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PDE 112: Guidance and Counseling Question 3: Psycho-Analytical theory of personality as propounded by Sigmund Freud

INTRODUCTION Sigmund Freud, a Viennese physician during the period of 1890 to 1939, propounded the psychoanalytic theory. Freud, who was trained as a physician and early in his career, hoped that psychological disorders could be reduced to related brain impairments. But because of the neuroscience of his days, which was in an under-developed stage to aid his research, Freud turned instead to psychology to explain disordered behaviour and mental activity. VIEW OF HUMAN NATURE (PSYCHOANALYSIS) He viewed human nature as pessimistic deterministic and mechanism. Human beings according to Freud are determined by repressed childhood conflicts irrational force, unconscious motivations, biological and instruction verges and psychosexual events during the first five years of life. He posits that human personality comprises of three systems the id, the ego and superego. The id According to Freud, the id is the original system of personality, the primary source of all psychic energy and seat of instincts. By nature the id is irrational and does not bother with reality or logic it is unconscious, raw, blind, amoral and illogical. It is governed by pleasure principles. The sole concern is to gratify all desires without regards to consequences. The Ego The ego is the reality principle which tries to suppress some of the unethical desires of the Id in accordance with the demands of the environment. At birth, the ego does not exist, but as conscious awareness progress in the growth of a human being, the ego begins to be identified as an unchanging improvement of the personality structure. The ego determines immediate wish of the id and some cases this brings some discomfort of the individual. It is the centre of intelligence and logical thinking and formulate plans of action for satisfactory needs. The ego

motives are based on self-interest, self enchantment, striving for status, superiority achievement and power. The Superego It is translated as conscience and emerges during the preschool years. The superego could be likened to the internalization of societal values and moral by an individual through admonition, reinforcement by parents, siblings, peers, teachers and significant others. This is enforced by means of a system of rewards and punishments imposed upon the child. It is the moral arms that represents the idea rather that the real and strives for perfection rather than pleasure. The development and interaction of id, ego and superego which make up the behaviour of an individual take place during the psychosexual stages of development. BELIEFS AND VIEWS OF THE PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY The psychoanalytic theory holds the view that man is evil that the thoughts of man are wicked, man is illogical and irrational, the mentality of man is unhealthy therefore, and man is prone to making wrong decisions. The purpose of the theory was to provide measures of correction towards man's irrational, so that man can make good judgment based on reasons and choice. Therefore, one among the choice of man is to make good career decisions. Owing to the fact that man can choose career wrongly because he is irrational, therefore, there is need for man to be properly guided vocational. Man has various needs such as; psychological, physical, social, emotional and spiritual. As the needs of man plague his existence, in order to be comfortable, he must device a measure of satisfying his demanding needs. In the process of achieving this, man becomes logical, rational, mentally healthy and conscious in using his perspective powers of making decisions. Amongst all the needs of man that requires his personal decision, it is only the physical need that comes to play. And the components of those need includes. Viz: Good health Good home Good career

Good income Good food (etc) THE RELATIONS OF PSYCHOANALTIC THEORY TO VOCATIONAL CHOICE In the context of my discussion and analysis, vocational choice is the main stay of our argument. The desire for a good career must reflect proper understanding of the employment world. Skills and ability must be developed potentials must be harnessed and all must be channeled towards the growth of the individual during vocational help. The level of unemployment increases as a result of lack of vocational guidance for the youths. This lack of proper career guidance at early stage of development provides a situation in which many young ones grow up confused of what to do in life. Under this confused state, they go into wrong professions, which make them less useful to themselves and society. The psychoanalytic theory points out that the mind of man is divided into three components; the id, ego, superego. And the power to be decisive lies in the ego because; the ego is the reality part or principle that checks the excess of Id, which is the libido. In the course of doing this, defense mechanisms are initiated by the ego, which assist vocational growth, enhancement in skills and proficiency in ability due to the fact that the energy of the body and mind has been directed to one course of life (work). Man progresses both consciously and unconsciously in all works of life when he exchanges sex and emotions for work. This is therefore an element of the ego known as sublimation. It inherently means that man consciously directs all forces and energy of self-gratification to the acquisition of a skill as it relates to vocational choice. In order to reverse the irrationality of man, he must deliberately and consciously choose what will continue his existence and survival. So, man's decision in career choice is based on where potential best fit is, where his skills are enhanced and where his existence is sustained. Therefore, right vocational choices depends on the forces of body and mind and the physical need which is emphasized or strongly supported by the invent of the psychoanalytic theory of the Viennese physician and psychologist, Sigmund Freud.

THE IMPLICATIONS OF THE THEORY IN RELATIONS TO VOCATIONAL CHOICE TO COUNSELLING The psychoanalytic theory is a promising tool for personnel's in counseling professions to use in comprehending the problems and feelings of their clients. In response to vocational guidance, the effect of the superego can easily be perceived in counselees vocational desire by the counselor and thus device a way of meeting the needs of the clients. Based on the knowledge in psychoanalysis, the counselor can handle a client's constructs of inadequacies (such as; lack of proper planning and decision making, thinking unrealistically) by adding more vigour to the victim's ego to enable him see vivid reasons to make adjustment. Also, with the information from defense mechanism, counseling practices has seen a light in understanding various patterns a victim can use to distort reality and deceive him/her. Thus, using the knowledge as merit affords them the opportunity to forecast a solution. CONLUSIONS Freud's psychoanalytic theory has been applicable to vocational choice in that to counseling, it has increased the very understanding of human behaviour, and that there is a way man's choice of career can be altered if he is not going the right direction.