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Category Role Activity Seek and acquire work-related information Examples Scan/read trade press, periodicals, reports; attend seminars and training; maintain personal contacts
Communicate/ Send memos and reports; disseminate inform staffers and information to others subordinates of decisions within the organization Communicate/transmit Pass on memos, reports and information to informational materials; outsiders participate in conferences/meetings and report progress Perform social and legal duties, act as symbolic leader Greet visitors, sign legal documents, attend ribbon cutting ceremonies, host receptions, etc. Includes almost all interactions with subordinates
Direct and motivate subordinates, select and train employees Establish and maintain contacts within and outside the organization
Business correspondence, participation in meetings with representatives of other divisions or organizations.
Identify new ideas and Implement innovations; Plan initiate improvement for the future projects Deals with disputes or problems and takes corrective action Settle conflicts between subordinates; Choose strategic alternatives; Overcome crisis situations Draft and approve of plans, schedules, budgets; Set priorities
Decide where to apply resources
managers in different levels of the hierarchy fill different managerial roles. Finally. These roles have changed dramatically as technology has improved. They also communicate the company's vision and purpose. distributors. Top managers are more likely to deal with major crises. involves determining which work units will get which resources. For example. The figurehead is typically a top of middle manager. such as suppliers. a spokesperson communicates with the external environment. Monitors also watch for changes in the environment and within the company that may affect individual and organizational performance. These roles were categorized by researcher Henry Mint berg. But. more routine information may be provided by a manager at any level of a company. to informing the community about the direction of the organization. In some organizations. The role of disseminator requires that managers inform employees of changes that affect them and the organization. There are four specific roles that are decisional. Managers at all levels may take this role. and much information of this nature trickles from the top down. This manager may communicate future organizational goals or ethical guidelines to employees at company meetings. from advertising the company's goods and services. gives commands and directions to subordinates. to reach agreements regarding products and services. often lower-level managers look to top management for this leadership example. Interpersonal roles require managers to direct and supervise employees and the organization. Middle managers also negotiate with other managers and are likely to work to secure preferred prices from suppliers and distributors. This role is particularly critical for middle managers. Top managers negotiate on larger issues. and they can be grouped into three major types: decisional. such as labor contracts. and work to share resources. For example. or they may work with other supervisory managers when needed resources must be shared. such as a change in strategic direction. Top managers are likely to make large. such as requiring a recall of defective products. the negotiator works with others. In the role of liaison. First-level managers may negotiate with employees on issues of salary increases or overtime hours. a manger must coordinate the work of others in different work units. The spokesperson for major announcements. who must often compete with other managers for important resources. establish alliances between others. Informational roles are those in which managers obtain and transmit information. Decisional roles require managers to plan strategy and utilize resources. while middle mangers may make more specific allocations. and informational. or labor unions. The third decisional role that of resource allocator. is likely to be a top manager. Most of these roles will be held by top-level managers. although middle managers may be given some ability to make such decisions. a middle manager may give a press release to a local newspaper. Finally. Monitoring occurs at all levels of management. or to expand a business. overall budget decisions. A leader acts as an example for other employees to follow.MANAGEMENT ROLES In addition to the broad categories of management functions. interpersonal. although managers at higher levels of the organization are more likely to monitor external threats to the environment than are middle or first-line managers. or even on mergers and acquisitions of other companies. yet must maintain successful working relationships with them for long time periods. INFORMATIONAL ROLES. supervisory managers are responsible for determine allocation of salary raises to employees. DECISIONAL ROLES. Managers must be leaders at all levels of the organization. makes decisions. and mobilizes employee support. other. The monitor evaluates the performance of others and takes corrective action to improve that performance. or a supervisor manager may give a presentation at a community meeting . The entrepreneur role requires the manager to assign resources to develop innovative goods and services. Managers at each level disseminate information to those below them. firstline managers may correct a problem halting the assembly line or a middle level manager may attempt to address the aftermath of a store robbery. INTERPERSONAL ROLES. The disturbance handler corrects unanticipated problems facing the organization from the internal or external environment.
While the figurehead role is routine. The figurehead role is enacted when activity of a ceremonial nature is required within the organization. These informational roles are created as a result of enacting the set of interpersonal roles already described. . establishing expectations regarding work quality. Occasionally. A baseball manager attending a minor league all-star game. A manager assumes the monitor role by continually scanning the environment for information or activities and events that may identify opportunities or threats to the functioning of the work unit. and motivating may all require direct contact with subordinates. disseminator. it provides members and non-members alike with a sense of what the organization is about and the type of people the organization recruits. The transmittal of information by a manager activates the disseminator role. learning through casual conversation at a ball game about the negative medical evaluation of an unsigned ball player. The manager may inform the marketing vicepresident about the specific marketing strategy a competitor is planning to implement. the head chef of a prominent restaurant greeting customers at the door. Or reading The Wall Street Journal may inform the manager that a shipping strike is looming and thus enable her to inform subordinates that temporary layoffs may occur next month. Hearing small talk at a banquet about a competitor's planned marketing program. At the interpersonal level. with little serious communication and no important decision making. receiving. peers. The three roles of figurehead. and liaison are each necessary under differing circumstances. and spokesperson are the three informational roles that a manager may assume. Hiring. a manager must assume the spokesperson role by speaking on behalf of the work unit to people inside or outside the organization. and the president of a bank congratulating a new group of trainees are all examples of the figurehead role. This might involve lobbying for critical resources or appealing to individuals who have influence on activities that affect the work unit. The leader role may be exercised in a direct or an indirect manner. Adopting one or another of the three interpersonal roles is made easier by the formal authority the manager obtains from the organization. or superiors in the organization. or daily reading of a business periodical are all examples of the kinds of information gathering involved in the monitor role. or time commitments to the job are all outcomes of the leader role that are indirectly related to subordinates. Privileged information may be disseminated to subordinates. INTERPERSONAL ROLES Three of the manager's roles come into play when the manager must engage in interpersonal relationships. Much of the manager's gathering of information is achieved through the network of contacts that has been established through the interpersonal roles. However. A top manager asking the board of directors to keep the work unit together during a reorganization period or a corporate president speaking to a college audience on the role the company plays in education would both constitute engaging in the spokesperson role. A network of interpersonal contacts with both subordinates and individuals outside the work unit serves to establish the manager as an informational nerve center of the unit. The information a manager gathers as a monitor must be evaluated and transmitted as appropriate to members of the organization. involves the coordination and control of the work of the manager's subordinates. the leader role.INFORMATIONAL ROLES Monitor. leader. its importance should not be overlooked. responsible for gathering. A baseball manager may inform the team owner that an impending trade should be canceled because of the unfavorable medical report on one of the players. and transmitting information that concerns members of the work unit. The second interpersonal role. training. decisionmaking responsibility.
As a result. or people. thus. In most cases.Quite often. The liaison role is enacted when managers make contact with other individuals. The relative emphasis a manager places on these ten roles is highly dependent on the manager's authority and status in the organization. Corporate presidents may provide their administrative assistants with decision-making responsibility for day-to-day matters. the resource allocator role is assumed. a personnel director must negotiate with striking employees dissatisfied with the procedures for laying off employees. When a manager is placed in the position of having to decide to whom and in what quantity resources will be dispensed. disturbances. During periods of resource abundance. do not run so smoothly that managers are never called upon to respond to unwelcome pressures. which can be useful for completing current and future work activities. in order to complete the work performed by their departments or work units. resource allocator. and skills the manager possesses all play a part in determining which roles are more prominent than others . they become more involved in the negotiator role. The entrepreneur role comes into action when the manager seeks to improve the work unit. decisions on the allocation of resources can be critical for the success of the work unit. A law partner must settle a disagreement among associates in the firm on who will present a case before a judge. A manager of a fast-food restaurant must coordinate work shifts to have the maximum number of employees working during the lunch hour. equipment. who may or may not reside in the organization. the manager is required to act quickly to bring stability back to the organization. Whereas the entrepreneur role establishes the manager as the initiator of change. or organization. Hence. Ultimately. In addition to decisions concerning organizational changes. An auto assembly plant supervisor may telephone a tire supplier to determine the amount of inventory available for next week. and negotiator. a director of a youth club trains staff in the use of personal computers to increase file access. as managers move up the managerial hierarchy and obtain control over more resources. time. In these cases. position in the management hierarchy. or a college dean must negotiate with department heads over course offerings and the number of faculty to be hired. An office manager must provide secretaries with appropriate equipment to generate and duplicate documents. Resources may include money. the manager must enact a negotiator role. or a cannery first-line manager must respond to a sudden shortage of cans used to package perishable fruit because the supplier has reneged on a contract. This can be accomplished by adapting new techniques to fit a particular situation or modifying old techniques to improve individual or group activity. the manager must strive not only to appropriately match resources with subordinates but also to ensure that the distribution of resources is coordinated to effectively complete the task to be performed. a prosecuting attorney may meet with the presiding judge and defense attorney to discuss the use of motions and evidence in a libel trial. power. or a college professor may meet with professors in a separate department on campus to obtain information on a prospective doctoral student. managers are required to obtain information or resources outside their authority. the president of a record company may be called in to discuss terms of a possible contract with a major rock group. and resources. Managers usually learn of new or innovative methods through information gathered in the monitor role. disturbance handler. DECISIONAL ROLES Both interpersonal and informational roles are really preludes to what are often considered to be a manager's most important set of roles: the decisional roles of entrepreneur. organizations operate under conditions of resource scarcity. this role can be easily performed by a manager. a production manager must negotiate with the personnel department to obtain employees with specialized skills. The process of negotiation is possible only when an individual has the authority to commit organizational resources. a supervisor purchases a new kiln which will shorten the drying process for ceramic tiles. unfortunately. division. Length of time on the job. Organizations. or a president establishes a new pension plan to improve employee morale. the liaison role enables a manager to develop a network for obtaining external information. As a decision maker. however. For example. goals of the subunit to be achieved. the disturbance handler role establishes the manager as a responder to change.
Since efficiency is about doing things right. there needs to be a balance between effectiveness and efficiency. is likely to be more heavily involved in the informational roles. Only being efficient and not meeting the requirements of the stakeholders of the organization is of little use to anybody. Effectively managing an organization is a demanding task. On the other hand. A financial manager. keeps the long term strategy in mind and is thus more adaptable to the changing environment. all managers enact interpersonal. it demands documentation and repetition of the same steps. Managers not only must develop skills related to the functional areas of management but also must learn how to integrate these activities. Question number 5 answer Efficiency and effectiveness are both commonly used management terms. 4. effectiveness encourages innovation as it demands people to think. nor can they simply rely on how things were done in the past. and decisional roles while performing their tasks. on the other hand. will probably focus on the decisional roles. direct. 2. Scientifically. charged with responsibility for the economic efficiency of the organization. it is defined as the output to input ratio and focuses on getting the maximum output with minimum resources. discipline and rigor is required. organize and staff. however. In order to be efficient time and again. Efficiency means doing the things right whereas Effectiveness is about doing the right things. on the other hand. Effectiveness. a more complete knowledge of the managerial process can reduce the chances of mistakes that will have dire consequences for an organization. on the other hand. And effectiveness may result in success but at what cost? Summary: 1. However. Efficiency is concerned with the present state or the “status quo”. It constantly measures if the actual output meets the desired output. refers to doing the right things. and control organization activities within the context of their organization.at any given time. Effectiveness. Such knowledge may help managers to better plan. Even the most seasoned and successful managers are prone to mistakes. while they sound similar and start with the same letters. with consumers facing an increasing number of choices. informational. Efficiency will look at avoiding mistakes or errors whereas effectiveness is about gaining success. efficiency was the most important performance indicator for any organization. What makes this process demanding is that events and activities external and internal to an organization can radically change the techniques and methods managers must use in order to arrive at successful outcomes. they both mean different things. the different ways they can meet the desired goal. Thinking about the future and adding or eliminating any resources might disturb the current state of efficiency. Efficiency is restricted to the present state whereas effectiveness involves thinking long term. For instance. Doing the same thing again and again in the same manner will certainly discourage innovation. Efficiency focuses on the process or “means” whereas Effectiveness focuses on the end. In the earlier days of mass production. or a manager who performs in an advisory capacity. effectiveness of an organization is always questioned. believes in meeting the end goal and therefore takes into consideration any variables that may change in the future. importance is given to the “means” of doing things whereas effectiveness focuses on achieving the “end” goal. 3. Regardless of the differences that may occur. Since efficiency is all about focusing on the process. In order to be a successful organization. Yet. This can build inflexibility into the system. Organizations have to be both effective and efficient in order to be successful . Effectiveness. However. Efficiency refers to doing things in a right manner. a marketing manager is more likely to emphasize the interpersonal roles because of the importance of personal contact in the marketing process. A staff manager. Managers cannot afford to be limited in their view of management.