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Glossary of key terms

Level 1
Aerobic energy system Aerobic means with oxygen. If exercise is steady and not too intense the cardio-respiratory systems can supply all the oxygen needed in the muscles. Agility The ability to change direction at speed and control the movement of the body. Aerobic endurance The ability of the heart and lungs to deliver oxygen to the working muscles. Aerobic endurance is also known as cardiovascular endurance or stamina. Anaerobic energy system Anaerobic means without oxygen. If exercise is done in short, intense bursts, the supply of oxygen to the muscles is insufficient for ATP to be produced aerobically. Analysis To examine something in detail in order to understand it better or draw conclusions from it. Attacking skills Skills that are performed when attempting to score a goal or point(s). In invasion games, they involve possession of the ball. Attacking skills are also known as offensive skills. Balance The ability to retain the centre of mass (gravity) of the body above the base of support in static and dynamic conditions. Body Composition The percentage of body weight that is fat, muscle and bone. Components of fitness A range of different fitness types. It is a more appropriate term to use than fitness. Fitness components are grouped as either health-related or skillrelated. Coordination The ability to use two or more body parts together by timing the movements to perform skills smoothly and accurately. Core skills Activities used by players that are fundamental elements of the game, for example shooting in basketball. Defending skills Skills involved in trying to restrict the opposition team from scoring. They are usually performed when not in possession of the ball. Flexibility The range of movement possible at a joint. Game analysis To examine a game in detail in order to understand it better, and using the data to draw conclusions to enhance individual and team performances. GPS Global positioning systems that are used to determine position on the earths surface. From these measurements, changes in distances and speeds can be determined. Health-related fitness Components of fitness that are associated with various indices of health and well-being. These include aerobic endurance, flexibility, local muscular endurance, strength and body composition. Local muscular endurance The ability to use voluntary muscles many times without getting tired. Offensive skills Skills that are performed when attempting to score a goal or point(s). In invasion games they involve possession of the ball and are also known as attacking skills. Overload Training that is harder and more intense. The training takes place more often than previously. Patterns of play Movement direction or concentration of either the ball or player around the field. Physical fitness The ability to meet the demands of the

environment or task undertaken. Power the ability to perform strength activities at speed. (power = force x speed) Reaction time The time between the presentation of a stimulus and the onset of a movement. Set play A movement that has been rehearsed and practised and is often used at dead ball situations. Skill-related fitness Components of fitness that are more relevant to the sports performer. These include agility, balance, coordination, power, reaction time and speed. Specificity (principle of) Doing specific kinds of activity or exercise so that the correct muscles and energy systems are developed. Speed The rate at which an individual is able to perform a movement or cover a distance, in a set period of time. Strength The amount of force that a muscle can exert against a resistance. Tactics Actions taken to solve specific problems or accomplish specific goals in a game. These are events designed to achieve the overall strategy. Team strategy A carefully devised overall plan of action that provides a team or individual with a winning formula. Time and motion analysis Mapping how and where athletes move. Tracking A tool developed to follow a ball or player around a pitch.

Level 2 extra terms

Key events Significant events in a game that can influence the outcome of the game. These can include set play moves and turnovers. Player density The closeness or concentration of players around the ball. Reliability If the same experiment is repeated and the same results (or very similar) are recorded, then it is said to be reliable. Results are reliable if they are dependable and consistent. Turnover When a team loses or gains possession of the ball. Validity Does it measure what it is meant to measure? If so, it is valid. If the information collected is close to the actual or real values, then it is said to be valid. Work : rest ratio Comparison of when a player is working on the pitch to when they are resting. Resting is often classified as walking or being stationary. It is vital to understand the work : rest ratio needed for each sport or position so that training is specific to the energy systems.