Adsorption from Solutions, Acetic acid on Charcoal

Mangila, J.
A

Department of Chemical Engineering, Cebu Institute of Technology – University, Cebu City, Philippines 6000

Date Submitted: February 26, 2011

I.

INTRODUCTION

Adsorption is the adhesion of atoms, ions, biomolecules or molecules of gas, liquid, or dissolved solids to a surface. This process creates a film of the adsorbate of the adsorbent. It differs from absorption, in which a fluidpermeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid The term sorption encompasses both processes, while desorption is the reverse of adsorption. Similar to surface tension, adsorption is a consequence of surface energy. In a bulk material, all the bonding requirements of the constituent atoms of the material are filled by other atoms in the material. However, atoms on the surface of the adsorbent are not wholly surrounded by other adsorbent atoms and therefore can attract adsorbates. The exact nature of the bonding depends on the details of the species involved, but the adsorption process is generally classified as physisorption or chemisorption .It may also occur due to electrostatic attraction. Adsorption is present in many natural physical, biological, and chemical systems, and is widely used in industrial applications such as activated charcoal, capturing and using waste heat to provide cold water for air conditioning and other process requirements ,synthetic resins, increase storage capacity of carbide-derived carbons for tunable nanoporous carbon, and water purification. Adsorption, ion exchange, and chromatography are sorption processes in which certain adsorbates are selectively transferred from the fluid phase to the surface of insoluble, rigid particles suspended in a vessel or packed in a column. Adsorption is usually described through isotherms , that is the amount of adsorbate on the adsorbent as a function of its pressure ( gas) or concentration if liquid at constant

Since the equation is valid only for a given adsorbed phase and adsorbent atconstant temperature. To test the validityof the Freundlich isotherm.two 10-ml samples were also titrated with 0. EXPERIMENTAL A six 2 gram (need not to be exactly 2g. C is the concentration (mol/L). The flasks were then covered and let it stand for about an hour and areshaken at frequent intervals. After which. and k and n are experimentally determinedconstants. Then.250 M). In the last threeconcentrations. thefinely powdered charcoal was filtered and samples were taken from the filtrate. it should be known to the nearest mg. a straight line results with the slope equal to 1/n and the intercept equal to log10 k. two 5-ml samples were titrated with 0.125 M.[ II.125 M).100M NaOH usingphenolphthalein as an indicator. 0. It is being added by distilled water until the total volume is 100 .100 M NaOH.100 M NaOH and in the third concentration(0.500M solution was added to the 1st Erlenmeyer flask.0156M. To standardize the original acetic acid solution (0. The 6filtered charcoals were set aside for future use.0313Mand 0. After the 6 solutions have stood for about an hour. 0.temperature. the filtered charcoal thatwas set aside before was punctured and washed using a wash bottle into a 100mlvolumetric flask. a volume of 100 ml of acetic acid starting with a 0.100 M NaOH.) ofactivated charcoal was weighed and then placed into each of the six numbered 250mlErlenmeyer flasks. To demonstrate that this type of adsorption is reversible. in the 2nd concentration (0. One of the earliest attempts to described mathematically the adsorption isotherms was the Freundlich equation X/ m = kC1/n In this purely empirical equation.0625M. In the first concentration (0.500 M). it is sometimes called the Freundlich isotherms. take the logarithms of both sides: Log10 X/m = log10 k + 1/n log10 C If log10 X/m is plotted against log10 C. two 25-ml samples were also titrated with 0.100 MNaOH using phenolphthalein as an indicator. a 50-ml sample of each concentration was titrated with 0. 0.500 M CH3COOH in terms ofthe NaOH solution. The concentrations of the other fiveshould have the following concentration values: 0. the units of X/ m are moles adsorbate per gramadsorbent. two 5-ml samples were titrated with 0. The quantity adsorbed is nearly always normalized by the mass of adsorbent to allow comparison of different materials .250M.

3rd edition. CONCLUSION The adsorption of acetic acid on charcoal is an example of physical adsorptionwhere dipole and van der Waals forces are the predominant sources of attraction.. 2006 2. Physical Chemistry. V. W. Maron. Laidler. Houghton Mifflin Company 3.ml. Samuel and Lando. 7th edition. Jerome. The plot of the natural logarithm of the specific adsorption (ln Y) versus the natural logarithm of moles adsorbate per gram adsorbent (ln ΔX/m) is linear. John. This shows that the system follows the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Atkins. Fundamentals of Physical Chemistry.H. When a solution of acetic acid in water is shaken with activated carbon. RESULTS IV. Freeman and Company. Inc. New York. Keith and Meisler. the charcoal was filtered off and a 50-ml of each of the mixturewas titrated with 0.100 M NaOH using phenolphthalein as an indicator. It should berealized that the last experiment is only semi.quantitative since no allowance is made forthe original solution which adheres to the charcoal. part of the acid is adsorbed by the carbon and the concentration of the solution decreases. Themixtures were allowed to stand for about 20 to 30 minutes and shaking it at frequentintervals. From the table and graphs.[1] And since the graph is a straight line. 1951 . REFERENCES: 1.. After 30 mins. Atkins Physical Chemistry.ANALYSIS Solid surfaces can adsorb dissolved substances from solution. Julio. Peter and de Paula. III. the temperature of the solution and the adsorbateconcentration in solution. we can readily obtain the values of the two constants based on the values if the slope(1/n) and its intercept (ln k). Theamount of acetic acid (adsorbate) adsorbed per gram of charcoal (adsorbent) will dependon the surface area of the charcoal. it is realized that K increases as the concentration of CH3COOH decreases. USA: Macmillan Publishing Co.

Lemay.2003 ..4. Inc. Theodore E. et al. Brown. Chemistry the General Science9th Edition Pearson Education . Eugene H.

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