volumetric properties are being calculated. Also see: Update Loadcase on page 206
Loadcase cross-referencing.
For the example above this means that the lightship mass distribution would be defined as a Loadgroup and then this Loadgroup could be referenced in any number of loadcases. the Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the Loadcase information. Loadgroups
It is possible to cross-reference one loadcase from another. Loadgroups may be analysed in the same way as Loadcases – but remember the tanks are implicitly empty in a Loadgroup.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Tanks have a quantity value. we have defined the following rules:
A special type of Loadcase called a Loadgroup has been defined.
The tank Unit Mass is the tanks mass at 100% filling. This is useful if you wish to define a detailed lightship mass distribution but do not want to have it displayed in full in each loadcase.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
This lightship Loadgroup contains the lightship mass distribution along the ship. The Lightship load group can then be cross-referenced into any loadcase
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for instance.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The referenced Loadgroup is automatically calculated and the appropriate values included in the Loadcase:
Note: Loadgroup naming The cross-referencing of loadgroups in a loadcase is case insensitive. This allows you to load the same tanks with different fluids in different Loadcases – as might be the case for a product carrier.
Loadcase density override
It is now possible to override the default tank fluid densities as defined in the Compartment definition window. By default use tank defined densities:
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.0) specific gravity and it will override the tank value:
Type in any string that doesn‟t begin with an “L” for the fluid and it will revert back to the tank value:
Type in some thing that begins with an “L” and it will revert back to the “Private” density of the loadcase item.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Type in a valid (>0.

Besides a general explanation on how to model tanks using the compartment definition table. The options available are Maximum Hydromax will use the maximum free surface moment of the tank in upright condition for all fluid levels. Actual Hydromax uses the free surface moment for the current fluid level of the tank in upright condition.
Workshop structure
Workshop can save a Loadgroup that contains the masses of all the structural parts. This method approximates the movement of fluid due to heeling and is based on the fluid shift in a 50% full rectangular. For other shapes and fillings of tanks it will not correctly approximate the free surface moment. User specified A user specified value is used for all levels and heel angles.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Free surface correction
If the corrected VCG fluid option has been chosen. the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments.
Modelling Compartments
This section will describe in detail how to model different types of tanks and compartments. it is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a Hydromax Loadcase. Hydromax calculates the actual position of the fluid in the tanks taking into account heel and trim. Instead. box-shaped-tank. making the tanks‟ free-surface parallel to the sea surface.3 for the calculation of the free surface moment. This can be loaded into Hydromax and referenced in any Loadcase. When the corrected VCG method is selected in the analysis menu.htk)
Select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. this section contains a number of important sections that the user should be aware off when modelling tanks:
Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Tank and Compartment Permeability on page 59
Creating a Compartment definition file (. Fluid simulation If the Fluid simulation option is selected in the analysis menu. thus the actual vessel CG is recalculated accounting exactly for the static shift of the fluids in slack tanks. no correction is made to the upright VCG. Select New Compartment Definition from the File menu
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. at every step of the analysis.(69) Ch 3. IMO Hydromax uses IMO MSC75.

You will notice that aft columns contain the word "ditto". see above. Hydromax will form the sections that define the tanks and compartments. The boundary box is made up of the fore and aft extremities of the tank.
See Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67 for some recommendations regarding setting the boundary box. or an analysis started. and the port and starboard limits of the tank. This is done by finding the intersection of the tank bounding box and the hull. Compartments may be added or deleted by
Select Add or Delete Compartment from the Edit menu. The column headings in the Compartment Definition table include terms such as 'F Bottom. This means that the value is identical at the aft end of the tank to the forward end.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
This will give you a new set of compartment definitions with one default tank. 'A Top'.
Box shaped compartments can be formed from the numerical values in the compartment definition table. resulting in a parallel tank. make sure you have created a Compartment definition file.
Modelling Box Shape Tanks
Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. the top and bottom. When the “Update Loadcase” command from the Analysis menu is used.
Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete will delete the currently selected compartment(s). Each value defines one of the six planes of the tank.
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. Thus it is not necessary to make the tanks fit the hull manually – this is done automatically by Hydromax. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for Forward and Aft. in other words the two ends of the compartment. 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the Delete key may also be used to add and delete entries respectively.
Adding and Deleting Compartments
Before you can start adding compartments. This box will be called the Boundary Box.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Tapered Tanks

The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. If you wish to define tapered compartments, it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the points defining the forward and aft ends of the compartment. If a different value is entered in one of the “ditto” columns, a tapered tank will result. Tanks can be tapered or sloped in Plan or Profile views. Hydromax does not have a mechanism for creating a sloped tank boundary in the Body Plan view.

By changing the “ditto”-input fields, tapered tanks can be formed

Note: Tapering can be done in Plan and in Profile view. Tapered tanks in Body Plan view have to be created using a boundary surface. See Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54.

Linked Tanks

Tanks and compartments may be linked. This means that although they are defined as separate tanks, they act as a single tank with a common free surface. To link tanks, compartments or non-buoyant volumes, first make them the same type as the parent and give them the same name. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked tank row. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type column. Linked tanks and compartments do not have to be physically linked in space. However, the fluid in a linked tank or damaged compartment is always assumed to be able to flow freely between the linked volumes.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces

Tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes may have their boundaries defined by surfaces as well as being constrained to particular dimensions. This allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped tanks.

Forming tanks using boundary surfaces

The surfaces to be used to define the tank boundaries are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the middle of the Compartments Definition table. A dialog will appear that allows you to select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. If a tank uses boundary surfaces, the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column is coloured blue.

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If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment, tick next to the surface name in the Boundary Surface list. Note that symmetrical surfaces appear twice as there will be a starboard and a port side copy of the surface. The Starboard surface is first in the list and the Port surface second. The port surface is also identified with the suffix (P) after the name. Note: Only internal structure surfaces appear in the boundary surfaces list. Symmetrical surfaces are duplicated, with the port-side surface having “(P)” appended to the surface name. After selecting the internal surfaces, it is necessary to type in the extents of the boundary box. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the Boundary Surface. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. Also see: Forming Compartments on page 62 Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67

Modelling External Tanks

External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax. However, it is normally possible to add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model, which will enclose the external tanks. The tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax.

Additional box-shaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks

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Modelling Non-Buoyant Volumes

Non-buoyant volumes are effectively permanently flooded compartments. These parts of the hull can normally be modelled using trimmed hull surfaces. However, there are occasions where it is more convenient to use non-buoyant volumes. In some cases, where the volume to be flooded forms sections within the hydrostatic section, this is the only option, e.g. waterjet ducts. The choice whether to use trimmed surfaces or nonbuoyant volumes is primarily determined by the length of the non-buoyant volume relative to the length of the vessel. Using trimmed hull surfaces When the length of the non-buoyant volume, relative to the length of the model, is large enough; the non-buoyant volume can be calculated accurately from the hull sections. If possible, trimmed surfaces should be used. The picture below is a good example of when to use trimmed surfaces.

Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces

Using tank type: Non-buoyant volume In some cases using trimmed surfaces is just not possible. For example, when the sections of the non-buoyant volume are entirely enclosed within the hull sections (as is the case for a water jet duct) the use of a non-buoyant volume is the only way in which these features can be modelled.

Water-jet ducts modelled as non-buoyant volumes

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Another occasion when non-buoyant volumes should be used, is when the length of the compartment relative to the length of the hull is too small to calculate its volume from the hull sections. A good example of this is a bow thruster on a long ship. If the vessel is very long, and the thruster duct is of small diameter, there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model). In this case you are better off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a non-buoyant volume. For example: in the image below the bow thruster volume is only calculated with one section.

For more information, see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67. Tip: Besides increasing the number of sections through the bow thruster from 1 to 12, modelling the thruster duct as a non-buoyant volume has the additional advantage of being able to specify a Tank and Compartment Permeability, and hence also account for the thruster.

Bow thruster tube modelled as two non-buoyant volumes Tanks within Compartments

When a tank is defined within a compartment, Hydromax will automatically deduct the volume of the tank from the compartment volume using a “linked neg. (negative) compartment”. This is necessary for damage cases where the compartment is flooded and the volume of the tank should be treated completely separately from the compartment. Linked negative compartments are deleted and recreated whenever a tank or compartment is added, deleted or modified. Negatively linked compartments are displayed on the bottom of the Compartment Definition table solely for reference purposes and are not under direct user control. This means that linked negative compartments cannot be added, deleted or modified.

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Linked negative compartments are named based on both the parent compartment as well as the tank from which the linked negative compartment was derived. For example a linked negative compartment might be named “Compartment3 (Stbd Hydr Oil)” to reflect that it is derived from the intersection of Compartment3 with the Stbd Hydr Oil tank.

Tanks Overlapping

As mentioned earlier in this manual, only compartments and non buoyant volumes or tanks can overlap with each other. Tanks or compartments of the same type (eg two tanks) can not overlap. A tank and a non-buoyant volume are also not allowed to overlap. Hydromax will first try to form tank sections and then check whether these sections overlap tank sections of adjacent tanks. When two conflicting or overlapping tanks or compartments are detected during the forming process, you will receive an error message:

Notice that the compartment definition row number of the tank is given in brackets i.e. tank #8 intersects tank #3.

Troubleshooting Overlapping Tanks Sometimes the reason for the conflict can be quite simple: eg an overlapping boundary box. However, when you are modelling tanks using boundary surfaces, the surface boundaries act as a boundary between two adjacent tanks and the bounding box extents are allowed to overlap. In these cases, it can be quite difficult to see why the tanks overlap, especially if you have a large number of tanks already defined.

By temporarily deleting all tanks except for the one that does not form, it often becomes clear why the tank overlaps. In the case of the image above, the tank‟s fwd most section goes all the way to the CL (probably because the fwd boundary box extent is just fwd of the boundary surfaces or exactly on the edge of a boundary surface). This causes this particular tank to “overlap” with surrounding tanks.

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60% and the upper compartment a permeability of 95%.
Tank and Compartment Permeability
Tanks may have two permeabilities. In the case of damaged tanks and compartments.
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. the permeability fraction is also applied to the free-surface-moment contribution of that tank or compartment. Compartments and non-buoyant volumes have only one permeability.. and the other when it is damaged.
Now that you know how to fix it. inspect tank sections Try to fix tank definition. In case of large variations in permeability within a compartment it is recommended to model separate linked compartments with separate permeability to increase accuracy. For example an engine room with engines and auxiliaries at the tanktop could be divided up in a lower.and an upper engine room compartment. the engines and equipment could also be modelled individually as empty tanks. eg by selecting additional boundary surfaces Close comp def file. Do NOT save!! Open saved Comp def file Fix compartment. The lower compartment will have a permeability of.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Procedure to Fix Overlapping Tanks:
Save Model Go into Comp def window Save comp def Delete all tanks except for one you wish to investigate form tanks. which is used when the tank is intact. The compartment permeability is applied when the compartment is flooded in a damage condition and the non-buoyant volume permeability is applied at all times since it is always flooded. thought it is listed in both columns. Depending on the level of accuracy required. for example.
Relative Density of Tank Fluids
Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative Density column of the Compartment Definition table. Save & move on to next compartment. compartments typically have structure (other than plate stiffeners) and equipment inside. Permeability of Compartments As opposed to tanks. one.

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. selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner:
Define a damage case Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display. so it is normally only necessary to type the first few letter of the name). the tanks. hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the tank. Groups of linked tanks and compartments will be moved together. or if you prefer. If the tank defines a cargo tank that will carry different liquid cargoes. Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog (see Density of Fluids on page 150).
Compartment and Tank Ordering
The tank definition order can be adjusted in a similar way to loads in the loadcase. Note: Thickness of boundary surfaces are not taken into account. If a fluid type is entered.
Assembly view can be used to show and hide tanks/compartments
Using damage cases. compartments and non-buoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness and its projection direction: the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell. turn off the display of intact tanks and compartments. either as the name or as one of the single letter codes (when entering the name.
Tanks and Surface Thickness
If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness. the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog.
Compartment and Tank Visibility
When creating complicated tank plans. it is often useful to check individual tanks. auto complete is used. You can either control the tank visibility through the Assembly window. all entries for that fluid in the compartment definition are automatically updated. Select the rows you wish to use and use the Edit | Move Items Up or Down commands (there is no provision for sorting tanks alphabetically). the default density specified here in the compartment definition may be overridden in the loadcases.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column. you can use damage cases to quickly change the display to show certain tanks.

Use this to quickly turn tanks on and off by changing their damage status.
You can make the damage case window quite small and tile it next to the perspective view. Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the damage case window. Only tank sections that lie on or near the current station are shown – this makes it easier to verify that the tanks have been formed. tank sections are also displayed in the Bodyplan view when the “Show single section” option is selected.
Using a damage case to quickly change the tank and compartment visibility
Tank sections
When in Tank Calibration mode.
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Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other properties).

The water ballast tanks have a margin plate on the side. followed by the tank section insertion process.
Starting point: Hydromax Hull sections with an internal surface and a bounding box
Also see: Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54 and the Maxsurf manual on internal structure surfaces
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. Understanding these processes may assist you in rare situations where the tank forming does not work as expected. the starboard waterballast tank below will be created using boundary surfaces.
An example of a port and starboard waterballast tank with a pipe tunnel at the centreline. This section describes the internal tank-forming process that Hydromax uses to form tanks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Forming Compartments
Tanks and compartments are formed automatically by Hydromax (once the tank extents and any boundary surfaces have been defined) by selecting Recalculate Tanks and Compartments from the Analysis menu. The formed status of a tank (yes or no) is shown in the last column of the compartment definition table.
Hydromax uses three input items to form the compartment
Boundary surfaces (if defined) Boundary box Hydromax Hull sections
Starting position The starboard tank margin plate is modelled using an Internal Structure surface from Maxsurf. First a step-by-step outline of the tank forming process is given.
Step-by-Step Tank Forming Process
As an example.

The tank or compartment looks like this at this stage:
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Step 1: Close Internal Structure Surface
Hydromax will close the Internal Structure Surface contour by drawing a straight line between the ends of the opening. or There is no more than one opening – the opening will be closed with a straight line
Note: Hydromax will close the section contour of the selected boundary surfaces only. Make sure that the boundary surfaces:
Form a closed section contour. Usually the internal structure surfaces are best to be left untrimmed. Another common cause of unexpected results is trimming. Step 2: Clip to Boundary Surface Using the closed surface section contour Hydromax can now form a closed compartment section.
Hydromax uses the same method for forming the tank section from the boundary surfaces as for forming the hydrostatic sections through the hull. As with the hull sections. Often a tank is not formed as expected because only one side of the internal structure surface was selected for example the portside (p). The area inside the selected surfaces will define the tank contour. the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. Hydromax will use the trimmed internal structure surface. If you selected “use trimmed surfaces” while opening the Maxsurf model.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Step 3: Clip to Hull Hydromax will clip the compartment section to the hull. In practice additional surfaces would be required.
More realistic surface-bounded tanks
Whilst the above example shows the principles by which surface-bounded tanks are formed. In this example the vessel has both wing and double bottom tanks with non-rectangular cross-sections thus requiring them to be defined by boundary surfaces – see blow:
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. The boundary box is formed from the numerical input in the Compartment definition table. A more realistic example is shown in the following section. it is not really realistic because it would not be possible to define a tank above the surface-bounded double bottom tanks.
Step 4: Clip to Boundary Box Finally the compartment section is clipped to the boundary box.

TankBilgePlate (P) Wing Ballast (S) TankWing (S).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Sketch of tank cross-sections
Five surfaces have been defined to define the tank boundaries:
Tank Boundary surfaces defined in Maxsurf
The following surfaces need to be selected for the different tanks so that closed sections are generated (or at most one section) Hold (C) TankWing. OuterClosure (S). TankTop (P) Double Bottom (P) TankTop (P). TankBilgePlate (S) Wing Ballast (P) TankWing (P). TankBilgePlate (P) Double Bottom (S) TankTop (S). BottomClosure (S). OuterClosure (P). BottomClosure (P). TankBilgePlate (S)
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. TankWing (P). TankTop.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Hydromax tank definition
Surfaces for Hold (C) (top is closed automatically)
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.

Thus it is important to have a sufficiently large number of sections to accurately model the tank. this will be done automatically by Hydromax. If this results in a section spacing greater than the spacing for the hull spacing. Hydromax will normally place twelve sections between the forward and aft limits defining the tank. Also see Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67
Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box
For tanks near the ship‟s extremities it is good practise to set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits in the compartment table to just inside the hull surface (say 1mm). additional sections will be inserted into the tank so that the tank section spacing match the hull section spacing.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Surfaces for double bottom tanks
Surfaces for wing tanks (top is closed automatically)
Number of Sections in Tanks
The volume of a tank or compartments is calculated by integrating section properties along the length of the tank. In most cases. The following example illustrates why:
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But if the boundary box is set just inside the forward limit of the bulbous bow:
To recap – Near the ship‟s extremities. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the boundary surface. Also see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Forming Compartments on page 62
Compartment Types
Five compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition table . This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. linked tanks. For internal structure surfaces that are used as boundary surface. compartments.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
If the boundary box is set like this:
The number of hull sections is dependent on the section spacing in the model. Note that transversely and vertically there are no such restrictions. the longitudinal extents should not be set to extreme values. they should be set to just inside the extents of the hull surfaces to ensure that at least 12 sections are used to calculate the tank volumes. linked compartments and non-buoyant volumes.
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.tanks.

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. etc. If the lowest point of the tank is shared between several locations (e. In addition. shown below. the bottom of the tank is flat either longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aft-most low point and as close to the centreline as possible. They are ideal for defining water-jet ducts. once the sounding pipe has been edited manually. any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged.
Edit Sounding Pipes
To customise a sounding pipe. they can be remote from one another. Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked. Automatically created sounding pipes will be recalculated if the tank geometry changes. you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input window. However. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. Compartments Are only used to specify compartmentation for damage. One sounding pipe per tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe. type the first character of the tank type (t. This will automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type. They do not have a separate entry in the loadcase. allowing inclined. moon pools.
Sounding Pipes
Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. In this case the tank linking simulates tanks with cross connections.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Tanks Will be included in the tank calibration output and are automatically added to the loadcase. The default sounding pipe is placed at the longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when the tank is formed (either by running an analysis. if a tank is damaged. or Analysis | Update Loadcase. The top of the sounding pipe is taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is assumed to be straight and vertical. Non-Buoyant Volumes Are only used to specify compartments of the vessel which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline. Linked Compartments Work in the same way as linked tanks. and essentially behave as damaged compartments. c or n) in the Type column of the Compartment Definition table and then press Enter. Linked Tanks Will have their volume added to the parent tank with the same tank name.g. any changes to the sounding pipe due to tank geometry changes will also have to be made manually. bent or curved sounding pipes to be modelled. This allows you to damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together and damaging the parent compartment. To change the type of a tank. or using one of the following commands: Analysis | Recalculate Tanks and Compartments. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase.

or by clicking on the icon in the window toolbar. by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in the table and selecting Edit | Delete or by hitting the Delete key.
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Type the value of the desired calibration increment in the Calibration Spacing cell for the tank calibration you wish to modify.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
You can activate this window by selecting from the Windows | Input | Sounding Pipes menu. A new row will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position. To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe. Note that each successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i. make the sounding pipe type User Defined. Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of the depth of the tank. it is not acceptable to have S-bends in the sounding pipes. This is done by specifying a numerical value for the increment for each tank in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Input window.
Calibration Increment
Hydromax allows user definable increments (or: intervals) for tank soundings. offset and height of the vertex can be edited.e. In this case the Sounding Pipes table will display “Auto” in the Calibration Increment column for the tank.
If no increment is entered. then click on the first row of a particular sounding pipe and choose Edit | Add or use the Ctrl+A key combination.

Volumes that are permanently flooded should be defined as non-buoyant volumes. to insert a damage case immediately after the intact case. If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles. Hydromax is capable of including the effects of user-defined damage. Note that it is not possible to delete the intact case. Each new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case.
Renaming a Damage Case
The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case when the damage case window is active. select the intact case column. soundings will step evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe. The new damage case is added after the currently selected damage case column. simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note Increments are measured along the sounding pipe. not along the vertical axis of the tank. Hydromax allows the user to set up a number of damage cases. the current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar – see below.
Adding a Damage Case
To add a damage case.
Deleting a Damage Case
To delete damage cases.
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Damage Case Definition
In all but the floodable length and tank calibration analysis modes. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog. make the Damage window active and select Add Damage Case from the Case menu. Several damage cases may be added in one go by selecting a number of columns.

The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage case.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Selecting a Damage Case
The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar. turning off all damage in all the damage cases (use the fill down command) and then pasting back in the original data from where it was stored in the spreadsheet. their weights and levers are no longer displayed in the Loadcase window and the word „Damage‟ is displayed in the quantity column. select Intact as the current damage case. These colours can be specified in the View | Colours and lines menu. Note: Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. This is simply done by copying all the damage case data to a spread sheet. Note that carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the intact case to be selected. To perform analyses for the intact vessel. all damaged tanks and compartments will be displayed in damaged tank or damaged compartment colour respectively. Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level.
Displaying Damage Cases
When a damage case is selected. If you have linked tanks or compartments or added tanks within compartments after the definition of a damage case. you should toggle the damage status of the damaged tanks. and all values set to zero.
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. When tanks have been damaged. Hydromax assumes that all compartment definition has been done after the tanks have been defined. This is because Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. In the Loadcase Window damaged tanks are displayed with the label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column. This is also the case for the Floodable Length analysis which effectively sets up its own longitudinal extent of damage. Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. Any tank fluids are treated as having been completely replaced by seawater up to the equilibrium waterline.

Extent of Damage Cases
The damaged compartments can automatically be set by using the Case | Extent of damage command. Select the column of the damage case you wish to specify the extent of damage for and choose Extent of Damage from the case menu:
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The Loadcase Window displays damaged tanks and excludes them from any calculations.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Defining the damaged compartments by specify the extent of damage.
Adding Key Points
To start adding downflooding points go to the Key Points table. Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides must have both key points added to the table. The other types of points have their freeboard measured but are not used for the evaluation of the downflooding angle and are for information only. To delete more than one point at a time. The points may be displayed in the Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or not they are immersed.
Key Points (e. click and drag over the rows you want deleted. Down Flooding Points)
Key points such as downflooding points and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the Key Points window. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as flooded tanks or compartments. choose Add from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A.
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Specify the extent of the damage – any tanks or compartments that lie partially or wholly within the extent of damage will be automatically flagged as damaged:
Automatically generated damage case from using Extent of Damage command. To add additional key points to the table.
Deleting Key Points
To delete a Key point. You will be given a default point. a positive offset is to starboard and a negative offset is to port. A new point will be inserted below the currently selected row in the table. There are several types of Key Points:
Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points
Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle. Key points may be placed asymmetrically. click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select Delete. which is used in criteria evaluation.g. select New Key Points from the File menu.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Select Delete from the Edit menu. Select the tank or compartment from the combo-box in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window:
Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you require. and the selected rows will be deleted. These downflooding points will appear italicised and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the DF Angles table of the Results window:
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. The type of Key Point may be selected from the combo-box in the Type column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window:
Links to Tanks or Compartments
Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments. a transverse offset from the centreline. which are damaged in the currently selected damage case. a longitudinal position.
Editing Key Points
Key points are defined by entering a name. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. All points are entered relative to the zero point. and a height.

the freeboards after an Equilibrium or Specified Condition analysis. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. immersion angles or freeboards (depending on the analysis) are also given for the margin line and deck edge. Asymmetric margin lines and deck edges are not supported. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. Note: Linking a downflooding point to a tank does not mean that Hydromax will consider a tank damaged when the downflooding point is submerged. selecting Snap Margin Line to Hull in the Analysis menu will project all of the points horizontally onto the hull surface.
Margin Line Points
The margin line is used in a number of the criteria.
Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments
The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shear forces and bending moments for each section. The modulus value is not currently used as deflections are not calculated. If necessary. The downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis. Immersed points are highlighted in red in the Freeboard column. Once this has been done for all the points that need to be changed. Allowable shear force and/or bending moment can be specified at each point.
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. It is only necessary to modify the height value of the margin line points. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). In addition to the Key Points results. This form of automatic flooding is not supported in Hydromax yet. One or more points can be entered in this window. In the Name column the longitudinal position where immersion first takes place (or the lowest freeboard) is given. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described in Adding Key Points and Deleting Key Points on page 74.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window.

The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using Open and Save from the File menu. the analysis can be performed.
Stability Criteria
Stability criteria may be evaluated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and after an Equilibrium analysis.
Analysis Types
After specifying the input values and checking the Hydromax model. In this section the different analysis types available in Hydromax will be described. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the key points. Please refer to Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163 for information on defining and selecting criteria. The Bulkheads are automatically sorted by longitudinal position. Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG and Floodable Length analysis. some general information is given on:
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. The following analysis types are available in Hydromax:
Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Analysis Specified Conditions KN Values Analysis Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage
Also. bring the Modulus table to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus window frontmost.
Floodable Length Bulkheads
Bulkheads entered in the Input window are used for Floodable Length analysis in order to optionally plot the compartment lengths in the floodable length graph for easy verification that the critical compartment lengths are not exceeded. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable shear and/or moment.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments. These allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph. For more information see Floodable Length on page 102.

at zero or other fixed trim. you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts
A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts command from the Analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Starting and Stopping Analyses Batch Analysis
The required analysis settings and environment options will be discussed separately and in more detail in the next two sections of this chapter.
Choosing Upright Hydrostatics
Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. Following each analysis. one or more graphs may be shown – select the graph to be displayed from the pull-down menu in the Graph window.
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. specify range of drafts for analysis Trim from the Analysis menu. The Data Format dialog can be used to specify what is displayed in some graphs and tables. the available options depends on the current results table or graph:
Data format dialog for Upright hydrostatics table and graph
Upright Hydrostatics
Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of drafts.
Upright Hydrostatic Analysis Settings
The following analysis settings apply for Upright Hydrostatic Analysis:
Draft from the Analysis menu.

the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in Maxsurf. Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL. together with the number of drafts to be used. When a design is first opened.
Upright Hydrostatics Environment Options
The following environments can be applied to the upright hydrostatics analysis:
Density from the Analysis menu Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
Upright Hydrostatic Results
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. The Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc (if the vessel is trimmed. the LCG also affects these measurements).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Initial and final drafts can be entered.

Large Angle Stability Settings
The following analysis settings apply for Large Angle Stability Analysis:
Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Heel from the Analysis menu. to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria. the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen accordingly.
Choosing Large Angle Stability
Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The curves of form are shown on a separate graph and the sectional area may be show for any of the drafts: see Select View from Analysis Data on page 159.
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.
Large Angle Stability
Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of heel angles either with or without trim or free-to-trim. select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu
If criteria are being evaluated.

the results may be two angles of vanishing stability. safe steady heel angle Stability Criteria evaluation Downflooding angles to key points. the one that would be reported in the criteria would be the one with a positive heel angle (even if the one at negative heel occurred at an angle closer to zero). For example: when using a -180 to 180 heel range.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note You can select positive heel direction (port or starboard). The criteria are only evaluated on the side of the graph that corresponds to positive heel angles. you can enter negative values and test full 360 degrees of stability if you wish. deck edge and margin line Curve of areas at each heel angle
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.
Large Angle Stability Environment Options
The following environments can be applied to the large angle stability analysis:
Fluid simulation of tank fluids centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Stability Criteria
Large Angle Stability Results
Large Angle Stability Analysis results are:
Hydrostatic data table for each angle of heel GZ curve Dynamic stability (GZ area) curve Graph of hydrostatic parameters against heel angle Graph of max. However. Also see: Heel on page 141 in the Analysis Settings section. Some criteria require calculations of GZ at negative heel.

Once a GZ curve has been calculated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Dynamic stability Graph A graph of the GZ area integrated from upright may be plotted. Shows the variation of hydrodynamic properties with heel angle. Graph of maximum safe steady heeling angles for sailing vessels These calculations are derived from the value of GZ at a critical heel angle. Curve of Areas Shows the curve of areas for the currently selected heel angle (use Display | Select view from data to chose the heel angle from the GZ results table). features such as downflooding angle are also included on the graph. you can display the maximum safe heeling angle curves by selecting the graph type in the pull-down menu. Large Angle stability Graph.
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. Curves of Form. for example the angle of downflooding or angle of deck edge immersion.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The parameters for the calculation can be modified in the Display | Data Format dialog (this graph must be selected in the topmost window):
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.

You can also change the shape of the heeling arm curve and the gust ratio.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Analysis options for the calculation of Maximum steady heel angles (Display | Data Format). In the lower-left.
The first part of the dialog is almost exactly the same as the “Angle of equilibrium .derived wind heeling arm” criterion. This is because normally you will have computed a GZ curve for a wider heel range than you would wish to display in this graph – it is uncommon to sail a vessel with a steady heel angle of greater than 40 degrees.
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. Finally you can adjust the axis limits. This allows you to specify the critical condition that should not be exceeded due to a gust or squall. 45 and 60kts. This will give you the same result as for the gust limiting line. you can specify the squall wind speeds (you can add any number) The default gives three wind speeds of 30. It can often be useful to duplicate this criterion in the GZ criteria that are evaluated. MCA require downflooding but you can include additional criteria if desired.

To obtain smooth curves. Full details of the calculations can be found in:
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. especially at the lower heel angles – typically steps of 1degree.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The same safe angle of heel to prevent downflooding in the event of a gust (16. Under some circumstances.5 deg) is found. the most common reason for this is that the GZ curve has not been calculated up to a sufficiently high angle of heel and downflooding angle cannot be found. the GZ curve should be calculated at small intervals of heel. it may not be possible to evaluate the curves.

ed.gov. Downflooding Angle After a Large Angle Stability analysis. the large angle stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero degrees of heel. hence if there is any asymmetry. please refer to the Results Window on page 185 in the reference section. Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 159. deck edge and defined Key Points.mcga. ISBN 0-582-36857-X STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET available from the MCA. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. the Key Points Data table lists the downflooding angles of the margin line. as opposed to the immersion angle which is when the cross the waterline in a downward direction. Only the positive downflooding angles are displayed. Adison Wesley Longman 1998.
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. These downflooding points will appear italicised. In addition. Wellicome and Shenoi.
Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the currently selected damage case. For the margin line and deck edge the longitudinal position at which immersion first occurred is provided. Claughton. For more information on how to customize the display of the criteria results. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. the first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Sailing Yacht Design: Practice. Emergence angles of the key points is also calculated – this is where they cross the waterline in an upward direction to become dry. becoming wet.uk Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window. www. and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the Key Point Data table of the Results window. see: Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Equilibrium Analysis

Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft, heel and trim of the hull as a result of the loads applied in the table in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a waveform.

Choosing Equilibrium Analysis

**Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.
**

Equilibrium Analysis Settings

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

**Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18
**

Equilibrium Analysis Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Equilibrium analysis:
**

Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria

Equilibrium Results

**Equilibrium Results are:
**

Hydrostatic data Freeboard of key points, deck edge and margin line Criteria evaluation Wave phase animation Curve of areas

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Hydrostatic data

Height/freeboard above free surface The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. The freeboard is for the vessel condition currently displayed in the Design view and is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions analysis. The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free surface; hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into account.

Freeboard of key points.

Negative freeboards, i.e. where the Key Points are immersed are displayed in red. The longitudinal positions at which the minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified. Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Equilibrium Animation in Waves If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves, the Equilibrium analysis will automatically phase-step the waveform through a complete wavelength. This gives ten columns of results, one for each position of the wave crest. If necessary the results of this phase stepping can be animated giving a simple, quasi-static simulation of the hull motion in waves (Display | Animate). Note: This simulation only includes static behaviour at each wave phase, and does not cover dynamic or inertial forces. This can be done using Seakeeper.

Equilibrium Concept

The definition of equilibrium is “Position or state where object will remain if undisturbed”. You can distinguish equilibrium into two types:

Stable, when disturbed the object will return to its equilibrium position Unstable, when disturbed the object will not return to its equilibrium position

Stable equilibrium

Unstable equilibrium

With ships, an unstable equilibrium can exist when the KG > KM, i.e. the centre of gravity is above the metacentre (negative GMt). In real world a ship in unstable equilibrium will roll from the upright unstable equilibrium position to a position of stable equilibrium and assume an “angle of loll”. Since Hydromax starts the equilibrium analysis in upright position, it has no way of determining whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable. This means that unstable equilibrium may be found instead of the stable equilibrium. Therefore it is recommend to check the value of GMt yourself after doing an equilibrium analysis or perform a Large Angle Stability analysis and look at the slope of the GZ curve through the equilibrium heel angle.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Unstable equilibrium

Stable equilibrium ”Angle of loll”

The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with negative initial GMt. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25 degrees. If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero, Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero degrees of heel. In practice, it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. To do this, first ensure that the tolerances (Edit | Preferences) are set as sensitive as possible. This will ensure that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position. Then create a very small heeling moment by offsetting one of the weight items in the loadcase window TCG by just a fraction. The equilibrium analysis will now find the stable equilibrium position. Note: It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. This is most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when upright. The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely by a small amount.

Specified Conditions

Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the vessel by specifying the heel, trim and immersion. Heel can be specified by either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. Trim can be specified by the actual trim measurement, or the LCG and VCG. Immersion can be specified by either the displacement or the draft.

Choosing Specified Conditions

Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Specified Conditions Settings

**The settings required for Specified Condition analysis are:
**

Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu

Three Sets of variables are provided, labelled Heel, Trim and Immersion. One choice must be made from each of these groups. Hydromax will then solve for the vessel hydrostatics at the conditions specified.

Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button. Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18 Specified Conditions on page 145 in the Analysis Settings section. Note: If the fluid simulation has been turned on in a previous analysis mode, then the VCG obtained from the loadcase will not include the free surface correction; the “Get Loadcase Values” button will return exactly the displacement and CG as displayed in the current loadcase window. The specified condition analysis itself ignores tank fillings and does no correction to VCG.

Specified Conditions Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Specified Condition analysis:
**

Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar

Specified Conditions Results

The specified conditions results are the same as equilibrium analysis results except that criteria are not evaluated, i.e. hydrostatic data and key points freeboard are calculated.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

KN Values Analysis

KN Values Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of heel angles and displacements to produce the cross curves of stability diagram.

Choosing KN Values Analysis

**Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
**

KN Values Analysis Settings

**The analysis settings required for KN Values analysis are:
**

Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu Displacement from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis and specify estimate of VCG if known

The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and Limiting KG analyses. To set the range of angles, select Heel from the Analysis menu. A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement command from the Analysis menu. Initial and final displacements can be entered, together with the number of displacements required.

Displacement range dialog

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see: Trim on page 142 Also see KN Value Concepts on page 94
KN Values Analysis Environment Options
Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar
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. Traditionally. the accuracy of the KN calculations (for VCGs in the vicinity of the estimated VCG) may be improved by calculating the GZ curve using the estimated VCG position – this will reduce the error in the trim balance due to the vertical separation of CG and CB because this vertical separation is specified more accurately than simply assuming the VCG at the baseline. KN calculations are calculated assuming the VCG at the baseline (K). However if the analysis is being calculated free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Trim dialog
The VCG can also be entered (specified from the vertical zero datum). the KN values are still presented in the normal manner with the KN values calculated as follows: KN(φ) = GZ(φ) + KG_estimated sin(φ) For information on Trim settings for KN Analysis. If a VCG estimate is specified.

GZ. may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the desired displacement) for any specified KG using the following equation: . GZ = KN .KG sin(φ)
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
KN Values Analysis Results
KN curves calualated at each heel angle
Immersion angles calculated at each displacement KN Value Concepts
The righting lever.

To set the range of angles. it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the free-totrim options and CG are the same. notably angle of maximum GZ. select range for analysis Heel from the Analysis menu.
Limiting KG
Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected stability criteria. After each cycle. select Heel from the Analysis menu. For information on Trim settings for Limiting KG Analysis. Some criteria. see: Trim on page 142
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. are extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen. the selected criteria are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered. select range for calculation of GZ curves Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu
The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
M
Z G
B’ B
N
K
Note: KN values can also be referred to as “Cross curves of stability”. See Large Angle Stability on page 80 for further details. When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability analysis. GZ curves are calculated for various KG values.
Limiting KG Settings
The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are:
Displacement from the Analysis menu.
Choosing Limiting KG
Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and KN analyses.

The Limiting KG analysis also checks that any selected equilibrium based criteria are passed at each VCG that it tries.
Limiting KG Environment Options
Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Criteria
Limiting KG Results
Limiting KG analysis results are
Limiting KG values. it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis). draft amidships.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Since Limiting KG can be quite a time consuming analysis. for each displacement and the limiting criterion. Limiting KG vs displacement graph
The Limiting KG value is measured from the baseline. As well as the limiting KG. the minimum GM.) Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed. so if there is any form of asymmetry. (However this will cause some loss of accuracy. Criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve. you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability calculations. which is not necessarily the same as the zero point.
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. you must still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. trim and centre of gravity are given in the results table. However.

If the criteria pass. For example in the case where the heeling moment. run a large angle stability analysis and check the selected criteria.
Limiting KG Concepts
Hydromax will iterate to a KG value that just passes all criteria you have specified in the criteria dialog. 1 meter). rather than the heeling arm is constant). If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the displacements and the corresponding limiting KG. the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements (where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement. However.
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. Also see: Convergence Error on page 146 in the Analysis Settings section. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240.1mm. the correct values of displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. If any of the criteria fail. In this case. since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its definition within Hydromax. Hydromax will lower the KG and try again.g. Hydromax will raise the KG value and try to make the criteria fail. Hydromax will start with a set start KG value (e. Where these values are explicit in the criterion‟s definition in Hydromax. Hydromax will move on to the next displacement. the results in the Criteria results table display “Not Analysed”. problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form – most commonly heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a moment. Hydromax will continue doing this until the limiting KG value has been iterated to within 0. If this tolerance is not achieved in a certain number of iterations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
After a Limiting KG analysis has completed. this is because they do not necessarily refer to the final KG and would be misleading. this can be done in the Batch Analysis. Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessel‟s VCG.

If the vessel has an off-centre intact TCG. Current loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks: This means that the currently selected Loadcase will be used to define the volume of cargo or ballast in tanks before damage is applied. (Although seawater enters these damaged areas. In this case. However. Hydromax will evaluate any equilibriumbased criteria that are selected for testing and act accordingly. This is not necessarily the case for equilibrium-based criteria such as freeboard requirements or for GZ-based criteria such as Angle of maximum GZ. which must therefore be offset. this is not seen as an additional mass because damage is computed by the lost buoyancy method. Hydromax may have difficulty in finding a true limiting KG and specify convergence errors. TCG and KG will also be for the intact vessel. Hydromax assumes that raising the VCG will make criteria more likely to fail and that reducing the VCG will make the criteria more likely to pass. The second option is for the used to specify the required TCG directly. i. the mass and CG of the intact vessel after deducting the masses of cargo or ballast in any tanks that will be damaged. This is because to perform a sensible search. The tanks would generally provide a transverse moment that must be balanced by the mass of the vessel.e. this is because when they are damaged the ballast or cargo is assumed to be totally lost from the vessel. it is often required to specify a required TCG. For Limiting KG calculations for a damaged vessel where some of the damaged tanks were initially non-empty.
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. this should be zero). If this method is selected Hydromax will look at the mass and CG of cargo or ballast in tanks which will be damaged during the analysis.
Example calculations
It is probably simplest to explain this functionality by means of an example. This functionality has been in Hydromax for many years. this can be specified below (if the vessel is symmetrical and initially upright. Hydromax assumes that damaged tanks lose all liquid cargo or ballast that they may have been carrying and their buoyancy is lost from the vessel – analysis is done by the lost buoyancy method rather than the added mass method.
Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks
The set up of the Limiting KG analysis parameters has been modified to facilitate setting up the required TCG when calculating the Limiting KG for a damaged vessel where liquid cargo tanks initially carrying cargo or ballast water are damaged. Note that all results and input data will be assumed to be for the intact vessel. at least one GZbased criterion must also be selected. Note that we are only concerned about the tanks that will be damaged and that initially contain cargo or ballast. That is the specified displacement will be that of the intact vessel and that the resulting LCG. if only these types of criteria are selected.) Two methods of specifying the required TCG are possible. however the specified displacement and CG corresponds to that of the intact vessel with damaged tanks empty. Hydromax must have at least one criterion that will improve by reducing the VCG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
When performing a Limiting KG analysis. This is used to compute required TCG. This is because under most circumstances. The second method was available in older versions of Hydromax and it is the first method that provides the additional functionality: 1. the intact vessel is upright (zero heel). 2.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The following sample calculations demonstrate how the new Limiting KG options may be used.
Initial tank loadings
First we need to define how much cargo is in the tanks that will be damaged. This is done in the Displacements dialog:
Displacement dialog Setting the Trim options
We now need to specify the trim options we wish to use. In this case we shall use free to trim. the specified TCG is zero:
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.25m by the stern.
Use a loadcase to specify the initial quantities of fluids in tanks Setting the Displacements
Secondly we need to define the displacement range we wish to calculate the Limiting KG for. but with an initial vessel trim of 0. A vessel with a port-side tank that are initially full will have this tank damaged. We wish to find the maximum VCG that the intact vessel may have in order to pass the selected stability criteria. This is done by defining a loadcase and switching to the intact mode to specify the tank filling levels. Here we have specified that the tank is 80% full before the damage is applied. Importantly we shall also specify that the current loadcase should be used to determine the required TCG and because the vessel is symmetrical.

845mm
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. so the analysis should be done in this direction. the stability criteria that need to be passed and a suitable range of heel angles to be computed to evaluate the criteria. It must be remembered that these are KG results not VCG so when checking the VCG must be calculated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Trim and TCG specification Running the Analysis
We now need to select the damage case to be evaluated. In this case large port-side tanks are to be damaged. In this case the baseline (K) is at – 356. We also need to determine which way we should heel the vessel and in doubt should try heeling the vessel in both directions to see which will give the worst result.
Results from Limiting KG analysis
Limiting KG results Validation of results
The results can be validated by completing a Large Angle Stability analysis with the specified displacement and CG. these are filled significantly above the waterline so loss of ballast from these tanks will cause a list to Starboard.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Model baseline
Computed VCG values
We can now set up a loadcase for one of the displacements.
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. it can be seen that (as expected) the stability criterion is passed with a very small margin. Remember that these are the intact vessel displacement and CG:
Loadcase to check calculated Limiting KG
When the analysis is run.

The permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Criterion is passed with a small margin
Floodable Length
The Floodable Length analysis allows you to calculate the longitudinal distribution of maximum length of compartments that can be flooded with the vessel still passing specified equilibrium criteria. The results are presented as the maximum length of compartment plotted (or tabulated) against the longitudinal position of the compartment‟s centre. Traditionally the criterion of margin line immersion is used to compute the Floodable Length curve. The analysis is always carried out free-to-trim. but the centre of gravity can either be specified directly in the Trim dialog or it is computed from the specified initial trim. The VCG must also be specified since the Floodable length analysis is very sensitive to accurate trim calculations.
Floodable Length Analysis Settings
The initial conditions required for Floodable Length analysis are:
Trim (free-to-trim. For information on Trim settings for Floodable Length Analysis. The Floodable Length may be computed for a range of displacements and compartment permeabilities. select range and specify VCG Permeability. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel and is also applied to the free-surface when calculating the reduction of waterplane area and inertia. select range Bulkhead location (if applicable)
1.
Choosing Floodable Length
Select Floodable Length from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. see: Trim on page 142. The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN and Limiting KG analyses.
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. either initial trim or specified LCG) Displacement. This means that the vertical separation of CG and CB is accounted for in the trim balance.

Floodable Length results
The results of the analysis are given in tabulated format at the stations defined in the Maxsurf Design Grid as well as graphical format. select which criteria should be evaluated
Criteria must be specified from the analysis menu. Hydromax will treat the vessel sinking or the trim exceeding +/-89º as a criterion failure. (The raw graph data can be accessed by double clicking the graph. All compartment standards up to the maximum specified will be plotted. The tabulated data is linearly interpolated from the graphical data.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
This permeability is unrelated to the permeability when defining compartments and is only used for floodable length calculations. These are used to compute the Floodable Lengths. The vessel profile (centreline buttock) may also be displayed.
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.) There are several graph plot options available in the Data | Data format dialog (when the floodable length graph is topmost).
Note that internally. The Intact condition is automatically selected and the Damage toolbar is disabled Criteria from the Analysis menu.
Floodable Length Environment Options
Density Wave Form (if any) Damage: no damage case may be selected as this is automatically defined by the analysis.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Floodable lengths graph options:
Fix the y-axis so that it is the same scale as the x-axis. The length of this flooded compartment is increased section-by-section until one of the criteria is failed. you can quickly adjust the bulkhead locations so that the vessel meets the required compartment standard. the following dialog will be displayed.
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. The graph updates in real time as you adjust the bulkhead locations so once you have calculated the floodable lengths.
If the analysis is unable to find a condition where the vessel passes the selected criteria. The compartment is then moved progressively forward along the vessel. This process may be visualised by turning on the display of the Hydromax sections. with the centre of the compartment at a section under investigation.
Floodable Length Concepts
The analysis is performed by defining a flooded compartment. Plot the different compartment standards up to a specified maximum value. The vessel sinking or the criteria failing in the intact condition could cause this. Vessel profile (shown in light grey) Floodable Length Bulkheads locations are specified in a table in the Input window.

These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a specified waveform.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Speed versus Accuracy The analysis will be both considerably more accurate and slower with a larger number of sections in the Hydromax model.
Longitudinal Strength
Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window.
Longitudinal Strength Environment Options
Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria. The speed of the analysis can be increased quite considerably by increasing the allowable tolerances in the Edit | Preferences dialog. See the Loadcase Longitudinally Distributed Loads section on page 45 for more details. it is recommended that a minimum of 100 sections be used for most situations.
Longitudinal Strength Settings
The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are:
Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Distributed loads using the Loadcase window
When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected.
Choosing Longitudinal Strength
Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. allowable shears and moments from Input window
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. two extra columns appear in the Loadcase window. A trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of the load.

If defined. For more information on how Hydromax can take fluids in tanks into account see Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148. buoyancy. the net load. Downward acting masses. Upward acting forces such as buoyancy and grounding reactions are given negative values. shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull are computed. allowable shear forces and bending moments are overlayed on the graph. Damaged tanks and compartments reduce the buoyancy. From these. damage and non-buoyant volumes and grounding loads. are given positive values.
Name of Curve Mass Buoyancy
Grounding Damage/NBV Net Load Shear
Description Vessel mass / unit length Buoyancy distribution / unit length = immersed cross sectional area * density.
Longitudinal Strength Results
The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of mass. Grounding reaction Loas buoyancy due to damaged tanks and compartments and Non-Byoyant Volumes (NBV) Mass + Buoyancy + Grounding + Damage (and NBV)
x
Shear Force =
NetLoad ( x)dx
AftSt
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note that Hydromax will always use the fluid simulation method when performing a longitudinal strength analysis. such as normal masses in the loadcase or lost buoyancy due to damage.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Moment Bending Moment = Allowable shear and moment
x
ShearForce( x)dx
AftSt
Allowable shear and bending moments as specified in the input Modulus table. Also see:
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. Without this.
Tank Calibration Input
Tank definitions and boundaries Permeability Fluid type
The above data are specified in the Compartment and Sounding Pipes definition tables. Tanks are taken into account as distributed loads as well based on their mass distribution that is calculated from the tank sections. You can display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results sub-menu under the Window menu. any point loads in the loadcase will be applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load. Strength” tab in the Results window.
This data is also displayed in the “Long. the longitudinal strength table will be empty. alternatively double-clicking in the graph will give you all the data as plotted.
Choosing Tank Calibrations
Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
Tank Calibrations
Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in the Compartment window. Note Make sure you have defined sections in your model in Maxsurf. at a range of capacities.
Note: For the purposes of strength calculations.

You may chose which columns are displayed using the Data Format dialog:
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Relative Density of Tank Fluids on page 59
Tank Calibration Settings
Trim range. angle or trim measurement Heel angle range Which items to be calibrated: Analysis | Calibration options dialog
Analysis | Calibration options dialog: Compartments and Non-buoyant volumes may be calibrated if desired Tank Calibration Environment Options
Calibration intervals – see Sounding Pipes
Tank Calibration Results
If a range of heel (and / or trim) angles have been defined. If Compartments or Non-buoyant volumes have also been calibrated. you may select which are displayed in the results table and graph using the Results toolbar. they are shown in grey.

These include the tank inertias about their centre of gravity. For more information see Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference.
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.
Tank calibration calculations
A number of data are calculated for the tanks. the wetted surface area of the tank and the free-surface area.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
In the Window | Graphs menu each tank can be selected for display in the Graph window.

near-full tank
Figure a shows a sounding pipe that extends the whole height of the tank. The following notation is used: x longitudinal-axis y transverse-axis z vertical axis
Calculation of tank inertias. which is effectively what is happening in the figures below). Figure b shows the vessel with (bow down) trim and a small amount of fluid in the tank. will exacerbate this phenomenon):
Figure a Zero trim
Figure b Trim by bow. These points occur when the tank is near empty or near full. The inertias are in fact “volume inertias” in that they are not multiplied by the density of the fluid in the tank. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels which all show zero sounding.
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. Sounding pipes and tank calibration results
If the vessel is trimmed. Here all tank filling levels will have a valid sounding. (The same effect can occur if the sounding pipe does not reach the lowest or highest point in the tank – remember that this can change as the vessel trims. with the vessel at zero trim. the top of the tank is only included when the tank is pressed-full. nearempty tank
Figure c Trim by bow. see below (increasing the trim. there are ranges of tank volumes that will show the same sounding/ullage. where M and dm indicate an integration over the volume of fluid in the tank.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The wetted surface area of the tank includes only that part of the tank that is wet by the fluid in it at the corresponding sounding level.

the last two results are below the bottom of the sounding pipe. 90%. The profile view of the tank in the trimmed vessel is shown on the right. 85%.
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. if the 1% level does not intersect the sounding pipe. Finally a “Fredyn” sounding list may be generated. 98% and 100% full. 10%. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels that all show maximum sounding. In the results out lined in red. 5%. the maximum sounding will be displayed. In the blue results. sounding pipe does not cover full range of tank capacities.9%. These effects will be noted in the tank calibration results if they are extreme enough since Hydromax always adds calibrations at 1%. 90%. 99. … . the sounding pipe is in the middle of the tank and extends from the bottom to the top of the tank. “F”. 100%} Max. not the vertical step of the tank level).0m).1%.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Figure c shows the vessel with the same trim.9%. only – {100%}
In automatic mode the increments along the sounding pipe are chosen depending on the height of the tank to give approximately 20 soundings.
Sounding intervals
The sounding intervals for the calibration table may be:
Automatic. User defined Fredyn – {0%. 0. 95%. 95%. 99. there are four results which all have a sounding of 1. … . 98% and 100% full levels do not intersect the sounding pipe. you will get readings which have the same capacity but different soundings. “Max” or a numerical value in the “Calibration Spacing” column of the Sounding Pipe definition table.9%. 97.
In a similar way.0m but different capacities – the fluid levels are all above the top of the sounding pipe. type “A”. this gives intervals of {0%. Similarly if the 97. To specify the interval. if the sounding pipe extends above or below the maximum and minimum fluid levels. 100%} of the full capacity of the tank. the sounding will be given as zero. 5%.0m but different capacities (the last but one calibration point is the fluid remaining in the tank when the sounding is 0. Alternatively you may specify a precise sounding step (this is the step along the sounding pipe. 85%.
Tank calibrations for severely trimmed vessels. see below.1%. 0. 10%.9%. giving soundings of 0. but with the tank nearly full.

A common sounding pipe is used for “Fredyn tanks”. 5.0.0. …. 95. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC. Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Define the tanks in the Compartment definition window then choose the MARPOL analysis mode. 10.
Fredyn calibration intervals
The tank calibrations normally follow regular length intervals along the sounding pipe.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Backward compatibility with earlier versions of Hydromax If the model is saved with Fredyn calibration intervals and is loaded into an earlier version of Hydromax.
Fredyn sounding pipe
The tank calibration intervals required by Fredyn are (as a percentage of full capacity) {0. all soundings for “Fredyn tanks” use this common sounding pipe. Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog (see below).0.0.9}. you must change the calibration intervals to Automatic or a positive value otherwise Hydromax will crash during the tank calibration analysis. 90.141(54). type “Fredyn” in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Definition table:
Specification of Fredyn calibration intervals
Note that Compartments and non-buoyant volumes are always calibrated at the calibration intervals required by Fredyn. this sounding pipe starts at the vessel zero point and projects vertically upwards. If only the 100% full values are required “Max” may be specified for the calibratin spacing.
MARPOL Oil Outflow
MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC.117(52). 99.1.
MARPOL Options dialog (Analysis menu)
The MARPOL options dialog allows the user to select the tanks that should be included in the analysis for both MARPOL Regulations.
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. To use these intervals.

Due to the nature of some of the measurements.
MARPOL Results and additional Input
Because the calculations of the MARPOL analysis are very quick they are done in realtime as input data is edited by the user. the corresponding list of selected tanks will be displayed in the grid.and bottom-damage. The table is in the MARPOL tab of the Results window:
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Tank selection for the MARPOL analysis
The list of selected tanks is different for both Regulations since Regulation 12A is for fuel tanks and Regulation 23 applies to cargo tanks.
MARPOL Tank measurements
If the “Update all tank measurements” check-box is ticked. then Hydromax will attempt to measure the required tank parameters (over-writing any that have previously been manually edited). for this reason the user should carefully review the values generated by Hydromax. Further each tank has the option for being included in the computation for outflow due to side. When you select a Regulation with the radio buttons. it is not possible to guarantee that Hydromax will be 100% accurate in interpreting the measurements as defined in the MARPOL documents. For this reason the data input and results are combined in one table.

the deadweight is computed as the difference in displacements between the deepest loadline draft and the lightship draft (or may be specified directly).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
MARPOL calculations: Results Window
The table is split into three parts: main Hull parameters. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments. Parameters that can be edited are shown in black. the default being 1000kg/m3.
Main Hull Parameters
Different parameters are shown depending on the Regulation being used. Regulation 23 calculates the nominal oil density as the deadweight divided by the total tank capacity. those which cannot are shown in grey. it is possible to revert back to the Hydromax calculated value or default by typing „H‟ or double clicking:
Reverting back to default/calculated parameter values
For full definitions of the parameters. oil outflow due to Side damage and finally oil outflow due to Bottom damage. For Regulation 12A. Furthermore the inert gas overpressure may be specified for Regulation 23. the lightship draft is used to calculate the deadweight for Regulation 23 and the partial draft. which affects bottomdamage outflow in Regulation 12A. the nominal fuel oil density is specified by the user. The deepest loadline draft is taken as the DWL draft.
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. If a parameter is modified.

listing first side-damage tanks. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments Saving
With the MARPOL sheet active. These should be carefully checked since these can be difficult for Hydromax to automatically measure in some cases. the MARPOL data may be saved.hmd file when the design is saved.
Probabilistic Damage
IMO Probabilistic damage
Hydromax support for Probabilistic damage according to both IMO MSC.damage.
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. Note: Hydromax will overwrite user-edited tank parameters! Remember that any data that you change manually will be overwritten by Hydromax if the “Update all tank measurements” option is ticked in the MARPOL options dialog. It is advisable to copy any manually edited data to a spreadsheet or text file if you only want to update the measurements of some tanks.
For full definitions of the parameters. it is also saved in the main .19(58) is applicable to dry cargo vessels only.216(82) and IMO MSC.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Main hull parameters required for each Regulation Tank Parameters
Calculations are shown further down. these values are linked so it is only necessary to edit them in one location. For tanks which are to be considered for both side. MSC.and bottom. then bottomdamage tanks.19(58) .216(82) can be applied to both dry cargo and passenger ships whilst MSC. The user-editable tank parameters are the main dimensions which affect the probability of damage.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Probabilistic damage – Principles
Essentially the probabilistic damage analysis performs a number of large angle stability analyses and uses the IMO criterion to determine an s-factor that depends on certain parameters of the GZ curve. The GZ curves are calculated for a large number of different damage conditions and several load cases. The same log file is used for each analysis so it is important to either change the name or copy the file at the end of the analysis if the results are to be kept. the p-factors Damage window | p Factors table are automatically calculated and displayed as the zone data is modified. a p-factor can be calculated.
During the analysis each GZ curve and details on the evaluation of the s-factor may be saved in a log file. The vessel‟s attained subdivision index is the sum of the products of the pfactors with their corresponding s-factors. For each condition.
Maxsurf model is loaded as normal User defines (first selecting File | New to open the Probabilistic damage data table) other ship data required for the probabilistic damage analysis in the Damage window | Global table. User defines the bulkheads and deck values for single and groups of adjacent zones. The log file parameters may be specified in the Edit | Preferences dialog:
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. the user may decide to refine the zone arrangement. User defines the damage zones they wish to consider in the Damage window | Zones table Once 2 and 3 have been completed.
Flow through – Typical Use-case
The following section shows how the probabilistic damage analysis might typically be used. This is then compared with the required index. Hydromax runs a large angle stability analysis for each combination of loadcase and damage and collates the results to calculate the attained index. A first pass at this can be automatically generated using the Case | Extent of damage command. The attained subdivision index can then be compared with a required subdivision index to see if the vessel achieves a sufficiently high degree of safety. When the Zones have been defined the user can then define which tanks are damaged in each zone in the Damage window | Zone damage table. The user can then perform the probabilistic damage analysis. It is useful to have this interaction because if the p Factor is too large for a particular zone.

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Probabilistic damage result logging options (Edit | Preferences) Finding the probabilistic damage input sheets.
The probabilistic damage input sheets are in the damage window after the normal damage condition sheet.

most of the settings that are applicable to the Large Angle Stability analysis are also applicable to the Probabilistic Damage Analysis.1 and if the file were read into an earlier version of Hydromax and saved. However this is new to version 14.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
A Probabilistic Damage toolbar button is available in the Windows toolbar which will take the user back to the last used probabilistic damage input table:
Probabilistic damage – Saving input parameters
The probabilistic damage data is saved in the .hmd file. To load or save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file. ensure that one of the probabilistic damage data sheets in the Damage window is on top. these data would be lost.
Bring one of the probabilistic damage tables to the front to enable File menu items Probabilistic damage – Inputs
In this section we shall look at the input parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis.
Settings for Probabilistic damage GZ curve calculation
Since the analysis essentially consists of a large number of GZ curve calculations. For this reason it is also possible to save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file (in a similar way to the other Hydromax input data). Chose the Probabilistic Damage analysis mode from the pull-down or Analysis menu:
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.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Selecting Probabilistic Damage anlysis mode

Once you have selected the probabilistic damage analysis mode, you can define the heel angle range and trim settings to be used as well as any environmental parameters such as waveform (as well as the fluid analysis method to be used). During probabilistic damage analysis, it is possible to check the vessel heeling to both port and starboard. This is useful if the tanks contain ballast or cargo and it is uncertain in which direction the vessel will list when damaged (or indeed the vessel may list to different directions depending on the loadcase and damage). Hydromax will calculate the GZ curve in both directions and, if the criteria can be evaluated in both directions, the lowest s-factor will be taken. If the criteria can only be evaluated in one direction, then this value for the s-factor will be taken. It is recommended to evaluate at least one negative heel angle and the direction of heel should correspond to the side of the vessel that is being damaged (see below):

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Heel angle specification (as per Large Angle Stability)

Use either fixed trim or free to trim to loadcase. s-factor calculation

The s-factors are calculated by stability criteria. The Probailistic damage analysis has its own set of criteria (though the same parent criteria are also available in the large angle stability analysis criteria). When the analysis mode has been set to Proababilistic Damage, you will see the criteria that are used for this analysis. The number of parent criteria is reduced to only those which can calculate the s-factor. Also some “Default” criteria are supplied, you can add or modify these should you so desire. When running the analysis, Hydromax will look at the probabilistic criteria that have been selected and warn you if there are any problems.

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Probabilistic Damage Criteria Manager with Parent and Default criteria

**The following rules should be observed when defining the probabilistic damage criteria:
**

As with the normal criteria manager, changes made to the parent (bold) criteria are not saved. If you need to modify any of the criteria you should make your own copies of the parent criteria A set of Default criteria are provided – these can be modified and changes will be saved. Only one criterion should be selected and it should correspond to the IMO Resolution being used. (Strictly, you may have up to one of each MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) criteria selected and Hydromax will automatically use the appropriate one – according to the selected Resolution in the Global sheet – but for clarity, it is probably best practive to just have a single criterion selected.) The criteria should always be selected for Damage analysis. Hydromax will automatically update some of the criteria parameters according to corresponding parameters in the probabilistic damage setup. However it is still good practice to review criteria parameters before starting the analysis. This is particularly true for the MSC.216(82) Resolution where the vessel type and heeling moments must be defined correctly. The criteria window can be closed with either of the close buttons.

For further information on how the s-factors are calculated and the different parameters, please refer to the Criteria Help section for the appropriate criteria (and heeling arms).

Main parameters and calculation of required subdivision index

The other parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis are defined in the last four tables in the Damage window:

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Additional tables in the Damage window define the remaining Probabilistic damage input data

Depending on the selected IMO Resolution, different rows and columns will be displayed in the tables; both MSC.216(82) and MSC.19(58) are provided, A.265 VIII is not included. Tool tips have been added to provide a more detailed explanation of the input parameters and also the options available.

Tool tips for Global data sheet Global table

This table is used to define the main parameters for the probabilistic damage anlysis as well as provide some intermediate calculations. Input data are shown in black whilst results are shown in grey. Depending on the Resolution and vessel type, some rows may be hidden.

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Global table – MSC.216(82) Dry Cargo vessel and Passenger vessel

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Global table – MSC.19(58) Dry Cargo

Row Resolution -MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) Deepest subdivision draft (summer loadline) Loadcase Partial subdivision draft Loadcase Light service draft Loadcase Type -- Cargo or Passenger Lifeboat capacity N_1 Permitted max. num. of persons in excess of N_1: N_2 max. moulded breadth at or below deepest subdivision draft: B max. number of adjacent zones to consider min. p-Factor of damage to consider

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Description IMO Resolution to be used.

Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the deepest subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the partial subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the light subdivision draft. not required for MSC.19(58). Vessle type. not required for MSC.19(58). Number of persons for whom lifeboats are provided. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Number of persons inclusing officers and crew that the vessel is permitted to carry in excess of N_1. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Parameter not currently used.

Specifies the upper limit of the number of adjacent zones that should be damaged. If you wish to limit the analysis by p-factor only, then specify the number of zones here (see min p-factor below). Specifies the minimum p-factor for which an analysis should be performed. The maximum a condition can contribute to the

This can speed up the analysis. Specifies which side of the vessel will be damaged (when automatically generating the zone damage). this can speed up the analysis. It is normal to begin the Zone numbering at the stern. The subdivision length is taken as the limits of the length defined by the zones. If the the p-factor is very small the contribution to the attained index will be negligible and there is little point in carrying out the analysis. This will ensure that conditions with zero p-factor will still be evaluated. trim angle to consider Limit vertical extent of damage? max. use Edit | Add or Delete (or Ctrl+A or Del key. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited.
Damage zones defined by fwd and aft boundaries
Zones may be shown in the drawing views (this display option is only available in Probabilistic Damage analysis mode):
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. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
max. with a number of complete rows selected) to add or delete zones. The heel direction in the Heel setup should correspond to the side of the vessel being damaged. as are the zone names. Conditions whose pfactor is below this minimum will not be evaluated. If you wish the analysis to be purely limited by the number of adjacent zones (see above) then specify a small negative value. then the s-factor will be taken as zero (irrespective of the GZ curve). but the option to start from the bow is also allowed in Hydromax
The next table (Zones) allows for the definition of the longitudinal damage zones. The extent of damage is assumed to go all the way to the centreline but you may specify which side of the vessel is damaged. If the vessel trim exceeds this value. the boundaries of adjacent zones are automatically updated if required. Fore and aft extents of the zone boundaries are input by the user and the length and centre of the zone is automatically calculated. vertical extent of damage Damaged side -Starboard or Port
Zone 1 located at bow or stern?
Longitudinal Zone definition
attained index is the p-factor. As for other similar tables.

216(82) or MSC. The columns displayed depends on the choice of Resolution: MSC. side damage) shown in pink. P-Factors
From the damage zone calculations. A subtotal for the pfactor for a given number of adjacent zones is given as well as a cumulative to total for all the p-factors. the probability of damaging a longitudinal zone or group of adjacent zones is calculated as well as the cumulative probability.19(58) made in the Global table. All combinations of adjacent zones are calculated at this point. The last column shows whether a particular condition will be tested (if the p-factor is sufficiently large and the maximum number of adjacent zones is not exceeded). In practice. This will help the user to determine the maximum number of adjacent zones that should be analysed.
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. This can easily be done by specifying the maximum number of adjacent zones as the number of zones defined. it probably makes more sense to limit the analysis by specifying a desired minimum p-factor rather than a number of adjacent zones.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Probabilistic damage zones (stbd.

but also for groups of adjacent zones. Note that there is one extra r-factor than the number of bulkheads – this represents the probability of damaging to the centerline.
Transverse sub-zone definition and R-Factors
Transverse sub-zone definition allows the user to limit the damage penetration to a certain distance into the vessel towards the centerline.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
p-factor calculations for individual and groups of zones Sub zones due to transverse and vertical subdivision
As well as the main longitudinal subdivision. it is also possible to define sub-zones due to longitudinal bulkheads (transverse subdivision) and decks (vertical subdivision). The sum of all r-factors should be unity (a check is provided). there is a special way of calculating the b-value and this needs to be done for each set of adjacent zones.
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. The side-shell offset value defaults to the maximum halfbeam of the vessel. If no b-values are specified. I have followed IMO notation by specifying the penetration depth from the side-shell (rather than specifying the offset from the centerline). The b-values are defined not only for each individual zone. measured from the side-shell. the zone will be damaged up to (but not across) the centreline. the inner limit being at a distance side-shell offset minus b from the centreline. This is because where the side-shell or bulkhead is not parallel to the centerline. A column is provided for the user to specify the side-shell offset (from the centerline) and this is used only to draw the transverse extents of the damage zone. The r-factors are then calculated for each of the b-values that have been defined.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Longitudinal bulkhead definition and corresponding r-factors
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.

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Visualisation of zones and sub-zones: sub-zones shown dashed.
The currently selected zone or sub-zone is shown in bold as well as any damage for that zone.
Clicking in a zone or sub-zone in the table highlights the zone graphically
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. selected zone shown in bold. This can also be seen in rendered view to quite effectively visualize the damage.

Thus we introduce the concept of the currently selected Loadcase for the displayed vfactors. the v-factors will be automatically recalculated for the loadcase under consideration. but these also depend on the draft of the vessel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Vertical sub-zone definition and V-Factors
Similarly decks may be defined to create vertical subdivision of the zones.
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. The corresponding v-factors are calculated. The loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. Note that during the full probabilistic damage analysis.
Loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Deck definition and corresponding v-factors
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Zone damage
The zone damage sheet specifies which tanks are damaged for a given zone.
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. but has been added for convenience should the user wish to manually run large angle stability analyses for the same damage cases. Damage cases will be added up to the maximum number of adjacent zones specified in the Global tab. From this Hydromax can work out what should be damaged for any combination of adjacent damaged zones. This stage is not required for the probabilistic analysis.
Automatic definition of damage for each zone
Additionally the user may automatically generate damage cases for the Zone damage that has been defined damage configurations within the maximum number of adjacent zones range and above the minimum p-factor will be added. if the pfactor exceeds the minimum values specified (again in the Global tab). The “Zone damage” tab of the Damage window must be on top to enable this command. Once the automatic damage is defined.
Definition of whats damaged in each zone
Once the zones are defined the user can select the Case | Extent of damage command and this will automatically generate the zone damage according to which tanks lie within the zone boundaries. The Damage window must be on top for this command to work. this can be modified by the user should this prove to be necessary (or it can be defined from scratch by the user).

but those of the currently selected zone.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Automatic creation of damage cases using the damage defined for each zone Visualization of zone damage
When in Probabilistic damage analysis mode the damaged tanks and compartments displayed are not those of the current damage case.
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. The zone is selected by clicking in the corresponding column of the Zone Damage table.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Zone damage visualisation Probabilistic damage permeabilities
It is possible to define different permeabilities to be used for tanks and compartments for the different load conditions – as required for “cargo compartments” in MSC.
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. When you generate new probabilistic damage data.2
Thess values are defined in the Permeabilities table in the Probabilistic Damage window. the permeability values are copied from the Compartment definition. the permeabilities are the same as the damage permeabilities given in the Compartment Definition table.2:
MSC.216(82) Regulation 7-3.216(82) Regulation 7-3. but these can be overridden (for the probabilistic damage analysis only) for each draft if desired. By default. but they are not updated if they are then changed in the Compartment definition window.

These are not exhaustive tests but should pick up critical errors. it is worth checking that the heel direction (Analysis | Heel) is correct and also check that the s-factor calculation parameters are corerect (Analysis | Criteria)
Pre-run checks
When trying to run the probabilistic damage analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
In the log file. Hydromax will make several checks to see if the analysis parameters have been correctly set up. The following checks are made:
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. the permeability used for any damaged tanks is shown:
Probabilistic damage – Analysis
Once the analysis parameter data has been defined.

Note that only one criterion may be selected. this is reported and the s-factor given as zero. Basic data pertinent to calculation of the s-factor is also presented as well as a total Attained subdivision index at the bottom of the table. Should the vessel sink.216(82) is being used) That the correct s-factor criterion has been selected. excessive trim occur or the large angle stability analysis fail to converge. The required index is also shown as well as pass/fail status. If Hydromax finds no criteria selected but a suitable one is available (but unselected) then it will prompt the user to use this one:
Analysis
Large angle stability analyses are computed for each combination of loadcase and zone damage up to either the specified maximum number of adjacent zones or the minimum specified p-factor.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
That loadcases that have been specified exist That the vessel type is correct in the criteria (if MSC.
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.

Hydromax will redraw the contents of the windows to display the current hull position for each iteration. Hydromax will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced. choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. including all the GZ results and criteria evaluation for each loadcase / damage case combination are logged during the analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Probabilistic analysis results Probabilistic damage – Future developments
The probabilistic damage analysis is still under development and new features will be added in subsequent versions of Hydromax. Should the analysis take longer than about 45 seconds.
Starting and Stopping Analyses
To start the analysis. The drawing of the vessel at each step of the analysis can be quite time consuming. pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar:
Probabilistic damage Log file
All the intermediate results. The start. You can also switch application by clicking in the window of any background program. Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified. switch to a table window and maximise it to speed up the analysis. The logfile location is specified in the Preferences dialog:
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. There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is finished. Hydromax will flash and beep to indicate that the analysis has been completed. If you are not interested in seeing the progress of the analysis. If you have stopped the analysis. Calculations may be interrupted at any time by selecting Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. floating the hull to equilibrium conditions where required. you can resume calculation by selecting Resume Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar.

There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to both port and starboard. The aim of the batch processing function is to:
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Probabilistic Damage analysis logging
Batch Analysis
Batch Analysis Concepts
Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. Limiting KG and KN calculations can be made for each damage condition. For the Limiting KG analysis you may also check the Limiting KG for each criterion individually. Further. With a single command. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG. Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases.

the Batch Analysis is started
Analysis | Start Batch Analysis
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. Enable Limiting KG and KN analyses to be performed automatically for all damage cases. i.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases. key points.: analysis parameters.e.
Batch Analysis – Procedures
Once the loadcases. Facilitate testing with heel to port and starboard for vessels with asymmetric loading and/or damage conditions (or hulls). Facilitate time consuming Limiting KG analyses. Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation. criteria and analysis parameters for the required analyses have been set up. especially where results for all individual criteria are required. file name etc.
Before you can perform a Batch Analysis it is recommended that you run a number of Analyses manually to check whether the Model has been defined correctly and all Analysis Settings and Environment conditions have been set correctly. Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs. damage cases.

you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis.
Batch Analysis Settings
Analysis parameters such as trim. When the option for Sending the results to Word is selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog. Warning: Sending the results to the Report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system resources. Also see: Reporting on page 155.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Batch analysis runs all combination of loadcases and damage cases.5 m then select Analysis | Batch Analysis
Batch Analysis Environment Options (Criteria)
Any Analysis Environment Options specified prior to a Batch Analysis will be used during the Batch Analysis. The report is stored in memory and if you have insufficient memory. it is possible that your computer will become very slow to respond and under some circumstances with certain operating systems even cause Hydromax to crash. the batch analysis will automatically create a Word document.
Batch Analysis Results
Before analysis starts. are set in the normal way for each analysis type included in the Batch analysis. At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether the results of a batch analysis should go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file.5 m:
first select the Large Angle Stability analysis type from the analysis menu set the trim to Fixed trim and 0. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. This is because time consuming redrawing of the design windows. it is not possible to go back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax. heel angles etc. it is advisable not to include the results in the report.
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. Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other. Once the analysis is complete. minimising Hydromax can reduce the time required to perform the calculations. if you want the Large Angle Stability to use a fixed trim of 0.
Tip: Under most operating systems. Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of these are also output to the text file. this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further processing. For large batch analysis. see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. only the results of the final analysis will be stored in Hydromax. For example. graphs and tables is avoided.

there are three degrees of freedom: Trim. The heel steps must be positive. Combinations of both are also possible. KN and Limiting KG analyses.
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. or it can match a specified displacement and centre of gravity by varying the heel. This section will describe the following analysis settings:
Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified Conditions Permeability
Hydromax will allow specification of only those analysis settings that apply to the currently selected analysis type. Heel and Draft. Hydromax matches the trim. trim and draft. For an equilibrium analysis all degrees of freedom are derived from the centre of gravity and Displacement. If only one set of steps is required. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore the required LCG and TCG) are calculated from the underwater hullshape at each draft. simply put 0 in the other steps. The various analysis types and settings can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a fixed value and deriving the others from the analysis. heel and draft with the vessel‟s mass and centre of gravity or visa versa.
Heel
The Heel dialog from the analysis menu is used to specify the range of heel angles to be used for Large Angle Stability. trim and draft by varying the displacement and centre of gravity. The following table is a very simplified representation of the degrees of freedom and their weight counterpart: Degree of Freedom Draft Trim Heel Weight Displacement Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG) Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG)
1 2 3
In fact it is a rather more complicated situation than that suggested by the table above. Heel angles between 180 and +180 may be specified. For example: the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and stepping through a series of fixed drafts. because vertical centre of gravity is also important and also because most of the variables are coupled. For example: it can match a specified heel. This way the volume of the displaced hull matches the required mass and the centres of gravity and buoyancy lie one above the other in a vertical line.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Analysis Settings
In the previous sections opening and preparing a model in Hydromax was discussed together with descriptions of the different Analysis types. In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be specified. In hydrostatic analysis.

(For the Specified Condition analysis. and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel direction. This can be a source of apparent differences in the results from the different analyses.
Note: The heel angles to be used are specified independently for each analysis mode. Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics.
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. Floodable Length and Tank Calibrations. etc. Hydromax will not do any curve fitting and linear interpolation will be used.. damage. it is advisable to test at least one negative heel angle. key points. Hydromax will fit a cubic spline to the GZ curve and use this to interpolate for values between the tested heel angles. the trim may be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog. KN Analysis Limiting KG. to ensure that the equilibrium angle is identified. at say -5 degrees. If all the heel angle intervals are 10 deg or less. If any step is greater than 10 deg. Large Angle Stability. Note: For the angle of equilibrium to be found (when analysing criteria).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape. it is essential that the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to port to find the most pessimistic condition. It is good practise to start the heel range at an angle of approximately -30°. This is to allow roll back angle criteria to be evaluated correctly.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses always use a free trimming (and free heeling) analysis so that there is no trimming (or heeling) moment applied to the vessel at the final equilibrium. loading. Select Trim in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog.
Trim
For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is free-to-trim or has fixed trim. It is possible that the GZ at zero heel may be very slightly positive (due to asymmetry or rounding error) for this reason.

intact vessel floats at a specified trim. Fixed trim – the analysis is carried out at a fixed. This is for when a range of displacements is used for the analysis: Limiting KG. For the Floodable Length analysis. the vessel is not free-totrim as it heels. Probabilistic Damage.
Specification of different trim options is dependent on the type of analysis currently selected. KN. for each displacement. but the LCG will be different. Free to trim to specified CG – this is again free-to-trim but the CG is specified in the dialog.
Fixed trim (KN and Limiting KG analyses only). specified initial trim. Calculations at each heel angle of the large angle stability analysis are then done free-to-trim using the derived LCG and VCG. Free to trim to loadcase – the analysis trims the vessel to the CG specified in the loadcase. The analysis is carried out with the specified fixed trim. In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. intact vessel trim will be the same.
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. the upright. all three components of the CG need to be know.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Essentially there are three options for trim: 1. Although considerably faster. 3. this analysis will tend to overestimate ship stability properties such as GZ. KN. Equilibrium. This option is available for all analyses that have a loadcase: Large Angle Stability. Longitudinal Strength. Thus. Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value Using this method. The LCG is calculated using this value and the VCG. Floodable Length. Limiting KG. for each displacement. In this case. Probabilistic Damage) as well as Upright Hydrostatics and Tank Calibrations 2. This applies to all analyses that carry out a large angle stability-type analysis (Large Angle Stability. the LCB of the intact vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed. the VCG is being found by the analysis. so cannot be specified. This it is possible to specify the LCG either directly or so that the upright. The TCG and VCG are specified directly. heel is not considered thus TCG cannot be specified.

for the Limiting KG analysis.
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. the actual VCG is used and the VCG input field will state “not applicable”. the VCG will only have an effect if the analysis is free-to-trim. but the upright vessel trim will be different.
Draft
The draft dialog is used to specify the range of drafts to be used for the Upright hydrostatics analysis.
Current Loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks (los mass during analysis)
Finally. It will be used to determine the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. VCG for trim balance The VCG. any liquid cargo should also be removed from the model. Also. This is for consistency with the lost buoyancy analysis method: the buoyancy contribution of damaged tanks is removed from the model. measured from the vertical zero datum (not necessarily KG). the VCG is needed to provide an accurate balance of the trimming moment. Thus.) In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. the LCG will be the same. TCG value The TCG option allows you to specify an off-centreline centre of gravity for Limiting KG and KN calculations. For Floodable Length calculations. (As the trim angle increases the longitudinal movement of the centre of gravity due to its vertical position becomes more important. For KN analysis. This is especially useful when evaluating the Limiting KG of a damaged vessel that had cargo or ballast in tanks which are subsequently damaged. This LCG is then used to compute the free-to-trim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed. for each displacement. the VCG will be used to calculate the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. so to be consistent. It will also be used to improve the accuracy of the KN results. The TCG can be either specified directly or calculated from the tank loadings defined in the current loadcase.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value With this method. there is an option to automatically adjust the displacement and LCG of the vessel so that liquid cargo of damaged tanks is removed from the model. may be specified. which are always calculated free-to-trim. a specified constant LCG is maintained for each displacement. because the analysis is very sensitive to trim.

The permeabilities may be sorted by double clicking on the permeability column heading. and is specified in terms of KG – i.e.
Specified Conditions
The specified conditions analysis setting is only available for the specified condition analysis. Limiting KG and Floodable Length calculations. Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or delete rows from the table. The last set of permeabilities used will be recalled from the registry when Hydromax is started.
The Permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. tank and non-buoyant volume permeabilities are used when calculating the effects of damage.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
The VCG specified in the draft dialog is used for the calculation of upright stability characteristics such as GMt only. This permeability is unrelated to compartment.
Displacement
The displacement dialog is used to specify the range of displacements to be used for the KN. from the baseline. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum.
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. and/or calculating the weights of fluids in tanks in the loadcase.
Individual Permeability of Tanks and Compartments
The individual permeability of each compartment (or tank) is specified in the Compartment definition table. tank or non-buoyant volume permeability and is only used for floodable length calculations. See Specified Conditions on page 90.
Permeability
The Permeabilities are set in a table in the Permeability dialog. The compartment. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel.

One of the most common causes of non-convergence is if the specified displacement exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. This defines the tolerances that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish iteration during
Large Angle Stability Equilibrium analysis Specified conditions KN calculations Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength
Ideal tolerances can range between 0.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Also see: Modelling Compartments on page 51
Tolerances
In the Edit | Preferences dialog. Hydromax will display a warning. Hydromax will continue. calculation tolerances can be set. If this is not achieved within a certain number of iterations.
Convergence Error
Hydromax will attempt to solve most analysis to within the ideal tolerance.00001% and 0. If convergence to within the acceptable error has not been achieved. Note This warning is not displayed during batch analysis. Acceptable tolerances can range from 0.001% to 1. The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current iteration are provided for information. but the acceptable error has been achieved. Also convergence may be poor if the trim angle approaches 90 . instead the warning is written in the batch file. The warning is also not shown when accessing Hydromax from a VBA macro using the Automation interface
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. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog will be displayed.0%.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). Acceptable tolerances should always be greater than Ideal tolerances.

Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely. If you choose to continue. Note: There are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the maximum allowable number of iterations. you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing the analysis. in the case of the Floodable Length analysis. All analyses other than Floodable Length will fail if the trim exceeds +/-45º.
Analysis Environment Options
The analysis can be performed in different environments. The analysis will also fail to converge if the trim becomes excessive. then the following dialog will be displayed. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give you a warning. trim angle curve or moment to heel vs. but will allow you the option of continuing the search. this section describes the analysis environment options available in Hydromax in more detail:
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.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
If there is a convergence problem. If the search is unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time. Other causes of non-convergence can be non-linear moment to trim vs. draft plot. heel angle curve. which appears not to be due to sinking. this limit is increased to +/-89º. producing a highly non-linear waterplane area vs.
This problem can sometimes occur if the specified displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom.

provided that the total of such residual liquids does not constitute a significant free surface effect.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Fluids Analysis Methods Density Waveform Grounding Stability Criteria Damage
Fluids Analysis Methods
Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of simulating any fluids contained in tanks or compartments. Free surface effects need not be considered where a tank is nominally full .e.
In addition it is possible to ignore the free surface moment if the VCG correction for a single tank. (see IMO IS Code) 3.
3. but the code provides some flexibility in interpretation for the lower limit. i. if the filling level is less than or equal to the lower limit or the filling level is greater than or equal to the upper limit.10 The usual remainder of liquids in empty tanks need not be taken into account in calculating the corrections. due to the free surface moment is less than a specified amount. Selecting Fluids in the Analysis menu opens the Fluids Analysis dialog. You may set different limits for each of the different free surface moment types other than “User Specified”.3. the FSM is applied if the filling level is within the exclusive range specified.3. This functionality is accessed through the Analysis | Fluids dialog:
Fluid Analysis dialog
If the corrected the VCG method is used. filling level is 98% or above. This is applicable to the “IMO” free surface moment type only.i.e. This requires that a nominal minimum displacement be specified. It is possible to specify the range of filling levels for which free surface moments should be applied in the loadcase. The upper limit is clearly stated by IMO as 98%. the free surface moment will be zero. (see IMO IS Code)
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.2 Free surface effects should be considered whenever the filling level in a tank is less than 98% of full condition.

Fluid analysis method: Use corrected VCG
Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the upright hull (zero trim and zero heel).01m
min
where M fs is the free surface moment of the tank in question and
is
the ship displacement at the minimum mean service draft of the ship without cargo. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum free surface moments of the tanks. calculated in the upright condition. not those from the actual second moment of area of the inclined tank waterplane. In this case. with 10% stores and minimum water ballast. This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design.3.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
3. if required. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim.
Note Most documented stability criteria assume that the corrected VCG method has been used. Note: Tank Calibration results In the tank calibration results the free-surface moment based on the transverse second moment of area of the tank waterplane is given for all filling levels. authorities have not adopted this more accurate calculation of the shift in centre of gravity due to fluid movement. as it corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification societies worldwide. Note that the upright free surface moments as shown in the loadcase are used. need not be included in the correction:
M fs /
min
0. This is because the actual free surface moment to be used to determine the VCG in a loadcase depends on the method being used and also the heel angle in question (in the case of the IMO correction).9 Small tanks which satisfy the following condition using the values of "k" corresponding to an angle of inclination of 30°.
Note: Calculation of GM GM values always use the centre of gravity corrected for free surface moments even if the “simulate fluid” option has been chosen.
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. There are several FSM types available. the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells for corrected fluid VCG. see Working with Loadcases on page 38. Although the computational potential is available. For more information. The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free surface is calculated by summing the free surface moment of all the tanks and dividing by the total vessel displacement (the free surface moment to be applied is specified in the loadcase).

Density of Fluids
Where necessary. filled to the volume specified in the loadcase. will be displayed in the View window. Density using the current units.e. VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in the calculation of GZ. however the results are significantly more accurate. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle being analysed.
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. Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength (the Longitudinal Strength analysis always uses fluid simulation). This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly different from the upright case (i. Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the specified capacity. Specific gravity is calculated relative to a fluid having a density of 1000. i. It is particularly useful at high angles of heel or trim. When fluid simulation is used in one of these analyses. tall narrow tanks. the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog. KG. fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a loadcase.
When fluid simulation method is selected.
When selected. The new LCG. Otherwise the complete tank will be shown.e. or non-dimensional relative density (specific gravity).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Fluid analysis method: Simulate fluid movement
This method is a faithful simulation of the static movement of the centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. the actual fluid level in the tank. Alternatively. and GM.0 kg/m3. or wide shallow tanks). The penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer. Large Angle Stability. The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the analysis. may be specified. Conversions are performed automatically. free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are normally not displayed in the loadcase. density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of volume.

Saving and Loading Densities
Densities listed in the Density table can be saved and loaded using the File menu. you would change the density of "Sea Water" to 1000.0250 1. Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated automatically when the density of the fluid is changed in the Density dialog. fluid code. specific gravity.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
By assigning a code to the fluid you can easily apply the fluid type in the Compartment Definitions table. cannot be changed (any changes made will be ignored). it is necessary to change the density of this fluid.8883 0.8400 0. blue components and are probably much more easily edited in the Density dialog.0250 1.0 kg/m3. This is the first fluid in the list printed in bold font. each separated by a tab character. Note The vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming the vessel is floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water". The name and code for the first entry.9443 0.9200 0. If the vessel is to float in a different fluid. green.7499 6D00FF00FF00 6D006D00FF00 FF005F005F00 FF005B00FF00 6D00FF006D00 7F007F007F00 3F003F003F00 FF0000007F00
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.
Sea Water Water Ballast Fresh Water Diesel Fuel Oil Lube Oil ANS Crude Gasoline leaded S B W D F L C G 1. The four columns. All other entries may be edited (the same restrictions area applied as when editing through the Density dialog). Tank calibrations results and loading conditions will also be updated. The densities file may be edited manually if desired. Sea Water. Thus. if you wanted to carry out an analysis for a vessel in fresh water. There is one row for each of the 18 fluid types.0000 0. colour respectively (the colour is in hexadecimal for the red. Note that only the custom fluids may have their names changed. These are fluid name.

the waveheight reduces linearly with wavelength given by the formula: Wave height = 0.0000
FF007F007F00 7F007F00FF00 F600FA00C900 FF00FF007F00 FF006F00FF00 D6000300D600 D600D6000300 0300D600D600 D60003000300 DF00DF00DF00
If you make an error. JFA MTBE Gasoil Slops Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Custom 5
U J M GO SL C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
0.0000 1. the wavelength.0000 1. If the wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a value in metres of: Wave height [m] = 0.7471 0. If a waveform is specified. To specify a waveform.075875 Wavelength
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. you can always reset the densities to their default values in the Densities dialog.7499 0.8203 0. Also see: Windows Registry on page 16
Waveform
Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as well as for a level water plane.607 √ Wavelength [m] This is the metric equivalent of the US Naval standard wave height: Wave height [ft] = 1. wave height and phase offset can be specified.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Unlead.0000 1. or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform.0000 1.1 √ Wavelength [ft] For short waves of wavelength less than 64m.9130 1.8524 0. The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL. select the Waveform command from the Analysis menu:
The water plane can be specified as flat. Gas.

5. the sum of the buoyancy and the grounding reactions equals the loadcase displacement. this will bring the effective centres of gravity and the centre of buoyancy in line vertically. If the vessel touches one or both grounding points. as a proportion of the wavelength.
The effective centre of gravity will be modified by the grounding reactions – a mass is effectively being removed from the vessel. this will be reflected in the results: The displacement column will show the total grounding reaction force in brackets. will give a single wave crest at amidships.
Grounding
Grounding is an additional analysis environment option for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal Strength analysis. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1. with a wavelength equal to the waterline length. a phase offset of 0. The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull accordingly. the wave height may be modified. Damage can be specified concurrently with grounding. For example. The value of KG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Once a wavelength has been set. whilst GMt and GMl are the actual vertical separation of the metacentres above the centre of gravity in the trimmed reference frame normal to the sea surface.
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. both of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL. Remember that KG is measured in the upright vessel reference frame (normal to the baseline). The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the DWL. GMt and GMl are all calculated to the effective centre of gravity. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable length.

the vessel will not be balanced in heel and the vessel will remain upright (zero heel) even if the transverse metacentric height is less than zero. When two grounding points are entered. For more information see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Note: Grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull and therefore constrain the heel to zero. The length of the grounding points is only used when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis and not to determine the pivot point.
Note: Fixed zero heel during grounding analysis The equilibrium analysis will only consider the longitudinal balance of moments. i.
Stability Criteria
Stability criteria may be seen as the “environment of authorities” that the ship will be deployed in. The vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point.
Damage
You can specify whether the model is to be analysed in intact or damaged condition using the Analysis Toolbar.e. the first point (edit boxes on the left) must refer to the forward grounding point. the second grounding point is the aft grounding point. Also see: Damage Case Definition on page 71
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.

This then allows you to validate the results at the same time.
Streaming results to Word
It is possible to stream the Analysis results directly to Word. To do this:
Edit | Preferences Select the option to Send the Report to Word
This will send the Report document to Word instead of to the Report window. Additionally. For large numbers of cases. it is recommended to use batch analysis. if the option to Stream the report to Word has been selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog a word document is automatically generated after a Batch Analysis. Select the option to send the results to the report window if you require Graphs. This also applies to Batch Analysis. Form small number of loadcases and damage cases you can do a manual copy and paste of the results into a report.
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. After you have run an analysis a Word document is created and opened automatically. Batch Analysis results saved as text files do not include graphs.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Analysis Output
Hydromax will produce the following output data:
Hydromax model visualisation Result data tables per analysis Graphs per analysis Report o o o Report window Streamed directly to a Word document Report Templates
In this section:
Reporting Copying Select View from Analysis Data Saving the Hydromax Design Exporting
Reporting
Hydromax has several options to do your reporting:
Batch Analysis text file and/or streaming to Report window Automatically generate a report in the Report Window for each analysis run Automatically Streaming results to Word Manually copy and paste tables and graphs from the Results Window and Graph Window
The most efficient method depends on the number of loadcases and damage cases you have to analyse and the output you require.

To turn on Report Templating you need to select it in the Preferences dialog box.dotx/dotm (for Word 2007) format and will be used when creating any future reports. tables. This feature is only available when sending reports to Microsoft Word. Please note that Send Report to Word must be enabled before you can enable this option. it is possible to use template keywords to specify where in the document the analysis results go and where each element of the output (such as graph. or you can build your own template.dot
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. With report templates. See the dialog box below as an example:
The Word Template File specified should be in . You can use one of the sample templates provided. This gives you much greater control over how the analysis results are output than with the normal Send Report to Word option and allows you to customise your own report template document.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Report Templates
Hydromax offers the ability to customise reports through a Report Template.dot or . Two Report Templates have been included to get you started: StabilityBooklet. instead of just dumping the results of each analysis into a Word document. Simply tick the box „Use Word Templating‟. etc) is placed.

On Windows XP/Server 2003 the default location for the report templates is: C:\Program Files\Maxsurf 14\Report Templates\ On Windows Vista.
Copying & Printing
A range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as spreadsheets and word processors is provided through copy and paste functions. It also includes all of the basic analysis blocks and variables to get you started. Simply double-clicking on a template document opens up a new document based on the template (which is not what you want). Data Format on page 207 for tips on how to specify what should be displayed and customise how to display tables (vertical or horizontal). This data transfer works both ways: e. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window.
Copying Hull Views
Pictures of the hull in the View windows may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy command from the Edit menu. Both of these templates contain macros and toolbar items to make life easier when you design your own template.
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.dot and then use it customise their own report template.
Note: To edit a report template in Microsoft Word you will need to start Microsoft Word and then open the template directly using the File menu.dot This document is a good starting point for creating your own customised template.g. HMReportTemplate. copying and pasting data to and from Excel spreadsheets allows you to use the full spreadsheet capabilities of Excel on your Hydromax model. due to new security changes we‟ve had to move this to an alternative location that every user has write access to – so you can find it at: C:\Users\Public\Documents\Maxsurf\Maxsurf14\Report Templates\
Tips:
See: Copying Tables on page 158 for tips on how to include the table header in a copy paste to for example Excel Graph Formatting on page 190 for tips on how to format your graph prior to copying to another application. These allow you to easily add and remove the analysis keyword blocks.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
This is an example of a complete Stability Booklet template – this document is the default Word Template file for new users and is recommend for users wanting to quickly create a Stability Booklet. Users can start with StabilityBootlet. It contains an introduction to how templates are created and configured.
The location of these report templates varies depending on which operating system you are using.

it is possible to ensure that the graph is plotted to a sensible scale so that measurements can be made directly from the graph. Simply bring the window you wish to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu. You will be asked if you want to print the graph to scale or to fill the page:
The scale used will depend on the length units that are currently selected. Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page Setup command from the File menu. Simply select a cell. Views of the hull in the View window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf. 2. To copy a simple bitmap image of the view at the current resolution.0cm. column. row. The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work. If these are metric.
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. hold the shift key down when selecting the print command for the graph. use Ctrl+I. Choose the Colours button and select the options required.
Print Preview
The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. To print the page click the Print button.5cm. then the graph will be plotted so that the grid lines are at one of the following intervals (If the current length units are imperial then similar intervals will be used.
Graph Printing to Scale
When printing the graph.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report window. Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes. The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button. The printing may be forced to be black and white. a bitmap of the current image may be saved by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I
Copying Tables
Tables may be copied to the clipboard. 5. additionally.): 1.0cm. but the selection will be reflected in the printout. but they will be inches instead of cm. 2.0cm. otherwise click the Cancel button. Note: Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed. will also copy the column headings. range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command or Ctrl+C. To do this.
Printing
Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed.

Note Although all Hydromax model data is saved in the .
Saving the Hydromax Design
Hydromax design data may be saved
Saving in a Hydromax Design File Saving Input Files separately
Saving in a Hydromax Design File
To save the design in one file. The Select View from Data can also be used to display the Curve of Areas graph for each intermediate analysis stage.
Saving Input Files separately
In addition to saving all the data together. see Graph type on page 189. for comparing the characteristics of vessels which have only minor differences in hull shape and identical tank layouts and loadcases. selecting the column at the required heel angle and select “Select View From Data” in the Display menu. For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. For example: the angle of downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Stability table in the results window.
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. compartment definition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Exporting a Bitmap Image
You may also export a bitmap of the rendered perspective view with the File | Export | Bitmap Image command.
Select View from Analysis Data
For most analyses. damage cases. E.. the data in the individual tables such as loadcases. may also be saved separately. each step from the analysis can be visualised when the analysis has completed. it is recommended to also save the Hydromax input files separately.hmd file automatically every time you press Save from any of the design windows. This gives the option of loading common data into different design files. key points etc.g. The Hydromax data is saved in a . This can also be done for Upright Hydrostatics and the different wave phase calculations for an Equilibrium analysis in a waveform.
In the View window the hull will be displayed in the selected position. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307. ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File menu.hmd file with the same name as the design.

select Save Compartment Definition from the File menu.
Exporting
The data export function in Hydromax is similar to Maxsurf. Select Save or Save As from the File Menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Saving Loadcases to a File Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet. bring the Input window to the front and choose the compartment definition table. Some Hydromax-specific export features are described below. Saving Damage Cases to a File Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage Cases As from the file menu. select Save from the File menu. the data generated may be saved as a text file. you can save it in a file on disk. Excel or other programs. Selecting this option saves all the loads displayed in the current tab in the Loadcase window. bring the Input window to the front and choose the required input table. This allows the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or with any other hull. ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the table containing the data you wish to save. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. To save the data. Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window. The Results files are saved as tab delimited text. meaning that they can be read directly into spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells. Saving Input Window Tables To save a input window table to a file. Saving Compartment Definitions to a File To save a compartment definition to a file. This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be done in Word.
Saving Results to a File
Once you have performed an analysis.
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. To save the loadcase table. ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and choose Save Load Case from the File Menu. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved.

0.
Exporting the Model to Hydromax Version 8. This export function is particularly useful to export tank arrangement drawings. please see the “Output of Data” section in the Maxsurf manual. Hydromax models created in versions greater than version 8. so it is important to have unique compartment names. a major change to the Hydromax file structure was made. All key points will become downflooding points in the version 8 file and any tank sounding pipe information will be lost.
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. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer.
DXF export Contains all lines displayed in the active design window as closed poly-lines. For more information on data export of DXF and IGES.0 can be exported using the File | Export menu so that it is compatible with Hydromax version 8.0
After Hydromax version 8.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax
Data export dialog in Hydromax. each tank. In addition. Note: The layer name is the same as the compartment name.

.

e. DNV. It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria. HSC. Although all criteria are displayed in the criteria table. explanation of terms and definitions
See also:
Appendix B: Criteria file format Appendix C: Criteria Help Appendix D: Specific Criteria
Criteria Concepts
Hydromax includes a wide range of template criteria (or: parent criteria) as well as predefined custom criteria such as IMO. These criteria are listed using in a tree control on the left-hand side of the criteria dialog. Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the lower right hand corner of the dialog. This makes it quick and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria parameters. ISO and more. Users may save. Criteria Procedures. i. A fixed sub-set of criteria is used for the Floodable length analysis and these criteria are accessed in their own. This section describes how this list of criteria can be divided up in to Parent heeling arms. i. an overview of what capabilities Hydromax offers with regards to stability criteria.e. Parent criteria.
Criteria List Overview
Hydromax includes a wide range of criteria. and after a Large Angle Stability analysis only GZ based criteria are added to the report. only criteria that are applicable are added to the report. only the criteria that are selected for evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report. criteria evaluation results Nomenclature. explanation how to work with the Hydromax criteria dialog to create your own custom set of criteria. Criteria Results.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added. Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. Stability criteria are evaluated for Large Angle Stability.
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. This ensures that the correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. This section also explains how all criteria can be divided up into two different criteria types: equilibrium and GZ curve based. Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria. only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are displayed in the Results table). Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations. Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). predefined custom criteria and user created custom criteria. The following sections will be discussed:
Criteria Concepts.: if the intact case is being computed. simplified dialog. However. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email. import and edit their criteria sets. similarly for the damage cases.

Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog
Parent Heeling Arms In most cases a ship is subject to specific heeling moments. The Hydromax criteria list contains Parent Heeling Arms that can be copied into a custom criteria folder and then cross-referenced into the stability criteria. the roll-back angle required for the IMO IS code Severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. Those heeling moment are then used in a number of different criteria.
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. These calculations may be referenced in certain criteria. for example.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
The criteria tree list
Parent Calculations This folder contains calculations that are required for certain criteria parameters.

Parent Criteria The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in Hydromax. they will always revert to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. This is explained in the section on Working with Criteria on page 168. This folder can be found in the Maxsurf root directory: c:\program files\Maxsurf. it is only displayed once in the GZ graph and not duplicated for each criterion that uses it.
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. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved. since the heeling arm is defined in one place.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
The advantage of using cross-referenced Heeling Arms is that a heeling arm is now defined (and edited) in only one place. these are the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived. This is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the “My custom criteria” group or any other group you create. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. Furthermore some newer heeling arm criteria are only available for cross-referenced heeling arms and a greater variety of heeling arm definitions are available through cross-referencing. Another benefit is that. Also see Working with Criteria Libraries on page 172 Appendix D: Specific Criteriaon page 291. Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename. Predefined Custom Criteria A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. Most specific criteria are locked. Custom Criteria You can create your own set of criteria in the tree as well. those that are not locked require your ship design data to be input. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation. To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria. This ensures that all criteria which use a specific heeling arm use exactly the same heeling arm. delete or add criteria to the Parent Criteria group. they are displayed in bold text in the Criteria list. This is because the parent criteria are intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria.

The different types of criteria and their icons are described below: Folder icon. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. metacentric height. The equilibrium heel angle is also a fundamental output of the Equilibrium analysis. GZ criterion. Combined GZ heeling arm criterion. in some criteria sets some criteria are included twice. See next: Criteria Procedures
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. STIX. angle of maximum GZ. The same also applies for GMt. These icons are derived from the parent criterion type. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve. create separate folders to store related criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Types of criteria
There are two fundamental types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. For a criterion to be used in the search for maximum VCG in the Limiting KG analysis. once in the form of an Equilibrium criterion and again as a Large Angle Stability criterion. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. For this reason. e. etc. area under GZ curve between specified limits. A check is also made to ensure that any selected Equilibrium criteria are passed. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. e. Note that there is some cross-over between the criteria types. notably angle of equilibrium heel. GZ area criterion GZ criterion with heeling arm GZ area criterion with heeling arm GZ criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations GZ area criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations Combined GZ criterion. You will notice that different icons are used to differentiate between different types of criteria. it must be a LAS criterion. freeboard measurements. but they cannot be included directly in the search algorithm. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve including a heeling arm. This is because it is only this type of criteria that is more likely to pass as VCG is reduced. This can be measured from the GZ curve by looking for an up-crossing of the GZ=0 axis. etc. For example. All folders must have unique names (even if the parent folders have different names). trim angle.g. These criteria are evaluated only after an equilibrium analysis has been performed.g. Weather criterion. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. Equilibrium criterion. These criteria make measurements from the GZ curved obtained from a Large Angle Stability analysis.

select Criteria from the Analysis menu:
or use the Criteria button. in the analysis toolbar:
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.
. To bring up the Criteria dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Criteria Procedures
This section describes how to work with the stability criteria dialog.
Starting the Criteria dialog Resizing the Criteria dialog Working with Criteria Editing Criteria Working with Criteria Libraries
Starting the Criteria dialog
The criteria dialog allows you to select which criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and change their parameters.

Resizing the Criteria dialog
The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. Note that if.
Working with Criteria
In the Concepts section it was explained how the criteria are listed in a tree list. This behaviour is the same as all other resizing dialogs. This section explains how to create and customise your own criteria from the Parent Heeling Arms and Criteria provided with Hydromax.
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. the dialog size can be reset by holding down the “Shift” key when you open the dialog. in the unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
The criteria dialog is shown below:
Note: The Floodable Length analysis uses its own set of criteria. The criteria command will bring up the Floodable Length Criteria dialog when the Floodable Length analysis is selected.

Intact: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for intact conditions.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Using the Criteria Tree List
The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer:
Click on the “+” sign to expand the folder (or double click on it). Click on an item’s name or icon to select it Once selected. Click on the “-” sign to collapse the group (or double click on it). this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. Locking is used for criteria belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed.
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. Damage: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for damaged conditions. click again on the on the item’s name to edit its name
Some short-cut keys for the tree list: Tree control smart keys Alt+Keypad * Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad + Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad Up Arrow Down Arrow Space
Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu
Function Recursively expands the current group completely Expands the current group Collapses the current group Move one item up tree Move one item down tree Include criterion for analysis
Several options are available by right-clicking on a criterion or criterion group:
Criterion right-click menu
Include for Analysis: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated. Lock: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked. If a criterion is locked.

then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results. If duplicate group names exit. you can hold down the CTRL-key while moving the criteria you will copy the criteria. As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. all criteria that should be in a group of that name will end up in the first one and none in the second. Paste: Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location Rename: Renames the criterion or group.
Defining new Custom Criteria and Groups
New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group. Cut: Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Add Group: Add a new criterion group. It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names. Copy: Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. To select an entire group. then clicking again in the label. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. This may also be done by selecting the label. Alternatively. in which case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not). right-click on the group and choose Include for Analysis from the menu. Delete: Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and sub-groups within the group. Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be made and the original will not be deleted. Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the right-click context menu (see above).
Selecting the Criteria for Analysis
Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion.
Copying criteria
You can use the Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu to copy and paste criteria. By holding down the Ctrl button a copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion.
Editing Criteria
The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the top-right of the dialog:
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. If there are groups with the same name.
Moving Criteria
Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the left-mousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the right-click context menu (see above). Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on your mouse. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree.

In other cases. click on the criterion‟s name in the tree and the criterion‟s parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. Edit the parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Criterion details table
To edit the parameters for a specific criterion. with the “Value of GMt at” criterion:
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. If in doubt. This occurs. the check boxes act as radio buttons and only one may be selected. or click the dialog‟s Close button. at least one must be selected.
Check Boxes in Criteria Properties Section of Criteria Dialog
There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on their context. for example. Please note that the criteria are updated as you change their data and that there is no “Cancel” function for this dialog. The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion:
In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually exclusive. have a grey background. use the File | Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before making any changes in the Criteria dialog. where the items are mutually exclusive. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a criterion parameter. However. The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold. those which cannot be edited.

A third option which is not yet implemented is WOD (Water on deck) this checkbox has no effect. Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated. Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting the required comparison from a combo-box in the criterion row of the details table:
Description Shall be greater than Shall not be less than Shall be less than Shall not be greater than
Damage and Intact
Symbol > ≥ < ≤
Logical test Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to
Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). only the criteria that you create or import will be saved. GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria:
Criterion Pass/Fail Test
There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria. Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called: “Hydromax Criteria Library. whereas another may state “Shall not be less than…”.
Working with Criteria Libraries
It is possible to load and save the criteria. for example. The parent criteria. which consists of the Parent criteria and a “My Custom Criteria” group.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included. These options may either be set using the right-click menu or by ticking the appropriate boxes in the bottom of the dialog:
Intact and Damage tick-boxes.hcr.
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. you will be prompted to locate a criteria file: You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the default criteria. By default this is c:\program files\Maxsurf\ Hydromax Criteria Library. built into Hydromax are not saved.hcr” from the directory in which the Hydromax program resides. If this file cannot be found. Intact criteria are only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments or tanks in the damage case).
Default Criteria Library File
When starting. For example one criterion may state “Shall be greater than…”.

the imported criteria will be found in the original groups. not in the new groups. A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax.
Importing Criteria and Specific Criteria Files
New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them – choose Import Criteria from the File menu. either overwriting the existing one or creating a new one. however. This can be useful when you are defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining criteria sets for different vessels. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. See Saving Criteria below. This will simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
The default criteria library will be automatically updated every time the criteria dialog is closed. all existing criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you are opening. You can import several criteria files in one go using Shift. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. you must save them in a new file first. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing criteria:
If you choose “Yes” your existing criteria will be kept.
Saving Criteria
It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file. so if you want to save any further changes you will have to resave as described above. updates will be saved in the default criteria library. Note It is good practise to save the criteria file with the project in the project folder. it is important to ensure that the group names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. Even if you loaded an alternative file. Further updates will.
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. if you choose “No”. when at a later stage you need to re-analyse the project. That way. continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that was opened when Hydromax was first started. or Ctrl select to select multiple files in the Open Hydromax Criteria dialog. The default criteria library will be over-written with the new criteria so if you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria library. all criteria are still available. If this does occur. Note that when keeping your existing criteria.

Editing this file will also allow you to add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your criteria. After calculation the relevant criteria are also added to the Report. The typical format of the file is given in the following file: c:\Program Files\Maxsurf\\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp..hcr.: angle of vanishing stability. This is normally due to an insufficient range of heel angle having been used. Results may be displayed in “Verbose” or “Compact” format (see above).html. The format for the results table and the report are specified separately.
Criteria Results Table
The tested criteria are listed one above the other. Values that could not be calculated. This allows you to edit criteria parameters or selected criteria and re-evaluate using the existing analysis results. The file is a normal PC text file. criteria are evaluated and the results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window. Chose the Display | Data Format command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed:
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. angle of equilibrium. e. Criteria can also be re-evaluated without having to redo the analysis when “Close and Recalculate” is selected in the criteria dialog.
Criteria Results
After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Criteria File Format
The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria.g. have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. etc. Intermediate values are displayed.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Stability criteria results window: compact format
Stability criteria results window: verbose format
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.

Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. Also see Reporting on page 155 Batch Analysis on page 138
Nomenclature
This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria. area under GZ curve between specified limits. For example. only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch file.
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.e. i. freeboard measurements. For example damage criteria during intact analysis or Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis are not added to the report. are not added to the Report (although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table). water-plane inertia and immersed volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. Note: The metacentre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed directly from the vessel‟s hydrostatic properties (i. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. metacentric height.
Definitions of GZ curve features
Some typical GZ curves are shown below.e. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. trim angle. There are two distinct types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. any criteria that have a “not analysed” result. Criteria that are not relevant. etc. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. This gives an accurate result that is not dependent on the heel angles and intervals tested during the analysis. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. angle of maximum GZ. etc. the third graph shows the GZ curve with a heeling arm overlayed.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Report and Batch Processing
As noted earlier.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
Typical GZ curve
Unusual GZ curve with double peak
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.

the GZ curve may have multiple peaks.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed GZ Definitions
The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve: Angle of vanishing stability Angle of vanishing stability with heeling arm curve Downflooding angle Equilibrium angle Equilibrium angle with heeling arm curve First peak in GZ curve The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with negative slope.
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. The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has positive slope. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs. this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight cabin. The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve and where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has negative slope. In some cases. The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at which a downflooding point becomes immersed.

heel arm) is a maximum
Maximum GZ Maximum GZ above heeling arm curve
Glossary
The table below describes some commonly used terms: Angle of heel measured from upright. centripetal effects of tuning.
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. the heeling arm is made zero. Deck Slope / maximum slope Gust Ratio g = 9. etc. the heeling arm curves will have different shapes. Depending on the moment that they represent. Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum Positive angle at which the value of (GZ . If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero. which is superimposed on the GZ curve. Used for some wind heeling criteria. flat deck at the resultant vessel heel and trim.e.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria
GML or GMT
GZ Curve Heeling arm curve
Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse metacentre and centre of gravity. combined effect of heel and trim. If a criterion uses a roll back angle. the Gust Ratio is the ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the steady wind heeling arm. if the cos function goes negative. This is typically used to assess the effects of external heeling moments. The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against vessel heel angle A curve of heeling lever. 1998 CODATA recommended value for standard acceleration of gravity A negative heel angle change. Commonly used in wind and weather criteria to account for the action of waves rolling the vessel into the wind. The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative. which are applied to the vessel. i. the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater than 90° and less than -90°. The location of the metacentre is computed from the water-plane inertia. the resulting heel angle after the roll back has been applied is more negative than the original. rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle. it is often necessary to calculate the GZ curve for negative angles of heel.80665ms-2 Roll back angle The maximum slope of an initially horizontal. Often a roll back angle is measured from some equilibrium position. passenger crowding. Note that the centre of gravity used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright condition. not the slope of the GZ curve. These include the effects of wind.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

**Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
**

This chapter contains brief descriptions of the tools available in Hydromax:

Windows Toolbars Menus

Windows

Hydromax uses a range of graphical, tabular, graph and report windows.

View Window Loadcase Window Damage Window Input Window Results Window Graph Window Report Window

Assembly View and Property Sheet

An assembly view has been added to Hydromax, this makes it easier to control the visibility of individual tanks and surfaces. The Properties sheet can be used to change tank properties of the tank currently selected in the Assembly or design View.

View Window

The View window displays the hull, frame of reference, immersed sections of the hull and any compartments, and the centroids of gravity, buoyancy, and flotation. These positions are represented by: cb cg cf K centre of buoyancy centre of gravity centre of flotation location of keel (K) for KN during KN analysis

You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or the View toolbar. The Zoom, Shrink, Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. If a Perspective view is shown, you may also use the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions. You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility command from the Display menu. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained, one is used for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank calibration analysis is selected.

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Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out, it will display the hull shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current step of the analysis. After an analysis, the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window. The view of the tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes can be toggled between an outline view and a view of the sections.

Perspective view

In the perspective view, the model may be rendered.

The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised, especially when the hull shell is made transparent.

The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu, with further lighting options in the Render toolbar. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual for more information on the different rendering options available in perspective view.

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Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

Note: Fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that is required from Hydromax. For this reason, it is best to turn off sections, and especially waterlines, when performing an analysis. You may then turn them on again after the analysis has completed. For fastest performance, e.g. when running in Batch mode, minimise the Hydromax window so that no redrawing occurs.

Loadcase Window

In the Loadcase window a spreadsheet table of all loads and tanks is displayed.

Using the tabs on the bottom of the window allow you to quickly browse through the different loadcases. Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank, heading or sub-total lines in the table. For more information see Working with Loadcases on page 38. The columns that are displayed may be selected using the Display | Data Format dialog.

Damage Window

The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in each damage case. There is always an Intact case, which cannot be edited, this is the default condition. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be defined as non-buoyant volumes.

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Input Window

The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered. The tables in the Input window contain the:

Compartment Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points Margin Line Points Modulus Points Bulkhead locations

The input window contains tabs on the bottom that allow you to quickly browse through the different input tables.

Compartment Definition

This table can be used to define the tanks and compartments in the Hydromax models. For more information see Modelling Compartments on page 51 in the Analysis Input section.

Sounding Pipes

This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. Default values are provided but these may be edited if necessary.

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Key Points

**There are several types of Key Points:
**

Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points

**Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle, which is used in criteria evaluation.
**

Margin Line Points

The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. If necessary, the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line).

Modulus Points

This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment during the longitudinal strength calculations.

Bulkheads

See Floodable Length Bulkheads on page 77. Results Window

The Results window contains ten tables, one for each of the different analysis types plus criteria results and key points results tables. When switching mode, the currently selected results table will change to reflect the current analysis mode. Note that results are never invalidated if analysis options are modified – it is up to the user to ensure that the results are recalculated as necessary.

Setting the Data Format

It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are displayed. To do this, choose Data Format from the Display menu.

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but are not displayed. The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to Equilibrium or Specified condition.
Key Points Data Result Window
Key points data is calculated for Large Angle Stability. For example.
Data Layout
Most analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the printed page. Items that are not selected are still calculated during the analysis cycle. the data can be formatted so that each draft has a column of results. The data available for display depends on the analysis. Equilibrium and Specified condition Analysis. or so that each draft is on a separate row.
To change the format. with Upright Hydrostatics. and select either the horizontal or vertical layout button. select Data Format from the Display menu. Items that are selected with a tick will be displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. You may change the display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
A dialog similar to the one above will appear.
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. where all the intermediate calculations are shown. Criteria results are not displayed in this table after a Limiting KG analysis. The results may be displayed in compact format:
Alternatively. by selecting the desired format in the Display | Data format dialog. the results can be displayed in verbose format. The results of the criteria evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Stability Criteria Result Window
If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu. Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses. they will be evaluated during Large Angle Stability.

different graphs are available.
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. Depending on the analysis mode. Hydromax will automatically display the graph that displays the result of the current analysis when you select Graph from the Windows menu or press the toolbar button. Upright Hydrostatics Analysis:
Hydrostatics Curves of Form Curve of areas – different graph for each draft tested (selected using Display|Select view from data)
Large angle stability Analysis
Righting Lever (GZ) Curve of areas – different graph for each heel angle tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Max steady heel angle Large angle stability (hydrostatic data other than GZ) Curves of Form Dynamic stability (GZ area)
Equilibrium Analysis:
Curve of areas
Specified condition Analysis:
Curve of areas
KN Values Analysis:
Cross curves (KN)
Limiting KG Analysis:
Limiting KG
Floodable length Analysis:
Floodable length
Longitudinal strength Analysis:
Longitudinal strength Curve of areas
Tank Calibration
One graph for each tank
For many graphs you can select what is plotted and other options with the Display | Data Format dialog. Graphs can be copied using the Edit | Copy command. Alternatively you can select a specific graph using the Windows | Graphs menu item. Only the graphs that are applicable to the current analysis can be displayed.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Graph Window
The Graph window displays graphs. which show the results of the current analysis.

Note: In case multiple curves are plotted in the same graph you can switch between the curves by clicking on them. These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics. use the mouse to click anywhere on the curve. Tip: You can use the Select View from Analysis Data option (page 159) to see the Curve of Areas for each heel angle and/or intermediate stage during the analysis.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Graph type
Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being performed. as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be displayed.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of length. Floodable Length and Tank Capacities.
Interpolating Graph Data
To display an interpolated value from one of the curves.
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. These can all be displayed via the Graphs item in the Windows menu. Longitudinal Strength. The area is integrated from zero heel angle to the location of the graph slider. Curve of Areas. Area and corresponding heel angle can be measured by using the slider. the area is always given in units of length. Click anywhere on the dashed line and drag it with the mouse. the slider data is displayed at the bottom of the Graph window. Hydromax will ignore the exact position you click on the curve to allow reading all related interpolated values along the black dashed line. Righting Lever (GZ curve). The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the curve name and co-ordinates of the mouse on the curve. Curves of Form.
GZ Graph
The GZ value. Note: Because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees.radians.

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Note The lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium angle). Thus if you require the area between two limits. If you wish to prevent this curve fitting. The View | Font command allows you to change the text size and font size. Especially in the case of the sectional area curve. add a heel angle interval of greater than 10˚ as the final step. Since the graph data contains more data points than most tables in the results window. a parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at the specified heel angles. this double click can be extremely helpful to export the analysis data to for example Excel fro further processing.
Copying Graphs
You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the Copy command or Ctrl+C.
Graph Formatting
When you are in the Graph window you can use the View | Colours and lines dialog to change the colours of the curves in the graph as well as the background. Note that the picture is placed in the clipboard as a meta-file which can be resized in Word or Excel. where there is no tabular data available.
Graph data
The graphed data can be obtained by double clicking on the graph. you must subtract the area at the lower limit from the area at the higher limit. If this is the case. Also see: Copying Tables on page 158. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the calculated GZ points. This can sometimes be useful if you expect a discontinuity in the GZ curve.
Curve fitting for GZ graph
A curve fit will be performed if all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10˚.

both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split. choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this paper size. it is recommended that the report window be used only to accumulate the results. so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables from being split). This report can be edited via Cut. the File | Page setup command allows you to customise the page orientation and size you wish to use for reporting. once the tables have been placed into the report. inserted tables will be automatically formatted to fit the current page set up.
Report Window
Hydromax contains a Report window. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set up. do the same for the graph widow. saved to and recalled from a disk file. copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word. This is important because. these should be saved and opened in a word processor such as Microsoft Word or Open Office for formatting:
set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses the same column widths. as well as a ruler showing you tab stops. Underneath all of this you have your actual editing area.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Note When the graph is pasted in Microsoft Word®. their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print set up. Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before any analyses have been made. However.
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. Copy and Paste. fonts etc.). You can for example choose the landscape Page Setup prior to running an analysis to make the tables fit better. Use the Format | Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for the different levels of heading in the document.
Editing a Report
The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view.
Report Window Page Setup
When you are in the Report window. this will facilitate generating a table of contents and also allows you to re-format the various styles (or import a custom set of styles using the style organiser in Word). Once all the results have been gathered in the report window. However. the graph can be edited by right clicking on the graph and selecting “edit picture”. indentation and margin widths. As the built-in report window only has basic editing and formatting functionality. printed. This window is used to create a progressive summary of the analyses that have been carried out.

The toolbar contains the following items: Font combo box Font Size combo box Bold Italic Underline Colour Left Justify Centre Justify Right Justify Bullet
Use this to change the current font Use this to change the current font size Use this to toggle the Bold style Use this to toggle the Italic style Use this to toggle the Underline style Use this to set Text Colour Use this to set Left Justification Use this to set Centre Justification Use this to set Right Justification Use this to toggle Bullet Points
The Ruler comes in two formats. in metric and in inches . The format shown below is metric.the format you have displayed on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the Display menu to change this). or the section of text that is currently highlighted.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
The information below is provided for reference. The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings.
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. but it is strongly recommended not to use any of the formatting commands in the Report window.

right. These are listed below for convenience: Ctrl+B Toggle Bold on/off Ctrl+U Toggle Underline on/off Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+Enter Position at the top of the report Position at the bottom of the report Insert a page break
Opening and Saving the Report
The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu commands with the report window highlighted. The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler. To create a right tab stop. centre. hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. and decimal tab stops. However. a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab positions. To move a tab position using the mouse. perform the analyses. the tab command is then applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text. The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. The tab stops are very useful for creating columns and tables. The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab marker. there are also several useful keystrokes that are available while editing the report. drag the tab to the desired location and release the mouse button. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the left. if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command.
Keyboard Support for Reports
In addition to menu support. The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow. To clear a tab position.
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The Ruler allows you to set left. click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. the new results will be appended to the end of the report which may then be resaved). While the mouse button is depressed. The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow. hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The left tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right. Normally. simply click the left mouse button on the tab symbol on the ruler. (Load in the old report. This is useful if you wish to append an analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. To create a left tab stop. click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. To create a centre tab stop.

Toolbars
Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used functions.Delete Row | Sort Loadcase Rows – Move Loadcase/Tank Row up – Move Loadcase/Tank Row Down
View Toolbar
The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Zoom – Shrink – Pan – Home View – Rotate – Assembly window. then copy it from Word back into the Hydromax report window. it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. Ensure that the colors selected will be easily visible in the white background of the report view. To overcome this problem. Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98).
File Toolbar
The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: New – Open – Save – Cut – Copy – Paste – Print
Edit Toolbar
The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Add Row . You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tip of what the icon does.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Pasting images into the report
Sometimes. This is very easily done. by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it into the report at the desired location.
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. paste the image into Microsoft Word first. the image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window.

loadcase and damage case: Analysis Type – Current Loadcase – Current Damage Case
The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands: Criteria (dialog) | Start Analysis – Pause Analysis – Resume Analysis | Update Tank Values in Loadcase The “Update Tank Values in Loadcase” is exactly the same as the menu command for “Recalculate Tanks and Compartments on page 206.
Window Toolbar
Allows quick switching between commonly used windows: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan | Loadcase – Damage Case | Compartment – Downflooding – Margin Line – Modulus – Bulkheads | Results for Current Analysis – Criteria Results – Key Point Results | Graph – Report
Design Grid Toolbar
The Design Grid toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views Frame of Reference (always on) | Toggle Design Grid Visibility Design Grid | Design Grid Labels | Design Grid Tickmarks
Visibility Toolbar
The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Sections – Datum Waterline – Waterlines | Key Points – Margin Line | Loadcase mass items | Tanks – Damaged Tanks – Compartments – Damaged Compart.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
The Rotate command is only available in the Perspective window. The Assembly window is not available in Hydromax.
Analysis Toolbar
The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis. – Linked Negative Compartment. – NBV – Tank Names – Tank Fluid Level – Tank Sections – Tank Outlines | Probabilistic Damage Zones * NBV = Non Buoyant Volume
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Edge VIsibility Toolbar
The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Hull Surface Edges – Internal Surface Edges – Feature Edges – Bonded Edges
Render Toolbar
Render – Render transparent – Toggle custom light 1 – Toggle custom light 2 – Toggle custom light 3 – Toggle custom light 4 – Customise light settings
Report Toolbar
Spool results to report
View (extended) Toolbar
Set Home View – Colour – Font – Preferences – Properties
Design Grid Toolbar
Display Frame of Reference (always on) – Display Design Grid – Show Grid – Show Labels – Show Ticks
Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar
Add surface areas to loadcase – Preferences | Heel – Trim – Draft – Displacement – Displacement – Specified Condition – Permiability – Fluid simulation – Densities – Waveform – Grounding – Batch Analysis Data Format – Units – Coefficients – Set to DWL – Set View from Data –Visibility Dialog – Show Single Section
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g: when the Loadcase Condition is the frontmost window. The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax.
New
Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost.
Save
Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
This toolbar provides a number of buttons for commonly used commands in case you should wish to customise your toolbars.
Menus
The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax program. When the Compartment Definition table is frontmost. If a design is already open.
Save As
Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new filename preventing the original file from being overwritten.
File Menu Edit Menu View Menu Case Menu Analysis Menu Display Menu Data Menu Window Menu Help Menu
File Menu
The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing. Hydromax will ask whether you wish to save any changes. Select the design you wish to open.
Open
When no design is open.
Import
Allows import of file types other than Maxsurf design files
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. e. the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to the frontmost input window. the New command will create a new loading condition. New creates a new compartment definition. selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list of available Maxsurf designs. Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current Maxsurf design.
Close
The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window. click the Open button.

All other cotainers are read in as tanks. interconneceted. IGES exports the NURB surface data. three-dimensional model of the hull. Linked negative tanks are not supported in Hydromax.
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. The following limitations currently apply. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the layer name being the same as the compartment name. Any container parts with elements with negative effectiveness will be read in as tanks. See the Maxsurf manual for more information. you may export the Hydromax model to a GHS geometry file. each tank.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
nuShallo Allows direct import of a nuShallo pan file. The DXF file will be displayed in the design views. chose Edit | Activate GHS export. GHS Allows direct import of a GHS geometry file. the geometry is locked: the tank geometry is locked and tanks cannot be added to the model. bmp or png) file into the background of any of the Hydromax design views. tanks and compartments and key points are all exported.
Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part with one byouant component. In subsequent versions of Hydromax we will add the capability to divide the main buoyant hull into different components. Import Image Background Enables you to import an image file (jpg.
Export
Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file formats such as: DXF or IGES DXF exports sections as closed poly-lines. The buoyant hull is exported as a single part with a single buoyant component (Non-buoyant volumes are included in this part as components with negative effectiveness). The hull. gif. tanks and sounding pipes are read from the GHS file. GHS If you have a Hydrolink license. but will be removed in subsequent versions:
Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part. so it is important to have unique compartment names). The full model including critical points. The buoyant hull part with the most sections is loaded from the GHS file.
Hydromax v8. It is possible that this might cause problems for some models where the section through the hull at a certain location contains more than one closed contour. Sail parts are ignored
Import DXF Background Enables you to import a DXF file into Hydromax to use as construction lines.0 file Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of Hydromax. In addition. A full GHS model file may be imported directly into Hydromax for analysis. To enable the export command. Because the GHS file does not contain a full.

Fredyn mesh group definition When exporting from Hydromax to Fredyn you will be asked to name the .xml file name. The following files will be generated . hull form and compartment definitions into Fredyn input files.xml file and also the location to which it should be saved.txt: Mesh file representing the current hull shape. the following dialog will appear:
“Fredyn group definition” dialog
This dialog is where the user will specify the values for the variables used to generate the mesh file that defines the geometry of the hull. To export use the File|Export|Fredyn… command.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Export Bitmap Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified resolution.
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. all with the name you specify in the “Fredyn Export XML” dialog. any number of groups may be added and for each group.out: Tank calibration results and compartment definitions .xml: Containing compartment definition . Before doing the Fredyn export ensure you have specified the desired trim and heel ranges. The groups are defined by selecting the surfaces to be measured and defining a boundary box that defines the limiting extents of the group. After assigning the . Fredyn Hydromax is able to export data suitable for input into Fredyn. For more information on each of the fields in the table click on the Help button on the right hand side of the dialog. as this information is required for the export. and performed a tank calibration. This command is only available when the Perspective window is frontmost with rendering turned on. The most important part of the procedure is setting up the groups required in the mesh file.
Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified Import Main Criteria
Imports criteria from the selected criteria files. exporting Hydromax calibration results. Current criteria may be kept or discarded. The Export will generate 3 files. Contours will be formed through the selected surfaces and then trimmed back to the bounding box. In the group definition dialog.

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. It is good practice to save the criteria library with each project in a project folder.
Save Densities As
Saves the Fluid densities table data. The whole library may be saved by right clicking on the root “Criteria” branch.
Page Setup
The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing. but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing windows or data windows. including the design view. which have not been saved to disk.
Edit Menu
The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables.
Copy
The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows.
Import Prob Damage Criteria
As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria.
Rest Prob Damage Criteria to defaults
Results the probabilistic damage criteria to their default values.
Exit
Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows.
Undo
Undo may be used with desk accessories. If you have any data or results.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Save Main Criteria As
Exports the current criteria set to the specified file.
Save Prob Damage Criteria As
As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria. Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them before quitting. this is not normally necessary as this is done after any major changes to the criteria definition. see Density of Fluids on page 150. Note that a branch of the criteria tree may be saved in its own file by right-clicking on the branch folder in the Criteria dialog tree. results tables and graph window.
Cut
Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data windows.
Print
The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the screen. input tables.
Load Densities
Loads density table data previously saved from Hydromax – can be useful for synchronising the densities on several computers.

column or row or a range of cells. Graph or Results windows.
Add
The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables (Load. Paste cannot be used in the View. tank. Cell Border Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report. Split Cell Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report.
Delete
The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables.
Sort Items
Sorts the selected rows in the Loadcase window
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. Row Positioning Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report.
Select All
Selects the entire Report. Show Grid Toggle table grid lines in the Report.). Cell Shading Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report. Delete Cells Delete current cell. the last row in the window will be deleted. or the Report window. Insert New Table Create a new table in the Report. Merge Cells Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report. columns or rows in the Report.
Table
Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window. Insert Row Insert a new row into the current table in the Report. If no rows are selected. otherwise all selected rows will be deleted. margin line point etc.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Paste
Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables.
Fill Down
Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet.

It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. To set the Home View.
Zoom
The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen.
Activate / Deactivate GHS Export
This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Move Items Up
Moves the selected rows up (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables.
Home View
Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size.
Move Items Down
Moves the selected rows down (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables. Also see: Tolerances on page 146 Streaming results to Word on page 155. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. use Zoom.
Shrink
Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows by a factor of two.
Set Home View
Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. then select Set Home View from the View menu.
Pan
Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window.
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. which is a virtual trackball which lets you freely rotate a design in the Perspective view window.
Preferences
The Hydromax preferences dialog allows you to set your analysis tolerances (or: error values) and select the option to stream the report to a Microsoft Word document. and Pan to arrange the view.
View Menu
The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows.
Add Surface Areas
This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition.
Rotate
Activates the Rotate command. Shrink.

Graph. See Loadcase Colour Formatting on page 44. and Results windows.
Properties
Displays the properties sheet. Colours for the loadcase items can be set.
Status Bar
Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen. labels. In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues. Loadcase. Curve of Areas.
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Font
Font command allows you to set the size and style of text.
Assembly
Show or hide the assembly tree view.
Toolbar
Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off. Remember to always be careful when using colour. When Loadcase window is frontmost. It is very easy to get carried away with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with. The item‟s current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog. and graphs. To Change the thickness select the thickness from the drop down list. From the scrollable list. which may be used to view parameters of selected objects (such as tanks).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Colours and lines
The Colours and lines function allows you to set the colour and thickness of the lines. To change the colour click in the box and select a new colour from the palette. select the item whose colour you wish to change.
The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report.

See Working with Loadcases on page 38. temporary damage conditionas are created automatically.
Add Damage case
Add another damage case
Delete Damage case
Delete the selected damage cases
Edit Damage case
Edit the properties of the selected damage case
Extent of Damage
Automatically finds the breached tanks and compartments due to a cuboid extent of damage (or in the case of Probabilisitic damage.
Analysis Menu
The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. Loadcases are created.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Full Screen
Maximises screen usage. opened and closed through the file menu. number of Loadcases
Specify the number of loadcase tabs – this requires a restart to activate the changes made. (This is only required if you want to manually recreate some or all of the Proabilistic damage analysis conditions.)
Max. It also contains commands to set the input data and analysis settings and environment options required for the current analysis.
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. when running Probabilistic damage analysis.
Case Menu
Commands associated with the Loadcases and Damage cases
Edit Loadcase
Edit the properties of the current Loadcase (name and whether it is a loadcase or Loadgroup). the zone or sub-zone).
Create cases from Zone Damage
Automatically creates damage cases based on the zones that have been defined for Probabilistic damage analysis.

KN and Limiting KG analyses.
Density
This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis. This can be fixed trim.
Trim
Allows the specification of the trimming mode to be used for the analysis. KG for the upright hydrostatics is also specified in this dialog.
Displacement
The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values. Trim. Separate ranges are used for Large Angle Stability. Displacement and Draft for the Specified Condition analysis. free-to-trim specifying initial trim value and free-totrim specifying LCG position.
Specified Condition
Allows you to specify Heel. CG. See Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148.
Waveform
The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms.
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Calibration Options
Specify whether compartments and non-buoyant volumes should also be calibrated. free-to-trim to loadcase. Limiting KG and Floodable Length can be set using this command.
Permeability
The range of permeabilities used for the Floodable Length analysis are set using this command.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Note: It is good practice when preparing to run analysis to work down the Analysis menu starting at the top and checking all of the settings and environment options. See Density on page 150.
Fluids
Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid Movement method when treating the fluid contained in slack tanks. The vertical centre of gravity to be used for KN and Floodable Length analyses is specified here.
Draft
The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this command.
MARPOL Options
Select MARPOL Regulation and specify which tanks should be incuded in the MARPOL oil outflow analysis.
Heel
Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish Hydromax to step through.

It then updates the loadcase with the correct capacities and free surface moments for the tanks. This command also updates the loadcase. the criteria command will bring up a Floodable Length Criteria dialog with criteria that only apply to floodable length analysis. tank and compartment sections and recalculates them from the hull surface data and compartment definition. If any of the tank boundaries are made up from boundary surfaces.
Snap Margin Line to Hull
Project all of the margin line points horizontally onto the hull surface. Also see: Tank Loads on page 46
Recalculate Tanks and Compartments
Forces all tanks and compartments to be re-formed from their initial definition. When the floodable length analysis is selected. This is particularly useful if the underlying Maxsurf model has been modified. Also recalculates totals and subsubtotals after a row sorting or moving command. or if you wish to modify whether skin thickness or trimming options are applied. See Criteria on page 163.
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. if you wish to recalculate at a different precision.
Recalculate Hull Sections
Deletes all existing hull. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely.
Update Loadcase
Checks for changed tanks and makes sure that any tanks and compartments that have not been formed are correctly calculated. Note: To be able to update the Hydromax model to changes made in Maxsurf see Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for a step-by-step procedure you can follow. it is better to use “Recalculate Hull Sections” after re-opening the Maxsurf model to make sure the latest internal structure surfaces are being used as well.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Criteria
The criteria menu item will bring up the criteria dialog. Also see: Margin Line Points on page 76. This allows you to specify which criteria will be checked during the analysis.
Set Analysis Type
Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the sub-menu.
Grounding
Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length for use with the Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses.

Results are written to a tab delimited text file as specified by the user at the start of the analysis. A dialog box allows you to choose from a range of stability variables.
Spool to Report
Send the results of the analysis to the report upon completion. equilibrium condition and KN values. The analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu.
Resume Analysis
If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis. Stability. Resume Analysis may be used to restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted.
Hydrostatic results Data format dialog
Used to select display options for Criteria results:
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. This should be turned on before commencing the analysis to ensure that results are added to the report when the analysis is completed.
Data Format
Data Format allows you to choose which data are tabulated and graphed (Upright Hydrostatics. any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Start Analysis
Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis. Equilibrium and Specified Condition). which are displayed in the graphics and other windows.
Stop Analysis
This command halts the analysis at the current iteration.
Start Batch Analysis
Hydromax will run the selected analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases using the batch processing command. also.
Display Menu
The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data. See Setting the Data Format on page 185. Note that the analysis may not have been completed and in the case of large angle stability.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Criteria table Data format dialog
Used to select which columns are displayed in the Loadcase window:
Loadcase Data format dialog
When the Max. Safe heeling angle angles graph is shown as a result of a Large Angle Stability analysis the Data Format dialog may be used to customise the graph layout:
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.

This is to ensure that tank data in the Loadacase are for the vessel in the upright condition.
Select View from Data
This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with one of the sets of data in Results window. Simply highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and select “Select View From Data”.
Visibility
The visibility of tanks. not for tanks with the vessel at the final heel and trim of the last analysis. hull contours.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Max safe heeling angle Data format dialog
May be used to customise the Floodable length graph:
Floodable length Data format dialog Set Vessel to DWL
Rotates the vessel back to upright and to DWL after an analysis has been completed (or Select View from Data used). and other items in the design view may be set by using this dialog. compartments.
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. This is required for automatic update of the Loadcase (note that if you do not rotate back to the DWL. Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. labels. the Design View will change to match the condition in the selected row or column in the Results window. the Loadcase will not update while editing – only when start another analysis). The view may be set from any of the results from Upright Hydrostatics.
Prob damage zones
Toggle the visibility of the probabilistic damage zones.

for example. The section being displayed can be chosen by clicking on the section indicators at the top of the control box. Tools for positioning and scaling the background image are also here. The grid can only be displayed when the vessel is in upright position on its design waterline. similar to the one in Maxsurf. This command is not available for images in the perspective window.
Background
Controls whether the background DXF construction lines and the background images are displayed or not. Delete Image Deletes the background image in the current view window. Set Image Reference Point Sets the image reference point. Hide Image Hides the background image in the current view window.. The commands in the submenu are only available when a background image or DXF has been imported. The background may be loaded from an existing DXF file using the Import function in the File menu. the section chosen can be changed by pressing the left or right cursor keys on your keyboard. See the Maxsurf manual for more details Hide DXF Hides the DXF background. Switching analysis type puts the boat back into upright position on its design waterline.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Individual Loadcase masses
Toggle the visibility of the individual mass items in the current loadcase.
Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan
Selecting the Show Single Hull Section item from the Display menu will change the display in the Body Plan window to show only one section through the hull. Delete DXF background Deletes the DXF background. Also see: Show Single Hull Section on page 30
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. in the top right corner of the window.
Design Grid
The grid submenu allows you to hide the grid or show the grid with or without station grid labels. a trimmed state at the end of an equilibrium analysis. This allows you to rapidly step through the hull sections from bow to stern. Set Image Zero Point Sets the image zero point. Show Image Shows the image in the current view window. The option to display the grid will be greyed out when the ship is currently displayed in. Alternatively. Show DXF Shows the DXF background. as well as a control box.

If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves. giving a simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through the wave. You may set the initial viewing position in the Perspective View window using the Pitch. In addition to the length and mass units classes. Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window. You are not expected to change the Frame of Reference in Hydromax.
Data Menu
Units
The units used may be specified using the Units command. Hold the shift key down while selecting the command to save the animation. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation. When Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving the mouse from side to side.
Render Transparent
When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent option may be toggled on and off. See Setting Units on page 37 for more information. through the range of heel angles specified. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. You are not expected to change the Design Grid in Hydromax. when a waveform has been specified and an equilibrium analysis is selected or after a Large Angle Stability analysis over a heeling range. may also be set. the animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases. Roll and Yaw indicators.
Frame of Reference
Access to the Frame of Reference is intended for information only. Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the model semi transparent so that the rendered tanks and compartments within the model may be viewed. For example. units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information.
Animate
This command is available for any analysis that steps through several steps.
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.
Design Grid
Access to the Design Grid is intended for information only.
Coefficients
Allows you to customise how you wish to calculate the coefficients as well as the display format for the LCB and LCF.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Render
When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may be toggled on and off to render the surfaces.

See: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18.
Arrange Icons
Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Maxsurf program window. Selecting the item brings the appropriate window to the front.
Tile Horizontal
Layout all visible windows across the screen. The selected design window will then be brought to the front.
Window Menu
For the items in this menu.
Graph
Brings the selected Graph window to the front.
Loadcase
Brings the Loadcase window to the front. depending on which analysis mode is currently active.
Tile Vertical
Layout all visible windows down the screen. Margin Line Points or Modulus table. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of Gravity for Stability. This will ensure that a consistent frame of reference is used in all the programs. It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax.
Help Menu
Provides access to Hydromax Help.
Results
Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and display the desired table.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those defined in the Maxsurf model.
Input
Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display the Compartment Definition.
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. KN and Equilibrium analysis. each represents a Hydromax window. together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from the zero point. they may be changed using the Frame of Reference command. The Graph window displays a number of different graphs. Key Points.
Cascade
Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows. The Loadcase window allows you to enter a series of component weights.
Hydromax Help
Invokes Hydromax Help.
View Direction
Select the desired view direction from the sub-menu.

Check for Updates
Provides access to our website with the most recent version listed.
Online Support
Provides access to a wide range of support resources available on the internet.
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.
About Hydromax
Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
Hydromax Automation Reference
Invokes the Automation Reference help system.

Here the baseline is no longer horizontal and neither are the perpendiculars vertical. and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur. World or trimmed frame of reference The “world” or “trimmed” reference frame is that of the trimmed vessel.
Measurement Reference Frames
Results in Hydromax are given from the vessel‟s zero point.
Definition and calculation of form parameters
Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in Hydromax. because Hydromax treats trim exactly (the hull is rotated not sheared when trim occurs).Appendix A
Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters
This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB. these axis systems are no longer parallel. Here the baseline is horizontal and the perpendiculars are vertical. However if the vessel is trimmed or heeled or rotated in both directions simultaneously.
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. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the horizontal.) is achieved in Hydromax. etc. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the baseline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the baseline. However. there are two frames of reference: Ship or upright frame of reference The “ship” or “upright” reference frame is that of the upright vessel with zero-trim. static waterline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the waterline
Rotated reference frame (red) and measurements in the two reference frames: Measurements in the upright vessel reference frame (green) and trimmed reference frame (blue)
When the vessel is upright (zero trim and zero heel) these axis systems are parallel. AM. CP.

then there will be a sin(trim angle) term introduced. LCF.Appendix A
Ship-Fixed and Earth-Fixed(world) axis systems
The majority of measurements are given in the “ship” frame of reference.e. GM is the true vertical separation of the metacentre and the centre of gravity with the vessel inclined and are always measured normal to the water surface. This is because if the vessel is trimmed and if the VCG and VCB are not the same. in generally for the vessel to be in equilibrium. It is for this reason that. KM is not equal to KB+BM (BM is in a different axis system to KB and KM.
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. and measurements from the keel such as KB and KG. floatation and buoyancy (LCG. These include longitudinal centres of gravity. that are explicitly vertical. Thus the metacentre is always vertically (in the earth-fixed axis system) above the centre of buoyancy by a distance BM = I / vol where I is the second moment of area of the waterplane. and only if the vessel is upright are the axis systems parallel and hence the equation holds). LCB). are measured in the “world” frame of reference. The same is true of TCB and TCG if the vessel is heeled. Measurements such as BM. in general. Similarly. LCG is not equal to LCB – if both LCB and LCG are measured in the ship-axis system (of course if they are measured in the earthfixed axis system then they are the same. GM. i.

Longitudinal Centre of Gravity. measured in upright reference frame. Longitudinal Centre of Floatation. parallel to baseline. measured in the trimmed reference frame Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of buoyancy. measured in upright reference frame. These can be modified in the Data | Coefficients dialog shown below:
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. Length of design waterline Length between perpendiculars length of waterline under investigation Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest point on the design) Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under investigation
Coefficient parameters
There are several options for calculating hullform coefficients. parallel to baseline.Appendix A Nomenclature
Amax Ams A AWP BOA BWL B b GM
KB KG LOA LCB LCF LCG LWL LBP L T0 T t
Maximum immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation Immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation amidships Immersed cross-section area: Amax or Ams as selected by user Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below waterline) Maximum waterline beam at design waterline Maximum beam of waterline under investigation Waterline beam of station under investigation Metacentric height: vertical distance from centre of gravity to metacentre. measured normal to the baseline. measured normal to the baseline. Length overall Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy. parallel to baseline. measured in upright reference frame. Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of gravity.

Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel. The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the intersection of the DWL with the bow. Select Coefficients from the Display menu:
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. In some cases. In addition. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the position of the rudder post.
In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. this may be different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general.Appendix A
Length
The datum/design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to float under normal circumstances. for calculations at drafts other than the DWL. will also be different from the LOA (overall length). or possibly the transom. features such as bulbous bows and overhangs can make the LBP. it may be more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients. LWL and LOA quite different. it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline length at that draft (L). Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars. particularly for resistance prediction purposes.

vessel with tumble-home or blisters).
Multihull beams
You may choose which beam should be used from the following list:
In the reported hydrostatics. For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and draft of the section in question. you can select various beams:
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. For the section shown below. the beam of the individual hulls may be required.g. However.Appendix A
Beam
It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients. B2 and B3. in others.
Vessel with tumble-home
Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. and this may be of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. For the case of a monohull this will be the normal waterline beam. there may be times when it is appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e. Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. In some cases the overall beam is of importance. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam (remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the same as that of a single demihull). submarine. the beam used would be the sum of B1.

You may select which depth should be used for the calculation of form parameters. there are also occasions when the immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft. Both depths are measured in upright position.Appendix A
Calculated beams
The values “Beam extents” are those that measure the beam across the maximum port and starboard extents of the vessel. this will be the same as the extents value. For a monhull. In Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line.
Draft
The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. but for a multihull. however. Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form coefficients. it will be less than the extents value. the datum may be elsewhere.:
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. It should be noted that the section area will. including the option of measuring the draft to the baseline – this gives the option of ignoring appendages such as fin keels when determining the draft to be used to calculate the form parameter (if the baseline is defined to the bottom of the canoe body for example). For a catamaran this would be from the outside of the port demihull to the outside of the starboard demihull. Hydromax uses these values for computing coefficients. Normally this datum is the lowest part of the upright hull. For a monhull without tunnels. However. include the appendages. for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts. this is often the case when form parameters are calculated. The other beam values are calculated by summing the breadth of waterline crossings as described above. this would simply be the distance from the port side to the starboard side. However.

the position midway between the perpendiculars is defined as midships.
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.
Draft measured along the inclined perpendicular lines
Immersed depth and Draft measurements The images below show the difference between the draft measurements (which are made in the inclined centreline plane of the vessel) and the immersed depth measurements (which are made normal to the free-surface). the draft is measured through the intersection of the upright waterline and the centreline. the draft becomes very large. Essentially the draft is measured along the heeled and trimmed perpendiculars on the centreline. It is for this reason that as the heel approaches 90degrees. For vessels with no parallel mid-body. however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. In Hydromax. perpendicular to the heeled waterline (see figure below).
Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements
Midship and Max Area Sections
It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars.Appendix A
Draft measurements
Draft measurement at heel angle When the vessel is heeled. the section with greatest cross-sectional area may also be of particular interest.

or may be defined according to another standard – this may be important for hulls with significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. such as CP and CM. The section area coefficient used by Hydromax.Appendix A
When computing form coefficients. breadth and depth equal to the length. is calculated at either the station with maximum cross-sectional area or the midship section area (as defined in the Coefficients dialog). LWL or some effective length.
Block Coefficient
Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as: "the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume of a rectangular prism with length. Length may be LBP. beam and draft used vary between authorities." However. for sections that have significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. breadth and mean draft of the ship at that waterline." It should be noted that.
CB
L B T
Section Area Coefficient
Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as: "The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships. the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity. The beam used is that obtained by summing the immersed waterline crossings of the specified section.
Options for Section area coefficient
CM
A b t
Prismatic Coefficient
Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as:
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. In Hydromax midships is midway between the perpendiculars. The beam and immersed depth of the selected section is used unless the draft to baseline option has been selected in which case this draft is used. the actual definitions of the length. you may select which section area should be used: Hydromax uses the station with the maximum immersed cross-sectional area at the waterline under consideration. Hydromax uses the length beam and draft as selected in the Coefficients dialog to compute the block coefficient. The beam may be at amidships or the maximum moulded beam of the waterline.

CP
L A
Waterplane Area Coefficient
Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as: "The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle. the LCG and LCB will be at the same longitudinal position in the global coordinate system.
CWP
AWP L B
LCG and LCB
Hydromax allows you to fully customise how you want to display the LCB and LCF values. but not in the frame of reference.Appendix A
"The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of the ship and whose cross-section equals the midship section area. When the vessel is free-to-trim. see Measurement Reference Frames on page 214. Therefore a difference between the LCG and the LCB value will occur when the vessel is trimmed." Hydromax uses the length and beam as selected. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information. Hydromax uses the selected length and the selected immersed cross-section area Amax or Ams. The LCG and LCB are calculated in the “ship” or “upright” frame of reference." Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used. This is explained in the figure below:
Effect of vertical separation of CG and CB on LCG and LCB measured in the Ship reference frame
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.

MTc or MTi
The required moment to make the vessel trim one unit-length. For example:
The Max deck inclination is the maximum slope of the deck when combining the trim and heel angle of the vessel. Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account. Ta . That can be either cm or inch depending on your unit settings. The unitlength can be either in cm or inch depending on your unit settings.Appendix A
Note: LCG and LCB are calculated in the vessels‟ frame of reference and therefore will have different longitudinal positions when the vessel is trimmed then for when it is upright. Tf are the aft and forward drafts at the corresponding perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars. Hydromax calculates the steepest slope of the deck when the ship is trimmed and/or heeled.
Trim angle
The trim angle as defined by:
tan
1
Ta
Tf L pp
where: is the trim angle. assuming the deck inclination is zero when the vessel is in upright position. This is the same for differences in TCG and TCB values due to heeling.
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.
Maximum deck inclination
The inclination angle is a combination of heel and trim angle.
Immersion
The weight required to sink the model one unit-length below its current waterline.

may be attributed to a number of causes:
Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity. In general. The only accurate numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric surface. such as near the bow and stern.
Integration of wetted surface area
At first glance. calculated by
RM
Displ *GMt * sin(1)
Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations
There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of immersed shapes. The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere.5% error discrepancy noted above. This is given analytically by: A 2 R 2 . and their distribution.5 2 R 2 A'
approximately 27%. However.
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2
. Differences in the hull definition. Both methods use numerical integration techniques. with computer calculations. Different number of integration stations used. note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps. These effects are noted from comparing the results of different hydrostatics packages on the same hullform. or higher order methods. With hand calculations. it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the station girth along the length of the hull. hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand calculations.27 . it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 3-5 significant figures. differences for basic parameters such as displacement etc. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile between two sections. where R is the radius of the circle. and occur in both hand calculations. this is not the case. and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable variation. These mainly occur from the integration method used. It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is given by:
R2 .Appendix A RM at 1 deg
The righting Moment at 1 degree heel angle. it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more with 10s of significant figures. the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. and hence the 2 2 R2 integration of section girths underestimates by error factor of 4/ 1. due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be carried out. If the surface is exported as DXF poly-lines then the precision used and the number of straight-line sections used to make up the poly-line are important. in a similar way that one might integrate the station cross-sectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used – see discussion above. agreement of hand calculations to within 2% is considered good). or 0. Where there are large changes in shape. the accuracy increases as the step size is reduced. Simpson. Further. and number of interpolation points used to define each section.5% (note that. are under 0. and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over the complete surface. in general. As with all numerical integration schemes. the stations should be more closely spaced. The 0. However. The integration method used: trapezium. which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the Trapezium rule.

Appendix A
However. Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages. Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialog in Maxsurf are the most accurate. due to the greatly reduced longitudinal curvature. which use a number of vertical stations to define the hull. since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface. for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less.
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. will be subject to the error described above.

The typical format of the file is given below: Please refer to the file C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp.html for a full list of all the parameters for all the different criteria types.hcr.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan false true false false false true true 0. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria.000
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.0 0. Hydromax Criteria File [units] LengthUnits = m MassUnits = tonne SpeedUnits = kts AngleUnits = deg GZAreaGMAngleUnits = deg [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = Specific Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = My Custom Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = STIX input data ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare UseLoHeel UseEquilibrium UseHiHeel UseFirstPeak UseMaxGZ UseFirstDF UseVanishingStab LoHeel HiHeel RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits STIX input data GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or… Area under GZ curve between specified heel… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.0 30. The file is a normal PC text file.Appendix B
Appendix B: Criteria file format
The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension .

There are two angular units: AngleUnits Specifies the units for angular measurements. The first section of the file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file. The common parameters for all criteria are as follows: Type Describes the type of criterion RuleName Text which specifies the rule to which the criterion belongs CritName Text which specifies the criterion‟s name CritInfo Verbose description of the criterion Locked Whether the criterion may be edited in Hydromax or not. The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included. it is not possible to edit the criterion‟s parameters in Hydromax The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type. If Locked is set to true.
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.Appendix B
[criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare RequiredValue [end]
= = = = = = = = = = = =
CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab STIX input data Angle of vanishing stability Calculates the angle of vanishing stability… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp. e. range of stability GZAreaGMAngleUnits Specifies the angle units used for area under GZ graph and for GM.0
The file must have “Hydromax Criteria File” in the first row.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan 0.g.

Appendix F
Appendix C: Criteria Help
In this Appendix all individual Parent Criteria are explained in detail.
Selecting a calculation in a criterion
Using a calculation in a criterion is very similar to using a heel arm:
Define your custom calculation by copying it from the parent list.
Parent Calculations
Special calculations are provided for some criteria parameters. you should make a copy of the parent calculation by dragging it to your custom criteria folder. Currently this has only been implemented for the IMO roll-back angle calculation used in the IMO code on Intact Stability. and the IMO required GM for vessels carrying grain in bulk. The parent calculations are listed above the parent heeling arms:
Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog
As with other criteria and heeling arms. severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. please contact support@formsys. This allows for complex calculations to be cross referenced into criteria. This information can also be found in the lower right of the Criteria Dialog in the Criteria Help section. If there are any other calculations that you would like implemented. In this section:
Parent Calculations Minimum GM Calculators Parent Heeling Arms Parent Heeling Moments Parent Stability Criteria
For all general help on criteria or working with the criteria dialog. In the criterion select the required calculation from the pull down list:
Angle calculators
These calculators produce an angular measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria:
Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations
Heeling arm criteria (xRef) Combined
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Ratio of areas type 2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas
XRefHeelRatioOfAreas2 XRefHeelGenericWindHeeling
. see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria on page 163.com with details of the required calculations.

25 B
0. “Sharp bilge: k = 0.general wind heeling arm CritHeelRatioOfAreas2
CritHeelGenericWindHeeling
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . as defined in IMO Resolution MSC.general wind heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . The method used for the k-factor can be one of three options: “Round bilge: k = 1.267(85).0”.23(59).Appendix B
heeling arm criteria (xRef) Heeling arm criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm. combined criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm.7” or “Tabulated value for k” – these are auto completed so you only need to type the first letter.wind heeling arm
CritHeelWindHeeling
IMO roll-back angle calculator
The IMO roll back angle calculator calculates the roll back angle as per the severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion as defined in the IMO Code on Intact Stability. This calculation follows the function defined in the Intact Stability codes A.0875 SF
Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments
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. The input parameters may be specified by the user or calculated by Hydromax for the vessel in the upright condition for the current loadcase. The block coefficient is calculated with the current user settings for length and beam (not necessarily the waterline beam which another parameter required for the calculation). is calculated as follows:
GM
L B Vd 0.645 B Vd
0. combined criteria (stand alone)
type 2) Ratio of areas type 2 .
Input parameters for: IMO roll-back angle calculation
GM calculators
These calculators produce a GM measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria:
Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations
GZ curve criteria
Value of GMt at (calc)
CTStdValueOfGMAt
Minimum GM calculator – Grain
The required GM for vessels carrying grain.749(18) and MSC.

170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0. k0 and k1 are constants.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure
The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows:
k0 GM
L k1
2
A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 )
Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax.055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel.036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.Appendix F
B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement
Input parameters for: Grain heeling min.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0.170: ocean service: k0 = 0. 170. h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point. for example: For CFR 46.005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. 170. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline. 170.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t
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.

Appendix B
Input parameters for: Wind pressure min. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant
The required GM is calculated as follows:
GM
a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 )
Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m.0 K
Where N is the number of passengers. n = 1. An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46.
Input parameters for: Constant min. b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass.050:
GM
Nb with a K tan( 0 )
Nb and m. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard
The required GM is calculated as follows:
GM
a f
B fa
cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 )
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Where (using consistent units):
. 171.

typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height. typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth.
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. typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired.
Heeling Arm Definition
This section describes how to define heeling arms and is valid for both the parent heeling arms that can be cross referenced into the heeling arm criteria. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. and for the Old heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified for each criterion separately. please see Heeling arm criteria (xRef) on page 260. from which custom heeling arms may be derived:
Available heeling arms and moments
To learn how to cross reference these heeling arms into criteria. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m.
Parent Heeling Arms
As with the criteria. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value):
fa
k h
l L
2b b0 B
b1
Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. there is a list of parent heeling arms.Appendix F
a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline.

Same as for the Parent criteria. However.
General heeling arm with gust
Some criteria require a Gust Ratio.
General heeling arm
The general form of the heeling arm is given below:
H( )
where:
A cos n ( )
is the heel angle.
GustRatio
H gust H steady
Both the steady and the gust heel arm have the same shape. cosn describes the shape of the curve. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude.
Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. make sure you copy them into a custom heeling arms folder before editing them.
A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. They are defined below. in this case n=0 should be used. some criteria. the Parent heeling arms will be reset to their default values each time you start up Hydromax. Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240.Appendix B
There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria.
H steady ( ) H gust ( )
A cosn ( ) A GustRatio cosn ( )
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.
General heeling arm General heeling arm with gust General cos+sin heeling arm User Defined Heeling Arm Passenger crowding heeling arm Wind Turning Lifting heeling Towing heeling Forces heeling arm Trawling heeling arm Grain heeling arm Areas and leavers Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement
Note: When you are working with the parent heeling arms.

if only one value is supplied it is taken as the heel angle – and the magnitude is left unchanged. the same heeling arm form may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form:
H( )
k A cos(
) B sin(
)
in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. 1. notably lifting of weights.
It should be noted. This heeling arm can then be cross-referenced into any of the heeling arm criteria. that in this case. R2
A2
B 2 and
tan
B A
Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling arm curve.
User Defined Heeling Arm
A user-defined heeling arm may be used in the criteria. this is taken as the magnitude – and the heel angle is left unchanged. It may be shown that this is equivalent to:
H( )
where:
k C cos( ) D sin( )
R2 1 tan 2 (
C
) . require a heeling arm with both a sine and cosine component:
H( )
k A cos n ( )
B sin m ( )
It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity. the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds.2 meters at 45 degrees angle of heel. With the heeling arm. First. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. (To aid input of the data.
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. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed.2> for a heeling arm magnitude of 1.
General cos+sin heeling arm
Some criteria.
cosn describes the shape of the curve. and if a value preceded by a comma is given. D
C tan(
) . These should be comma delimited for example <45 .Appendix F
where: is the heel angle. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm.) A single coefficient may be adjusted and this is used as a multiplication factor (whist the shape of the curve remains unchanged). the number of points is specified and then for each point the angle and magnitude of the curve can be specified.

Appendix B
Passenger crowding heeling arm
The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:
H pc ( )
where:
n pas MD
cosn ( )
n pas is the number of passengers M is the average mass of a single passenger D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline is the vessel mass (same units as M )
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option number of passengers: nPass passenger mass: M distance from centreline: D cosine power: n
Wind heeling arm
Description Number of passengers
Units none
Average mass of one passenger Average distance of the passengers from the centreline Cosine power for curve . the wind heeling arm is given by:
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. theoretically unity A is the windage area at height h is the vessel mass P is the wind pressure H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force In the case of the wind velocity based formulation. the wind heeling arm is given by:
Hw( )
a
PA h H cosn ( ) g
where: a is a constant.defines shape
mass length none
In the case of the wind pressure based formulation.

Appendix F
Hw( )
a
v2 A h H cosn ( ) g
where: a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area multiplied by the air density and has units of density v is the wind speed.depends on wind model mass/(time2 length) or length/ time length length2 length2 Units none for pressure based formulation. u'water area H = waterline cosine power: n
Turning heeling arm
Height of user defined total or additional windage area User may specify either a total windage area Or. an area to be added to the windage area computed by Hydromax based on the hull sections There are four options for specifying H (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified H is taken as half the mean draft. The heeling arm is thus given by:
Ht ( )
v2 a h cos n ( ) Rg
where (in consistent units): a is a constant. mass/length3 for velocity based formulation
wind model wind pressure or velocity
area centroid height: h total area: A additional area: A
height of lateral resistance: H
H = mean draft / 2 H = vert. centre of projected lat. H is taken as the vertical centre of underwater lateral projected area. normally unity for pressure based formulation or 0. And the other parameters are described as above.5 ρair CD for the velocity formulation. The heeling arm is obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight. where ρair is the density of air and CD is an average drag coefficient for the windage area Pressure or Velocity (type “P” or “V”) Actual velocity of pressure . theoretically unity v is the vessel velocity
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. Option constant: a Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm. H is taken as the waterline Cosine power for curve .defines shape
length
length length
length none
The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal force acting on the vessel during a high-speed turn and the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn.

u'water area cosine power: n
Lifting heeling arm
length length length
none
This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position. R. h is taken as the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and underwater lateral projected area.vert. as percentage of LWL Vertical lever: h Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm.mean draft / 2 h = KG . as some criteria require. but there is an effective change of its centre of gravity.position of G above baseline in upright condition h is taken as KG less half the mean draft.e.Appendix B
R is the radius of the turn h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option constant: a vessel speed: v turn radius: R turn radius. as percentage of LWL There are four options for specifying h (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified h is taken as KG . Cosine power for curve .) The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:
H lw ( )
M
h cos( ) v sin( )
where: M is the mass of the weight being lifted h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is the vessel mass (same units as M )
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. centre of projected lat. the vessel displacement remains constant. (The weight is lifted from a stowage position onboard the vessel by a crane on the vessel. i.defines shape Units none length/time length % length
h = KG h = KG . normally unity Vessel speed in turn Turn radius may be specified directly Or.

such as those applied due fire-fighting or manoeuvring using thrusters. This value is positive if the towline is above the thrust centre. Horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline. Horizontal separation of suspension point (upper tip of lifting boom) from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel This value is positive if the horizontal shift of the weight should produce a positive heeling moment. Units mass length
horizontal separation of suspension from stowage position: h
length
Towing heeling arm
The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:
H tow ( )
T v cosn ( g
) h sin(
)
where: T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust.defines shape Units force length
length
angle of tow above horizontal: tau cosine power: n
Forces heeling arm
angle none
This heeling arm can be used to model up to two forces acting on the vessel forces.Appendix F
Just before lifting the weight off the vessel’s deck
The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option Mass being lifted: M vertical separation of suspension from stowage position: v Description Mass of weight being lifted Vertical separation of suspension point from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel. This value is positive if the offset is in the direction of the tow. expressed as a force. The magnitude of the heel arm is given by:
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. Angle of tow above the horizontal Cosine power for curve . h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust is the vessel mass is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the heeling n arm curve is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option tension or thrust: T vertical separation of propeller centre and tow attachment: v horizontal offset of tow attachment: h Description Tension in towline or vessel thrust Vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust. It is assumed that the towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the vessel is heeled. This value is positive if the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is above the original stowage position.

H is the assumed vertical position of the vessel‟s centre of lateral resistance (or the centre of
rotation from which the forces are applied) is the vessel mass g is acceleration due to gravity
Trawling heeling arm
This heeling arm can be used model the effects of trawl net snagging as defined in Annex G of the Australian NSCV requirements:
H trawling ( )
m y cosn ( ) m
where: m is a mass parameter determined from the breaking load of the trawl gear and the downwards angle of the trawl net.
n1 and n2 define the shapes of the heeling arms created by the two forces. y is the transverse distance of the line of action of the trawl wire from the vessel centreline n defines the shape of the heeling arm. α λ0) i.e the heeling arm magnitude is reduced by a factor α at a heel angle of line is given below:
1. λ0) Point B = ( 1 deg heel. Point A = (0 deg heel. It is mirrored about the heel=0 axis and is not allowed to go below zero.Appendix B
H forces ( )
1 A1 h1 g
H cosn1 ( )
A2 h 2
H cosn2 ( )
where: A1 and A2 are two forces acting on the vessel. B. h1 and h2 are the vertical heights (from the zero point) at which these forces act.
The equation of the
H grain ( )
0
1 abs
(1
1
)
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. is the vessel mass
Grain heeling arm
This heeling arm can be used model the effects of bulk grain shift as defined in IMO Resolution MSC. expressed as a force. not a mass.23(59): The heeling arm is defined by a straight line through two points A.

K. further.is manually calculated from:
A
. wind heeling etc.: from the model‟s vertical datum. only “Hull” surfaces are included in the calculation . positive upwards. where
M = heeling moment Δ = displacement. even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical bottom of the vessel. These are in addition to the existing specific heeling arm curves for passenger crowding. For these types of heeling arms you should use the various heeling moment curves that are available – see below:
Heeling moment curves
Parent Heeling Moments
Heeling moments work the same way as the Minimum GM Calculations in that they can be cross referenced into criteria. increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation. is given by:
0
volHM StowFact
Where: volHM is the assumed volumetric heeling moment due to transverse grain shift in units of Length3. For example. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the Maxsurf/Hydromax co-ordinate system. is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the Frame of Reference dialog). and is the vessel mass
Areas and levers
Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and their vertical centroids. The area is calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax. λ0. StowFact is the stowage factor in units of Length3/Mass. thus.Appendix F
The heeling arm magnitude at zero heel.
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.e. i.. the value “A” in:
H( )
M
A cos n ( )
. The vertical position of the keel.Length.
Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement
Some heeling arm criteria are dependent on the displacement of the vessel for the calculation of the Heeling Arm. The lateral projected area and its centroid of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero heel) at the draft and trim defined in the loadcase or trim dialog. which take account of the vessel displacement as required. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids or the total areas and vertical centroids.“Structure” surfaces are ignored. The advantage of using heeling moments is that they provide a constant heeling moment (varying heeling arm) as the vessel displacement changes (due to different loadcases or during a limiting KG analysis).

length) and
A and B the magnitudes of the cosine and sine components of the heeling moment A B
the vessel displacement (mass). require a heeling moment with both a sine and cosine component:
H( )
where:
k
A cos n ( )
B sin m ( )
is the heel angle. the same heeling moment form may be used for computing towing heeling moments of the form:
H( )
k
A cos(
)
B sin(
)
in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing.Appendix B
The following heeling moments are available in the Hydromax criteria dialog:
General heeling moment General cos+sin heeling moment General heeling moment with gust User Defined Heeling Moment
General heeling moment
The general form of the heeling moment is given below. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm:
H( )
where:
A
cos n ( )
is the heel angle. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle.length) and (mass). R
2
A
2
B and
2
tan
B A
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. thus and
are the magnitude of the
heeling arm (length).
cosn describes the shape of the curve. thus
the vessel displacement
A
is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. in this case n=0 should be used. It may be shown that this is equivalent to:
H( )
where:
k
C cos( )
D sin( )
C
R2 1 tan 2 (
) . It should be noted that provided the n and m indices are both unity. notably lifting of weights. D
C tan(
).
General cos+sin heeling moment
Some criteria.
Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. (mass. However. some criteria.

A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the report if you run an equilibrium analysis. Defining User Defined Heeling Moments works in much the same as for User Defined Heeling Arm.
It should be noted.Appendix F
General heeling moment with gust
Some criteria require a Gust Ratio.
GustRatio
H gust H steady
The general form of the heeling moment is given below. thus
the vessel displacement
A
is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling moment curve.length) and (mass).
Criteria at Equilibrium
These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium position of the vessel after the analysis. Both the steady and the gust heel moment have the same shape.
User Defined Heeling Moment
With the User Defined Heeling Moment. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. This heeling moment can then be linked into a Heeling arm criteria (xRef) for evaluation. Trim or Slope at Equilibrium
This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds.
Parent Stability Criteria
The parent criteria are divided up into different categories depending on their basic types. Option The angle of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Heel Pitch MaxSlope Units deg
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. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm. that in this case.
Maximum value of Heel.
H steady ( ) H gust ( )
where:
A A
cos n ( ) GustRatio cos n ( )
is the heel angle.
cosn describes the shape of the curve. Pitch or Maximum Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck).

This could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion. are calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax. calculated from the GZ curve.Appendix B
Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than
Permissible value
deg
Minimum Freeboard at Equilibrium
Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value. use a combination of both forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): GMtransverse GMlongitudinal) Permissible value Units length
Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
length
GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm)
These criteria. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length
Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
length
Maximum Freeboard at Equilibrium
Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length
Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
length
To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range.
Value of GMT or GML at Equilibrium
This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a specified minimum value. This could be used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline.
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.

The criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. first peak in GZ curve. GMt is computed from waterplane inertia and immersed volume (not the slope of the GZ curve as this is inaccurate if the heel angle resolution is insufficient).Appendix F
Value of GMt at
Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. If any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit. In addition to a fixed required value. Option in the range from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium
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Description Value of maximum GZ Lower limit for heel angle range. you may also select a calculation to provide the required minimum GM. If you want to check the value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle. Option specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Value of Maximum GZ
Description Value of GZ at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value
Units deg deg deg deg length
Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. This functionality is to allow criteria such as “The maximum GZ at 30deg or greater”. angle of maximum GZ or the downflooding angle. Note: Upper limit and analysis heel angle range It is required that the range of heel angles specified for the Large Angle Stability analysis is equal. If all the upper limit values are less than the lower limit. the greater of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature
Units
deg
. Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Select calculation from list Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Value of GZ at
Description Value of GMt at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Chose a calculation for the minimum required GM from a copy of one of the Parent calculations Permissible value
Units deg deg length
length
Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle. the upper range heel angle specified in the criterion. they will be ignored when selecting the lowest. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value. then the criterion will fail. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater then the required value. or exceeds.

this should normally be specified and be less than or equal to the upper limit of the range of heel angles used for the Large Angle Stability analysis.Appendix B
to the lesser of specified heel angle
angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Upper limit for heel angle range. see graph below. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value
deg
deg deg deg length
Value of Maximum GZ Value of GZ at Specified Angle or Maximum GZ below Specified Angle
If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value. the value of GZ at the specified angle is calculated. Option heel angle at which required GZ is constant Description If the angle of maximum GZ is greater than or equal to this value. Units deg
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. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs. This is 0 . Otherwise the required value of maximum GZ varies as a hyperbolic function with the angle of maximum GZ. the required value of GZ is constant and is taken at this specified angle. Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is calculated.

Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to the location of the first peak in the GZ curve. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to first downflooding angle.
Value of RM at Specified Angle or Maximum RM Below Specified Angle
As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle) except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified. This is GZ 0 . measured and compared. The righting moment RM is given by:
RM
gGZ
where: is the vessel volume of displacement is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in is acceleration due to gravity = 9.
0 GZ max
GZ max
0
then GZ max must be greater than
GZ
0
where: is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant 0
GZ max
is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs
0
GZ
is the GZ value at
0
and GZ max is the maximum value of GZ.Appendix F
Option required value of GZ at this angle is limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than If If
GZ max 0
Description Required value of GZ at the heel angle specified above.
Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ
The angle at which the GZ was measured is listed in the results. constant value.
Units length deg
deg length
then GZ
0
must be greater than the specified.80665m/s2 g GZ is the righting lever. Permissible value.
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.

the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value
Units
deg deg deg deg
deg deg deg deg %
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2
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. first heel angle. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Phi2. second heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Second heel angle. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than
Description Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 First heel angle. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less then the required value.Appendix B
Ratio of GZ Values at Phi1 and Phi2
Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles.
Ratio
Option
GZ GZ
1 2
Phi1.

: it is possible to check that the equilibrium angle does not exceed half (or any other fraction) the downflooding angle. Option limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Angle of Equilibrium
Description Angle of maximum GZ The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first GZ peak occurs The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first downflooding occurs Permissible value
Units deg
deg
deg
Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis.Appendix F
Angle of Maximum GZ
Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value. e. heel angle can be limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle. If the ratio is less than the required value. If the equilibrium angle is negative. immersion point). potential downflooding point. Using a ratio gives more flexibility. embarkation point. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. GZ angle of vanishing stability Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of equilibrium angle to the lesser of: Specified heel angle Angle of first immersion of the margin line Angle of first immersion of the deck edge Smallest immersion angle of the specified type of Key Point Angle of first local peak in GZ curve Angle at which maximum GZ occurs Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg %
Page 248
.g. then the criterion is passed. Option spec. the user is advised that the vessel should be heeled in the opposite direction and the criterion is failed. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of equilibrium Permissible value Units deg
Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of
The equilibrium angle and the lesser of the selected angles are compared. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. The user may choose the type of Key point to define the downflooding angle (downflooding point. heel angle angle of margin line immersion angle of deck edge immersion first flooding angle of the angle of first GZ peak angle of max.

The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the required value. The actual criterion is passed if either of the individual criteria is passed. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of margin line immersion Permissible value Units deg
Angle of Deck Edge Immersion
Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle is greater then the required value. but this can be allowed to increase to 17 degrees if the deck edge is not immersed. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of downflooding Permissible value Units deg
Angle of Margin Line Immersion
Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. The criterion is passed if the computed range is greater then the required value. This type of criterion is used to formulate criteria such as: The maximum allowable angle of equilibrium is 15 degrees in the damage condition.
Angle of Downflooding
Finds the angle of first downflooding. Option from the greater of Description Range of positive stability Lower limit Units
Page 249
. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg
Range of Positive Stability
The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of deck edge immersion Permissible value Units deg
Angle of Vanishing Stability
Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value.Appendix B
Equilibrium heel angle satisfies either
This criterion is nothing more than two “Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of” criteria.

from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.standard Lower limit for integration.angle
Page 250
. The criterion is passed if the area under the graph is greater than the required value. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units
deg deg
deg deg deg deg deg deg
See Nomenclature Permissible value
deg length.standard
The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected limits and compared with a minimum required value.Appendix F
Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Description User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of the range See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value
Units deg deg deg deg deg
GZ Area between Limits type 1 . angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 1 . Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.

then the required area would be given by:
A
A
0.3.
1:
A2
If 1 Where:
max is max 2
A1
2
A2
2 1 max
: required area =
.rad.HSC monohull type
The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits.07 0.055 30 30 15
max
max
or simplifying:
0.3. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit.07m.55
0.rad and the upper angle was 30 and the required area at this angle was 0.36(63) §2.2 and IMO A.6.1. The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC.Appendix B
GZ area between limits type 1 .55 0.749(18) §4.
1.5.055m.001 30
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. if the lower angle was 15 and the required area at this angle was 0.
the upper integration limit. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater then the required value. required area = A1 .2.
and A2 is the
For example. The required area is defined as follows: If If
max max 2
: required area = A2 .
A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle
area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle
2.standard GZ area between limits type 2.

. Until this angle the required GZ area is constant Value of GZ area that is required until the lower heel angle Angle from which the required GZ area remains constant onwards Value of GZ area that is required from the higher heel angle onwards Permissible value
Units
deg deg
deg deg deg deg deg deg deg
required GZ area at lower heel angle higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
length.HSC monohull type Lower limit for integration. from smallest angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Minimum angle that requires a GZ area greater than..angle deg length.angle
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. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability lower heel angle
Description GZ area between limits type 2.angle length. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.Appendix F
Variation of required area with upper integration limit
Option
from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.

The required area is defined below limit ( and is based on the area required for IMO MSC. then the required area would be given by:
A
0.
the upper integration limit. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required value.HSC monohull type GZ area between limits type 3 .
1. if the specified angle ( 1 ) was 30 and the required area at this angle ( A1 ) was 0.
A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle
For example.HSC multihull type
The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integrationA1 1 / max).055 30 /
max
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. required area = A1 Where:
max is
1
/
max
.055m.Appendix B
GZ area between limits type 2 .rad.36 (63) Annex 7 §1.1.

HSC multihull type Lower limit for integration. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Heel angle at which required GZ area is specified Value of GZ area that is required until the higher heel angle Permissible value
Units
deg deg
deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.angle length. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Description GZ area between limits type 3 .Appendix F
Variation of required area with upper integration limit
Option
from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.angle
Page 254
.

Appendix B
GZ area between limits type 3 .HSC multihull type Ratio of GZ area between limits
This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0 axis. where “abs” means the absolute value of. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 2 lower integration limit. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit.
2
GZ
d
. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature
3
Units
1
2
deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg
Page 255
.
Area 1 Ratio = = abs Area 2
1 4
abs
3
GZ
d
Option Area 1 from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Area 1 to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 from the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability
Description Ratio of GZ area between limits Area 1 lower integration limit.

Typically. the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium and vanishing stability. respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and 180 deg.
Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 1
In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding angle. GZ areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not considered positive. see graph below. In the example below.
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. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged. Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg. User specified heel angle Permissible value
4
Units deg %
This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only.Appendix F
Option Area 2 to specified heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Description Area 1 upper integration limit.

the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the downflooding angle. Note that Area 2 is now A1 – A2.Appendix B
Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 2
In the final example.
Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 3 Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits
This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis in the given heel angle range. Option Description Units
Page 257
.

Page 258
. Area 2 is negative. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ > 0. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. abs Area 2
where “abs” means the absolute value of. where the value of GZ < 0. where the value of GZ > 0. Area 1 is positive.
If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 1 is positive. Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg. where the value of GZ < 0.Appendix F
Option
in the heel angle range from to Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Description Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits User specified lower limit heel angle User specified upper limit heel angle Permissible value
Units
deg deg %
Ratio =
Area 1 .
Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Area 2 is negative. And the areas are defined as follows: If both heel angle limits are ≥ zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 180deg.

where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0. Area 2 is negative.
Page 259
. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Negative heel: lower limit = -180deg.
Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.Appendix B
Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 180deg. Area 1 is positive. upper limit = 0deg. Positive and negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis.
If the lower heel angle limit < zero.

Appendix F
Subdivision Index s-factor .5 GZmax . GZ limit Range limit
deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length deg
S = C sqrt( 0.MSC 19(58)
Probabilistic damage s-factor according to MSC 19(58) Option Lower angle of range : the greater of Description The greater of the selected angles is be to specify the lower limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Max. The criteria themselves work much the same as the Heeling arm criteria (page 264).
Heeling arm criteria (xRef)
The cross-reference heeling arm criteria are set up to allow you to define heeling arms or heeling moments in a central location and then cross-reference or link them into the criteria. range) Both the values of maximum GZ and range of positive stability can be clipped. except for the fact that you don‟t have to specify the heeling arm for each criterion separately. these can be cross-referenced into new heeling arm criteria:
Page 260
. but can simply select which heeling arm you wish to apply. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature The lowest of the selected angles is be to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. After you have defined your heeling arms. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing s Units
specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Upper angle of range: lesser of
deg deg
specified heel angle spec.

Appendix B
The heeling arms are cross-referenced simply by selecting the desired heeling arm from the pull-down list:
For information on defining heeling arms or moments. as defined in IMO Resolution MSC. required GM
Page 261
.23(59).25 B
0.645 B Vd
0.0875 SF
Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement
Input parameters for: Grain heeling min. see Minimum GM calculator – Grain The required GM for vessels carrying grain. is calculated as follows:
GM
L B Vd 0.

005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline.170: ocean service: k0 = 0. for example: For CFR 46.055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.Appendix F
Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure
The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows:
k0 GM
L k1
2
A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 )
Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. 170.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t
Input parameters for: Wind pressure min.0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. 170. 170. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant
The required GM is calculated as follows:
GM
a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 )
Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle
Page 262
.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0. k0 and k1 are constants.170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel.

b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass.
Page 263
.
Input parameters for: Constant min. 171.050:
GM
Nb with a K tan( 0 )
Nb and m. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value):
fa
k h
l L
2b b0 B
b1
Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46.0 K
Where N is the number of passengers. n = 1. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height.Appendix B
m. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth. typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard
The required GM is calculated as follows:
GM
a f
B fa
cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 )
Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline. Parent Heeling Arms on page 229.

or first flooding angle of the specified key point type. The heeling arm criteria available in the Hydromax Criteria dialog are listed below. these are where several criteria are applied to the same heeling arm
Value of GMT at equilibrium .
Ratio of GMt and heel arm criterion Value of GZ at equilibrium . The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value. is the lesser of: a user-specified heel angle. The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value.general heeling arm
Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. these are where the same criterion is applied to up to three heeling arms and/or combinations of these heeling arms Heeling Arm. In addition.
GM sin( )
HA( )
Where the heel angle. this angle may also be multiplied by a user-specified factor.
Page 264
. The transverse GM is taken at a user-specified heel angle or angle of equilibrium (without heel arm). angle of deck edge immersion. Finally. GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the equilibrium heel angle. . This is because a wider range of heeling arm formulations is available and for some criteria. combined criteria.Appendix F Heeling arm criteria
The preferred method is to use the xRef heeling arm criteria rather than the stand alone heeling arm criteria. Also available are:
Multiple heeling arm criteria. they only exist in xRef form.
Ratio of GMT and heeling arm
Calculates the following ratio and the criterion is passed if the ratio exceeds the specified value.general heeling arm
Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. angle of margin line immersion. The specified cross-referenced heel arm is then evaluated at this heel angle to give: HA( ) .

Appendix B
Value of GZ at equilibrium .
Page 265
.heel arm) is greater then the required value.general heeling arm Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm
Finds the maximum value of (GZ . The first downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit. The criterion is passed if the value of (GZ .heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle.

In the range 0 to 21. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. The value of GZ at this heel angle must be greater than zero.553m and the heel arm 0. If the heeling arm is zero or negative in the range.0) will be selected. the maximum ratio of GZ:heel arm occurs at 21. including “specified heel angle”. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 0.
Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm
This criterion calculates the maximum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified.5 . then the point with maximum positive GZ (where the heeling arm 0.5 . However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”.Appendix F
Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm
The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits.
Page 266
.5 ). Examples:
Upper limit is 50% of angle of margin line immersion (43 / 2 = 21. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”.930m giving a ratio of 59%. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. including “specified heel angle”. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits.

)
Page 267
. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 1.5m giving a ratio of 224%. the exact value will depend slightly on the heel angles tested in the Large Angle Stability analysis.3 . the downflooding angle is 94. The angle and value of GZ is given for the location where it is a maximum (in the region where the heel arm is zero.122m and the heel arm 0. at this heel angle the heel arm is zero (thus the ratio infinite).4 ).Appendix B
In this case a constant heeling arm is used. Hence the criterion is passed.
Finally. thus the maximum ratio occurs at the angle of maximum GZ (62.

The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value.
GZ Ratio = GZ
1 2
Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm
Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling arm is greatest (GZ .general heeling arm
Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve.Appendix F
The same is true if an unusual user-defined heeling arm is used. including “specified heel angle”.heel arm) is maximum.
Page 268
.
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . And checks that this ratio is greater than a specified value. If a heeling arm with zero amplitude is used. In this case the heeling arm is zero between 50 and 70 . the same criterion may be used to check that the GZ is positive over the specified range. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. Hence the maximum ratio reported is infinity and occurs at the angle where GZ is maximum in this heel angle range.Heel Arm is maximum. positive). However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. The heel arm is used to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ . This criterion can be used to check that the GZ is at least as great as the heeling arm over the specified range. Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm
This criterion calculates the minimum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.

general heeling arm
Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the specified heeling arm.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium .
Angle of equilibrium .Appendix B
Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .general heeling arm
Page 269
. The equilibrium angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and the GZ curve has positive slope. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value.

Page 270
.Appendix F
Angle of equilibrium ratio . selectable angle.general heeling arm Range of positive stability . The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in §Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm.general heeling arm
Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm. [Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] – [Angle of equilibrium] The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value. This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive stability.general heeling arm
Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where the slope of the GZ curve is negative. Ratio =
equilibriu m specified
The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following: Required angle for ratio calculation Auto complete text Marginline immersion angle MarginlineImmersionAngle Deck edge immersion angle DeckEdgeImmersionAngle Angle of first GZ peak DownfloodingAngle Angle of maximum GZ MaximumGZAngle First downflooding angle FirstGZPeakAngle Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle
Angle of vanishing stability .
Angle of vanishing stability . The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value.general heeling arm
Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with the specified heeling arm) to another.

general heeling arm
Page 271
. The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value.general heeling arm GZ area between limits type 1 .Appendix B
Range of positive stability .
2
Area =
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
1
GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm
Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the specified heel angles.

4 3
GZ ( )d
.Appendix F
GZ area between limits type 2 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.general heeling arm
The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed. The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.general heeling arm
The area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed (Area 1). This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies‟ turning and passenger crowding criteria.
4 3
GZ ( )d
.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 . Type 1 stands for which areas are being integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph).
2
Area 1 = Area 2 =
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
1
.
2
Area 1 = Area 2 =
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
1
. The required value is based on a constant plus a proportion of the area under the GZ curve (Area 2).
Page 272
.
Area 1 constant kArea 2
GZ area between limits type 2 .

For more information see: §Heel.general heeling arm
This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves.
2
Area 1 = Area 2 =
GZ ( ) gust heel arm( ) d
gust heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d
Page 273
1
2 1
. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward (under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it.e. Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the steady wind heeling arm. The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. then roll to leeward under a gust.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 2 . Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated.Appendix B
Area 1 Ratio = Area 2
Ratio of areas type 1 .0 is used. If a gust ratio of greater than 1. but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium with the gust wind heeling arm.

Area GZ = Area HA = Ratio =
2 1
GZ ( )d .general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 3 . Areas under the GZ=0 axis are counted as negative.Appendix F
Area 1 Ratio = Area 2
Ratio of areas type 2 .
Area GZ Area HA
Page 274
. This criterion is based on the area ratio required by BS6349-6:1989.
2 1
heel arm( )d . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.general heeling arm
The ratio of the area under the GZ curve to the area under the heel arm curve is computed.

Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .multiple heeling arms
Checks the ratio of GZ values as per §Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . wind.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.
Page 275
.Appendix B
Ratio of areas type 3 .general heeling arm
Multiple heeling arm criteria
These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of up to three heeling arms and their combinations. for example passenger crowding. The combined heeling arms are computed by adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle. turning.

multiple heeling arms
Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per §Angle of equilibrium .
Page 276
.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.
Angle of equilibrium .multiple heeling arms Angle of equilibrium .Appendix F
Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .multiple heeling arms
Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 1 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 1 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.

Area 1 constant kArea 2
Page 277
.
4 3
GZ ( )d
.multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 2 .multiple heeling arms
Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 2 .
2
Area 1 = Area 2 =
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
1
.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.Appendix B
GZ area between limits type 1 .

Page 278
.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 .multiple heeling arms
Checks the area under the heel angle as per §Ratio of areas type 1 .Appendix F
GZ area between limits type 2 .

MSC_216(82)
The Subdivision Index s-factor as described in IMO MSC.216(82) is computed.
Page 279
.multiple heeling arms Subdivision Index s-factor .Appendix B
Ratio of areas type 1 . Several extra options are presented to the user.

GZ limit Range limit
deg deg deg
Parameters for computing the s-Final factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Final Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sFinal Theta_min used to determine K Theta_max used to determine K Parameters for computing the sIntermediate factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Intermediate Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sIntermediate Maximum allowable equilibrium heel angle after damage. GZ limit Range limit
deg deg
Max. heel K-factor max. The beginning of the range of positive stability is taken as the first positive equilibrium angles See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature
Units
Vessel type : Passenger. The lowest of the selected angles can be used to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability.length length deg length deg
K-factor min. Parameters for computing the sMoment factor Displacement of the intact vessel at the subdivision draft Reduction to be applied to maximum GZ Link to passenger heeling moment mass length mass. If the equilibrium heel angle exceeds this value then sIntermediate is zero. heel s-Intermediate Max.216(82) The type of vessel being analysed. This is used to determine default parameters and which s-factors should be computed.Appendix F
Option
Description Subdivision Index s-factor – MSC. User Upper angle of range: lesser of
first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge s-Final Max. allowable equilibrium heel angle
deg
s-Moment intact displacement at subdivision draft GZ reduction Passenger heel
Page 280
. Cargo.

general heeling arm. Range / limitRange}1/4 where: K = 1 if equilibrium heel <= Theta_min K = 0 if equilibrium heel >= Theta_max K = {(Theta_max – equilibrium heel) / (Theta_max – Theta_min)}1/2 s-Intermediate = {GZmax / limitGZmax . The Angle of steady heel is obtained as per §Angle of equilibrium . then only the s-Final factor is computed and in this case. Range / limitRange}1/4 if equilibrium heel > Max. then all three s-factors are computed as for the Passenger ship. Displacement / Mheel where: Mheel is the maximum of the three selected heeling moments. then s-Intermediate and s-Moment factors are computed. All s-factors are in the range 0 <= s <= 1
Heeling arm.length
Vessel type: If Passenger is selected.general heeling arm 3. for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single criteria.Appendix B
moment Wind heel moment Select survival craft heel moment Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Link to wind heeling moment Link to heeling moment that defines the effect of launching survival craft Permissible minimum value for sfactor mass. These are: 1. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. Note: At least one of the individual criteria has to be selected. respectively.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . If User is selected. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual components. and any values for the s-Final factor minimum and maximum heel angles may be specified.general heeling arm
This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met.length mass. 2. allowable equilibrium heel angle then s-Intermediate = 0 s-Moment = (GZmax – GZ reduction) . respectively. The criterion result is then the minimum value of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 7 and 15 deg. If Cargo is selected. The area ratio is evaluated as per § Ratio of areas type 1 . combined criteria
Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 25 and 30 deg. The result is the minimum of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). {GZmax / limitGZmax . s-Final = K. For the s-Final factor.
Page 281
.

Optionally.general heeling arm. The area ratio is evaluated as per Ratio of areas type 2 .general heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .
Page 282
. a gust wind can be applied. The angle of steady heel is obtained as per Angle of equilibrium .Appendix F
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . For more information see: §Heel.general wind heeling arm
This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format.general heeling arm. 1. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. 3. 2. The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. The heeling arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value.

all calculations are done using a reduced GZ‟ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows:
GZ ' ( )
GZ ( ) B cos m ( )
This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many others of similar format):
Page 283
. a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied. If this is done.Appendix B
Area definition
If required.

3.2.phi3 must be greater than the required value
Page 284
. §1. PhiC is fixed at the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of GZ curve with heeling arm). §1.
Area2 / Area1 must be greater than the required value
phi2 .3. §079-1-c(9) 4.2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria RAN A015866: §4.8.749(18) Code on intact stability: §3. The criterion evaluates two checks: ratio of Area2 / Area1 and the remaining range of stability (phi3 – phi2).Appendix F
US Navy DDS079-1: §079-1-c(9) 1. §4.9.2.4.5 IMO A.2.5.1 ISO/FDIS 12217-1:2002(E) Small Non-Sailing Boats §6.3.2
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) . §4. Royal Navy NES 109: §1.4.36(63) High-speed craft code §2.2 IMO MSC.3.general heeling arm
This criterion is based on the calculations required for the Bureau Veritas criterion that ensures safety when cargo is accidentally lost while lifting.4.

Appendix B
Option
Description Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) Angle that defines the lower heel angle for the integration range of Area1.g.
Derived heeling arm criteria
For these criteria. GZ area or angle of equilibrium requirement. phi3 may be determined from a number of features of the GZ curve including being chosen such that Area3/Area1 is some specified value. cos1. For more information see: §Heel. The required ratio of Area3/Area2 used to determine the angle phi3
deg
deg deg
deg
angle at which Area3 / Area1 is
deg
Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. The GZ value used to define the heeling arm is the GZ at one of the following heel angles:
Page 285
. The shape of the heeling arm (e. the magnitude of the heeling arm is derived (rather than specified directly) from a required relationship between the GZ curve and the heeling arm curve.3) must be specified. This angle is used to evaluate the second part of the criterion: the difference phi2-phi3 must be greater than the required value. The criterion is then evaluated by comparing some requirement of the derived heeling arm with a specified value. heel angle (equilibrium angle during lifting) roll back from angle of equilibrium with heeling arm angle of equilibrium (without heel arm) Area2 integrated to the lesser of (phi2) Max. The lesser of the following three options A specified.
GZ derived heeling arm
This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the value of GZ at a certain heel angle. heeling angle due to roll taken as the lesser of (phi3)
deg
A roll-back angle (positive) from the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of the GZ and heeling arm curves) Roll back to the angle of equilibrium of the vessel (ignoring the heeling arm) Upper integration limit of Area2 chosen from the lesser of the seven options. fixed heel angle
Units
Area1 integrated from the greater of (phi1) spec. The heeling arm is normally derived from a GZ value.

The amplitude of the heeling. and is then compared with a minimum required value.
2 2 1
GZ d
A cos n
d
1
A n
GZ
Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) heel angle GZ curve Required ratio
Page 286
.
1:
specified angle of heel angle of equilibrium
Upper integration limit. The area under both the GZ and heeling arm curves is integrated between the same specified limits. which satisfies the equation below arm is then found and compared with a minimum required value. GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability
It is also possible to specify a minimum heel angle for the upper integration limit.Appendix F
specified angle of heel angle of first peak in GZ curve angle at which maximum GZ occurs angle of first downflooding immersion angle of margin line or deck edge
The heeling arm is then calculated as described by the equation below.
A
where:
GZ cos n
Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) Specified heel angle Value of GZ at specified heel angle Required ratio = GZ / HA
A n
GZ
GZ area derived heeling arm type 1
This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the area under the GZ curve between specified limits. see below. Any negative areas (due to negative GZ) up to this minimum upper integration heel angle will be deducted from the total area under the GZ curve. heel angle
2:
spec.
spec. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of max. Lower integration limit.

The roll back may be specified as either:
a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the wind heel arm.
Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . A heeling arm of prescribed shape is found such that the specified area ratio is met. Area 1 =
2 1
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
Area 2 =
2 1
heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d
Area 1 Ratio = Area 2
GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) .e. or roll back to a specified heel angle.
Page 287
. The rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the wind heeling arm. roll back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a specified heel angle. For more information see: §Heel. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle.GZ derived wind heeling arm
The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to wind pressure exceeds a certain value. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward under the action of waves and then roll to leeward. The amplitude of the heeling arm is then compared with a required minimum value.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope). With the wind pressure acting on it.Appendix B
GZ area derived heeling arm type 2
This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves. The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of specified ratio. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. angle of the first GZ peak.

the same cosine power is used for both the specified and the derived heeling arms. if the angle of steady heel is greater than the angle. The second equilibrium angle. are in the specified ratio. is the angle of equilibrium with a derived heeling arm.
Page 288
.Appendix F
The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio. This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle. A1 and A2. The specified heeling arm is specified by an amplitude and cosine power. φ1. The derived heeling arm is chosen such that the areas. first peak in GZ curve. should be large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than …. is the angle of equilibrium with a specified heeling arm. There are several options which can be used to define the upper and lower ranges for the area integrations. The first equilibrium angle.GZ area derived heeling arm
This criterion is used to compare the equilibrium angles with two different heeling arms. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle.derived wind heeling arm Ratio of equilibrium angles .
Angle of equilibrium . φ2.

the upper integration limit is always the angle of Units length
deg deg deg
Page 289
. Thus if it is required that φ2 be less than φ1.Appendix B
Ratio of equilibrium angles . Option A n required area ratio Area1 / Area2 options options options Description Magnitude of specified heeling arm Cosine power to describe shape of both specified and derived heelning arms The required area ratio used to find the derived heeling arm magnitude Specify lower integration limit for Area1 Specify upper integration limit for Area1 Specify lower integration limit for Area2.derived heeling arm
Area 1 =
2 1
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d
Area 2 =
2 1
Area 1 Ratio of areas = Area 2
φ1 = Angle of equilibrium with heeling arm derived from required area ratio (purple heeling arm) φ2 = Angle of equilibrium with specified heeling arm (orange heeling arm) The criterion is passed if the ratio φ2 : φ1 is less than the required value. then the ratio φ2 : φ1 must be less than unity.

Height of sail area centre of effort from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. positive up). are found here. indicating that the equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm must be less than the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm
Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. The required input parameters are described below. has reserve buoyancy and positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90º 0 in all other cases. Note that no additional windage areas are calculated by Hydromax for this criterion. either 0 or 5. Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. . This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. This value is normally less than or equal to 100%. For more information see: §Heel. zero trim condition. Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. which do not easily fall into the categories above. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. 5 if the vessel. Units
AS.Appendix F
required value
equilibrium with derived heel arm Specifies the maximum allowable ratio of equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm to the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm (phi2 / phi1). this is not the same as the STIX variable hCE which is measured from the waterline. when fully flooded with water. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) for exact definitions of parameters and how they should be calculated.STIX
The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft.
Other criteria .
Other combined criteria
Other criteria. beam of hull
length
Page 290
. Option delta Description Adjustment to STIX rating. zero trim condition. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. Hull length as defined by ISO 8666. length
length
BH. sail area ISO 8666
length2
height of centroid of AS
length
LH.

Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. may be specified or calculated by Hydromax. but it is highly recommended to use the equivalent xRef criteria with the desired heeling arms.
Page 291
. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and Downflooding factors. Height of centre of the lateral projected immersed area of the hull from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. beam waterline
height of immersed profile area centroid
Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than
Description Hull waterline length in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating value rather than the STIX design category. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax.
Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria
These criteria provide some specific stand alone heeling arm criteria. see §Passenger crowding.Appendix B
Option LWL. Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index. or defined downflooding points do not immerse within the selected heel angle range. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. weight and location of the passengers. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax.
Units length
length
length
Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E). Hydromax calculates this parameter at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity.
Stand alone heeling arm criteria
Angle of equilibrium . length waterline
BWL. They are included for compatibility with criteria sets defined in earlier versions of Hydromax. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. the angle of downflooding is taken to be the largest heel angle tested. if no downflooding points are defined. Hull waterline beam in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. Hence. The heeling arm is calculated from the number.passenger crowding heeling arm
Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding applied. this is not the same as the STIX variable hLP ).

Appendix F
Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm. In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine and a cosine component.high-speed turn heeling arm
Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning applied.
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
Page 292
.general heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component. see §Turning. however the heel arm is the specific high-speed turning form.general heeling arm.general cos+sin heeling arm
This is a very similar criterion to § Ratio of areas type 1 . the only difference being the shape of the heel arm. The modified form of the heeling arm is given below.
Ratio of areas type 1 . vessel speed and height of the vessel‟s centre of gravity. for further information also see §General cos+sin heeling arm
H( )
Area 1 = Area 2 =
k A cos n ( )
2 1
B sin m ( )
. The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius.high-speed turn
This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
Area 1 Ratio = Area 2
Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d
4 3
GZ ( )d
.general cos+sin heeling arm
The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .passenger crowding
This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is used by several Navies. however the heel arm is the specific passenger crowding form.general heeling arm.

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .wind heeling arm
This criterion is exactly the same as §Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .Appendix B
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) – cos+sin heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm. projected area and area lever information.
Area definition
Page 293
.towing
This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .
Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . however the heel arm is the specific towing form.general cos+sin heeling arm.lifting weight
This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . however the heel arm is the specific lifting of a heavy weight form.general wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity).

Appendix F
Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. For more information see: §Heel.
Page 294
.

Finally since the dynamic heeling arm is a straight line with constant slope we know that the corresponding heeling arm is a constant value. The problem is to reformulate this so that this capsizing moment can be found from the GZ curve:
Dynamic stability curve and Dynamic heeling arm. The capsizing moment is taken as the magnitude of GZ at this tangent heel angle 2 . This is the integral of the GZ curve where the ordinate is the area under the GZ curve integrated from zero to the heel angle in question. From these facts we can derive the following GZ and heeling arm curves:
Page 295
.
From the figure above we can see that the slopes of both curves are the same at 1 and 2 .Appendix B
Appendix D: Specific Criteria
In Hydromax. constants such as acceleration due to gravity are explicitly shown in the formulations and consistent units are used – thus removing the need for obscure constants with strange units.
Capsizing moment
Often a capsizing moment is determined from the dynamic stability curve by drawing a line through the origin which is tangent to the GZ area curve. Remembering this relationship and that the slope of the dynamic stability curve is the value of GZ it is often possible to reformulate the same criterion in terms of one based on the GZ curve. In some cases. what is essentially the same criterion.
Dynamic stability criteria
In some cases the criteria are expressed in terms of the so-called dynamic stability curve. at 2 . we have tried to distil the essence of the various stability criteria and present them in their simplest form whilst preserving the physical significance of the stability characteristic under assessment. Furthermore. from this we can deduce that the value of GZ and Heeling arm are the same at these angles. is presented in quite different ways by different regulatory bodies. the values are the same indicating that the areas under each curve from 0 to 2 are the same. This is the dynamic heeling arm curve (blue) and is the integral of a constant value heeling arm. In this section we look at some common criteria and demonstrate how they may be evaluated in Hydromax. In Hydromax we have always sought to keep the physical significance transparent in the formulation – for this reason.

Area 1 corresponds to the area under the heeling arm curve up to the second intercept
Stability curve. Area 2 corresponds to the area under the GZ curve up to the second intercept
Knowing that Area1 = Area2 we can deduce that Area 3 = Area 4 in the figure below:
Page 296
.Appendix F
Stability curve.

.6 . Thus 1 knot = 1852/3600 = 0. and in the case of “moments” in mass.Note on unit conversion
There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling arms. (Note that the UK nautical mile is 6080ft = 1853.75(69)
3.length. m/s...184m. Hydromax uses an internal conversion of knots to m/s based on the International Nautical mile which is defined as exactly 1852m (International Hydrographic Conference.Appendix B
The magnitude of the heeling arm must be chosen so that Area 3 = Area 4
So the capsizing moment can also be determined by finding the heeling moment that gives Area3 = Area4.Heeling due to turning Heeling moment defined by:
MR
Where:
0.. Monaco.length. Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or “moments” in mass. the conversions for some common criteria have been explained. it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g ).
IMO Code on Intact Stability A. giving a conversion multiplier for knots to m/s of 0.1. All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is ultimately plotted on the GZ curve.5144444.2.) In the following section.2
V02 L
tonne
KG
d [kNm] 2
MR
V0
L
tonne
= heeling moment in kNm = service speed in m/s = length of ship at waterline in m = displacement in tonne
Page 297
. 1929).51477333.749(18) amended to MSC. To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment.
Heeling arms for specific criteria . This can easily be done in Hydromax using the GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 criterion. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is generating the heeling moment. it is necessary to divide by vessel mass.

2 .02 and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant
lw1
PAZ 1000 g9.2
V02 KG L 1000
Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.2 510% 1.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
HR
a
V2 Rg
h
[m]. we obtain:
510%
a
0.Appendix F
d KG
= mean draft m = height of centre of gravity above keel in m
Hence the heeling arm. we obtain:
a
V2 Rg
h
V02 0. H R
1000 M R / g [m]. the choice of a ratio of 5.2 KG Lg
d 2
Equating similar terms:
h
V
R L
and
KG
V0
d 2
and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5.2 V02 KG Lg d [m] 2
HR
g
0. is given by:
d 1000 2 g 0.
3.Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) Heeling arm defined by:
L R
1.81
l w1
P
tonne
[m]
Where: = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa
Page 298
.1:1 merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.02
Note that it suffices that a
a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen.1:1.
Where: V R
h a
= vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.

81
9.81
0.80665 9.36(63)
Annex 6 1.99966
IMO HSC Code MSC.81
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
Hw
a
PA(h H ) g [m]
= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Where:
g
h H a
Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.1.81
tonne
Equating similar terms:
h H
and
Z
a
g g9.001PAZ
1000 g
1000M v / g [m].Heeling moment due to wind pressure Heeling moment defined by:
Mv
0. H v
HR
g
0. we obtain:
a
PA(h H ) g
PAZ 1000 g9.4 .81m/s2
g9.9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
Page 299
.Appendix B
A Z
tonne
= projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m = displacement in tonne = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration .001PAZ [kNm]
= heeling moment in kNm = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m
Where:
Mv
P A Z
Hence the heeling arm. is given by: PAZ g [m]
Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.

we obtain:
Equating similar terms: h H Z
Page 300
. we obtain:
a
PA(h H ) g
PAZ g
Equating similar terms: h H Z and
a 1.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of half the lightest service draft in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Where:
g
h H a
Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. 0
Annex 7 1.3 .80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Where:
Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.Heeling due to wind Heeling arm defined by:
HL1
Where:
PAZ 9800 tonne [m]
= heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draft in = displacement in tonne
HL1
P A Z
m
tonne
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
Hw
a
PA(h H ) g [m]
= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.Appendix F
Hw
g
h H a
a
PA(h H ) g [m]
= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.

1.80665 9.Appendix B
and
a
g 9800
tonne
9.1.00068
Where the effect of wind plus gust is required.1.000102 PA(h
H)
1000
[m]
The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
H
a
PA(h H ) g [m]
= standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.0053
2 vkts
tonnes
h
[tonne.m]
L
Where:
v kts
tonne
= vessel speed in knots = displacement in tonne
Page 301
. in the case of wind plus gust. a becomes 1.1.0 g
0.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Where:
g
a
Thus equating:
H
a
PA(h H ) g
0.8
1.Wind heeling moment USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as:
M
h H P A
0.102 9.000102 1000.000102 PA(h H ) [tonne. the factor a should be multiplied by the gust factor – typically 1.5. Hence.m]
= height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2
Where:
Thus the heeling arm is given by:
H
0.0002783
USL C.000102 PA(h H )
1000
simplifying and rearranging:
a
0.Heeling moment due to turning USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as:
M
0.4 .3 .50102
USL code (Australia)
USL C.80665 1.

= vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity)
Where:
V R h a
Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. whichever is the least.Appendix F
h L
= height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = waterline length of vessel in m
Thus the heeling arm is given by:
H
0.3g
2 R vkts L V2
tonnes
5. L
a 0.0053
2 vkts
tonnes
h1
L
1000. we obtain:
a
V2 Rg
h
0.
ISO 12217-1:2002(E)
R L
0. with g = 9.3g
R 1 1 2 L 0.999798
a
Note that it suffices that .196424
R L 509%
gives a value for a:
R Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length. is assumed to be constant at all angles of heel and shall be calculated as follows:
Page 302
. using annex D.5144 1000. and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. expressed in newton metres.0
[m]
Where: = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as:
H
a
V2 Rg
h
[m].3.0053
2 vkts
tonnes
h1
L
1000.0
finally.80665 [ms-2]:
a
0. the choice of a ratio of 509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. The heeling moment due to wind.196424
This section explains how the ISO 12217-1 code calculates the heeling arm and how you can replicate this calculation with a Hydromax criterion.2 Rolling in beam waves and wind The curve of righting moments of the boat shall be established up to the downflooding angle or the angle of vanishing stability or 50°.0
simplifying and rearranging:
a
5. “6.196424 509% 0. MW.

1 m TM 1.3 * 72 * (72 / 21. the heeling moment is given as: MW = 0. and the lever is (ALV / LWL + TM) This lever is a bit confusing so let‟s concentrate on that. a = 0. where the force is calculated as 0. vW = 28 m/s for design category A. and 21 m/s for design category B. TM is the draft at the mid-point of the waterline length. Make sure you check your total windage lever in the intermediate results in the criteria results tab of the Results window. h = (ALV / LWL + TM). You can calculate (ALV / LWL + TM) manually and then make sure the (h-H) value in Hydromax is the same by specifying: Velocity based heeling arm.3.0868 m The input for Hydromax requires: Total area A = 72 m2. For example.9 m vW 28 m/s for design category A ALV 72 m2 ( this is greater than 0.3 ALV * (ALV / LWL + TM)* vW2 Where LWL is the waterline length.” Basically they are using moment = force * lever.55 LH BH = 66 m2) Thus according to the ISO 12217 formula.0. but shall not be taken as less than 0. positive up.55*LH * BH.9) * 282 = 89961 Nm Thus the heeling arm = MW / Displacement = 89961 / 1037000 = 0.applies to the additional windage area or the total windage area depending on which option you have selected. area centroid height: h = ALV / LWL + TM = 72 / 21. supposing we have a vessel with the following characteristics: Displacement 105.1 + 1.9 = 5. Thus the lever is (h-H) in Hydromax should be the same as the (ALV / LWL + TM) lever from ISO.Appendix B
MW = 0. H = 0. ALV is the windage area as defined in 3.1 + 1.312 m.3 * ALV * vW2.3 kg/m3 Note: the centre of the windage area -h.7 tonne = 1037 kN LH 24 m BH 5 m LWL 21.3 kg/m3 giving the expected result for heeling arm amplitude:
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. a = 0. Hydromax‟ wind heeling arm calculation uses H for the vertical height of the hydrodynamic centre (underwater area) and h as the vertical height of the aerodynamic centre (windage area) – all measured consistently from the zero point.7. expressed in metres.

H.1. positive upwards).
ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation.2: Offset-load test There are several ways of evaluating this criterion: 1. the default value is set at 1.3. In Hydromax. there is no option for placing the height. one to check that the righting moment is sufficient and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium analysis.3: Resistance to wind and waves Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the criterion.
This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in Hydromax.4: Heel due to wind action
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.3.7 6. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum permissible value.2) and entered into the required value field.1. 6. An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded. 6.1. 6. 2. see Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6. which depends on the category and length of vessel being tested. Also determine the required wind speed and roll-back angle (depending on the design category) and enter these values. 6. 6. 6. In most cases the default required value would exceed the worst case. Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. The default value is set to 49.Appendix F
Intermediate results for the wind heeling arm.3: Resistance to waves This criterion comprises two parts.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category.2). of the centre of lateral resistance at the bottom of the vessel.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3 (Section 6.
Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m
In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria. so this must be specified manually (it is measured from the model zero point. See also the note on converting units for the definition of the heeling arms in ISO 122171:2002(E).1.

this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm. If desired you can specify the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you.2) and entered into the required value field. 6.
Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m
These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading condition. but note the different wind speeds to be used.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. Determine the limiting heel angle from Table 4 (Sections 6. it should self right. 7.9). Convert this to a heeling lever.2.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.6.2.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.2. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle. Section 6. 6.4: Stability index (STIX) Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. Non-Sailing Boats: 6.6: Wind stiffness test
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.3: Offset-load test This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with the required offset loading condition Sailing Boats: 7. Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion. 6. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle.4. the default value is set at 1.2.7).3). The default value is 130. it should self right.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6. see Table 5 (Section 6. see Tables 3 (Sections 6.2: Downflooding-height tests Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading condition. 6.6.2.3. the default value is set at 1.Appendix B
Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per 6.2)
Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m
6.6. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward. The default value is set to 40 6.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6.2) and entered into the required value field.3: Angle of vanishing stability Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category and vessel displacement. 6.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis.6.2. 7.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.

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.7). Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6. Section 6. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.6. Convert this to a heeling lever.6.Appendix F
Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.

trimming. if you wish to transfer loadcases or compartment definitions from one model to another.hcr
Description
The library is not related to the Hydromax Design File. However.hmd file does not contain: .htk . Contains hydrostatic sections information and all Input information that may also be stored separately in the files below The . sounding pipes and modulus
Output files
All Result Window tables
Extension
.Links to or information on the Report
Hydromax Design
. margin lines.g.dcs .Links to or information on the Stability Criteria Library .txt
Description
Result tables can be saved separately Results tables can not be opened in Hydromax The report can be saved separately
Report
.msd
Description
Contains control point and surface information.hmd file with the same name. precision.msd file Hydromax looks for a .hmd
Separate Input files
Loadcase Compartments Damage cases All Input window tables
Extension
. E.
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.Appendix B
Appendix E: Reference Tables
This appendix contains the following reference tables:
File Extension Reference Table Analysis settings reference table
File Extension Reference Table
The following table lists files that are used in Hydromax. not when the model is opened. i. flexibility.hml . colour When opening a . thickness.e. For more information see the section on criteria. is not model related. The library is loaded when the program starts.txt
Description
Each loadcase can be saved separately The compartment definition can be saved separately The damage case definition can be saved separately All tables in the input window can be saved as text files. Downflooding/embarkation points.hmd file contains all the additional information that defines the Hydromax model and you need only save this file when working in Hydromax.rtf
Library
Hydromax Criteria Library
Extension
.Links to or information on the Results tables . File
Maxsurf Design
Extension
. outside arrows. this can be done by going to the appropriate window and saving it to a separate file. The .Maxsurf surface information .

2
The VCG is not required for the Limiting KG analysis. When calculating the LCG from a specified trim and displacement. During the floodable length analysis. the trim can be substantial and the vertical separation of CG and CB needs to be taken into account.Appendix F
Analysis settings reference table
The following table can be used as a reference to the various analysis settings for each analyses type. a) The VCG only has an effect on the results if the analysis is free-to-trim. b) The GZ curve is calculated for the specified VCG and then the normalised KN curve is calculated as KN = GZ + VCG*SIN(heel). result S R LC FTTLC FTT
Cannot be specified – they are a calculated resul Specific (fixed.
3
The VCG is required for the floodable length analysis because of its effect on trim. Analysis Settings Analyses type Trim Heel Draft DisplaceLCG TCG VCG ment
Upright stability Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Specified Condition KN values Limiting KG Floodable Length Tank Calibration S S/ FTTLC result S S / FTT S / FTT FTT S Upright R result S R R Upright Upright R result result S result result result n/a result LC LC S / LC R R R n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ FTT S/ FTT FTT n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ LC4 S/ LC4 n/a n/a For GM etc.
4
The TCG may be specified directly of derived from the lost cargo / ballast water in damaged tanks from the current loadcase. the current VCG is used. single) value to be set by user Varied within Range specified by user Calculates values from loadcase – specifies displacement and COG only Free-to-trim to loadcase CG Free-to-trim to LCG calculated from a specific initial trim angle or specified LCG (and VCG) 1 The VCG is used in two ways in the KN analysis. LC LC S / LC S1 result2 S3 n/a
Where.
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.

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. To this end we follow a development and testing path which includes use of structured programming techniques.000 lines of code and we believe our history of reliability reflects the effort we have put into using reliable coding practices. object oriented design. we summarize by saying that we utilize structured code.
Quality Principles
While it is impossible to ensure that any software product is completely free of bugs.
Verification of Algorithms
When new design or analysis algorithms are introduced into Hydromax. see Reference Calculations. Hydromax is a complex software system of over 400. we follow a series of engineering and testing principles and procedures to ensure that Hydromax will produce results which are consistent with the level of accuracy and thoroughness a professional engineer applies to design work. verification of the underlying algorithms. we first carry out testing on the algorithms on Reference Designs – these are proven test cases with known analytical solutions. data hiding and encapsulation and fault tolerant programming practices to enhance our software's reliability.
Structured Programming
The best defence against bugs in software is to use structured programming techniques that have been proven to improve software reliability. Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions. Without going into the technical details of our software development methodology.Appendix B
Appendix F: Quality Assurance
This appendix describes the quality assurance processes used to ensure Hydromax gives reliable and accurate results. testing of the computer implementation of those algorithms.
Reference Designs
A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. This following explains how Formation Design Systems has verified that Hydromax gives accurate results and what steps we take to make sure that each version of the software we ship is as reliable as possible. These designs are of simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax. testing of real world problems inhouse and beta testing in the field at Hydromax user sites.
Quality Assurance
Many Hydromax users ask us how we know that Hydromax produces the correct results.

122 -2.02% -0.699 392.72%
% error 0.333 833.03%
Analytically derived Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision
10m Cylinder 10m diam.14247 488.34279 261.00% 0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans. I m^4 Long.05% -0.121 -2.118
LCB m 0 0 0 0 0
Trans.Appendix F
Reference Calculations
Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs.87385 489.534 78.532 257.00% 0.257
833.333
833.874
WP Area m^2 100 100 100 100 100
VCB m -2. I Long. I m^4 Long.04% -2. comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values sphere 10m diam at 5m draft Volume m^3 261.871 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans. I 833.57% % error -0.33333 833.333
% error -0.875 -1.01% 0.00% 0.00% 0.122 -2.761 480.10% -1.874 -1.18% -0.873852 488.357 78.00%
% error 0.06% -1.23% -0.333333
833. I 490.564741 490.121 -2.47% -0. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.849 VCB m -1.6807269 488.01% -0.39% -1.25% -0.105 WP Area m^2 78. I Long. at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 392.764 260.00%
% error 0.88% % error -0.191 490.89 % error -0.991 Maxsurf Hi Precision 392.57 483.00% 0.01% -0.00% 0.875 -1.522 Maxsurf Low Precision 389.00% 0.01% -0.875 -1.333 833.333333 833.673 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision 391.341 77.93873 485.00% 0.79% % error -0.56% -0.33333 833.53982 78.79939 261.308 833.00%
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.01% -0.

666666 1666.352 Hydromax Low Precision 9.00% % error 0.92875 1. I m^4 Long.667 1666.5 -2.91 168.D=0.666666 1666.5
LCB m 0 0 0 0 0
Trans.00% 0.00% 0.4685 168.00% 0. I Long.07% -0.00% 0.00% 0.942 -0.39% % error -0.621 % error -0.5 -2.26% -0.09% -0.302 14.78% % error -0.01% -0.375 15 -0.667 6666.666666 1666.5m.24% -0.372 14. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.98 -0.97% % error -0.00% 0.92418 1. I 1666.00% 0.00% 0.352 Maxsurf Hi Precision 9.351 Maxsurf Low Precision 9.00% 0.07% -0.368 Hydromax High Precision 14. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.00% 0.998 -0.75 168.667 6666.63 167.13% -0. LWL=15m.00% % error 0.03% -0.00% 0.Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 1000 Hydromax High Precision 1000 Hydromax Low Precision 1000 Maxsurf Hi Precision 1000 Maxsurf Low Precision 1000
WP Area m^2 200 200 200 200 200
VCB m -2.01% -0.22% -0.5 -2.667 % error 0.B=1.9375 Volume WP Area VCB m^3 m^2 m Analytically derived 9. I 1.6667 6666. I Long.352 9.3773 168.92527 1.6667 6666.00%
Parabolic Wigley type Hull.999 -0.04% -0.6667 6666.927 1.00% 0.67%
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.00% % error 0. I m^4 Long.5 -2.351
LCB m 0 0 0 0 0
Trans.01% -0.351 14.

the version number may also include a letter and number suffix indicating the type and number of the release.0 1. as with all complex software systems. In the unlikely event of a problem being found.6 1.Appendix C
Testing of Implementation
Once the basic algorithms have been proven correct. it is necessary for you to model the problem correctly and to correctly interpret the results produced. If you suspect a problem with Hydromax. These results may either come from Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering texts such as well as from other results carried out by Formation Design Systems or other engineers using other software products such as NAPA. we will correct it as soon as practicable. A beta release is a final test version of the program released for field testing prior to commercial release.5 1. It is highly experimental and not reliable. An alpha release is a first public release of a program for initial testing and comment. alpha test or beta test release.64
But we're not Perfect
We make every effort to ensure that our software will meet our users' needs and perform accurately.
Version Control
Each new version of Hydromax displays a version number indicating the version and the date the software was first shipped.6b2 The second beta test release of version 1. Once the beta test program is completed and all testers are happy with the program.5a2 The second alpha test release of version 1.com and explain what you believe the problem to be. A development version is usually only for internal use and is a very early demonstration of a possible new product or feature.0d1 The first development release of version 1.
Testing of Upgrades
As each new version of Hydromax is released we perform a series of tests to ensure it functions correctly. These beta testers provide us with feedback on the reliability and accuracy of the program as well as its useability and suitability for everyday work. To get accurate results from Hydromax. we begin shipping the commercial version. it is possible for errors to occur. A commercial release is a completed. testing is then carried out on more complex sample problems to which a solution has already been established using a proven analysis program. and send you a new corrected version of the program. AutoShip etc. This involves sending the software to practicing engineers and having them use it on design work in progress to determine its reliability for actual design use. please contact our technical support staff by email at support@formsys. it is not reliable. It is mostly reliable but may contain some bugs. It is the users' responsibility to correctly model the structure and assume responsibility for the results. At each release the results from these tests are compared with the results from the previous release to ensure conformance with answers which have been established as being correct.
Beta Testing
Immediately prior to the release of each new version of Hydromax. However.
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. If the version is a development.64 A commercial release of version 1. we conduct a beta test of the software. For example 1. debugged program reliable and ready for professional use.

................................ 199 Save As ......................................................................................................................158................... 78. 161 Select........ 213 Closing a Loadcase ................................................. 181 Automation Reference ............................................................... 212 Assembly View .. 108 Upright Hydrostatics ...... 39 Criteria ........ 84 Cut........................................................................................................................................... 212 Case Menu ................................Index
Index
A About Hydromax ............ 181 Centre of gravity ......... 34 Copy ....................................................................................... 309 Toolbar ............................................................................................................................................... 96 Longitudinal Strength ..... delete ............................................... 313 Block Coefficient ................ 221 Boundary Box .................................................... 71 Cascade ............................................. Main Import............................................................................................................................................................................ 52 Forming .......................................................... 88 Floodable Length ...... 91 Tank Calibrations .............................. 200 Curve of Areas ................................................... 205 Criteria File Format.......................... 69 Compartments .................................... 213 B Background .... 203 Compartment Definition ....... 150 Create cases from Zone Damage ............ 181 Check for Updates.............................................. 72 Delete ............................ 201 Cell Shading ....................................................................... 52 Creating a new Loadcase File ....... 70 Non-Buoyant Volumes ....... 72 saving ....................51......... 200 Reset to defaults ............................... 204 Add Load .............. 200 D Damage ...................................................................................... 77 Analysis Menu ............................................... 155 Damage Case Add....................... 106 Specified Conditions ........................... 218 Beta Testing ............... 200 Criteria.............................................................................................................................................. 211 Arrange Icons .........................................................................................................72........................... 183 Data Format .......................................................................... 70 Tanks.............. 195 Analysis in waves ............................. 172 Criteria................. 161 Compartment types ................... 72 Display ........... 211 Hydrostatic ........................ 73 Damage Window ............................................................ Prob Damage Import... 159 Corrected VCG ..... 202 Allowable shears and moments ...... 79 Animate .... 181 Centre of flotation ................ 204 Cell Border .................................... 200 Copying Graphs ............................. 103 KN Values Analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................... 82 Limiting KG ...................... 147 Coordinate system. 90 Analysis type Equilibrium .......... 36 Colour ......... 42 Coefficient parameters ....................................... 191 Copying Tables . 93 Large Angle Stability ............. 200 Save As ............. 73 Extent of damage .......... 84 Curves of Form .. 156 Settings.............................................. 174 Criteria Libraries .............................................................. 139 Beam ................ 204 Creating a Compartment definition file ................... 202 Add Damage case ................... 204 Output ...................... 52 Saving ................................................................. calculation of. add. 74 Rename ..... 213 Activate GHS Export ........................................................................ 62 Convergence Error .........................185.............................. 70 Linked ..... 184 New ........................................................... 42 Add Surface Areas ................ 52 Bulkheads..................... 201 Centre of buoyancy ........ 207
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............................................................................................. 216 Coefficients............................................................................................................................... 210 Batch Analysis ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 70 Compartments........................................................ 185 C Calibration Increment ......................... 70 Linked Tanks ............

.......................... 196 F File Extension Table ................................... 190 Graph Formatting ......................................................................................... 212 Curve of Areas ... 210 Density ........................................ 189 Graph colours .............. 73 Fluid analysis method .................................................................... Export... 9 Export.......................................... 162 New ......................... 87 Equilibrium ........... 210 Display Menu ... 207 Downflooding Angles ................................................. 194 Edit........ 204 Edit Menu ................................... 200 Hydromax Version 8.................................... 204 External Tanks ................................. 35.................................................. 80 DXF export ................. 197 Exit ....... 205 Display Background ......................................... 197 File Toolbar......... 202 Move Items Up ............................. 162 DXF......................................... 201 Move Items Down............................. 18...... 151............................................. 205 Flooding ............................................................ 88 Equilibrium Condition ........................................................................................................................ 198
....................................................................... 35 DWL .................................................................................................................................................. Import....... 198 GHS.............. 240 Help Menu .......................... 308 File Menu .....................................................154.........................................................181................... 210 Grounding ........ 189 Data interpolation................... Export.................................................0 file.................................. 149 Fluid VCG.... 189 Curves of Form ............................................................................................. 188 Graphs ........................ 220 Draft marks ....................................................................................................... Export ..................... 200 Edit Toolbar ....................... 204 Delete DXF background ................... 211 Deactivate GHS Export...................................................................................... 190 get data ... 206 Hydromax v8............................................................................................... coherence ................. 195............................... 202 Sort Items .................................................51..................................................... 160 Displacement............................................. 161 Extent of Damage .. 8 H Heel ................................ 201 Emergence Angles ................. 87 Downflooding points ............ 189 Type ..142......................................................... 212 Hide DXF......................................................................................... 9.............. 197 Open ................. 194 File....0 .......... 190 Graph Printing to Scale ............... 185 Linking to tanks or compartments ................... 201 Floodable Length ............................................... 199 Exporting ............................................. 197 Save ................... 201 Delete Damage case ............................... 159 Graph Window ................................ 198 Graph .........................................51.... 204 Edit Loadcase ................... 189 double click ............................................................. 219......................... 198 Export Bitmap ....................................................................................................................... 43 Hull Sections Recalculate ....................................... 211 Design Grid Toolbar ............................................................................ 205 Heeling Moments ..................... 197 Save As .................................................................................... 214 Frame of Reference ............................................................... 205.......................................... 201 Delete ........... 89 Full Screen ................ 146.. 12 Floodable Length Criteria dialog ................................................Index
Data layout ............................
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Close ................... 198 Dynamic Stability ........... 205 Design Grid ..................................................... 211 Fredyn ... 203 Form parameters ............................................21..............................18................................ 206 GZ ................. 204 G GHS........................ 145..... 196 Edit Damage case......... 75.... 76 Draft ...... 189 Grid ............. 190 Righting Lever (GZ) ......................................... 196 Design Preparation ...................................................................... 18 Design... 20 Saving .................................. Add................................................... 151 Fluids ...................... 199 Free Surface Moment ........................................... 202 Delete Cells ............80................................................ 210 Home View ........ 202 Horizontal lever .............................................. 205 Font .................... 150 Freeboard ................. 186 Data Menu............................................ 197 Fill Down .......... 56 Extra Buttons Toolbar .......... 83 E Edge Visibility Toolbar............................

.................... LCG ........................................................... 222 Length ..................... 212 Input Tables....... formatting.............................................. 76 editing ............................................ 43 Grouping tanks .................... 183
Loadcase........... 47 Loadcase............................................................. 51 Loading a Saved Loadcase............................................................................... Area Section ...................... 220 Immersion ................................ 41 saving ............. Workshop structure ... 43 Loadcase Template ......................... 75.................................................. 214 Menus.....117(52) Reg..... max............ 44 Loadcase........................................................................ 223 Immersion Angles .............. 197 MEPC............................................................................... 202 Print....... 113 Merge Cells ..... 210 Initial Conditions .......................... 303 K Key points ...............................................................181............... 217 Libraries .................... 41 Longitudinal Strength .............. 201 Midship Section .................................................. 159 Printing......................... 49 Loadcase.............................................. 204 Loadcase.... surface ........................ 10.............................23.... 198 Individual Loadcase ............................................ 42 Free surface correction ....................................... 47 Loadcase Colour Formatting.................................... 96 Linked negative compartments ......................................................................... density ... 200 Pan ...... 184 Insert New Table .................. 161 Input Window .............................. 223 MSC....... 186 KN Values................................................................................................................................................................................ 223 Maximum shears and moments ... 42 Distributed loads ............................................... 106 M Margin Line points..... 182 Precision.... 59 P Page Setup..... 46 Loadgroup ............................................ 116 N Non-Buoyant Volume Definition ......................................... 44 Loadcase Sorting.. 197 Import DXF Background ..... 221 Prob damage zones ................ 8.................................. 75 Data .................... Export ....................... 212 Adding and Deleting loads.................................................................................................................................................... 209
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.............. 84 lateral projected area .......................................................... 35.............................................................................................................................. 113 MEPC.......... 51 maximum number .... 116 MSC........................12A......................................................................... 113 Max.............................................. 58..... 161 Update ....... 206 MARPOL ............................ 220 Modulus points ... 77 Measurement reference frames ......................................... saving ................................................ 22 Preferences .................. 14 MARPOL oil outflow .................... 172 Limiting KG .......................................... 45 Editing loads ..................... 200 Print Preview.......................... 38............................ 51 nuShallo........... 240 LCB............. number ......................................... 198 O Online Support ..................... 76 Results .......... 220 Maximum deck inclination ...................................................................... 201 Permeability ..... 159 Prismatic Coefficient ..........................141(54) Reg.. 201 Insert Row ......... 42 Renaming ...................... 87 Import.....................38...... 159 Printing to scale . 82.................................. Tank loads ................... Snap to hull ..................... 87 deleting............................................................................. 44 Loadcase Formatting.........................19(58) ................................. 93 L Large Angle Stability ............................................................ 43 Blank lines ... 16 ISO 12217-1 ...................................... 20 overlap ......................16.............. 45 Loadcase................................... 185 Margin Line.. 198 Import Image Background ................ cross referencing .............. 44 Headings lines ....................... 40 Loadcase Window... 185 Modulus Window .......77............................................. 43 Totals .....................13.... 185 adding........................ 58 Loadcase ............................. 205 Perspective view ......................13....................... 201 Installing Hydromax ....................................... 77 Moment to trim ............216(82) ................................... 146....................... 202 Paste .. 34 Input ..................................... 213 Outside arrows ..... 198 Immersed depth........................................................ 11.......................................................................................... 47 Loadgroup.......Index
I IGES............ Import ...................................................... column selection ................................... Distributed Loads ...............................

............. 146 Split Cell .... 206 Righting Moment ........................................................ 311 Reference Designs ............................... 187 Stability criteria................................................................................................................................. 292 Stability criteria...... 288 Stability criteria......... 310 R Ratio of equilibrium angles – GZ area derived heeling arm............. 71 Edit .general cos+sin heeling arm ........... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ......................................................................... 212 Results Window ................................. 221 Section....................................... check boxes .......... 185 Results...................... 27 Select All........ 293 Stability criteria.................... 210 Show Grid .........................highspeed turn heeling arm . 171 Stability criteria........................ Angle of vanishing stability .......................................................... Angle of margin line immersion .................. 282 Stability criteria................................... 136 Probabilistic Damage – Inputs ...... 250 Stability criteria................ 202 Simulate fluid movement ............. 181 Q Quality Assurance ..... Angle of equilibrium .......................................... Forming ............. 270 Stability criteria............................................................................60... Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms ....................... 151 Render ........ Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .............. 209 Set Analysis Type . 150 Stability criteria..... 206 Set Home View ............ show single.......... 202 Row Positioning ....................................................... Areas and levers .............. 296 Stability criteria............................................................... 119 Properties ............................ Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm ... Angle of deck edge immersion ...... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Analysis ................passenger crowding ............ 202 Set Vessel to DWL.................................................................. 293 Stability criteria............. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .................................... 201 S Safe steady heeling angles .................................... saving ....... Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm ... 294 Stability criteria................... Angle of equilibrium ................towing.............. 161 Saving Densities................... 117 Probabilistic Damage – Principles .. 184 Calibration Increment ......... 211 Report Toolbar ................................................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ............................ Angle of equilibrium ................................................lifting weight ............. Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm .............................................................................Index
Probabilistic Damage ... 151 Specified Condition ................... 84 Save .................................. 201 Spool to Report ......10.................general wind heeling arm 283
...... 211 Render Transparent ................................................... Angle of maximum GZ . 70 Specific Gravity .................high-speed turn ...................................... 30 Shrink ....................................................................... 15............ 228 Stability criteria......... 196 Report Window ... Angle of downflooding .GZ derived wind heeling arm................... 277 Stability criteria........................ 210 Sectional Area Curve ...... 16 Show DXF .................................................................. 249 Stability criteria... 207 Stability booklet ... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .... dialog ................ 181........ 91............................ 161 Resume Analysis........... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Saving input parameters .. 201 Select View from Data .............................. 293 Stability criteria............................. 293 Stability criteria....................... capsizing moment.... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . 19
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Sounding Pipes .... 138...... 310 Relative Density ............................. 31 Sections....................70.. 205 Specified Conditions.... 193 Reporting ..... 160................................................................................................................................................ 203 Property Sheet ....................... 78 Stability Criteria Results .............general heeling arm ............................................................... angle calculators ................. 119 Probabilistic Damage – log file........................ 294 Stability criteria......................................... 268 Stability criteria...... 156 Results .... 151 Skin Thickness ... 250 Stability criteria.......................... 310 Quality Principles........... 289 Reference Calculations ........ 240 Stability criteria. 201 Show single hull section ......................................269......... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ............ Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm ............. 249 Stability criteria....................... 60........................................ 209 Shift Key ..... 152 Section Area Coefficient ... 270 Stability criteria............ 248 Stability criteria..................... 224 Rotate ..................................................... 191 Keystrokes....... 248 Stability criteria...............

...231.. 250 Stability criteria................................ heeling arm definition ... glossary .. 271 Stability criteria.. GZ area between limits type 3 ..... Ratio of areas type 2 general heeling arm .......... 244 Stability criteria.............. 242 Stability criteria. Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm .......... GZ definitions ............................... Heeling due to lifting of weights . 176 Stability criteria......... 237 Stability criteria........................... 263 Stability criteria............... 247
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.......... 239 Stability criteria. 170 Stability criteria...... 262 Stability criteria....... minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure ................................. Heeling due to passenger crowding ........................... 250 Stability criteria........... 242 Stability criteria.................. 229 Stability criteria. equilibrium .... Heeling due to turning.229.........HSC monohull type ..................... 293 Stability criteria....... 298 Stability criteria........wind heeling arm ............. 172 Stability criteria...... damage and intact settings ...................................... Maximum value of heel.............................multiple heeling arms ............................. 235 Stability criteria............ GZ area between limits type 2 ...... 305 Stability criteria....... Heeling due to arbitrary forces ..........STIX ...... 253 Stability criteria.......... importing ....... GM calculators ....standard............. 236 Stability criteria.......... Ratio of GZ area between limits ......... GZ area between limits type 1 ...... 243 Stability criteria...... ISO 12217 ...... 170 Stability criteria.. 173 Stability criteria..... Range of positive stability general heeling arm ....... IMO roll back angle calculator .......................... 272 Stability criteria..... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ..................... criteria library file ..................................................... 255 Stability criteria........... non-healing arm . Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm ......................................... 288 Stability criteria............................. Ratio of GMT and heeling arm . minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard ......... 286 Stability criteria... GZ area between limits type 2... 240 Stability criteria.. 238 Stability criteria............... 238 Stability criteria......... minimum GM calculator – Grain ....... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2.. GZ derived heeling arm ................ General heeling arm . heeling arm units ....... Heeling due to wind ... IMO Code on Intact Stability A......... Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms .......................... moving criteria .................749(18) ........................................................... GZ area derived heeling arm type 1.............. Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium .................general heeling arm ........................... list ..................... 266 Stability criteria........................... 279 Stability criteria.........general heeling arm ... Heeling due to grain shift 239 Stability criteria. pass/fail test . Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm.... 163 Stability criteria.. Range of positive stability ............................. 285 Stability criteria........... 268 Stability criteria.......... 274 Stability criteria... Heeling due to trawling ............... GZ curve features ... 178 Stability criteria........... 179 Stability criteria................... 251 Stability criteria..................................... GZ area between limits type 1 .......... GZ. 172 Stability criteria.......Index
Stability criteria.......... Other criteria .... 278 Stability criteria....... 233 Stability criteria.......................... GZ area between limits type 1 ......... GZ area between limits type 2 ......... 294 Stability criteria........... 239
Stability criteria............................36(63 ............................................ 275 Stability criteria....................................... 273 Stability criteria.... copying criteria.... IMO HSC Code MSC.. 172 Stability criteria........................... 234 Stability criteria.................... heeling arm dependency on displacement ..........multiple heeling arms ................ 170 Stability criteria............. 243 Stability criteria..... Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium ........231................ 270 Stability criteria.................. defining custom criteria.... 233 Stability criteria............... minimum GM calculator – Constant ...................172.... Gust ratio .............. 232 Stability criteria.... 300 Stability criteria.................. Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm ........ 262 Stability criteria.... pitch or slope at equilibrium ............................................................................ Heeling due to bollard-pull ............. 291 Stability criteria.............................. 242 Stability criteria.............................. Ratio of areas type 3 general heeling arm .....................230......................... 287 Stability criteria............general heeling arm ................... General cos+sin heeling arm . 264 Stability criteria.. Heeling due to towing .165............. 298 Stability criteria..............HSC multihull type ..... 235 Stability criteria.... 261 Stability criteria...... 278 Stability criteria................................ GZ area derived heeling arm type 2.... parent criteria . Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) ........ 229 Stability criteria.................................

deleting .............37....................................................................................... Limiting KG......general heeling arm ...................................... Value of GMt at equilibrium .................... 19 T Table ................. 61 Visibility .................................................. 54 simple .......... 268 Stability criteria.. 245 Stability criteria................. selecting for analysis ...................................... 207 Starting Hydromax .......................general heeling arm..................... 206 Tanks within Compartments .. 194 View Window ......... Value of GZ at ..................................................... 145 Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value ............. Value of GMt at ............................................................................ 58.......... 243 Stability criteria......................................... 207 Streaming results to Word ..................................................... saving ................... 60 Ordering ................................................................................................................................................... Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits ................. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 ....................................... 264 Stability criteria..................................................... 54 complex ................................................................ 153
............ 244 Stability criteria................ 195 TCG.............. 138............. USL code................ 200 Units .................. 234 Stability criteria.... 212 View Menu ................................................ 170 Stability criteria.............. 212 Tile Vertical ............................... 196 View Direction ............................ 203 Stop Analysis . Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle .... 302 Stability criteria...................................... 53 tanks overlap .... 196 W Waterplane Area Coefficient ...................... KN ................................ Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle ............................................................................. checking ................................... 181 Visibility ..........Index
Stability criteria............................................................................ 169 Stability criteria.............. 206 Start Batch Analysis................... 61
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Tank Calibrations ... 145 View (extended)Toolbar ......... Value of maximum GZ ..........................................195...................... 244 Stability criteria........................... 54 Non-Buoyant Areas .................. 265 Stability criteria........ 205 sinusoidal ............................... 156 Surface Use ....................................... 52 tapered...... 30 VCG for trim balance... 79 V Validate Hydromax model .................... 222 Wave definition. report and batch processing .................... User Defined Heeling Arm ....... 244 Stability criteria.. 206 Upright Hydrostatics ..... results .................194....13............................ 145 Tile Horizontal ....... Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm ....................................................... 60 Saving ..................................................................................................................multiple heeling arms.............................. 276 Stability criteria.. tree list .................. 260 Stability criteria.... 56 Recalculate ... 246 Start Analysis ................................... 52 Fluids ............................................................ 264 Stability criteria.... 145 Trim angle ....... 280 Stability criteria...... 173 Stability criteria................................ 201 Tank adding......................7..................... 223 Trimmed surfaces..................................... Subdivision Index s-factor MSC 19(58 ................. 174 Stability criteria...... 61 Permeability ................................................................................. 27 Trim .......... Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm ................................ 161 Surface Thickness .......... 205 Fixed ............................... 257 Stability criteria.............. 144 Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value ........................... 209 Visibility Toolbar ..... boundary surfaces .............................................. 211 Update Loadcase .. 212 Tolerances .............................................................................................................. 154 Waveform ................................................................................... 147 Toolbars ................................................. 20 U Undo............................................... 59 Tanks Recalculate ......................... 153 trochoidal .............143... 176 Stability criteria.................... 153 Wave height .......... 16 Status Bar .... Survivability Index MSC_216(82) ............................................ 203 Trapezoidal integration ... 108 Tank Type external............. Value of GMt or GMl at equilibrium ........... 138..................................... 58 Tanks...................... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .................................... 202 View Toolbar ......................................... 56 linked ..............................................................

...................... 43 Zoom .................................. integration of ...... 212 Window Toolbar . report streaming to ......... 35... 181.Index
Wavelength ................ 156 Word.......... report templates......... 18........... 157 Z Zero Point ........... 224 Window Menu ..... 16 Word................... 195 Windows Registry.. 154 Wetted surface area.................... 202
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