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Windows Version 16

User Manual

© Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd 1984 - 2011

**License and Copyright
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Hydromax Program © 1985-2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd Hydromax is copyrighted and all rights are reserved. The license for use is granted to the purchaser by Formation Design Systems as a single user license and does not permit the program to be used on more than one machine at one time. Copying of the program to other media is permitted for back-up purposes as long as all copies remain in the possession of the purchaser. Hydromax User Manual © 2011 Formation Design Systems Pty Ltd All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any language in any form or by any means, without the written permission of Formation Design Systems. Formation Design Systems reserves the right to revise this publication from time to time and to make changes to the contents without obligation to notify any person or organization of such changes. DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY Neither Formation Design Systems, nor the author of this program and documentation are liable or responsible to the purchaser or user for loss or damage caused, or alleged to be caused, directly or indirectly by the software and its attendant documentation, including (but not limited to) interruption on service, loss of business, or anticipatory profits. No Formation Design Systems‟ distributor, agent, or employee is authorized to make any modification, extension, or addition to this warranty.

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Contents

Contents

License and Copyright...................................................................................................... iii Contents .............................................................................................................................. v About this Manual .............................................................................................................. 1 Chapter 1 Introduction........................................................................................................ 3 Input Model .............................................................................................................. 3 Analysis Types ......................................................................................................... 4 Analysis Settings ...................................................................................................... 4 Environment Options ............................................................................................... 4 Stability Criteria ....................................................................................................... 5 Output....................................................................................................................... 5 Chapter 2 Quickstart ........................................................................................................... 7 Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart .............................................................................. 7 Large Angle Stability Quickstart ............................................................................. 8 Equilibrium Condition Quickstart ............................................................................ 9 Specified Condition Quickstart .............................................................................. 10 KN Values Quickstart ............................................................................................ 10 Limiting KG Quickstart ......................................................................................... 11 Floodable Length Quickstart .................................................................................. 12 Longitudinal Strength Quickstart ........................................................................... 13 Tank Calibrations Quickstart ................................................................................. 13 MARPOL oil outflow Quickstart ........................................................................... 14 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart............................................................................ 15 Chapter 3 Using Hydromax .............................................................................................. 16 Getting Started ....................................................................................................... 16 Installing Hydromax .................................................................................... 16 Starting Hydromax ....................................................................................... 16 Hydromax Model ................................................................................................... 17 Preparing a Design in Maxsurf .................................................................... 18 Opening a New Design ................................................................................ 21 Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File ............................................... 22 Effect of Zero Point change ......................................................................... 24 Updating the Hydromax Model ................................................................... 26 Hydromax Sections Forming ....................................................................... 27 Checking the Hydromax model ................................................................... 30 Setting Initial Conditions ............................................................................. 34 Working with Loadcases.............................................................................. 38 Modelling Compartments ............................................................................ 51 Tank sections ............................................................................................... 61 Forming Compartments ............................................................................... 62 Compartment Types ..................................................................................... 68 Sounding Pipes ............................................................................................ 69 Damage Case Definition .............................................................................. 71 Key Points (e.g. Down Flooding Points) ..................................................... 74 Margin Line Points ...................................................................................... 76 Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments ................................. 76 Floodable Length Bulkheads ....................................................................... 77 Stability Criteria........................................................................................... 77 Analysis Types ....................................................................................................... 77 Upright Hydrostatics .................................................................................... 78 Large Angle Stability ................................................................................... 80 Equilibrium Analysis ................................................................................... 87

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Contents

Specified Conditions .................................................................................... 90 KN Values Analysis..................................................................................... 92 Limiting KG................................................................................................. 95 Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks.................. 98 Floodable Length ....................................................................................... 102 Longitudinal Strength ................................................................................ 105 Tank Calibrations ....................................................................................... 107 MARPOL Oil Outflow .............................................................................. 112 Probabilistic Damage ................................................................................. 115 Starting and Stopping Analyses ................................................................. 137 Batch Analysis ........................................................................................... 138 Analysis Settings .................................................................................................. 141 Heel ............................................................................................................ 141 Trim ........................................................................................................... 142 Draft ........................................................................................................... 144 Displacement ............................................................................................. 145 Specified Conditions .................................................................................. 145 Permeability ............................................................................................... 145 Tolerances .................................................................................................. 146 Analysis Environment Options ............................................................................ 147 Fluids Analysis Methods ........................................................................... 148 Density of Fluids........................................................................................ 150 Waveform .................................................................................................. 152 Grounding .................................................................................................. 153 Stability Criteria......................................................................................... 154 Damage ...................................................................................................... 154 Analysis Output.................................................................................................... 155 Reporting ................................................................................................... 155 Copying & Printing.................................................................................... 157 Select View from Analysis Data ................................................................ 159 Saving the Hydromax Design .................................................................... 159 Exporting ................................................................................................... 160 Chapter 4 Stability Criteria ............................................................................................. 163 Criteria Concepts.................................................................................................. 163 Criteria List Overview ............................................................................... 163 Types of criteria ......................................................................................... 166 Criteria Procedures ............................................................................................... 167 Starting the Criteria dialog ......................................................................... 167 Resizing the Criteria dialog ....................................................................... 168 Working with Criteria ................................................................................ 168 Editing Criteria .......................................................................................... 170 Working with Criteria Libraries................................................................. 172 Criteria Results ..................................................................................................... 174 Criteria Results Table ................................................................................ 174 Report and Batch Processing ..................................................................... 176 Nomenclature ....................................................................................................... 176 Definitions of GZ curve features ............................................................... 176 Glossary ..................................................................................................... 179 Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference ..................................................................................... 181 Windows .............................................................................................................. 181 Assembly View and Property Sheet .......................................................... 181 View Window ............................................................................................ 181 Loadcase Window...................................................................................... 183

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..................................................................................... 222 Trim angle .............................................................................................................................................................................. 202 Case Menu .............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 200 View Menu .................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 184 Results Window .................................................................... 221 Waterplane Area Coefficient ............................................................................................................................. 224 Appendix B: Criteria file format ................................................................................................................. 212 Help Menu ............................................... 183 Input Window ............... 211 Window Menu .......................................................................... 223 Maximum deck inclination ................................................. 221 Prismatic Coefficient ......................................................................... 185 Graph Window...................................................................... 196 Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar ...... 224 Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations .......................................................................................................................... 220 Block Coefficient ..................... 195 Visibility Toolbar ........................... 194 View Toolbar . 219 Midship and Max Area Sections ...................................................................................................................................... 221 Section Area Coefficient ............................ 214 Measurement Reference Frames ............... 191 Toolbars ............................................................................................................................................................................................................ 196 Design Grid Toolbar ................................................................................. 214 Nomenclature .............................................................................. 196 Report Toolbar .................................................... 223 RM at 1 deg............................. 197 File Menu .............................................. 194 Edit Toolbar ........Contents Damage Window ...................................... 224 Integration of wetted surface area .................................................................................................................................................. 194 Analysis Toolbar ........................................................................................................................................... 218 Draft .................................................................................................................................................. 196 Menus ...................................... 196 View (extended) Toolbar ..................................................................................................... 223 MTc or MTi .............. 195 Edge VIsibility Toolbar ........................................................................................................................................ 194 File Toolbar.... 196 Render Toolbar ........................................................................................................................ 216 Length ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 214 Definition and calculation of form parameters ................. 195 Window Toolbar .................................................................................... 217 Beam .............................................................................................................................................................................. 212 Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters .................................................................................. 216 Coefficient parameters ......... 197 Edit Menu ...................................... 226 Appendix C: Criteria Help................................................. 204 Analysis Menu .......................... 195 Design Grid Toolbar ........................... 228 vii ....................... 223 Immersion ........................................ 207 Data Menu.................................. 222 LCG and LCB ....................................................... 204 Display Menu................................................................................................................................................................................................... 228 Parent Calculations........................................................................................................... 188 Report Window .....................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................

...................................... 312 Index ......... 291 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria ........................................... 309 Quality Principles ........................... 264 Multiple heeling arm criteria ...................................... 307 Analysis settings reference table ..................................................................................................................................................................749(18) amended to MSC.............................................................................................................................. 301 ISO 12217-1:2002(E) ................................................................................................................Note on unit conversion ......................... 297 IMO HSC Code MSC...............Contents Selecting a calculation in a criterion ........................................................................................................................................................... 312 But we're not Perfect .................................................................................. 285 Other combined criteria ............ 295 Heeling arms for specific criteria .................................................................................... 228 GM calculators................................................................................................................................................. 312 Version Control...................................................... 242 GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) ............................................................................................................75(69)...................................................................................................................................................... ....................................... 275 Heeling arm.......................................................................................................................................................................... 312 Testing of Upgrades .........36(63) ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 232 Heeling Arm Definition ................................................... 297 IMO Code on Intact Stability A........................................................................................... 229 Parent Heeling Arms ...................................... 295 Dynamic stability criteria ................... 309 Verification of Algorithms ................. 304 Appendix E: Reference Tables ........................................... 291 Stand alone heeling arm criteria .............. 313 viii .............................. 309 Structured Programming ................................................ 308 Appendix F: Quality Assurance ...................................... 309 Quality Assurance .................................. 243 Heeling arm criteria (xRef) ................................... 290 Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria . 242 Criteria at Equilibrium ........................................ 307 File Extension Reference Table ................................................................................ 240 Parent Stability Criteria .................................................................. 232 Parent Heeling Moments ......................................................................... combined criteria......... 309 Testing of Implementation .............. 312 Beta Testing ........................................................................................................................................ 260 Heeling arm criteria ................................... 295 Capsizing moment .......................................................................................... 281 Derived heeling arm criteria .................................................. 228 Angle calculators .................... 292 Appendix D: Specific Criteria ....................................................................... 299 USL code (Australia) ............................................................................................... 302 ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation............................

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Gives details of the stability criteria that may be evaluated with Hydromax. please read the owner's manual supplied with your computer. Chapter 1 Introduction Contains a description of Hydromax functionality and its interface to Maxsurf Chapter 2 Quickstart Gives a quick walk through the analysis tools available in Hydromax. Page 1 . Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Gives details of Hydromax' windows and each of Hydromax' menu commands. If you are unfamiliar with Microsoft Windows® interface. Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Explains how to use Hydromax' powerful floatation and hydrostatic analysis routines to best advantage. This will introduce you to commonly used terms and the basic techniques for using any computer program.About this Manual About this Manual This manual describes how to use Hydromax to perform hydrostatic and stability analyses on your Maxsurf design.

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Page 3 . Input Model Maxsurf design files may be opened directly into Hydromax. The loadcase allows static weights and tankfillings to be specified and calculates the corresponding weights and centres of gravity as well as the total weight and centre of gravity of the vessel under the specified loading condition. This allows visual checking of compartments and shows the orientation of the vessel during analysis. Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. which makes it easy to use. Hydromax‟ analysis tools enable a wide range of hydrostatic and stability characteristics to be determined for your Maxsurf design. margin lines and section modulus. key points. immersion and embarkation points. This includes: compartments and key points such as downflooding points and margin line. Hydromax is designed in a logical manner.Chapter 1 Introduction Chapter 1 Introduction Hydromax is a hydrostatics. rendering or transparent rendering. such as downflooding points. This direct transfer preserves the three-dimensional accuracy of the Maxsurf model. A number of environmental setting options and modifiers add further analysis capabilities to Hydromax. centre of gravity and free surface moment. Hydromax adds extra information to the Maxsurf surface model. stability and longitudinal strength program specifically designed to work with Maxsurf. Other input consists of: tank sounding pipes. Tanks and compartments can be flooded for the purpose of calculating the effects of damage. eliminating the need for time-consuming digitising of drawings or hand typing of offsets. Loadgroups may also be created and cross referenced into loadcases. The following steps are followed when performing an analysis: Input model Analysis type selection Analysis settings Environment options Criteria specification and selection Run analysis Output Hydromax operates in the same graphical environment as Maxsurf. A number of loadcases can be created. the model can be displayed using hull contour lines.

For example. The following analysis settings are available: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Permeability Specified condition The analysis settings are specified prior to running the analysis. different analyses may require different settings. Settings that are not relevant to the selected analysis type are greyed out in the Analysis menu.Chapter 1 Introduction Analysis Types Hydromax contains the following analysis tools: Upright hydrostatics Large angle stability Equilibrium analysis Specified Condition analysis KN values and cross curves of stability Limiting KG analysis Floodable Length analysis Longitudinal Strength analysis Tank Calibrations MARPOL oil outflow Probabilistic damage (Hydromax Ultimate only) Although common analysis settings are used where possible. Environment Options Environmental options are modifiers that may be applied to the model or its environment that will affect the results of the all the hydrostatic analysis types. Analysis Settings The analysis settings describe the condition of the vessel to be tested. The analysis settings for each analysis type are explained in detail in the analysis synopsis below. whereas the longitudinal strength analysis requires a detailed load distribution. a range of drafts in the case of upright hydrostatics. or a range of heel angles for a large angle stability analysis. For example: the upright hydrostatics analysis simply requires a range of drafts. Page 4 .

Limiting KG and Floodable length analyses also use stability criteria. The criteria checks are summarised in tables listing the status (pass/fail) of each criterion as well as the margin. gravity and buoyancy are also displayed. Page 5 . Output Views of the hull are shown for each stage of the analysis. In addition. For a brief overview of the different analysis that Hydromax has available. continue reading Chapter 2 Quickstart. or as graphs of the various parameters across the full range of calculation. complete with immersed sectional areas and actual waterlines. The centres of flotation. All results are accumulated in the Report window (which can be saved.Chapter 1 Introduction Depending on the analysis being performed. different environmental options may be applied to the Hydromax: Type of Fluid Simulation Density (of fluids) Wave form Grounding Intact and Damage condition Stability Criteria Hydromax has the capability to calculate compliance with a wide range of stability criteria. Results are stored and may be reviewed at any time. either in tabular form. Heeled and trimmed hullforms and water plane shapes may be printed. Hydromax has a generic set of parent criteria from which virtually any stability criterion can be customized. Hydromax has an extensive range of stability criteria to determine compliance with a wide range of international stability regulations. These criteria are either derived from the properties of the stability curve calculated from a Large Angle Stability analysis or from the vessel‟s orientation and stability properties calculated from an Equilibrium analysis. or output directly to a Word document. copied and printed). The criterion settings and intermediate calculation data may also be displayed if required.

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For each analysis type. large angle stability. The Analysis types section describes each of the analysis types.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 2 Quickstart This chapter will briefly describe each analysis type and its output. heel is fixed at zero heel. settings and environment options in more detail. Upright Hydrostatics Quickstart For Upright Hydrostatics. Page 7 . a list of the required settings as well as the available environment options is given. limiting KG and Floodable length analysis. trim is fixed at a user defined value and draft is varied in fixed steps. Hydromax contains the following analysis types Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Condition Specified Condition KN Values Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage Each analysis has different settings that may be applied Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified condition Permeability Loadcase Tank and compartment definition Hydromax offers different environment options that may be applied to the analyses Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Hydromax offers an extensive range of stability criteria that are applicable to equilibrium. Displacement and centre of buoyancy and other hydrostatic data are calculated during the analysis.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Upright hydrostatics requirements Range of drafts to be analysed VCG (for calculation of some stability characteristics such as GMt and GMl only) Trim Upright hydrostatic options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) The results are tabulated and graphs of the hydrostatic data. the centre of gravity against the centre of buoyancy such that the trimming moment is zero. For more detailed information please see: Upright Hydrostatics on page 78. A graph of these values at the various heel angles forms a GZ curve. curves for wind heeling and passenger crowding levers and the angle of the first downflooding point. if the model is free-to-trim. the horizontal distance between the centres of gravity and buoyancy. curves of form and sectional area at each draft are available. Various other information is often overlaid on the GZ curve. Large angle stability requirements Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Large angle stability options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of stability criteria The key output value is GZ (or righting lever). A range of heel angles are specified and Hydromax calculates the righting lever and other hydrostatic data at each of these heel angles by balancing the loadcase displacement against the hull buoyancy and. These additional data depend on which (if any) stability criteria have been selected. displacement and centre of gravity are specified in the loadcase. Large Angle Stability Quickstart For the analysis of Large Angle Stability. including upright GM. Page 8 .

these results will also be reported in the criteria results table and they may lead to additional curves being displayed on the GZ curve. Page 9 . Note that some of these graphs have parameters that may be adjusted in the Data Format dialog If large angle stability criteria have been selected for analysis. margin line and deck edge will also be computed and tabulated. each column contains the results for a different position of the vessel in the wave as given by the wave phase value. Remember that you can access this data in tabular form by double clicking in the graph window: Dynamic stability curve (Area under GZ curve. heel and trim that satisfy equilibrium and reports the equilibrium hydrostatics and a cross sectional areas curve. Equilibrium analysis requirements Loadcase or loadgroup Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Equilibrium analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition (in case of damage) Key points Margin line and deck edge Analysis of equilibrium criteria Equilibrium analysis result table lists the hydrostatic properties of the model. as is the freeboard to any defined key points. integrated from upright) Variations of other hydrostatic and form parameters may be plotted against heel angle. Any equilibrium criteria will also be evaluated and their results reported. Downflooding angles for any key points. For more detailed information please see: Large Angle Stability on page 80.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A number of other graphs may be selected from the pull-down list in the graph window. The sectional area curve is also calculated. margin line and deck edge. Maximum safe steady heel angle The sectional area curve at each of the heel angles tested may also be displayed. Hydromax iterates to find the draft. Equilibrium Condition Quickstart Equilibrium Analysis uses the Loadcase. to calculate the displacement and the location of the centre of gravity. If a wave form has been specified there will be a number of columns.

you may enter the trim or specify the forward and aft drafts (these are at the perpendiculars as specified in the Frame of Reference dialog). They may be calculated for a number of displacements before the height of the centre of gravity is known. Specified Conditions options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) The output for the specified condition consists of a curve of cross sectional areas and hydrostatics of the vessel in the specified condition. For more detailed information please see Specified Conditions on page 90.KG * sin(Heel) where GZ is the righting lever measured transversely between the Centre of Buoyancy and the Centre of Gravity. for which the hydrostatic properties of the model are to be calculated. can be set. and KG is the distance from the baseline to the vessel's effective Vertical Centre of Gravity.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more detailed information please see: Equilibrium Analysis on page 87. KN Values Quickstart KN values or Cross Curves of Stability are useful for assessing the stability of a vessel if its VCG is unknown. KN Values Analysis Requirements Page 10 . Specified Condition Quickstart In the specified condition each of the three degrees of freedom. Specified Condition Requirements Specified Conditions Input Dialog If fixed trim is specified. The KN data may then be used to obtain the GZ curve for any centre of gravity height (KG) using the following formula: GZ = KN .

At each of the specified displacements. This may be done for a range of vessel displacements. The computed KN results will then give a more accurate estimate of GZ for KG close to the estimated VCG since the effects of VCG on trim have been more accurately accounted for. the centre of gravity is increased until one of the criteria fails. Limiting KG Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Stability criteria for which limiting KG is to be found TCG (if required) Limiting KG Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Laodcase (in case of initial loading of damaged tanks) Key points (if required for criteria) Margin line and deck edge (if required for criteria) Page 11 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Range of displacements to be analysed Range of heel angles to be analysed Trim (fixed or free) Estimate of VCG (provides more accurate result if free-to-trim) TCG (if required) KN Values Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Damage Tank and Compartment definition (in case of damage) Output is in the form of a table of KN values and a graph of Cross Curves of Stability. For more detailed information please see KN Values Analysis on page 92. Limiting KG Quickstart The Limiting KG analysis may be used to obtain the highest vertical position of the centre of gravity (maximum KG) for which the selected stability criteria are just passed. If the analysis is performed free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known. this may be specified. The selected stability criteria are evaluated. Hydromax runs several Large Angle Stability analyses at different KGs.

If the analysis is unable to converge for a certain displacement this will be noted and the next displacement tried. Some criteria. Floodable Length Analysis Requirements Range of displacements to be analysed VCG Range of permeabilities to be analysed Trim (free. A check will be made to ensure that any selected equilibrium criteria are passed. Floodable Length Quickstart This analysis mode is used to compute the maximum compartment lengths based on user-specified equilibrium criteria.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A graph of maximum permissible GZ plotted against vessel displacement is produced as well as tabulated results indicating which stability criteria limited the VCG. if a damage case is chosen. The VCG is also required to ensure accurate balance of the CG against the CB at high angles of trim. this may be done in the Batch Analysis mode. For more detailed information see Limiting KG on page 95. if the intact condition is used. the LCG may be specified directly or calculated from a specified initial trim. Only relevant criteria will be used. are very insensitive to VCG and may prevent the analysis converging. As well as the standard deck edge and margin line immersion criteria (one of which must be specified) the user can also add criteria for maximum trim angle and minimum required values of longitudinal and transverse metacentric height. Floodable Lengths may be computed for a range of displacements. however at least one large angle stability criterion is required. In addition a range of permeabilities may be specified. only intact criteria will be evaluated. i. If limiting curves are required for each of the stability criteria individually.trim to either initial trim or specified LCG) Floodable length criteria to be tested Margin line and deck edge (required for criteria) Floodable Length Analysis Options Fluid Densities Wave form Page 12 .to. such as angle of maximum GZ. only damage criteria will be evaluated.e.

taking into account the vessel trim and heel. the position of the fluid in the tank will be computed so that the fluid surface is parallel with the external seawater surface. The data is tabulated for each of the stations as defined in Maxsurf. Tank calibrations may be calculated for a range of trim and heel angles. Longitudinal Strength Analysis Requirements Loadcase (including distributed loads if required) Tank definition in the case of tank loads being included in the Loadcase (and/or for the definition of damage) Longitudinal Strength Analysis Options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation is always used for Longitudinal Strength analysis Wave form Grounding Damage Compartment definition and damage case (in case of damage) Allowable shear and bending moment The longitudinal strength graph and tables contain all information on weight and buoyancy distribution.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The output is in the form of tabulated Floodable Lengths for each displacement and permeability. i. Fluid densities and tank permeabilities can be varied arbitrarily.e. The results for a single condition are shown in the results table. The data is also presented graphically. Tabulated results may be customised using the Data Format dialog: Page 13 . Tank Calibrations Quickstart Tanks can be defined and calibrated for capacity. Tank calibrations may be performed for a range of heel and trims. centre of gravity and free surface moment (FSM). The condition to be viewed may be selected from the Results toolbar. the shear force and bending moment on the vessel. soundings are measured from the bottom of the sounding pipe to the free surface. Longitudinal Strength Quickstart Hydromax calculates the net load from the buoyancy and weight distribution of the model. That data is then used to calculate the bending moment and shear force on the vessel. graphs of allowable shear and bending moment are superimposed on the graph. Hydromax uses its fluid simulation mode to calculate the actual position of the fluids in the tanks. For more detailed information please see Longitudinal Strength on page 105. If defined. Tank ullages are measured from the top of the sounding pipe to the free surface of the liquid within the tank along the sounding pipe and in a similar manner. For more detailed information please see Floodable Length on page 102.

The “Start Analysis” button will send the tabulated results to the Report. Page 14 . Then in the MARPOL results data table. a table of capacities. These results are presented in both tabular and graphical forms.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank calibration analysis requirements Tank definitions Sounding pipe definition (if required) Sounding intervals for calibration levels Trim range Heel range Tank calibration analysis options Fluid Densities Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation always selected Damage: Intact case always selected What to calibrate (Analysis | Calibration options) For each tank.141(54). For more detailed information please see Tank Calibrations on page 107. volumes etc. Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog. edit any values as required.117(52). is calculated. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC. MARPOL Oil Outflow Quickstart MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC. the resulting oil outflows will be calculated automatically.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax For more detailed information please see MARPOL Oil Outflow on page 112 Probabilistic Damage Quickstart Attained index using probabilistic damage analysis may be computed. Page 15 . Probabilistic damage analysis requirements Loadcase definitions Tank and compartmentation definition Main probabilistic damage analysis parameters and criteria setup Subdivision definitions Heel angle range for GZ curve calculation Trim Probabilistic damage analysis options Treatment of fluids in tanks: fluid simulation or corrected VCG Wave form Key points Margin line and deck edge For more detailed information please see the Probabilistic Damage section on page 115.

Windows Registry Certain preferences used by Hydromax are stored in the Windows registry. The following preferences are stored in the registry: Page 16 . then follow the instructions on screen. You will be asked if you wish to clear the preferences. or you may simply want to revert back to the default configuration. Note: Before installing any program from the Maxsurf suite for the first time. It is possible for this data to become corrupted. Hydromax should be accessible through the Start Menu. doing this will reset all the preferences. Simply select Hydromax from the Maxsurf menu item under Programs in the Start menu. please read the purchase letter (also referred to as installation manual). start the program with the Shift key depressed. To clear the Hydromax preferences. Starting Hydromax After installation.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This chapter describes Getting Started Hydromax Model Analysis Types Analysis Settings Analysis Environment Options Analysis Output Getting Started This section contains everything you need to do to start using Hydromax Installing Hydromax Starting Hydromax Installing Hydromax Install Hydromax by inserting the CD and running the Setup program. click OK.

Check the density of seawater after resetting your preferences. Preparing a Design in Maxsurf Opening a New Design Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File Updating the Hydromax Model Hydromax Sections Forming Checking the Hydromax model After checking the Hydromax model. you may need to set up the following additional model data: Page 17 . the next step is to check the Hydromax settings and initial analysis conditions. Setting Initial Conditions Depending on the analysis performed. KN and Limiting KG analyses Permeabilities for floodable length analysis Location of files Units for data input and results output Convergence tolerance (Error values) Maximum number of loadcases Reporting preferences Note: The default density for the fluid labelled "Sea Water" is stored in the windows registry. these may be reset by holding down the shift key when activating them) Density of fluids Heel angles for large angle stability.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Colour and line thickness settings of contours and background Fonts Window size and location Size of resizing dialogs (alternatively. Hydromax Model This section describes how to open a Maxsurf model in Hydromax and provides some important information to ensure that your model is correctly interpreted by Hydromax. All hydrostatic calculations use this. It is recommended to save your customized densities with your project using the File | Save Densities As command.

A consistent zero point and frame of reference should be used for the model throughout the Maxsurf suite. midships is automatically defined midway between the perpendiculars. in the profile and plan views.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Working with Loadcases Modelling Compartments Forming Compartments Compartment Types Damage Case Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points (e.g. the baseline and the datum waterline. Down Flooding Points) Margin Line Points Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments Stability Criteria Preparing a Design in Maxsurf There are several important checks that must be carried out in Maxsurf before opening a design in Hydromax: Setting the Zero Point Setting the Frame of Reference Surface Use Skin Thickness Outside Arrows Trimming Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Setting the Zero Point Ensure that the zero point is correctly setup in Maxsurf. The base line is the datum from which the drafts and KG are measured. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog. The frame of reference cannot be changed in Hydromax. Setting the Frame of Reference It is vital that the Frame of Reference is correctly setup in Maxsurf before attempting to analyse the model in Hydromax. The frame of reference defines the fore and aft perpendiculars. Page 18 . In Hydromax you have the option of displaying longitudinal measurements such as LCB or LCF from the model zero point or amidships. The perpendiculars define the longitudinal positions of the vessel‟s draft marks and cannot be coincident. the vessel‟s bow is on the right. However it is possible to specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. By convention. The Frame of reference should not be changed in Hydromax.

To include skin thickness.e. Surface Use In Maxsurf you can choose between two types of surface use Hull Hull surfaces are used to define the watertight envelope of the hull. Note Tank boundaries made from internal structures surfaces do not have skin thickness. If a surface is defined as internal structure. Thickness can be specified differently for each hull surface. Skin thickness for hull surfaces will be treated so that the hull sections go to the outside of the plate whilst any tanks are trimmed to the inside of the plate. it is not included as part of the hull shell by Hydromax. resulting in more accurate hydrostatics. internal surfaces will be ignored in the forming of hydrostatic sections. Internal structure Internal structure surfaces are used for all other surfaces (any surfaces which do not make up the watertight envelope) and also surfaces which are to be used in Hydromax to define the boundaries of tanks and compartments that have complex shapes. Page 19 . Skin Thickness Hull Shell Internal Structure If skin thickness is to be used in hydrostatic calculations.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. ensure that the thickness and projection direction have been specified for the hull shell surfaces. The following table describes the difference between each surface use in Hydromax: Included: Hydrostatic sections Selection of tank/compartment boundaries Skin thickness applied to the surface Verify that all surfaces that are to be used as tank/compartment boundaries are defined as Internal Structure. i. To activate skin thickness in Hydromax ensure that the “Include Skin Thickness” option is selected when reading the file or calculating the hull sections. the internal structure surface should be placed to model the inside of the tank if the tank wall has significant thickness.

Ensure that you have used the Outside Arrows command from the Maxsurf Display menu to define which direction points outwards (towards the seawater) for each surface. The surface direction may be flipped by clicking on the end of the arrow.g. Correct Section with no opening. the deck). Trimming Ensure that all surfaces are trimmed correctly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Outside Arrows The surfaces‟ outside arrows define the orientation of the surfaces. Also see: Hydromax Sections Forming on page 27 Checking the Hydromax model on page 30 Coherence of the Maxsurf surface model Hydromax will generally have no problem correctly interpreting your design as long as the following requirements for the Maxsurf model are observed: Page 20 . Correct section with one opening: this section will be closed across the top. you should have completely closed transverse sections or sections with at most one opening (e. At any longitudinal position on the hull.

i.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Make sure that each surface touches its adjacent surfaces at its edge. To open a design for analysis.msd). Page 21 . Opening a New Design File opening in Hydromax is window specific. e. a maximum of one gap in a transverse section through the hull. ensure that the design view window is active. trim away the excess regions of the surface. Also see: Checking the Hydromax model on page 30. Choose a Maxsurf design file (.g. preferably by bonding the edges together Where surfaces intersect. Hydromax will automatically look for compartment definition files when you are in a Compartment Definition window and a loadcase in a Loadcase window.e. Use Trimmed Surfaces If the Maxsurf model has trimmed surfaces. Include Plating Thickness At this stage. The meaning of (ignore existing data. if any) is explained in Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File. internal structure surfaces are ignored when forming the hull sections in Hydromax Note: For groups internal structure surfaces that will be used to define tank (or compartment boundaries) the same requirements apply. the part of the keel that is inside the hull and the part of the hull that is inside the keel Do not have surfaces that cannot be closed in an unambiguous fashion. Remember that the inner portions of each intersecting contour will be trimmed off Check surface use. The following dialog will appear: Calculate new Sections Choosing Calculate Sections will calculate the specified number of sections through the hull. then select Open Design from the File menu.e. the Use Trimmed Surfaces item should be ticked. any surface thickness specified in the Maxsurf Surface Properties dialog may be included. These will then be used for the Hydrostatics calculations. i.

avoiding any errors inherent in the integration of evenly spaced stations.hmd) is created. The first option allows you to use the station grid created in Maxsurf. key points. Opening an Existing Hydromax Design File After saving the Maxsurf design file for the first time in Hydromax. For example. Note: Maxsurf surface trimming information may vary for different precisions. Note: The accuracy of the results depends much more on the number of sections than the accuracy at which the sections are calculated. Hydromax also allows saving of all input and output files into individual files. The Hydromax design file will consist of the hydrostatic sections and all input data such as loadcases.msd). by specifying one station 1mm aft of amidships and one station 1mm forward of amidships this discontinuity can be modelled very accurately. Hydromax recognises this precision setting and will and set the Surface Precision button accordingly. usually at relatively small impact on the accuracy of the hydrostatics. The upper limit for the number of stations is 200. sounding pipes etc. a “Hydromax Design file” (. To open an existing design. there are two options: Page 22 . Reducing the number of stations will speed up the analysis time but reduce the accuracy. Therefore it is recommended not to change the precision setting when opening the Maxsurf design file in Hydromax. if it was known that a design had a significant discontinuity in its sectional area curve at amidships. This is extremely useful for hulls that have features such as keels or bow thrusters that need to be accurately modelled and may need a locally denser station spacing to do so. It also allows designs with significant longitudinal discontinuities in their sectional areas to have stations specified either side of the discontinuity.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Stations When calculating stations. compartment definition. Reducing the precision of the sections can greatly improve performance. you may select how many stations should be used. Surface Precision The Surface Precision options has two functions: Setting for calculating the hydrostatic sections Setting used to form new compartments or tanks. The precision at which the design was saved in Maxsurf is included in the Maxsurf design file (. conversely increasing the number of stations will increase the analysis time but lead to higher accuracy results.

damage cases.hmd file from any Windows explorer window Use the Hydromax Open command form the file menu and select the . Page 23 .hmd file was saved.msd file. are not automatically incorporated. Ensure “Read existing data and sections” is selected and click OK. loadcases and compartment definitions etc.hmd file is found. compartment definitions.msd file. When Hydromax opens a . You will load your existing sections. This means that changes to the hull shape in the Maxsurf Design file. Hydromax will now open the .hmd file. Notes: 1) When selecting “Read existing data and sections (do not update geometry)” the Maxsurf surface information is not recalculated. the OSV. This contains hydrostatic sections information and all input information from last time the .msd file An existing Hydromax design consists of a number of files with different file extensions. For example: when opening OSV. i. The Calculate Sections dialog now has the option to read the sections from the file.msd.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Double click on the . it will look for a . key points etc. loadcases.hmd file with the same name as the . See: Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for more information.e.

In previous versions of Hydromax this could cause problems because the loadcase and tank data maintained their position relative to the zero point.hmd file (as is done when you chose Save when the drawing window is top most). Etc. The two images from Hydromax 13 show this problem. Page 24 . please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307. The model is closed in Hydromax The model is opened in Maxsurf and for some reason the location of the zero point is changed The model is reopened in Hydromax and the tank and load etc. Hydromax 13 behaviour It may sometimes occur that the model zero point location is changed in Maxsurf after tank.hmd file. In the second image.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 2) Calculate new sections (ignore existing data. data is automatically read from the . if any) means that Hydromax will recalculate the hull sections and ignore any data stored in the . data is then created in Hydromax and that data all saved in the .hmd file will be overwritten and any existing data lost. loadcase. Do not choose this option if you wish to keep the additional Hydromax data and you have not yet saved them as individual files as if the model is saved in Hydromax the . For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. data is defined in Hydromax. Effect of Zero Point change The description below relates to what happens in the following situation: A hull model is generated in Maxsurf Tank and load etc. the tanks and centre of gravity (from the loadcase) have remained in their same locations relative to the zero point. where as the key points and margin line remained in the same position relative to the hull. Note that whilst the margin line and key points have remained in their same locations relative to the hull.hmd file. The first image shows the model as initially defined in Hydromax with the zero point amidships and at the baseline. the zero point has been moved (in Maxsurf) to the aft-perpendicular and the DWL. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf. You will have to reload your individual loadcases and compartment definition files etc after you have selected this option and pressed OK.

when loading a . Hydromax now detects if the zero point has been modified in Maxsurf when the model is reopened in Hydromax. Note that this is only possible with Hydromax models that have been saved from the new version of Hydromax (because the new version of Hydromax now saves the zero point independently so that it can check for changes). Selecting “yes” will maintain the position all the Hydromax data relative to the hull. essentially just the zero point it moved. Hydromax 14 behaviour To rectify this problem. Hydromax will display the following message: If the zero point is moved in Maxsurf. Now.hmd file. Original location of data as entered in Hydromax before zero point change in Maxsurf. if the zero point has changed. This of course means that the numerical values of the various data are changed: Page 25 . you will now be prompted.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Effect of Zero point change in Maxsurf 13.

Any tanks and loadcases will also be updated with this command. loads etc relative to the hull. select “Recalculate Hull sections” in the analysis menu after reloading the Maxsurf Design File with the “read existing data and sections from file” option selected. Thus the tanks and loads etc. Click “no” to maintain position relative to zero point. The “Recalculate Hull Sections” command recalculates Hull surfaces as well as Tank Boundary surfaces (Internal Structure surfaces in Maxsurf).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Click “yes” to maintain position of tanks. Updating the Hydromax Model To update the hydrostatic sections to the latest Maxsurf Design File. This function can also be used to include/exclude surface thickness or change the number of sections and to change use/not use trimmed surfaces without reloading the Maxsurf Design File. Page 26 . it is more likely that this option would be selected if it was realised that the zero point for the tank plan were slightly different than the zero point of the lines plan and a small correction to the zero point was required. will move relative to the hull. Selecting “no” will move all data other than the margin line with the zero point. but their numerical values will remain the same: The example shown is quite extreme.

Hydromax will automatically close the section with a straight line connecting the opening ends. non-intersecting (and non-self-intersecting) contours. however. This is not an acceptable shape. Hydromax Sections Forming Hydromax works by applying trapezoidal integration to data calculated from a series of cross sections taken through the Maxsurf model surfaces. a hull surface with no deck). Hydromax will automatically form these sections.g. Whilst it is always preferable to give Hydromax a completely closed model with no ambiguities. Page 27 . Where a section consists of an open shell (e. Furthermore. it is necessary to: 1) save and close the model in Hydromax 2) save in Maxsurf 3) open in Hydromax. Note: The golden rule is that for any longitudinal position. “hydrostatic sections” or just “sections”. 4) use the “Recalculate Hull Sections” from the analysis menu. In practice. using “Read existing data and sections” to make sure the loadcase. having both a gap at the centreline as well as an open deck). the section must be made up of closed. The same is true for groups of internal surfaces that have been selected to define a tank boundary. If. or can be unambiguously closed. one opening is acceptable and this will be automatically closed with a straight line. This section outlines the section forming process used in Hydromax and may be helpful when preparing a Maxsurf design for Hydromax. the section is made up of two line segments. Hydromax deals only with sections that are completely closed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Changes to the Maxsurf design are only recalculated after the new Maxsurf design has been re-loaded into Hydromax. (e. Hydromax will try to resolve any problems with the model definition in the manner outlined in the following sections. called “Hydromax sections”. compartment definition etc remain part of the Hydromax design file.g. an ambiguity exists as to how the two line segments will be connected. This means that if the model is simultaneously being edited in Maxsurf and Hydromax. contours cannot be contained wholly within another contour.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the example above. Multiple surfaces that are trimmed correctly. bonded together or use compacted control points will not cause any problems when opened in Hydromax. if either the top or bottom gap had been closed in Maxsurf the design would cease to be ambiguous. Hydromax will form a closed section through multiple surfaces by linking the curve segments together. Page 28 .

Hydromax closes the outside contour and trims remnants Page 29 .g. Hydromax will have difficulties distinguishing the intended main deck. bulwarks) A common example of ambiguous sections is a model with multiple decks. Where surfaces intersect. However this is not always possible so it is much better practice to trim the model correctly manually. The user cannot change these tolerances. because there are too many dependencies in the program. Hydromax will make an attempt to remove excess portions of the curve to form a single continuous contour.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A section through a multihull containing a single closed contour A section comprising two closed contours Hydromax will link curve segments together if they are only separated by a small amount. decks. Ambiguous Sections (e.

This works the same as the Maxsurf body plan window and is an extremely powerful tool to validate your Hydromax model. For more information see the Maxsurf manual. you can step through the sections one-by-one to verify that they have been correctly calculated. This is done by selecting Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan view from the Display menu. In particular. The following tools are available to validate the Hydromax model. the bulwark‟s volume has to be properly modelled in Maxsurf by modelling both the outside and the inside of the bulwark. the left and right arrow cursor keys will enable you to step through the sections one-by-one.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The example above has bulwarks. Page 30 . checking your sections after opening the design in Hydromax is strongly recommended. look closely at intersections between surfaces to make sure that Hydromax has interpreted the shape correctly. You can then click in the inset box to view the sections. Show Single Hull Section In the body plan view. Checking the Hydromax model Before starting any analysis you should check whether Hydromax has been able to correctly interpret your design. Therefore. These sections should be continuous with no gaps and no unexpected lines. generally these will be treated correctly by Hydromax and removed. Show Single Hull Section Checking the Sectional Area Curve Using Rendering to Check the Model Note: Sections that are not formed correctly cause the majority of problems with Hydromax models. Incorrect sections in the model will give incorrect results. To prevent ambiguities it is recommended to trim the bulwark in Maxsurf. but this depends on the height of the bulwark relative to the rest of the section. If the bulwark‟s volume is expected to influence the hydrostatic calculations.

Using Rendering to Check the Model The model may also be rendered. This is not a foolproof method since it does not necessarily highlight problems in the non-immersed part of the hull. which makes it easier to see if there are any areas of the model which have not been properly defined. This Cross Sectional Area curve indicates there may be a problem with section forming from 12 m to 16 m.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Checking the Sectional Area Curve Another way of checking the Hydromax model is to perform a specified condition analysis at quite deep draft and look carefully at the sectional area curve in the graph window. If this displays any unexpected spikes or hollows Hydromax may not have correctly interpreted the hull shape. Select Render from the Display menu whilst in the perspective view and turn on the sections: Page 31 .

you are interested in whether the sections are correct. the model is correct. As long as the sections are formed correctly. Further detailed checking of hull and tank/compartment sections When checking that your model is correct. To do this go to the body plan view in Hydromax and select “Show Single Section”: Page 32 . This does not necessarily mean that the model is incorrect.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: In rare instances incorrect rendering may occur.

In the single section view.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Then to check that the tanks are OK. only tank sections near the current hull section are shown: Page 33 . leave the view as it is. if there are many it may help to hide some and check a few at a time). but turn on the visibility of all the tanks of interest (if there are few tanks. then you can show all of them.

Hydromax uses the aft perpendicular and forward perpendicular together with the baseline and the zero point for all calculations and gives the results in the units specified in the display menu. Note: Before you run any analysis using Hydromax. Coordinate System Hydromax uses the Maxsurf coordinate system: Longitudinal Transverse Vertical View window Page 34 +ve forward +ve starboard +ve up View direction -ve aft -ve port -ve down .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Setting Initial Conditions All Hydromax calculations are performed in the frame of reference of the model. it is important that you set up the required initial conditions for the design.

should you require drafts to be calculated at other locations. Frame of Reference and Zero Point It is essential that a frame of reference be specified. If these are not in the correct positions. Draft and trim are measured on the forward and aft perpendiculars. you may specify upto nine additional locations at which the drafts should be reported. This should be done in Maxsurf and not in Hydromax. loadcase and other input values. Immersed depth measurements are made perpendicualar to the free-surface. See: Setting the Zero Point and Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18. Changing the zero point after you have started analysing the model in Hydromax is not recommended. Port side above the centreline (this the opposite direction to Maxsurf) From Starboard. bow to the right. Draft Marks Drafts are automatically calculated at the perpendiculars and amidships. Note: Changing the zero point in Maxsurf will not update the compartment definition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Body plan Plan Profile From the stern. Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Page 35 . some analysis results will be meaningless or may even fail to complete. Drafts are always measured to the Baseline in the centre plane of the vessel. looking fwd From above. This is done through the Data | Draft Marks dialog.

beam and sectional area to be used for calculation of these coefficients.e. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax User-defined Draft Marks Note that the Trim is still defined as the difference between the drafts at the perpendiculars and the Midship draft (used to define the range of immersions for the Upright Hydrostatics analysis) is the mean of the drafts at the perpendiculars. Fwd Perpendicular or from the Aft. i. User-defined draft locations and new toolbar button Note: Draft and Trim specification It should be remembered that the drafts specified for an analysis are the drafts at the perpendiculars (or amidships) and the trim specified (and reported) is the difference between the draft at the AP and draft at the FP. Middle or fwd end of the actual waterline. Finally you can chose whether you want the LCB and LCF to be displayed as a length or as a percentage of the waterline or LPP length as specified in the Length for Coefficients. Amidships location. Customising Coefficients In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. The LCB and LCF can be displayed in the Results windows relative to the specified Zero Point. Aft Perpendicular. You may also select the draft. Drafts can only be defined when the vessel is rotated to the DWL (Display | Set vessel to DWL). Page 36 . neither of these values has changed and neither are affected by the user-defined draft locations. You can also specify whether you want the forward (towards the bow) or the aft (towards the stern) to have a positive sign.

Page 37 . may also be set. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. In addition to the length and weight (mass) units. units for force and speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. Units may be changed at any time.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data | Coefficients dialog Setting Units The units used may be specified using the Units command.

The exception to this is if tanks have not yet been formed or the vessel is still rotated from the result of an analysis. These may be used to define groups of fixed weights (such as the steel weight or lightship weight) in a single location which may then be cross-referenced into a loadcase. click on the update Loadcase button and ensure that the hull is at the DWL by selecting “Set vessel to DWL”: Page 38 . If the loadcase does not update. Any changes to the loadgroup are then automatically incorporated into any loadcases that reference them. Loadcases automatically contain all the tanks defined in the Tank definition. Loadgroups are special loadcases that contain no tanks. A loadgroup is included in a loadcase simply by specifying the loadgroup name in the “Item Name” column. Static weights that make up the vessel lightship are specified here as well as tank filling levels. The loadcase will normally update the column totals automatically as weights or tank loadings are changed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Other Initial Conditions See: Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148 Density on page 150 Working with Loadcases Loadcases define the loading condition of the vessel. expressed as either a percentage of the full tank capacity or as a weight.

switch to the loadcase view by selecting Loadcase from the Loadcase sub-menu in the Window menu. Page 39 . A new load spreadsheet will be displayed in the Loadcase window. Then select “New Load Case” from the File menu or press Ctrl+N. The default loadcase will contain a lightship entry and an entry for each tank (with a default filling of 50%).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The individual loads can be displayed graphically: Creating a new Loadcase File To create a load case.

an existing loadcase may be used as a template when creating a new loadcase. In the loadcase window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The tabs in the bottom of the window can be used to skip through the different loadcases in the design. you will be asked for a new Loadcase name after which the following dialog appears: Page 40 . To do this. Create New Loadcases based on Template To avoid rework. select the Loadcase you wish to use as a template Bring the loadcase you wish to use as a template to the front for example by clicking on the tab on the bottom select File | New First.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A new loadcase will appear in one of the blank (…) loadcase tabs. Number of Loadcases command. changes made in the template are NOT automatically changed in the loadcase derived from it. If there are no blank tabs left. Once a loadcase has been created from a template loadcase. Select File | Open Load Case Page 41 . or add more loadcases using the Case | Max. Alternatively. Loading a Saved Loadcase You can load a saved loadcase into your loadcase window by: Select an empty tab in the loadcase window that you wish to load the loadcase into Empty tab. or close an existing loadcase. Select Edit Loadcase from the Case menu Changing the name in the Loadcase Properties dialog. Naming and Saving a Loadcase A loadcase can be given any name by saving it to a separate file where the loadcase filename will be used as the loadcase name and displayed on the tab in the loadcase window. If there are no empty tabs. The next time you use the File | Save Loadcase command you will be asked to confirm the loadcase file name. you should either increase the maximum number of loadcases (see below). Note The template is only used during the creation of the loadcase. you will either have to close an existing loadcase.

In most cases. simply click anywhere in the row you want to remove. effectively allowing you as many loadcases as you require. Number of Loadcases” from the Case menu. For convenience of use. for example "Lightship". Each may be saved and loaded independently. This is used to calculate the total weight of that item. For example: if the item was “crew” with a weight per unit. If you want to remove a load from the table. The weight of each item should be entered in the next column. and the total weight of crew would be automatically calculated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select the . A new load will be inserted into the table above the currently selected row. a sensible number is recommended. Select Add Load from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A. and choose Delete Load from the Edit menu (or highlight the complete row by clicking the grey cell to the left of the row and press the Delete key). Note: When loading a design that has more loadcases than the maximum you have currently set in Hydromax. and press the Tab key to go to the next column in the table (or simply click directly in the cell you wish to edit). You can repeat this process for as many loads as you wish. Setting the Maximum Number of Loadcases The maximum number of loadcases (up to twenty-five) that can be loaded in Hydromax at any one time is set by selecting “Max. You must restart Hydromax for this change to take effect. You must increase the maximum number of allowable loadcases and restart Hydromax before you can load the design. For each item in the list you can specify a quantity. then select Delete Load. you will receive a warning and the file will not be loaded. If you wish to delete several loads simultaneously. Editing Loads Click on the cell containing the load name and type in a name for this load. you will only need to set this once to the maximum number of loadcases you are ever likely to use. click and drag so that all of the loading rows that you wish to delete are selected. Each loadcase can be selected and used for analysis. You may then enter the maximum number of load cases you require. you could specify the quantity and unit weight. Page 42 .hml file you wish to open. Closing a Loadcase Select the tab of the loadcase you wish to close in the Loadcase window Select File | Close Load Case Adding and Deleting Loads To add an extra load to the loadcase.

subtotals and subsubtotals. Adding Blank Lines A blank line can be added into the load case by placing a dollar ($). press enter and the total LCG will be automatically re-calculated and displayed in the bottom row of the table. Loadcase Sorting A number of tools are available for controlling the order in which items and tanks occur in the loadcase. Insert row | Delete row | Sort rows | Move row(s) up | Move row(s) down Sort selected columns After moving loads. apostrophe („) or full-stop(. are measured from the Zero Point. you may have to use Analysis | Update Loadcase ( button) to update the subtotals and subsubtotals. you can do so by entering a negative quantity – this can be useful if you want to apply a pure moment to the model by applying equal magnitude.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The weight must always be positive. You may move selected items and tanks up and down in the loadcase. Loadcase Formatting Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank. Adding Component or Heading Lines Components or headings can be included in a load case by preceding the text with a period (.) character. Longitudinal Strength or Equilibrium analysis are selected. but opposite sign loads to the vessel in the loadcase. Tab to the next column and enter the horizontal lever for the item. you may also sort selected items by name. Note: Levers. fluid type (for tanks) etc. heading or sub-total lines in the table. as with all other measurements in Hydromax. Hydromax does this automatically prior to running an analysis.) character in the Item Name field. After you type in this number. Page 43 . If for some reason you wish to have an upward (negative) load. To ensure data consistency. The CG position will also be shown and updated in the View windows if Large Angle Stability.

View | Colours and lines menu when Loadcase window is frontmost Loadcase format It is possible to select which columns are displayed in the loadcase window. Sub-subtotals Sub-sub-totals may also be inserted. Grouping Similar Tanks Use the move items UP or Down commands in the Edit menu to adjust the row order in the loadcase. alternatively. Sub-subtotals must start with the text “subsubtotal”. When tanks are grouped by fluid type this can be useful for calculating the total tank capacity for that fluid type. To do this the item name field must commence with the word „total‟ or „subtotal‟. tanks may be displayed in the same colour as the fluid they contain (As defined in Analysis | Fluids dialog).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Adding Totals or Subtotals A subtotal can be displayed for several loads within a load case. Loadcase Colour Formatting Different colours can be defined for fixed mass items and tanks. The unit mass is the sum of all the masses of the full tanks and the quantity is the sum of the masses divided by the sum of the full tank masses. Use the Display | Data Format dialog: Page 44 . then the quantity and unit mass items will be included. Quantity and Unit mass for sub total rows If a sub total includes only tanks.

Moment columns (mass * lever) can be displayed if desired. For an evenly distributed load. the centre of gravity should be midway between the forward and aft limits. the forward and aft limits will be moved by the same amount. Longitudinally Distributed Loads Distributed loads can be entered in the Loadcase window in the aft limit and forward limit cells.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Relative density and Fluid Type which allow you to override the default tank densities as defined for each tank in the Compartment Definition window. If the longitudinal arm is changed in the Loadcase window. The aft limit and forward limit columns only appear when Longitudinal Strength analysis is selected and the distributed loads will only have an effect on the results in this analysis mode. Arm” column defines the longitudinal position of the centre of the load. the fore and aft limits define the longitudinal extents of the load. Page 45 . This can be useful for vessels such as product carriers which may have cargos of different types of fluids with different densities. The “Long.

but within the middle third 1/3 of the centre. the centre of gravity should lie within the middle third between the forward and aft limits of the load. the load distribution becomes triangular. Tank Loads When you create tanks using the compartment definition. Red = green and divided in the centre.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Evenly distributed loads. they will be automatically included in the loadcases (but not in Loadgroups which do not contain tanks). at these extrema. Trapezium shaped distributed load. Red = Green divided within middle 1/3 of centre. Tanks will be automatically treated as distributed loads for the longitudinal strength calculations. Note: Since the load is distributed as a trapezium. Page 46 . For trapezium shaped distributed loads the centre of gravity is not midway between the boundaries.

question marks may be shown in the loadcase momentarily while the tank‟s new volumetric properties are being calculated.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks have a quantity value. a sounding or a weight. select Update Loadcase from the Analysis menu or toolbar. Loadgroups may be analysed in the same way as Loadcases – but remember the tanks are implicitly empty in a Loadgroup. expressed as a percentage of the full capacity and a weight column. For the example above this means that the lightship mass distribution would be defined as a Loadgroup and then this Loadgroup could be referenced in any number of loadcases. volume. To prevent the problems of recursively including the same loadcase and also prevent tanks from being included more than once. A Loadcase can reference any number of Loadgroups A Loadgroup is referenced in a Loadcase by typing the name of the Loadgroup to be referenced in the Item column You can factor the referenced Loadgroup by changing the value of the Quantity column in the Loadcase. Updating tank values in the loadcase Irrespective of whether you have updated the values in the Loadcase Condition. Loadgroups It is possible to cross-reference one loadcase from another. we have defined the following rules: A special type of Loadcase called a Loadgroup has been defined. A Loadgroup does not contain tanks Only a Loadgroup can be referenced Only a Loadcase can reference a Loadgroup. The tank Unit Mass is the tanks mass at 100% filling. the Loadcase will be automatically updated as the first step of any analysis using the Loadcase information. To update the loadcase for changes in tank loads. This is useful if you wish to define a detailed lightship mass distribution but do not want to have it displayed in full in each loadcase. It also means that this lightship mass distribution would only need to be defined and edited in one location instead of in each loadcase. Tank level can be given as either a percentage of full capacity. When a tank is changed in the Compartment definition table. Also see: Update Loadcase on page 206 Loadcase cross-referencing. The Loadcase properties dialog (Case menu) is used to define a loadcase as a Loadgroup: Page 47 .

The Lightship load group can then be cross-referenced into any loadcase Page 48 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This lightship Loadgroup contains the lightship mass distribution along the ship.

By default use tank defined densities: Page 49 . for instance.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The referenced Loadgroup is automatically calculated and the appropriate values included in the Loadcase: Note: Loadgroup naming The cross-referencing of loadgroups in a loadcase is case insensitive. This allows you to load the same tanks with different fluids in different Loadcases – as might be the case for a product carrier. Loadcase density override It is now possible to override the default tank fluid densities as defined in the Compartment definition window.

0) specific gravity and it will override the tank value: Type in any string that doesn‟t begin with an “L” for the fluid and it will revert back to the tank value: Type in some thing that begins with an “L” and it will revert back to the “Private” density of the loadcase item.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Type in a valid (>0. Page 50 .

IMO Hydromax uses IMO MSC75. Actual Hydromax uses the free surface moment for the current fluid level of the tank in upright condition. box-shaped-tank. For other shapes and fillings of tanks it will not correctly approximate the free surface moment. the Loadcase will sum the free surface moments. When the corrected VCG method is selected in the analysis menu.(69) Ch 3. Hydromax calculates the actual position of the fluid in the tanks taking into account heel and trim.htk) Select the Compartment Definition table by clicking on the Compartment Definition tab at the bottom of the Input window. at every step of the analysis. User specified A user specified value is used for all levels and heel angles. Besides a general explanation on how to model tanks using the compartment definition table. thus the actual vessel CG is recalculated accounting exactly for the static shift of the fluids in slack tanks. Modelling Compartments This section will describe in detail how to model different types of tanks and compartments. this section contains a number of important sections that the user should be aware off when modelling tanks: Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Tank and Compartment Permeability on page 59 Creating a Compartment definition file (. Select New Compartment Definition from the File menu Page 51 . no correction is made to the upright VCG. making the tanks‟ free-surface parallel to the sea surface. Fluid simulation If the Fluid simulation option is selected in the analysis menu. it is possible to choose the type of free surface moment to be applied for each tank in a Hydromax Loadcase. Instead. This can be loaded into Hydromax and referenced in any Loadcase.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Free surface correction If the corrected VCG fluid option has been chosen. This method approximates the movement of fluid due to heeling and is based on the fluid shift in a 50% full rectangular. Workshop structure Workshop can save a Loadgroup that contains the masses of all the structural parts. divide by the total displacement to obtain the VCG correction and adjust the VCG accordingly to obtain the corrected fluid VCG. The options available are Maximum Hydromax will use the maximum free surface moment of the tank in upright condition for all fluid levels.3 for the calculation of the free surface moment.

'A Top'. Box shaped compartments can be formed from the numerical values in the compartment definition table.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This will give you a new set of compartment definitions with one default tank. Thus it is not necessary to make the tanks fit the hull manually – this is done automatically by Hydromax. and the port and starboard limits of the tank. Each value defines one of the six planes of the tank. This means that the value is identical at the aft end of the tank to the forward end. The column headings in the Compartment Definition table include terms such as 'F Bottom. see above. The 'F' and 'A' abbreviations stand for Forward and Aft. Adding and Deleting Compartments Before you can start adding compartments. or an analysis started. 'F Port' and 'A Starboard'. See Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67 for some recommendations regarding setting the boundary box. resulting in a parallel tank. This box will be called the Boundary Box. the top and bottom. Modelling Box Shape Tanks Simple tanks and compartments are created by specifying six values that define a boxshaped boundary for the tank. The accelerator keys Ctrl+A and the Delete key may also be used to add and delete entries respectively. Add will add a tank after the currently selected compartment and Delete will delete the currently selected compartment(s). When the “Update Loadcase” command from the Analysis menu is used. Hydromax will form the sections that define the tanks and compartments. You will notice that aft columns contain the word "ditto". The boundary box is made up of the fore and aft extremities of the tank. Compartments may be added or deleted by Select Add or Delete Compartment from the Edit menu. This is done by finding the intersection of the tank bounding box and the hull. make sure you have created a Compartment definition file. in other words the two ends of the compartment. Page 52 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Modelling Tapered Tanks

The default is for compartments to have parallel sides. If you wish to define tapered compartments, it is possible to enter different transverse and vertical values for the points defining the forward and aft ends of the compartment. If a different value is entered in one of the “ditto” columns, a tapered tank will result. Tanks can be tapered or sloped in Plan or Profile views. Hydromax does not have a mechanism for creating a sloped tank boundary in the Body Plan view.

By changing the “ditto”-input fields, tapered tanks can be formed

Note: Tapering can be done in Plan and in Profile view. Tapered tanks in Body Plan view have to be created using a boundary surface. See Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54.

Linked Tanks

Tanks and compartments may be linked. This means that although they are defined as separate tanks, they act as a single tank with a common free surface. To link tanks, compartments or non-buoyant volumes, first make them the same type as the parent and give them the same name. The easiest way to do this is to copy and paste the name from the Name column of the parent row into the Name column of the linked tank row. They may then be linked to the parent by typing l or linked in the Type column. Linked tanks and compartments do not have to be physically linked in space. However, the fluid in a linked tank or damaged compartment is always assumed to be able to flow freely between the linked volumes.

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Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces

Tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes may have their boundaries defined by surfaces as well as being constrained to particular dimensions. This allows for the modelling of arbitrarily shaped tanks.

Forming tanks using boundary surfaces

The surfaces to be used to define the tank boundaries are selected by clicking in the Boundary Surfaces column in the middle of the Compartments Definition table. A dialog will appear that allows you to select which surfaces form the boundary of the tank. If a tank uses boundary surfaces, the cell in the Boundary Surfaces column is coloured blue.

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If you wish to use a Maxsurf surface to define a tank or compartment, tick next to the surface name in the Boundary Surface list. Note that symmetrical surfaces appear twice as there will be a starboard and a port side copy of the surface. The Starboard surface is first in the list and the Port surface second. The port surface is also identified with the suffix (P) after the name. Note: Only internal structure surfaces appear in the boundary surfaces list. Symmetrical surfaces are duplicated, with the port-side surface having “(P)” appended to the surface name. After selecting the internal surfaces, it is necessary to type in the extents of the boundary box. Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the Boundary Surface. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. Also see: Forming Compartments on page 62 Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67

Modelling External Tanks

External tanks may not be modelled in Hydromax. However, it is normally possible to add "Hull" surfaces in the Maxsurf model, which will enclose the external tanks. The tanks can then be modelled in Hydromax.

Additional box-shaped hull surfaces used to define deck tanks

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Modelling Non-Buoyant Volumes

Non-buoyant volumes are effectively permanently flooded compartments. These parts of the hull can normally be modelled using trimmed hull surfaces. However, there are occasions where it is more convenient to use non-buoyant volumes. In some cases, where the volume to be flooded forms sections within the hydrostatic section, this is the only option, e.g. waterjet ducts. The choice whether to use trimmed surfaces or nonbuoyant volumes is primarily determined by the length of the non-buoyant volume relative to the length of the vessel. Using trimmed hull surfaces When the length of the non-buoyant volume, relative to the length of the model, is large enough; the non-buoyant volume can be calculated accurately from the hull sections. If possible, trimmed surfaces should be used. The picture below is a good example of when to use trimmed surfaces.

Propeller tunnels modelled with trimming surfaces

Using tank type: Non-buoyant volume In some cases using trimmed surfaces is just not possible. For example, when the sections of the non-buoyant volume are entirely enclosed within the hull sections (as is the case for a water jet duct) the use of a non-buoyant volume is the only way in which these features can be modelled.

Water-jet ducts modelled as non-buoyant volumes

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Another occasion when non-buoyant volumes should be used, is when the length of the compartment relative to the length of the hull is too small to calculate its volume from the hull sections. A good example of this is a bow thruster on a long ship. If the vessel is very long, and the thruster duct is of small diameter, there may not be sufficient sections to model it accurately (even if you use the maximum of 200 sections for the Hydromax model). In this case you are better off modelling the thruster duct as internal structure and using these surfaces to define a non-buoyant volume. For example: in the image below the bow thruster volume is only calculated with one section.

For more information, see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67. Tip: Besides increasing the number of sections through the bow thruster from 1 to 12, modelling the thruster duct as a non-buoyant volume has the additional advantage of being able to specify a Tank and Compartment Permeability, and hence also account for the thruster.

Bow thruster tube modelled as two non-buoyant volumes Tanks within Compartments

When a tank is defined within a compartment, Hydromax will automatically deduct the volume of the tank from the compartment volume using a “linked neg. (negative) compartment”. This is necessary for damage cases where the compartment is flooded and the volume of the tank should be treated completely separately from the compartment. Linked negative compartments are deleted and recreated whenever a tank or compartment is added, deleted or modified. Negatively linked compartments are displayed on the bottom of the Compartment Definition table solely for reference purposes and are not under direct user control. This means that linked negative compartments cannot be added, deleted or modified.

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Linked negative compartments are named based on both the parent compartment as well as the tank from which the linked negative compartment was derived. For example a linked negative compartment might be named “Compartment3 (Stbd Hydr Oil)” to reflect that it is derived from the intersection of Compartment3 with the Stbd Hydr Oil tank.

Tanks Overlapping

As mentioned earlier in this manual, only compartments and non buoyant volumes or tanks can overlap with each other. Tanks or compartments of the same type (eg two tanks) can not overlap. A tank and a non-buoyant volume are also not allowed to overlap. Hydromax will first try to form tank sections and then check whether these sections overlap tank sections of adjacent tanks. When two conflicting or overlapping tanks or compartments are detected during the forming process, you will receive an error message:

Notice that the compartment definition row number of the tank is given in brackets i.e. tank #8 intersects tank #3.

Troubleshooting Overlapping Tanks Sometimes the reason for the conflict can be quite simple: eg an overlapping boundary box. However, when you are modelling tanks using boundary surfaces, the surface boundaries act as a boundary between two adjacent tanks and the bounding box extents are allowed to overlap. In these cases, it can be quite difficult to see why the tanks overlap, especially if you have a large number of tanks already defined.

By temporarily deleting all tanks except for the one that does not form, it often becomes clear why the tank overlaps. In the case of the image above, the tank‟s fwd most section goes all the way to the CL (probably because the fwd boundary box extent is just fwd of the boundary surfaces or exactly on the edge of a boundary surface). This causes this particular tank to “overlap” with surrounding tanks.

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In the case of damaged tanks and compartments. Permeability of Compartments As opposed to tanks. one. Page 59 . Do NOT save!! Open saved Comp def file Fix compartment. for example. For example an engine room with engines and auxiliaries at the tanktop could be divided up in a lower. eg by selecting additional boundary surfaces Close comp def file. Relative Density of Tank Fluids Relative Density (Specific Gravity) values can be typed directly into the Relative Density column of the Compartment Definition table. Compartments and non-buoyant volumes have only one permeability. thought it is listed in both columns. Save & move on to next compartment. inspect tank sections Try to fix tank definition.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Procedure to Fix Overlapping Tanks: Save Model Go into Comp def window Save comp def Delete all tanks except for one you wish to investigate form tanks. and the other when it is damaged. The compartment permeability is applied when the compartment is flooded in a damage condition and the non-buoyant volume permeability is applied at all times since it is always flooded. which is used when the tank is intact. the permeability fraction is also applied to the free-surface-moment contribution of that tank or compartment.and an upper engine room compartment. Now that you know how to fix it. the engines and equipment could also be modelled individually as empty tanks. In case of large variations in permeability within a compartment it is recommended to model separate linked compartments with separate permeability to increase accuracy.. 60% and the upper compartment a permeability of 95%. The lower compartment will have a permeability of. Tank and Compartment Permeability Tanks may have two permeabilities. compartments typically have structure (other than plate stiffeners) and equipment inside. Depending on the level of accuracy required.

the tanks. Whenever values are changed in the Density dialog (see Density of Fluids on page 150). If a fluid type is entered. the default density specified here in the compartment definition may be overridden in the loadcases. so it is normally only necessary to type the first few letter of the name). auto complete is used. or if you prefer. Groups of linked tanks and compartments will be moved together. you can use damage cases to quickly change the display to show certain tanks. the relative density value is obtained from the value specified in the Density dialog.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Alternatively the fluid type can be entered into the Fluid Type column. If the tank defines a cargo tank that will carry different liquid cargoes. Page 60 . Select the rows you wish to use and use the Edit | Move Items Up or Down commands (there is no provision for sorting tanks alphabetically). it is often useful to check individual tanks. selected tanks may be displayed in the following manner: Define a damage case Select only damaged tanks and compartments for display. all entries for that fluid in the compartment definition are automatically updated. You can either control the tank visibility through the Assembly window. Compartment and Tank Visibility When creating complicated tank plans. Tanks and Surface Thickness If you have specified that Hydromax should include the surface thickness. Assembly view can be used to show and hide tanks/compartments Using damage cases. Compartment and Tank Ordering The tank definition order can be adjusted in a similar way to loads in the loadcase. Note: Thickness of boundary surfaces are not taken into account. turn off the display of intact tanks and compartments. either as the name or as one of the single letter codes (when entering the name. hence you should design these surfaces to the inside of the tank. compartments and non-buoyant volumes will correctly account for the surface thickness and its projection direction: the tanks will go to the inside of the hull shell.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select whether you want to see the tank outline or the tank sections (tanks sections are preferable when checking that tanks have been formed correctly since it is these sections which are used to determine the tank volume and other properties). Page 61 . Only tank sections that lie on or near the current station are shown – this makes it easier to verify that the tanks have been formed. Using a damage case to quickly change the tank and compartment visibility Tank sections When in Tank Calibration mode. tank sections are also displayed in the Bodyplan view when the “Show single section” option is selected. Use this to quickly turn tanks on and off by changing their damage status. Choose the damage case from the Analysis toolbar Set any of the tanks and compartments you wish to be visible to damaged in the damage case window. You can make the damage case window quite small and tile it next to the perspective view.

An example of a port and starboard waterballast tank with a pipe tunnel at the centreline. Step-by-Step Tank Forming Process As an example. This section describes the internal tank-forming process that Hydromax uses to form tanks. The water ballast tanks have a margin plate on the side. The formed status of a tank (yes or no) is shown in the last column of the compartment definition table. followed by the tank section insertion process. Hydromax uses three input items to form the compartment Boundary surfaces (if defined) Boundary box Hydromax Hull sections Starting position The starboard tank margin plate is modelled using an Internal Structure surface from Maxsurf. Understanding these processes may assist you in rare situations where the tank forming does not work as expected. Starting point: Hydromax Hull sections with an internal surface and a bounding box Also see: Modelling Tanks Using Boundary Surfaces on page 54 and the Maxsurf manual on internal structure surfaces Page 62 . the starboard waterballast tank below will be created using boundary surfaces. First a step-by-step outline of the tank forming process is given.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Forming Compartments Tanks and compartments are formed automatically by Hydromax (once the tank extents and any boundary surfaces have been defined) by selecting Recalculate Tanks and Compartments from the Analysis menu.

If you selected “use trimmed surfaces” while opening the Maxsurf model. The tank or compartment looks like this at this stage: Page 63 . the surfaces selected to form the tank boundary must form closed section contours at all longitudinal positions through the tank. Hydromax will use the trimmed internal structure surface. Step 2: Clip to Boundary Surface Using the closed surface section contour Hydromax can now form a closed compartment section. Hydromax uses the same method for forming the tank section from the boundary surfaces as for forming the hydrostatic sections through the hull. The area inside the selected surfaces will define the tank contour.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 1: Close Internal Structure Surface Hydromax will close the Internal Structure Surface contour by drawing a straight line between the ends of the opening. Usually the internal structure surfaces are best to be left untrimmed. Make sure that the boundary surfaces: Form a closed section contour. Another common cause of unexpected results is trimming. or There is no more than one opening – the opening will be closed with a straight line Note: Hydromax will close the section contour of the selected boundary surfaces only. Often a tank is not formed as expected because only one side of the internal structure surface was selected for example the portside (p). As with the hull sections.

Step 4: Clip to Boundary Box Finally the compartment section is clipped to the boundary box. In this example the vessel has both wing and double bottom tanks with non-rectangular cross-sections thus requiring them to be defined by boundary surfaces – see blow: Page 64 . More realistic surface-bounded tanks Whilst the above example shows the principles by which surface-bounded tanks are formed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Step 3: Clip to Hull Hydromax will clip the compartment section to the hull. A more realistic example is shown in the following section. it is not really realistic because it would not be possible to define a tank above the surface-bounded double bottom tanks. In practice additional surfaces would be required. The boundary box is formed from the numerical input in the Compartment definition table.

TankBilgePlate (P) Wing Ballast (S) TankWing (S). BottomClosure (S).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sketch of tank cross-sections Five surfaces have been defined to define the tank boundaries: Tank Boundary surfaces defined in Maxsurf The following surfaces need to be selected for the different tanks so that closed sections are generated (or at most one section) Hold (C) TankWing. TankTop. TankBilgePlate (S) Wing Ballast (P) TankWing (P). BottomClosure (P). TankBilgePlate (P) Double Bottom (S) TankTop (S). OuterClosure (P). TankWing (P). TankTop (P) Double Bottom (P) TankTop (P). TankBilgePlate (S) Page 65 . OuterClosure (S).

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Hydromax tank definition Surfaces for Hold (C) (top is closed automatically) Page 66 .

If this results in a section spacing greater than the spacing for the hull spacing. Hydromax will normally place twelve sections between the forward and aft limits defining the tank. The following example illustrates why: Page 67 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Surfaces for double bottom tanks Surfaces for wing tanks (top is closed automatically) Number of Sections in Tanks The volume of a tank or compartments is calculated by integrating section properties along the length of the tank. Thus it is important to have a sufficiently large number of sections to accurately model the tank. this will be done automatically by Hydromax. In most cases. additional sections will be inserted into the tank so that the tank section spacing match the hull section spacing. Also see Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box on page 67 Longitudinal Extents of Boundary Box For tanks near the ship‟s extremities it is good practise to set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits in the compartment table to just inside the hull surface (say 1mm).

Hydromax will automatically set the “Fore” and “Aft” limits of the boundary box to just within the longitudinal limits of the boundary surface. the longitudinal extents should not be set to extreme values. Also see Number of Sections in Tanks on page 67 Forming Compartments on page 62 Compartment Types Five compartment types can be created using the Compartment Definition table .tanks. they should be set to just inside the extents of the hull surfaces to ensure that at least 12 sections are used to calculate the tank volumes. Note that transversely and vertically there are no such restrictions. But if the boundary box is set just inside the forward limit of the bulbous bow: To recap – Near the ship‟s extremities.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If the boundary box is set like this: The number of hull sections is dependent on the section spacing in the model. compartments. This ensures that at least 12 sections are inserted in the tank. linked tanks. Page 68 . For internal structure surfaces that are used as boundary surface. linked compartments and non-buoyant volumes.

shown below. type the first character of the tank type (t. Edit Sounding Pipes To customise a sounding pipe. Linked Tanks Will have their volume added to the parent tank with the same tank name. In addition. and essentially behave as damaged compartments. they can be remote from one another. The top of the sounding pipe is taken to be level with the highest point of the tank and the default sounding pipe is assumed to be straight and vertical. However. once the sounding pipe has been edited manually. Compartments Are only used to specify compartmentation for damage. Sounding Pipes Hydromax allows sounding pipes to be defined for each tank. moon pools. If the lowest point of the tank is shared between several locations (e. allowing inclined. or using one of the following commands: Analysis | Recalculate Tanks and Compartments. They are ideal for defining water-jet ducts. the bottom of the tank is flat either longitudinally or transversely) the default sounding pipe location is placed at the aft-most low point and as close to the centreline as possible. To change the type of a tank. In this case the tank linking simulates tanks with cross connections. any tank that it is linked to will also be regarded as damaged. One sounding pipe per tank is permitted and up to nine vertices per sounding pipe. This allows you to damage a complex compartment configuration by linking compartments together and damaging the parent compartment.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tanks Will be included in the tank calibration output and are automatically added to the loadcase. Hydromax creates a default sounding pipe when the tank is formed (either by running an analysis. The default sounding pipe is placed at the longitudinal and transverse position of the lowest point of the tank. Page 69 . They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. you need to use the Sounding Pipes table in the Input window. Linked Compartments Work in the same way as linked tanks. bent or curved sounding pipes to be modelled. c or n) in the Type column of the Compartment Definition table and then press Enter. Non-Buoyant Volumes Are only used to specify compartments of the vessel which are permanently flooded up to the static waterline. They do not have a separate entry in the loadcase. This will automatically set the tank/compartment to the correct type. if a tank is damaged. Tanks need not be adjoining to be linked. They are not included in the tank calibration output and will not be added to the loadcase. etc. Automatically created sounding pipes will be recalculated if the tank geometry changes.g. any changes to the sounding pipe due to tank geometry changes will also have to be made manually. or Analysis | Update Loadcase.

Note that each successive vertex in a sounding pipe must be no higher than the previous vertex i. A new row will be added to the sounding pipe and the longitudinal position. If no increment is entered. it is not acceptable to have S-bends in the sounding pipes. To add vertices to create a bent sounding pipe. Type the value of the desired calibration increment in the Calibration Spacing cell for the tank calibration you wish to modify.e. by clicking on the tabs at the bottom of the Input window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax You can activate this window by selecting from the Windows | Input | Sounding Pipes menu. or by clicking on the icon in the window toolbar. This is done by specifying a numerical value for the increment for each tank in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Input window. Unwanted vertices can be deleted by clicking on the relevant row in the table and selecting Edit | Delete or by hitting the Delete key. Hydromax uses its default value based on a reasonable division of the depth of the tank. Calibration Increment Hydromax allows user definable increments (or: intervals) for tank soundings. make the sounding pipe type User Defined. then click on the first row of a particular sounding pipe and choose Edit | Add or use the Ctrl+A key combination. In this case the Sounding Pipes table will display “Auto” in the Calibration Increment column for the tank. Page 70 . offset and height of the vertex can be edited.

Volumes that are permanently flooded should be defined as non-buoyant volumes. Each new damage case will have a column in the Damage Window and a tick may be placed to indicate which tanks and compartments are damaged for that particular Damage Case. simply select the columns to be deleted in the Damage Window and select Delete Damage Case from the Case menu. Note that it is not possible to delete the intact case. Damage Case Definition In all but the floodable length and tank calibration analysis modes.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note Increments are measured along the sounding pipe. Renaming a Damage Case The name of the current damage case may be changed by selecting Edit Damage Case when the damage case window is active. Several damage cases may be added in one go by selecting a number of columns. Adding a Damage Case To add a damage case. The new damage case is added after the currently selected damage case column. make the Damage window active and select Add Damage Case from the Case menu. select the intact case column. Deleting a Damage Case To delete damage cases. the current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar – see below. soundings will step evenly along the inclined length of the sounding pipe. You may specify a name for the Damage Case in the dialog. Hydromax is capable of including the effects of user-defined damage. to insert a damage case immediately after the intact case. Hydromax allows the user to set up a number of damage cases. Page 71 . If the sounding pipe is inclined or if it has multiple angles. not along the vertical axis of the tank.

In the Loadcase Window damaged tanks are displayed with the label 'Damaged' in the Quantity column. Hydromax assumes that all compartment definition has been done after the tanks have been defined. and all values set to zero. select Intact as the current damage case. Page 72 . This is because Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. The Loadcase and View windows will reflect the damage defined in the current damage case. Flooding is considered to be instantaneous up to sea level. Any subsequent analyses will take into account the damaged compartments. turning off all damage in all the damage cases (use the fill down command) and then pasting back in the original data from where it was stored in the spreadsheet. These colours can be specified in the View | Colours and lines menu. all damaged tanks and compartments will be displayed in damaged tank or damaged compartment colour respectively.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Selecting a Damage Case The current damage case is selected from the Analysis toolbar. you should toggle the damage status of the damaged tanks. This is simply done by copying all the damage case data to a spread sheet. Note: Hydromax uses the “Lost buoyancy” method rather than “Added mass”. Note that carrying out a Tank Calibration analysis will force the intact case to be selected. Any tank fluids are treated as having been completely replaced by seawater up to the equilibrium waterline. their weights and levers are no longer displayed in the Loadcase window and the word „Damage‟ is displayed in the quantity column. Displaying Damage Cases When a damage case is selected. To perform analyses for the intact vessel. This is also the case for the Floodable Length analysis which effectively sets up its own longitudinal extent of damage. If you have linked tanks or compartments or added tanks within compartments after the definition of a damage case. When tanks have been damaged.

Select the column of the damage case you wish to specify the extent of damage for and choose Extent of Damage from the case menu: Page 73 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The Loadcase Window displays damaged tanks and excludes them from any calculations. Extent of Damage Cases The damaged compartments can automatically be set by using the Case | Extent of damage command.

Down Flooding Points) Key points such as downflooding points and hatch openings can be defined in Hydromax using the Key Points window. Specify the extent of the damage – any tanks or compartments that lie partially or wholly within the extent of damage will be automatically flagged as damaged: Automatically generated damage case from using Extent of Damage command. You will be given a default point. select New Key Points from the File menu. The other types of points have their freeboard measured but are not used for the evaluation of the downflooding angle and are for information only. There are several types of Key Points: Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle.g. A new point will be inserted below the currently selected row in the table. choose Add from the Edit menu or press Ctrl+A.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Defining the damaged compartments by specify the extent of damage. which is used in criteria evaluation. Immersed key points will be displayed in the same colour as flooded tanks or compartments. Deleting Key Points To delete a Key point. Vessels which have symmetrical key points on starboard and port sides must have both key points added to the table. a positive offset is to starboard and a negative offset is to port. Key points may be placed asymmetrically. The points may be displayed in the Design View window and will be displayed in different colours depending on whether or not they are immersed. Page 74 . click and drag over the rows you want deleted. click anywhere in the row of the point to be deleted and select Delete. To delete more than one point at a time. Adding Key Points To start adding downflooding points go to the Key Points table. Key Points (e. To add additional key points to the table.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Select Delete from the Edit menu. All points are entered relative to the zero point. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. a longitudinal position. and the selected rows will be deleted. a transverse offset from the centreline. Editing Key Points Key points are defined by entering a name. Click in any cell and enter the name or value you require. and a height. which are damaged in the currently selected damage case. The type of Key Point may be selected from the combo-box in the Type column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Links to Tanks or Compartments Downflooding points may be linked to tanks or compartments. Select the tank or compartment from the combo-box in the Linked to column of the Down Flooding Points table in the Input window: Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments. These downflooding points will appear italicised and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the DF Angles table of the Results window: Page 75 .

In addition to the Key Points results. the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line). Allowable shear force and/or bending moment can be specified at each point. The downflooding angles are computed during a large angle stability analysis. Asymmetric margin lines and deck edges are not supported.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The downflooding angles for each of the points are displayed in the results window. Modulus Points and Allowable Shears and Moments The Modulus window can be used to enter maximum allowable shear forces and bending moments for each section. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. If necessary. Immersed points are highlighted in red in the Freeboard column. It is only necessary to modify the height value of the margin line points. Note: Linking a downflooding point to a tank does not mean that Hydromax will consider a tank damaged when the downflooding point is submerged. immersion angles or freeboards (depending on the analysis) are also given for the margin line and deck edge. One or more points can be entered in this window. This form of automatic flooding is not supported in Hydromax yet. The modulus value is not currently used as deflections are not calculated. Page 76 . selecting Snap Margin Line to Hull in the Analysis menu will project all of the points horizontally onto the hull surface. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. Once this has been done for all the points that need to be changed. Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described in Adding Key Points and Deleting Key Points on page 74. the freeboards after an Equilibrium or Specified Condition analysis. Margin Line Points The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. In the Name column the longitudinal position where immersion first takes place (or the lowest freeboard) is given.

Points may be added or deleted as required using the procedure described for the key points. In this section the different analysis types available in Hydromax will be described. The allowable values can be saved and recalled as text files by using Open and Save from the File menu. some general information is given on: Page 77 . Please refer to Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163 for information on defining and selecting criteria. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be evaluated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and after an Equilibrium analysis. the analysis can be performed. Analysis Types After specifying the input values and checking the Hydromax model. bring the Modulus table to the front and choose New Modulus Points from the File menu with the Modulus window frontmost. These allowable values are displayed as lines on the longitudinal strength graph. Stability criteria are required to perform a limiting KG and Floodable Length analysis. New allowable values can be inserted by selecting Add from the Edit menu and entering a longitudinal position as well as an allowable shear and/or moment. The following analysis types are available in Hydromax: Upright Hydrostatics Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Analysis Specified Conditions KN Values Analysis Limiting KG Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Tank Calibrations MARPOL Oil Outflow Probabilistic Damage Also. The Bulkheads are automatically sorted by longitudinal position.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax To start a table of allowable shear forces and bending moments. Floodable Length Bulkheads Bulkheads entered in the Input window are used for Floodable Length analysis in order to optionally plot the compartment lengths in the floodable length graph for easy verification that the critical compartment lengths are not exceeded. For more information see Floodable Length on page 102.

Page 78 . the available options depends on the current results table or graph: Data format dialog for Upright hydrostatics table and graph Upright Hydrostatics Upright hydrostatics lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of drafts. at zero or other fixed trim. Choosing Upright Hydrostatics Select Upright Hydrostatics from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. The Data Format dialog can be used to specify what is displayed in some graphs and tables. you may specify a fixed trim for all drafts A range of drafts for upright hydrostatic calculations can be specified using the Drafts command from the Analysis menu. Upright Hydrostatic Analysis Settings The following analysis settings apply for Upright Hydrostatic Analysis: Draft from the Analysis menu. one or more graphs may be shown – select the graph to be displayed from the pull-down menu in the Graph window. Following each analysis. specify range of drafts for analysis Trim from the Analysis menu.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Starting and Stopping Analyses Batch Analysis The required analysis settings and environment options will be discussed separately and in more detail in the next two sections of this chapter.

Similarly the VCG defaults to the height of the DWL. the initial draft defaults to the draft at the DWL in Maxsurf. Upright Hydrostatics Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the upright hydrostatics analysis: Density from the Analysis menu Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Upright Hydrostatic Results Page 79 . The Vertical Centre of Gravity is also required for the calculation of GM etc (if the vessel is trimmed.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Initial and final drafts can be entered. the LCG also affects these measurements). together with the number of drafts to be used. When a design is first opened.

select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu If criteria are being evaluated. to ensure accurate evaluation of the criteria. Large Angle Stability Settings The following analysis settings apply for Large Angle Stability Analysis: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Heel from the Analysis menu. Page 80 . the heel range and heel angle steps should be chosen accordingly. Choosing Large Angle Stability Select Large Angle Stability from the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The curves of form are shown on a separate graph and the sectional area may be show for any of the drafts: see Select View from Analysis Data on page 159. Large Angle Stability Large angle stability lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the hull at a range of heel angles either with or without trim or free-to-trim.

However. the results may be two angles of vanishing stability.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note You can select positive heel direction (port or starboard). Large Angle Stability Environment Options The following environments can be applied to the large angle stability analysis: Fluid simulation of tank fluids centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Stability Criteria Large Angle Stability Results Large Angle Stability Analysis results are: Hydrostatic data table for each angle of heel GZ curve Dynamic stability (GZ area) curve Graph of hydrostatic parameters against heel angle Graph of max. Also see: Heel on page 141 in the Analysis Settings section. deck edge and margin line Curve of areas at each heel angle Page 81 . safe steady heel angle Stability Criteria evaluation Downflooding angles to key points. Some criteria require calculations of GZ at negative heel. the one that would be reported in the criteria would be the one with a positive heel angle (even if the one at negative heel occurred at an angle closer to zero). you can enter negative values and test full 360 degrees of stability if you wish. For example: when using a -180 to 180 heel range. The criteria are only evaluated on the side of the graph that corresponds to positive heel angles.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Dynamic stability Graph A graph of the GZ area integrated from upright may be plotted. for example the angle of downflooding or angle of deck edge immersion. Curve of Areas Shows the curve of areas for the currently selected heel angle (use Display | Select view from data to chose the heel angle from the GZ results table). Shows the variation of hydrodynamic properties with heel angle. Curves of Form. you can display the maximum safe heeling angle curves by selecting the graph type in the pull-down menu. features such as downflooding angle are also included on the graph. Large Angle stability Graph. Once a GZ curve has been calculated. Graph of maximum safe steady heeling angles for sailing vessels These calculations are derived from the value of GZ at a critical heel angle. Page 82 .

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The parameters for the calculation can be modified in the Display | Data Format dialog (this graph must be selected in the topmost window): Page 83 .

you can specify the squall wind speeds (you can add any number) The default gives three wind speeds of 30.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis options for the calculation of Maximum steady heel angles (Display | Data Format). It can often be useful to duplicate this criterion in the GZ criteria that are evaluated. MCA require downflooding but you can include additional criteria if desired. This allows you to specify the critical condition that should not be exceeded due to a gust or squall. This will give you the same result as for the gust limiting line. Page 84 . In the lower-left. The first part of the dialog is almost exactly the same as the “Angle of equilibrium . Finally you can adjust the axis limits.derived wind heeling arm” criterion. 45 and 60kts. This is because normally you will have computed a GZ curve for a wider heel range than you would wish to display in this graph – it is uncommon to sail a vessel with a steady heel angle of greater than 40 degrees. You can also change the shape of the heeling arm curve and the gust ratio.

To obtain smooth curves. the most common reason for this is that the GZ curve has not been calculated up to a sufficiently high angle of heel and downflooding angle cannot be found. it may not be possible to evaluate the curves. the GZ curve should be calculated at small intervals of heel.5 deg) is found.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The same safe angle of heel to prevent downflooding in the event of a gust (16. Full details of the calculations can be found in: Page 85 . Under some circumstances. especially at the lower heel angles – typically steps of 1degree.

becoming wet. For more information on how to customize the display of the criteria results. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria.uk Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window. the large angle stability analysis should be carried out heeling both to starboard and to port. Page 86 . deck edge and defined Key Points.gov. Claughton. and an asterisk (*) is postfixed to the downflooding point‟s name in the Key Point Data table of the Results window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Sailing Yacht Design: Practice. These downflooding points will appear italicised. hence if there is any asymmetry. Also see: Select View from Analysis Data on page 159. In addition. Emergence angles of the key points is also calculated – this is where they cross the waterline in an upward direction to become dry. will be ignored when computing the downflooding angle. www. Adison Wesley Longman 1998. Downflooding Angle After a Large Angle Stability analysis. please refer to the Results Window on page 185 in the reference section.mcga. Downflooding points that are linked to tanks or compartments that are damaged in the currently selected damage case. Only the positive downflooding angles are displayed. the first downflooding point is marked on the large angle stability graph. see: Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. as opposed to the immersion angle which is when the cross the waterline in a downward direction. A downflooding angle of zero degrees indicates that the key point is immersed at zero degrees of heel. For the margin line and deck edge the longitudinal position at which immersion first occurred is provided. ed. Wellicome and Shenoi. ISBN 0-582-36857-X STABILITY INFORMATION BOOKLET available from the MCA. the Key Points Data table lists the downflooding angles of the margin line.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Equilibrium Analysis

Equilibrium analysis lets you determine the draft, heel and trim of the hull as a result of the loads applied in the table in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a waveform.

Choosing Equilibrium Analysis

**Select Equilibrium from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu.
**

Equilibrium Analysis Settings

Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window

**Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18
**

Equilibrium Analysis Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Equilibrium analysis:
**

Fluid simulation of tank fluid centre of gravity Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria

Equilibrium Results

**Equilibrium Results are:
**

Hydrostatic data Freeboard of key points, deck edge and margin line Criteria evaluation Wave phase animation Curve of areas

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Hydrostatic data

Height/freeboard above free surface The freeboard of each Key Point is also calculated. The freeboard is for the vessel condition currently displayed in the Design view and is recalculated after each Equilibrium and Specified Conditions analysis. The freeboard calculated is the vertical distance of the Key Point above the local free surface; hence the local free surface height if a waveform is selected will be taken into account.

Freeboard of key points.

Negative freeboards, i.e. where the Key Points are immersed are displayed in red. The longitudinal positions at which the minimum freeboard for the margin line and deck edge occurred are also specified. Stability Criteria Evaluation The criteria results are displayed in the Criteria tab in the results window.

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Equilibrium Animation in Waves If performed in conjunction with analysis in waves, the Equilibrium analysis will automatically phase-step the waveform through a complete wavelength. This gives ten columns of results, one for each position of the wave crest. If necessary the results of this phase stepping can be animated giving a simple, quasi-static simulation of the hull motion in waves (Display | Animate). Note: This simulation only includes static behaviour at each wave phase, and does not cover dynamic or inertial forces. This can be done using Seakeeper.

Equilibrium Concept

The definition of equilibrium is “Position or state where object will remain if undisturbed”. You can distinguish equilibrium into two types:

Stable, when disturbed the object will return to its equilibrium position Unstable, when disturbed the object will not return to its equilibrium position

Stable equilibrium

Unstable equilibrium

With ships, an unstable equilibrium can exist when the KG > KM, i.e. the centre of gravity is above the metacentre (negative GMt). In real world a ship in unstable equilibrium will roll from the upright unstable equilibrium position to a position of stable equilibrium and assume an “angle of loll”. Since Hydromax starts the equilibrium analysis in upright position, it has no way of determining whether the equilibrium is stable or unstable. This means that unstable equilibrium may be found instead of the stable equilibrium. Therefore it is recommend to check the value of GMt yourself after doing an equilibrium analysis or perform a Large Angle Stability analysis and look at the slope of the GZ curve through the equilibrium heel angle.

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Unstable equilibrium

Stable equilibrium ”Angle of loll”

The graph above shows the results of a Large Angle Stability analysis for a vessel with negative initial GMt. In practice this vessel would have a loll angle of approximately 25 degrees. If an equilibrium analysis is performed for this vessel with the transverse arm set to zero, Hydromax will find the unstable equilibrium position with zero degrees of heel. In practice, it is desirable to find the stable equilibrium position. To do this, first ensure that the tolerances (Edit | Preferences) are set as sensitive as possible. This will ensure that the smallest possible heeling moment is required to find stable equilibrium position. Then create a very small heeling moment by offsetting one of the weight items in the loadcase window TCG by just a fraction. The equilibrium analysis will now find the stable equilibrium position. Note: It is good practice to always perform a Large Angle Stability analysis as well as the equilibrium analysis to check if the vessel is in stable or unstable equilibrium. This is most likely to occur if the VCG is too high and the vessel has negative GM when upright. The problem can be overcome by offsetting the weight of the vessel transversely by a small amount.

Specified Conditions

Specified Condition analysis lets you determine the hydrostatic parameters of the vessel by specifying the heel, trim and immersion. Heel can be specified by either the angle of heel or the TCG and VCG. Trim can be specified by the actual trim measurement, or the LCG and VCG. Immersion can be specified by either the displacement or the draft.

Choosing Specified Conditions

Select Specified Conditions from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.

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Specified Conditions Settings

**The settings required for Specified Condition analysis are:
**

Specified Conditions from the Analysis menu

Three Sets of variables are provided, labelled Heel, Trim and Immersion. One choice must be made from each of these groups. Hydromax will then solve for the vessel hydrostatics at the conditions specified.

Values from the current loading condition can be inserted into the Centre of Gravity and Displacement fields by clicking on the Get Loadcase Values button. Also see: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18 Specified Conditions on page 145 in the Analysis Settings section. Note: If the fluid simulation has been turned on in a previous analysis mode, then the VCG obtained from the loadcase will not include the free surface correction; the “Get Loadcase Values” button will return exactly the displacement and CG as displayed in the current loadcase window. The specified condition analysis itself ignores tank fillings and does no correction to VCG.

Specified Conditions Environment Options

**The following environments can be applied to the Specified Condition analysis:
**

Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar

Specified Conditions Results

The specified conditions results are the same as equilibrium analysis results except that criteria are not evaluated, i.e. hydrostatic data and key points freeboard are calculated.

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KN Values Analysis

KN Values Analysis allows you to determine the hydrostatic properties of the hull at a range of heel angles and displacements to produce the cross curves of stability diagram.

Choosing KN Values Analysis

**Select KN Values from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.
**

KN Values Analysis Settings

**The analysis settings required for KN Values analysis are:
**

Heel from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu Displacement from the Analysis menu, select range for analysis and specify estimate of VCG if known

The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and Limiting KG analyses. To set the range of angles, select Heel from the Analysis menu. A range of displacements for KN calculations can be specified using the Displacement command from the Analysis menu. Initial and final displacements can be entered, together with the number of displacements required.

Displacement range dialog

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Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim dialog The VCG can also be entered (specified from the vertical zero datum). However if the analysis is being calculated free-to-trim and an estimate of the VCG is known. see: Trim on page 142 Also see KN Value Concepts on page 94 KN Values Analysis Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Page 93 . If a VCG estimate is specified. KN calculations are calculated assuming the VCG at the baseline (K). Traditionally. the KN values are still presented in the normal manner with the KN values calculated as follows: KN(φ) = GZ(φ) + KG_estimated sin(φ) For information on Trim settings for KN Analysis. the accuracy of the KN calculations (for VCGs in the vicinity of the estimated VCG) may be improved by calculating the GZ curve using the estimated VCG position – this will reduce the error in the trim balance due to the vertical separation of CG and CB because this vertical separation is specified more accurately than simply assuming the VCG at the baseline.

KG sin(φ) Page 94 . GZ. may be calculated from the KN cross curves of stability (at the desired displacement) for any specified KG using the following equation: .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax KN Values Analysis Results KN curves calualated at each heel angle Immersion angles calculated at each displacement KN Value Concepts The righting lever. GZ = KN .

The heel angles used may differ from those used in the Large Angle Stability and KN analyses. see: Trim on page 142 Page 95 . select range for calculation of GZ curves Trim (fixed or free) from the Analysis menu The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN analysis. See Large Angle Stability on page 80 for further details. Limiting KG Limiting KG analysis allows you to analyse the hull at a range of displacements to determine the highest value of KG that satisfies the selected stability criteria. it is essential that the same heel angle intervals are used and that the free-totrim options and CG are the same. When comparing the results of a limiting KG analysis to that of a Large Angle Stability analysis. Choosing Limiting KG Select Limiting KG from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. To set the range of angles. are extremely sensitive to the heel angle intervals that have been chosen. Limiting KG Settings The initial conditions required for Limiting KG analysis are: Displacement from the Analysis menu. select range for analysis Heel from the Analysis menu. the selected criteria are evaluated to determine whether the CG may be raised or must be lowered. select Heel from the Analysis menu. After each cycle.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax M Z G B’ B N K Note: KN values can also be referred to as “Cross curves of stability”. Some criteria. GZ curves are calculated for various KG values. notably angle of maximum GZ. For information on Trim settings for Limiting KG Analysis.

Limiting KG Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Criteria Limiting KG Results Limiting KG analysis results are Limiting KG values.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Since Limiting KG can be quite a time consuming analysis. you must still have at least one Large Angle Stability criterion selected. which is not necessarily the same as the zero point. However. for each displacement and the limiting criterion. trim and centre of gravity are given in the results table.) Limiting KG calculations will be significantly faster if the trim is fixed. Limiting KG vs displacement graph The Limiting KG value is measured from the baseline. you may wish to use a smaller number of heel angles than for the Large Angle Stability calculations. Criteria are only evaluated on the positive side of the GZ curve. Page 96 . The Limiting KG analysis also checks that any selected equilibrium based criteria are passed at each VCG that it tries. (However this will cause some loss of accuracy. the minimum GM. draft amidships. so if there is any form of asymmetry. As well as the limiting KG. it may be necessary to run the analysis heeling the vessel to both starboard and port (this can be done automatically in the Batch Analysis).

since the heeling arm is not related to the vessel displacement in its definition within Hydromax.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax After a Limiting KG analysis has completed. In this case. the correct values of displacement and VCG will be used in the evaluation of these criteria. Page 97 . Where these values are explicit in the criterion‟s definition in Hydromax. this can be done in the Batch Analysis. Also see: Convergence Error on page 146 in the Analysis Settings section.g. Limiting KG Concepts Hydromax will iterate to a KG value that just passes all criteria you have specified in the criteria dialog. If you require the limiting KG for each criterion individually or wish to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at each of the displacements and the corresponding limiting KG. this is because they do not necessarily refer to the final KG and would be misleading. If this tolerance is not achieved in a certain number of iterations. Hydromax will start with a set start KG value (e. the heeling arm will remain constant for all displacements (where it is perhaps desired that the heeling arm should vary with displacement. For example in the case where the heeling moment. Hydromax will raise the KG value and try to make the criteria fail. Some criteria may depend on the vessel displacement and or vessel‟s VCG. problems can arise if the criterion is only available in its generic form – most commonly heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified simply as a lever and not as a moment. If any of the criteria fail. run a large angle stability analysis and check the selected criteria.1mm. If the criteria pass. rather than the heeling arm is constant). Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. Hydromax will continue doing this until the limiting KG value has been iterated to within 0. Hydromax will move on to the next displacement. the results in the Criteria results table display “Not Analysed”. 1 meter). Hydromax will lower the KG and try again. However.

The tanks would generally provide a transverse moment that must be balanced by the mass of the vessel. Hydromax may have difficulty in finding a true limiting KG and specify convergence errors. This is not necessarily the case for equilibrium-based criteria such as freeboard requirements or for GZ-based criteria such as Angle of maximum GZ. That is the specified displacement will be that of the intact vessel and that the resulting LCG. this is not seen as an additional mass because damage is computed by the lost buoyancy method. In this case. if only these types of criteria are selected. The second option is for the used to specify the required TCG directly. Note that we are only concerned about the tanks that will be damaged and that initially contain cargo or ballast. However. (Although seawater enters these damaged areas. i. Hydromax will evaluate any equilibriumbased criteria that are selected for testing and act accordingly. this should be zero). This is because under most circumstances. which must therefore be offset. it is often required to specify a required TCG.e. the intact vessel is upright (zero heel). TCG and KG will also be for the intact vessel. This functionality has been in Hydromax for many years. Limiting KG for damage conditions with initially loaded tanks The set up of the Limiting KG analysis parameters has been modified to facilitate setting up the required TCG when calculating the Limiting KG for a damaged vessel where liquid cargo tanks initially carrying cargo or ballast water are damaged. 2. Hydromax must have at least one criterion that will improve by reducing the VCG. If the vessel has an off-centre intact TCG. however the specified displacement and CG corresponds to that of the intact vessel with damaged tanks empty. If this method is selected Hydromax will look at the mass and CG of cargo or ballast in tanks which will be damaged during the analysis. Note that all results and input data will be assumed to be for the intact vessel. Hydromax assumes that damaged tanks lose all liquid cargo or ballast that they may have been carrying and their buoyancy is lost from the vessel – analysis is done by the lost buoyancy method rather than the added mass method. Page 98 . this can be specified below (if the vessel is symmetrical and initially upright. the mass and CG of the intact vessel after deducting the masses of cargo or ballast in any tanks that will be damaged. Example calculations It is probably simplest to explain this functionality by means of an example. at least one GZbased criterion must also be selected. this is because when they are damaged the ballast or cargo is assumed to be totally lost from the vessel. Current loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks: This means that the currently selected Loadcase will be used to define the volume of cargo or ballast in tanks before damage is applied.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax When performing a Limiting KG analysis. This is because to perform a sensible search. The second method was available in older versions of Hydromax and it is the first method that provides the additional functionality: 1.) Two methods of specifying the required TCG are possible. Hydromax assumes that raising the VCG will make criteria more likely to fail and that reducing the VCG will make the criteria more likely to pass. For Limiting KG calculations for a damaged vessel where some of the damaged tanks were initially non-empty. This is used to compute required TCG.

In this case we shall use free to trim. Here we have specified that the tank is 80% full before the damage is applied. the specified TCG is zero: Page 99 . We wish to find the maximum VCG that the intact vessel may have in order to pass the selected stability criteria. Initial tank loadings First we need to define how much cargo is in the tanks that will be damaged.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The following sample calculations demonstrate how the new Limiting KG options may be used. This is done in the Displacements dialog: Displacement dialog Setting the Trim options We now need to specify the trim options we wish to use. Importantly we shall also specify that the current loadcase should be used to determine the required TCG and because the vessel is symmetrical. This is done by defining a loadcase and switching to the intact mode to specify the tank filling levels. but with an initial vessel trim of 0. Use a loadcase to specify the initial quantities of fluids in tanks Setting the Displacements Secondly we need to define the displacement range we wish to calculate the Limiting KG for.25m by the stern. A vessel with a port-side tank that are initially full will have this tank damaged.

so the analysis should be done in this direction. In this case large port-side tanks are to be damaged. the stability criteria that need to be passed and a suitable range of heel angles to be computed to evaluate the criteria.845mm Page 100 . these are filled significantly above the waterline so loss of ballast from these tanks will cause a list to Starboard.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Trim and TCG specification Running the Analysis We now need to select the damage case to be evaluated. It must be remembered that these are KG results not VCG so when checking the VCG must be calculated. In this case the baseline (K) is at – 356. Results from Limiting KG analysis Limiting KG results Validation of results The results can be validated by completing a Large Angle Stability analysis with the specified displacement and CG. We also need to determine which way we should heel the vessel and in doubt should try heeling the vessel in both directions to see which will give the worst result.

Remember that these are the intact vessel displacement and CG: Loadcase to check calculated Limiting KG When the analysis is run.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Model baseline Computed VCG values We can now set up a loadcase for one of the displacements. it can be seen that (as expected) the stability criterion is passed with a very small margin. Page 101 .

This means that the vertical separation of CG and CB is accounted for in the trim balance. Choosing Floodable Length Select Floodable Length from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. The range of displacements to be used is set in the same way as they are set in the KN and Limiting KG analyses.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Criterion is passed with a small margin Floodable Length The Floodable Length analysis allows you to calculate the longitudinal distribution of maximum length of compartments that can be flooded with the vessel still passing specified equilibrium criteria. The analysis is always carried out free-to-trim. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel and is also applied to the free-surface when calculating the reduction of waterplane area and inertia. Page 102 . but the centre of gravity can either be specified directly in the Trim dialog or it is computed from the specified initial trim. The VCG must also be specified since the Floodable length analysis is very sensitive to accurate trim calculations. The results are presented as the maximum length of compartment plotted (or tabulated) against the longitudinal position of the compartment‟s centre. see: Trim on page 142. either initial trim or specified LCG) Displacement. select range and specify VCG Permeability. The permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. Traditionally the criterion of margin line immersion is used to compute the Floodable Length curve. For information on Trim settings for Floodable Length Analysis. Floodable Length Analysis Settings The initial conditions required for Floodable Length analysis are: Trim (free-to-trim. select range Bulkhead location (if applicable) 1. The Floodable Length may be computed for a range of displacements and compartment permeabilities.

Page 103 . Note that internally. The Intact condition is automatically selected and the Damage toolbar is disabled Criteria from the Analysis menu. Floodable Length results The results of the analysis are given in tabulated format at the stations defined in the Maxsurf Design Grid as well as graphical format. Floodable Length Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage: no damage case may be selected as this is automatically defined by the analysis.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This permeability is unrelated to the permeability when defining compartments and is only used for floodable length calculations. These are used to compute the Floodable Lengths. Hydromax will treat the vessel sinking or the trim exceeding +/-89º as a criterion failure. (The raw graph data can be accessed by double clicking the graph. select which criteria should be evaluated Criteria must be specified from the analysis menu. The vessel profile (centreline buttock) may also be displayed. All compartment standards up to the maximum specified will be plotted. The tabulated data is linearly interpolated from the graphical data.) There are several graph plot options available in the Data | Data format dialog (when the floodable length graph is topmost).

The vessel sinking or the criteria failing in the intact condition could cause this. If the analysis is unable to find a condition where the vessel passes the selected criteria. you can quickly adjust the bulkhead locations so that the vessel meets the required compartment standard. The length of this flooded compartment is increased section-by-section until one of the criteria is failed. The graph updates in real time as you adjust the bulkhead locations so once you have calculated the floodable lengths. with the centre of the compartment at a section under investigation. Vessel profile (shown in light grey) Floodable Length Bulkheads locations are specified in a table in the Input window. the following dialog will be displayed. Plot the different compartment standards up to a specified maximum value.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Floodable lengths graph options: Fix the y-axis so that it is the same scale as the x-axis. Floodable Length Concepts The analysis is performed by defining a flooded compartment. The compartment is then moved progressively forward along the vessel. This process may be visualised by turning on the display of the Hydromax sections. Page 104 .

Longitudinal Strength Settings The initial conditions required for Longitudinal Strength analysis are: Displacement and Centre of Gravity using the Loadcase window Distributed loads using the Loadcase window When the Longitudinal Strength analysis mode is selected. These are used to specify the longitudinal extents of the load. The speed of the analysis can be increased quite considerably by increasing the allowable tolerances in the Edit | Preferences dialog. A trapezium shaped distributed load is derived from the centre and fore and aft extents of the load. allowable shears and moments from Input window Page 105 . two extra columns appear in the Loadcase window. The analysis can be carried out in flat water or in a specified waveform. Choosing Longitudinal Strength Select Longitudinal Strength from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar. See the Loadcase Longitudinally Distributed Loads section on page 45 for more details. it is recommended that a minimum of 100 sections be used for most situations. Longitudinal Strength Environment Options Density Wave Form (if any) Damage (or Intact) from the Analysis toolbar Grounding (if any) Criteria. Longitudinal Strength Longitudinal Strength lets you determine the bending moments and shear forces created in the hull due to the loads applied in the Loadcase window.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Speed versus Accuracy The analysis will be both considerably more accurate and slower with a larger number of sections in the Hydromax model.

damage and non-buoyant volumes and grounding loads. allowable shear forces and bending moments are overlayed on the graph. the net load. If defined. Grounding reaction Loas buoyancy due to damaged tanks and compartments and Non-Byoyant Volumes (NBV) Mass + Buoyancy + Grounding + Damage (and NBV) x Shear Force = NetLoad ( x)dx AftSt Page 106 . From these. Name of Curve Mass Buoyancy Grounding Damage/NBV Net Load Shear Description Vessel mass / unit length Buoyancy distribution / unit length = immersed cross sectional area * density. are given positive values. such as normal masses in the loadcase or lost buoyancy due to damage.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note that Hydromax will always use the fluid simulation method when performing a longitudinal strength analysis. For more information on how Hydromax can take fluids in tanks into account see Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148. Damaged tanks and compartments reduce the buoyancy. buoyancy. shear force and bending moment along the length of the hull are computed. Longitudinal Strength Results The output from the longitudinal strength calculations is a graph of mass. Downward acting masses. Upward acting forces such as buoyancy and grounding reactions are given negative values.

This data is also displayed in the “Long. Tank Calibrations Tank Calibration allows you to determine the properties of the tanks you have defined in the Compartment window. Note Make sure you have defined sections in your model in Maxsurf. the longitudinal strength table will be empty. any point loads in the loadcase will be applied as a load evenly distributed 100mm either side of the position of the load. Tanks are taken into account as distributed loads as well based on their mass distribution that is calculated from the tank sections. alternatively double-clicking in the graph will give you all the data as plotted. at a range of capacities. Choosing Tank Calibrations Select Tank Calibrations from the Analysis Type option in the Analysis menu or toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Moment Bending Moment = Allowable shear and moment x ShearForce( x)dx AftSt Allowable shear and bending moments as specified in the input Modulus table. You can display this table by choosing Longitudinal Strength from the Results sub-menu under the Window menu. Note: For the purposes of strength calculations. Without this. Also see: Page 107 . Tank Calibration Input Tank definitions and boundaries Permeability Fluid type The above data are specified in the Compartment and Sounding Pipes definition tables. Strength” tab in the Results window.

you may select which are displayed in the results table and graph using the Results toolbar.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Relative Density of Tank Fluids on page 59 Tank Calibration Settings Trim range. angle or trim measurement Heel angle range Which items to be calibrated: Analysis | Calibration options dialog Analysis | Calibration options dialog: Compartments and Non-buoyant volumes may be calibrated if desired Tank Calibration Environment Options Calibration intervals – see Sounding Pipes Tank Calibration Results If a range of heel (and / or trim) angles have been defined. You may chose which columns are displayed using the Data Format dialog: Page 108 . If Compartments or Non-buoyant volumes have also been calibrated. they are shown in grey.

For more information see Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the Window | Graphs menu each tank can be selected for display in the Graph window. the wetted surface area of the tank and the free-surface area. Page 109 . These include the tank inertias about their centre of gravity. Tank calibration calculations A number of data are calculated for the tanks.

will exacerbate this phenomenon): Figure a Zero trim Figure b Trim by bow. These points occur when the tank is near empty or near full. (The same effect can occur if the sounding pipe does not reach the lowest or highest point in the tank – remember that this can change as the vessel trims. Figure b shows the vessel with (bow down) trim and a small amount of fluid in the tank. nearempty tank Figure c Trim by bow. The following notation is used: x longitudinal-axis y transverse-axis z vertical axis Calculation of tank inertias. Sounding pipes and tank calibration results If the vessel is trimmed. where M and dm indicate an integration over the volume of fluid in the tank. Here all tank filling levels will have a valid sounding. the top of the tank is only included when the tank is pressed-full. see below (increasing the trim. Page 110 . The inertias are in fact “volume inertias” in that they are not multiplied by the density of the fluid in the tank. there are ranges of tank volumes that will show the same sounding/ullage.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The wetted surface area of the tank includes only that part of the tank that is wet by the fluid in it at the corresponding sounding level. with the vessel at zero trim. near-full tank Figure a shows a sounding pipe that extends the whole height of the tank. which is effectively what is happening in the figures below). Here there will be a range of tank filling levels which all show zero sounding.

1%. 100%} of the full capacity of the tank. see below. In the results out lined in red. the maximum sounding will be displayed.1%. giving soundings of 0. the last two results are below the bottom of the sounding pipe. Similarly if the 97. 98% and 100% full.9%. not the vertical step of the tank level). 85%. To specify the interval. the sounding pipe is in the middle of the tank and extends from the bottom to the top of the tank. Page 111 . “Max” or a numerical value in the “Calibration Spacing” column of the Sounding Pipe definition table. “F”. 99. 85%. 98% and 100% full levels do not intersect the sounding pipe. Finally a “Fredyn” sounding list may be generated.9%. Alternatively you may specify a precise sounding step (this is the step along the sounding pipe. In a similar way. 95%. … . 10%.0m). Tank calibrations for severely trimmed vessels.9%. sounding pipe does not cover full range of tank capacities.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Figure c shows the vessel with the same trim. but with the tank nearly full. 90%. Here there will be a range of tank filling levels that all show maximum sounding. 5%. 97.9%. 95%.0m but different capacities (the last but one calibration point is the fluid remaining in the tank when the sounding is 0. there are four results which all have a sounding of 1. 10%. 0. the sounding will be given as zero. type “A”. 99. you will get readings which have the same capacity but different soundings. only – {100%} In automatic mode the increments along the sounding pipe are chosen depending on the height of the tank to give approximately 20 soundings. … . this gives intervals of {0%. User defined Fredyn – {0%. The profile view of the tank in the trimmed vessel is shown on the right. These effects will be noted in the tank calibration results if they are extreme enough since Hydromax always adds calibrations at 1%. Sounding intervals The sounding intervals for the calibration table may be: Automatic. 5%. if the 1% level does not intersect the sounding pipe. 90%.0m but different capacities – the fluid levels are all above the top of the sounding pipe. 0. if the sounding pipe extends above or below the maximum and minimum fluid levels. 100%} Max. In the blue results.

117(52). MARPOL Options dialog (Analysis menu) The MARPOL options dialog allows the user to select the tanks that should be included in the analysis for both MARPOL Regulations. 90.0. Page 112 . Fredyn sounding pipe The tank calibration intervals required by Fredyn are (as a percentage of full capacity) {0. 95. this sounding pipe starts at the vessel zero point and projects vertically upwards.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Backward compatibility with earlier versions of Hydromax If the model is saved with Fredyn calibration intervals and is loaded into an earlier version of Hydromax. Regulation 12A: Oil fuel tank protection Resolution MEPC. To use these intervals. MARPOL Oil Outflow MARPOL probabilistic oil outflow calculation may be computed according to the following MARPOL regulations: Resolution MEPC.0. Seltect the Reolution and tanks to be included in the analysis in the MARPOL options (Analysis menu) dialog (see below). Regulation 23: Accidental oil outflow performance Define the tanks in the Compartment definition window then choose the MARPOL analysis mode.9}. A common sounding pipe is used for “Fredyn tanks”. Fredyn calibration intervals The tank calibrations normally follow regular length intervals along the sounding pipe.141(54). 10.0. all soundings for “Fredyn tanks” use this common sounding pipe.0. 5. type “Fredyn” in the Calibration Spacing column of the Sounding Pipes Definition table: Specification of Fredyn calibration intervals Note that Compartments and non-buoyant volumes are always calibrated at the calibration intervals required by Fredyn. you must change the calibration intervals to Automatic or a positive value otherwise Hydromax will crash during the tank calibration analysis. If only the 100% full values are required “Max” may be specified for the calibratin spacing.1. 99. ….

Further each tank has the option for being included in the computation for outflow due to side. then Hydromax will attempt to measure the required tank parameters (over-writing any that have previously been manually edited). for this reason the user should carefully review the values generated by Hydromax. it is not possible to guarantee that Hydromax will be 100% accurate in interpreting the measurements as defined in the MARPOL documents. the corresponding list of selected tanks will be displayed in the grid.and bottom-damage.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Tank selection for the MARPOL analysis The list of selected tanks is different for both Regulations since Regulation 12A is for fuel tanks and Regulation 23 applies to cargo tanks. MARPOL Tank measurements If the “Update all tank measurements” check-box is ticked. For this reason the data input and results are combined in one table. When you select a Regulation with the radio buttons. MARPOL Results and additional Input Because the calculations of the MARPOL analysis are very quick they are done in realtime as input data is edited by the user. The table is in the MARPOL tab of the Results window: Page 113 . Due to the nature of some of the measurements.

it is possible to revert back to the Hydromax calculated value or default by typing „H‟ or double clicking: Reverting back to default/calculated parameter values For full definitions of the parameters. Parameters that can be edited are shown in black.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax MARPOL calculations: Results Window The table is split into three parts: main Hull parameters. Main Hull Parameters Different parameters are shown depending on the Regulation being used. the nominal fuel oil density is specified by the user. the lightship draft is used to calculate the deadweight for Regulation 23 and the partial draft. Page 114 . Regulation 23 calculates the nominal oil density as the deadweight divided by the total tank capacity. the deadweight is computed as the difference in displacements between the deepest loadline draft and the lightship draft (or may be specified directly). which affects bottomdamage outflow in Regulation 12A. those which cannot are shown in grey. the default being 1000kg/m3. For Regulation 12A. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments. The deepest loadline draft is taken as the DWL draft. oil outflow due to Side damage and finally oil outflow due to Bottom damage. Furthermore the inert gas overpressure may be specified for Regulation 23. If a parameter is modified.

216(82) can be applied to both dry cargo and passenger ships whilst MSC.damage.19(58) is applicable to dry cargo vessels only. For tanks which are to be considered for both side. then bottomdamage tanks. listing first side-damage tanks. Note: Hydromax will overwrite user-edited tank parameters! Remember that any data that you change manually will be overwritten by Hydromax if the “Update all tank measurements” option is ticked in the MARPOL options dialog. These should be carefully checked since these can be difficult for Hydromax to automatically measure in some cases. MSC.19(58) . For full definitions of the parameters.216(82) and IMO MSC. these values are linked so it is only necessary to edit them in one location. it is also saved in the main .and bottom. the MARPOL data may be saved. It is advisable to copy any manually edited data to a spreadsheet or text file if you only want to update the measurements of some tanks. The user-editable tank parameters are the main dimensions which affect the probability of damage. Page 115 .hmd file when the design is saved. please refer to the relevant IMO instruments Saving With the MARPOL sheet active. Probabilistic Damage IMO Probabilistic damage Hydromax support for Probabilistic damage according to both IMO MSC.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Main hull parameters required for each Regulation Tank Parameters Calculations are shown further down.

The same log file is used for each analysis so it is important to either change the name or copy the file at the end of the analysis if the results are to be kept. User defines the bulkheads and deck values for single and groups of adjacent zones. Maxsurf model is loaded as normal User defines (first selecting File | New to open the Probabilistic damage data table) other ship data required for the probabilistic damage analysis in the Damage window | Global table. The user can then perform the probabilistic damage analysis. The log file parameters may be specified in the Edit | Preferences dialog: Page 116 . A first pass at this can be automatically generated using the Case | Extent of damage command. This is then compared with the required index. It is useful to have this interaction because if the p Factor is too large for a particular zone. User defines the damage zones they wish to consider in the Damage window | Zones table Once 2 and 3 have been completed. The GZ curves are calculated for a large number of different damage conditions and several load cases. Hydromax runs a large angle stability analysis for each combination of loadcase and damage and collates the results to calculate the attained index. a p-factor can be calculated. When the Zones have been defined the user can then define which tanks are damaged in each zone in the Damage window | Zone damage table.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage – Principles Essentially the probabilistic damage analysis performs a number of large angle stability analyses and uses the IMO criterion to determine an s-factor that depends on certain parameters of the GZ curve. the p-factors Damage window | p Factors table are automatically calculated and displayed as the zone data is modified. the user may decide to refine the zone arrangement. For each condition. During the analysis each GZ curve and details on the evaluation of the s-factor may be saved in a log file. Flow through – Typical Use-case The following section shows how the probabilistic damage analysis might typically be used. The vessel‟s attained subdivision index is the sum of the products of the pfactors with their corresponding s-factors. The attained subdivision index can then be compared with a required subdivision index to see if the vessel achieves a sufficiently high degree of safety.

The probabilistic damage input sheets are in the damage window after the normal damage condition sheet. Page 117 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage result logging options (Edit | Preferences) Finding the probabilistic damage input sheets.

hmd file. these data would be lost. To load or save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax A Probabilistic Damage toolbar button is available in the Windows toolbar which will take the user back to the last used probabilistic damage input table: Probabilistic damage – Saving input parameters The probabilistic damage data is saved in the . Bring one of the probabilistic damage tables to the front to enable File menu items Probabilistic damage – Inputs In this section we shall look at the input parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis. Chose the Probabilistic Damage analysis mode from the pull-down or Analysis menu: Page 118 . However this is new to version 14. Settings for Probabilistic damage GZ curve calculation Since the analysis essentially consists of a large number of GZ curve calculations. ensure that one of the probabilistic damage data sheets in the Damage window is on top. For this reason it is also possible to save the probabilistic damage data as a separate file (in a similar way to the other Hydromax input data). most of the settings that are applicable to the Large Angle Stability analysis are also applicable to the Probabilistic Damage Analysis.1 and if the file were read into an earlier version of Hydromax and saved.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax

Selecting Probabilistic Damage anlysis mode

Once you have selected the probabilistic damage analysis mode, you can define the heel angle range and trim settings to be used as well as any environmental parameters such as waveform (as well as the fluid analysis method to be used). During probabilistic damage analysis, it is possible to check the vessel heeling to both port and starboard. This is useful if the tanks contain ballast or cargo and it is uncertain in which direction the vessel will list when damaged (or indeed the vessel may list to different directions depending on the loadcase and damage). Hydromax will calculate the GZ curve in both directions and, if the criteria can be evaluated in both directions, the lowest s-factor will be taken. If the criteria can only be evaluated in one direction, then this value for the s-factor will be taken. It is recommended to evaluate at least one negative heel angle and the direction of heel should correspond to the side of the vessel that is being damaged (see below):

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Heel angle specification (as per Large Angle Stability)

Use either fixed trim or free to trim to loadcase. s-factor calculation

The s-factors are calculated by stability criteria. The Probailistic damage analysis has its own set of criteria (though the same parent criteria are also available in the large angle stability analysis criteria). When the analysis mode has been set to Proababilistic Damage, you will see the criteria that are used for this analysis. The number of parent criteria is reduced to only those which can calculate the s-factor. Also some “Default” criteria are supplied, you can add or modify these should you so desire. When running the analysis, Hydromax will look at the probabilistic criteria that have been selected and warn you if there are any problems.

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Probabilistic Damage Criteria Manager with Parent and Default criteria

**The following rules should be observed when defining the probabilistic damage criteria:
**

As with the normal criteria manager, changes made to the parent (bold) criteria are not saved. If you need to modify any of the criteria you should make your own copies of the parent criteria A set of Default criteria are provided – these can be modified and changes will be saved. Only one criterion should be selected and it should correspond to the IMO Resolution being used. (Strictly, you may have up to one of each MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) criteria selected and Hydromax will automatically use the appropriate one – according to the selected Resolution in the Global sheet – but for clarity, it is probably best practive to just have a single criterion selected.) The criteria should always be selected for Damage analysis. Hydromax will automatically update some of the criteria parameters according to corresponding parameters in the probabilistic damage setup. However it is still good practice to review criteria parameters before starting the analysis. This is particularly true for the MSC.216(82) Resolution where the vessel type and heeling moments must be defined correctly. The criteria window can be closed with either of the close buttons.

For further information on how the s-factors are calculated and the different parameters, please refer to the Criteria Help section for the appropriate criteria (and heeling arms).

Main parameters and calculation of required subdivision index

The other parameters required for the probabilistic damage analysis are defined in the last four tables in the Damage window:

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Additional tables in the Damage window define the remaining Probabilistic damage input data

Depending on the selected IMO Resolution, different rows and columns will be displayed in the tables; both MSC.216(82) and MSC.19(58) are provided, A.265 VIII is not included. Tool tips have been added to provide a more detailed explanation of the input parameters and also the options available.

Tool tips for Global data sheet Global table

This table is used to define the main parameters for the probabilistic damage anlysis as well as provide some intermediate calculations. Input data are shown in black whilst results are shown in grey. Depending on the Resolution and vessel type, some rows may be hidden.

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Global table – MSC.216(82) Dry Cargo vessel and Passenger vessel

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Global table – MSC.19(58) Dry Cargo

Row Resolution -MSC.216(82) or MSC.19(58) Deepest subdivision draft (summer loadline) Loadcase Partial subdivision draft Loadcase Light service draft Loadcase Type -- Cargo or Passenger Lifeboat capacity N_1 Permitted max. num. of persons in excess of N_1: N_2 max. moulded breadth at or below deepest subdivision draft: B max. number of adjacent zones to consider min. p-Factor of damage to consider

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Description IMO Resolution to be used.

Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the deepest subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the partial subdivision draft. Name of loadcase that defines the vessel at the light subdivision draft. not required for MSC.19(58). Vessle type. not required for MSC.19(58). Number of persons for whom lifeboats are provided. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Number of persons inclusing officers and crew that the vessel is permitted to carry in excess of N_1. required for MSC.216(82), pax. Vessel only. Parameter not currently used.

Specifies the upper limit of the number of adjacent zones that should be damaged. If you wish to limit the analysis by p-factor only, then specify the number of zones here (see min p-factor below). Specifies the minimum p-factor for which an analysis should be performed. The maximum a condition can contribute to the

The heel direction in the Heel setup should correspond to the side of the vessel being damaged.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax max. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. then the s-factor will be taken as zero (irrespective of the GZ curve). Fore and aft extents of the zone boundaries are input by the user and the length and centre of the zone is automatically calculated. as are the zone names. The subdivision length is taken as the limits of the length defined by the zones. This can speed up the analysis. This will ensure that conditions with zero p-factor will still be evaluated. use Edit | Add or Delete (or Ctrl+A or Del key. If you wish the analysis to be purely limited by the number of adjacent zones (see above) then specify a small negative value. this can speed up the analysis. vertical extent of damage Damaged side -Starboard or Port Zone 1 located at bow or stern? Longitudinal Zone definition attained index is the p-factor. Damage zones defined by fwd and aft boundaries Zones may be shown in the drawing views (this display option is only available in Probabilistic Damage analysis mode): Page 125 . with a number of complete rows selected) to add or delete zones. If the vessel trim exceeds this value. Specifies which side of the vessel will be damaged (when automatically generating the zone damage). the boundaries of adjacent zones are automatically updated if required. The extent of damage is assumed to go all the way to the centreline but you may specify which side of the vessel is damaged. Conditions whose pfactor is below this minimum will not be evaluated. trim angle to consider Limit vertical extent of damage? max. It is normal to begin the Zone numbering at the stern. If desired the vertical extent of damage (when automatically generating the zone damage) can be limited. As for other similar tables. but the option to start from the bow is also allowed in Hydromax The next table (Zones) allows for the definition of the longitudinal damage zones. If the the p-factor is very small the contribution to the attained index will be negligible and there is little point in carrying out the analysis.

side damage) shown in pink. The last column shows whether a particular condition will be tested (if the p-factor is sufficiently large and the maximum number of adjacent zones is not exceeded).Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic damage zones (stbd. This can easily be done by specifying the maximum number of adjacent zones as the number of zones defined. the probability of damaging a longitudinal zone or group of adjacent zones is calculated as well as the cumulative probability.19(58) made in the Global table.216(82) or MSC. A subtotal for the pfactor for a given number of adjacent zones is given as well as a cumulative to total for all the p-factors. Page 126 . P-Factors From the damage zone calculations. All combinations of adjacent zones are calculated at this point. The columns displayed depends on the choice of Resolution: MSC. This will help the user to determine the maximum number of adjacent zones that should be analysed. it probably makes more sense to limit the analysis by specifying a desired minimum p-factor rather than a number of adjacent zones. In practice.

Note that there is one extra r-factor than the number of bulkheads – this represents the probability of damaging to the centerline. The b-values are defined not only for each individual zone.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax p-factor calculations for individual and groups of zones Sub zones due to transverse and vertical subdivision As well as the main longitudinal subdivision. The side-shell offset value defaults to the maximum halfbeam of the vessel. the inner limit being at a distance side-shell offset minus b from the centreline. The r-factors are then calculated for each of the b-values that have been defined. Transverse sub-zone definition and R-Factors Transverse sub-zone definition allows the user to limit the damage penetration to a certain distance into the vessel towards the centerline. A column is provided for the user to specify the side-shell offset (from the centerline) and this is used only to draw the transverse extents of the damage zone. Page 127 . there is a special way of calculating the b-value and this needs to be done for each set of adjacent zones. The sum of all r-factors should be unity (a check is provided). it is also possible to define sub-zones due to longitudinal bulkheads (transverse subdivision) and decks (vertical subdivision). I have followed IMO notation by specifying the penetration depth from the side-shell (rather than specifying the offset from the centerline). measured from the side-shell. but also for groups of adjacent zones. This is because where the side-shell or bulkhead is not parallel to the centerline. the zone will be damaged up to (but not across) the centreline. If no b-values are specified.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Longitudinal bulkhead definition and corresponding r-factors Page 128 .

Clicking in a zone or sub-zone in the table highlights the zone graphically Page 129 . selected zone shown in bold. The currently selected zone or sub-zone is shown in bold as well as any damage for that zone. This can also be seen in rendered view to quite effectively visualize the damage.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Visualisation of zones and sub-zones: sub-zones shown dashed.

The loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. The corresponding v-factors are calculated. but these also depend on the draft of the vessel.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Vertical sub-zone definition and V-Factors Similarly decks may be defined to create vertical subdivision of the zones. Note that during the full probabilistic damage analysis. Page 130 . Thus we introduce the concept of the currently selected Loadcase for the displayed vfactors. Loadcase for v-factor calculations is selected by clicking on the desired loadcase in the Global table. the v-factors will be automatically recalculated for the loadcase under consideration.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Deck definition and corresponding v-factors Page 131 .

The Damage window must be on top for this command to work. this can be modified by the user should this prove to be necessary (or it can be defined from scratch by the user). The “Zone damage” tab of the Damage window must be on top to enable this command.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage The zone damage sheet specifies which tanks are damaged for a given zone. From this Hydromax can work out what should be damaged for any combination of adjacent damaged zones. This stage is not required for the probabilistic analysis. Once the automatic damage is defined. Page 132 . Definition of whats damaged in each zone Once the zones are defined the user can select the Case | Extent of damage command and this will automatically generate the zone damage according to which tanks lie within the zone boundaries. Automatic definition of damage for each zone Additionally the user may automatically generate damage cases for the Zone damage that has been defined damage configurations within the maximum number of adjacent zones range and above the minimum p-factor will be added. if the pfactor exceeds the minimum values specified (again in the Global tab). Damage cases will be added up to the maximum number of adjacent zones specified in the Global tab. but has been added for convenience should the user wish to manually run large angle stability analyses for the same damage cases.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Automatic creation of damage cases using the damage defined for each zone Visualization of zone damage When in Probabilistic damage analysis mode the damaged tanks and compartments displayed are not those of the current damage case. Page 133 . The zone is selected by clicking in the corresponding column of the Zone Damage table. but those of the currently selected zone.

Page 134 . but these can be overridden (for the probabilistic damage analysis only) for each draft if desired.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Zone damage visualisation Probabilistic damage permeabilities It is possible to define different permeabilities to be used for tanks and compartments for the different load conditions – as required for “cargo compartments” in MSC.2: MSC. When you generate new probabilistic damage data.216(82) Regulation 7-3. the permeability values are copied from the Compartment definition. but they are not updated if they are then changed in the Compartment definition window.2 Thess values are defined in the Permeabilities table in the Probabilistic Damage window. the permeabilities are the same as the damage permeabilities given in the Compartment Definition table.216(82) Regulation 7-3. By default.

the permeability used for any damaged tanks is shown: Probabilistic damage – Analysis Once the analysis parameter data has been defined. Hydromax will make several checks to see if the analysis parameters have been correctly set up. These are not exhaustive tests but should pick up critical errors.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax In the log file. it is worth checking that the heel direction (Analysis | Heel) is correct and also check that the s-factor calculation parameters are corerect (Analysis | Criteria) Pre-run checks When trying to run the probabilistic damage analysis. The following checks are made: Page 135 .

If Hydromax finds no criteria selected but a suitable one is available (but unselected) then it will prompt the user to use this one: Analysis Large angle stability analyses are computed for each combination of loadcase and zone damage up to either the specified maximum number of adjacent zones or the minimum specified p-factor.216(82) is being used) That the correct s-factor criterion has been selected.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax That loadcases that have been specified exist That the vessel type is correct in the criteria (if MSC. Page 136 . Should the vessel sink. Note that only one criterion may be selected. this is reported and the s-factor given as zero. Basic data pertinent to calculation of the s-factor is also presented as well as a total Attained subdivision index at the bottom of the table. excessive trim occur or the large angle stability analysis fail to converge. The required index is also shown as well as pass/fail status.

If you have stopped the analysis. Starting and Stopping Analyses To start the analysis. If you are not interested in seeing the progress of the analysis. Should the analysis take longer than about 45 seconds. Hydromax will redraw the contents of the windows to display the current hull position for each iteration. you can resume calculation by selecting Resume Analysis from the Analysis Menu or toolbar. including all the GZ results and criteria evaluation for each loadcase / damage case combination are logged during the analysis. There may be a slight time delay on all of these operations while the current cycle is finished. The start. Hydromax will step through the parameter ranges specified. switch to a table window and maximise it to speed up the analysis. Calculations may be interrupted at any time by selecting Stop Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. You can also switch application by clicking in the window of any background program.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic analysis results Probabilistic damage – Future developments The probabilistic damage analysis is still under development and new features will be added in subsequent versions of Hydromax. Hydromax will flash and beep to indicate that the analysis has been completed. floating the hull to equilibrium conditions where required. choose Start Analysis from the Analysis menu or toolbar. The drawing of the vessel at each step of the analysis can be quite time consuming. The logfile location is specified in the Preferences dialog: Page 137 . Hydromax will continue to calculate in the background although its speed will be reduced. pause and resume functions are also available in the Analysis toolbar: Probabilistic damage Log file All the intermediate results.

There are other options which allow the analysis to be performed heeling to both port and starboard. Limiting KG and KN calculations can be made for each damage condition. You may also choose to perform a Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analysis at the final VCG. For the Limiting KG analysis you may also check the Limiting KG for each criterion individually. The aim of the batch processing function is to: Page 138 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Probabilistic Damage analysis logging Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Concepts Hydromax has basic batch processing capability. Further. With a single command. Hydromax will run Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases.

: analysis parameters. damage cases. Batch Analysis – Procedures Once the loadcases. Enable Limiting KG and KN analyses to be performed automatically for all damage cases. Facilitate testing with heel to port and starboard for vessels with asymmetric loading and/or damage conditions (or hulls). key points. i. Facilitate time consuming Limiting KG analyses. Facilitate export of the data from Hydromax and import into MS Excel for post processing and report generation. especially where results for all individual criteria are required.e. Before you can perform a Batch Analysis it is recommended that you run a number of Analyses manually to check whether the Model has been defined correctly and all Analysis Settings and Environment conditions have been set correctly.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Provide the user with a simple and consistent way of carrying out Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses on a large number of load and damage cases. Provide all relevant results and the data required to be able to reproduce the runs. criteria and analysis parameters for the required analyses have been set up. file name etc. the Batch Analysis is started Analysis | Start Batch Analysis Page 139 .

Batch Analysis Results Before analysis starts. the batch analysis will automatically create a Word document. Because the analyses are simply carried out one after the other. Warning: Sending the results to the Report can slow down analysis considerably and also consume considerable system resources.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Batch analysis runs all combination of loadcases and damage cases. Tip: Under most operating systems. For large batch analysis. Any criteria that have been set are evaluated at the end of each analysis and the results of these are also output to the text file. are set in the normal way for each analysis type included in the Batch analysis. minimising Hydromax can reduce the time required to perform the calculations. Important: For important information on varying displacement while evaluating criteria. For example. Page 140 . only the results of the final analysis will be stored in Hydromax.5 m: first select the Large Angle Stability analysis type from the analysis menu set the trim to Fixed trim and 0. The report is stored in memory and if you have insufficient memory. heel angles etc. see Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. Once the analysis is complete. it is not possible to go back to the results for a specific analysis from within Hydromax. it is advisable not to include the results in the report. When the option for Sending the results to Word is selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog. Also see: Reporting on page 155. At the bottom of the dialog is a check box which allows users to select whether the results of a batch analysis should go to the Report window in Hydromax as well as the batch analysis text file. This is because time consuming redrawing of the design windows. Batch Analysis Settings Analysis parameters such as trim. if you want the Large Angle Stability to use a fixed trim of 0. you will be prompted to enter the name and location of the file where Hydromax will write the results of the batch analysis.5 m then select Analysis | Batch Analysis Batch Analysis Environment Options (Criteria) Any Analysis Environment Options specified prior to a Batch Analysis will be used during the Batch Analysis. graphs and tables is avoided. it is possible that your computer will become very slow to respond and under some circumstances with certain operating systems even cause Hydromax to crash. this tab delimited text file may be imported directly into MS Excel for further processing.

This section will describe the following analysis settings: Heel Trim Draft Displacement Specified Conditions Permeability Hydromax will allow specification of only those analysis settings that apply to the currently selected analysis type. simply put 0 in the other steps. For example: it can match a specified heel. For example: the Upright Hydrostatics analysis consists of fixing heel and trim and stepping through a series of fixed drafts. Heel and Draft. there are three degrees of freedom: Trim. Combinations of both are also possible. Page 141 . trim and draft by varying the displacement and centre of gravity. In this case the LCB and TCB (and therefore the required LCG and TCG) are calculated from the underwater hullshape at each draft. Hydromax matches the trim. because vertical centre of gravity is also important and also because most of the variables are coupled. The heel steps must be positive. In hydrostatic analysis. In the Specified Condition Analysis any combination of the variable pairs may be specified. The following table is a very simplified representation of the degrees of freedom and their weight counterpart: Degree of Freedom Draft Trim Heel Weight Displacement Longitudinal Centre of Gravity (LCG) Transverse Centre of Gravity (TCG) 1 2 3 In fact it is a rather more complicated situation than that suggested by the table above. This way the volume of the displaced hull matches the required mass and the centres of gravity and buoyancy lie one above the other in a vertical line. trim and draft. The various analysis types and settings can be thought of as setting one variable in each pair to a fixed value and deriving the others from the analysis. KN and Limiting KG analyses. If only one set of steps is required. For an equilibrium analysis all degrees of freedom are derived from the centre of gravity and Displacement. Heel The Heel dialog from the analysis menu is used to specify the range of heel angles to be used for Large Angle Stability. or it can match a specified displacement and centre of gravity by varying the heel. Heel angles between 180 and +180 may be specified.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Settings In the previous sections opening and preparing a model in Hydromax was discussed together with descriptions of the different Analysis types. heel and draft with the vessel‟s mass and centre of gravity or visa versa.

Floodable Length and Tank Calibrations. It is possible that the GZ at zero heel may be very slightly positive (due to asymmetry or rounding error) for this reason. Trim For most analyses you may specify whether the vessel is free-to-trim or has fixed trim. loading. Note: The heel angles to be used are specified independently for each analysis mode. Hydromax will fit a cubic spline to the GZ curve and use this to interpolate for values between the tested heel angles. If any step is greater than 10 deg. damage. it is essential that the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. This is to allow roll back angle criteria to be evaluated correctly. Hydromax will not do any curve fitting and linear interpolation will be used.. (For the Specified Condition analysis. This can be a source of apparent differences in the results from the different analyses.) Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses always use a free trimming (and free heeling) analysis so that there is no trimming (or heeling) moment applied to the vessel at the final equilibrium. KN Analysis Limiting KG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If there is any asymmetry in the vessel due to either: hull shape. Note: For the angle of equilibrium to be found (when analysing criteria). the trim may be specified in the Specified Conditions dialog. If all the heel angle intervals are 10 deg or less. Large Angle Stability. to ensure that the equilibrium angle is identified. key points. etc. Trim may be specified for Upright Hydrostatics. then the analysis should be carried out for both heel to starboard and heel to port to find the most pessimistic condition. and there is any doubt as to which will be the worst heel direction. Select Trim in the Analysis menu to bring up the Trim dialog. at say -5 degrees. it is advisable to test at least one negative heel angle. It is good practise to start the heel range at an angle of approximately -30°. Page 142 .

KN. so cannot be specified. Free to trim to specified CG – this is again free-to-trim but the CG is specified in the dialog. specified initial trim. Probabilistic Damage) as well as Upright Hydrostatics and Tank Calibrations 2. The LCG is calculated using this value and the VCG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Essentially there are three options for trim: 1. Fixed trim – the analysis is carried out at a fixed. Thus. Equilibrium. the vessel is not free-totrim as it heels. The TCG and VCG are specified directly. Fixed trim (KN and Limiting KG analyses only). heel is not considered thus TCG cannot be specified. Probabilistic Damage. Calculations at each heel angle of the large angle stability analysis are then done free-to-trim using the derived LCG and VCG. In this case. for each displacement. Page 143 . Although considerably faster. 3. for each displacement. but the LCG will be different. In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. This it is possible to specify the LCG either directly or so that the upright. Floodable Length. KN. The analysis is carried out with the specified fixed trim. Longitudinal Strength. all three components of the CG need to be know. Limiting KG. Specification of different trim options is dependent on the type of analysis currently selected. This applies to all analyses that carry out a large angle stability-type analysis (Large Angle Stability. this analysis will tend to overestimate ship stability properties such as GZ. For the Floodable Length analysis. the LCB of the intact vessel at the specified trim and zero heel is computed. intact vessel floats at a specified trim. This is for when a range of displacements is used for the analysis: Limiting KG. the upright. the VCG is being found by the analysis. intact vessel trim will be the same. This option is available for all analyses that have a loadcase: Large Angle Stability. Free to trim to loadcase – the analysis trims the vessel to the CG specified in the loadcase. Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value Using this method.

For Floodable Length calculations. Thus. the VCG is needed to provide an accurate balance of the trimming moment. This is especially useful when evaluating the Limiting KG of a damaged vessel that had cargo or ballast in tanks which are subsequently damaged. Page 144 . This LCG is then used to compute the free-to-trim vessel orientation at each heel angle as the large angle stability analysis is performed. the VCG will only have an effect if the analysis is free-to-trim.) In the case of the Limiting KG analysis. because the analysis is very sensitive to trim. a specified constant LCG is maintained for each displacement. VCG for trim balance The VCG. The TCG can be either specified directly or calculated from the tank loadings defined in the current loadcase. Draft The draft dialog is used to specify the range of drafts to be used for the Upright hydrostatics analysis. TCG value The TCG option allows you to specify an off-centreline centre of gravity for Limiting KG and KN calculations. may be specified. Also. which are always calculated free-to-trim. It will also be used to improve the accuracy of the KN results.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value With this method. for each displacement. the actual VCG is used and the VCG input field will state “not applicable”. It will be used to determine the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. (As the trim angle increases the longitudinal movement of the centre of gravity due to its vertical position becomes more important. so to be consistent. measured from the vertical zero datum (not necessarily KG). for the Limiting KG analysis. Current Loadcase specifies initial loading of damaged tanks (los mass during analysis) Finally. but the upright vessel trim will be different. This is for consistency with the lost buoyancy analysis method: the buoyancy contribution of damaged tanks is removed from the model. there is an option to automatically adjust the displacement and LCG of the vessel so that liquid cargo of damaged tanks is removed from the model. the LCG will be the same. the VCG will be used to calculate the LCG if an initial trim value is specified. any liquid cargo should also be removed from the model. For KN analysis.

See Specified Conditions on page 90. tank or non-buoyant volume permeability and is only used for floodable length calculations. The last set of permeabilities used will be recalled from the registry when Hydromax is started. the permeability is applied over the entire length of the vessel. Specified Conditions The specified conditions analysis setting is only available for the specified condition analysis. Individual Permeability of Tanks and Compartments The individual permeability of each compartment (or tank) is specified in the Compartment definition table.e. tank and non-buoyant volume permeabilities are used when calculating the effects of damage. Limiting KG and Floodable Length calculations. Displacement The displacement dialog is used to specify the range of displacements to be used for the KN. The Permeability dialog is used to specify the permeabilities to be used for the Floodable Length analysis. This permeability is unrelated to compartment.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax The VCG specified in the draft dialog is used for the calculation of upright stability characteristics such as GMt only. from the baseline. The permeabilities may be sorted by double clicking on the permeability column heading. The compartment. and is specified in terms of KG – i. Permeability The Permeabilities are set in a table in the Permeability dialog. which is not necessarily the vertical zero datum. Page 145 . Use the Add and Delete buttons to add or delete rows from the table. and/or calculating the weights of fluids in tanks in the loadcase.

Note This warning is not displayed during batch analysis.001% to 1.0%. Acceptable tolerances can range from 0. If Hydromax thinks that it is likely that the model has sunk (waterplane area is zero at the current condition) the following dialog will be displayed. One of the most common causes of non-convergence is if the specified displacement exceeds the volume of the completely submerged vessel and it sinks. This defines the tolerances that Hydromax uses to determine when to finish iteration during Large Angle Stability Equilibrium analysis Specified conditions KN calculations Floodable Length Longitudinal Strength Ideal tolerances can range between 0. Hydromax will display a warning. calculation tolerances can be set.00001% and 0.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Also see: Modelling Compartments on page 51 Tolerances In the Edit | Preferences dialog.1% (1 gram in 10 tonnes of displacement). The specified displacement and the actual displacement at the current iteration are provided for information. If this is not achieved within a certain number of iterations. instead the warning is written in the batch file. Also convergence may be poor if the trim angle approaches 90 . The warning is also not shown when accessing Hydromax from a VBA macro using the Automation interface Page 146 . If convergence to within the acceptable error has not been achieved. Acceptable tolerances should always be greater than Ideal tolerances. Hydromax will continue. Convergence Error Hydromax will attempt to solve most analysis to within the ideal tolerance. but the acceptable error has been achieved.

The analysis will also fail to converge if the trim becomes excessive. Analysis Environment Options The analysis can be performed in different environments. heel angle curve. All analyses other than Floodable Length will fail if the trim exceeds +/-45º. which appears not to be due to sinking. If you choose to continue. in the case of the Floodable Length analysis. producing a highly non-linear waterplane area vs. draft plot. this limit is increased to +/-89º. This problem can sometimes occur if the specified displacement is extremely small and the vessel has a large flat bottom. Hydromax will search for the equilibrium position indefinitely. Note: There are occasions when convergence will not necessarily occur within the maximum allowable number of iterations. but will allow you the option of continuing the search. you can interrupt Hydromax by pausing the analysis. then the following dialog will be displayed. If the search is unsuccessful after a reasonable period of time.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax If there is a convergence problem. If Hydromax fails to converge it will give you a warning. this section describes the analysis environment options available in Hydromax in more detail: Page 147 . Other causes of non-convergence can be non-linear moment to trim vs. trim angle curve or moment to heel vs.

It is possible to specify the range of filling levels for which free surface moments should be applied in the loadcase.10 The usual remainder of liquids in empty tanks need not be taken into account in calculating the corrections. This requires that a nominal minimum displacement be specified. the FSM is applied if the filling level is within the exclusive range specified. The upper limit is clearly stated by IMO as 98%.2 Free surface effects should be considered whenever the filling level in a tank is less than 98% of full condition. (see IMO IS Code) Page 148 .e.i. You may set different limits for each of the different free surface moment types other than “User Specified”. Free surface effects need not be considered where a tank is nominally full . if the filling level is less than or equal to the lower limit or the filling level is greater than or equal to the upper limit. filling level is 98% or above. In addition it is possible to ignore the free surface moment if the VCG correction for a single tank. (see IMO IS Code) 3.e. Selecting Fluids in the Analysis menu opens the Fluids Analysis dialog.3.3. the free surface moment will be zero. This is applicable to the “IMO” free surface moment type only. i. This functionality is accessed through the Analysis | Fluids dialog: Fluid Analysis dialog If the corrected the VCG method is used. 3.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluids Analysis Methods Density Waveform Grounding Stability Criteria Damage Fluids Analysis Methods Hydromax allows you to specify two different ways of simulating any fluids contained in tanks or compartments. but the code provides some flexibility in interpretation for the lower limit. provided that the total of such residual liquids does not constitute a significant free surface effect. due to the free surface moment is less than a specified amount.

For more information. This is because the actual free surface moment to be used to determine the VCG in a loadcase depends on the method being used and also the heel angle in question (in the case of the IMO correction). Note: Calculation of GM GM values always use the centre of gravity corrected for free surface moments even if the “simulate fluid” option has been chosen.9 Small tanks which satisfy the following condition using the values of "k" corresponding to an angle of inclination of 30°.3. authorities have not adopted this more accurate calculation of the shift in centre of gravity due to fluid movement. Page 149 .Chapter 3 Using Hydromax 3. The effective rise in VCG due to the tanks' free surface is calculated by summing the free surface moment of all the tanks and dividing by the total vessel displacement (the free surface moment to be applied is specified in the loadcase). Although the computational potential is available. need not be included in the correction: M fs / min 0. It is reasonably accurate at low angles of heel and trim. as it corresponds with the traditional approach used by naval architects and classification societies worldwide. This method should be used when compiling a stability booklet for a design. see Working with Loadcases on page 38. Note that the upright free surface moments as shown in the loadcase are used. calculated in the upright condition.01m min where M fs is the free surface moment of the tank in question and is the ship displacement at the minimum mean service draft of the ship without cargo. Note: Tank Calibration results In the tank calibration results the free-surface moment based on the transverse second moment of area of the tank waterplane is given for all filling levels. In this case. These values are automatically calculated from the maximum free surface moments of the tanks. with 10% stores and minimum water ballast. Note Most documented stability criteria assume that the corrected VCG method has been used. Fluid analysis method: Use corrected VCG Tank capacities and free surface moments are calculated for the upright hull (zero trim and zero heel). if required. not those from the actual second moment of area of the inclined tank waterplane. There are several FSM types available. the loading window will include a column for free surface moment and cells for corrected fluid VCG.

Alternatively. or non-dimensional relative density (specific gravity). This approach is used when the stability of a vessel is being investigated and the closest possible simulation of the hull's behaviour is required. The new LCG. The new centre of gravity is calculated for each tank and used in the analysis. density may be specified using Barrels as the unit of volume. tall narrow tanks. Equilibrium Condition and Longitudinal Strength (the Longitudinal Strength analysis always uses fluid simulation). Hydromax iterates to find the fluid level for the rotated tank at the specified capacity. or wide shallow tanks). the actual fluid level in the tank. It is particularly useful at high angles of heel or trim. Conversions are performed automatically. VCG and TCG are calculated for the whole design and used in the calculation of GZ. KG.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Fluid analysis method: Simulate fluid movement This method is a faithful simulation of the static movement of the centre of gravity of the fluid in each tank. When fluid simulation is used in one of these analyses. however the results are significantly more accurate. free surface moments and corrected fluid VCG are normally not displayed in the loadcase. and GM. Every tank is rotated to the heel and trim angle being analysed. Density of Fluids Where necessary. The penalty of using this approach is that the calculation time is longer. may be specified. Specific gravity is calculated relative to a fluid having a density of 1000. filled to the volume specified in the loadcase. Page 150 . When selected.e. Otherwise the complete tank will be shown.e. Large Angle Stability. Density using the current units.0 kg/m3. will be displayed in the View window. the density of sea water (the fluid in which the vessel is floating) and fluids commonly carried on board can be adjusted using the Density dialog. or with tanks whose heeled water plane area may be significantly different from the upright case (i. fluid simulation is used for analyses that use a loadcase. When fluid simulation method is selected. i.

The four columns.0250 1. Tank calibrations results and loading conditions will also be updated.0000 0. green.7499 6D00FF00FF00 6D006D00FF00 FF005F005F00 FF005B00FF00 6D00FF006D00 7F007F007F00 3F003F003F00 FF0000007F00 Page 151 . Note that only the custom fluids may have their names changed.8400 0. it is necessary to change the density of this fluid.0250 1. If the vessel is to float in a different fluid. specific gravity. This is the first fluid in the list printed in bold font. There is one row for each of the 18 fluid types.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax By assigning a code to the fluid you can easily apply the fluid type in the Compartment Definitions table. if you wanted to carry out an analysis for a vessel in fresh water.0 kg/m3. colour respectively (the colour is in hexadecimal for the red. Note The vessel's hydrostatics are always calculated assuming the vessel is floating in the fluid labelled "Sea Water".9443 0. The densities file may be edited manually if desired. These are fluid name. Thus. Saving and Loading Densities Densities listed in the Density table can be saved and loaded using the File menu.9200 0. you would change the density of "Sea Water" to 1000. each separated by a tab character. Sea Water. All other entries may be edited (the same restrictions area applied as when editing through the Density dialog). Sea Water Water Ballast Fresh Water Diesel Fuel Oil Lube Oil ANS Crude Gasoline leaded S B W D F L C G 1. Tanks that have been specified as containing one of these fluids will be updated automatically when the density of the fluid is changed in the Density dialog. blue components and are probably much more easily edited in the Density dialog. fluid code.8883 0. cannot be changed (any changes made will be ignored). The name and code for the first entry.

7471 0. wave height and phase offset can be specified.7499 0.607 √ Wavelength [m] This is the metric equivalent of the US Naval standard wave height: Wave height [ft] = 1. If the wavelength is modified the wave height defaults to a value in metres of: Wave height [m] = 0. Gas.0000 1.0000 1.0000 1. If a waveform is specified. JFA MTBE Gasoil Slops Custom 1 Custom 2 Custom 3 Custom 4 Custom 5 U J M GO SL C1 C2 C3 C4 C5 0.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Unlead.1 √ Wavelength [ft] For short waves of wavelength less than 64m. Also see: Windows Registry on page 16 Waveform Hydromax is capable of analysing hydrostatics and stability in arbitrary waveforms as well as for a level water plane. you can always reset the densities to their default values in the Densities dialog.0000 FF007F007F00 7F007F00FF00 F600FA00C900 FF00FF007F00 FF006F00FF00 D6000300D600 D600D6000300 0300D600D600 D60003000300 DF00DF00DF00 If you make an error.8203 0.9130 1. the waveheight reduces linearly with wavelength given by the formula: Wave height = 0. or as a sinusoidal or trochoidal waveform. To specify a waveform. The wavelength defaults to the waterline length of the hull at the DWL.0000 1. select the Waveform command from the Analysis menu: The water plane can be specified as flat.8524 0.075875 Wavelength Page 152 . the wavelength.

whilst GMt and GMl are the actual vertical separation of the metacentres above the centre of gravity in the trimmed reference frame normal to the sea surface.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Once a wavelength has been set. The effective centre of gravity will be modified by the grounding reactions – a mass is effectively being removed from the vessel. with a wavelength equal to the waterline length. the sum of the buoyancy and the grounding reactions equals the loadcase displacement.5. will give a single wave crest at amidships. The phase offset varies between 0 and 1. this will bring the effective centres of gravity and the centre of buoyancy in line vertically. The Equilibrium analysis will determine whether the hull is grounded or free floating and will trim the hull accordingly. Remember that KG is measured in the upright vessel reference frame (normal to the baseline). Grounding Grounding is an additional analysis environment option for the Equilibrium or Longitudinal Strength analysis. Damage can be specified concurrently with grounding. both of which correspond to a wave crest at the forward end of the DWL. For example. as a proportion of the wavelength. It is possible to specify grounding on one or two points of variable length. the wave height may be modified. If the vessel touches one or both grounding points. a phase offset of 0. this will be reflected in the results: The displacement column will show the total grounding reaction force in brackets. Page 153 . The value of KG. GMt and GMl are all calculated to the effective centre of gravity. The phase offset governs the position of the wave crest aft of the forward end of the DWL.

Note: Fixed zero heel during grounding analysis The equilibrium analysis will only consider the longitudinal balance of moments. For more information see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria starting at page 163. Damage You can specify whether the model is to be analysed in intact or damaged condition using the Analysis Toolbar. the vessel will not be balanced in heel and the vessel will remain upright (zero heel) even if the transverse metacentric height is less than zero. the first point (edit boxes on the left) must refer to the forward grounding point. Stability Criteria Stability criteria may be seen as the “environment of authorities” that the ship will be deployed in.e.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Note: Grounding points are considered to span the transverse extents of the hull and therefore constrain the heel to zero. the second grounding point is the aft grounding point. The length of the grounding points is only used when considering the load distribution for Longitudinal Strength analysis and not to determine the pivot point. Also see: Damage Case Definition on page 71 Page 154 . The vessel is considered to pivot at the centre of the grounding point. When two grounding points are entered. i.

Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Analysis Output Hydromax will produce the following output data: Hydromax model visualisation Result data tables per analysis Graphs per analysis Report o o o Report window Streamed directly to a Word document Report Templates In this section: Reporting Copying Select View from Analysis Data Saving the Hydromax Design Exporting Reporting Hydromax has several options to do your reporting: Batch Analysis text file and/or streaming to Report window Automatically generate a report in the Report Window for each analysis run Automatically Streaming results to Word Manually copy and paste tables and graphs from the Results Window and Graph Window The most efficient method depends on the number of loadcases and damage cases you have to analyse and the output you require. This also applies to Batch Analysis. Streaming results to Word It is possible to stream the Analysis results directly to Word. it is recommended to use batch analysis. For large numbers of cases. if the option to Stream the report to Word has been selected in the Edit | Preferences dialog a word document is automatically generated after a Batch Analysis. Form small number of loadcases and damage cases you can do a manual copy and paste of the results into a report. This then allows you to validate the results at the same time. Page 155 . Select the option to send the results to the report window if you require Graphs. Additionally. Batch Analysis results saved as text files do not include graphs. To do this: Edit | Preferences Select the option to Send the Report to Word This will send the Report document to Word instead of to the Report window. After you have run an analysis a Word document is created and opened automatically.

instead of just dumping the results of each analysis into a Word document. tables. Please note that Send Report to Word must be enabled before you can enable this option. or you can build your own template.dotx/dotm (for Word 2007) format and will be used when creating any future reports. You can use one of the sample templates provided. See the dialog box below as an example: The Word Template File specified should be in .dot Page 156 . it is possible to use template keywords to specify where in the document the analysis results go and where each element of the output (such as graph.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Report Templates Hydromax offers the ability to customise reports through a Report Template. This gives you much greater control over how the analysis results are output than with the normal Send Report to Word option and allows you to customise your own report template document. With report templates. Simply tick the box „Use Word Templating‟. etc) is placed. This feature is only available when sending reports to Microsoft Word. Two Report Templates have been included to get you started: StabilityBooklet.dot or . To turn on Report Templating you need to select it in the Preferences dialog box.

It also includes all of the basic analysis blocks and variables to get you started. Users can start with StabilityBootlet.dot This document is a good starting point for creating your own customised template. Simply double-clicking on a template document opens up a new document based on the template (which is not what you want). These allow you to easily add and remove the analysis keyword blocks.g. Page 157 . Note: To edit a report template in Microsoft Word you will need to start Microsoft Word and then open the template directly using the File menu.dot and then use it customise their own report template. The location of these report templates varies depending on which operating system you are using. HMReportTemplate. It contains an introduction to how templates are created and configured. On Windows XP/Server 2003 the default location for the report templates is: C:\Program Files\Maxsurf 14\Report Templates\ On Windows Vista. copying and pasting data to and from Excel spreadsheets allows you to use the full spreadsheet capabilities of Excel on your Hydromax model. Copying Hull Views Pictures of the hull in the View windows may be copied to the Clipboard using the Copy command from the Edit menu. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window. Copying & Printing A range of options for transferring data from Hydromax to other programs such as spreadsheets and word processors is provided through copy and paste functions.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax This is an example of a complete Stability Booklet template – this document is the default Word Template file for new users and is recommend for users wanting to quickly create a Stability Booklet. This data transfer works both ways: e. Both of these templates contain macros and toolbar items to make life easier when you design your own template. due to new security changes we‟ve had to move this to an alternative location that every user has write access to – so you can find it at: C:\Users\Public\Documents\Maxsurf\Maxsurf14\Report Templates\ Tips: See: Copying Tables on page 158 for tips on how to include the table header in a copy paste to for example Excel Graph Formatting on page 190 for tips on how to format your graph prior to copying to another application. Data Format on page 207 for tips on how to specify what should be displayed and customise how to display tables (vertical or horizontal).

Graph Printing to Scale When printing the graph. hold the shift key down when selecting the print command for the graph. will also copy the column headings. 2. range of cells or the whole table and then choose the Copy command or Ctrl+C. The data copied from the table will be placed on the clipboard and can then be pasted into a spreadsheet or word processor for further work. Printing Each of the windows in Hydromax may be printed. To do this. To copy a simple bitmap image of the view at the current resolution. use Ctrl+I. column. Page 158 . The printing may be forced to be black and white. a bitmap of the current image may be saved by pressing Ctrl+Shift+I Copying Tables Tables may be copied to the clipboard. it is possible to ensure that the graph is plotted to a sensible scale so that measurements can be made directly from the graph. To print the page click the Print button. Choose the Colours button and select the options required.0cm. otherwise click the Cancel button. but the selection will be reflected in the printout. Note: Copying data from the table with the Shift key depressed. Prior to printing you may wish to set up the paper size and orientation by using the Page Setup command from the File menu. additionally. Simply bring the window you wish to print to the front and choose Print from the File menu. The titles may be edited by clicking the Titles button. Views of the hull in the View window may be printed to scale as in Maxsurf.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax These pictures can then be pasted into other applications or the Hydromax Report window. but they will be inches instead of cm. Simply select a cell. row.0cm. Note that the print preview is not refreshed after these changes. Print Preview The page to be printed is initially displayed in print preview mode. then the graph will be plotted so that the grid lines are at one of the following intervals (If the current length units are imperial then similar intervals will be used. 2.0cm. You will be asked if you want to print the graph to scale or to fill the page: The scale used will depend on the length units that are currently selected. 5.): 1.5cm. If these are metric.

the data in the individual tables such as loadcases. This can also be done for Upright Hydrostatics and the different wave phase calculations for an Equilibrium analysis in a waveform. it is recommended to also save the Hydromax input files separately. each step from the analysis can be visualised when the analysis has completed. key points etc. For example: the angle of downflooding can be visualised by returning to the Stability table in the results window.g.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Exporting a Bitmap Image You may also export a bitmap of the rendered perspective view with the File | Export | Bitmap Image command.hmd file automatically every time you press Save from any of the design windows. The Select View from Data can also be used to display the Curve of Areas graph for each intermediate analysis stage. Saving the Hydromax Design Hydromax design data may be saved Saving in a Hydromax Design File Saving Input Files separately Saving in a Hydromax Design File To save the design in one file. Note Although all Hydromax model data is saved in the . see Graph type on page 189. please see: File Extension Reference Table on page 307. for comparing the characteristics of vessels which have only minor differences in hull shape and identical tank layouts and loadcases.hmd file with the same name as the design. This gives the option of loading common data into different design files. E. The Hydromax data is saved in a . may also be saved separately. damage cases. Page 159 . For more information on file properties and extensions in Hydromax. Saving Input Files separately In addition to saving all the data together. selecting the column at the required heel angle and select “Select View From Data” in the Display menu.. In the View window the hull will be displayed in the selected position. Select View from Analysis Data For most analyses. compartment definition. ensure that the View window is topmost and select Save from the File menu.

select Save Compartment Definition from the File menu. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. To save the loadcase table. This allows for further calculations to be done in a spreadsheet or for formatting to be done in Word. To save the data. Selecting this option saves all the loads displayed in the current tab in the Loadcase window. ensure the Results window is topmost on the screen and choose the table containing the data you wish to save. Saving Compartment Definitions to a File To save a compartment definition to a file. select Save from the File menu. bring the Input window to the front and choose the required input table. bring the Input window to the front and choose the compartment definition table. meaning that they can be read directly into spreadsheets such as Excel with values being placed in individual spreadsheet cells. Selecting this option saves all the data currently displayed in the Results window. You will be asked to name the file and select where it is to be saved. The Results files are saved as tab delimited text. Saving Input Window Tables To save a input window table to a file. This allows the same loading spreadsheet to be recalled at any time for use with the same design or with any other hull. Saving Results to a File Once you have performed an analysis. you can save it in a file on disk. Exporting The data export function in Hydromax is similar to Maxsurf. the data generated may be saved as a text file.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Saving Loadcases to a File Once you have set up a loading spreadsheet. Saving Damage Cases to a File Bring the Damage window to the front and select Save Damage Cases or Save Damage Cases As from the file menu. Some Hydromax-specific export features are described below. Excel or other programs. Page 160 . Select Save or Save As from the File Menu. ensure the Loadcase window is topmost on the screen and choose Save Load Case from the File Menu.

compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer. each tank. For more information on data export of DXF and IGES. a major change to the Hydromax file structure was made. In addition. This export function is particularly useful to export tank arrangement drawings. All key points will become downflooding points in the version 8 file and any tank sounding pipe information will be lost. DXF export Contains all lines displayed in the active design window as closed poly-lines.Chapter 3 Using Hydromax Data export dialog in Hydromax. Note: The layer name is the same as the compartment name. Hydromax models created in versions greater than version 8.0 After Hydromax version 8. so it is important to have unique compartment names.0 can be exported using the File | Export menu so that it is compatible with Hydromax version 8. Exporting the Model to Hydromax Version 8.0. Page 161 . please see the “Output of Data” section in the Maxsurf manual.

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This makes it quick and easy to set which criteria should be included for analysis and to change criteria parameters. i. Criteria results are added to the Report after a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis.e. A fixed sub-set of criteria is used for the Floodable length analysis and these criteria are accessed in their own. DNV. after an Equilibrium analysis only those criteria that are evaluated from Equilibrium data are added. It is also possible for users to create their own custom sets of criteria. This section describes how this list of criteria can be divided up in to Parent heeling arms. only the criteria that are selected for evaluation during an intact analysis will be evaluated and added to the report. only criteria that are applicable are added to the report. However. and after a Large Angle Stability analysis only GZ based criteria are added to the report.: if the intact case is being computed. Criteria may be identified as intact or damage criteria (or both). simplified dialog. Users may save. i. explanation how to work with the Hydromax criteria dialog to create your own custom set of criteria. ISO and more. Criteria List Overview Hydromax includes a wide range of criteria. similarly for the damage cases. Parent criteria. The following sections will be discussed: Criteria Concepts. Criteria Results.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Chapter 4 Stability Criteria This chapter describes how stability criteria are used in Hydromax. Help information relating to the use and parameters of each criterion is displayed in the lower right hand corner of the dialog. import and edit their criteria sets. Equilibrium and Limiting KG calculations. Although all criteria are displayed in the criteria table. predefined custom criteria and user created custom criteria. Criteria Procedures. Page 163 . Stability criteria are evaluated for Large Angle Stability. explanation of terms and definitions See also: Appendix B: Criteria file format Appendix C: Criteria Help Appendix D: Specific Criteria Criteria Concepts Hydromax includes a wide range of template criteria (or: parent criteria) as well as predefined custom criteria such as IMO. HSC. This section also explains how all criteria can be divided up into two different criteria types: equilibrium and GZ curve based. These custom criteria files may be easily transferred via email. This ensures that the correct criteria are evaluated and displayed during normal and batch analysis. Hydromax uses a single dialog to control all the stability criteria. only the applicable criteria are added to the report (although all are displayed in the Results table).e. an overview of what capabilities Hydromax offers with regards to stability criteria. criteria evaluation results Nomenclature. These criteria are listed using in a tree control on the left-hand side of the criteria dialog.

the roll-back angle required for the IMO IS code Severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria tree list Parent Calculations This folder contains calculations that are required for certain criteria parameters. Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog Parent Heeling Arms In most cases a ship is subject to specific heeling moments. Those heeling moment are then used in a number of different criteria. These calculations may be referenced in certain criteria. for example. The Hydromax criteria list contains Parent Heeling Arms that can be copied into a custom criteria folder and then cross-referenced into the stability criteria. Page 164 .

delete or add criteria to the Parent Criteria group. Most specific criteria are locked. Parent criteria are special in that you cannot rename. they are displayed in bold text in the Criteria list. Predefined Custom Criteria A number of criteria files containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. Each parent criterion allows you to perform a specific calculation. Another benefit is that. Also the parent criteria settings cannot be saved. To distinguish the Parent criteria from your derived criteria. they will always revert to their default values when Hydromax is restarted. This is because the parent criteria are intended for use as templates from which you can derive your own custom criteria. This is done by dragging the required parent criteria in to the “My custom criteria” group or any other group you create. Parent Criteria The Parent Criteria group contains all the parent criteria types that are available in Hydromax.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The advantage of using cross-referenced Heeling Arms is that a heeling arm is now defined (and edited) in only one place. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. This is explained in the section on Working with Criteria on page 168. it is only displayed once in the GZ graph and not duplicated for each criterion that uses it. since the heeling arm is defined in one place. Custom Criteria You can create your own set of criteria in the tree as well. Furthermore some newer heeling arm criteria are only available for cross-referenced heeling arms and a greater variety of heeling arm definitions are available through cross-referencing. This ensures that all criteria which use a specific heeling arm use exactly the same heeling arm. Also see Working with Criteria Libraries on page 172 Appendix D: Specific Criteriaon page 291. This folder can be found in the Maxsurf root directory: c:\program files\Maxsurf. these are the fundamental criteria from which criteria for specific codes are derived. Page 165 . those that are not locked require your ship design data to be input.

This is because it is only this type of criteria that is more likely to pass as VCG is reduced. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. For a criterion to be used in the search for maximum VCG in the Limiting KG analysis.g. STIX. etc. These criteria are evaluated only after an equilibrium analysis has been performed. e. create separate folders to store related criteria. Weather criterion. The equilibrium heel angle is also a fundamental output of the Equilibrium analysis. metacentric height. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. GZ criterion. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve including a heeling arm. See next: Criteria Procedures Page 166 . but they cannot be included directly in the search algorithm. Note that there is some cross-over between the criteria types. You will notice that different icons are used to differentiate between different types of criteria. For this reason.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Types of criteria There are two fundamental types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. The same also applies for GMt. once in the form of an Equilibrium criterion and again as a Large Angle Stability criterion. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. notably angle of equilibrium heel. GZ area criterion GZ criterion with heeling arm GZ area criterion with heeling arm GZ criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations GZ area criterion with several heeling arms and their combinations Combined GZ criterion. area under GZ curve between specified limits. freeboard measurements. These criteria perform several individual tests on the GZ curve. All folders must have unique names (even if the parent folders have different names). Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. e. These icons are derived from the parent criterion type. angle of maximum GZ. These criteria make measurements from the GZ curved obtained from a Large Angle Stability analysis. it must be a LAS criterion. etc. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. Equilibrium criterion. This can be measured from the GZ curve by looking for an up-crossing of the GZ=0 axis. For example. A check is also made to ensure that any selected Equilibrium criteria are passed.g. Combined GZ heeling arm criterion. in some criteria sets some criteria are included twice. trim angle. The different types of criteria and their icons are described below: Folder icon.

To bring up the Criteria dialog. Starting the Criteria dialog Resizing the Criteria dialog Working with Criteria Editing Criteria Working with Criteria Libraries Starting the Criteria dialog The criteria dialog allows you to select which criteria are selected for inclusion in the analysis and change their parameters.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria Procedures This section describes how to work with the stability criteria dialog. . select Criteria from the Analysis menu: or use the Criteria button. in the analysis toolbar: Page 167 .

Resizing the Criteria dialog The dialog may be resized and a vertical and horizontal slider can be used to resize the width of the Criteria List and the height of the Criterion Details areas. in the unlikely event that the dialog items vanish due to resizing the dialog. the dialog size can be reset by holding down the “Shift” key when you open the dialog. This section explains how to create and customise your own criteria from the Parent Heeling Arms and Criteria provided with Hydromax. Working with Criteria In the Concepts section it was explained how the criteria are listed in a tree list. Page 168 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The criteria dialog is shown below: Note: The Floodable Length analysis uses its own set of criteria. The criteria command will bring up the Floodable Length Criteria dialog when the Floodable Length analysis is selected. This behaviour is the same as all other resizing dialogs. Note that if.

this prevents inadvertent editing of its parameters. Locking is used for criteria belonging to specific codes where the required values are fixed. Click on the “-” sign to collapse the group (or double click on it). Page 169 .Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Using the Criteria Tree List The tree works in much the same way as the file folders in Windows Explorer: Click on the “+” sign to expand the folder (or double click on it). Intact: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for intact conditions. If a criterion is locked. Click on an item’s name or icon to select it Once selected. click again on the on the item’s name to edit its name Some short-cut keys for the tree list: Tree control smart keys Alt+Keypad * Right Arrow or Alt+Keypad + Left Arrow or Alt+ Keypad Up Arrow Down Arrow Space Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu Function Recursively expands the current group completely Expands the current group Collapses the current group Move one item up tree Move one item down tree Include criterion for analysis Several options are available by right-clicking on a criterion or criterion group: Criterion right-click menu Include for Analysis: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated. Damage: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) should be evaluated for damaged conditions. Lock: Toggle whether the criterion (or all criteria within the group) are locked.

Alternatively use the Copy and Paste functions from the right-click context menu (see above). Selecting the Criteria for Analysis Criteria may be selected for analysis by ticking the tick box to the left of the criterion. To select an entire group. It is extremely important to ensure that all criteria groups have unique names. all criteria that should be in a group of that name will end up in the first one and none in the second. Note that if you drag a criterion from the Parent Criteria group a copy will be made and the original will not be deleted. Other functions are available from a menu activated when the right button is clicked on your mouse. right-click on the group and choose Include for Analysis from the menu. Paste: Paste the criterion (or whole criterion group) from the clipboard to the selected location Rename: Renames the criterion or group. Defining new Custom Criteria and Groups New custom criteria sets may be created by first creating a new criterion group and then dragging the desired criteria into the criterion group. Copying criteria You can use the Criteria Tree Right-click Context Menu to copy and paste criteria. then loading the criteria file may cause unexpected results. As criteria (and new groups) are loaded they are inserted into the first group that is found with a name that matches the name of the group to which the criterion should belong. then clicking again in the label. in which case a copy will be made regardless of whether the Ctrl key is held down or not). If duplicate group names exit. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree. Moving Criteria Criteria may be moved from one group to another by dragging them with the left-mousebutton or by using the cut and paste functions in the right-click context menu (see above). Cut: Cut the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. This may then be pasted into another location in the tree.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Add Group: Add a new criterion group. you can hold down the CTRL-key while moving the criteria you will copy the criteria. Alternatively. Delete: Deletes the criterion or all the criteria and sub-groups within the group. If there are groups with the same name. By holding down the Ctrl button a copy of the criterion being dragged is created (unless it is a parent criterion. Copy: Copy the criterion (or whole criterion group) to the clipboard. Editing Criteria The specific details for a criterion are displayed in the table in the top-right of the dialog: Page 170 . This may also be done by selecting the label.

have a grey background. with the “Value of GMt at” criterion: Page 171 . click on the criterion‟s name in the tree and the criterion‟s parameters will be displayed in the table on the right. The values that are required for passing a criterion are in bold. For example the limits for an upper integration range or the individual criteria to be evaluated for a more complex criterion: In both of these cases the selection is cumulative and none of the selections are mutually exclusive. the check boxes act as radio buttons and only one may be selected. If in doubt. at least one must be selected. In other cases.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criterion details table To edit the parameters for a specific criterion. Edit the parameters as required and then select the next criterion to be edited from the tree. Please note that the criteria are updated as you change their data and that there is no “Cancel” function for this dialog. Check Boxes in Criteria Properties Section of Criteria Dialog There is some subtly different behaviour for the check boxes in the dialog depending on their context. This occurs. or click the dialog‟s Close button. However. for example. those which cannot be edited. The parameters that may be adjusted have a white background. where the items are mutually exclusive. use the File | Save Criteria command to save a copy of your current criteria selection and data before making any changes in the Criteria dialog. In most cases there will be group of related options used to define a criterion parameter.

Hydromax allows you to make this distinction by selecting the required comparison from a combo-box in the criterion row of the details table: Description Shall be greater than Shall not be less than Shall be less than Shall not be greater than Damage and Intact Symbol > ≥ < ≤ Logical test Greater than Greater than or equal to Less than Less than or equal to Criteria may be defined as intact or damage stability criteria (or both). GZ curve reduction in the wind heeling criteria: Criterion Pass/Fail Test There are some subtle differences between the wordings for different criteria. The parent criteria.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Finally a check box can be used to select whether a specific effect should be included. By default this is c:\program files\Maxsurf\ Hydromax Criteria Library. which consists of the Parent criteria and a “My Custom Criteria” group. If this file cannot be found. Intact criteria are only evaluated for the intact case and damage criteria are evaluated when a damage case has been selected (irrespective of whether there are actually any damaged compartments or tanks in the damage case). Criteria that are defined for both are always evaluated. A third option which is not yet implemented is WOD (Water on deck) this checkbox has no effect.hcr. you will be prompted to locate a criteria file: You may select an alternative file or click the Cancel button to proceed and be given the default criteria. only the criteria that you create or import will be saved. These options may either be set using the right-click menu or by ticking the appropriate boxes in the bottom of the dialog: Intact and Damage tick-boxes. Working with Criteria Libraries It is possible to load and save the criteria. for example. whereas another may state “Shall not be less than…”. Page 172 . built into Hydromax are not saved. For example one criterion may state “Shall be greater than…”. Default Criteria Library File When starting.hcr” from the directory in which the Hydromax program resides. Hydromax will try to open the default criteria library file called: “Hydromax Criteria Library.

Note It is good practise to save the criteria file with the project in the project folder. A number of criteria containing criteria for specific codes are supplied with Hydromax. That way.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria The default criteria library will be automatically updated every time the criteria dialog is closed. Further updates will. updates will be saved in the default criteria library. either overwriting the existing one or creating a new one. you must save them in a new file first. so if you want to save any further changes you will have to resave as described above. The default criteria library will be over-written with the new criteria so if you wish to keep any custom criteria that you may have added to your default criteria library. Saving Criteria It is also possible to save the criteria into a new file. it is important to ensure that the group names in the file you are importing are not the same as those that already exist. if you choose “No”. Choose Save Criteria As from the File menu. This will simply export all the custom criteria (parent criteria are not saved) to the specified file. however. You will then be asked if you wish to keep the existing criteria: If you choose “Yes” your existing criteria will be kept. These may be found in the “HMSpecificCriteria” folder. Note that when keeping your existing criteria. continue to be saved to the default criteria library file that was opened when Hydromax was first started. See Saving Criteria below. all criteria are still available. when at a later stage you need to re-analyse the project. or Ctrl select to select multiple files in the Open Hydromax Criteria dialog. This can be useful when you are defining new custom sets of criteria that you wish to keep separate or when defining criteria sets for different vessels. not in the new groups. the imported criteria will be found in the original groups. Even if you loaded an alternative file. Page 173 . all existing criteria except the parent criteria will be removed and replaced by those in the file you are opening. Importing Criteria and Specific Criteria Files New criteria may be added to your criteria list by importing them – choose Import Criteria from the File menu. If this does occur. You can import several criteria files in one go using Shift.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Criteria File Format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . The file is a normal PC text file. This is normally due to an insufficient range of heel angle having been used. The format for the results table and the report are specified separately. This allows you to edit criteria parameters or selected criteria and re-evaluate using the existing analysis results. e. Results may be displayed in “Verbose” or “Compact” format (see above). criteria are evaluated and the results displayed in the Stability Criteria table in the Results window.hcr. Criteria Results Table The tested criteria are listed one above the other. Intermediate values are displayed.html. The typical format of the file is given in the following file: c:\Program Files\Maxsurf\\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp. Criteria Results After a Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analysis. Editing this file will also allow you to add your own help text or associate rich text format help files (rtf) files with your criteria.: angle of vanishing stability. Criteria can also be re-evaluated without having to redo the analysis when “Close and Recalculate” is selected in the criteria dialog. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria. After calculation the relevant criteria are also added to the Report..g. angle of equilibrium. Values that could not be calculated. Chose the Display | Data Format command when the Stability Criteria results are displayed: Page 174 . have n/a in the Actual and/or Value column. etc.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Stability criteria results window: compact format Stability criteria results window: verbose format Page 175 .

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Report and Batch Processing As noted earlier. For example. Page 176 .e. angle of maximum GZ. For example damage criteria during intact analysis or Equilibrium criteria during a Large Angle Stability analysis are not added to the report. water-plane inertia and immersed volume) at the specified heel angle and not from the slope of the GZ curve. metacentric height. any criteria that have a “not analysed” result. Definitions of GZ curve features Some typical GZ curves are shown below. These criteria are often referred to as Large Angle Stability (LAS) or GZ criteria. only the relevant criteria results are added to the Report and/or Batch file. the third graph shows the GZ curve with a heeling arm overlayed.e. Note: The metacentre is always (even for Large Angle Stability criteria) computed directly from the vessel‟s hydrostatic properties (i. trim angle. This type of criterion is also used by the Floodable Length analysis. i. There are two distinct types of criteria: Equilibrium criteria Equilibrium criteria are evaluated after an Equilibrium analysis and refer only to the condition of the vessel in its equilibrium state For example: margin line immersion tests. Also see Reporting on page 155 Batch Analysis on page 138 Nomenclature This section gives a brief description of the various values that are determined by Hydromax in the evaluation of criteria. These are calculated after a Large Angle Stability analysis and during a Limiting KG analysis. Criteria derived from measurements of the GZ curve. area under GZ curve between specified limits. are not added to the Report (although they are displayed in the Criteria Results table). freeboard measurements. This gives an accurate result that is not dependent on the heel angles and intervals tested during the analysis. Criteria that are not relevant. etc. Equilibrium criteria can be recognised by the icon. etc.

Chapter 4 Stability Criteria Typical GZ curve Unusual GZ curve with double peak Page 177 .

The equilibrium angle is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope. the GZ curve may have multiple peaks. this often occurs if the vessel has a large watertight cabin. Page 178 . The equilibrium angle with a given heeling arm is the angle closest to zero where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has positive slope. In some cases. The angle of the first peak is the lowest positive angle at which a local maximum in the GZ curve occurs. The angle of vanishing stability with a given heeling arm is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the heel arm curve and where the GZ-Heel Arm curve has negative slope.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GZ curve with heeling arm superimposed GZ Definitions The table below defines how Hydromax calculates the various features of the GZ curve: Angle of vanishing stability Angle of vanishing stability with heeling arm curve Downflooding angle Equilibrium angle Equilibrium angle with heeling arm curve First peak in GZ curve The angle of vanishing stability is the smallest positive angle where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with negative slope. The downflooding angle is the smallest positive angle at which a downflooding point becomes immersed.

The location of the metacentre is computed from the water-plane inertia.Chapter 4 Stability Criteria GML or GMT GZ Curve Heeling arm curve Vertical separation of the longitudinal or transverse metacentre and centre of gravity. not the slope of the GZ curve. The curve of vessel righting arm (GZ) plotted against vessel heel angle A curve of heeling lever. combined effect of heel and trim. etc. the heeling arm is forced to be zero at heel angles greater than 90° and less than -90°. Note that the centre of gravity used is the upright centre of gravity corrected by the free surface moments of partially filled tanks in their upright condition. The heeling arms are never allowed to be negative. Depending on the moment that they represent. the Gust Ratio is the ratio of the magnitude of the gust wind heeling arm to the steady wind heeling arm. rotated to the specified heel (and trim) angle. Often a roll back angle is measured from some equilibrium position. Commonly used in wind and weather criteria to account for the action of waves rolling the vessel into the wind. if the cos function goes negative. Positive angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum Positive angle at which the value of (GZ . it is often necessary to calculate the GZ curve for negative angles of heel. the resulting heel angle after the roll back has been applied is more negative than the original. Page 179 . These include the effects of wind. which is superimposed on the GZ curve. Used for some wind heeling criteria. passenger crowding.80665ms-2 Roll back angle The maximum slope of an initially horizontal.heel arm) is a maximum Maximum GZ Maximum GZ above heeling arm curve Glossary The table below describes some commonly used terms: Angle of heel measured from upright. 1998 CODATA recommended value for standard acceleration of gravity A negative heel angle change. This is typically used to assess the effects of external heeling moments. flat deck at the resultant vessel heel and trim. centripetal effects of tuning. If the heeling arm has a power of cos greater than zero. If a criterion uses a roll back angle. which are applied to the vessel. i. Deck Slope / maximum slope Gust Ratio g = 9. the heeling arm is made zero. the heeling arm curves will have different shapes.e.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference

**Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference
**

This chapter contains brief descriptions of the tools available in Hydromax:

Windows Toolbars Menus

Windows

Hydromax uses a range of graphical, tabular, graph and report windows.

View Window Loadcase Window Damage Window Input Window Results Window Graph Window Report Window

Assembly View and Property Sheet

An assembly view has been added to Hydromax, this makes it easier to control the visibility of individual tanks and surfaces. The Properties sheet can be used to change tank properties of the tank currently selected in the Assembly or design View.

View Window

The View window displays the hull, frame of reference, immersed sections of the hull and any compartments, and the centroids of gravity, buoyancy, and flotation. These positions are represented by: cb cg cf K centre of buoyancy centre of gravity centre of flotation location of keel (K) for KN during KN analysis

You can choose which type of view is displayed by selecting from the Window menu or the View toolbar. The Zoom, Shrink, Pan and Home View commands from the View menu may be used and work in exactly the same way as in Maxsurf. If a Perspective view is shown, you may also use the Pitch, Roll and Yaw indicators to change the angle of view. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual if you are unfamiliar with these functions. You may set the visibility of the various display elements by using the Visibility command from the Display menu. Two sets of visibility flags are maintained, one is used for all analyses other than tank calibration and the other is used for when the tank calibration analysis is selected.

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If a view window is visible when an analysis is being carried out, it will display the hull shape using the correct heel trim and immersion for the current step of the analysis. After an analysis, the Select View from Data command in the Display menu may be used to move the hull to a selected position from the Results window. The view of the tanks, compartments and non-buoyant volumes can be toggled between an outline view and a view of the sections.

Perspective view

In the perspective view, the model may be rendered.

The rendered view also enables tanks and compartments to be more easily visualised, especially when the hull shell is made transparent.

The rendering options are to be found in the Display menu, with further lighting options in the Render toolbar. Please refer to the Maxsurf manual for more information on the different rendering options available in perspective view.

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Note: Fastest performance will be achieved by reducing the amount of redrawing that is required from Hydromax. For this reason, it is best to turn off sections, and especially waterlines, when performing an analysis. You may then turn them on again after the analysis has completed. For fastest performance, e.g. when running in Batch mode, minimise the Hydromax window so that no redrawing occurs.

Loadcase Window

In the Loadcase window a spreadsheet table of all loads and tanks is displayed.

Using the tabs on the bottom of the window allow you to quickly browse through the different loadcases. Hydromax allows you to improve the presentation of the Load Case window by adding blank, heading or sub-total lines in the table. For more information see Working with Loadcases on page 38. The columns that are displayed may be selected using the Display | Data Format dialog.

Damage Window

The Damage window is used to specify which tanks and compartments are flooded in each damage case. There is always an Intact case, which cannot be edited, this is the default condition. If flooded volumes are required in the intact case they should be defined as non-buoyant volumes.

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Input Window

The Input window contains tables where the additional Hydromax design data is entered. The tables in the Input window contain the:

Compartment Definition Sounding Pipes Key Points Margin Line Points Modulus Points Bulkhead locations

The input window contains tabs on the bottom that allow you to quickly browse through the different input tables.

Compartment Definition

This table can be used to define the tanks and compartments in the Hydromax models. For more information see Modelling Compartments on page 51 in the Analysis Input section.

Sounding Pipes

This table is used to define the tank sounding pipes and calibration intervals. Default values are provided but these may be edited if necessary.

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Key Points

**There are several types of Key Points:
**

Down Flooding points Potential Down flooding points Embarkation points Immersion Points

**Only downflooding points are used in determining the downflooding angle, which is used in criteria evaluation.
**

Margin Line Points

The margin line is used in a number of the criteria. Hydromax automatically calculates the position of the margin line 76mm below the deck edge when the hull is first read in. If necessary, the points on the margin line may be edited manually in the Margin Line Points window (the deck edge is automatically updated so that it is kept 76mm above the margin line).

Modulus Points

This table is used to define the allowable limits for shear force and bending moment during the longitudinal strength calculations.

Bulkheads

See Floodable Length Bulkheads on page 77. Results Window

The Results window contains ten tables, one for each of the different analysis types plus criteria results and key points results tables. When switching mode, the currently selected results table will change to reflect the current analysis mode. Note that results are never invalidated if analysis options are modified – it is up to the user to ensure that the results are recalculated as necessary.

Setting the Data Format

It is possible to configure Hydromax so that only the results that you wish to see are displayed. To do this, choose Data Format from the Display menu.

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but are not displayed. or so that each draft is on a separate row. Items that are selected with a tick will be displayed in the Results window and on any printed output. Equilibrium and Specified condition Analysis. and select either the horizontal or vertical layout button. For example. Items that are not selected are still calculated during the analysis cycle. Data Layout Most analysis data can be formatted vertically or horizontally to fit better on the screen or the printed page. You may change the display format at any time after the analysis without having to redo the calculations. The data available for display depends on the analysis. The DF angle column is only visible when the analysis mode is set to Large Angle Stability and the Freeboard column is only displayed when the analysis mode is set to Equilibrium or Specified condition. select Data Format from the Display menu.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference A dialog similar to the one above will appear. To change the format. with Upright Hydrostatics. Key Points Data Result Window Key points data is calculated for Large Angle Stability. the data can be formatted so that each draft has a column of results. Page 186 .

Page 187 . where all the intermediate calculations are shown. The results may be displayed in compact format: Alternatively. the results can be displayed in verbose format. by selecting the desired format in the Display | Data format dialog. Criteria results are not displayed in this table after a Limiting KG analysis. Limiting KG and Equilibrium analyses. The results of the criteria evaluation are presented in this table after Large Angle Stability and Equilibrium analyses.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Stability Criteria Result Window If stability criteria are turned on in the analysis menu. they will be evaluated during Large Angle Stability.

Alternatively you can select a specific graph using the Windows | Graphs menu item. Upright Hydrostatics Analysis: Hydrostatics Curves of Form Curve of areas – different graph for each draft tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Large angle stability Analysis Righting Lever (GZ) Curve of areas – different graph for each heel angle tested (selected using Display|Select view from data) Max steady heel angle Large angle stability (hydrostatic data other than GZ) Curves of Form Dynamic stability (GZ area) Equilibrium Analysis: Curve of areas Specified condition Analysis: Curve of areas KN Values Analysis: Cross curves (KN) Limiting KG Analysis: Limiting KG Floodable length Analysis: Floodable length Longitudinal strength Analysis: Longitudinal strength Curve of areas Tank Calibration One graph for each tank For many graphs you can select what is plotted and other options with the Display | Data Format dialog. Only the graphs that are applicable to the current analysis can be displayed. Page 188 . Graphs can be copied using the Edit | Copy command. Depending on the analysis mode. different graphs are available. Hydromax will automatically display the graph that displays the result of the current analysis when you select Graph from the Windows menu or press the toolbar button.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Graph Window The Graph window displays graphs. which show the results of the current analysis.

Floodable Length and Tank Capacities. Note: In case multiple curves are plotted in the same graph you can switch between the curves by clicking on them. Longitudinal Strength. Tip: You can use the Select View from Analysis Data option (page 159) to see the Curve of Areas for each heel angle and/or intermediate stage during the analysis. Area and corresponding heel angle can be measured by using the slider.degrees and cannot be displayed in units of length. Curves of Form. as you move the cursor the interpolated values will be displayed. Curve of Areas. Hydromax will ignore the exact position you click on the curve to allow reading all related interpolated values along the black dashed line. the area is always given in units of length. Note: Because the horizontal axis scale is always in degrees. The area is integrated from zero heel angle to the location of the graph slider. The data in the lower left corner of the window will change to display the curve name and co-ordinates of the mouse on the curve. These can all be displayed via the Graphs item in the Windows menu. use the mouse to click anywhere on the curve.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Graph type Hydromax can graph many types of data depending on the type of analysis being performed. Righting Lever (GZ curve). the slider data is displayed at the bottom of the Graph window.radians. Page 189 . Interpolating Graph Data To display an interpolated value from one of the curves. These graphs include Upright Hydrostatics. Click anywhere on the dashed line and drag it with the mouse. GZ Graph The GZ value.

Copying Graphs You can copy the contents of the Graph window using the Copy command or Ctrl+C. This can sometimes be useful if you expect a discontinuity in the GZ curve. a parametric cubic spline is used to fit a smooth curve through the calculated GZ data at the specified heel angles. If this is the case. Curve fitting for GZ graph A curve fit will be performed if all the heel angle intervals are less than or equal to 10˚. Note that the picture is placed in the clipboard as a meta-file which can be resized in Word or Excel. If you wish to prevent this curve fitting. this double click can be extremely helpful to export the analysis data to for example Excel fro further processing. where there is no tabular data available. Thus if you require the area between two limits. you must subtract the area at the lower limit from the area at the higher limit.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note The lower integration limit is always zero (irrespective of the equilibrium angle). Graph Formatting When you are in the Graph window you can use the View | Colours and lines dialog to change the colours of the curves in the graph as well as the background. Since the graph data contains more data points than most tables in the results window. Page 190 . Also see: Copying Tables on page 158. Graph data The graphed data can be obtained by double clicking on the graph. The View | Font command allows you to change the text size and font size. This ensures that the fitted line goes exactly through the calculated GZ points. Especially in the case of the sectional area curve. add a heel angle interval of greater than 10˚ as the final step.

as well as a ruler showing you tab stops. this will facilitate generating a table of contents and also allows you to re-format the various styles (or import a custom set of styles using the style organiser in Word). Copy and Paste. Editing a Report The Report window has it's own toolbar permanently attached to the view. these should be saved and opened in a word processor such as Microsoft Word or Open Office for formatting: set the results tables up as you want them to appear in the report (the report uses the same column widths. Report Window Hydromax contains a Report window. choose an appropriate paper size for the report (the tables will be split to fit this paper size. Report Window Page Setup When you are in the Report window.). so choosing a wide paper size will prevent all but the widest tables from being split). Underneath all of this you have your actual editing area. once the tables have been placed into the report. As the built-in report window only has basic editing and formatting functionality. Hence it is often most convenient to select the desired report page set up before any analyses have been made. it is recommended that the report window be used only to accumulate the results. do the same for the graph widow. Page 191 . inserted tables will be automatically formatted to fit the current page set up. Use the Format | Autoformat function in Word (with the default settings) to set the correct styles for the different levels of heading in the document. both Loadcase and Criteria results tables will not be split. This window is used to create a progressive summary of the analyses that have been carried out. indentation and margin widths. the File | Page setup command allows you to customise the page orientation and size you wish to use for reporting. You can for example choose the landscape Page Setup prior to running an analysis to make the tables fit better. However.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note When the graph is pasted in Microsoft Word®. fonts etc. their formatting will not be changed by changes to the print set up. copy and paste the Hydromax report into Microsoft word. saved to and recalled from a disk file. Hydromax will split most results tables so they fit the specified page set up. This report can be edited via Cut. printed. the graph can be edited by right clicking on the graph and selecting “edit picture”. This is important because. Once all the results have been gathered in the report window. However.

Page 192 . or the section of text that is currently highlighted. The toolbar contains the following items: Font combo box Font Size combo box Bold Italic Underline Colour Left Justify Centre Justify Right Justify Bullet Use this to change the current font Use this to change the current font size Use this to toggle the Bold style Use this to toggle the Italic style Use this to toggle the Underline style Use this to set Text Colour Use this to set Left Justification Use this to set Centre Justification Use this to set Right Justification Use this to toggle Bullet Points The Ruler comes in two formats. The toolbar has a number of buttons that allow you to change either the current settings.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The information below is provided for reference. in metric and in inches . but it is strongly recommended not to use any of the formatting commands in the Report window.the format you have displayed on your screen depends on the current Dimension Units you have (use Units in the Display menu to change this). The format shown below is metric.

The decimal tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a dot under a straight arrow. Normally. These are listed below for convenience: Ctrl+B Toggle Bold on/off Ctrl+U Toggle Underline on/off Ctrl+PageUp Ctrl+PageDown Ctrl+Enter Position at the top of the report Position at the bottom of the report Insert a page break Opening and Saving the Report The report can be saved to a file or read in from a file using the Save and Open Menu commands with the report window highlighted. there are also several useful keystrokes that are available while editing the report. The 'left' tab stop indicates where the text following the tab character will start. The 'centre' tab stop centres the text at the current tab position. click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. the new results will be appended to the end of the report which may then be resaved). However. a tab command is applicable to every line of the current paragraph. The centre tab stop is indicated on the ruler by a straight arrow. centre. hold the shift key and click the right mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. drag the tab to the desired location and release the mouse button. (Load in the old report. Keyboard Support for Reports In addition to menu support. This is useful if you wish to append an analysis to a report that had been calculated at some time in the past. simply click on the desired tab marker and drag it off the ruler. the tab command is then applicable to all the lines in the highlighted block of text.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The Ruler allows you to set left. right. To create a centre tab stop. click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. hold the shift key and click the left mouse button at the specified location on the ruler. The tab stops are very useful for creating columns and tables. perform the analyses. To create a left tab stop. To clear a tab position. The 'right' tab stop aligns the text at the current tab stop such that the text ends at the tab marker. A paragraph can have as many as 20 tab positions. simply click the left mouse button on the tab symbol on the ruler. To move a tab position using the mouse. The right tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the left. The 'decimal' tab stop aligns the text at the decimal point. The left tab stop is indicated on the ruler by an arrow with a tail toward the right. Page 193 . While the mouse button is depressed. To create a right tab stop. and decimal tab stops. if you highlight a block of text before initiating a tab command. To create a decimal tab stop.

it is desirable to insert schematic images of the vessel into the report. The image copied is as per the image displayed in the Hydromax view window. You can hold your mouse over an icon to reveal a pop-up tip of what the icon does. To overcome this problem. paste the image into Microsoft Word first. Ensure that the colors selected will be easily visible in the white background of the report view. Page 194 . then copy it from Word back into the Hydromax report window. the image may not maintain its aspect ratio and may be pasted into the report as a square. Depending on which Microsoft operating system you are using (notably Win98).Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Pasting images into the report Sometimes. File Toolbar The File toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: New – Open – Save – Cut – Copy – Paste – Print Edit Toolbar The Edit toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Add Row . This is very easily done. Toolbars Hydromax has a number of icons arranged in toolbars to speed up access to some commonly used functions.Delete Row | Sort Loadcase Rows – Move Loadcase/Tank Row up – Move Loadcase/Tank Row Down View Toolbar The View toolbar contains icons that execute the following commands: Zoom – Shrink – Pan – Home View – Rotate – Assembly window. by copying an image from one of the design views and then pasting it into the report at the desired location.

Window Toolbar Allows quick switching between commonly used windows: Perspective – Plan – Profile – Body Plan | Loadcase – Damage Case | Compartment – Downflooding – Margin Line – Modulus – Bulkheads | Results for Current Analysis – Criteria Results – Key Point Results | Graph – Report Design Grid Toolbar The Design Grid toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views Frame of Reference (always on) | Toggle Design Grid Visibility Design Grid | Design Grid Labels | Design Grid Tickmarks Visibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Sections – Datum Waterline – Waterlines | Key Points – Margin Line | Loadcase mass items | Tanks – Damaged Tanks – Compartments – Damaged Compart. – Linked Negative Compartment. The Assembly window is not available in Hydromax.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference The Rotate command is only available in the Perspective window. – NBV – Tank Names – Tank Fluid Level – Tank Sections – Tank Outlines | Probabilistic Damage Zones * NBV = Non Buoyant Volume Page 195 . Analysis Toolbar The Analysis toolbar contains icons for selecting the current analysis. loadcase and damage case: Analysis Type – Current Loadcase – Current Damage Case The Analysis toolbar also contains icons that execute the following commands: Criteria (dialog) | Start Analysis – Pause Analysis – Resume Analysis | Update Tank Values in Loadcase The “Update Tank Values in Loadcase” is exactly the same as the menu command for “Recalculate Tanks and Compartments on page 206.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Edge VIsibility Toolbar The Visibility toolbar contains icons that show or hide various items in the graphical views: Hull Surface Edges – Internal Surface Edges – Feature Edges – Bonded Edges Render Toolbar Render – Render transparent – Toggle custom light 1 – Toggle custom light 2 – Toggle custom light 3 – Toggle custom light 4 – Customise light settings Report Toolbar Spool results to report View (extended) Toolbar Set Home View – Colour – Font – Preferences – Properties Design Grid Toolbar Display Frame of Reference (always on) – Display Design Grid – Show Grid – Show Labels – Show Ticks Extra Buttons ToolbarToolbar Add surface areas to loadcase – Preferences | Heel – Trim – Draft – Displacement – Displacement – Specified Condition – Permiability – Fluid simulation – Densities – Waveform – Grounding – Batch Analysis Data Format – Units – Coefficients – Set to DWL – Set View from Data –Visibility Dialog – Show Single Section Page 196 .

g: when the Loadcase Condition is the frontmost window. When the Compartment Definition table is frontmost. the New command will create a new loading condition. Menus The following section describes all of the menu commands available in the Hydromax program. The requested design will be read in and its hull shape calculated for use in Hydromax. Hydromax will ask whether you wish to save any changes. the Open command will open whichever file corresponds to the frontmost input window. If a design is already open. Save Selecting Save will save the contents of the frontmost window to a file on the disk. File Menu Edit Menu View Menu Case Menu Analysis Menu Display Menu Data Menu Window Menu Help Menu File Menu The File menu contains commands for opening and saving files and printing. New creates a new compartment definition. Close The Close command will delete the data in the frontmost window. e.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference This toolbar provides a number of buttons for commonly used commands in case you should wish to customise your toolbars. selecting the Open command will show a dialog box with a list of available Maxsurf designs. Select the design you wish to open. Open When no design is open. Selecting Close when one of the design view windows is frontmost will close the current Maxsurf design. click the Open button. New Creates a new table for whichever input table is frontmost. Save As Selecting Save As performs the same function as save but allows you to specify a new filename preventing the original file from being overwritten. Import Allows import of file types other than Maxsurf design files Page 197 .

Hydromax v8. you may export the Hydromax model to a GHS geometry file. interconneceted. Page 198 . Export Selecting Export enables you to export a Hydromax file as a variety of different file formats such as: DXF or IGES DXF exports sections as closed poly-lines. three-dimensional model of the hull. the geometry is locked: the tank geometry is locked and tanks cannot be added to the model. chose Edit | Activate GHS export. Import Image Background Enables you to import an image file (jpg. The buoyant hull part with the most sections is loaded from the GHS file. Because the GHS file does not contain a full. IGES exports the NURB surface data. In addition. See the Maxsurf manual for more information. bmp or png) file into the background of any of the Hydromax design views. Any container parts with elements with negative effectiveness will be read in as tanks. but will be removed in subsequent versions: Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part. It is possible that this might cause problems for some models where the section through the hull at a certain location contains more than one closed contour.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference nuShallo Allows direct import of a nuShallo pan file. gif. tanks and compartments and key points are all exported. The full model including critical points. compartment and non-buoyant volume is exported on a separate layer (the layer name being the same as the compartment name. Sail parts are ignored Import DXF Background Enables you to import a DXF file into Hydromax to use as construction lines. each tank. GHS Allows direct import of a GHS geometry file. The DXF file will be displayed in the design views. A full GHS model file may be imported directly into Hydromax for analysis. so it is important to have unique compartment names). Linked negative tanks are not supported in Hydromax. GHS If you have a Hydrolink license.0 file Also allows users to export Hydromax files that are compatible with earlier versions of Hydromax. The hull. The buoyant hull is exported as a single part with a single buoyant component (Non-buoyant volumes are included in this part as components with negative effectiveness). In subsequent versions of Hydromax we will add the capability to divide the main buoyant hull into different components. Hydromax supports only a single buoyant hull part with one byouant component. All other cotainers are read in as tanks. tanks and sounding pipes are read from the GHS file. To enable the export command. The following limitations currently apply.

and performed a tank calibration. Contours will be formed through the selected surfaces and then trimmed back to the bounding box. the following dialog will appear: “Fredyn group definition” dialog This dialog is where the user will specify the values for the variables used to generate the mesh file that defines the geometry of the hull. Page 199 . The groups are defined by selecting the surfaces to be measured and defining a boundary box that defines the limiting extents of the group. exporting Hydromax calibration results. Current criteria may be kept or discarded.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Export Bitmap Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified resolution. any number of groups may be added and for each group.txt: Mesh file representing the current hull shape. In the group definition dialog. For more information on each of the fields in the table click on the Help button on the right hand side of the dialog. To export use the File|Export|Fredyn… command. The most important part of the procedure is setting up the groups required in the mesh file. This command is only available when the Perspective window is frontmost with rendering turned on. Before doing the Fredyn export ensure you have specified the desired trim and heel ranges. Allows you to export the rendered image as a bitmap file at the specified Import Main Criteria Imports criteria from the selected criteria files.xml file and also the location to which it should be saved.xml file name. Fredyn Hydromax is able to export data suitable for input into Fredyn. The following files will be generated . Fredyn mesh group definition When exporting from Hydromax to Fredyn you will be asked to name the .xml: Containing compartment definition . hull form and compartment definitions into Fredyn input files. as this information is required for the export. all with the name you specify in the “Fredyn Export XML” dialog. After assigning the . The Export will generate 3 files.out: Tank calibration results and compartment definitions .

Exit Exit will close Hydromax and all the data windows. Note that a branch of the criteria tree may be saved in its own file by right-clicking on the branch folder in the Criteria dialog tree. results tables and graph window. Save Prob Damage Criteria As As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria. Rest Prob Damage Criteria to defaults Results the probabilistic damage criteria to their default values. Save Densities As Saves the Fluid densities table data. The whole library may be saved by right clicking on the root “Criteria” branch. If you have any data or results. Edit Menu The Edit menu contains commands for working with tables. Print The Print command allows you to print the contents of the frontmost window on the screen.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Save Main Criteria As Exports the current criteria set to the specified file. Page Setup The Page Setup dialog allows you to change page size and orientation for printing. Cut Cut may be used in the Report window but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing or data windows. this is not normally necessary as this is done after any major changes to the criteria definition. input tables. It is good practice to save the criteria library with each project in a project folder. Copy The Copy command allows you to copy data from any of the windows. but cannot be used on Hydromax drawing windows or data windows. Load Densities Loads density table data previously saved from Hydromax – can be useful for synchronising the densities on several computers. including the design view. Hydromax will ask you if you wish to save them before quitting. which have not been saved to disk. Page 200 . Import Prob Damage Criteria As for main criteria but applies to the probabilistic damage criteria. see Density of Fluids on page 150. Undo Undo may be used with desk accessories.

Row Positioning Set Justification for the current table row or an entire table in the Report. Insert New Table Create a new table in the Report. Delete Cells Delete current cell. Table Performs operations on Hydromax's Report window. If no rows are selected. Add The Add command is used to add an entry to the input tables (Load. Insert Row Insert a new row into the current table in the Report. Fill Down Copies text in a table down a column like a spreadsheet. columns or rows in the Report. the last row in the window will be deleted. Cell Shading Set Cell Shading Percentage for a single cell or a range of cells in the Report. Graph or Results windows. Delete The Delete command will delete rows from the input tables. margin line point etc. Select All Selects the entire Report. otherwise all selected rows will be deleted. Cell Border Set Cell Border Width for a single cell or range of cells in the Report. column or row or a range of cells. tank. Paste cannot be used in the View.). Split Cell Split the currently selected cell into two separate cells in a table in the Report. Show Grid Toggle table grid lines in the Report.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Paste Choose the Paste command to Paste data into the Loadcase window or other input tables. or the Report window. Merge Cells Merge the selected cells in a table into a single cell in the Report. Sort Items Sorts the selected rows in the Loadcase window Page 201 .

It can also be used to release the Hydrolink license – a restart of Hydromax will be required for this to take effect. Shrink. Shrink Choosing Shrink will reduce the size of the displayed image in the design view windows by a factor of two. Home View Choosing Home View will set the image back to its Home View size. Page 202 .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Move Items Up Moves the selected rows up (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables. then select Set Home View from the View menu. which is a virtual trackball which lets you freely rotate a design in the Perspective view window. Add Surface Areas This command automatically adds the surface areas and centres of gravity of all hull surfaces into the current loading condition. Zoom The Zoom function allows you to examine the contents of the design view windows in detail by enlarging the selected area to fill the screen. and Pan to arrange the view. Activate / Deactivate GHS Export This command activates the GHS Import command in the File menu if a Hydrolink License is available. View Menu The View menu contains commands for controlling the views in the graphics windows. use Zoom. Rotate Activates the Rotate command. Also see: Tolerances on page 146 Streaming results to Word on page 155. To set the Home View. Move Items Down Moves the selected rows down (if possible) in the Loadcase and Compartment definition tables. Set Home View Choosing Set Home View allows you to set the Home View in the View window. This is useful for estimating the initial weight of hull plating. Pan Choosing Pan allows you to move the image around within the View window. Preferences The Hydromax preferences dialog allows you to set your analysis tolerances (or: error values) and select the option to stream the report to a Microsoft Word document.

which may be used to view parameters of selected objects (such as tanks). It is very easy to get carried away with bright colours and end up with a garish display that is uncomfortable to work with. See Loadcase Colour Formatting on page 44. Properties Displays the properties sheet. Graph. Curve of Areas. Status Bar Allows you to turn the Status Bar on and off at the bottom of the screen. Assembly Show or hide the assembly tree view. Toolbar Allows you to turn the Toolbars on and off. To change the colour click in the box and select a new colour from the palette. When Loadcase window is frontmost. and graphs. Remember to always be careful when using colour. and Results windows. To Change the thickness select the thickness from the drop down list. Font Font command allows you to set the size and style of text. labels.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Colours and lines The Colours and lines function allows you to set the colour and thickness of the lines. Colours for the loadcase items can be set. Loadcase. In general it is best to use a neutral background such as mid grey or dull blue and use lighter or darker shades of a colour rather than fully saturated hues. Page 203 . The text style chosen will affect the display and printing of all text in the Report. From the scrollable list. select the item whose colour you wish to change. The item‟s current colour will be displayed on the left of the dialog.

temporary damage conditionas are created automatically. number of Loadcases Specify the number of loadcase tabs – this requires a restart to activate the changes made. Create cases from Zone Damage Automatically creates damage cases based on the zones that have been defined for Probabilistic damage analysis. It also contains commands to set the input data and analysis settings and environment options required for the current analysis. (This is only required if you want to manually recreate some or all of the Proabilistic damage analysis conditions. Add Damage case Add another damage case Delete Damage case Delete the selected damage cases Edit Damage case Edit the properties of the selected damage case Extent of Damage Automatically finds the breached tanks and compartments due to a cuboid extent of damage (or in the case of Probabilisitic damage. opened and closed through the file menu. Case Menu Commands associated with the Loadcases and Damage cases Edit Loadcase Edit the properties of the current Loadcase (name and whether it is a loadcase or Loadgroup). See Working with Loadcases on page 38.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Full Screen Maximises screen usage.) Max. Loadcases are created. when running Probabilistic damage analysis. Analysis Menu The Analysis menu can be used to change the current analysis mode. the zone or sub-zone). Page 204 .

Separate ranges are used for Large Angle Stability.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Note: It is good practice when preparing to run analysis to work down the Analysis menu starting at the top and checking all of the settings and environment options. See Fluids Analysis Methods on page 148. KG for the upright hydrostatics is also specified in this dialog. Waveform The Waveform command allows you to perform analysis for a flat waterplane or sinusoidal or trochoidal waveforms. Heel Selecting Heel allows you to specify the three ranges of heel angles that you wish Hydromax to step through. CG. Density This command allows you to set the density of fluids used in the analysis. The vertical centre of gravity to be used for KN and Floodable Length analyses is specified here. Displacement and Draft for the Specified Condition analysis. MARPOL Options Select MARPOL Regulation and specify which tanks should be incuded in the MARPOL oil outflow analysis. Trim. See Density on page 150. Trim Allows the specification of the trimming mode to be used for the analysis. Limiting KG and Floodable Length can be set using this command. free-to-trim specifying initial trim value and free-totrim specifying LCG position. Fluids Allows you to specify whether to use Corrected VCG method or Simulate Fluid Movement method when treating the fluid contained in slack tanks. Calibration Options Specify whether compartments and non-buoyant volumes should also be calibrated. Permeability The range of permeabilities used for the Floodable Length analysis are set using this command. Specified Condition Allows you to specify Heel. free-to-trim to loadcase. Page 205 . This can be fixed trim. KN and Limiting KG analyses. Displacement The range of displacements used for the analysis of KN values. Draft The range of drafts used for the analysis of upright hydrostatics can be set using this command.

tank and compartment sections and recalculates them from the hull surface data and compartment definition.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Criteria The criteria menu item will bring up the criteria dialog. See Criteria on page 163. Recalculate Hull Sections Deletes all existing hull. It then updates the loadcase with the correct capacities and free surface moments for the tanks. Also recalculates totals and subsubtotals after a row sorting or moving command. This command also updates the loadcase. the criteria command will bring up a Floodable Length Criteria dialog with criteria that only apply to floodable length analysis. Update Loadcase Checks for changed tanks and makes sure that any tanks and compartments that have not been formed are correctly calculated. Also see: Margin Line Points on page 76. If any of the tank boundaries are made up from boundary surfaces. Also see: Tank Loads on page 46 Recalculate Tanks and Compartments Forces all tanks and compartments to be re-formed from their initial definition. Snap Margin Line to Hull Project all of the margin line points horizontally onto the hull surface. Note: To be able to update the Hydromax model to changes made in Maxsurf see Updating the Hydromax Model on page 26 for a step-by-step procedure you can follow. Page 206 . This allows you to specify which criteria will be checked during the analysis. Grounding Specifies grounding on one or two points of variable length for use with the Equilibrium and Longitudinal Strength analyses. ensuring that the margin line follows the hull shape precisely. it is better to use “Recalculate Hull Sections” after re-opening the Maxsurf model to make sure the latest internal structure surfaces are being used as well. When the floodable length analysis is selected. if you wish to recalculate at a different precision. or if you wish to modify whether skin thickness or trimming options are applied. This is particularly useful if the underlying Maxsurf model has been modified. Set Analysis Type Choose the analysis type you wish to use from the sub-menu.

See Setting the Data Format on page 185. Results are written to a tab delimited text file as specified by the user at the start of the analysis. any data displayed for the final iteration may be incorrect. equilibrium condition and KN values. Display Menu The Display menu contains commands for controlling the data. Stability. Spool to Report Send the results of the analysis to the report upon completion. Hydrostatic results Data format dialog Used to select display options for Criteria results: Page 207 . Data Format Data Format allows you to choose which data are tabulated and graphed (Upright Hydrostatics. Start Batch Analysis Hydromax will run the selected analyses for all combinations of load and damage cases using the batch processing command. Note that the analysis may not have been completed and in the case of large angle stability. Resume Analysis If you have halted analysis by choosing Stop Analysis. which are displayed in the graphics and other windows. also. The analysis may be halted at any time by choosing Stop Analysis from this menu.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Start Analysis Selecting Start Analysis causes Hydromax to start performing the specified analysis. Resume Analysis may be used to restart the calculation from the point where it was interrupted. This should be turned on before commencing the analysis to ensure that results are added to the report when the analysis is completed. Equilibrium and Specified Condition). A dialog box allows you to choose from a range of stability variables. Stop Analysis This command halts the analysis at the current iteration.

Safe heeling angle angles graph is shown as a result of a Large Angle Stability analysis the Data Format dialog may be used to customise the graph layout: Page 208 .Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Criteria table Data format dialog Used to select which columns are displayed in the Loadcase window: Loadcase Data format dialog When the Max.

Prob damage zones Toggle the visibility of the probabilistic damage zones. not for tanks with the vessel at the final heel and trim of the last analysis. labels. Page 209 . hull contours. compartments. Large Angle Stability or Equilibrium analyses. Simply highlight the column or row that corresponds to the condition you wish to view and select “Select View From Data”. The view may be set from any of the results from Upright Hydrostatics. Select View from Data This function may be used to synchronise the display in the Design View window with one of the sets of data in Results window. Visibility The visibility of tanks. This is to ensure that tank data in the Loadacase are for the vessel in the upright condition. and other items in the design view may be set by using this dialog. the Design View will change to match the condition in the selected row or column in the Results window. the Loadcase will not update while editing – only when start another analysis). This is required for automatic update of the Loadcase (note that if you do not rotate back to the DWL.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Max safe heeling angle Data format dialog May be used to customise the Floodable length graph: Floodable length Data format dialog Set Vessel to DWL Rotates the vessel back to upright and to DWL after an analysis has been completed (or Select View from Data used).

The option to display the grid will be greyed out when the ship is currently displayed in. Hide Image Hides the background image in the current view window. for example. as well as a control box. Delete Image Deletes the background image in the current view window. similar to the one in Maxsurf. The background may be loaded from an existing DXF file using the Import function in the File menu. Set Image Reference Point Sets the image reference point. Tools for positioning and scaling the background image are also here.. in the top right corner of the window. The grid can only be displayed when the vessel is in upright position on its design waterline. Delete DXF background Deletes the DXF background. Background Controls whether the background DXF construction lines and the background images are displayed or not. Switching analysis type puts the boat back into upright position on its design waterline. the section chosen can be changed by pressing the left or right cursor keys on your keyboard. Also see: Show Single Hull Section on page 30 Page 210 . The commands in the submenu are only available when a background image or DXF has been imported. Alternatively.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Individual Loadcase masses Toggle the visibility of the individual mass items in the current loadcase. The section being displayed can be chosen by clicking on the section indicators at the top of the control box. Show Single Hull Section in Body Plan Selecting the Show Single Hull Section item from the Display menu will change the display in the Body Plan window to show only one section through the hull. This command is not available for images in the perspective window. Show DXF Shows the DXF background. a trimmed state at the end of an equilibrium analysis. See the Maxsurf manual for more details Hide DXF Hides the DXF background. Design Grid The grid submenu allows you to hide the grid or show the grid with or without station grid labels. Set Image Zero Point Sets the image zero point. This allows you to rapidly step through the hull sections from bow to stern. Show Image Shows the image in the current view window.

You are not expected to change the Design Grid in Hydromax. Data Menu Units The units used may be specified using the Units command.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Render When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render option may be toggled on and off to render the surfaces. When Hydromax has finished calculating the frames the sequence may be replayed by moving the mouse from side to side. For example. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information. See Setting Units on page 37 for more information. units for speed (used in wind heeling and heeling due to high-speed turn etc. when a waveform has been specified and an equilibrium analysis is selected or after a Large Angle Stability analysis over a heeling range. Animate This command is available for any analysis that steps through several steps. In addition to the length and mass units classes. giving a simple visual simulation of the motion of the hull through the wave. Hold the shift key down while selecting the command to save the animation. Clicking the mouse button will terminate the animation. Render Transparent makes the hull surfaces of the model semi transparent so that the rendered tanks and compartments within the model may be viewed. Coefficients Allows you to customise how you wish to calculate the coefficients as well as the display format for the LCB and LCF. Render Transparent When the Perspective window is the current view for the model the Render Transparent option may be toggled on and off. through the range of heel angles specified. Page 211 . You may set the initial viewing position in the Perspective View window using the Pitch. You are not expected to change the Frame of Reference in Hydromax. Selecting Animate will animate the stability sequence in the design View window. The angular units for measuring heel and trim angles are always degrees. Roll and Yaw indicators. If animation is chosen after an Equilibrium Analysis has been performed in waves. criteria) and the angular units to be used for areas under GZ curves. Design Grid Access to the Design Grid is intended for information only. Frame of Reference Access to the Frame of Reference is intended for information only. may also be set. the animation will automatically cycle through the full range of wave phases.

The Loadcase window allows you to enter a series of component weights. See: Setting the Frame of Reference on page 18. each represents a Hydromax window. Cascade Displays all the Windows behind the active Windows. Margin Line Points or Modulus table. Loadcase Brings the Loadcase window to the front. The Graph window displays a number of different graphs. Window Menu For the items in this menu. Help Menu Provides access to Hydromax Help. It is highly recommended that the correct frame of reference be set in Maxsurf prior to loading the design into Hydromax. Key Points. Hydromax Help Invokes Hydromax Help.Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference If the position(s) of the Baseline and/or Perpendiculars need to be changed from those defined in the Maxsurf model. This will ensure that a consistent frame of reference is used in all the programs. These inputs are used to calculate the total Displacement and Centre of Gravity for Stability. Selecting the item brings the appropriate window to the front. together with their longitudinal and vertical distances from the zero point. Page 212 . depending on which analysis mode is currently active. they may be changed using the Frame of Reference command. The selected design window will then be brought to the front. Tile Vertical Layout all visible windows down the screen. Input Choose from the Input item to bring the desired Input window to the front and display the Compartment Definition. KN and Equilibrium analysis. Graph Brings the selected Graph window to the front. Tile Horizontal Layout all visible windows across the screen. Arrange Icons Rearranges the icons of any iconised window so that they are collected together at the bottom of the Maxsurf program window. Results Choose from the Results item to bring the desired Results window to the front and display the desired table. View Direction Select the desired view direction from the sub-menu.

Chapter 5 Hydromax Reference Hydromax Automation Reference Invokes the Automation Reference help system. Check for Updates Provides access to our website with the most recent version listed. About Hydromax Displays information about the current version of Hydromax you are using. Online Support Provides access to a wide range of support resources available on the internet. Page 213 .

Page 214 . these axis systems are no longer parallel. because Hydromax treats trim exactly (the hull is rotated not sheared when trim occurs). World or trimmed frame of reference The “world” or “trimmed” reference frame is that of the trimmed vessel.) is achieved in Hydromax. etc. static waterline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the waterline Rotated reference frame (red) and measurements in the two reference frames: Measurements in the upright vessel reference frame (green) and trimmed reference frame (blue) When the vessel is upright (zero trim and zero heel) these axis systems are parallel. However. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the horizontal. Here the baseline is no longer horizontal and neither are the perpendiculars vertical. Here the baseline is horizontal and the perpendiculars are vertical. AM. there are two frames of reference: Ship or upright frame of reference The “ship” or “upright” reference frame is that of the upright vessel with zero-trim. Measurement Reference Frames Results in Hydromax are given from the vessel‟s zero point.Appendix A Appendix A: Calculation of Form Parameters This Appendix explains how the calculation of form parameters (CB. Definition and calculation of form parameters Below is a summary of the definitions of basic vessel particulars and form parameters used in Hydromax. “Longitudinal” measurements are made parallel to the baseline and “vertical” measurements are perpendicular to the baseline. CP. However if the vessel is trimmed or heeled or rotated in both directions simultaneously. and investigates why differences with other hydrostatics packages may occur.

Page 215 . floatation and buoyancy (LCG.e. i. GM.Appendix A Ship-Fixed and Earth-Fixed(world) axis systems The majority of measurements are given in the “ship” frame of reference. in general. and measurements from the keel such as KB and KG. then there will be a sin(trim angle) term introduced. LCF. Measurements such as BM. It is for this reason that. and only if the vessel is upright are the axis systems parallel and hence the equation holds). Similarly. The same is true of TCB and TCG if the vessel is heeled. LCG is not equal to LCB – if both LCB and LCG are measured in the ship-axis system (of course if they are measured in the earthfixed axis system then they are the same. GM is the true vertical separation of the metacentre and the centre of gravity with the vessel inclined and are always measured normal to the water surface. These include longitudinal centres of gravity. KM is not equal to KB+BM (BM is in a different axis system to KB and KM. LCB). This is because if the vessel is trimmed and if the VCG and VCB are not the same. that are explicitly vertical. in generally for the vessel to be in equilibrium. are measured in the “world” frame of reference. Thus the metacentre is always vertically (in the earth-fixed axis system) above the centre of buoyancy by a distance BM = I / vol where I is the second moment of area of the waterplane.

parallel to baseline. measured in upright reference frame.Appendix A Nomenclature Amax Ams A AWP BOA BWL B b GM KB KG LOA LCB LCF LCG LWL LBP L T0 T t Maximum immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation Immersed cross-sectional area to waterline under investigation amidships Immersed cross-section area: Amax or Ams as selected by user Area of waterplane at the waterline under investigation Overall beam of whole vessel (above and below waterline) Maximum waterline beam at design waterline Maximum beam of waterline under investigation Waterline beam of station under investigation Metacentric height: vertical distance from centre of gravity to metacentre. Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of gravity. measured in upright reference frame. These can be modified in the Data | Coefficients dialog shown below: Page 216 . measured in the trimmed reference frame Distance from keel (baseline) to centre of buoyancy. Length of design waterline Length between perpendiculars length of waterline under investigation Draft from some arbitrary baseline (normally the lowest point on the design) Maximum immersed depth (draft) of hull Draft (immersed depth) of station under investigation Immersed volume of displacement at waterline under investigation Coefficient parameters There are several options for calculating hullform coefficients. measured normal to the baseline. parallel to baseline. measured normal to the baseline. Longitudinal Centre of Gravity. measured in upright reference frame. Length overall Longitudinal Centre of Buoyancy. Longitudinal Centre of Floatation. parallel to baseline.

In some cases. In addition. will also be different from the LOA (overall length). The forward perpendicular is normally defined as the intersection of the DWL with the bow. Prismatic and Waterplane Area Coefficients.Appendix A Length The datum/design waterline or DWL is a waterline near which the fully loaded design is intended to float under normal circumstances. it may be appropriate to use the actual waterline length at that draft (L). LWL and LOA quite different. The after perpendicular is normally defined as the position of the rudder post. this may be different from the length of the DWL (LWL) and in general. for calculations at drafts other than the DWL. Some of the more common lengths that may be used to characterise a vessel. or possibly the transom. In Hydromax you may choose between the length between perpendiculars and the waterline length for the calculation of Block. features such as bulbous bows and overhangs can make the LBP. Select Coefficients from the Display menu: Page 217 . Several lengths may be defined: the LBP is the length between perpendiculars. particularly for resistance prediction purposes. it may be more appropriate to define an effective length of the underwater body.

submarine. you can select various beams: Page 218 . Vessel with tumble-home Catamarans and other multihull vessels pose another difficulty. and this may be of the DWL or the waterline under consideration. there may be times when it is appropriate to use the maximum immersed beam (e. Hydromax uses the total waterline beam of immersed portions of the section for calculation of block coefficient and other form parameters. However. B2 and B3. For the calculation of section area coefficients it is normal practice to use the beam and draft of the section in question.g. For the section shown below.Appendix A Beam It is normal to use the maximum waterline beam for calculation of coefficients. For the case of a monohull this will be the normal waterline beam. in others. Multihull beams You may choose which beam should be used from the following list: In the reported hydrostatics. In some cases the overall beam is of importance. vessel with tumble-home or blisters). the beam of the individual hulls may be required. For catamarans this will be twice the demihull beam (remember that the total displaced volume is used and hence the block coefficient is the same as that of a single demihull). the beam used would be the sum of B1.

Appendix A Calculated beams The values “Beam extents” are those that measure the beam across the maximum port and starboard extents of the vessel. Normally this datum is the lowest part of the upright hull. however. Both depths are measured in upright position. In Hydromax drafts are defined from the datum line. it will be less than the extents value. For a monhull without tunnels.: Page 219 . The other beam values are calculated by summing the breadth of waterline crossings as described above. this would simply be the distance from the port side to the starboard side. there are also occasions when the immersed depth of the section is a more relevant measure of draft. including the option of measuring the draft to the baseline – this gives the option of ignoring appendages such as fin keels when determining the draft to be used to calculate the form parameter (if the baseline is defined to the bottom of the canoe body for example). For a monhull. Hydromax uses these values for computing coefficients. the datum may be elsewhere. this will be the same as the extents value. Draft The draft is normally specified from a nominal datum. However. for vessels with raked keel lines or yachts. but for a multihull. this is often the case when form parameters are calculated. However. You may select which depth should be used for the calculation of form parameters. It should be noted that the section area will. For a catamaran this would be from the outside of the port demihull to the outside of the starboard demihull. include the appendages. Hydromax uses the depths that stations extend below the waterline for calculation of form coefficients.

It is for this reason that as the heel approaches 90degrees. Difference between “Immersed depth” and “Draft” measurements Midship and Max Area Sections It is current usual practice to define the midship section as midway between the perpendiculars. For vessels with no parallel mid-body. the draft becomes very large. the position midway between the perpendiculars is defined as midships. Draft measured along the inclined perpendicular lines Immersed depth and Draft measurements The images below show the difference between the draft measurements (which are made in the inclined centreline plane of the vessel) and the immersed depth measurements (which are made normal to the free-surface). the section with greatest cross-sectional area may also be of particular interest. however for some vessels it is defined as the midpoint of the DWL. the draft is measured through the intersection of the upright waterline and the centreline. perpendicular to the heeled waterline (see figure below).Appendix A Draft measurements Draft measurement at heel angle When the vessel is heeled. Essentially the draft is measured along the heeled and trimmed perpendiculars on the centreline. Page 220 . In Hydromax.

Hydromax uses the length beam and draft as selected in the Coefficients dialog to compute the block coefficient. is calculated at either the station with maximum cross-sectional area or the midship section area (as defined in the Coefficients dialog). breadth and mean draft of the ship at that waterline. the midship section coefficient can be greater than unity. LWL or some effective length. Options for Section area coefficient CM A b t Prismatic Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the prismatic coefficient as: Page 221 . CB L B T Section Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the midship coefficient as: "The ratio of the immersed area of the midship station to that of a rectangle of breadth equal to moulded breadth and depth equal to moulded draft at amidships." However. Block Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the block coefficient as: "the ratio of the volume of displacement of the moulded form up to any waterline to the volume of a rectangular prism with length." It should be noted that. Length may be LBP. the actual definitions of the length. The section area coefficient used by Hydromax. breadth and depth equal to the length. beam and draft used vary between authorities.Appendix A When computing form coefficients. you may select which section area should be used: Hydromax uses the station with the maximum immersed cross-sectional area at the waterline under consideration. The beam and immersed depth of the selected section is used unless the draft to baseline option has been selected in which case this draft is used. such as CP and CM. The beam may be at amidships or the maximum moulded beam of the waterline. The beam used is that obtained by summing the immersed waterline crossings of the specified section. for sections that have significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline. In Hydromax midships is midway between the perpendiculars. or may be defined according to another standard – this may be important for hulls with significant tumble-home or blisters below the waterline.

When the vessel is free-to-trim. CWP AWP L B LCG and LCB Hydromax allows you to fully customise how you want to display the LCB and LCF values. the LCG and LCB will be at the same longitudinal position in the global coordinate system. Therefore a difference between the LCG and the LCB value will occur when the vessel is trimmed. See Customising Coefficients on page 36 for more information." Hydromax uses the length and beam as selected. Hydromax uses the selected length and the selected immersed cross-section area Amax or Ams. CP L A Waterplane Area Coefficient Principles of Naval Architecture defines the waterplane area coefficient as: "The ratio between the area of the waterplane and the area of a circumscribing rectangle. see Measurement Reference Frames on page 214. but not in the frame of reference.Appendix A "The ratio between the volume of displacement and a prism whose length equals the length of the ship and whose cross-section equals the midship section area." Again the definition of midship section and vessel length depend on the standard being used. This is explained in the figure below: Effect of vertical separation of CG and CB on LCG and LCB measured in the Ship reference frame Page 222 . The LCG and LCB are calculated in the “ship” or “upright” frame of reference.

Deck camber and initial deck slope are not taken into account. assuming the deck inclination is zero when the vessel is in upright position. Immersion The weight required to sink the model one unit-length below its current waterline. MTc or MTi The required moment to make the vessel trim one unit-length.Appendix A Note: LCG and LCB are calculated in the vessels‟ frame of reference and therefore will have different longitudinal positions when the vessel is trimmed then for when it is upright. That can be either cm or inch depending on your unit settings. Tf are the aft and forward drafts at the corresponding perpendiculars and LPP is the length between perpendiculars. This is the same for differences in TCG and TCB values due to heeling. Page 223 . Ta . The unitlength can be either in cm or inch depending on your unit settings. Maximum deck inclination The inclination angle is a combination of heel and trim angle. For example: The Max deck inclination is the maximum slope of the deck when combining the trim and heel angle of the vessel. Trim angle The trim angle as defined by: tan 1 Ta Tf L pp where: is the trim angle. Hydromax calculates the steepest slope of the deck when the ship is trimmed and/or heeled.

in general. The 0. it may seem that wetted surface area may be calculated by simply integrating the station girth along the length of the hull. and hence the 2 2 R2 integration of section girths underestimates by error factor of 4/ 1. Further.5% error discrepancy noted above.Appendix A RM at 1 deg The righting Moment at 1 degree heel angle. Integration of wetted surface area At first glance. These mainly occur from the integration method used. The only accurate numerical method is to sum the areas of individual triangles interpolated on the parametric surface. With hand calculations. this is primarily due to differences in the definitions used – see discussion above. where R is the radius of the circle. differences for basic parameters such as displacement etc. Differences in the hull definition. However. If the surface is exported as DXF poly-lines then the precision used and the number of straight-line sections used to make up the poly-line are important. and occur in both hand calculations. calculated by RM Displ *GMt * sin(1) Potential for errors in hydrostatic calculations There are a number of potential sources of error when calculating the hydrostatic properties of immersed shapes. and most automatic calculations carried out by computers. agreement of hand calculations to within 2% is considered good). As with all numerical integration schemes. Simpson. and their distribution. This can be of particular importance if the waterline intersects the stem profile between two sections. the accuracy increases as the step size is reduced. in a similar way that one might integrate the station cross-sectional area along the length of the hull to obtain the volume. The differences are easily shown by considering the surface area of half a sphere. the error due to integrating girths along the vessel length cannot be removed simply by increasing the number of integration stations. Page 224 2 . In general. and the wetted surface area can only be accurately found by summing elemental areas over the complete surface. The integration method used: trapezium. are under 0. and number of interpolation points used to define each section. hence computer calculations offer an enormous advantage compared with hand calculations. or 0. note that this is with an infinite number of integration steps. Where there are large changes in shape.5% (note that. the stations should be more closely spaced. Both methods use numerical integration techniques. which are normally either based on Simpson's rule or the Trapezium rule.27 . it is quite feasible to use 200 sections or more with 10s of significant figures. may be attributed to a number of causes: Convergence limits when balancing a hull to a specified displacement or centre of gravity. with computer calculations. such as near the bow and stern. it is normal to use perhaps 21 sections and perhaps 3-5 significant figures. this is not the case. Different number of integration stations used. due to the increased speed and accuracy with which these calculations may be carried out. This is given analytically by: A 2 R 2 . Differences in derived form parameters may show considerable variation. These effects are noted from comparing the results of different hydrostatics packages on the same hullform. or higher order methods. However. It may be shown that the area obtained by integrating the girth of the sphere along its length is given by: R2 .5 2 R 2 A' approximately 27%.

Appendix A However. due to the greatly reduced longitudinal curvature. Surface areas calculated by the 'Calculate Areas' dialog in Maxsurf are the most accurate. Those calculated by Hydromax and most other hydrodynamics packages. for normal ship hulls the differences will be much less. will be subject to the error described above. Page 225 . since they are derived from the actual parametric definition of the surface. which use a number of vertical stations to define the hull.

0 0. which may be edited manually so as to generate custom criteria.Appendix B Appendix B: Criteria file format The criteria are saved in a Hydromax criteria file with the extension . Hydromax Criteria File [units] LengthUnits = m MassUnits = tonne SpeedUnits = kts AngleUnits = deg GZAreaGMAngleUnits = deg [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = Specific Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = My Custom Criteria ParentGroupName = root [end] [criterionGroup] GroupName = STIX input data ParentGroupName = Specific Criteria [end] [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare UseLoHeel UseEquilibrium UseHiHeel UseFirstPeak UseMaxGZ UseFirstDF UseVanishingStab LoHeel HiHeel RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAreaUnderGZBetweenLimits STIX input data GZ area to the lesser of downflooding or… Area under GZ curve between specified heel… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp. The file is a normal PC text file.000 Page 226 .html for a full list of all the parameters for all the different criteria types.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan false true false false false true true 0.0 30. The typical format of the file is given below: Please refer to the file C:\Program Files\Maxsurf\HMCriteriaHelp\CriteriaHelp.hcr.

If Locked is set to true.g. The common parameters for all criteria are as follows: Type Describes the type of criterion RuleName Text which specifies the rule to which the criterion belongs CritName Text which specifies the criterion‟s name CritInfo Verbose description of the criterion Locked Whether the criterion may be edited in Hydromax or not. it is not possible to edit the criterion‟s parameters in Hydromax The other parameters that may be set depend on the criterion type.rtf true STIX input data true false false GreaterThan 0. Page 227 . range of stability GZAreaGMAngleUnits Specifies the angle units used for area under GZ graph and for GM. e. There are two angular units: AngleUnits Specifies the units for angular measurements. The criteria then appear after the units section and as many criteria as required may be included. The first section of the file is the units section and this specifies the units that are to be used in the file.0 The file must have “Hydromax Criteria File” in the first row.Appendix B [criterion] Type RuleName CritName CritInfo CritInfoFile Locked GroupName TestIntact TestDamage Test Compare RequiredValue [end] = = = = = = = = = = = = CTStdAngleOfVanishingStab STIX input data Angle of vanishing stability Calculates the angle of vanishing stability… HMCriteriaHelp\StixHelp.

In this section: Parent Calculations Minimum GM Calculators Parent Heeling Arms Parent Heeling Moments Parent Stability Criteria For all general help on criteria or working with the criteria dialog. severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion. This information can also be found in the lower right of the Criteria Dialog in the Criteria Help section. If there are any other calculations that you would like implemented. you should make a copy of the parent calculation by dragging it to your custom criteria folder. and the IMO required GM for vessels carrying grain in bulk. please contact support@formsys. Parent Calculations Special calculations are provided for some criteria parameters. This allows for complex calculations to be cross referenced into criteria. The parent calculations are listed above the parent heeling arms: Parent calculations in Hydromax Criteria dialog As with other criteria and heeling arms. see Chapter 4 Stability Criteria on page 163.Appendix F Appendix C: Criteria Help In this Appendix all individual Parent Criteria are explained in detail. In the criterion select the required calculation from the pull down list: Angle calculators These calculators produce an angular measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria: Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations Heeling arm criteria (xRef) Combined Page 228 Ratio of areas type 2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas XRefHeelRatioOfAreas2 XRefHeelGenericWindHeeling .com with details of the required calculations. Selecting a calculation in a criterion Using a calculation in a criterion is very similar to using a heel arm: Define your custom calculation by copying it from the parent list. Currently this has only been implemented for the IMO roll-back angle calculation used in the IMO code on Intact Stability.

0875 SF Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments Page 229 . Input parameters for: IMO roll-back angle calculation GM calculators These calculators produce a GM measurement and may be referenced by the following criteria: Criteria that currently support roll-back angle calculations GZ curve criteria Value of GMt at (calc) CTStdValueOfGMAt Minimum GM calculator – Grain The required GM for vessels carrying grain.wind heeling arm CritHeelWindHeeling IMO roll-back angle calculator The IMO roll back angle calculator calculates the roll back angle as per the severe wind and rolling (weather) criterion as defined in the IMO Code on Intact Stability.25 B 0.0”. This calculation follows the function defined in the Intact Stability codes A.general wind heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . The block coefficient is calculated with the current user settings for length and beam (not necessarily the waterline beam which another parameter required for the calculation).267(85). combined criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm.general wind heeling arm CritHeelRatioOfAreas2 CritHeelGenericWindHeeling Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . is calculated as follows: GM L B Vd 0. combined criteria (stand alone) type 2) Ratio of areas type 2 .7” or “Tabulated value for k” – these are auto completed so you only need to type the first letter.749(18) and MSC.645 B Vd 0. “Sharp bilge: k = 0.Appendix B heeling arm criteria (xRef) Heeling arm criteria (stand alone) Heeling arm. The input parameters may be specified by the user or calculated by Hydromax for the vessel in the upright condition for the current loadcase. The method used for the k-factor can be one of three options: “Round bilge: k = 1.23(59). as defined in IMO Resolution MSC.

h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel. for example: For CFR 46.005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. 170.055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.Appendix F B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement Input parameters for: Grain heeling min.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t Page 230 . required GM Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows: k0 GM L k1 2 A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline. 170.170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0. 170. k0 and k1 are constants.170: ocean service: k0 = 0.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46.0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0.

171. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. n = 1.050: GM Nb with a K tan( 0 ) Nb and m.Appendix B Input parameters for: Wind pressure min. b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass. Input parameters for: Constant min. An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a f B fa cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Page 231 Where (using consistent units): .0 K Where N is the number of passengers. n are the exponents for sine and cosine.

from which custom heeling arms may be derived: Available heeling arms and moments To learn how to cross reference these heeling arms into criteria. Parent Heeling Arms As with the criteria.Appendix F a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline. and for the Old heeling arm criteria where the heeling arm is specified for each criterion separately. please see Heeling arm criteria (xRef) on page 260. there is a list of parent heeling arms. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. Page 232 . typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired. typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value): fa k h l L 2b b0 B b1 Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height. typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. Heeling Arm Definition This section describes how to define heeling arms and is valid for both the parent heeling arms that can be cross referenced into the heeling arm criteria.

General heeling arm General heeling arm with gust General cos+sin heeling arm User Defined Heeling Arm Passenger crowding heeling arm Wind Turning Lifting heeling Towing heeling Forces heeling arm Trawling heeling arm Grain heeling arm Areas and leavers Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Note: When you are working with the parent heeling arms. some criteria. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. GustRatio H gust H steady Both the steady and the gust heel arm have the same shape. H steady ( ) H gust ( ) A cosn ( ) A GustRatio cosn ( ) Page 233 . General heeling arm The general form of the heeling arm is given below: H( ) where: A cos n ( ) is the heel angle. Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. However. make sure you copy them into a custom heeling arms folder before editing them. cosn describes the shape of the curve. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. in this case n=0 should be used. They are defined below. General heeling arm with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio.Appendix B There are several heeling arms that are used for the criteria. Same as for the Parent criteria. For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. the Parent heeling arms will be reset to their default values each time you start up Hydromax. this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle.

These should be comma delimited for example <45 . This heeling arm can then be cross-referenced into any of the heeling arm criteria. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) R2 1 tan 2 ( C ) . the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. if only one value is supplied it is taken as the heel angle – and the magnitude is left unchanged. require a heeling arm with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) k A cos n ( ) B sin m ( ) It should be noted that provided the indices are both unity. the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling arm curve. this is taken as the magnitude – and the heel angle is left unchanged. It should be noted. that in this case. General cos+sin heeling arm Some criteria.2> for a heeling arm magnitude of 1. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. 1. and if a value preceded by a comma is given. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. A is the magnitude of the heeling arm. the number of points is specified and then for each point the angle and magnitude of the curve can be specified.2 meters at 45 degrees angle of heel. User Defined Heeling Arm A user-defined heeling arm may be used in the criteria. R2 A2 B 2 and tan B A Make sure you read Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement on page 240. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. notably lifting of weights. D C tan( ) . (To aid input of the data. the same heeling arm form may be used for computing towing heeling arms of the form: H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing.Appendix F where: is the heel angle. First. cosn describes the shape of the curve. Page 234 . With the heeling arm.) A single coefficient may be adjusted and this is used as a multiplication factor (whist the shape of the curve remains unchanged).

theoretically unity A is the windage area at height h is the vessel mass P is the wind pressure H is the vertical centre of hydrodynamic resistance to the wind force In the case of the wind velocity based formulation. the wind heeling arm is given by: Hw( ) a PA h H cosn ( ) g where: a is a constant. the wind heeling arm is given by: Page 235 .defines shape mass length none In the case of the wind pressure based formulation.Appendix B Passenger crowding heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H pc ( ) where: n pas MD cosn ( ) n pas is the number of passengers M is the average mass of a single passenger D is the average distance of passengers from the vessel centreline is the vessel mass (same units as M ) The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option number of passengers: nPass passenger mass: M distance from centreline: D cosine power: n Wind heeling arm Description Number of passengers Units none Average mass of one passenger Average distance of the passengers from the centreline Cosine power for curve .

u'water area H = waterline cosine power: n Turning heeling arm Height of user defined total or additional windage area User may specify either a total windage area Or. H is taken as the vertical centre of underwater lateral projected area. normally unity for pressure based formulation or 0. And the other parameters are described as above. an area to be added to the windage area computed by Hydromax based on the hull sections There are four options for specifying H (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified H is taken as half the mean draft. The heeling arm is thus given by: Ht ( ) v2 a h cos n ( ) Rg where (in consistent units): a is a constant. centre of projected lat. theoretically unity v is the vessel velocity Page 236 .5 ρair CD for the velocity formulation. where ρair is the density of air and CD is an average drag coefficient for the windage area Pressure or Velocity (type “P” or “V”) Actual velocity of pressure . H is taken as the waterline Cosine power for curve . mass/length3 for velocity based formulation wind model wind pressure or velocity area centroid height: h total area: A additional area: A height of lateral resistance: H H = mean draft / 2 H = vert. Option constant: a Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm. The heeling arm is obtained by dividing the heeling moment by the vessel weight.Appendix F Hw( ) a v2 A h H cosn ( ) g where: a is now effectively an average drag coefficient for the windage area multiplied by the air density and has units of density v is the wind speed.defines shape length length length length none The magnitude of the heel arm is derived from the moment created by the centripetal force acting on the vessel during a high-speed turn and the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and hydrodynamic lateral resistance to the turn.depends on wind model mass/(time2 length) or length/ time length length2 length2 Units none for pressure based formulation.

defines shape Units none length/time length % length h = KG h = KG . R.vert. but there is an effective change of its centre of gravity.position of G above baseline in upright condition h is taken as KG less half the mean draft. i. as some criteria require. the vessel displacement remains constant. (The weight is lifted from a stowage position onboard the vessel by a crane on the vessel.) The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H lw ( ) M h cos( ) v sin( ) where: M is the mass of the weight being lifted h is horizontal separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) v is vertical separation of the centre of gravity of the weight in its stowage position and the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is the vessel mass (same units as M ) Page 237 . h is taken as the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and underwater lateral projected area. u'water area cosine power: n Lifting heeling arm length length length none This is used to simulate the effect of lifting a weight from its stowage position.e. as percentage of LWL Vertical lever: h Description Constant which may be used to modify the magnitude of the heel arm.Appendix B R is the radius of the turn h is the vertical separation of the centres of gravity and lateral resistance The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option constant: a vessel speed: v turn radius: R turn radius. Cosine power for curve .mean draft / 2 h = KG . centre of projected lat. as percentage of LWL There are four options for specifying h (all options are calculated with the vessel upright at the loadcase displacement and LCG): User specified h is taken as KG . normally unity Vessel speed in turn Turn radius may be specified directly Or.

such as those applied due fire-fighting or manoeuvring using thrusters. Units mass length horizontal separation of suspension from stowage position: h length Towing heeling arm The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: H tow ( ) T v cosn ( g ) h sin( ) where: T is the tension in the towline or vessel thrust. Horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline.Appendix F Just before lifting the weight off the vessel’s deck The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option Mass being lifted: M vertical separation of suspension from stowage position: v Description Mass of weight being lifted Vertical separation of suspension point from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel. The heeling arm parameters are specified as follows: Option tension or thrust: T vertical separation of propeller centre and tow attachment: v horizontal offset of tow attachment: h Description Tension in towline or vessel thrust Vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust. h is horizontal offset of the tow attachment position from the vessel centreline v is vertical separation tow attachment position from the vessel‟s vertical centre of thrust is the vessel mass is the power index for the cosine term which may be used to change the shape of the heeling n arm curve is the (constant) angle of the towline above the horizontal. expressed as a force.defines shape Units force length length angle of tow above horizontal: tau cosine power: n Forces heeling arm angle none This heeling arm can be used to model up to two forces acting on the vessel forces. Horizontal separation of suspension point (upper tip of lifting boom) from weight‟s original stowage position on the vessel This value is positive if the horizontal shift of the weight should produce a positive heeling moment. It is assumed that the towline is sufficiently long that this angle remains constant and does not vary as the vessel is heeled. This value is positive if the suspension position (upper tip of lifting boom) is above the original stowage position. This value is positive if the offset is in the direction of the tow. Angle of tow above the horizontal Cosine power for curve . This value is positive if the towline is above the thrust centre. The magnitude of the heel arm is given by: Page 238 .

not a mass. is the vessel mass Grain heeling arm This heeling arm can be used model the effects of bulk grain shift as defined in IMO Resolution MSC. B. Point A = (0 deg heel.Appendix B H forces ( ) 1 A1 h1 g H cosn1 ( ) A2 h 2 H cosn2 ( ) where: A1 and A2 are two forces acting on the vessel. expressed as a force. α λ0) i.e the heeling arm magnitude is reduced by a factor α at a heel angle of line is given below: 1. y is the transverse distance of the line of action of the trawl wire from the vessel centreline n defines the shape of the heeling arm. n1 and n2 define the shapes of the heeling arms created by the two forces. The equation of the H grain ( ) 0 1 abs (1 1 ) Page 239 . h1 and h2 are the vertical heights (from the zero point) at which these forces act. λ0) Point B = ( 1 deg heel. It is mirrored about the heel=0 axis and is not allowed to go below zero. H is the assumed vertical position of the vessel‟s centre of lateral resistance (or the centre of rotation from which the forces are applied) is the vessel mass g is acceleration due to gravity Trawling heeling arm This heeling arm can be used model the effects of trawl net snagging as defined in Annex G of the Australian NSCV requirements: H trawling ( ) m y cosn ( ) m where: m is a mass parameter determined from the breaking load of the trawl gear and the downwards angle of the trawl net.23(59): The heeling arm is defined by a straight line through two points A.

Appendix F The heeling arm magnitude at zero heel. These are in addition to the existing specific heeling arm curves for passenger crowding. the value “A” in: H( ) M A cos n ( ) . where M = heeling moment Δ = displacement. The lateral projected area and its centroid of area are calculated for the upright vessel (zero heel) at the draft and trim defined in the loadcase or trim dialog. λ0. The vertical position of the keel. thus. positive upwards. which take account of the vessel displacement as required.. Important note: heeling arm criteria dependent on displacement Some heeling arm criteria are dependent on the displacement of the vessel for the calculation of the Heeling Arm. For example. and is the vessel mass Areas and levers Some criteria require the evaluation of above and below water lateral projected areas and their vertical centroids. StowFact is the stowage factor in units of Length3/Mass. For these types of heeling arms you should use the various heeling moment curves that are available – see below: Heeling moment curves Parent Heeling Moments Heeling moments work the same way as the Minimum GM Calculations in that they can be cross referenced into criteria. increasing the number of sections will increase the accuracy of the area calculation. is assumed to be at the baseline (as set up in the Frame of Reference dialog). The area is calculated from the hydrostatic sections used by Hydromax. The user may also specify additional areas and vertical centroids or the total areas and vertical centroids. K. is given by: 0 volHM StowFact Where: volHM is the assumed volumetric heeling moment due to transverse grain shift in units of Length3. even if the baseline does not correspond to the physical bottom of the vessel. In all cases the vertical centroids are given in the Maxsurf/Hydromax co-ordinate system.Length. wind heeling etc.is manually calculated from: A . The advantage of using heeling moments is that they provide a constant heeling moment (varying heeling arm) as the vessel displacement changes (due to different loadcases or during a limiting KG analysis). only “Hull” surfaces are included in the calculation . i.“Structure” surfaces are ignored.e. further.: from the model‟s vertical datum. Page 240 .

For wind n=2 is often used for heeling because both the projected area as well as the lever decrease with the cosine of the heel angle. General cos+sin heeling moment Some criteria.length) and A and B the magnitudes of the cosine and sine components of the heeling moment A B the vessel displacement (mass). the same heeling moment form may be used for computing towing heeling moments of the form: H( ) k A cos( ) B sin( ) in this case a constant angle (in the case of towing. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm: H( ) where: A cos n ( ) is the heel angle. It should be noted that provided the n and m indices are both unity. It may be shown that this is equivalent to: H( ) where: k C cos( ) D sin( ) C R2 1 tan 2 ( ) . require a heeling moment with both a sine and cosine component: H( ) where: k A cos n ( ) B sin m ( ) is the heel angle. D C tan( ). A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass.Appendix B The following heeling moments are available in the Hydromax criteria dialog: General heeling moment General cos+sin heeling moment General heeling moment with gust User Defined Heeling Moment General heeling moment The general form of the heeling moment is given below. notably lifting of weights. thus and are the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). Typically n=1 is used for passenger crowding and vessel turning since the horizontal lever for the passenger transverse location reduces with the cosine of the heel angle. However. cosn describes the shape of the curve. (mass. the angle of the tow above the horizontal) is included. some criteria. such as IMO Severe wind and rolling (weather criterion) have a heeling arm of constant magnitude. R 2 A 2 B and 2 tan B A Page 241 . in this case n=0 should be used. thus the vessel displacement A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length).length) and (mass).

Pitch or Maximum Slope (compared with an originally horizontal and flat deck). The equilibrium criteria are only displayed in the report if you run an equilibrium analysis. Defining User Defined Heeling Moments works in much the same as for User Defined Heeling Arm. This heeling moment can then be linked into a Heeling arm criteria (xRef) for evaluation. Both the steady and the gust heel moment have the same shape. User Defined Heeling Moment With the User Defined Heeling Moment. the ratio of the heel arms will be the square of the ratio of the wind speeds. GustRatio H gust H steady The general form of the heeling moment is given below. if it is assumed that the wind pressure is proportional to the square of the wind seed. Trim or Slope at Equilibrium This criterion may be used to check the value of maximum Heel. Criteria at Equilibrium These criteria are calculated after an equilibrium analysis and relate to the equilibrium position of the vessel after the analysis. A is the magnitude of the heeling moment (mass. cosn describes the shape of the curve. Maximum value of Heel. the definition of gust ratio is the ratio of the heeling arms.Appendix F General heeling moment with gust Some criteria require a Gust Ratio. Option The angle of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Heel Pitch MaxSlope Units deg Page 242 . that in this case. It allows you to specify a constant heeling moment as opposed to a constant heeling arm. It should be noted.length) and (mass). thus the vessel displacement A is the magnitude of the heeling arm (length). this is the ratio of the magnitude of the wind heeling arm during a gust to the magnitude of the wind heeling arm under steady wind. the user can specify the number of points and the shape of the heeling moment curve. Parent Stability Criteria The parent criteria are divided up into different categories depending on their basic types. Some criteria specify the ratio of the wind speeds. H steady ( ) H gust ( ) where: A A cos n ( ) GustRatio cos n ( ) is the heel angle.

Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length To check that the freeboard lies within a specified range. This could be used to check margin line or downflooding point immersion. This could be used to check that an embarkation point is sufficiently close to the waterline. use a combination of both forms of the minimum/maximum freeboard criteria. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): Marginline DeckEdge DownfloodingPoints PotentialDfloodingPoints EmbarkationPoints ImmersionPoints Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length Maximum Freeboard at Equilibrium Check that the maximum freeboard is less than a maximum required value. Page 243 . calculated from the GZ curve. Option The value of Description Choose from the following (case insensitive auto-completion is used): GMtransverse GMlongitudinal) Permissible value Units length Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length GZ Curve Criteria (non-heeling arm) These criteria. are calculated from the Large Angle Stability analysis in Hydromax. Value of GMT or GML at Equilibrium This criterion is used to check that the GM (transverse or longitudinal) exceeds a specified minimum value.Appendix B Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Permissible value deg Minimum Freeboard at Equilibrium Checks whether the minimum freeboard is greater than a minimum required value.

Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Select calculation from list Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of GZ at Description Value of GMt at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Chose a calculation for the minimum required GM from a copy of one of the Parent calculations Permissible value Units deg deg length length Finds the value of GZ at either a specified heel angle. In addition to a fixed required value. they will be ignored when selecting the lowest. GMt is computed from waterplane inertia and immersed volume (not the slope of the GZ curve as this is inaccurate if the heel angle resolution is insufficient). Option in the range from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Page 244 Description Value of maximum GZ Lower limit for heel angle range. angle of maximum GZ or the downflooding angle. the upper range heel angle specified in the criterion. Option specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Value of Maximum GZ Description Value of GZ at either User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg length Finds the maximum value of GZ within a specified heel angle range. then the criterion will fail.Appendix F Value of GMt at Finds the value of GMt at either a specified heel angle or the equilibrium angle. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater then the required value. This functionality is to allow criteria such as “The maximum GZ at 30deg or greater”. or exceeds. Note: Upper limit and analysis heel angle range It is required that the range of heel angles specified for the Large Angle Stability analysis is equal. The criterion is passed if the value of GMt is greater then the required value. If all the upper limit values are less than the lower limit. you may also select a calculation to provide the required minimum GM. first peak in GZ curve. The criterion is passed if the value of GZ is greater than the required value. If you want to check the value of GZ at a certain angle you can set both specified angles as the required angle. the greater of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Units deg . If any of the calculated angles for the upper limit are less than the lower limit.

See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value deg deg deg deg length Value of Maximum GZ Value of GZ at Specified Angle or Maximum GZ below Specified Angle If the angle at which maximum GZ occurs is greater than a specified value. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle. this should normally be specified and be less than or equal to the upper limit of the range of heel angles used for the Large Angle Stability analysis. the required value of GZ is constant and is taken at this specified angle. This is 0 .Appendix B to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Upper limit for heel angle range. the value of GZ at the specified angle is calculated. see graph below. Otherwise the value of maximum GZ is calculated. Otherwise the required value of maximum GZ varies as a hyperbolic function with the angle of maximum GZ. The required GZ value depends on the angle at which the maximum occurs. Option heel angle at which required GZ is constant Description If the angle of maximum GZ is greater than or equal to this value. Units deg Page 245 .

constant value. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to first downflooding angle. 0 GZ max GZ max 0 then GZ max must be greater than GZ 0 where: is the specified angle at which the required GZ value becomes a constant 0 GZ max is the heel angle at which the maximum GZ of value occurs 0 GZ is the GZ value at 0 and GZ max is the maximum value of GZ. measured and compared. Angle at which GZ is measured may be limited to the location of the first peak in the GZ curve. Units length deg deg length then GZ 0 must be greater than the specified.80665m/s2 g GZ is the righting lever. Permissible value. This is GZ 0 . Value of RM at Specified Angle or Maximum RM Below Specified Angle As above (Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle) except the righting moment rather than the righting lever is specified. The righting moment RM is given by: RM gGZ where: is the vessel volume of displacement is the density of the liquid the vessel is floating in is acceleration due to gravity = 9. Page 246 . Variation of required GZ with angle of maximum GZ The angle at which the GZ was measured is listed in the results.Appendix F Option required value of GZ at this angle is limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than If If GZ max 0 Description Required value of GZ at the heel angle specified above.

first heel angle. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 Page 247 . second heel angle.Appendix B Ratio of GZ Values at Phi1 and Phi2 Calculates the ratio of the GZ values at two specified heel angles. Ratio Option GZ GZ 1 2 Phi1. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 First heel angle. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less then the required value. the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle Phi2. the lesser of the following: User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Second heel angle.

heel angle angle of margin line immersion angle of deck edge immersion first flooding angle of the angle of first GZ peak angle of max. the user is advised that the vessel should be heeled in the opposite direction and the criterion is failed. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. embarkation point. GZ angle of vanishing stability Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Ratio of equilibrium angle to the lesser of: Specified heel angle Angle of first immersion of the margin line Angle of first immersion of the deck edge Smallest immersion angle of the specified type of Key Point Angle of first local peak in GZ curve Angle at which maximum GZ occurs Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg % Page 248 . potential downflooding point. Using a ratio gives more flexibility. then the criterion is passed. If the ratio is less than the required value. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value. e. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of equilibrium Permissible value Units deg Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of The equilibrium angle and the lesser of the selected angles are compared. If the equilibrium angle is negative. The user may choose the type of Key point to define the downflooding angle (downflooding point.Appendix F Angle of Maximum GZ Finds the angle at which the value of GZ is a maximum positive value. immersion point). heel angle can be limited by first peak in GZ curve and/or first downflooding angle.g.: it is possible to check that the equilibrium angle does not exceed half (or any other fraction) the downflooding angle. Option limited by first GZ peak angle limited by first downflooding angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Angle of Equilibrium Description Angle of maximum GZ The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first GZ peak occurs The angle of maximum GZ shall not be greater than the angle at which the first downflooding occurs Permissible value Units deg deg deg Finds the angle of equilibrium from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. Option spec.

The criterion is passed if the angle of vanishing stability is greater then the required value. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of deck edge immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Vanishing Stability Finds the angle of vanishing stability from the intersection of the GZ curve with the GZ=0 axis. Option from the greater of Description Range of positive stability Lower limit Units Page 249 . Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of downflooding Permissible value Units deg Angle of Margin Line Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the margin line immerses. Angle of Downflooding Finds the angle of first downflooding. The actual criterion is passed if either of the individual criteria is passed. but this can be allowed to increase to 17 degrees if the deck edge is not immersed.Appendix B Equilibrium heel angle satisfies either This criterion is nothing more than two “Ratio of equilibrium heel angle to the lesser of” criteria. The criterion is passed if the downflooding angle is greater then the required value. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the deck edge immerses is greater then the required value. Option Shall be less than / Shall not be greater than Description Angle of vanishing stability Permissible value Units deg Range of Positive Stability The angular range for which the GZ curve is positive is computed. The criterion is passed if the computed range is greater then the required value. This type of criterion is used to formulate criteria such as: The maximum allowable angle of equilibrium is 15 degrees in the damage condition. Option Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Angle of margin line immersion Permissible value Units deg Angle of Deck Edge Immersion Finds the first/minimum angle at which the deck edge immerses. The criterion is passed if the smallest angle at which the margin line immerses is greater then the required value.

angle Page 250 . Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.Appendix F Option specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of the range See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg GZ Area between Limits type 1 . The criterion is passed if the area under the graph is greater than the required value. from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg See Nomenclature Permissible value deg length. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 1 .standard Lower limit for integration.standard The area below the GZ curve and above the GZ=0 axis is integrated between the selected limits and compared with a minimum required value.

1: A2 If 1 Where: max is max 2 A1 2 A2 2 1 max : required area = .rad. then the required area would be given by: A A 0.standard GZ area between limits type 2. if the lower angle was 15 and the required area at this angle was 0.HSC monohull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits.55 0.055m.1.rad and the upper angle was 30 and the required area at this angle was 0. A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified lower heel angle area under the GZ curve required at the specified higher heel angle 2.2.2 and IMO A. the upper integration limit.3.55 0.055 30 30 15 max max or simplifying: 0.001 30 Page 251 .07m.Appendix B GZ area between limits type 1 .3. The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater then the required value.5. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integration limit. 1.07 0. The required area is defined below and is based on the area required for IMO MSC. and A2 is the For example.6.36(63) §2.749(18) §4. required area = A1 . The required area is defined as follows: If If max max 2 : required area = A2 .

angle deg length.angle length. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability lower heel angle Description GZ area between limits type 2. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.Appendix F Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec.HSC monohull type Lower limit for integration.angle Page 252 . from smallest angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Minimum angle that requires a GZ area greater than... Until this angle the required GZ area is constant Value of GZ area that is required until the lower heel angle Angle from which the required GZ area remains constant onwards Value of GZ area that is required from the higher heel angle onwards Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg required GZ area at lower heel angle higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than length.

055 30 / max Page 253 . A1 is the area under the GZ curve required at the specified heel angle For example.Appendix B GZ area between limits type 2 .HSC monohull type GZ area between limits type 3 . The criterion is passed if the computed area under the graph is greater than the required value.HSC multihull type The area under the GZ curve is integrated between the specified limits. 1. The required area is defined below limit ( and is based on the area required for IMO MSC. if the specified angle ( 1 ) was 30 and the required area at this angle ( A1 ) was 0.36 (63) Annex 7 §1.055m.rad. required area = A1 Where: max is 1 / max . the upper integration limit. then the required area would be given by: A 0. However the required minimum area depends on the upper integrationA1 1 / max).1.

from lesser angle of User specified heel angle User specified heel angle above the equilibrium heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Heel angle at which required GZ area is specified Value of GZ area that is required until the higher heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length.angle length. from greatest angle of User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Upper limit of integration.HSC multihull type Lower limit for integration.Appendix F Variation of required area with upper integration limit Option from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium to the lesser of specified heel angle spec. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability higher heel angle required GZ area at higher heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description GZ area between limits type 3 .angle Page 254 .

HSC multihull type Ratio of GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of the two areas between the GZ curve and the GZ=0 axis. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature 3 Units 1 2 deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg deg Page 255 . Area 1 Ratio = = abs Area 2 1 4 abs 3 GZ d Option Area 1 from the greater of specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Area 1 to the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Area 2 from the lesser of specified heel angle angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Description Ratio of GZ area between limits Area 1 lower integration limit. User specified heel angle See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Area 2 lower integration limit.Appendix B GZ area between limits type 3 . where “abs” means the absolute value of. 2 GZ d . User specified heel angle See Nomenclature Area 1 upper integration limit.

In the example below. see graph below. The limits for Area 2 remain unchanged. respectively and the limits for Area 2 are vanishing stability and 180 deg. Typically. GZ areas below the GZ=0 axis on the negative heel angle side of the GZ curve are not considered positive. Page 256 . Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 1 In the following example the upper limit for Area 1 has been set to the downflooding angle. the lower and upper integration limits for Area 1 are equilibrium and vanishing stability.Appendix F Option Area 2 to specified heel angle Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Area 1 upper integration limit. Area 1 would be from equilibrium to vanishing stability and Area 2 would be from vanishing stability to 180 deg. User specified heel angle Permissible value 4 Units deg % This criterion is designed to be calculated on the positive side of the GZ curve only.

Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 3 Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits This criterion calculates the ratio of GZ area above the GZ=0 axis to that below the axis in the given heel angle range. Option Description Units Page 257 . Note that Area 2 is now A1 – A2.Appendix B Ratio of GZ area between limits – Example 2 In the final example. the lower integration range for Area 2 has been reduced to the downflooding angle.

Area 1 is positive. And the areas are defined as follows: If both heel angle limits are ≥ zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ > 0. Area 2 is negative. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ < 0. Area 2 is negative. where the value of GZ > 0. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. Positive heel: lower limit = 0deg. upper limit = 180deg. where the value of GZ < 0.Appendix F Option in the heel angle range from to Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits User specified lower limit heel angle User specified upper limit heel angle Permissible value Units deg deg % Ratio = Area 1 . Area 1 is positive. Page 258 . If both heel angle limits are < zero: Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. abs Area 2 where “abs” means the absolute value of.

Positive and negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. Negative heel: lower limit = -180deg. Area 1 is positive. upper limit = 0deg. Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits.Appendix B Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles < 0. Area 2 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. and the upper heel angle limit > zero (the upper limit is assumed to be greater than the lower limit): Area 1 is the total area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. upper limit = 180deg. Page 259 . Area 2 is negative. where the value of GZ > 0 for heel angles ≥ 0 plus the area between the GZ curve and GZ=0 axis. If the lower heel angle limit < zero. where the value of GZ < 0 for heel angles < 0.

but can simply select which heeling arm you wish to apply. GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg deg deg deg deg length deg S = C sqrt( 0. these can be cross-referenced into new heeling arm criteria: Page 260 . User specified heel angle See Nomenclature The lowest of the selected angles is be to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found. Heeling arm criteria (xRef) The cross-reference heeling arm criteria are set up to allow you to define heeling arms or heeling moments in a central location and then cross-reference or link them into the criteria. except for the fact that you don‟t have to specify the heeling arm for each criterion separately. See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing s Units specified heel angle angle of equilibrium Upper angle of range: lesser of deg deg specified heel angle spec. After you have defined your heeling arms.Appendix F Subdivision Index s-factor . angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of maximum GZ first downflooding angle immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge angle of vanishing stability Max. range) Both the values of maximum GZ and range of positive stability can be clipped.5 GZmax . The criteria themselves work much the same as the Heeling arm criteria (page 264).MSC 19(58) Probabilistic damage s-factor according to MSC 19(58) Option Lower angle of range : the greater of Description The greater of the selected angles is be to specify the lower limit of the range of positive stability and the range in which the maximum value of GZ should be found.

645 B Vd 0.0875 SF Where (using consistent units): L is the combined length of all full compartments B is the moulded breadth of the vessel SF is the stowage factor Vd is the calculated average void depth Δ is the vessel displacement Input parameters for: Grain heeling min.25 B 0. as defined in IMO Resolution MSC.Appendix B The heeling arms are cross-referenced simply by selecting the desired heeling arm from the pull-down list: For information on defining heeling arms or moments. is calculated as follows: GM L B Vd 0. see Minimum GM calculator – Grain The required GM for vessels carrying grain. required GM Page 261 .23(59).

005 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0.170: ocean service: k0 = 0. for example: For CFR 46.0025 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle Page 262 .0033 Ton/ft2 and k1 = 14200 ft4/Ton k0 = 0. Δ is the vessel displacement 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle A is the windage area which may be specified as a total area or as an area additional to the area of the hull above the waterline.Appendix F Minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure The GM required to withstand wind pressure is calculated as follows: k0 GM L k1 2 A(h H ) cos n ( 0 ) sin( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax.055 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46. h is height of the centroid of A above the zero point. H is the height of the assumed centre of lateral resistance of the vessel. 170.028 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t Input parameters for: Wind pressure min. 170.170: service on partially protected water: k0 = 0. k0 and k1 are constants.170: service on protected water: k0 = 0.036 t/m2 and k1 = 1309 m4/t For CFR 46. 170.

An example of where this calculation should be used is in CFR 46. B is the same as that used in the expression for GM k is a dimensionless constant h is a height. typically the height of the watertight trunk l is a length. typically the length of the watertight trunk b is a breadth. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. Page 263 . Input parameters for: Constant min. fa is the additional freeboard allowance calculated as follows (additionally the freeboard allowance may be limited to a maximum specified value): fa k h l L 2b b0 B b1 Where (using consistent units): L is the waterline length of the vessel (if the criterion required LPP or LOA then enter the value directly rather than having it calculated by Hydromax.Appendix B m.0 K Where N is the number of passengers.050: GM Nb with a K tan( 0 ) Nb and m. n are the exponents for sine and cosine. typically the breadth of the watertight trunk b0 is a constant with the same units as b b1 is a dimensionless constant If desired. Parent Heeling Arms on page 229. 171. required GM Minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard The required GM is calculated as follows: GM a f B fa cos n ( 0 ) sin m ( 0 ) Where (using consistent units): a is a constant arm or moment (depending on whether the vessel displacement is used) B is the vessel beam f is the minimum freeboard for the upright (zero heel) condition to the deck-edge or marginline. a heel adjustment may be included: 0 is a critical heel angle which may be a fixed angle or a fraction of the deck-edge or marginline immersion angle m. n = 1. b is their average transverse location and K is the number of passengers per unit mass.

or first flooding angle of the specified key point type. . these are where several criteria are applied to the same heeling arm Value of GMT at equilibrium . this angle may also be multiplied by a user-specified factor. The criterion is passed if the GMT value is greater then the required value. The transverse GM is taken at a user-specified heel angle or angle of equilibrium (without heel arm). The criterion is passed if the GZ value is greater then the required value. angle of deck edge immersion. This is because a wider range of heeling arm formulations is available and for some criteria. Finally. Ratio of GMT and heeling arm Calculates the following ratio and the criterion is passed if the ratio exceeds the specified value. In addition. combined criteria. The heeling arm criteria available in the Hydromax Criteria dialog are listed below. Also available are: Multiple heeling arm criteria.Appendix F Heeling arm criteria The preferred method is to use the xRef heeling arm criteria rather than the stand alone heeling arm criteria.general heeling arm Calculates the value of the GZ curve at the equilibrium intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. The specified cross-referenced heel arm is then evaluated at this heel angle to give: HA( ) . Ratio of GMt and heel arm criterion Value of GZ at equilibrium . Page 264 . angle of margin line immersion. GM sin( ) HA( ) Where the heel angle. is the lesser of: a user-specified heel angle. these are where the same criterion is applied to up to three heeling arms and/or combinations of these heeling arms Heeling Arm.general heeling arm Calculates the transverse metacentric height (GMT) at the intersection of the GZ and heel arm curves. GMT is computed from the waterplane inertia and the displaced volume at the equilibrium heel angle. they only exist in xRef form.

heel arm) is greater then the required value.heel arm) at or above a specified heel angle.Appendix B Value of GZ at equilibrium .general heeling arm Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm Finds the maximum value of (GZ . The first downflooding angle may be selected as an upper limit. The criterion is passed if the value of (GZ . Page 265 .

5 . The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. including “specified heel angle”. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 0. The value of GZ at this heel angle must be greater than zero.0) will be selected. In the range 0 to 21.5 . Page 266 . This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. Examples: Upper limit is 50% of angle of margin line immersion (43 / 2 = 21.553m and the heel arm 0. the maximum ratio of GZ:heel arm occurs at 21.930m giving a ratio of 59%.Appendix F Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. then the point with maximum positive GZ (where the heeling arm 0. This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the maximum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”. If the heeling arm is zero or negative in the range.5 ). including “specified heel angle”.

3 . Hence the criterion is passed.122m and the heel arm 0. At this heel angle the value of GZ is 1.4 ).Appendix B In this case a constant heeling arm is used. the downflooding angle is 94.5m giving a ratio of 224%. Finally. The angle and value of GZ is given for the location where it is a maximum (in the region where the heel arm is zero.) Page 267 . the exact value will depend slightly on the heel angles tested in the Large Angle Stability analysis. thus the maximum ratio occurs at the angle of maximum GZ (62. at this heel angle the heel arm is zero (thus the ratio infinite).

Page 268 . Hence the maximum ratio reported is infinity and occurs at the angle where GZ is maximum in this heel angle range. The heel arm is used to define the equilibrium angle and the heel angle where (GZ . This is applied to all selected upper angle limits. If a heeling arm with zero amplitude is used. positive). In this case the heeling arm is zero between 50 and 70 . Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . the same criterion may be used to check that the GZ is positive over the specified range. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. However this option would normally be used to specify an upper limiting angle of “half the angle of margin line immersion”.general heeling arm Used to check the ratio of GZ values at two points on the GZ curve. including “specified heel angle”. This criterion can be used to check that the GZ is at least as great as the heeling arm over the specified range. GZ Ratio = GZ 1 2 Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm Calculates the heel angle at which the difference between the GZ curve and the heeling arm is greatest (GZ . Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm This criterion calculates the minimum ratio of GZ : Heeling arm (for the same heel angle) within the range of heel angles specified.Heel Arm is maximum.Appendix F The same is true if an unusual user-defined heeling arm is used.heel arm) is maximum. The upper limit may be specified as a certain percentage of the selected limits. The criterion is passed if the ratio is less than the required value. And checks that this ratio is greater than a specified value.

general heeling arm Page 269 . Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the specified heeling arm. The criterion is passed if the equilibrium angle is less then the required value.Appendix B Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm .general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . The equilibrium angle is the smallest positive angle where the GZ and heeling arm curves intersect and the GZ curve has positive slope.

This criterion should not be confused with the range of positive stability. The angle of equilibrium is computed as described in §Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm. Page 270 . [Range of stability] = [Angle of vanishing stability] – [Angle of equilibrium] The criterion is passed if the value of range of stability is greater then the required value.general heeling arm Range of positive stability .general heeling arm Computes the range of positive stability with the heeling arm.Appendix F Angle of equilibrium ratio .general heeling arm Calculates the ratio of the angle of equilibrium (with the specified heeling arm) to another. The criterion is passed if the angle is greater then the required value. Ratio = equilibriu m specified The other angle used to compute the ratio may be one of the following: Required angle for ratio calculation Auto complete text Marginline immersion angle MarginlineImmersionAngle Deck edge immersion angle DeckEdgeImmersionAngle Angle of first GZ peak DownfloodingAngle Angle of maximum GZ MaximumGZAngle First downflooding angle FirstGZPeakAngle Angle of vanishing stability with heel arm VanishingStabilityWithHeelArmAngle Angle of vanishing stability .general heeling arm Calculates the location of the first intersection of the GZ curve and heel arm curve where the slope of the GZ curve is negative. Angle of vanishing stability . selectable angle.

general heeling arm Computes the area below the GZ curve and above the heel arm curve between the specified heel angles.Appendix B Range of positive stability .general heeling arm Page 271 .general heeling arm GZ area between limits type 1 . 2 Area = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 GZ area between limits type 1 . The criterion is passed if the area is greater than the required value.

The required value is based on a constant plus a proportion of the area under the GZ curve (Area 2).general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 . Page 272 . Type 1 stands for which areas are being integrated to calculate the ratio (see graph).general heeling arm The area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed (Area 1).general heeling arm The ratio of the area between the GZ curve and heel arm and the area under the GZ curve is computed. This criterion is based on the area ratio required by various Navies‟ turning and passenger crowding criteria. Area 1 constant kArea 2 GZ area between limits type 2 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value. 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 . The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.Appendix F GZ area between limits type 2 . 4 3 GZ ( )d . 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 . 4 3 GZ ( )d .

Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. If a gust ratio of greater than 1. then roll to leeward under a gust. but the integration for Area 1 is taken from the equilibrium with the gust wind heeling arm.Appendix B Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 1 . Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. For more information see: §Heel.0 is used. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward (under the action of waves with the steady wind pressure acting on it. 2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) gust heel arm( ) d gust heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Page 273 1 2 1 .general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 2 . The roll back may be specified as either a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the steady wind heel arm or can be rolled back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. Hence the rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the steady wind heeling arm.e.: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).general heeling arm This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves.

The criterion is passed if the ratio is greater than the required value.Appendix F Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Ratio of areas type 2 . Area GZ = Area HA = Ratio = 2 1 GZ ( )d .general heeling arm The ratio of the area under the GZ curve to the area under the heel arm curve is computed. 2 1 heel arm( )d . This criterion is based on the area ratio required by BS6349-6:1989.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 3 . Areas under the GZ=0 axis are counted as negative. Area GZ Area HA Page 274 .

Appendix B Ratio of areas type 3 .multiple heeling arms Checks the ratio of GZ values as per §Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .general heeling arm Multiple heeling arm criteria These criteria are used to check the effects of combinations of up to three heeling arms and their combinations. Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 . for example passenger crowding. Page 275 . The combined heeling arms are computed by adding the values of the individual heeling arms at each heel angle. wind.general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms. turning.

multiple heeling arms Angle of equilibrium .Appendix F Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 1 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 1 . Angle of equilibrium .multiple heeling arms Checks the equilibrium heel angle as per §Angle of equilibrium .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms. Page 276 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.

2 Area 1 = Area 2 = GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 1 .general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §GZ area between limits type 2 . 4 3 GZ ( )d . Area 1 constant kArea 2 Page 277 .multiple heeling arms GZ area between limits type 2 .Appendix B GZ area between limits type 1 .

general heeling arm with the specified heeling arms.general heeling arm Ratio of areas type 1 .Appendix F GZ area between limits type 2 . Page 278 .multiple heeling arms Checks the area under the heel angle as per §Ratio of areas type 1 .

multiple heeling arms Subdivision Index s-factor . Page 279 .216(82) is computed. Several extra options are presented to the user.Appendix B Ratio of areas type 1 .MSC_216(82) The Subdivision Index s-factor as described in IMO MSC.

The lowest of the selected angles can be used to specify the upper limit of the range of positive stability.Appendix F Option Description Subdivision Index s-factor – MSC.216(82) The type of vessel being analysed.length length deg length deg K-factor min. This is used to determine default parameters and which s-factors should be computed. heel s-Intermediate Max. Parameters for computing the sMoment factor Displacement of the intact vessel at the subdivision draft Reduction to be applied to maximum GZ Link to passenger heeling moment mass length mass. Cargo. heel K-factor max. User Upper angle of range: lesser of first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability Immersion angle of Marginline or DeckEdge s-Final Max. The beginning of the range of positive stability is taken as the first positive equilibrium angles See Nomenclature See Nomenclature See Nomenclature Units Vessel type : Passenger. GZ limit Range limit deg deg Max. If the equilibrium heel angle exceeds this value then sIntermediate is zero. allowable equilibrium heel angle deg s-Moment intact displacement at subdivision draft GZ reduction Passenger heel Page 280 . GZ limit Range limit deg deg deg Parameters for computing the s-Final factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Final Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sFinal Theta_min used to determine K Theta_max used to determine K Parameters for computing the sIntermediate factor Upper limit of allowable maximum GZ value when computing s-Intermediate Upper limit of allowable range of positive stability when computing sIntermediate Maximum allowable equilibrium heel angle after damage.

The area ratio must be greater than a specified value. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value. If Cargo is selected. for simplicity the common combinations have been combined into single criteria. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . and any values for the s-Final factor minimum and maximum heel angles may be specified. Page 281 .general heeling arm. then all three s-factors are computed as for the Passenger ship. s-Final = K. then s-Intermediate and s-Moment factors are computed. Although it is possible to evaluate these criteria by evaluation of their individual components. 2. The area ratio is evaluated as per § Ratio of areas type 1 . then only the s-Final factor is computed and in this case. The Angle of steady heel is obtained as per §Angle of equilibrium . Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value. The result is the minimum of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment). Range / limitRange}1/4 if equilibrium heel > Max. These are: 1. Note: At least one of the individual criteria has to be selected.length mass. The criterion result is then the minimum value of s-Intermediate and (s-Final * s-Moment).general heeling arm 3. respectively. For the s-Final factor. {GZmax / limitGZmax . All s-factors are in the range 0 <= s <= 1 Heeling arm. respectively. the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 7 and 15 deg. allowable equilibrium heel angle then s-Intermediate = 0 s-Moment = (GZmax – GZ reduction) . If User is selected. Range / limitRange}1/4 where: K = 1 if equilibrium heel <= Theta_min K = 0 if equilibrium heel >= Theta_max K = {(Theta_max – equilibrium heel) / (Theta_max – Theta_min)}1/2 s-Intermediate = {GZmax / limitGZmax . the minimum and maximum heel angles are set to 25 and 30 deg.Appendix B moment Wind heel moment Select survival craft heel moment Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Link to wind heeling moment Link to heeling moment that defines the effect of launching survival craft Permissible minimum value for sfactor mass. combined criteria Several criteria require the evaluation of several individual criteria components. Displacement / Mheel where: Mheel is the maximum of the three selected heeling moments.general heeling arm This is a combined criterion where three individual criteria must be met.length Vessel type: If Passenger is selected.

The angle of steady heel is obtained as per Angle of equilibrium . a gust wind can be applied.general wind heeling arm This is a widely applicable wind heeling criterion in its most generic format.Appendix F Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . 1. Optionally. 2. The heeling arm is specified simply by a magnitude and cosine power. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Page 282 . The area ratio is evaluated as per Ratio of areas type 2 . 3. The ratio of the value of GZ at equilibrium to the value of maximum GZ must be less than a specified value.general heeling arm.general heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) . The area ratio must be greater than a specified value.general heeling arm. For more information see: §Heel. Angle of steady heel must be less than a specified value.

all calculations are done using a reduced GZ‟ curve which is computed at each heel angle as follows: GZ ' ( ) GZ ( ) B cos m ( ) This criterion may be used to evaluate the following specific criteria (as well as many others of similar format): Page 283 . If this is done.Appendix B Area definition If required. a reduction of the GZ curve may be applied.

4. §079-1-c(9) 4.3.phi3 must be greater than the required value Page 284 .general heeling arm This criterion is based on the calculations required for the Bureau Veritas criterion that ensures safety when cargo is accidentally lost while lifting.2 IMO MSC.2.3. §4.1 ISO/FDIS 12217-1:2002(E) Small Non-Sailing Boats §6. Royal Navy NES 109: §1.8.5. PhiC is fixed at the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of GZ curve with heeling arm).9.Appendix F US Navy DDS079-1: §079-1-c(9) 1.2 Initial impulse and Wind heeling criteria RAN A015866: §4. §4.4.5 IMO A.2 Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) .2. §1.3.3.749(18) Code on intact stability: §3.36(63) High-speed craft code §2. The criterion evaluates two checks: ratio of Area2 / Area1 and the remaining range of stability (phi3 – phi2).2.4. §1. Area2 / Area1 must be greater than the required value phi2 .

The GZ value used to define the heeling arm is the GZ at one of the following heel angles: Page 285 . For more information see: §Heel. The lesser of the following three options A specified. phi3 may be determined from a number of features of the GZ curve including being chosen such that Area3/Area1 is some specified value. GZ derived heeling arm This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the value of GZ at a certain heel angle. The criterion is then evaluated by comparing some requirement of the derived heeling arm with a specified value. The required ratio of Area3/Area2 used to determine the angle phi3 deg deg deg deg angle at which Area3 / Area1 is deg Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. The heeling arm is normally derived from a GZ value. cos1.g. heel angle (equilibrium angle during lifting) roll back from angle of equilibrium with heeling arm angle of equilibrium (without heel arm) Area2 integrated to the lesser of (phi2) Max. The shape of the heeling arm (e. heeling angle due to roll taken as the lesser of (phi3) deg A roll-back angle (positive) from the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm (first up-crossing intersection of the GZ and heeling arm curves) Roll back to the angle of equilibrium of the vessel (ignoring the heeling arm) Upper integration limit of Area2 chosen from the lesser of the seven options. GZ area or angle of equilibrium requirement.Appendix B Option Description Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) Angle that defines the lower heel angle for the integration range of Area1. Derived heeling arm criteria For these criteria.3) must be specified. the magnitude of the heeling arm is derived (rather than specified directly) from a required relationship between the GZ curve and the heeling arm curve. This angle is used to evaluate the second part of the criterion: the difference phi2-phi3 must be greater than the required value. fixed heel angle Units Area1 integrated from the greater of (phi1) spec.

Appendix F specified angle of heel angle of first peak in GZ curve angle at which maximum GZ occurs angle of first downflooding immersion angle of margin line or deck edge The heeling arm is then calculated as described by the equation below. GZ first downflooding angle angle of vanishing stability It is also possible to specify a minimum heel angle for the upper integration limit. angle above equilibrium angle of first GZ peak angle of max. and is then compared with a minimum required value. The area under both the GZ and heeling arm curves is integrated between the same specified limits. Any negative areas (due to negative GZ) up to this minimum upper integration heel angle will be deducted from the total area under the GZ curve. see below. heel angle 2: spec. 1: specified angle of heel angle of equilibrium Upper integration limit. A where: GZ cos n Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) Specified heel angle Value of GZ at specified heel angle Required ratio = GZ / HA A n GZ GZ area derived heeling arm type 1 This criterion is used to calculate the amplitude of a heeling arm derived from the area under the GZ curve between specified limits. spec. Lower integration limit. which satisfies the equation below arm is then found and compared with a minimum required value. The amplitude of the heeling. 2 2 1 GZ d A cos n d 1 A n GZ Amplitude of heeling arm Shape of heeling arm (n = 0 for constant heeling arm) heel angle GZ curve Required ratio Page 286 .

roll back to the vessel equilibrium angle ignoring the wind heeling arms (i. angle of the first GZ peak.e.general heeling arm Angle of equilibrium . The steady heel arm is derived from a gust of specified ratio. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. For more information see: §Heel. Because of the many different ways in which this criterion is used it has several options for defining the way in which the areas are calculated. The wind gust will cause the vessel to heel over to the lesser of a specified heel angle.GZ derived wind heeling arm The derived wind heeling criterion is used to check that the steady heel angle due to wind pressure exceeds a certain value. Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Page 287 . The rollback angle is taken from the equilibrium angle with the wind heeling arm. or roll back to a specified heel angle.Appendix B GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 This criterion is used to simulate the effects of wind heeling whilst the vessel is rolling in waves. the vessel is assumed to roll to windward under the action of waves and then roll to leeward. The roll back may be specified as either: a fixed angular roll back from the angle of equilibrium with the wind heel arm. The amplitude of the heeling arm is then compared with a required minimum value. A heeling arm of prescribed shape is found such that the specified area ratio is met. With the wind pressure acting on it. Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 GZ area derived heeling arm (type 2) .: where the GZ curve crosses the GZ=0 axis with positive slope).

φ1. The first equilibrium angle.Appendix F The vessel is assumed to be safe from gusts up to the specified ratio. are in the specified ratio. The derived heeling arm is chosen such that the areas. A1 and A2. is the angle of equilibrium with a specified heeling arm.GZ area derived heeling arm This criterion is used to compare the equilibrium angles with two different heeling arms. is the angle of equilibrium with a derived heeling arm. Page 288 . the same cosine power is used for both the specified and the derived heeling arms. first peak in GZ curve. This means that the lesser of: a specified heel angle. angle of maximum GZ or the first downflooding angle. should be large enough to withstand a gust from a steady wind heeling angle larger than …. φ2. There are several options which can be used to define the upper and lower ranges for the area integrations. The specified heeling arm is specified by an amplitude and cosine power.derived wind heeling arm Ratio of equilibrium angles . Angle of equilibrium . The second equilibrium angle. if the angle of steady heel is greater than the angle.

Thus if it is required that φ2 be less than φ1. Option A n required area ratio Area1 / Area2 options options options Description Magnitude of specified heeling arm Cosine power to describe shape of both specified and derived heelning arms The required area ratio used to find the derived heeling arm magnitude Specify lower integration limit for Area1 Specify upper integration limit for Area1 Specify lower integration limit for Area2.derived heeling arm Area 1 = 2 1 GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d heel arm( ) GZ ( ) d Area 2 = 2 1 Area 1 Ratio of areas = Area 2 φ1 = Angle of equilibrium with heeling arm derived from required area ratio (purple heeling arm) φ2 = Angle of equilibrium with specified heeling arm (orange heeling arm) The criterion is passed if the ratio φ2 : φ1 is less than the required value.Appendix B Ratio of equilibrium angles . then the ratio φ2 : φ1 must be less than unity. the upper integration limit is always the angle of Units length deg deg deg Page 289 .

For more information see: §Heel. The required input parameters are described below. sail area ISO 8666 length2 height of centroid of AS length LH. has reserve buoyancy and positive righting lever at a heel angle of 90º 0 in all other cases. Note that no additional windage areas are calculated by Hydromax for this criterion. Please refer to ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) for exact definitions of parameters and how they should be calculated.STIX The stability index criterion or STIX criterion as described in ISO/FDIS 12217-2:2002(E) is used to assess the stability of sailing craft. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. length length BH. indicating that the equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm must be less than the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Other criteria . Height of sail area centre of effort from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. are found here. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. this is not the same as the STIX variable hCE which is measured from the waterline. beam of hull length Page 290 .Appendix F required value equilibrium with derived heel arm Specifies the maximum allowable ratio of equilibrium heel angle with the specified heel arm to the equilibrium heel angle with the derived heel arm (phi2 / phi1). Option delta Description Adjustment to STIX rating. . 5 if the vessel. This value is normally less than or equal to 100%. Sail area as defined in ISO 8666. when fully flooded with water. which do not easily fall into the categories above. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. zero trim condition. Units AS. either 0 or 5. Hull beam as defined by ISO 8666. zero trim condition. positive up). Hydromax calculates this parameter as the overall beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) in the upright. Other combined criteria Other criteria. Hull length as defined by ISO 8666.

the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. length waterline BWL.Appendix B Option LWL. Hull waterline beam in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. see §Passenger crowding. Hence. Hydromax calculates this parameter at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. beam waterline height of immersed profile area centroid Shall be greater than / Shall not be less than Description Hull waterline length in the current load condition as defined by ISO 8666. the angle of downflooding is taken to be the largest heel angle tested. may be specified or calculated by Hydromax. if no downflooding points are defined. They are included for compatibility with criteria sets defined in earlier versions of Hydromax. Page 291 . the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. This may be either specified or calculated by Hydromax. this is not the same as the STIX variable hLP ). Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline length of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. Hydromax calculates this parameter as the waterline beam of the vessel (all hull surfaces) at zero heel and at the loadcase displacement and centre of gravity. Hydromax uses the numerical STIX rating value rather than the STIX design category. Height of centre of the lateral projected immersed area of the hull from model‟s vertical datum (not necessarily the waterline. Note that a downflooding angle is required to calculate the STIX index. but it is highly recommended to use the equivalent xRef criteria with the desired heeling arms. The heeling arm is calculated from the number. Specific stand alone heeling arm criteria These criteria provide some specific stand alone heeling arm criteria. or defined downflooding points do not immerse within the selected heel angle range. Stand alone heeling arm criteria Angle of equilibrium . Units length length length Hydromax calculates the various factors and STIX rating according to ISO/FDIS 122172:2002(E). This affects the calculation of the Wind Moment and Downflooding factors. weight and location of the passengers.passenger crowding heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to passenger crowding applied. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. if the analysis is carried out freeto-trim. the waterline of the trimmed vessel is used.

however the heel arm is the specific high-speed turning form. Page 292 .high-speed turn heeling arm Calculates the angle of equilibrium with the heeling arm due to high speed turning applied. the only difference being the shape of the heel arm. This is used to simulate the effects of lifting weights and is used by several Navies. In this criterion the heel arm has both a sine and a cosine component. vessel speed and height of the vessel‟s centre of gravity. GZ ( ) heel arm( ) d 4 3 GZ ( )d . Area 1 Ratio = Area 2 Stand alone heeling arm combined criteria Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . The heeling arm is calculated from the turn radius.general heeling arm. for further information also see §General cos+sin heeling arm H( ) Area 1 = Area 2 = k A cos n ( ) 2 1 B sin m ( ) .high-speed turn This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . see §Turning. however the heel arm is the specific passenger crowding form. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general cos+sin heeling arm This is a very similar criterion to § Ratio of areas type 1 .general cos+sin heeling arm The lifting criterion is the same as the Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general heeling arm.Appendix F Angle of equilibrium .passenger crowding This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . The modified form of the heeling arm is given below.general heeling arm except that the heel arm has both a cos and sin component. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . Ratio of areas type 1 .general heeling arm.

Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .general wind heeling arm except that the magnitude of the heeling arm is automatically calculated from the wind pressure (or velocity). Area definition Page 293 .wind heeling arm This criterion is exactly the same as §Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .general cos+sin heeling arm. projected area and area lever information.Appendix B Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) – cos+sin heeling arm Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .lifting weight This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . however the heel arm is the specific towing form. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) .general cos+sin heeling arm.towing This criterion is essentially the same as its generic form: Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) . however the heel arm is the specific lifting of a heavy weight form.

Appendix F Note The Large Angle Stability analysis heel angle range should include a sufficient negative range to allow for the rollback angle. Page 294 . For more information see: §Heel.

the values are the same indicating that the areas under each curve from 0 to 2 are the same. from this we can deduce that the value of GZ and Heeling arm are the same at these angles. From the figure above we can see that the slopes of both curves are the same at 1 and 2 . This is the dynamic heeling arm curve (blue) and is the integral of a constant value heeling arm. From these facts we can derive the following GZ and heeling arm curves: Page 295 . Finally since the dynamic heeling arm is a straight line with constant slope we know that the corresponding heeling arm is a constant value. In this section we look at some common criteria and demonstrate how they may be evaluated in Hydromax. Capsizing moment Often a capsizing moment is determined from the dynamic stability curve by drawing a line through the origin which is tangent to the GZ area curve. what is essentially the same criterion. Dynamic stability criteria In some cases the criteria are expressed in terms of the so-called dynamic stability curve.Appendix B Appendix D: Specific Criteria In Hydromax. In some cases. The problem is to reformulate this so that this capsizing moment can be found from the GZ curve: Dynamic stability curve and Dynamic heeling arm. This is the integral of the GZ curve where the ordinate is the area under the GZ curve integrated from zero to the heel angle in question. The capsizing moment is taken as the magnitude of GZ at this tangent heel angle 2 . Remembering this relationship and that the slope of the dynamic stability curve is the value of GZ it is often possible to reformulate the same criterion in terms of one based on the GZ curve. In Hydromax we have always sought to keep the physical significance transparent in the formulation – for this reason. is presented in quite different ways by different regulatory bodies. at 2 . Furthermore. constants such as acceleration due to gravity are explicitly shown in the formulations and consistent units are used – thus removing the need for obscure constants with strange units. we have tried to distil the essence of the various stability criteria and present them in their simplest form whilst preserving the physical significance of the stability characteristic under assessment.

Area 2 corresponds to the area under the GZ curve up to the second intercept Knowing that Area1 = Area2 we can deduce that Area 3 = Area 4 in the figure below: Page 296 . Area 1 corresponds to the area under the heeling arm curve up to the second intercept Stability curve.Appendix F Stability curve.

. Heeling arms for specific criteria . giving a conversion multiplier for knots to m/s of 0. This can easily be done in Hydromax using the GZ area derived heeling arm type 2 criterion.. All Hydromax criteria use a heeling arm since this is what is ultimately plotted on the GZ curve. Be careful as some criteria specify heeling arms and some specify heeling moments or “moments” in mass.length.2.749(18) amended to MSC. and in the case of “moments” in mass. Thus 1 knot = 1852/3600 = 0.Note on unit conversion There are quite a few different ways in which different authorities define their heeling arms. it is necessary to divide by vessel mass..1.51477333.184m.) In the following section.2 V02 L tonne KG d [kNm] 2 MR V0 L tonne = heeling moment in kNm = service speed in m/s = length of ship at waterline in m = displacement in tonne Page 297 .75(69) 3.. The approach that has been taken in Hydromax is to reflect the physics of what is generating the heeling moment. it is necessary to divide by vessel weight ( g ).length. m/s. 1929). IMO Code on Intact Stability A.Heeling due to turning Heeling moment defined by: MR Where: 0. To obtain the heeling arm from the heeling moment.5144444. Monaco. the conversions for some common criteria have been explained. (Note that the UK nautical mile is 6080ft = 1853.Appendix B The magnitude of the heeling arm must be chosen so that Area 3 = Area 4 So the capsizing moment can also be determined by finding the heeling moment that gives Area3 = Area4.6 . Hydromax uses an internal conversion of knots to m/s based on the International Nautical mile which is defined as exactly 1852m (International Hydrographic Conference.

2 . is given by: d 1000 2 g 0.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: HR a V2 Rg h [m]. H R 1000 M R / g [m]. 3.2 510% 1.2 V02 KG L 1000 Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.2 KG Lg d 2 Equating similar terms: h V R L and KG V0 d 2 and assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length is 5. we obtain: 510% a 0.02 Note that it suffices that a a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen. we obtain: a V2 Rg h V02 0.02 and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant lw1 PAZ 1000 g9.1:1 merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity.Severe wind and rolling criterion (weather criterion) Heeling arm defined by: L R 1. Where: V R h a = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.81 l w1 P tonne [m] Where: = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa Page 298 . the choice of a ratio of 5.2 V02 KG Lg d [m] 2 HR g 0.Appendix F d KG = mean draft m = height of centre of gravity above keel in m Hence the heeling arm.1:1.

81 The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.Heeling moment due to wind pressure Heeling moment defined by: Mv 0.001PAZ 1000 g 1000M v / g [m].9. H v HR g 0.99966 IMO HSC Code MSC.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.80665 9.81 tonne Equating similar terms: h H and Z a g g9.001PAZ [kNm] = heeling moment in kNm = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m Where: Mv P A Z Hence the heeling arm.Appendix B A Z tonne = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroids of A and underwater lateral area in m = displacement in tonne = IMO assumed value of gravitational acceleration .81m/s2 g9.4 .80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Page 299 . is given by: PAZ g [m] Where: = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.81 9.36(63) Annex 6 1.1.81 0. we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ 1000 g9.

80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. we obtain: Equating similar terms: h H Z Page 300 . 0 Annex 7 1. we obtain: a PA(h H ) g PAZ g Equating similar terms: h H Z and a 1.Appendix F Hw g h H a a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.3 .Heeling due to wind Heeling arm defined by: HL1 Where: PAZ 9800 tonne [m] = heeling arm in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 = vertical separation of centroid of A and half the lightest service draft in = displacement in tonne HL1 P A Z m tonne The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: Hw a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = height of centroid of A in m = height of half the lightest service draft in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g h H a Thus equating the required IMO heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm.

4 .0053 2 vkts tonnes h [tonne. in the case of wind plus gust.m] = height of centroid of A in m = height of centroid of underwater lateral area in m = wind pressure in Pa = projected lateral windage in m2 Where: Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.8 1.5.Appendix B and a g 9800 tonne 9.000102 PA(h H ) 1000 simplifying and rearranging: a 0.1.3 .1.0002783 USL C.000102 PA(h H ) [tonne. a becomes 1.Wind heeling moment USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M h H P A 0.1.Heeling moment due to turning USL wind heeling “moment” is specified as: M 0.000102 PA(h H) 1000 [m] The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a PA(h H ) g [m] = standard acceleration due to gravity = 9.80665 m/s2 = displacement in kg = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: g a Thus equating: H a PA(h H ) g 0.80665 9.102 9. Hence.m] L Where: v kts tonne = vessel speed in knots = displacement in tonne Page 301 .1.0 g 0.50102 USL code (Australia) USL C.000102 1000.80665 1. the factor a should be multiplied by the gust factor – typically 1.00068 Where the effect of wind plus gust is required.

999798 a Note that it suffices that . = vessel speed in m/s = radius of turn in m = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = non-dimensional constant (theoretically unity) Where: V R h a Thus equating the required USL heeling arm to the Hydromax heeling arm. ISO 12217-1:2002(E) R L 0. whichever is the least. using annex D. expressed in newton metres.3g 2 R vkts L V2 tonnes 5. L a 0.196424 509% 0. we obtain: a V2 Rg h 0.Appendix F h L = height of centre of gravity above centre of lateral resistance in m = waterline length of vessel in m Thus the heeling arm is given by: H 0.80665 [ms-2]: a 0.0 [m] Where: = displacement in kg The heeling arm in Hydromax is defined as: H a V2 Rg h [m]. with g = 9.3.0 simplifying and rearranging: a 5.2 Rolling in beam waves and wind The curve of righting moments of the boat shall be established up to the downflooding angle or the angle of vanishing stability or 50°.5144 1000.196424 R L 509% gives a value for a: R Assuming that the ratio of the turn radius to the vessel length. the choice of a ratio of 509% merely gives a constant approaching the theoretically correct value of unity. MW. The heeling moment due to wind. and any ratio of turn radius to vessel length and constant a that satisfies this relationship may be chosen.0053 2 vkts tonnes h1 L 1000.0053 2 vkts tonnes h1 L 1000.0 finally. is assumed to be constant at all angles of heel and shall be calculated as follows: Page 302 .3g R 1 1 2 L 0.196424 This section explains how the ISO 12217-1 code calculates the heeling arm and how you can replicate this calculation with a Hydromax criterion. “6.

and 21 m/s for design category B.Appendix B MW = 0. You can calculate (ALV / LWL + TM) manually and then make sure the (h-H) value in Hydromax is the same by specifying: Velocity based heeling arm.7 tonne = 1037 kN LH 24 m BH 5 m LWL 21. expressed in metres.applies to the additional windage area or the total windage area depending on which option you have selected.9 m vW 28 m/s for design category A ALV 72 m2 ( this is greater than 0. ALV is the windage area as defined in 3.1 + 1.3 * ALV * vW2.” Basically they are using moment = force * lever.1 m TM 1. Make sure you check your total windage lever in the intermediate results in the criteria results tab of the Results window.1 + 1. h = (ALV / LWL + TM).9 = 5. For example. area centroid height: h = ALV / LWL + TM = 72 / 21.55*LH * BH. a = 0.3 kg/m3 Note: the centre of the windage area -h. supposing we have a vessel with the following characteristics: Displacement 105. but shall not be taken as less than 0.55 LH BH = 66 m2) Thus according to the ISO 12217 formula. Hydromax‟ wind heeling arm calculation uses H for the vertical height of the hydrodynamic centre (underwater area) and h as the vertical height of the aerodynamic centre (windage area) – all measured consistently from the zero point. positive up. Thus the lever is (h-H) in Hydromax should be the same as the (ALV / LWL + TM) lever from ISO.3.3 kg/m3 giving the expected result for heeling arm amplitude: Page 303 .0. where the force is calculated as 0. vW = 28 m/s for design category A. H = 0. a = 0.9) * 282 = 89961 Nm Thus the heeling arm = MW / Displacement = 89961 / 1037000 = 0. the heeling moment is given as: MW = 0.3 ALV * (ALV / LWL + TM)* vW2 Where LWL is the waterline length.0868 m The input for Hydromax requires: Total area A = 72 m2. TM is the draft at the mid-point of the waterline length. and the lever is (ALV / LWL + TM) This lever is a bit confusing so let‟s concentrate on that.3 * 72 * (72 / 21.7.312 m.

ISO 12217: Small craft – stability and buoyancy assessment and categorisation.3. which depends on the category and length of vessel being tested.1. See also the note on converting units for the definition of the heeling arms in ISO 122171:2002(E). 6.2) and entered into the required value field. 6. H. the default value is set at 1. Part 1: Non-sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m In many cases the user must determine the required pass value for the criteria.3.1. 6. one to check that the righting moment is sufficient and a second to determine whether the righting lever is sufficient.1. In Hydromax.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.Appendix F Intermediate results for the wind heeling arm. of the centre of lateral resistance at the bottom of the vessel. positive upwards).2: Offset-load test There are several ways of evaluating this criterion: 1. see Tables 3 and 4 (Sections 6.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category.4: Heel due to wind action Page 304 .1. Also determine the required wind speed and roll-back angle (depending on the design category) and enter these values.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figures 2 and 3 (Section 6.3: Resistance to wind and waves Determine the windage area and lever and enter them in the appropriate fields in the criterion. 6. so this must be specified manually (it is measured from the model zero point. Verify that the angle of equilibrium does not exceed the maximum permissible value.2). Define a heeling arm and calculate the intersection of the heeling arm with the GZ curve to determine the angle of equilibrium. In most cases the default required value would exceed the worst case.3: Resistance to waves This criterion comprises two parts.7 6. This section gives some details on implementing the ISO 12217 stability criteria in Hydromax. 2. 6. The default value is set to 49. there is no option for placing the height. Specify a loadcase with the offset load specified and carry out an equilibrium analysis. 6. An additional requirement in this section is that a specified freeboard must be exceeded.

3: Angle of vanishing stability Determine the required angle of vanishing stability which depends on design category and vessel displacement. Convert this to a heeling lever. 6. the default value is set at 1.6.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. 6.2. The default value is set to 40 6. If desired you can specify the other values or let Hydromax calculate them for you. 6. Non-Sailing Boats: 6.6. Section 6. see Table 5 (Section 6. The criterion is evaluated after an equilibrium analysis. Determine the limiting heel angle from Table 4 (Sections 6.6: Wind stiffness test Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.2.42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6.7).3.4. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle.2. the default value is set at 1.4: Stability index (STIX) Determine the required STIX value depending on the design category. Part 3: Boats of hull length less than 6m These criteria are evaluated after an equilibrium analysis under the specified loading condition.Appendix B Determine the parameters required for calculation of the wind heeling moment as per 6. 7.6. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.2) Part 2: Sailing boats of hull length greater than or equal to 6m 6.2: Downflooding height Minimum freeboard to downflooding points must be determined from Figure 2 (Section 6. it should self right.2.2.6. Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward.3: Downflooding angle Must be greater than a certain value as determined according to the design category. it should self right. The default value is 130.3). 6. see Tables 3 (Sections 6. Also specify the sail area and vertical position of the sail area centroid and enter these values in the appropriate fields in the criterion.2) and entered into the required value field.5: Knockdown-recovery test The test can be approximated by examining the angle of vanishing stability in the flooded condition. but note the different wind speeds to be used.2: Downflooding-height tests Determine the required downflooding height and specify the appropriate loading condition.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6.2) and entered into the required value field. 7.3: Offset-load test This criterion is most effectively evaluated by performing an equilibrium analysis with the required offset loading condition Sailing Boats: 7. If the flooded vessel has positive GZ at the knockdown angle.2.9).6: Wind stiffness test Page 305 .42m which is slightly greater than the height required for a category A vessel of 24m in length. 6.

Convert this to a heeling lever.6. Section 6.Appendix F Determine the wind heeling moment as defined in 6.6 for the wind speed of interest (Table 6. this criterion will then look at the angle of equilibrium of the vessel under the applied wind heeling arm.6.7). Calculate the GZ curve with the crew seated to windward. Page 306 .

Page 307 . flexibility.msd Description Contains control point and surface information. if you wish to transfer loadcases or compartment definitions from one model to another. colour When opening a .hmd file with the same name.htk .rtf Library Hydromax Criteria Library Extension .Links to or information on the Stability Criteria Library .Links to or information on the Report Hydromax Design .hmd file does not contain: . However.Appendix B Appendix E: Reference Tables This appendix contains the following reference tables: File Extension Reference Table Analysis settings reference table File Extension Reference Table The following table lists files that are used in Hydromax.hml . i. this can be done by going to the appropriate window and saving it to a separate file. is not model related. not when the model is opened. precision.hmd Separate Input files Loadcase Compartments Damage cases All Input window tables Extension . thickness. The .hcr Description The library is not related to the Hydromax Design File. Contains hydrostatic sections information and all Input information that may also be stored separately in the files below The . E.Maxsurf surface information . sounding pipes and modulus Output files All Result Window tables Extension .txt Description Result tables can be saved separately Results tables can not be opened in Hydromax The report can be saved separately Report .e.txt Description Each loadcase can be saved separately The compartment definition can be saved separately The damage case definition can be saved separately All tables in the input window can be saved as text files. File Maxsurf Design Extension .msd file Hydromax looks for a . Downflooding/embarkation points. For more information see the section on criteria. trimming. margin lines.hmd file contains all the additional information that defines the Hydromax model and you need only save this file when working in Hydromax. The library is loaded when the program starts.g.Links to or information on the Results tables .dcs . outside arrows.

Appendix F Analysis settings reference table The following table can be used as a reference to the various analysis settings for each analyses type. 4 The TCG may be specified directly of derived from the lost cargo / ballast water in damaged tanks from the current loadcase. a) The VCG only has an effect on the results if the analysis is free-to-trim. During the floodable length analysis. When calculating the LCG from a specified trim and displacement. Analysis Settings Analyses type Trim Heel Draft DisplaceLCG TCG VCG ment Upright stability Large Angle Stability Equilibrium Specified Condition KN values Limiting KG Floodable Length Tank Calibration S S/ FTTLC result S S / FTT S / FTT FTT S Upright R result S R R Upright Upright R result result S result result result n/a result LC LC S / LC R R R n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ FTT S/ FTT FTT n/a n/a LC LC S / LC S/ LC4 S/ LC4 n/a n/a For GM etc. 2 The VCG is not required for the Limiting KG analysis. the current VCG is used. 3 The VCG is required for the floodable length analysis because of its effect on trim. single) value to be set by user Varied within Range specified by user Calculates values from loadcase – specifies displacement and COG only Free-to-trim to loadcase CG Free-to-trim to LCG calculated from a specific initial trim angle or specified LCG (and VCG) 1 The VCG is used in two ways in the KN analysis. the trim can be substantial and the vertical separation of CG and CB needs to be taken into account. Page 308 . LC LC S / LC S1 result2 S3 n/a Where. b) The GZ curve is calculated for the specified VCG and then the normalised KN curve is calculated as KN = GZ + VCG*SIN(heel). result S R LC FTTLC FTT Cannot be specified – they are a calculated resul Specific (fixed.

data hiding and encapsulation and fault tolerant programming practices to enhance our software's reliability. Structured Programming The best defence against bugs in software is to use structured programming techniques that have been proven to improve software reliability. Quality Principles While it is impossible to ensure that any software product is completely free of bugs.Appendix B Appendix F: Quality Assurance This appendix describes the quality assurance processes used to ensure Hydromax gives reliable and accurate results. object oriented design. testing of real world problems inhouse and beta testing in the field at Hydromax user sites. These designs are of simple geometric shapes and can be used to validate calculations performed by Hydromax. To this end we follow a development and testing path which includes use of structured programming techniques. Below is a table of results derived analytically from these shapes compared with results obtained from Maxsurf and Hydromax at different precisions. we follow a series of engineering and testing principles and procedures to ensure that Hydromax will produce results which are consistent with the level of accuracy and thoroughness a professional engineer applies to design work. Quality Assurance Many Hydromax users ask us how we know that Hydromax produces the correct results. we first carry out testing on the algorithms on Reference Designs – these are proven test cases with known analytical solutions. Hydromax is a complex software system of over 400. Page 309 . Verification of Algorithms When new design or analysis algorithms are introduced into Hydromax.000 lines of code and we believe our history of reliability reflects the effort we have put into using reliable coding practices. Without going into the technical details of our software development methodology. This following explains how Formation Design Systems has verified that Hydromax gives accurate results and what steps we take to make sure that each version of the software we ship is as reliable as possible. see Reference Calculations. verification of the underlying algorithms. Reference Designs A folder of reference hull shapes is included with Maxsurf and Hydromax. we summarize by saying that we utilize structured code. testing of the computer implementation of those algorithms.

333333 833.02% -0.534 78.39% -1.57 483.00% % error 0.761 480.05% -0.00% Page 310 .849 VCB m -1. at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 392.01% 0.00% 0.56% -0.105 WP Area m^2 78.10% -1.191 490.875 -1.522 Maxsurf Low Precision 389.33333 833.89 % error -0. comparison of Maxsurf and Hydromax with analytical values sphere 10m diam at 5m draft Volume m^3 261.79939 261.01% -0.699 392.00% 0.00% 0.18% -0.88% % error -0.87385 489.873852 488.23% -0.991 Maxsurf Hi Precision 392.875 -1.333333 833.357 78.6807269 488.673 Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision 391.47% -0.04% -2. I 833.308 833.79% % error -0.01% -0.121 -2.871 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.341 77.764 260.00% 0.03% Analytically derived Hydromax High Precision Hydromax Low Precision Maxsurf Hi Precision Maxsurf Low Precision 10m Cylinder 10m diam.01% -0.122 -2.25% -0.57% % error -0. I 490. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.874 WP Area m^2 100 100 100 100 100 VCB m -2.06% -1. I m^4 Long.53982 78.257 833.00% 0.34279 261.333 833.72% % error 0. I Long.00% 0.564741 490. I Long.121 -2.122 -2.333 % error -0.333 833.532 257.00% 0.00% 0.118 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.14247 488.93873 485. I m^4 Long. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.333 833.875 -1.874 -1.Appendix F Reference Calculations Hydrostatics calculations for various reference designs.00% % error 0.33333 833.01% -0.

I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.01% -0.6667 6666.67% Page 311 .78% % error -0.98 -0.91 168.00% 0.352 9.5 -2.927 1. I 1.667 6666.999 -0.5 -2.01% -0.372 14.01% -0.6667 6666.00% % error 0.00% 0.00% 0.368 Hydromax High Precision 14.D=0.352 Maxsurf Hi Precision 9.04% -0.92527 1.666666 1666. I Long.351 14.00% % error 0.97% % error -0.302 14. I m^4 Volume WP Area Trans.00% 0.00% % error 0.B=1.00% 0.667 1666.00% 0.352 Hydromax Low Precision 9.92418 1.13% -0.621 % error -0.375 15 -0.00% 0.6667 6666.63 167.00% 0.5m.00% 0. I 1666.351 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.4685 168.666666 1666.22% -0.09% -0.00% 0.07% -0.667 6666.667 % error 0.00% Parabolic Wigley type Hull.5 LCB m 0 0 0 0 0 Trans.00% 0. I m^4 Long.3773 168.998 -0. LWL=15m.9375 Volume WP Area VCB m^3 m^2 m Analytically derived 9.666666 1666.Box 20m long 10m beam at 5m draft Volume m^3 Analytically derived 1000 Hydromax High Precision 1000 Hydromax Low Precision 1000 Maxsurf Hi Precision 1000 Maxsurf Low Precision 1000 WP Area m^2 200 200 200 200 200 VCB m -2.39% % error -0.03% -0. I Long.00% 0.5 -2.75 168.26% -0.5 -2. I m^4 Long.942 -0.24% -0.351 Maxsurf Low Precision 9.07% -0.92875 1.

To get accurate results from Hydromax. alpha test or beta test release.5a2 The second alpha test release of version 1. It is mostly reliable but may contain some bugs. as with all complex software systems. please contact our technical support staff by email at support@formsys. If you suspect a problem with Hydromax. it is possible for errors to occur. For example 1.0 1. At each release the results from these tests are compared with the results from the previous release to ensure conformance with answers which have been established as being correct. it is not reliable. Testing of Upgrades As each new version of Hydromax is released we perform a series of tests to ensure it functions correctly.64 But we're not Perfect We make every effort to ensure that our software will meet our users' needs and perform accurately. A development version is usually only for internal use and is a very early demonstration of a possible new product or feature. and send you a new corrected version of the program. we begin shipping the commercial version. These beta testers provide us with feedback on the reliability and accuracy of the program as well as its useability and suitability for everyday work. In the unlikely event of a problem being found. it is necessary for you to model the problem correctly and to correctly interpret the results produced. the version number may also include a letter and number suffix indicating the type and number of the release. Version Control Each new version of Hydromax displays a version number indicating the version and the date the software was first shipped.Appendix C Testing of Implementation Once the basic algorithms have been proven correct. AutoShip etc. Once the beta test program is completed and all testers are happy with the program. This involves sending the software to practicing engineers and having them use it on design work in progress to determine its reliability for actual design use.com and explain what you believe the problem to be. If the version is a development. we conduct a beta test of the software. A beta release is a final test version of the program released for field testing prior to commercial release. It is the users' responsibility to correctly model the structure and assume responsibility for the results. Page 312 . Beta Testing Immediately prior to the release of each new version of Hydromax. testing is then carried out on more complex sample problems to which a solution has already been established using a proven analysis program. However.6 1. we will correct it as soon as practicable. debugged program reliable and ready for professional use.5 1.0d1 The first development release of version 1. A commercial release is a completed. An alpha release is a first public release of a program for initial testing and comment. It is highly experimental and not reliable. These results may either come from Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering texts such as well as from other results carried out by Formation Design Systems or other engineers using other software products such as NAPA.64 A commercial release of version 1.6b2 The second beta test release of version 1.

................................................... 90 Analysis type Equilibrium ......... 156 Settings.......... 52 Creating a new Loadcase File . 204 Creating a Compartment definition file .............................................................. 213 Closing a Loadcase ......................... 42 Add Surface Areas .................................... 200 Curve of Areas .............................. 79 Animate ............................................................................................. 70 Tanks................................................................................................................................................. 39 Criteria ............... 203 Compartment Definition ............................ 202 Allowable shears and moments ................................... 212 Assembly View ............................... 74 Rename ..................................................................... 73 Extent of damage ................................. 183 Data Format . 69 Compartments ......... 174 Criteria Libraries .......................................................... 88 Floodable Length ......... 213 B Background ........................... 172 Criteria......................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................... 204 Cell Border ..................... 211 Arrange Icons ...... 212 Case Menu .......................................................... 71 Cascade ................................................................................................................................ 161 Select............. 42 Coefficient parameters ... 36 Colour ...... 181 Automation Reference ........................ 191 Copying Tables ..................... 159 Corrected VCG ................................ 200 Copying Graphs ......51................................................. 185 C Calibration Increment ............................................... 147 Coordinate system...................... Main Import................................. 313 Block Coefficient ....................... 70 Linked ...................................... Prob Damage Import............................ 103 KN Values Analysis ........................... 52 Bulkheads............................................. 184 New ......... 52 Saving ........ 72 Delete ................................... 210 Batch Analysis .. 207 Page 313 ........................... 201 Centre of buoyancy ............................................... calculation of....... 70 Non-Buoyant Volumes ..................................................... 139 Beam ............. 221 Boundary Box ............................................................................................................. 34 Copy ....................................................................................................... 200 D Damage ................................ 91 Tank Calibrations .......................................... 211 Hydrostatic ......... 216 Coefficients.................................. 62 Convergence Error ..................185........................... 72 saving ...72...................................................... 78............................... 70 Linked Tanks .............. 155 Damage Case Add. 82 Limiting KG .................... 199 Save As ............................................................................................................................................ 84 Curves of Form ... 200 Save As .... 150 Create cases from Zone Damage ..... 309 Toolbar ................ 200 Criteria............................ 52 Forming ......................................... 93 Large Angle Stability ................... 201 Cell Shading .. 218 Beta Testing . 204 Output .................... 181 Check for Updates.............................................................................................. 73 Damage Window .............. 72 Display ......................................................................... 70 Compartments............................................ 106 Specified Conditions .................. 181 Centre of gravity ....................................................................................................................................158........................................................... add.. 213 Activate GHS Export ........................................................................................ 204 Add Load ............. 195 Analysis in waves ............................................................. 77 Analysis Menu ......Index Index A About Hydromax ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 202 Add Damage case ......... 96 Longitudinal Strength ................ 84 Cut................. 205 Criteria File Format............ 181 Centre of flotation ................................................ 200 Reset to defaults ..................................... 161 Compartment types ............. delete ............................................................ 108 Upright Hydrostatics ..........................................................

........................................... 196 F File Extension Table ............. 196 Design Preparation ..... 189 double click ................................................................................... 198 Export Bitmap ......................................................... 197 Open ....................... Add........................................................................................... 219....................................18............. 205....................... 35 DWL .......................................................................................... 190 Graph Formatting .......................... 212 Curve of Areas ........... 87 Downflooding points ......................... 214 Frame of Reference .................... 201 Floodable Length .......................................................................... Export..................154..................................................... 76 Draft .................................................................................................. 204 Edit Loadcase ............................................................................................................. 207 Downflooding Angles ............. 210 Density .............................................................. 149 Fluid VCG............................................... 205 Flooding .... 190 Graph Printing to Scale ...... coherence ........................................ Export ...................................... 159 Graph Window .... 210 Grounding ....................................................51.. 75............ 151 Fluids ........................................... 308 File Menu ...........................Index Data layout ......... 211 Design Grid Toolbar ........................ 201 Delete Damage case ......................... 201 Emergence Angles ................................................................................. 206 GZ .................. 197 Exit ............... 80 DXF export .. 18 Design................................................................. 150 Freeboard ................................................ 201 Delete ...................... 203 Form parameters ........................ 73 Fluid analysis method ................ 162 DXF...................................................................................................................................................... 188 Graphs ..................... 198 Graph ...................... 43 Hull Sections Recalculate .......................................................................... 196 Edit Damage case................... 204 External Tanks ..... 83 E Edge Visibility Toolbar........ 211 Deactivate GHS Export......................................... 200 Hydromax Version 8................................. 194 Edit..................................... 189 Curves of Form ....................................................... Export.................... 160 Displacement.........................80..................................51................. 210 Home View ................................ 185 Linking to tanks or compartments .......... Page 314 Close ........ 161 Extent of Damage .... 18.... 205 Display Background ............................................................... 205 Font .................................................................................................................................................. 189 Graph colours .. 190 Righting Lever (GZ) ............................................................. 205 Heeling Moments ................................... 56 Extra Buttons Toolbar ................................... 204 G GHS................... 198 GHS.............. 194 File.............................................. 35............................................................. 212 Hide DXF..... 211 Fredyn ......... 197 Save . 87 Equilibrium ................................................................................. 195................................ 204 Delete DXF background ....................................................................................... 240 Help Menu ............... 199 Exporting ......................... 202 Move Items Up .............................. 146..... 186 Data Menu..................................................................... 190 get data ............................ 145.................................................................................. 20 Saving ............................ 202 Delete Cells .................................................. 206 Hydromax v8............. 89 Full Screen .............. 197 Save As ........... 220 Draft marks .......................................... 204 Edit Menu ............... 9 Export.... 189 Type ................ 189 Grid ...... 197 Fill Down ......... 198 ...................0 file..............142......................... Import........................... 8 H Heel ................ 200 Edit Toolbar ................................................... 9..................... 198 Dynamic Stability ................181......................... 151... 199 Free Surface Moment ............ 197 File Toolbar..................................................................................................................21......... 202 Sort Items ............... 12 Floodable Length Criteria dialog ................................................................. 88 Equilibrium Condition ...................... 162 New ............................ 189 Data interpolation..................... 202 Horizontal lever ............................................................................ 201 Move Items Down.......................0 ........................................................... 210 Display Menu ................................ 205 Design Grid ..

............................................................................................................................................................... 200 Pan ........................................................................ number ... 58 Loadcase .... 197 MEPC............................................................................................................................................................................................... 14 MARPOL oil outflow ........ 75 Data ....... 93 L Large Angle Stability ................ 47 Loadcase...... Area Section ............................ 22 Preferences ................... 51 Loading a Saved Loadcase........................... 146........................................ Snap to hull . 51 maximum number ..................... 8........ 220 Maximum deck inclination .............................. LCG .......................... 205 Perspective view ..................... 42 Renaming ............................................ 217 Libraries ................................................... 42 Free surface correction ........................ 96 Linked negative compartments ....... 116 N Non-Buoyant Volume Definition ............... 183 Loadcase.............. 161 Update ........................ 185 Modulus Window ...................................................................................... 222 Length ............................ 197 Import DXF Background .........................................19(58) . 49 Loadcase........... max....216(82) ............................. 41 saving ........................................ 202 Paste ............ 44 Loadcase Sorting.......... 44 Headings lines ...................................13................ 220 Immersion ................ 77 Measurement reference frames .............. 185 adding............. 82........... 77 Moment to trim .................. 43 Grouping tanks ........................................................ 76 editing ................. 201 Insert Row .....................117(52) Reg............................... 186 KN Values...................... 11..........23.................................................................. 47 Loadcase Colour Formatting................. surface ................... cross referencing .............. 159 Printing to scale ... Export ...... 116 MSC......... 45 Loadcase........................................................................................................................ 213 Outside arrows ........................ 159 Prismatic Coefficient . 46 Loadgroup .......13.................... 223 Immersion Angles . 43 Blank lines ...................................... 212 Input Tables........ Distributed Loads ........... Import ...... 41 Longitudinal Strength ................................................................ 209 Page 315 .......................... 43 Totals ................................... saving ........................ 47 Loadgroup............................ Tank loads ...................... 204 Loadcase................................................................... column selection ...................................... 201 Permeability ........................ 44 Loadcase........... 240 LCB...............141(54) Reg.................................. 201 Midship Section ........... 113 Merge Cells ... 75.............................. 223 Maximum shears and moments ... 35............. Workshop structure .................. 43 Loadcase Template .. density .............38............ 42 Distributed loads ................ 214 Menus.......................................... 182 Precision.. 220 Modulus points ........................................................................................................ 20 overlap ............................................... 76 Results .................................................................................... 185 Margin Line............... 159 Printing.................................................... 172 Limiting KG ..... 40 Loadcase Window.......................................... 87 deleting........ 223 MSC...... 201 Installing Hydromax ......................................................................... 84 lateral projected area ..................................................12A............. 58....... 10.............. 198 Individual Loadcase ................................. 221 Prob damage zones ................................. 200 Print Preview................. 198 Import Image Background .. 45 Editing loads ..................... 34 Input ............................. formatting................................. 202 Print........................................... 198 O Online Support .....................16.. 106 M Margin Line points......................................................... 210 Initial Conditions ... 161 Input Window ... 38....................... 44 Loadcase Formatting................................................. 198 Immersed depth................................................................. 184 Insert New Table .......................181................ 16 ISO 12217-1 .... 206 MARPOL .............................................................. 87 Import......................Index I IGES........................ 113 Max.................................................................................................... 212 Adding and Deleting loads............................................................................. 303 K Key points ............................................................. 59 P Page Setup........................................................ 51 nuShallo................ 113 MEPC........77...........................................................

................ 293 Stability criteria........................highspeed turn heeling arm ............ Angle of deck edge immersion ...... 71 Edit ............................ Angle of vanishing stability general heeling arm .............................. 268 Stability criteria................................... 210 Sectional Area Curve ................. 184 Calibration Increment ........ 292 Stability criteria.............. 289 Reference Calculations .............. 224 Rotate ...............60................................... 211 Render Transparent ..... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Saving input parameters .............. 205 Specified Conditions......................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .......................... 60.... Areas and levers ........................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ...... Angle of equilibrium multiple heeling arms .. 138... 152 Section Area Coefficient .. 210 Show Grid ...... capsizing moment............................................. 193 Reporting ................................... 30 Shrink ..................................GZ derived wind heeling arm........... dialog .............................................. 228 Stability criteria......................................general wind heeling arm 283 ....................................high-speed turn .................. 119 Properties ......... Angle of vanishing stability ................... 146 Split Cell ............................................ Angle of margin line immersion ..................... 202 Simulate fluid movement .........................................................................general cos+sin heeling arm .................... 203 Property Sheet ...... 161 Resume Analysis..................................................................................... 249 Stability criteria...................... 311 Reference Designs .......... 221 Section..... 209 Shift Key .......passenger crowding ................................................................ 212 Results Window ..... 296 Stability criteria.............. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ................... 160........... Angle of maximum GZ .................. 310 Relative Density ...... 91........ 293 Stability criteria............. 293 Stability criteria......................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ................ 240 Stability criteria...........70............... 270 Stability criteria.................. 151 Skin Thickness ... 181................................................................................. Angle of equilibrium ... 248 Stability criteria............ 310 R Ratio of equilibrium angles – GZ area derived heeling arm.......... 181 Q Quality Assurance ...... 249 Stability criteria.................................................. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) .............. 191 Keystrokes............. show single........................................ 201 Spool to Report .................................... 277 Stability criteria......... 150 Stability criteria.............................. 185 Results................ Forming .. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ................. 250 Stability criteria........... 161 Saving Densities..... 156 Results .. 310 Quality Principles...10........................ 270 Stability criteria.......................................... 209 Set Analysis Type ................................................ 27 Select All.............. 171 Stability criteria..... 201 S Safe steady heeling angles ............. 187 Stability criteria..... 16 Show DXF ................... 78 Stability Criteria Results ......................................... 206 Set Home View ...... 116 Probabilistic Damage – Analysis ............. 294 Stability criteria......... 117 Probabilistic Damage – Principles ....................................................... 31 Sections............................................. 293 Stability criteria.. 70 Specific Gravity .............. 248 Stability criteria............ 202 Row Positioning ........................ 211 Report Toolbar ............general heeling arm ........................ Angle of equilibrium general heeling arm ............269...................................... 196 Report Window ............................. Angle of maximum GZ above heeling arm ...................................................................... 15..................... saving ....................... 288 Stability criteria......towing.............. 136 Probabilistic Damage – Inputs ................................................................................lifting weight .... 282 Stability criteria........................................... 206 Righting Moment ................................................. 19 Page 316 Sounding Pipes .... 294 Stability criteria.......................................................... 151 Specified Condition .....................................Index Probabilistic Damage ........ Angle of downflooding ................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 1) ....................... 201 Select View from Data .. 250 Stability criteria................................................................. 84 Save ......... Angle of equilibrium ............... Angle of equilibrium ..................................................................... 202 Set Vessel to DWL. angle calculators ............................... Angle of equilibrium passenger crowding heeling arm ....................... check boxes ............ 119 Probabilistic Damage – log file.................. 207 Stability booklet .. 201 Show single hull section . 151 Render .................................

....... 278 Stability criteria.......................... Heeling due to lifting of weights .......................................... General cos+sin heeling arm ................... 240 Stability criteria.. 243 Stability criteria.. heeling arm definition .............................Index Stability criteria................ Minimum Freeboard at equilibrium ............... GM calculators .............. 279 Stability criteria.......... copying criteria.. 163 Stability criteria.... Maximum ratio of GZ to heeling arm .... 278 Stability criteria.... 262 Stability criteria......... 263 Stability criteria....165...... 239 Stability criteria........................... 251 Stability criteria................................................................ 242 Stability criteria... 294 Stability criteria............ 172 Stability criteria.......231.... GZ area between limits type 2 ...... 242 Stability criteria.231... GZ area between limits type 2....multiple heeling arms ................... parent criteria .............................. 272 Stability criteria............... Ratio of GMT and heeling arm .. Heeling due to wind ........... GZ area between limits type 3 .... 305 Stability criteria......................... heeling arm dependency on displacement ............................... minimum GM calculator – Grain .... Range of positive stability general heeling arm ........standard.................... 293 Stability criteria................. pass/fail test .................. ISO 12217 ......... 285 Stability criteria............general heeling arm ............. 173 Stability criteria...... Ratio of areas type 2 general heeling arm ..... Heeling due to grain shift 239 Stability criteria..... Range of positive stability .... 239 Stability criteria............. Heeling due to trawling ....... Minimum ratio of GZ to heeling arm . minimum GM calculator – Wind pressure ................. 268 Stability criteria.....................wind heeling arm ................................... Heeling due to passenger crowding ....... 233 Stability criteria....... 244 Stability criteria.... importing ... IMO HSC Code MSC....... 170 Stability criteria............................. 229 Stability criteria................. minimum GM calculator – Constant .. 298 Stability criteria............ Heeling due to bollard-pull ....................... equilibrium ........ Maximum Freeboard at equilibrium ..........36(63 ........... Heeling due to towing ..... Heeling due to turning............................... 266 Stability criteria. 264 Stability criteria........................ 288 Stability criteria................................ 287 Stability criteria. 247 Page 317 .................. 237 Stability criteria... GZ area derived heeling arm type 2............. 300 Stability criteria...................................... 270 Stability criteria. GZ area between limits type 1 ................................. criteria library file .............................. pitch or slope at equilibrium .......... defining custom criteria..........229.................. 286 Stability criteria............... 235 Stability criteria........................................... 262 Stability criteria......HSC monohull type . glossary ................ moving criteria ................ 250 Stability criteria............ Heeling due to arbitrary forces ... 243 Stability criteria........ 298 Stability criteria................. Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2) ...........................HSC multihull type ..... 238 Stability criteria............................ GZ area between limits type 1 ............... 234 Stability criteria......... 179 Stability criteria......................... 170 Stability criteria........ list ............. 255 Stability criteria..... 273 Stability criteria. GZ area between limits type 1 .... IMO roll back angle calculator .................... 291 Stability criteria......................... Combined criteria (ratio of areas type 2a) .. 271 Stability criteria... GZ definitions ......................... 250 Stability criteria....................... IMO Code on Intact Stability A... GZ................STIX ........ Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2.... 172 Stability criteria.................... 275 Stability criteria.. GZ derived heeling arm ........... heeling arm units ........................ 172 Stability criteria.. 178 Stability criteria........................................................ GZ area between limits type 2 ... 242 Stability criteria...... non-healing arm ..multiple heeling arms ............. General heeling arm .......... minimum GM calculator – Constant with freeboard ............ Ratio of areas type 3 general heeling arm .....................general heeling arm ............. Other criteria ...... 176 Stability criteria....... damage and intact settings ............ GZ curve features ................. 232 Stability criteria.......749(18) ..... Ratio of areas type 1 multiple heeling arms ........................ Ratio of GZ area between limits ..... 233 Stability criteria......... Ratio of areas type 1 general heeling arm ... 253 Stability criteria...... 236 Stability criteria.............. 170 Stability criteria.................... GZ area derived heeling arm type 1... Maximum value of heel...... 229 Stability criteria.................230...................... 274 Stability criteria..... Gust ratio ................ Ratio of areas type 1 general cos+sin heeling arm...... 235 Stability criteria............................................general heeling arm . 261 Stability criteria.. 238 Stability criteria..................................172..

...................................................... selecting for analysis ..........general heeling arm .......................................... 138............... 195 TCG.... 174 Stability criteria............................................. Limiting KG........................ 265 Stability criteria............................... Value of maximum GZ above heeling arm .......................................................................................... checking ....................... 280 Stability criteria................................................................... 169 Stability criteria... 56 Recalculate ............. 211 Update Loadcase .................. 58 Tanks.... 153 ................................................................... 206 Upright Hydrostatics ................................ 206 Tanks within Compartments ..13.............................. Value of GMt at equilibrium ................... 246 Start Analysis .................................................... 61 Permeability ........................................ 212 View Menu ...................................................................................................................................................... 196 View Direction .............. 205 Fixed ... Value of GZ at ..... 27 Trim ..... 206 Start Batch Analysis........... 156 Surface Use ......................... 52 tapered. 145 Free-to-trim using a specified initial trim value ........................ 145 View (extended)Toolbar ............................................ 53 tanks overlap ..... results . 54 complex ..... USL code.........143......................................................... 194 View Window . 144 Free-to-trim to a specified LCG value ................................. 200 Units ... 56 linked .. 16 Status Bar .................... 19 T Table .......................................................... KN ...................................... 209 Visibility Toolbar ............multiple heeling arms.............................................................................. 58........195.. 60 Saving ................... Value of GZ at specified angle or maximum GZ below specified angle .............. 59 Tanks Recalculate ............... Subdivision Index s-factor MSC 19(58 ......... 170 Stability criteria............... 264 Stability criteria.................................................................Index Stability criteria....... 153 trochoidal ...... 61 Page 318 Tank Calibrations ....................... 20 U Undo.................................. 203 Stop Analysis ................................................... 173 Stability criteria..... 79 V Validate Hydromax model ....... 108 Tank Type external.......................... boundary surfaces .................... 205 sinusoidal ..... 203 Trapezoidal integration ...... Survivability Index MSC_216(82) ................ 207 Streaming results to Word ... 234 Stability criteria............................ Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .................. 161 Surface Thickness ................... User Defined Heeling Arm ..................................................................................... Value of GZ at equilibrium general heeling arm ..... saving .......... 138......... 52 Fluids ........................................... Ratio of GZ values at phi1 and phi2 .............. Value of GMt at ................ 202 View Toolbar ..................................................7.................... 153 Wave height ........................ 60 Ordering .................. deleting ........... 145 Tile Horizontal ............................ 207 Starting Hydromax .......... tree list .. 176 Stability criteria............................................................................................................................................................ 223 Trimmed surfaces................ 181 Visibility ........................................................................... Value of RM at specified angle or maximum RM below specified angle ........................................... 264 Stability criteria................................. Value of GMt or GMl at equilibrium ........................ 302 Stability criteria....................... 54 Non-Buoyant Areas .................................. 145 Trim angle .............. 260 Stability criteria............................................ 61 Visibility ............. 154 Waveform ....................................................................................................................37.............................................. 212 Tolerances ... 30 VCG for trim balance............ 222 Wave definition.. 268 Stability criteria................general heeling arm................. 244 Stability criteria............................ 257 Stability criteria.......................................................................... 196 W Waterplane Area Coefficient ........ 245 Stability criteria.................................. 212 Tile Vertical ................................... 201 Tank adding.............................................................. 147 Toolbars .... report and batch processing ......... 244 Stability criteria................ 243 Stability criteria....... 276 Stability criteria........................ 54 simple .......................194........................................................... Ratio of positive to negative GZ area between limits ............... Value of maximum GZ ............... 244 Stability criteria............

............................................... 157 Z Zero Point ................... report streaming to ................ integration of .....Index Wavelength ........................................................ 156 Word................... 43 Zoom . 224 Window Menu ........ 195 Windows Registry............. 181.... report templates........ 16 Word.............. 212 Window Toolbar .......... 154 Wetted surface area.. 35................................................................. 202 Page 319 ............................................ 18......

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