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Experiment #1

Prepared for Dr. D Ting

06‐92‐324 ENGINEERING MEASUREMENTS

Group 22 Members

Faisal SIDDIQUI 101963673

Vasu GARG 102288056

Vipul BHATIA 102288089

Rajeevan SIVAPALAN 101988401

Table of Content

Summary ............................................................................................................................. 2

Introduction......................................................................................................................... 2

Equipments ......................................................................................................................... 3

Vernier calipers............................................................................................................... 3

Dial caliper...................................................................................................................... 3

Digital caliper.................................................................................................................. 3

Micrometer...................................................................................................................... 3

Gauge blocks................................................................................................................... 4

Sine bar ........................................................................................................................... 4

Procedure ............................................................................................................................ 5

Results and discussion ........................................................................................................ 5

Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 7

Appendix............................................................................................................................. 8

Calculations: ................................................................................................................... 8

List of Tables

Table 1: Instrument Characteristics .................................................................................... 4

Table 2: Instrument Errors .................................................................................................. 4

Table 3: Equipment Measurements .................................................................................... 4

List of Figures

Figure 1(A) & 1(B): Micrometer Anvil Error Measuring Procedure ................................. 6

Summary

In this experiment we were given apparatus those were vernier caliper, dial caliper,

digital caliper, micrometer, test indicator, gauge blocks, sine bar and were explained how

to use each apparatus and some tips about its maintenance. For calipers we have to take

care that to wipe dust and dirt from all surfaces and rinse in fresh water after each use and

wash hands before handling the vernier caliper to remove dirt and oils that might damage

the caliper and do not drop or otherwise mishandle the caliper and by doing so may

damage or destroy the caliper. Lubricating the sliding surfaces because lack of lubrication

may cause scratching on the sliding surfaces and before storage, make sure the zero lines

align when the jaws are closed, with no space observed between the jaws and calipers are

stored in their plastic sheath in a safe place when not in use. In case of micrometer we

placed the part in the opening and turned the micrometer screw until the spindle contacts

the work. Then read the exposed number on the barrel and the number of divisions past

the number and read the division on the spindle. These usually read to less than

thousandths of an inch. We measured the range and resolution of all apparatus and the

value of blocks from all apparatus and filled the table given. We filled the table by

checking the accuracy values and by subtracting it from original values. Then we used

the dial caliper, digital caliper and micrometer to check the accuracy values of blocks.

Then we measured the measured the zero and anvil error of calipers and micrometer. The

anvil error of micrometer is measured by keeping the spherical bearing inside the

micrometer and then measuring the values by keeping two blocks on the side with

bearing and then keeping bearing in between two blocks and the difference between the

values is the anvil error. We were given a sample of which we measured the top diameter

by micrometer and second diameter by using dial caliper and then third diameter with

digital caliper and then measured side of the hexagon, depth of the hole and diameter of

the hole with digital caliper and measured radius of curvature and angle of inclination

with sine bar. We repeated experiment two times to get two readings. Finally, we filled

all values in table and then calculated mean, variance and standard deviation of all

measurements.

Introduction

The purpose of this lab was to study the characteristics of various measurement tools and

techniques. And find the accuracy of measurement using various instruments. The

findings of the investigation will enable to formulate realistic goals for the quality control

program and to implement appropriate regular checks on the accuracy of measurement

instruments. As part of this exercise we used to work with gauge blocks and

measurement instruments that are equipped with vernier measurement scales.

2

Equipments

Vernier calipers

The vernier caliper is used to gain an additional digit of accuracy compared to a simple

rular. A vernier scale can be incorporated into any measurement device that has a

measurement scale. It consists of a high quality metal ruler with a special vernier scale

attached which allows the ruler to be read with grater precision than would otherwise be

possible. It allows the user to determine the measurement on the device to within a sub-

division of the main scale.

Dial caliper

They provide the ability to quickly read dimensions, both inside and out, like their

predecessor and also feature the addition of the depth measurement rod. The dial caliper

is also easier to read which translates to speed in the work place. As for the construction,

the dial is fixed to the moveable jaw and rides along the tool’s bar or slide, meshing with

a toothed rack. The caliper is the ability of the inside measurement jaws to pass by each

other so smaller dimensions can be read and a single scale is needed which further makes

the readings easier to determine.

Digital caliper

The system consists of a series of rectangular plates etched into a copper strip that

stretches the length of the bar, usually concealed by a taped scale or simple cover. They

perform the outside, inside and depth readings, but have the ability to convert from

English to Metric with just the push of a button and the ability to set your zero position

anywhere along the bar.

Micrometer

surfaces in thousands of an inch. Micrometers are used to measure the outside diameters,

inside diameters, the distance between parallel surfaces, the depth of holes and slots, and

the distance from a surface to some recessed part. It generally provides grater precision

than caliper, but can measure a smaller range of lengths

3

Gauge blocks

Gauge blocks are the most precise and simplest material measures of length used to

disseminate the unit of length. They have the shape of cuboids and are made of material

resistant to wear. Gauge blocks of specially graded lengths are combined in gauge blocks

sets so that every length in the range of can be realized by combination of only small

number of gauge blocks.

Sine bar

Sine bar is a tool used to measure angles. The distance between the centers of the

cylinders is precisely controlled, and the top of the bar is parallel to a line through the

centers of the two rollers. The dimension between the two rollers is chosen to be

hypotenuse of a triangle when in use.

Instrument Range Resolution Accuracy

Dial Caliper 8in 0.001in ±0.002in

Digital Caliper 8in 0.0005in ±0.000in

Vernier Micrometer 1in 0.0001in ±0.0002in

Test Indicator 0.010in 0.0001in -

Instrument Zero Anvil

Dial Caliper 0 NA

Digital Caliper 0 NA

Vernier Micrometer 0.0028in 0

Measurement 1 2 Mean Variance Standard

(in^2) deviation

Diameter#1(use 0.5850in 0.5763in 0.5807in 3.785 ×10−5 0.0062in

micrometer)

Diameter#2(use 0.9875in 0.9810in 0.9798in 3.13 ×10−6 0.0018in

dial caliper)

Diameter#3(use 1.4885in 1.4885in 1.4885in 0 0in

digital caliper)

Side of the 0.8640in 0.8785in 0.8713in 1.051×10−4 0.0103in

hexagon

Depth of hole 0.6020in 0.6180in 0.6100in 1.28 × 10−4 0.0113in

Diameter of the 0.5725in 0.5565in 0.5645in 1.28 × 10−4 0.0113in

hole

Radius of 0.2031in 0.2031in 0.2031in 0 0in

curvature(convex)

4

Procedure

1. Firstly, we were given all apparatus those were vernier caliper, dial caliper, digital

caliper, micrometer, test indicator, gauge blocks, sine bar.

2. Secondly, we were explained how to use each apparatus and some tips about its

maintenance.

3. We measured the range and resolution of all apparatus.

4. We measured the value of blocks from all apparatus and filled the table given.

5. We filled the table by checking the accuracy values and by subtracting it from

original values.

6. Then we used the dial caliper, digital caliper and micrometer to check the

accuracy values of blocks.

7. Then we measured the measured the zero and anvil error of calipers and

micrometer.

8. The anvil error of micrometer is measured by keeping the spherical bearing inside

the micrometer and then measuring the values by keeping two blocks on the side

with bearing and then keeping bearing in between two blocks and the difference

between the values is the anvil error.

9. We were given a sample of which we measured the top diameter by micrometer

and second diameter by using dial caliper and then third diameter with digital

caliper and then measured side of the hexagon, depth of the hole and diameter of

the hole with digital caliper and measured radius of curvature and angle of

inclination with sine bar.

10. We repeated experiment two times to get two readings.

11. Finally, we filled all values in table and then calculated mean, variance and

standard deviation of all measurements.

In this experiment measuring instruments such as the Dial Caliper, Digital Caliper, and

Vernier Micrometer were closely examined. The range, resolution and the accuracy of

these precision instruments were closely scrutinized. After careful examination and

recording of values in table 1, the Dial Caliper and the Digital Caliper both were found to

have a range of 8 inches. When these two calipers were compared to each other it was

found Digital Caliper has a superior resolution and accuracy of the two. The examination

confirms this since the resolution of Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper was found to be

0.001 inches and 0.0005 inches respectively. Also the accuracy of Dial Caliper and the

Digital Caliper was found to be ±0.002 inches and ±0.000 inches respectively. The

Digital Caliper can achieve an accuracy of ±0.000 inches due to the fact that it can be

reset after closing. The Vernier Micrometer is a more precise instrument as it was found

to have a resolution of 0.0001 inches and an accuracy of ±0.0002 inches. The Test

Indicator was said to have a range and resolution of 0.010 inches and 0.0001 inches by

the GA.

5

While examining instrument error from table 2 it can be seen that the both the Dial

Caliper and Digital Caliper have a zero error of 0 inches due to dial can be positioned to

zero on the Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper can be fixed to 0 when the jaws are closed.

The Anvil error is not applicable for both the calipers as the jaws are not concave. The

anvil error does apply to Vernier Micrometer and to measure it the following

configurations of steel ball and gauge block. The micrometer reading from B was

subtracted from reading obtained from A. This is due to the measurement from A is

always larger or equal to the measurement from B. For this experiment the dimension

obtained from both configurations was found to be equal and therefore the anvil error was

found to be 0 inches.

A B

A combination of all the equipments mentioned above was used to measure various

features of an object. Due to time limitation on two measurements was taken and a mean

and standard deviation was calculated for each feature. These results are tabulated in

table 3.There are many sources of errors that could have contributed to the measurement

errors of the instrument. For the Dial Caliper the error can be caused by misinterpretation

of the indicator needle. The Digital Caliper is subject to no such misinterpretation since

the value is displayed on LCD display, however if the caliper jaws are not perpendicular

to the object measured then the object dimension can be recorded larger than actual. The

accuracy of a Vernier Micrometer is subject to error due to lead of the screw built in the

micrometer barrel. This type of error is cumulative and increases with the increase in

screw travel and therefore micrometers come in 1 inch range. The other errors related to

Vernier Micrometer occurs error within the rotation, known as drunken thread, because

of slight thread waver over the course of a rotation. The other is slip-stick, or backlash,

which is caused by unwanted slop between the mesh of the threads. One of the ways of

improving micrometer measurement for future experiments is by tuning it to the range

where it is likely to be used. Also one way to improve caliper measurements in future

experiments is by taking care in holding it perpendicular to the object being measured.

One of the sources of errors in Dial Test Indicator is due to the axis of the plunger not

being exactly parallel to the machine travel. This is referred to as the Cosine Error.

6

Conclusion

Finally to conclude the experiment we performed the experiment with various

measurement tools techniques. And found the accuracy of measurement using various

instruments. By doing this experiment, we are enabling to formulate realistic goals for the

quality control program and to implement appropriate regular checks on the accuracy of

measurement instruments. After performing the experiment we calculated the mean,

variance and standard deviation for each equipment measurements. As we compare the

values of standard deviation, we can see that using micrometer give the more accurate

measurements comparing to others. The Dial Caliper and the Digital Caliper both were

found to have a range of 8 inches. When these two calipers were compared to each other

it was found Digital Caliper has a superior resolution and accuracy of the two. The

examination confirms this since the resolution of Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper was

found to be 0.001 inches and 0.0005 inches respectively. Also the accuracy of Dial

Caliper and the Digital Caliper was found to be ±0.002 inches and ±0.000 inches

respectively. The Digital Caliper can achieve an accuracy of ±0.000 inches due to the

fact that it can be reset after closing. The Vernier Micrometer is a more precise

instrument as it was found to have a resolution of 0.0001 inches and an accuracy of

±0.0002 inches. The Test Indicator was said to have a range and resolution of 0.010

inches and 0.0001 inches by the GA.

7

Appendix

Calculations:

(A) For Diameter #1 (Using Micrometer)

x1 = 0.5850in x2 = 0.5763in

__

1 n x +x 0.5850 + 0.5763

Mean = x =

n

∑ x = 1 2 =

i =1 i

2 2

= 0.5807in

2

⎛ __

⎞

x −

⎜ i x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

Variance = s 2 = ∑ i =1 ⎝

n ⎠ = 1 ⎛x − x⎞ + 1 ⎛x − x⎞

⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.5850 − 0.5807 ) + ( 0.5763 − 0.5807 )

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

−5 −5

= 1.849 × 10 + 1.936 × 10

= 3.785 ×10−5 in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ xi − x ⎟

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 3.785 × 10−5 = 6.1522 × 10−3

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0062in

x1 = 0.9785in x2 = 0.9810in

__

1 n x +x 0.9785 + 0.9810

Mean = x =

n

∑ x = 1 2 =

i =1 i

2 2

= 0.9798in

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

n ⎝

i

⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞

Variance = s = ∑ i =1

2

= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.9785 − 0.9798 ) + ( 0.9810 − 0.9798)

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

−6 −6

= 1.69 × 10 + 1.44 × 10

= 3.13 × 10−6 in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

−

⎜ i x⎟

x

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 3.13 × 10−6 = 1.7692 × 10−3

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0018in

8

(C) For Diameter #3 (Using Digital Caliper)

x1 = 1.4885in x2 = 1.4885in

__

1 n x + x 1.4885 + 1.4885

Mean = x =

n

∑ x = 1 2 =

i =1 i

2 2

= 1.4885in

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

n ⎝

i

⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞

Variance = s = ∑ i =1

2

= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= (1.4885 − 1.4885) + (1.4885 − 1.4885 )

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

= 0+0

= 0in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ xi − x⎟

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 0=0

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0in

x1 = 0.8640in x2 = 0.8785in

__

1 n x1 + x2 0.8640 + 0.8745

Mean = x = ∑

n i =1

xi =

2

=

2

= 0.8713in

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

n ⎝

i

⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞

Variance = s = ∑ i =1

2

= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.8640 − 0.8713) + ( 0.8785 − 0.8713)

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

−5 −5

= 5.329 × 10 + 5.184 × 10

= 1.0513 × 10−4 in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ xi − x⎟

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.0513 × 10−4 = 1.03 × 10−2

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0103in

9

(E) For Depth of Hole (Using Depth Bar of Digital Caliper)

x1 = 0.6020in x2 = 0.6180in

__

1 n x +x 0.6020 + 0.6180

Mean = x =

n

∑ x = 1 2 =

i =1 i

2 2

= 0.6100in

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

n ⎝

i

⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞

Variance = s = ∑ i =1

2

= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.6020 − 0.6100 ) + ( 0.6180 − 0.6100 )

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

−5 −5

= 6.4 × 10 + 6.4 × 10

= 1.28 × 10−4 in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

−

⎜ i x⎟

x

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.28 × 10−4 = 1.13 × 10−2

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0113in

x1 = 0.5725in x2 = 0.5565in

__

1 n x +x 0.5725 + 0.5565

Mean = x =

n

∑ x = 1 2 =

i =1 i

2 2

= 0.5645in

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

n ⎝

i

⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞

Variance = s = ∑ i =1

2

= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.5725 − 0.5645 ) + ( 0.5565 − 0.5645)

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

−5 −5

= 6.4 ×10 + 6.4 × 10

= 1.28 ×10−4 in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

⎜ xi − x ⎟

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.28 × 10−4 = 1.13 × 10−2

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0113in

10

(G) For Radius of Curvature (Concave)

13 13

x1 = in = 0.2031in x2 = in = 0.2031in

64 64

__

1 n x +x 0.2031 + 0.2031

Mean = x = ∑ i =1 xi = 1 2 = = 0.2031in

n 2 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

x −

⎜ i x⎟ __ 2 __ 2

Variance = s 2 = ∑ i =1 ⎝

n ⎠ = 1 ⎛x − x⎞ + 1 ⎛x − x⎞

⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟

n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠

1 1

= ( 0.2031 − 0.2031) + ( 0.2031 − 0.2031)

2 2

2 −1 2 −1

= 0+0

= 0in 2

2

⎛ __

⎞

−

⎜ i x⎟

x

Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 0 =0

n

n −1

∴ s = 0.0in

11

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