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Flame Temperature Measurements

Lab

Prepared for: Dr. Sobiesiak

Date: November 3, 2006

Faisal SIDDIQUI
101 963 673
Introduction

The flame is a form of heat and heat is a necessity in our lives. Understanding of

the temperature profile within the flame is important for the efficient use of the flame.

This lab will show the analysis and collection of data pertaining to the

characteristics of the flame due to the temperature. The main objective of this lab is to

understand the patterns for the temperature distribution within the flame. Two different

measured heights (20 and 37.5 mm) of the flame were used in determining the

characteristics and profile of the temperatures in the flame. There are two types of flames,

premix and non-premix, in which an individual can characterize the trend of the flame.

Premix is the blue part of the flame which is the combination of oxygen and the fuel in

gaseous form. Non-premix is the yellow/orange part of the flames where the flame

creates turbulence desired for the mixing of the fluids, such as combustion of air with

gaseous fluid.

In the turbulent flame the temperature fluctuations, which in this report illustrates

the standard deviation, demonstrates a local minimum right before the average

temperature reaches its peak. At this stage, where the non-premix diminishes in this

region, the premix flame originates with the fuel that is left. Mass flow rate

(dm/dt=pv*piR^2) of the fuel must be taken into consideration for determining the fuel

ratio which is affiliated with the flame length and burn quality.

There are two types of temperatures, junction and corrected. The junction

temperature is the measured temperature that does not include the radiative losses. The

corrected temperature is the temperature to which all losses are taken into consideration.
The Graphs within this report clearly demonstrate the trends of the flames. The isotherm

lines are graphical representations of the corrected temperature at the physical location in

which the data are collected showing the temperature trends. The radial profile shows the

relationship between the radial location in the temperature of the flame and the change in

standard deviation.

The axial profile is along the axis of symmetry of the average velocity and the

turbulence intensity, where in this case is the vertical axis from the highest temperature in

the flame to the lowest.

Measured and Corrected Data – can be found in the appendix

Analysis

Thermocouples are used as a temperature sensor that can measure a wide variety

of flame temperatures. They measure the temperature between two points, not the

absolute temperature. In this experiment the S-type thermocouple was used, which is the

most accurate one on the market. This type of thermocouple can handle temperatures up

to 2900°F and is made of 10% Rhodium and Platinum. They work on the concept that

when a metal is subjected to a thermal gradient, a voltage is created by the thermoelectric

effect. The relationship between this output voltage and the temperature is a polynomial

relationship.

When looking at the graphs that relate temperature to the vertical distance, it is

clear that as the distance along the y-axis increases, the temperature of the flame

increases. When looking at X=18, the centre of the flame is being analyzed. For both the

20mm flame and the 37.5mm flame the temperature profile looks exactly the same. At

the base of the 20mm flame the temperature was 700°F and at the top of the flame the
temperature reached 2100°F. At the base of the 37.5mm flame the temperature was

around 1200°F and at the top of the flame the temperature was around 2400°F. When

looking at the radial direction at Y=0 the flames show the same pattern. There patterns

are essentially symmetrical about the X=18 point along the axis. It has a double humped

pattern around the centre of the flame. The temperature ranges from approximately 0°F

to 1800°F for the 20mm flame and between 0°F and 1500°F for the 37.5mm flame. The

height for the 37.5mm flame causes for a thinner flame in the X-direction, this shows as

the width is less for the longer flame.

Regardless of the flame temperature the flame profile should stay relatively the

same. This showed in the data and is displayed in the graphs. The 20mm and the

37.5mm flame show relatively the same pattern axially. However the 20mm flame

reaches a temperature of 2100°F at the very top of the flame, whereas the 37.5mm flame

reaches a temperature of 2400°F on the corrected graphs. The temperature also starts at

the base at a higher temperature for the 37.5mm flame than the base temperature for the

20mm flame, 1200°F as opposed to 700°F. Thus, the longer flame produced a higher

temperature.

A premixed flame is one in which the fuel has oxygen atoms mixed into it before

it reached the flame front. On the other hand a diffusion flame is on in which the fuel

combines with the oxygen atoms by diffusion. Diffusion is a phenomenon where

chemicals move from a higher chemical potential to a lower chemical potential, therefore

limiting the flow to the rate of diffusion. Premixed flames are often conical in shape and

fully blue in colour. Diffusion flames are lifted slightly from the exit and show a blue

coloured base with yellow flames extending above.


The data in this experiment was recorded on the computer. This was directly

connected to the thermocouple which recorded all of the values. These were divided into

folders for the 20mm and the 37.5mm flames. There were folders in each flames folders

for axial (X=18), and radial at Y=0, 6, 12, and 18 for the 20mm flame and Y=0, 10, 20,

30 for the 37.5mm flame. This data was corrected using Matlab and then they were

graphed and analyzed using Excel.

Sources of Error

The standard deviation [Tavg=(Ti-Tavg)^2)/(n-1)^1/2)] in this case is a source of

error that illustrates the difference between the corrected and junction temperature. The

error due to the junction temperature results from incorrect readings from the computer

using the thermal couple (which absorbs heat). Therefore, some heat is lost in the process

of using the thermocouple, which cause a difference between the corrected and junction

temperature. The use of a ruler to record the maximum height of the two flames will not

give an exact value, due to human error.

Conclusion

The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the axial and radial temperature

gradients of two non-premixed flames of heights 20mm and 37.5mm. The axial

temperatures were taken at the centre of the flame in the radial direction (X=18). The

37.5mm flame proved to be the flame with a higher temperature. However the gradient

of the two flames was very similar, peaking at the top of the flame. The temperatures

were also analyzed in the x-direction (radial) at different points up the y-axis at Y=0, 6,
12, and 18 for the 20mm flame and Y=0, 10, 20, 30 for the 37.5mm flame. This provided

the double-humped temperature gradient that is displayed in the graphs. These graphs

show that in the centre of the flame the temperature is low. Surrounding the centre

however is the hottest part of the flame. Then as you continue out in the x-direction

(radial) away from the centre of the flame the temperature decreases to absolute zero.

This is best described in the isothermal plots for 20mm and 37.5mm which show

graphically that the temperature does indeed act this way. To conclude, the experiment

expressed a trend that the longer the flame, the higher the temperature of the flame would

be. Also, radially the temperature is low in the middle, highest surrounding the middle

and approaches zero as it extends to the edges.


Appendix

for H=20mm

Axial x=18

X Y Avg. Temperature Corr. Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-


(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
17.704 4.806 1130.017137 1157.839142 5.0404
17.804 8.676 1467.54445 1597.875923 2.9731
17.805 22.893 1746.247117 2094.822213 2.8376
17.851 6.735 1317.989383 1387.862493 3.151
17.876 3.771 1036.092863 1052.332909 4.6757
17.891 21.974 1787.705367 2184.993629 5.4173
17.895 19.845 1858.215337 2350.676614 7.9677
17.896 15.684 1688.882543 1978.045176 7.7764
17.932 12.589 1626.884067 1861.160743 4.9196
17.941 9.747 1520.520423 1680.176466 4.9193
17.944 14.909 1662.8839 1927.909086 4.7894
17.95 1.822 944.1339233 953.0668194 4.3373
17.957 22.713 1745.534847 2093.33266 3.3461
17.961 0.178 957.3774267 967.1664225 2.4469
17.987 1.094 947.3205467 956.453393 3.1126
17.997 16.847 1748.964727 2100.894347 3.9008
18.008 10.805 1563.19975 1750.095989 4.5832
18.01 18.882 1854.492857 2341.518506 15.0307
18.024 20.941 1832.00912 2287.203852 3.6572
18.028 5.835 1225.774503 1271.261685 2.4504
18.053 7.73 1400.5927 1500.15641 2.008
18.074 13.755 1649.046903 1901.893531 3.6791
18.076 17.82 1835.53928 2295.620472 2.1362
18.131 3.006 973.6650767 984.5851384 3.787
18.151 11.605 1598.65636 1810.879532 1.7671
radial Y=0

X Y Avg. Temperature Corr. Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-


(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
10.28 0.377 385.1057667 384.9191889 3.2085
11.182 0.387 490.3907633 490.2391237 6.5399
11.728 0.413 661.9223333 662.4825541 12.6977
12.618 0.283 887.1655567 893.0689502 9.6769
13.514 0.306 1156.76421 1188.889591 12.2843
14.241 0.281 1389.012507 1483.902739 5.7157
14.765 0.239 1550.452333 1728.846424 3.5593
15.685 0.293 1477.972363 1613.748494 8.7049
16.493 0.156 1223.4422 1268.390315 2.0587
17.301 0.364 1229.082567 1275.287065 3.8439
18.1 0.361 1404.264753 1505.340123 3.1187
18.681 0.239 1571.754467 1764.552459 6.3619
19.631 0.192 1729.246073 2059.292054 3.6789
20.303 0.286 1502.56345 1651.824377 10.7136
21.262 0.434 1049.578007 1067.381058 27.9969
22.137 0.383 679.5340233 680.2744414 18.9844
22.696 0.252 433.6824433 433.4976404 6.0757
23.404 0.389 335.1026633 334.925408 4.6242
24.163 0.338 313.0878367 312.9160261 5.1174
24.818 0.327 305.8076167 305.6376706 4.0122

Radial Y=6

Y Avg. Temperature Corr. Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-


X (mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
10.344 5.784 563.8856733 563.8799098 7.1559
11.025 5.798 790.21657 792.8520141 25.6808
11.841 5.618 1086.957103 1109.004101 23.5784
12.674 5.764 1395.133033 1492.752312 21.5637
13.374 5.616 1719.329517 2039.408864 19.4752
14.039 5.726 1890.241347 2431.610523 7.1562
14.791 5.775 1715.85962 2031.888438 5.6155
15.565 5.798 1577.337543 1774.025432 3.8001
16.348 5.583 1421.206047 1529.591976 9.0232
17.3 5.559 1282.356267 1341.80929 6.2856
17.91 5.847 1242.967127 1292.366639 2.3228
18.841 5.767 1345.01463 1423.706048 7.9425
19.616 5.737 1530.48932 1696.206597 4.8141
20.39 5.727 1675.931827 1952.931476 8.7154
21.309 5.739 1800.845003 2214.818119 10.5566
21.794 5.889 1722.173783 2044.73903 3.4782
22.391 5.759 1390.73203 1486.43972 15.3684
23.25 5.703 972.9893233 983.9884961 26.2035
24.063 5.809 648.7057233 649.1548883 13.6993
25.124 5.688 437.1516133 436.968544 13.8757
Radial Y=12

X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-


(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
10.383 11.772 687.7891 688.6439 28.792
11.114 11.81 953.1209 962.7886 31.2613
11.927 11.718 1171.761 1206.62 22.5777
12.478 11.8 1393.587 1490.38 12.0471
13.299 11.582 1729.069 2059.192 14.3784
14.128 11.585 1898.47 2452.962 6.1109
14.823 11.521 1854.501 2341.597 5.43466
15.708 11.727 1656.235 1915.498 11.6346
16.662 11.666 1589.639 1795.255 9.4371
17.243 11.824 1565.954 1754.732 4.8758
18.126 11.604 1569.866 1761.332 4.2811
18.761 11.592 1610.253 1831.381 7.6794
19.592 11.863 1687.207 1974.821 8.1469
20.293 11.747 1767.724 2141.013 8.9663
20.943 11.864 1833.458 2290.668 4.7424
21.972 11.699 1838.976 2303.898 6.2628
22.635 11.618 1539.558 1712.396 40.0272
23.573 11.793 1279.55 1338.369 17.44
24.246 11.765 941.2941 950.2569 11.765
24.939 11.731 751.376 753.2125 37.6182

Radial Y=18

X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-


(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
10.396 17.732 725.3232 726.6418 13.2912
11.117 17.808 893.1592 899.5498 40.6449
11.803 17.813 1096.171 1119.538 31.9528
12.542 17.805 1292.585 1355.066 19.6103
13.328 17.717 1466.06 1596.298 29.5013
14.068 17.718 1572.735 1766.966 28.527
14.917 17.867 1748.578 2100.129 16.173
15.708 17.718 1867.173 2373.094 10.1644
16.394 17.773 1877.286 2398.391 3.4543
17.187 17.994 1859.495 2353.839 2.368
17.998 17.689 1845.557 2319.721 2.2887
18.858 17.632 1846 2320.794 2.2022
19.64 17.753 1854.011 2340.331 1.8789
20.285 17.843 1843.96 2315.882 4.6532
21.072 17.93 1742.893 2087.868 9.483
22.035 17.923 1601.215 1816.134 27.0531
22.697 18.018 1406.708 1511.551 63.3715
23.186 17.817 1159.829 1192.488 13.9412
23.885 17.732 922.9379 930.8089 34.4249
24.963 17.948 745.3017 747.0307 36.7223
For H=37.5mm

Axial X=18
X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-
(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
17.818 5.95 1167.33921 1201.233009 3.2498
17.82 18.306 1557.191843 1740.034791 3.8336
17.83 36.138 1785.729067 2180.610472 4.7671
17.843 7.852 1219.546647 1263.646602 2.6057
17.871 24.201 1611.836723 1834.160866 2.4311
17.897 30.49 1143.23502 1173.100792 2.9684
17.897 4.239 1859.663623 2354.292093 2.652
17.901 0.226 1116.00785 1141.777702 3.7736
17.924 26.382 1630.674303 1868.056524 3.0447
17.925 9.976 1300.54668 1365.131396 2.9314
17.929 32.395 1862.095223 2360.290829 3.0781
17.94 16.3 1514.623277 1670.765803 5.46126
17.962 14.088 1454.75397 1578.684522 5.1367
17.981 2.118 1113.650237 1139.088922 3.8454
17.984 34.316 1798.327497 2209.231603 29.0959
17.985 28.414 1755.947827 2116.672874 5.0934
17.99 20.135 1585.07576 1787.290392 3.464
18.007 22.173 1611.976807 1834.413799 14.1444
18.064 38.129 1716.93093 2034.233635 5.0397
18.081 12.076 1370.913923 1458.825292 12.5458

Radial Y=0
Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-
X (mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
11.133 0.117 405.41925 405.2315535 6.016
11.906 0.141 561.26478 561.2550053 16.4388
12.696 0.248 841.8641 845.9848725 15.4078
13.399 0.227 1170.969677 1205.596189 15.8951
14.194 0.375 1493.448847 1637.562575 7.8765
15.076 0.402 1731.202493 2063.408488 7.8961
15.493 0.282 1501.946023 1650.89455 12.6792
16.412 0.405 1145.73381 1176.016086 8.6285
17.161 0.437 759.78974 761.7020437 5.7883
17.973 0.27 1167.353523 1201.306561 12.7124
19.054 0.264 1511.137647 1665.256059 5.3303
19.621 0.386 1705.087647 2010.213392 8.2689
20.076 0.282 1517.833053 1676.030529 13.6366
21.217 0.251 1063.28924 1082.737671 37.9312
22.022 0.444 633.3136933 633.6829725 34.6053
22.585 0.252 417.6783467 417.4912908 8.8698
23.54 0.502 354.36755 354.1862385 15.2492
24.064 0.177 310.6847333 310.5135344 4.0103
24.786 0.328 308.3192033 308.1486104 4.0438
25.524 0.132 307.0914 306.9211233 3.6452
Radial Y=10
X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-
(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
11.096 10.202 948.9137467 958.3698302 36.368
11.695 9.875 1263.323763 1317.853357 16.5951
12.546 10.065 1565.798443 1754.650924 14.4433
13.372 10.114 1860.919937 2357.662372 13.2482
14.042 10.009 1905.537703 2471.538528 6.7442
14.641 10.086 1729.97558 2060.810649 4.5497
15.563 10.004 1583.39798 1784.41591 4.7163
16.492 10.06 1436.299797 1551.474627 7.15765
17.331 10.068 1313.908867 1382.524835 8.0707
17.631 9.949 1228.058077 1274.029973 2.7136
18.732 9.9 1292.328243 1354.550404 4.2771
19.574 10.167 1443.713047 1562.35991 7.6087
20.148 9.942 1605.408413 1822.794318 7.1851
20.851 9.83 1731.191987 2063.329984 4.5804
21.983 10.077 1868.595153 2376.510195 4.6867
22.834 10.082 1680.69303 1966.222418 58.3415
23.514 9.907 1201.878753 1242.775042 34.6297
24.037 9.917 909.0523833 916.1198971 28.2629
24.819 9.909 641.3074667 641.7792384 48.6755
25.355 10.022 421.80841 421.6241394 24.8911

Radial Y=20
X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-
(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
11.039 20.341 1204.8 1204.8 24.589
12.154 20.52 1357.253 1357.253 49.2872
12.648 19.835 1632.03 1632.03 31.0489
13.587 20.192 1861.792 1861.792 25.4565
13.942 20.203 1933.596 1933.596 3.9067
14.92 20.343 1769.272 1769.272 42.9757
15.813 20.659 1611.956 1611.956 2.9343
16.514 20.346 1561.94 1561.94 7.6014
17.325 20.199 1530.377 1530.377 2.3557
18.163 20.53 1531.361 1531.361 2.3859
18.872 20.356 1545.653 1545.653 2.6967
19.427 20.189 1587.552 1587.552 11.4454
20.247 20.257 1693.908 1693.908 26.2734
20.989 20.179 1800.752 1800.752 10.968
21.953 20.111 1865.457 1865.457 4.8918
22.796 20.295 1862.389 1862.389 6.2985
23.431 20.088 1582.139 1582.139 73.609
24.114 20.151 1521.799 1521.799 59.7476
25.054 20.099 1008.383 1008.383 33.7229
25.648 20.31 814.2964 814.2964 13.3903
Radial Y=30
X Y Average Temperature Corrected Temperature Standard Deviation (+/-
(mm) (mm) (K) (K) K)
10.331 30.415 877.133 877.133 49.13192
11.178 30.279 1072.681 1072.681 28.5062
11.79 30.228 1214.035 1214.035 46.8051
12.565 30.239 1437.96 1437.96 20.38195
13.279 30.33 1582.822 1582.822 9.8439
13.996 30.523 1722.031 1722.031 27.0146
14.672 30.235 1760.495 1760.495 32.8667
15.603 30.475 1872.223 1872.223 6.2176
16.375 30.307 1878.457 1878.457 6.2512
17.066 30.346 1866.619 1866.619 3.9068
17.911 30.415 1856.399 1856.399 2.1396
18.709 30.105 1853.165 1853.165 2.8996
19.529 30.515 1851.518 1851.518 2.288
20.26 30.438 1856.736 1856.736 4.9991
21.054 30.424 1847.859 1847.859 16.0164
21.927 30.621 1774.199 1774.199 32.5837
22.411 30.517 1674.638 1674.638 13.8769
23.4 30.462 1636.482 1636.482 75.1771
24.167 30.417 1330.506 1330.506 38.6559
25.022 30.416 1228.433 1228.433 76.7276

1. Axial profile of measured mean junction temperature.

Axial Profile Of Junction Temp (H=20, X=18)

2000
Junction Temperature(K)

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
05

55

84

45

74

93
73
8

2
17

82

77

83

74

.8
.6

.7

.6

.8

.9

.8
7.

17
0.

1.

3.

5.

9.

11

13

15

19

21

22

Distance y (mm)
Axial Profile Of Junction Temperature (H=37.5 , X=18)

2000
Junction Temperature (K)

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
76

35

01

14

95

38
.3
6

2
22

23

85

16
.0

.1

.2

.4

.3

.1
0.

4.

7.

12

20

24

28

32

36
Distance y (mm)

2. Axial profile of mean flame temperature with correction for radiative losses.

Axial Profile Of Corrected Temp (H=20, X=18)


Corrected Temperature( F)

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
05

55

84

45

74

93
73
8

2
17

82

77

83

74

.8
.6

.7

.6

.8

.9

.8
7.

17
0.

1.

3.

5.

9.

11

13

15

19

21

22

Distance y (mm)
Corrected Temperature (F) Axial Profile Of Corrected Temperature (H=37.5 , X=18)

2500

2000

1500

1000

500

0
76

35

01

14

95

38
.3
6

2
22

23

85

16
.0

.1

.2

.4

.3

.1
0.

4.

7.

12

20

24

28

32

36
Distance y (mm)

3. Axial profile of temperature standard deviation (temperature fluctuations)

Height = 20mm , Radial Y = 0 , Standard Deviation vs X Axis

30

25

20
Standard Deviation

15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
X Coordinate
Height = 20mm , Axial X = 18 Standard Deviation vs Y Axis

16

14

12
Standard Deviation

10

0
0 5 10 15 20
Y Coordinate

Height = 37.5mm , Radial Y = 0 , Standard Deviation vs X Axis

40

35

30
Standard Deviation

25

20

15

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
X Coordinate
Height = 37.5mm , Axial X = 18 Standard Deviation vs Y Axis

35

30

25
Standard Deviation

20

15

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50
Y Coordinate

4. Repeat 1 – 3 for any one radial profile

Radial Profile Of Juntcion Temp (H=20 , Y=0)

2000
Junction temperature (K)

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
28

14

65

93

31

62

96

63
.1
8
.2

18
.7

.5

.7

.4

.6

.2

.6

.1
10

11

13

14

16

19

21

22

24

Distance x (mm)
Radial Profile Of Junction Temperature( H=37.5 , Y=0)

2000
Junction Temperature (K)

1800
1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
33

96

94

93

61

54

76

22

86
4
.5
.1

.6

.1

.4

.1

.0

.0

.0

.7
23
11

12

14

15

17

19

20

22

24
Distance x (mm)

Radial Profile Of CorrectedTemperature( H=37.5 , Y=0)


Corrected Temperature (F)

1600
1400
1200
1000
800
600
400
200
0
33

96

94

93

61

54

76

22

86
4
.5
.1

.6

.1

.4

.1

.0

.0

.0

.7
23
11

12

14

15

17

19

20

22

24

Distance x (mm)
Radial Profile Of Corrected Temp (H=20 , Y=0)

2500
Corrected temperature (F)

2000

1500

1000

500

0
28

14

65

93

31

62

96

63
.1
8
.2

18
.7

.5

.7

.4

.6

.2

.6

.1
10

11

13

14

16

19

21

22

24
Distance x (mm)

5. The 2-D temperature field of the flame showing isotherm lines.

Isothermal Plot for Various Temperatures (20mm Flame)

20
Position in the Y direction (mm)

18
16
14
Temp = 773K
12
Temp = 1073K
10
Temp = 1473K
8
Temp = 1773K
6
4
2
0
5 10 15 20 25 30
Position in the X Direction (mm)
Isothermal Plot for Various Temperatures (37.5mm Flame)

35

30
Position in the Y direction (mm)

25

20
Temp = 1273K
15 Temp = 1673K
Temp = 1073K
10 Temp = 1473K

. 5

0
5 10 15 20 25 30
-5
Position in the X Direction (mm)

6. The standard deviation of all axial profiles in on graph showing the relationship

between the radial location in the flame and the change in standard deviation.

Standard Deviation of All Axial Profiles for H=20mm

70

60

50
Standard Deviation

Radial Y = 0
40
Radial Y = 6
Radial Y = 12
30
Radial Y = 18

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
X Coordinate
Standard Deviation of All Axial Profiles for H=37.5mm

90

80

70
Standard Deviation

60
Radial Y = 0
50 Radial Y = 10

40 Radial Y = 20
Radial Y = 30
30

20

10

0
0 5 10 15 20 25 30
X Coordinate