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Victoria Watson

Chapter 5 outline
I.)American Revolution and Confederation
1.) The First Continental Congress
a.) Intolerable acts lead to convention in Philadelphia (not Georgia)
b.) Made to determine how colonies should react to what
c.) Most Americans had no desire for independence, wanted to fix
relationship with crown
2.) Delegates
a.) Views went from radical to conservative
b.) Patrick Henry- Virginia, Samuel and John Adams-Mass., wanted great
concessions from Britain.
c.) George Washington- Virginia, John Dickinson- Penn., moderates
d.) John Nay- NY, Joseph Galloway- Penn, conservatives
3.) Actions of Congress
a.) Galloway proposed plan much like Albany plan, lost by one vote
b.) Suffolk Resolves rejected intolerable acts
c.) Declaration of Rights and Grievances
d.) Creation of committees urged
e.) Colonial rights not recognized- called for second congress meeting
II.) Fighting Begins
1.) American Revolution
a.) Mass. declared a state of rebellion
b.) Additional troops sent to deal with disorders
c.) Lead to violence causing first AR battle
2.) Lexington and Concord
a.) Gen. Thomas Gage, Boston, sent troops to stop military supplies in
b.) Paul Revere and William Dawes warned that the British were coming
c.) Faced British in Lexington where they fired
d.) 8 of number killed
e.) British entered Concord, destroying supplies
f.) Reached Boston and attacked ending up with 250 casualties
3.) Bunker Hill
a.) 2 months later new battle fought
b.) British attacked colonists, suffering over 1000 casualties
c.) Americans claimed victory
III.) The Second Continental Congress
1.) “ ”
a.) Delegates divided
b.) NE, wanted independence
c.) Middle colonies that were loyal to Britain
2.) Military Actions
a.) Congress adopted declaration of causes and necessities of arms for
b.) George Washington lead Mass. and other volunteers in Boston
c.) Under Benedict Arnold’s force, Quebec was raided to prevent British
d.) American Navy and Marine corps organized to attack British
3.) Peace Efforts
a.) contradictory policy adopter by congress
b.) Olive Branch Petition sent to King George
c.) He dismissed plea and agreed to Parliament’s Prohibitory Act
d.) Forbade trade/shipping between England and colonies
4.) Thomas Paine’s Argument for Independence
a.) 1776- pamphlet published, Common Sense, arguing for independent
b.) Called King’s Government corrupt and unreasonable laws
5.) The Declaration of Independence
a.) Congress began to favor independence
b.) 1776- Richard Henry Lee, Virginia, introduced resolution
c.) 5 delegates ( Thomas Jefferson included) formed committee to support
d.) Declaration was drafted and adopted by congress
IV.) The War
1.) Revolutionary War
a.) United States of America was developing
b.) 2.6 million lived in colonies during war
c.) 40% joined( American Patriots), 20-30% sided with
Britain(Loyalists), the rest remained neutral
2.) Patriots
a.) Mostly from NE and VA
b.) Most farmers reluctant to leave home and would return to duty
c.) Washington never had more than 20,000 troops at one time
d.) His army was often in need of food, supplies and rarely paid
3.) African Americans
a.) At first, Washington rejected the thought of AA serving in patriot
b.) Once British promised freedom to those who joined their side, they
made same offer
c.) About 5,000 AA fought on patriot side taking most of the military
4.) Loyalists
a.) Tories- those who remained loyal to the king
b.) Almost 60,000 American Tories Fought and died
c.) There were about 520,000-780,000 total
d.) Majority in NY, NJ, and Georgia
5.) Native American
a.) Tried to stay away from war
b.) Attacks moved them to support British because of the promise to
limit colonial settlements in west
6.) Initial American Losses and Hardships
a.) First 3 yrs went badly
b.) British owned NY and Philadelphia
c.) 95% trade decline; paper money worthless
7.) Alliance with France
a.) NY, victory of Saratoga for Americans
b.) British marched from Canada hoping to take NE out of colonies, but
were attacked forced to surrender
c.) Victory persuaded France to join war against Britain
d.) Became allies and aided Americans in any way they could
8.) Victory
a.) Consolidation of forces was decided by British
b.) Patriots captured British forts
c.) Wanted to control Ohio Territory
d.) British concentrated on campaigning in VA and Carolinas
9.) Yorktown
a.) Last major battle in RW fought
b.) Strongly supported by French
c.) Washington forced surrender and gained victory
10.) Treaty of Paris
a.) War became unpopular in England
b.) Heavy strain on economy
c.) Treaty signed stating the independence of the US, Mississippi
Boundaries of British, Canada fishing rights
V.) Organizations of New Governments
1.) State Governments
a.) 10 colonies wrote new constitutions
b.) Adopted by state legislatures
c.) Hopes were to protect individual rights and prevent future tyrannies
2.) List of Rights
a.) Constitutions began with bill/ declaration
b.) Belonged to all citizens; state officials could not encroach
3.) Separation of Powers
a.) Legislative
b.) Executive
c.) Judicial
4.) Voting
a.) Right to vote- white male property owners
b.) They had lager stake in government than a poor man did
5.) The Articles of Confederation
a.) John Dickinson drafted first constitution 1776
b.) Congress modified it, protecting rights of individual states
c.) Adopted and submitted to congress for ratification in 1781
6.) Ratification
a.) Delayed over dispute
b.) Seaboard states wanted the land to be controlled by central
c.) VA and NY gave up western lands and Articles were ratified 1781
7.) Structure of Government
a.) Established central government that included congress
b.) Each state given one vote, 9/13 required to pass laws
c.) Committee of States created
8.) Powers
a.) Wage war
b.) Make treaties
c.) Send diplomatic reps.
d.) Powers not given: Regulate commerce, tax collecting, and enforce its
own laws
9.) Accomplishments
a.) Winning the war
b.) Land Ordinance
c.) NW Ordinance
10.) Problems with the articles
a.) Central government weak
b.) War debts- Financial
c.) Foreign- little European Respect
d.) Domestic- Shay’s Rebellion
VI.) Social Change
1.) Abolition of Aristocratic Titles
a.) No titles of nobility were allowed to be given
b.) No primogeniture
c.) War debt helped by selling large estates
2.) Separation of Church and State
a.) States refused to give money to any religious support
b.) Anglican Church disestablished
c.) NH, Connecticut, and Mass continued to get support through the
Congressional Church
2.) Women
a.) During war, support of women was depended upon
b.) They maintained colonial economy (running farms and businesses)
c.) Remained second-class status
3.) Slavery
` a.) Importation of slaves abolished
b.) Most northern states ended slavery, southern sometimes freed
d.) Later southerners decided that slave labor was essential to everyday