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Hans K. Fauske

ABSTRACT

A theoretical based generalized vapor and dust deflagration vent sizing formula is provided that

provides good agreement with available experimental data. In contrast to empirical guidelines, given

the theoretical basis for the formula allows reliable predictions outside the available data base.

INTRODUCTION

A large number of analytical and highly empirical correlations including nomograms reflecting

changing standards have been or are being proposed separately for gas and dust explosion relief venting.

An example of dust explosion predictions and data is illustrated in Figure 1 (reproduced from Eckhoff,

1998).

Figure 1

In principle modeling developed for gas explosions venting should also apply to dust explosion

venting. The difference in approach arise mainly because the models or correlations for gas explosions

involve the use of the laminar or fundamental burn velocity and a turbulence correlation factor which are

more difficult to specify separately for dust explosions. Here we offer a generalized formula that is

applicable to both gas and dust deflagrations including subsonic and sonic pressure relief conditions and

is consistent with available experimental data and industry experience. Application of the model is

illustrated for dust explosions.

GENERALIZED VENT SIZING FORMULA

The volumetric venting rate,

g

Q

(m

3

s

-1

), from a deflagration event can be estimated from

( )

( ) ( )

2/ 3

max

g

max i max s i

V K P P

Q

P P P P P P

(1)

where

P (bar a) = final venting pressure,

V (m

3

) = vessel volume,

P

max

(bar a) = maximum unvented pressure,

P

s

(bar a) = relief set pressure,

P

i

(bar a) = initial pressure,

K (bar m s

-1

) = deflagration index measured in a standard non-vented spherical vessel (such as

the 20 vessel) with quiescent initial conditions and central ignition and is given by

1/ 3

max

K v P =

(2)

where v (m

3

) is the standard test vessel volume and

max

P

(bar s

-1

) is the maximum measured rate of

pressure rise.

The form of Eq. 1 results from an approximation of Epstein et al. [1] high pressure vent model

by setting the heat capacity ratio of the burned gas or dust (

b

= 1.1) equal to 1.0 [2]. As P approaches

P

max

the volumetric gas generation rate to be vented,

g

Q

smaller value of

g

Q

s

, is due to more

time available to vent the unburnt gas. Similarly, the larger values of

g

Q

s

are

due to less time to vent the unburnt gas.

The required vent area, A

v

(m

2

), is then given by

( )

( ) ( )

1

1/ 2 0.286

max v w

2/ 3 1.75

max i max s i

P P P A M 18.37 K

P 1

V P 0.61 RT P P P P P P

| | | |

= +

| |

\ . \ .

(3)

where, the unit of P in the first bracket of Eq. 3 is now bar g, M

w

is the molecular weight, R (8314 Pa-

m

3

/K-kg mole) is the gas constant, and T (K) is the initial temperature.

DUST DEFLAGRATION VENTING

Of necessity, in contrast to gas mixtures, the measurement of

max

P

or K

st

(bar m s

-1

) =

max

P

v

1/3

is made with initially highly turbulent conditions where the degree of turbulence is of the order of 6

relative to quiescent conditions [3]. Therefore, in order to represent similar initial conditions to that for

quiescence gas mixtures, K in Eq. 3 is set equal to K

st

/6. This approach provides predictions consistent

with industrial dust conditions as discussed by Eckhoff [4], and illustrated in Figures 2 and 3

1

(where

predictions from Eq. 3 are shown to be consistent with envelope of experimental data).

1

It is of interest to note that an exceptional maize starch explosion named turbulent jet shown in Figure 2 was

sufficiently violent to rupture part of the silo wall (~ 50 m

2

) at 0.6 bar g. In this case, setting K in Eq. 3 equal to K

st

rather than K

st

/6 results in the same order of magnitude required vent area.

Figure 2. Experimental data between vent area and maximum explosion pressure for grain dust

explosions in a 2.8 m

3

cubical vessel [3] and comparison with Eq. 3.

Figure 3. Results from vented maize starch and wheat grain dust explosions in 500 m

3

silo cells in Norway.

Comparison with predicted P

red

/vent area correlations by various vent sizing methods in current use [3]. P

red

means

the maximum pressure in the vented enclosure during the explosion. Prediction from Eq. 3 setting K = 115/6 bar m/s

is consistent with the noted envelope of experimental data.

It is of interest to compare the 500 m

3

silo envelope of experimental data to the highly empirical

NFPA 68 (North America) and EN 14491 (Europe) guidelines.

As an example considering P

red

= 0.1 bar g with P

max

= 9 bar g, K

st

= 115 bar m/s and P

stat

= 0.02

bar g, the theoretical based Eq. 3 results in

A = 9.42 m

2

(4)

which compare to the envelope experimental data of

A

exp.

= 9.3 m

2

(5)

Considering an aspect ratio (L/D) of 2 the NFPA 68 (5) predicts

A = 11.5 m

2

(6)

and EN 14491 (6) predicts

A = 34.05 m

2

(7)

While for an aspect ratio of 4 for the 500 m

3

silo, NFPA 68 leads to

A = 23 m

2

(8)

and EN 14491 suggests

A = 54.6 m

2

(9)

Clearly the empirical guidelines, especially EN 14491, lead to impractical large vents for high

aspect ratio large volume silos and low design pressures.

1. Epstein, M., et al., 1986, Estimation of Peak Pressure for Sonic-Vented Hydrocarbon

Explosions in Spherical Vessels, Combustion and Flame 66, pp. 1-8, 1986.

REFERENCES

2. Grolmes, M. A. and Fauske, H. K., 1988, Dust Explosion Technology Applications, Paper

presented at Flammable Dust Explosion Conference, November 2-4, 1988, St. Louis, Missouri.

3. Nagy, John and Verakis, Harry C., 1983, Development and Control of Dust Explosions, March

Dekker, Inc., New York.

4. Eckhoff, Rolf K., 1998, Dust Explosions in the Process Industries, 2nd Edition, Butterworth-

Heineman.

5. NFPA-68, Standard on Explosion Protection by Deflagration Venting, 2007 edition.

6. EN 14491 (2006), Dust Explosion Venting Protective Systems, CEN.

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