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DIMENSIONAL MEASUREMENTS 

Experiment #1 
Prepared for Dr. D Ting 

06‐92‐324 ENGINEERING MEASUREMENTS

Group 22 Members 
Faisal SIDDIQUI 101963673 
Vasu GARG 102288056 
Vipul BHATIA 102288089 
Rajeevan SIVAPALAN 101988401 
Table of Content

Summary ............................................................................................................................. 2
Introduction......................................................................................................................... 2
Equipments ......................................................................................................................... 3
Vernier calipers............................................................................................................... 3
Dial caliper...................................................................................................................... 3
Digital caliper.................................................................................................................. 3
Micrometer...................................................................................................................... 3
Gauge blocks................................................................................................................... 4
Sine bar ........................................................................................................................... 4
Procedure ............................................................................................................................ 5
Results and discussion ........................................................................................................ 5
Conclusion .......................................................................................................................... 7
Appendix............................................................................................................................. 8
Calculations: ................................................................................................................... 8

List of Tables
Table 1: Instrument Characteristics .................................................................................... 4
Table 2: Instrument Errors .................................................................................................. 4
Table 3: Equipment Measurements .................................................................................... 4

List of Figures
Figure 1(A) & 1(B): Micrometer Anvil Error Measuring Procedure ................................. 6
Summary
In this experiment we were given apparatus those were vernier caliper, dial caliper,
digital caliper, micrometer, test indicator, gauge blocks, sine bar and were explained how
to use each apparatus and some tips about its maintenance. For calipers we have to take
care that to wipe dust and dirt from all surfaces and rinse in fresh water after each use and
wash hands before handling the vernier caliper to remove dirt and oils that might damage
the caliper and do not drop or otherwise mishandle the caliper and by doing so may
damage or destroy the caliper. Lubricating the sliding surfaces because lack of lubrication
may cause scratching on the sliding surfaces and before storage, make sure the zero lines
align when the jaws are closed, with no space observed between the jaws and calipers are
stored in their plastic sheath in a safe place when not in use. In case of micrometer we
placed the part in the opening and turned the micrometer screw until the spindle contacts
the work. Then read the exposed number on the barrel and the number of divisions past
the number and read the division on the spindle. These usually read to less than
thousandths of an inch. We measured the range and resolution of all apparatus and the
value of blocks from all apparatus and filled the table given. We filled the table by
checking the accuracy values and by subtracting it from original values. Then we used
the dial caliper, digital caliper and micrometer to check the accuracy values of blocks.
Then we measured the measured the zero and anvil error of calipers and micrometer. The
anvil error of micrometer is measured by keeping the spherical bearing inside the
micrometer and then measuring the values by keeping two blocks on the side with
bearing and then keeping bearing in between two blocks and the difference between the
values is the anvil error. We were given a sample of which we measured the top diameter
by micrometer and second diameter by using dial caliper and then third diameter with
digital caliper and then measured side of the hexagon, depth of the hole and diameter of
the hole with digital caliper and measured radius of curvature and angle of inclination
with sine bar. We repeated experiment two times to get two readings. Finally, we filled
all values in table and then calculated mean, variance and standard deviation of all
measurements.

Introduction
The purpose of this lab was to study the characteristics of various measurement tools and
techniques. And find the accuracy of measurement using various instruments. The
findings of the investigation will enable to formulate realistic goals for the quality control
program and to implement appropriate regular checks on the accuracy of measurement
instruments. As part of this exercise we used to work with gauge blocks and
measurement instruments that are equipped with vernier measurement scales.

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Equipments

Vernier calipers

The vernier caliper is used to gain an additional digit of accuracy compared to a simple
rular. A vernier scale can be incorporated into any measurement device that has a
measurement scale. It consists of a high quality metal ruler with a special vernier scale
attached which allows the ruler to be read with grater precision than would otherwise be
possible. It allows the user to determine the measurement on the device to within a sub-
division of the main scale.

Dial caliper

They provide the ability to quickly read dimensions, both inside and out, like their
predecessor and also feature the addition of the depth measurement rod. The dial caliper
is also easier to read which translates to speed in the work place. As for the construction,
the dial is fixed to the moveable jaw and rides along the tool’s bar or slide, meshing with
a toothed rack. The caliper is the ability of the inside measurement jaws to pass by each
other so smaller dimensions can be read and a single scale is needed which further makes
the readings easier to determine.

Digital caliper

The system consists of a series of rectangular plates etched into a copper strip that
stretches the length of the bar, usually concealed by a taped scale or simple cover. They
perform the outside, inside and depth readings, but have the ability to convert from
English to Metric with just the push of a button and the ability to set your zero position
anywhere along the bar.

Micrometer

The micrometer is a precision measuring instruments used to measure distance between


surfaces in thousands of an inch. Micrometers are used to measure the outside diameters,
inside diameters, the distance between parallel surfaces, the depth of holes and slots, and
the distance from a surface to some recessed part. It generally provides grater precision
than caliper, but can measure a smaller range of lengths

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Gauge blocks

Gauge blocks are the most precise and simplest material measures of length used to
disseminate the unit of length. They have the shape of cuboids and are made of material
resistant to wear. Gauge blocks of specially graded lengths are combined in gauge blocks
sets so that every length in the range of can be realized by combination of only small
number of gauge blocks.

Sine bar

Sine bar is a tool used to measure angles. The distance between the centers of the
cylinders is precisely controlled, and the top of the bar is parallel to a line through the
centers of the two rollers. The dimension between the two rollers is chosen to be
hypotenuse of a triangle when in use.

Table 1: Instrument Characteristics


Instrument Range Resolution Accuracy
Dial Caliper 8in 0.001in ±0.002in
Digital Caliper 8in 0.0005in ±0.000in
Vernier Micrometer 1in 0.0001in ±0.0002in
Test Indicator 0.010in 0.0001in -

Table 2: Instrument Errors


Instrument Zero Anvil
Dial Caliper 0 NA
Digital Caliper 0 NA
Vernier Micrometer 0.0028in 0

Table 3: Equipment Measurements


Measurement 1 2 Mean Variance Standard
(in^2) deviation
Diameter#1(use 0.5850in 0.5763in 0.5807in 3.785 ×10−5 0.0062in
micrometer)
Diameter#2(use 0.9875in 0.9810in 0.9798in 3.13 ×10−6 0.0018in
dial caliper)
Diameter#3(use 1.4885in 1.4885in 1.4885in 0 0in
digital caliper)
Side of the 0.8640in 0.8785in 0.8713in 1.051×10−4 0.0103in
hexagon
Depth of hole 0.6020in 0.6180in 0.6100in 1.28 × 10−4 0.0113in
Diameter of the 0.5725in 0.5565in 0.5645in 1.28 × 10−4 0.0113in
hole
Radius of 0.2031in 0.2031in 0.2031in 0 0in
curvature(convex)

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Procedure
1. Firstly, we were given all apparatus those were vernier caliper, dial caliper, digital
caliper, micrometer, test indicator, gauge blocks, sine bar.
2. Secondly, we were explained how to use each apparatus and some tips about its
maintenance.
3. We measured the range and resolution of all apparatus.
4. We measured the value of blocks from all apparatus and filled the table given.
5. We filled the table by checking the accuracy values and by subtracting it from
original values.
6. Then we used the dial caliper, digital caliper and micrometer to check the
accuracy values of blocks.
7. Then we measured the measured the zero and anvil error of calipers and
micrometer.
8. The anvil error of micrometer is measured by keeping the spherical bearing inside
the micrometer and then measuring the values by keeping two blocks on the side
with bearing and then keeping bearing in between two blocks and the difference
between the values is the anvil error.
9. We were given a sample of which we measured the top diameter by micrometer
and second diameter by using dial caliper and then third diameter with digital
caliper and then measured side of the hexagon, depth of the hole and diameter of
the hole with digital caliper and measured radius of curvature and angle of
inclination with sine bar.
10. We repeated experiment two times to get two readings.
11. Finally, we filled all values in table and then calculated mean, variance and
standard deviation of all measurements.

Results and discussion


In this experiment measuring instruments such as the Dial Caliper, Digital Caliper, and
Vernier Micrometer were closely examined. The range, resolution and the accuracy of
these precision instruments were closely scrutinized. After careful examination and
recording of values in table 1, the Dial Caliper and the Digital Caliper both were found to
have a range of 8 inches. When these two calipers were compared to each other it was
found Digital Caliper has a superior resolution and accuracy of the two. The examination
confirms this since the resolution of Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper was found to be
0.001 inches and 0.0005 inches respectively. Also the accuracy of Dial Caliper and the
Digital Caliper was found to be ±0.002 inches and ±0.000 inches respectively. The
Digital Caliper can achieve an accuracy of ±0.000 inches due to the fact that it can be
reset after closing. The Vernier Micrometer is a more precise instrument as it was found
to have a resolution of 0.0001 inches and an accuracy of ±0.0002 inches. The Test
Indicator was said to have a range and resolution of 0.010 inches and 0.0001 inches by
the GA.

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While examining instrument error from table 2 it can be seen that the both the Dial
Caliper and Digital Caliper have a zero error of 0 inches due to dial can be positioned to
zero on the Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper can be fixed to 0 when the jaws are closed.

The Anvil error is not applicable for both the calipers as the jaws are not concave. The
anvil error does apply to Vernier Micrometer and to measure it the following
configurations of steel ball and gauge block. The micrometer reading from B was
subtracted from reading obtained from A. This is due to the measurement from A is
always larger or equal to the measurement from B. For this experiment the dimension
obtained from both configurations was found to be equal and therefore the anvil error was
found to be 0 inches.

A B

Figure 1(A) & 1(B): Micrometer Anvil Error Measuring Procedure

A combination of all the equipments mentioned above was used to measure various
features of an object. Due to time limitation on two measurements was taken and a mean
and standard deviation was calculated for each feature. These results are tabulated in
table 3.There are many sources of errors that could have contributed to the measurement
errors of the instrument. For the Dial Caliper the error can be caused by misinterpretation
of the indicator needle. The Digital Caliper is subject to no such misinterpretation since
the value is displayed on LCD display, however if the caliper jaws are not perpendicular
to the object measured then the object dimension can be recorded larger than actual. The
accuracy of a Vernier Micrometer is subject to error due to lead of the screw built in the
micrometer barrel. This type of error is cumulative and increases with the increase in
screw travel and therefore micrometers come in 1 inch range. The other errors related to
Vernier Micrometer occurs error within the rotation, known as drunken thread, because
of slight thread waver over the course of a rotation. The other is slip-stick, or backlash,
which is caused by unwanted slop between the mesh of the threads. One of the ways of
improving micrometer measurement for future experiments is by tuning it to the range
where it is likely to be used. Also one way to improve caliper measurements in future
experiments is by taking care in holding it perpendicular to the object being measured.
One of the sources of errors in Dial Test Indicator is due to the axis of the plunger not
being exactly parallel to the machine travel. This is referred to as the Cosine Error.

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Conclusion
Finally to conclude the experiment we performed the experiment with various
measurement tools techniques. And found the accuracy of measurement using various
instruments. By doing this experiment, we are enabling to formulate realistic goals for the
quality control program and to implement appropriate regular checks on the accuracy of
measurement instruments. After performing the experiment we calculated the mean,
variance and standard deviation for each equipment measurements. As we compare the
values of standard deviation, we can see that using micrometer give the more accurate
measurements comparing to others. The Dial Caliper and the Digital Caliper both were
found to have a range of 8 inches. When these two calipers were compared to each other
it was found Digital Caliper has a superior resolution and accuracy of the two. The
examination confirms this since the resolution of Dial Caliper and Digital Caliper was
found to be 0.001 inches and 0.0005 inches respectively. Also the accuracy of Dial
Caliper and the Digital Caliper was found to be ±0.002 inches and ±0.000 inches
respectively. The Digital Caliper can achieve an accuracy of ±0.000 inches due to the
fact that it can be reset after closing. The Vernier Micrometer is a more precise
instrument as it was found to have a resolution of 0.0001 inches and an accuracy of
±0.0002 inches. The Test Indicator was said to have a range and resolution of 0.010
inches and 0.0001 inches by the GA.

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Appendix
Calculations:
(A) For Diameter #1 (Using Micrometer)
x1 = 0.5850in x2 = 0.5763in
__
1 n x +x 0.5850 + 0.5763
Mean = x =
n
∑ x = 1 2 =
i =1 i
2 2
= 0.5807in

2
⎛ __

x −
⎜ i x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
Variance = s 2 = ∑ i =1 ⎝
n ⎠ = 1 ⎛x − x⎞ + 1 ⎛x − x⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.5850 − 0.5807 ) + ( 0.5763 − 0.5807 )
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
−5 −5
= 1.849 × 10 + 1.936 × 10
= 3.785 ×10−5 in 2

2
⎛ __

⎜ xi − x ⎟
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 3.785 × 10−5 = 6.1522 × 10−3
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0062in

(B) For Diameter #2 (Using Dial Caliper)


x1 = 0.9785in x2 = 0.9810in
__
1 n x +x 0.9785 + 0.9810
Mean = x =
n
∑ x = 1 2 =
i =1 i
2 2
= 0.9798in

2
⎛ __

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
n ⎝
i
⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞
Variance = s = ∑ i =1
2
= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.9785 − 0.9798 ) + ( 0.9810 − 0.9798)
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
−6 −6
= 1.69 × 10 + 1.44 × 10
= 3.13 × 10−6 in 2

2
⎛ __


⎜ i x⎟
x
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 3.13 × 10−6 = 1.7692 × 10−3
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0018in

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(C) For Diameter #3 (Using Digital Caliper)
x1 = 1.4885in x2 = 1.4885in
__
1 n x + x 1.4885 + 1.4885
Mean = x =
n
∑ x = 1 2 =
i =1 i
2 2
= 1.4885in

2
⎛ __

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
n ⎝
i
⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞
Variance = s = ∑ i =1
2
= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= (1.4885 − 1.4885) + (1.4885 − 1.4885 )
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
= 0+0
= 0in 2

2
⎛ __

⎜ xi − x⎟
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 0=0
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0in

(D) For Side of Hexagon (Using Dial Caliper)


x1 = 0.8640in x2 = 0.8785in
__
1 n x1 + x2 0.8640 + 0.8745
Mean = x = ∑
n i =1
xi =
2
=
2
= 0.8713in

2
⎛ __

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
n ⎝
i
⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞
Variance = s = ∑ i =1
2
= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.8640 − 0.8713) + ( 0.8785 − 0.8713)
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
−5 −5
= 5.329 × 10 + 5.184 × 10
= 1.0513 × 10−4 in 2

2
⎛ __

⎜ xi − x⎟
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.0513 × 10−4 = 1.03 × 10−2
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0103in

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(E) For Depth of Hole (Using Depth Bar of Digital Caliper)
x1 = 0.6020in x2 = 0.6180in
__
1 n x +x 0.6020 + 0.6180
Mean = x =
n
∑ x = 1 2 =
i =1 i
2 2
= 0.6100in

2
⎛ __

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
n ⎝
i
⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞
Variance = s = ∑ i =1
2
= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.6020 − 0.6100 ) + ( 0.6180 − 0.6100 )
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
−5 −5
= 6.4 × 10 + 6.4 × 10
= 1.28 × 10−4 in 2

2
⎛ __


⎜ i x⎟
x
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.28 × 10−4 = 1.13 × 10−2
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0113in

(F) For Diameter of Hole (Using Inside of Digital Caliper)


x1 = 0.5725in x2 = 0.5565in
__
1 n x +x 0.5725 + 0.5565
Mean = x =
n
∑ x = 1 2 =
i =1 i
2 2
= 0.5645in

2
⎛ __

⎜ x − x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
n ⎝
i
⎠ 1 ⎛ ⎞ 1 ⎛ ⎞
Variance = s = ∑ i =1
2
= ⎜ x1 − x ⎟ + ⎜ x2 − x ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.5725 − 0.5645 ) + ( 0.5565 − 0.5645)
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
−5 −5
= 6.4 ×10 + 6.4 × 10
= 1.28 ×10−4 in 2

2
⎛ __

⎜ xi − x ⎟
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 1.28 × 10−4 = 1.13 × 10−2
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0113in

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(G) For Radius of Curvature (Concave)
13 13
x1 = in = 0.2031in x2 = in = 0.2031in
64 64
__
1 n x +x 0.2031 + 0.2031
Mean = x = ∑ i =1 xi = 1 2 = = 0.2031in
n 2 2

2
⎛ __

x −
⎜ i x⎟ __ 2 __ 2
Variance = s 2 = ∑ i =1 ⎝
n ⎠ = 1 ⎛x − x⎞ + 1 ⎛x − x⎞
⎜ 1 ⎟ ⎜ 2 ⎟
n −1 n −1 ⎝ ⎠ n −1 ⎝ ⎠
1 1
= ( 0.2031 − 0.2031) + ( 0.2031 − 0.2031)
2 2

2 −1 2 −1
= 0+0
= 0in 2

2
⎛ __


⎜ i x⎟
x
Standard Deviation = Variance = s 2 = s = ∑ i =1 ⎝ ⎠ = 0 =0
n

n −1
∴ s = 0.0in

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