PowerPic Reference Sheets for Reading: Foundational Skills (R.F.), Language (L.

) and Writing (W) Common Core Standards
Based on the following PowerPics by Chris Biffle and Jay Vanderfin Kindergarten PowerPics First Grade Language Arts PowerPics Second Grade Language Arts PowerPics Third Grade Language Arts PowerPics

Word
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A. Follow words from left to right, top to bottom, and page by page B. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters.

Question: What is a word? Answer: A word is a group of letters that make sense. Gesture: Hold the fingers of one hand wide apart (these are “letters”). Then snap your fingers together indicating the letters have been joined together to make a word. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write two and three letter words on the board; mix them up with nonsense words like “rr”, “xvy” etc. Ask your students to say “That is a word!” and make the word gesture whenever you point at a word. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a word? (Point at various words, and nonsense words, on the board.) 2. Is “spooink” a word? (Substitute various words and nonsense words.) 3. Is this the word gesture? 4. Words are made of letters. 5. Letters are made of words. Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say something that is a word, please raise your hand.” 1. Hill 2. Street 3. Nurwarddle Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with word and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for word and other PowerPix.

Letters
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. B. Recognize that spoken words are represented in written language by specific sequences of letters. D. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. Question: What are letters? Answer: Letters can be joined together to make words. Gesture: Wiggle one finger to represent a letter. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, make a list of letters and numbers on the board. Explain the difference between letters and numbers. Point at items from one list and then the other. Your prompt is, “Is this a letter?” Students respond in chorus with, “Yes, that is a letter!” or “No, that is not a letter!” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a letter? (Point at letters and numbers on the board.) 2. Are letters and numbers the same? 3. Is this the letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. “B” is a letter. 2. “Four” is a letter. 3. Letters are in the alphabet. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with letters and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for letters and other PowerPix.

Spaces
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. C. Understand that words are separated by spaces in print.

Question: What are spaces? Answer: Spaces must separate words in a sentence. Gesture: Hold up a forefinger on each hand and jab the fingers up and down, as if indicating spaces between words. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board that have, and don‟t have, good spacing between the words. Explain the concept of spacing to your students. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this good spacing between words? (Point at examples on the board.) 2. Do we need good spacing to make words easy to read? 3. Is this the spaces gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Words in a sentence should be separated by spaces. 2. We need good spacing to make sentences easy to read. 3. We should write our words as close together as possible. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with spaces and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for spaces and other PowerPix.

Lowercase alphabet
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. D. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Print many upper- and lowercase letters. L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Print all upper- and lowercase letters.

Question: What is the lowercase alphabet? Answer: The lowercase alphabet is the small letters of the alphabet. Gesture: Hold your thumb and forefinger together to indicate small letters. Teaching Suggestion: (Note that the vowels are in black and the “y” is the only red letter.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write the upper and lowercase alphabets on the board. Explain the difference between the two alphabets. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a lowercase letter? (Point at lowercase and uppercase letters on the board.) 2. Is this the lowercase alphabet Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the lowercase alphabet gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Lowercase letters are the big letters of the alphabet. 2. Lowercase letters are the small letters of the alphabet. 3. “a, b, c,” start the lowercase alphabet. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with lowercase alphabet and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for lowercase alphabet and other Power Pix.

Uppercase alphabet
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. D. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Print many upper- and lowercase letters. L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Print all upper- and lowercase letters. Question: What is the uppercase alphabet? Answer: The uppercase alphabet is the big letters of the alphabet Gesture: Put one hand high above the other, showing that the uppercase alphabet is made of “big” letters. Teaching Suggestion: (Note that the vowels are in black and the “y” is the only red letter.) While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write the uppercase and lowercase alphabet on the board. Explain the difference between the two. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an uppercase letter? (Point at various letters on the board.) 2. Are upper case letters the big letters of the alphabet? 3. Is this the uppercase gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Uppercase letters are the small letters of the alphabet. 2. “A, B, C” are the first three letters of the uppercase alphabet. 3. “4” is an uppercase letter. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with uppercase alphabet and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for uppercase alphabet and other Power Pix.

Capital letter
Common Core Standards RF.K.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. D. Recognize and name all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is a capital letter? Answer: A capital letter is an uppercase letter of the alphabet. Gesture: Put one hand on top of the other. Lift the top hand quickly to show that a capital letter is a “big” letter. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write uppercase and lowercase letters on the board. Explain to your students when capital letters are used (first word of a sentence, names of people, the pronoun I, etc.) Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a capital letter? (Point at various letters on the board.) 2. Is a capital letter an uppercase letter? 3. Is this the capital letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. All capital letters are in the alphabet. 2. Some capital letters are numbers 3. A capital letter is a small letter, not a big letter. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with capital letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for capital letter and other Power Pix.

Sentence
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is a sentence? Answer: A sentence is a complete message. Every sentence must start with a capital letter and must end with an end mark. Gesture: Hold your hand up to your ear as if listening to a phone. Pound your fist into your palm when you say “must.” (We prefer to define a sentence as a “complete message” rather than a “complete idea.” Ask your students to imagine someone calls them in the middle of the night and says, “is phone” and hangs up. This is not a complete message. We call this the midnight phone call test and use it to help students understand the difference between sentences (complete messages) and fragments (incomplete messages). Sentences pass the midnight phone call test; they make sense. Fragments don‟t pass the midnight phone call test; they don‟t make sense (at midnight or any other time.)) Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences and phrases (fragments) on the board, for example, I like apples, liking apples, Juan goes home, goes home, etc. Explain the concept of the midnight phone call test to your class. Ask students to hold imaginary phones to their ears. Speak sentences (complete messages) and fragments to them. Ask them to loudly say “huh?” when they hear a fragment. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a sentence? (Point at various sentences and phrases on the board.) 2. Is a sentence a complete message? 3. Is this the sentence gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I speak words that are a sentence, please raise your hand.” 1. I like you. 2. Running along the beach. 3. Lentisha runs along the beach. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sentence and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sentence and other Power Pix.

First word of a sentence rule
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A, Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is the first word of a sentence rule? Answer: The first word of a sentence rule is: the first word of a sentence must be capitalized. Gesture: Make the sentence gesture (holding a phone to your ear to symbolize that a sentence is a complete message) then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization of the first word. Explain the concept of capitalizing the first word of each sentence. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word correctly capitalized? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is this the gesture for the first word of a sentence rule? (Demonstrate various gestures.) 3. Is this the first word of a sentence rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Must we always capitalize the first word of a sentence? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The first word of a sentence should only be capitalized if it is a person‟s name. 2. The first word of a sentence should only be capitalized if it is a month. 3. The first word of a sentence must always be capitalized. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with first word of a sentence rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for first word of a sentence rule and other Power Pix.

End marks
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What are end marks? Answer: End marks are periods, exclamation marks and question marks. Every sentence must end with an end mark. Gesture: Make gestures from other Power Pix : periods (Poke the air in front of your face with your forefinger, as if putting a period at the end of a sentence), exclamation marks (Raise your fist over your head and then bring it down excitedly as if you were saying, “Yes!”), question marks (Hold your hands palms up, as if you are saying “what?”) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach end mark after period, exclamation mark, and question mark.) Explain the concept of end marks. Point at other Power Pix including the Pix for period, exclamation mark and question mark and ask, “Is this an end mark?” Students respond in chorus with complete sentences, “Yes, that is an end mark!” or “No, that is not an end mark!” Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is a period an end mark? 2. Does an end mark go at the start of a sentence? 3. Is this the end mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An exclamation mark is an end mark. 2. End marks go at the end of sentences. 3. A capital letter is an end mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with end mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for end mark and other Power Pix.

Exclamation mark
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A, Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is an exclamation mark? Answer: An exclamation mark goes at the end of a sentence to show excitement. Gesture: Raise your fist over your head and then bring it down excitedly as if you were saying, “Yes!” Teaching Suggestion: (Teach period, exclamation mark and question mark together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board using a variety of end marks: period, exclamation mark, question mark. Explain to your class the difference between the end marks. Demonstrate how end mark punctuation changes the meaning of the sentence. For example, use your voice to accent each of the following differently: I like dogs. I like dogs! I like dogs? Spend additional time explaining exclamation marks. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does an exclamation mark go at the start of a sentence? 2. Does this sentence end with an exclamation mark? (Point at various sentences.) 3. Is an exclamation mark the same as a question mark? 4. Is this the exclamation mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Exclamation marks go at the end of sentences. 2. Sentences that are exclamations, should end with exclamation marks. 3. An exclamation mark is different than a question mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with exclamation mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for exclamation mark and other Power Pix.

Period
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A, Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is a period? Answer: A period marks the end of most sentences. Gesture: Poke the air in front of your face with your forefinger, as if putting a period at the end of a sentence. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach period, exclamation mark and question mark together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board using a variety of end marks: period, exclamation mark, question mark. Explain to your class the difference between the end marks. Demonstrate how end mark punctuation changes the meaning of the sentence. For example, use your voice to accent each of the following differently: I like dogs. I like dogs! I like dogs? Spend additional time explaining periods. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this sentence end with a period? (Point at various sentences.) 2. Does a period go at the beginning of a sentence? 3. Is a period the same as a question mark? 4. Is this the period gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Periods go at the end of sentences. 2. Sentences that are questions, should end with periods. 3. A period is the same as an exclamation mark. 4. A period is a question mark. 5. A period shows excitement. 6. Every sentence must have period. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with period and other Power Pix.

Question mark
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). Question: What is a question mark? Answer: A question mark is placed at the end of a sentence to show it is a Question. Gesture: Hold your hands palms up, as if you are saying “what?” Teaching Suggestion: (Teach period, exclamation mark and question mark together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board using a variety of end marks: period, exclamation mark, question mark. Explain to your class the difference between the end marks. Demonstrate how end mark punctuation changes the meaning of the sentence. For example, use your voice to accent each of the following differently: I like dogs. I like dogs! I like dogs? Spend additional time explaining question marks. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this sentence end with a question mark? (Point at various sentences.) 2. Is a question mark the same as a period? 3. Is this the question mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Question marks go at the end of sentences. 2. Sentences that are questions, should end with question marks. 3. A question mark is the same as an exclamation mark. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with question mark and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for question mark and other Power Pix.

Rhyming words
Common Core Standards RF.K.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). a. Recognize and produce rhyming words RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. Question: What are rhyming words? Answer: Rhyming words are two words that sound the same. Gesture: Hold up three fingers on each hand. Wiggle the first finger on each hand. These are the letters that change in the rhyme on the Power Pix: cop and pop. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board, some of which do, and do not, rhyme: sing, thing, ball, bat, ball, small, etc. Explain the concept of rhyming words. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Do these two words rhyme? (Point at various pairs of words.) 2. Do “sing” and “thing” rhyme? (Substitute other pairs of words that do, and do not, rhyme.) 3. Is this the rhyming words gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. “Hat” and “cat” are rhyming words. 2. “Dog” and “frog” are rhyming words. 3. “Hat” and “alphabet” are rhyming words. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with rhyming words and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for rhyming words and other Power Pix.

Word family
Common Core Standards RF.K.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). a. Recognize and produce rhyming words RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song. L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. F. Use spelling patterns and generalizations (e.g., word families, position-based spellings, syllable patterns, ending rules, meaningful word parts) in writing words. Question: What is a word family? Answer: A word family is a group of words that rhyme. Gesture: Make a circle with your arms as if embracing a family. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write examples of groups of words that are, and are not, word families on the board. Then, explain to your students the concept of word families. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are these word families? (Pointing at various groups of words.) 2. Does every word in a word family have a similar sound? 3. Is this the word family gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is every word in a word family spelled the same? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Every word in a word family has the same letters. 2. A word family is a group of words that rhyme. 3. Hold and bold are part of the same word family. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with word families and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for word families and other Power Pix.

Alliteration
Common Core Standards RL.2.4. Describe how words and phrases (e.g., regular beats, alliteration, rhymes, repeated lines) supply rhythm and meaning in a story, poem, or song.

Question: What is alliteration? Answer: Alliteration is when several words in a row start with the same letter. Gesture: Say, “big, busy bee” and play an imaginary guitar (like the illustration on the Power Pix for alliteration.) Teaching Suggestion: Explain the concept of alliteration to your students and give them examples. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is it alliteration to say bad, bold, bears? 2. Is it alliteration to say little, lazy, lions? 3. Is this the alliteration gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is it alliteration to say tiny, silly, giraffes? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some phrases. When the phrase contains alliteration, please raise your hand.” 1. crazy, clever, cats 2. hard, hairy, hats 3. big, beautiful, blue birds 4. old, lazy cows Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with alliteration and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for alliteration and other Power Pix.

Syllables
Common Core Standards RF.K.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). B. Count, pronounce, blend, and segment syllables in spoken words. RF.1.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. D. Use knowledge that every syllable must have a vowel sound to determine the number of syllables in a printed word. E. Decode two-syllable words following basic patterns by breaking the words into syllables. RF.2.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Decode regularly spelled two-syllable words with long vowels. RF.3.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. C. Decode multisyllable words. Question: What are syllables? Answer: Syllables are parts of words. Ta-ble has two syllables. Car has one syllable. Gesture: Clap out the syllables for table and car. . Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write a list of simple one and two syllable words on the board. Explain the concept of syllables. Speak a list of words with one and two syllables.. Have students join you in clapping out the syllables. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does _______ have one syllable? (Point at and say various words on the board. Say the word slowly; clap once or twice to indicate the number of syllables.) 2. Does cat have one syllable? (Substitute other words.) 3. Is this the syllable gesture? (Say the answer above and clap for the syllables in table and car.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a word with one syllable, please raise you hand.” 1. dog 2. girl 3. grasshopper Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with syllables and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for syllables and other Power Pix.

Vowels
Common Core Standards RF.K.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. A. Demonstrate basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. B. Associate the long and short sounds with the common spellings (graphemes) for the five major vowels. RF.1.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). A. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. RF.1.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. C. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds Question: What are vowels? Answer: Vowels are a-e-i-o-u and sometimes y. Every word must have a vowel. Gesture: Use your forefinger to point at the fingers on the other hand. These fingers represent a-e-i-o-u. Then wiggle the pointing finger to represent “sometimes y.” Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write the alphabet on the board. Underline and explain the concept of vowels. Point at letters in the alphabets on the board and on Power Pix cards. Ask your class to say “That is a vowel!” each time you point at a-e-i-o-u. They should say “Sometimes y is a vowel!” when you point at the y. Your students should say “Those are consonants!” when you point at the other letters. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a vowel? (Point at various letters.) 2. Is “R” a vowel? (Substitute various letters.) 3. Is this the vowel gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a letter that is a vowel, raise your hand.” 1. R 2. E 3. T Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with vowels and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for vowels and other Power Pix.

Long Vowel
Common Core Standards RF.1.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). A. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. RF.1.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. C. Know final -e and common vowel team conventions for representing long vowel sounds RF.2.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. A. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words Question: What is a long vowel? Answer: A long vowel is a vowel that says its name. Gesture: Put the tips of your fingers on both hands together, then pull them apart showing “long.” Teaching Suggestion: (teach short vowel and long vowel together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write simple short vowel and long vowel words on the board. Explain the difference between short vowel sounds and long vowel sounds. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this word _______ have a long vowel? (Point at and pronounce various words on the board) 2. Does a long vowel say its name? 3. Is this the long vowel gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When a word has a long vowel, silently raise your hand.” (Emphasize the vowel sounds in the following.) 1. bat 2. eat 3. cat 4. I 5. hit Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with long vowel and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for long vowel and other Power Pix.

Short Vowel
Common Core Standards RF.1.2. Demonstrate understanding of spoken words, syllables, and sounds (phonemes). A. Distinguish long from short vowel sounds in spoken single-syllable words. RF.2.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. A. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one-syllable words Question: What is a short vowel? Answer: A short vowel is a vowel that does not say its name. Gesture: Wag your finger in the air, to show “does not.” Teaching Suggestion: (Teach short vowel and long vowel together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write simple short vowel and long vowel words on the board. Explain the difference between short vowel sounds and long vowel sounds. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does this word ______ have a short vowel? (Point at and pronounce various words on the board.) 2. Does a short vowel say its name? 3. Is this the short vowel gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When a word has a short vowel, silently raise your hand.” (Emphasize the vowel sounds in the following.) 1. dog 2. ate 3. cat 4. go 5. it Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with short vowel and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for short vowel and other Power Pix.

Prefix
Common Core Standards RF.2.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. D. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. RF.3.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. A. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. L.2.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. B. Determine the meaning of the new word formed when a known prefix is added to a known word (e.g., happy/unhappy, tell/retell). Question: What is a prefix? Answer: A prefix goes at the start of a word and makes a new word. Gesture: Hold your left fist in the air, symbolizing a word. Tap the thumb of your left fist with your right forefinger and say “prefix.” From your students‟ point of view, the thumb is at the “beginning” of the word. (Compare this gesture with suffix, below.) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach prefix and suffix together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board with and without prefixes: happy, unhappy, start, restart, sense, nonsense, etc. Explain the concept of prefixes. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does this word have a prefix? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is a prefix at the start of a word? 3. Is this the prefix gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Does unable have a prefix? (Substitute other words that have, and don‟t have, prefixes.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A prefix goes at the start of a word and makes a new word. 2. “Un” can be a prefix. 3. A prefix can only have two letters. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with prefix and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for prefix and other Power Pix.

Suffix
Common Core Standards RF.2.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. D. Decode words with common prefixes and suffixes. RF.3.3. Know and apply grade-level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. A. Identify and know the meaning of the most common prefixes and derivational suffixes. B. Decode words with common Latin suffixes. L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. E. Use conventional spelling for high-frequency and other studied words and for adding suffixes to base words (e.g., sitting, smiled, cries, happiness). Question: What is a suffix? Answer: A suffix goes at the end of a word and makes a new word. Gesture: Hold your left fist in the air, symbolizing a word. Tap the little finger of your left fist with your right forefinger and say “suffix.” From your students‟ point of view, the little finger is at the “end” of the word. (Compare this gesture with prefix, above.) Teaching Suggestion: (Teach prefix and suffix together.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board with and without suffixes: glad, gladly, run, running, look, looked, etc. Explain the concept of suffixes. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Does this word have a suffix? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Does quickly have a suffix? (Substitute other words that have, and don‟t have, suffixes.) 3. Is this the gesture for suffix? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A suffix goes at the end of a word and makes a new word. 2. “Un” can be a suffix. 3. “Ed” can be a suffix. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with suffix and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for suffix and other Power Pix.

Capitalization rule
Common Core Standards RF.1.1. Demonstrate understanding of the organization and basic features of print. A, Recognize the distinguishing features of a sentence (e.g., first word, capitalization, ending punctuation). L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people. L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. Question: What is the capitalization rule? Answer: The capitalization rule is: capitalize the first word of a sentence, days of the week, months of the year, a person‟s name ... and I deserve a capital letter! Gesture: Using one finger to point at the fingers of the other hand, count off the five kinds of words that are capitalized, the first word of a sentence (1), days of the week (2), months (3), people‟s names (4), “I” (5). At the end, with the word “deserve”, jerk your thumb toward your chest, “And I deserve a capital letter!” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write examples of the correct (and incorrect) use of capital letters on the board. Explain to your students the concept of capitalized words. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the correct way to use a capital letter? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Should we always capitalize the days of the week? (Substitute other types of words that should, and should not, be capitalized.) 3. Is this the capitalized word gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. John is a capitalized word. 2. The word “she” is a capitalized word. 3. Wednesday starts with a capital letter. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with capitalized words and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for capitalized words and other Power Pix.

geographical name rule
Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. Question: What is the geographical name rule? Answer: The geographical name rue is: all geographical names must be capitalized. Gesture: Point to places in the air as if pointing at an invisible map then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write geographical names on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Explain the concept of capitalizing geographical names. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this name capitalized correctly? (Point at various names on the board.) 2. Is a geographical name the same as a person‟s name? 3. Is this the geographical name rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Must every geographical name be capitalized? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When the word is a geographical name that should be capitalized, please raise your hand.” 1. California 2. Los Angeles 3. city 4. San Diego 5. ocean 6. Pacific Ocean 7. tree Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the geographical name rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the geographical name rule and other Power Pix.

historical period rule
Common Core Standards L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Use correct capitalization Question: What is the historical period rule? Answer: The historical period rule is: all historical period names must be capitalized. Gesture: Shade your eyes with one hand as if looking far in the distance (symbolizing the past) then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write the names of historical periods on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Explain the concept of capitalizing historical periods. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this name capitalized correctly? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is Wednesday a historical period? (Make various gestures.) 3. Is this the historical period rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Are there some historical periods that don‟t have to be capitalized? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When the word is a historical period that should be capitalized, please raise your hand.” 1. Middle Ages 2. long ago 3. Renaissance 4. Colonial Period 5. once upon a time Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the historical period rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the historical period rule and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see the introduction to this manual.)

holiday name rule
Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. Question: What is the holiday name rule? Answer: The holiday name rule is: all holiday names must be capitalized. Gesture: Wave your hands in the air as if celebrating a holiday then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write the names of holidays on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Explain the concept of capitalizing holidays. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this holiday name capitalized correctly? (Point at various holidays on the board.) 2. Is a holiday name different than a geographical name? 3. Is this the holiday name rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Are there some holidays that don‟t have to be capitalized? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When the word is a holiday name that should be capitalized, please raise your hand.” 1. today 2. Christmas 3. Halloween 3. birthday party 4. fiesta 5. Easter 6. holiday Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with holiday name rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for holiday name rule and other Power Pix.

Letter “I”
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people. Question: What is the letter “I” by itself? Answer: The letter “I” by itself must be capitalized. Gesture: Draw a capital I in the air. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, write examples of sentences on the board with capital “I” and lower case “i”, both standing for the personal pronoun “I”. Explain the correct and incorrect way to use “I.” Play Yes/No Way with questions like the following: 1. Is this the correct way to use an “I?” (Point at various examples on the board.) 2. Do we always capitalize the letter “I” when it stands by itself? 3. Is this the letter “I” gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some sentences. When you hear an “I” that should be capitalized, please raise your hand. 1. When I go home I will eat lunch. 2. You are my friend. 3. If I want to have fun, I play hopscotch. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the letter “I” and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the letter “I” and other Power Pix.

names of people rule
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people. Question: What is the names of people rule? Answer: The names of people rule is: the first letter of a person‟s name must be capitalized. Gesture: Point to your chest where a name tag would go and then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write people‟s names on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Then, explain the concept of capitalizing the names of people. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this name correctly capitalized? (Point at various names on the board.) 2. Is this the names of people rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 3. Must we always capitalize a person‟s name? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. Cover your eyes; I‟m going to spell some names. When the name is spelled correctly, raise your hand.” Next spell out names indicating which are capitalized, i.e. “Tom. Capital T. o. m. ” Add as many names as you wish, including a few that are not capitalized, and reteach as necessary. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with names of people rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for names of people rule and other Power Pix.

Adjective
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. B. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. F. Use frequently occurring adjectives L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. D. Distinguish shades of meaning among verbs differing in manner (e.g., look, peek, glance, stare, glare, scowl) and adjectives differing in intensity (e.g., large, gigantic) by defining or choosing them or by acting out the meanings. L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. F. Use adjectives and adverbs, and choose between them depending on what is to be modified. L.2.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. B. Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (e.g., toss, throw, hurl) and closely related adjectives (e.g., thin, slender, skinny, scrawny). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. Question: What is an adjective? Answer: An adjective is a word that describes a noun. Gesture: Pet an imaginary dog and say, “fluffy dog.” (Emphasize the adjective, “fluffy.” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write adjective/noun pairs on the board, pretty house, cold water, blue car, etc. Explain to your class the concept of adjectives. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an adjective? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is horse an adjective? (Substitute words that are, and are not, adjectives.) 3. Is this the adjective gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some sentences. When I say an adjective, please silently raise your hand.” 1. The big, hairy dog is good. 2. A little, smiling girl stood on the corner. 3. I went to the store. 4. I went to the bright, shiny, new store. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with adjectives and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for adjective and other Power Pix.

Verb
Common Core Standards L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). E. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. D. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). Question: What is a verb? Answer: A verb is an action word or a state of being. Gesture: Use both arms and pump them as if you are running. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach noun and verb together, but teach nouns first.) The concept of “state of being” is probably too complex for first graders but is included as part of the definition of a verb for use at higher grades. While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board. One word is a noun and the other is a verb: book, read, hamburger, eat, girl, run, etc. Explain the difference between nouns and verbs. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a verb? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is “run” a verb? (Substitute various verbs and nouns.) 3. Is this the verb gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a verb, please silently raise your hand.” Say each sentence slowly. 1. Juan eats. 2. Tasha sleeps. 3. I ran to the park. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with verb and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for verb and other Power Pix.

Verb tense
Common Core Standards L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). E. Use verbs to convey a sense of past, present, and future (e.g., Yesterday I walked home; Today I walk home; Tomorrow I will walk home). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. D. Form and use the past tense of frequently occurring irregular verbs (e.g., sat, hid, told). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. E. Form and use the simple (e.g., I walked; I walk; I will walk) verb tenses. Question: What is the verb tense? Answer: The verb tense shows whether a sentence is about the past, present or future. Gesture: Point your hand over your shoulder (the past), point your hand at your feet (present), point your hand straight ahead (future). Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write sentences on the board; each sentence should either be about the past, present or future. Then, point at each sentence, asking questions like, “Is the verb tense in this sentence past, present or future?” Students respond in chorus, “The verb tense in that sentence is past.” Or, “The verb tense in that sentence is future.” Finally Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is the verb “was” past tense? 2. Is the verb “will” present tense? 3. Is this the verb tense gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the verb “eat” present tense? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The verb tense in the sentence “I eat beans” is present. 2. The verb tense in the sentence “I will eat beans” is past. 3. The verb tense in the sentence “I ate beans” is past. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with verb tense and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for verb tense and other Power Pix.

Noun
Common Core Standards L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Use frequently occurring nouns and verbs. L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. C. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Use collective nouns (e.g., group). B. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. Question: What is a noun? Answer: A noun is a person, place, or thing. Gesture: Point to yourself, the room, and then knock your knuckles on a table top. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach noun and verb together, but teach nouns first.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board. One word is a noun and the other is a verb: book, read, hamburger, eat, girl, run, etc. Explain the difference between nouns and verbs. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a noun? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is “book” a noun? (Substitute various verbs and nouns.) 3. Is this the noun gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a noun, please raise your hand.” 1. Juan eats. 2. Tasha sleeps. 3. This is a dog. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with noun and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for noun and other Power Pix

Plural noun
Common Core Standards L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. B. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. Question: What is a plural noun? Answer: A plural noun ends in “s” and represents more than one person, place or thing. Gesture: With one finger, make an “s” in the air and then wiggle your fingers (showing that a plural noun represents more than one person, place or thing.) Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write words on the board, some of which are plural nouns. Explain the concept of plural nouns, indicating that all plural nouns end in “s,” but some add additional letters, for example: church, churches, wife, wives, fly, flies, etc. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a plural noun? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is cat a plural noun? (Substitute other words that are, and are not, plural nouns.) 3. Is this the plural noun gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a word that is a plural noun, please raise your hand.” 1. happy 2. boy 3. boys 4. candies Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with plural noun and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for plural noun and other Power Pix.

Singular noun
Common Core Standards L.K.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/ (e.g., dog, dogs; wish, wishes). L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Use singular and plural nouns with matching verbs in basic sentences (e.g., He hops; We hop). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Form and use frequently occurring irregular plural nouns (e.g., feet, children, teeth, mice, fish). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. B. Form and use regular and irregular plural nouns. Question: What is a singular noun? Answer: A singular noun represents only one person, one place or one thing. Gesture: Hold up one finger each time you say “one” in the answer. Teaching Suggestion: (Teach singular noun and plural noun together.) While your class is involved inindividual or group activities, write on the board pairs of singular and plural nouns like tree, trees, cat, cats, wife, wives, etc. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a singular noun? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Does a singular noun represent more than one person, one place or one thing? 3. Is this the singular noun gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a singular noun, please silently raise your hand.” 1. Ball 2. houses 3. house Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with singular noun and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for singular noun and other Power Pix.

Pronoun
Common Core Standards L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. D. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything). L.2.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. C. Use reflexive pronouns (e.g., myself, ourselves). L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. A. Explain the function of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in general and their functions in particular sentences. Question: What is a pronoun? Answer: A pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. Gesture: Make a fist with one hand and then bump it away with the open palm of the other hand (symbolizing one word, a noun, replaced by another word, a pronoun.) Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pronoun/noun pairs on the board, for example, he David, it car, she Sarah, etc. Explain the difference between nouns and pronouns. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a pronoun? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is a pronoun a word that is used in place of a verb? 3. She is happy: is “she” a pronoun? (Substitute various sentences containing nouns and pronouns.) 4. Is this the pronoun gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some sentences. When you hear a pronoun, silently raise your hand.” Say each sentence slowly. 1. Ramona is good. 2. She is good. 3. He runs fast. 4. Alejandro runs fast. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with pronoun and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for pronoun and other Power Pix.

Possessive noun
Common Core Standards L.1.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking. B. Use common, proper, and possessive nouns. D. Use personal, possessive, and indefinite pronouns (e.g., I, me, my; they, them, their, anyone, everything) L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. C. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. D. Form and use possessives. Question: What is a possessive noun? Answer: A possessive noun uses an apostrophe, ends in “s” and shows ownership. Gesture: With one finger, make an “s” in the air and then grab one hand with the other, showing “ownership.”. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group projects, write a list of words on the board, like “boys, boy‟s, boys‟, snow, helps, dog‟s, dogs‟, dogs.” Explain the concept of possessive noun. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a possessive noun? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Does every possessive noun have an apostrophe? 3. Is this the possessive noun gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to spell a word out loud. Silently raise your hand if the word is a possessive noun.” Then spell words that are and are not possessive nouns. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with possessive noun and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for possessive noun and other Power Pix.

Proper nouns
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize holidays, product names, and geographic names. Question: What is a proper noun? Answer: A proper noun is the name of a specific person, place or thing and always starts with a capital letter. Gesture: Point at your chest where a name tag would go, (symbolizing you are a “specific person” whose name should be capitalized). Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write words on the board that are, and are not, proper nouns. Explain the concept of proper nouns. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Is your name a proper noun? 2. Is Los Angeles a proper noun? 3. Is this the proper nouns gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is dog a proper noun? 5. Is a dog‟s name, like Harry, a proper noun? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The name of this school is a proper noun. 2. “Pen” is a proper noun. 3. “Classroom” is a proper noun. 4. “Football” is a proper noun. 5. “Maria” is a proper noun. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with proper nouns and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for proper nouns and other Power Pix.

days of the week
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people Question: What are the days of the week? Answer: The days of the week are Sunday, Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday and Saturday. Gesture: As the days are counted, hold up a finger for each day, until you have counted five fingers on one hand and two fingers on the other hand. Teaching Suggestion: After students can recite the days of the week correctly, and while they are involved in individual or group activities, write the days of the week and other words on the board. Teach your students to recognize the written form of the days of the week. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this word a day of the week? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is Wednesday a day of the week? (Substitute various words that are, and are not, days of the week.) 3. Is this the days of the week gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Wednesday is a day of the week. 2. January is a day of the week. 3. Lunchtime is a day of the week. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with days of the week and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for days of the week and other Power Pix.

days of the week rule
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people Core Concept in 2nd-3rd Question: What is the days of the week rule? Answer: The days of the week rule is: the first letter of every day of the week must be capitalized. Gesture: Hold up five fingers on one hand and two fingers on the other hand (symbolizing the seven days of the week) and then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write days of the week on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Then, explain the concept of capitalizing the days of the week. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this day correctly capitalized? (Point at various days on the board.) 2. Must we always capitalize the first letter of every day of the week? 3. Is this the days of the week rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. Cover your eyes; I‟m going to spell some days. When the day is spelled correctly, raise your hand.” Next spell out days indicating which are capitalized, i.e. “Monday. Capital M. o. n. d. a. y.” Add as many days as you wish, including a few that are not capitalized, and reteach as necessary. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the days of the week rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the days of the week rule and other Power Pix.

months of the year
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people Question: What are the months of the year? Answer: The months of the year are: January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December. Gesture: Hold up fingers on each hand as the months of the year are counted. For the last two months, close one hand and hold up two fingers on the other hand. Teaching Suggestion: After students can recite the months in order, ask questions like “What is the month after January?” Students respond, “The month after January is February!” When this skill is mastered, ask much harder questions like, “What is the month before August?” Students respond, “The month before August is July!” Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some words. When I say a month, please silently raise your hand.” 1. December 2. Monday 3. fourteen 4. August Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with months of the year and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for months of the year and other Power Pix.

months rule
Common Core Standards L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. A. Capitalize dates and names of people Core Concept in 2nd-3rd Question: What is the months rule? Answer: The months rule is: the first letter of every month must be capitalized. Gesture: Hold up 10 fingers and then two fingers (symbolized 12 months) and then raise one hand over your head to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write months on the board, mixing correct and incorrect capitalization. Then explain the concept of capitalizing months. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this month correctly capitalized? (Point at various months on the board. 3. Is this the months rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Must we always capitalize the first letter of every month? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. Cover your eyes; I‟m going to spell some months. When the month is spelled correctly, raise your hand.” Next spell out months indicating which are capitalized, i.e. “February. Capital F .. e. b... r. u. a. r. y.” Add as many months as you wish, including a few that are not capitalized, and reteach as necessary. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the months rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the months rule and other Power Pix.

Compound word
Common Core Standards

L.2.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. D. Use knowledge of the meaning of individual words to predict the meaning of compound words (e.g., birdhouse, lighthouse, housefly; bookshelf, notebook, bookmark). Question: What is a compound word? Answer: A compound word is one word made of two words. Gesture: Hold up two fingers on one hand (symbolizing two words). With the other hand, squeeze the fingers together (showing that the two words become one word in a compound word). Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write examples of words on the board that are, and are not, compound. Explain the concept of compound words. Play Yes/No Way! with statements like the following: 1. Is this a compound word? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is grasshopper a compound word? (Substitute other words that are, and are not, compound words.) 3. Is this the compound word gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie, I‟m going to say some words. If the word is compound, please raise your hand.” 1. doggy 2. pigtail 3. did not 4. newspaper 5. silly Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with compound word and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for compound word and other Power Pix.

Contraction
Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. C. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. Question: What is a contraction? Answer: A contraction is a word with a missing letter marked by an apostrophe. Gesture: Hold your two hands wide apart and then bring them together to show “contracting.” Next make the squeaking, comma gesture for apostrophe (see above). Teaching Suggestion: (teach contractions and possessive nouns before apostrophes.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write words and their contractions on the board: cannot, can‟t, do not, don‟t, is not, isn‟t, etc. Explain to your class the concept of contractions. Play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Is this word a contraction? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Is “won‟t” a contraction? (Substitute words that are, and are not, contractions.) 3. 3. Is this the contraction gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. “Cannot” is a contraction. 2. “Wouldn‟t” is a contraction. 3. “Should not” is a contraction. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with contraction and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for contraction and other Power Pix.

Apostrophe
Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. C. Use an apostrophe to form contractions and frequently occurring possessives. Question: What is an apostrophe? Answer: An apostrophe is a small mark used in contractions and possessive nouns. Gesture: Use one finger to draw a comma in the air and make a squeaking sound (however, you wish!). Teaching Suggestion: (teach apostrophes after contractions and possessive nouns.) While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write examples of the correct (and incorrect) use of apostrophes on the board. Incorrect use should be obvious: ca‟t, d‟og, etc. Explain the concept of apostrophes to your class. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this the correct way to use an apostrophe? (Point at various examples on the board.) 2. Are apostrophes only used in possessive nouns? 3. Is this the apostrophe gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to spell some words. When I spell a word that has an apostrophe, please silently raise your hand.” (Make the squeaking sound whenever you spell a word with an apostrophe.) 1. cannot 2. can‟t 3. boys 4. boy‟s Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with apostrophe and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for apostrophe and other Power Pix.

Quotation marks
Common Core Standards L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. C. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue L.4.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas and quotation marks to mark direct speech and quotations from a text. L.5.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. D. Use underlining, quotation marks, or italics to indicate titles of works. Question: What are quotation marks? Answer: Quotation marks show that someone is talking. Gesture: Using two fingers on each hand, make quotation marks in the air. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences with and without quotation marks, for example: -- Paulina yelled, “Help me!” -- Paulina yelled for help. -- John spoke quietly. -- John said quietly, “Give me candy.” Explain the difference between sentences which do, and do not require, quotation marks. Point out that end marks are always placed inside sentences ending with quotation marks. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this a quotation mark? (Point at various words and grammatical marks on the board.) 2. Do quotation marks show that someone is talking? 3. Is this the quotation mark gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. If a quotation ends with a period, does the period go inside the quotation marks? Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie. When I say a sentence that needs quotation marks, please raise your hand.” 1. LaTisha laughed happily. 2. LaTisha laughed happily, “that is a funny movie!” 2. “I love burritos!,” Nita shouted. 3. Nita shouted that she loved burritos. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with quotation marks and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for quotation marks and other Power Pix.

Dictionary
Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. E. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. G. Consult reference materials, including beginning dictionaries, as needed to check and correct spellings. L.2.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 2 reading and content, choosing flexibly from an array of strategies. E. Use glossaries and beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the meaning of words and phrases. L.3.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. D. Use glossaries or beginning dictionaries, both print and digital, to determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. L.4.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. C. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. L.5.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. C. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. Question: What is a dictionary? Answer: A dictionary is a book that shows the spelling and meaning of words. Gesture: Open an imaginary book and then smile because you have found the word you were looking for. Teaching Suggestion: Explain the main features of a dictionary to your class. Then, play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Could we find the word „bear‟ in a dictionary? 2. Could we find a real bear in a dictionary? 3. Is this the dictionary gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A dictionary shows how to spell words. 2. A dictionary shows the meaning of words. 3. A dictionary is used to sharpen pencils. 4. The word “happy” could be found in a dictionary. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with dictionary and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for dictionary and other Power Pix.

Thesaurus
Common Core Standards L.4.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 4 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. C. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. L.5.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning words and phrases based on grade 5 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies. C. Consult reference materials (e.g., dictionaries, glossaries, thesauruses), both print and digital, to find the pronunciation and determine or clarify the precise meaning of key words and phrases. Question: What is a thesaurus? Answer: A thesaurus is a book that shows the synonyms of words. Gesture: Hold your two hands close to each other (the synonym gesture showing similarity) and then open your hands as if opening a book. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students a thesaurus and explaining its features, play Yes/No Way! with questions like: 1. Could we find synonyms in a thesaurus? 2. Is a thesaurus the same as a dictionary? 3. Is this the thesaurus gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a thesaurus the same as an atlas? 5. Could you find words like happy and glad in a thesaurus? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. A thesaurus has synonyms of words. 2. A thesaurus is an atlas. 3. Synonyms for the word “big” could be found in a thesaurus. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with thesaurus and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for thesaurus and other Power Pix.

Antonyms
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. B. Demonstrate understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites (antonyms). L.4.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. C. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms) L.5.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. C. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. Question: What are antonyms? Answer: Antonyms are two words with opposite meanings. Gesture: Wipe your forehead (hot); hug yourself (cold). . Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board that are, and are not, antonyms. Explain the concept of antonyms to your students. Then, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Are these two words antonyms? (Point at various pairs of words on the board.) 2. Is hot the antonym of cold? 3. Is this the antonym gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. High and low are antonyms. 2. Big and fast are antonyms. 3. Fast and slow are antonyms. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with antonyms and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for antonyms and other Power Pix.

Synonyms
Common Core Standards L.4.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. C. Demonstrate understanding of words by relating them to their opposites (antonyms) and to words with similar but not identical meanings (synonyms) L.5.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. C. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words. Question: What are synonyms? Answer: Synonyms are two words with similar meanings. Gesture: Hold your two hands thumbs up (showing similarity). Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board that are, and are not, synonyms: big, large, fast, quick, tall, short, etc. Explain to your students the concept of synonyms. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are these two words synonyms? (Point at various pairs of words on the board.) 2. If two words are synonyms, do they sound exactly the same? 3. Is this the synonym gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. If two words are synonyms, are they spelled the same? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Synonyms are two words with similar meanings. 2. Fast and slow are synonyms. 3. Tasty and delicious are synonyms. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with synonyms and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for synonyms and other Power Pix.

Homographs
Common Core Standards L.5.5. Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. C. Use the relationship between particular words (e.g., synonyms, antonyms, homographs) to better understand each of the words Question: What are homographs? Answer: Homographs are two words that are spelled the same, but have different meanings. Gesture: Make a bill (as in a bird‟s bill) in front of your face and then hold a bill (as in a restaurant bill) in front of your face and smack your forehead, because it is so expensive. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of homographs: lead (as in the metal)/lead (as in leading someone), dart (as in move quickly) and dart (as in the game), low (as in low voice) and low (as in low to the ground). Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. If two words are homgraphs, are they spelled the same? 2. If two words are homographs, do they have the same meaning? 3. Is this the homgraphs gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Do homgraphs rhyme? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Homgraphs are two words that are spelled the same but have different meanings. 2. Homgraphs are two words that are spelled the same and have the same meanings. 3. Low, as in low to the ground, and low, as in low voice are homgraphs. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with homgraphs and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for homgraphs and other Power Pix.

Homophones
Common Core Standards L.3.4. Determine or clarify the meaning of unknown and multiple-meaning word and phrases based on grade 3 reading and content, choosing flexibly from a range of strategies Question: What are homophones? Answer: Homophones are two words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. Gesture: Shade your eyes and squint at the sun and pat a son on the head. Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write pairs of words on the board that are, and are not, homophones. Explain to your students the concept of homophones, for example; sun, son, two, to, too, hear, here. Play Yes/No Way! with one or more questions like the following: 1. Are these two words homophones? (Point at various pairs of words on the board.) 2. If two words are homophones, do they sound exactly the same? 3. Is this the homophones gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. If two words are homophones, are they spelled the same? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Homophones are two words that sound the same but have different meanings and spellings. 2. Homophones are two words that sound the same and have the same meaning. 3. Two homophones are always spelled differently. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with homophones and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for homophones and other Power Pix.

Subject of a sentence
Common Core Standards L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking F. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.* Question: What is the subject of a sentence? Answer: The subject of a sentence is who or what the sentence is about. Gesture: Hold up three fingers on each hand, making “W‟s” (symbolizing “who” and “what”). Teaching suggestions: Finding the subject of a sentence is usually easier after students have been taught how to find the sentence‟s verb. Use this three step method: 1. Change the sentence tense to past, present and future. 2. Find the word that changes. 3. The word that changes is the verb. Once the verb is found use this two step method to find the subject: 1. Put “who” or “what” before the verb. 2. The “who” or “what” is the subject. When students can find verbs and subjects, then Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Do you find the verb in a sentence before you find the subject? 2. Is the subject of the sentence the same as the verb? 3. Is this the subject of a sentence gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the subject of a sentence the “who” or “what” the sentence is about? 5. Is the subject of the sentence the “where” a sentence is about? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. In the sentence “Juan ate quickly,” the subject is ate. 2. In the sentence “Nita likes flowers” the subject is flowers. 3. In the sentence “Alejandra went home” the subject is Alejandra. 4. The subject of a sentence is “who” or “what” the sentence is about. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with subject of a sentence and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for subject of a sentence and other Power Pix. (For more information on all the above, see the introduction to this manual.)

subject/verb agreement rule
Common Core Standards L.3.1. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English grammar and usage when writing or speaking F. Ensure subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement.* Question: What is the subject/verb agreement rule? Answer: The subject verb agreement rule is: if the subject is singular, the verb is singular; if the subject is plural, the verb is plural. Gesture: Insert gestures as follows: “If the subject is singular, the verb is singular (hold up one finger on each hand to symbolize a singular subject and a singular verb); if the subject is plural, the verb is plural (waggle the fingers on each hand to symbolize a plural subject and a plural verb).” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write short sentences on the board in which subject and verb are, and are not, in agreement. Then, use the sentences to explain the concept of subject/verb agreement. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. If the subject is singular, can the verb be plural? 2. If the verb is plural, can the subject can be singular? 3. Is this the subject/verb agreement rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. If the subject is singular, does the verb have to be singular? Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie, when the subject and verb are in agreement, raise your hand.” 1. The boys is good. 2. The cars are fast. 3. The ball was big. 4. The child are happy. 5. The dog can run. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the subject/verb agreement rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the subject/verb agreement rule and other Power Pix.

Sorting
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is a sorting? Answer: Sorting is putting things together that are similar. Gesture: Using both hands, pretend as if you are sorting items on a table in front of you. Teaching Suggestion: Sorting is an important intellectual skill which will take kindergarteners some time to learn. Give students various colored shapes to sort: triangles, squares, circles. Ask them to sort the objects by shape and then by color. Show students other examples of objects that are, and are not, similar. Play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Are these two things the same color? (Hold up a variety of objects that are, and are not, the same color.) 2. Do these two things have the same shape? (Hold up a variety of objects that are, and are not, the same shape.) 3. Is this the sorting gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Sorting is putting things together that are similar. 2. A blue crayon and a blue grape have the same color. 3. A circle and a ball are both round. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with sorting and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for sorting and other Power Pix.

colors (eight colors)
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What are eight colors? Answer: Eight colors are red, blue, green, yellow, purple, orange, white and black. Gesture: Hold up eight fingers. (Point at the colors as the students name them.) Teaching Suggestion: Point at various objects in the classroom and ask students to name the colors. Point at one of the colors on the 8 Colors Power Pix and ask students to name objects that are the same color. Your prompt is, “What color is this?” Students respond in chorus, “That is the color blue!” or “That is the color red!”, etc. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is red a color? 2. Is apple a color? (Substitute other objects and colors.) 3. Is this the 8 colors gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Green is a color. 2. Two is a color. 3. Everything has a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with 8 Colors and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for 8 colors and other Power Pix.

black
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is black? Answer: A tire is black. Gesture: Spin your hands round and round as if they were a tire rolling; say “rrrrr” as if you were motor running Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are black. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this black?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is black!” or “No, that is not black!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, black. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this black? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Are tires black? 3. Is this the black gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The sky is black. 2. A crayon can be black. 3. Tires are black. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with black and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for black and other Power Pix.

blue
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent

Question: What is blue? Answer: The sky is blue. Gesture: Lift both hands up toward the sky.; say “geee!” in appreciation of the beauty of the sky Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are blue. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this blue?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is blue!” or “No, that is not blue!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, blue. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this blue? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Is the sky blue? 3. Is this the blue gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The sky is blue. 2. An orange is blue. 3. All books are blue. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with blue and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for blue and other Power Pix.

gray

Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is gray? Answer: An elephant is gray. Gesture: Put both hands in front of you and swing them, like you are an elephant swinging your trunk. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are gray. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this gray?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is gray!” or “No, that is not gray!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, gray. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this gray? (Hold up various objects and point at objects around the classroom.) 2. Can the sky be gray? 3. Is this the gray gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An elephant is gray. 2. All bananas are gray. 3. Gray is a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with grey and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for grey and other PowerPix.

green
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is green? Answer: Grass is green. Gesture: Point both hands down as if pointing at grass; say “achoo!” as if the grass made you sneeze. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are green. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this green?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is green!” or “No, that is not green!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, green. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this green? (Hold up various objects and point at objects around the classroom.) 2. Is the grass green? 3. Is this the green gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The sky is green. 2. Plants are green. 3. Green is a color. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with green and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for green and other PowerPix.

orange
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is orange? Answer: An orange is orange. Gesture: Pretend as if you were peeling an orange; say, “mmmm, delicious!”

Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are orange. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this orange?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is orange!” or “No, that is not orange!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, orange. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is orange a color? 2. Is this the orange Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the orange gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is orange. 2. Orange is the color of apples. 3. A crayon could be orange. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with orange and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for orange and other Power Pix.

purple
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is purple? Answer: Grapes are purple. Gesture: Pretend as if you were plucking a grape from a bunch and then eating it; say, “Yum! Yum! Yum!”

While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are purple. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this purple?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is purple!” or “No, that is not purple!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, purple. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is purple a color? 2. Is this the purple Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the purple gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is purple. 2. Purple is the color of grapes. 3. A crayon could be purple. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with purple and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for purple and other Power Pix.

red
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is red? Answer: An apple is red. Gesture: Pretend as if you were reaching up high to pluck an apple from a tree; say “ohhhh!” as if you were stretching very hard. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are red. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this red?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is red!” or “No, that is not red!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, red. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is red a color? 2. Is this the red Power Pix? (Point at various Power Pix.) 3. Is this the red gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An orange is red. 2. Some apples are red. 3. A crayon could be red. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with red and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for red and other Power Pix.

white
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is white? Answer: Clouds are white. Gesture: Wave one hand back in forth in the air as if pointing at a large cloud; say “ahhh!” as if you were appreciating its beauty. Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble a group of colored objects on your desk, including some that are white. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this white?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is white!” or “No, that is not white!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, white. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this white? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Is grass white? 3. Is this the white gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Clouds are white. 2. Apples are white. 3. All books are white. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with white and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for white and other Power Pix.

yellow
Common Core Standards L.K.5. With guidance and support from adults, explore word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort common objects into categories (e.g., shapes, foods) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent. L.1.5. With guidance and support from adults, demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships and nuances in word meanings. A. Sort words into categories (e.g., colors, clothing) to gain a sense of the concepts the categories represent Question: What is yellow? Answer: The sun is yellow. Gesture: Wipe imaginary sweat from your forehead as if you were sweating beneath a hot sun; say “whew!” Teaching Suggestion: While your students are involved in individual or group activities, assemble various colored objects on your desk, including some that are yellow. Point at things on your desk and in the classroom; use the prompt: “Is this yellow?” Students respond in chorus, “Yes, that is yellow!” or “No, that is not yellow!” Ask students to name, using complete sentences, objects that are, or can be, yellow. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this yellow? (Hold up various objects and point at things around the classroom.) 2. Is the sun yellow? 3. Is this the yellow gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Lemons are yellow. 2. Tires are yellow. 3. All cats are yellow. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with yellow and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for yellow and other Power Pix.

Opinion
Common Core Standards W.K.1. Use a combination of drawing, dictating, and writing to compose opinion pieces in which they tell a reader the topic or the name of the book they are writing about and state an opinion or preference about the topic or book (e.g., My favorite book is...). W.1.1.. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or name the book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply a reason for the opinion, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.1. Write opinion pieces in which they introduce the topic or book they are writing about, state an opinion, supply reasons that support the opinion, use linking words (e.g., because, and, also) to connect opinion and reasons, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. A. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. B. Provide reasons that support the opinion. C. Use linking words and phrases (e.g., because, therefore, since, for example) to connect opinion and reasons Question: What is an opinion? Answer: An opinion is what someone believes is true. Gesture: On the word “believes,” shrug your shoulders as if you are not positive. Teaching Suggestion: Explain the difference between opinions and facts. Play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Is it an opinion to say that 2 = 2 = 4? 2. Is it an opinion to say that our playground is beautiful? 3. Is this the opinion gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is it an opinion to say that our summer was too hot? 5. Is it an opinion to say that there are three letters in the word “cat?” Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie; I‟m going to make statements. If the statement is an opinion, please raise your hand.” 1. Strawberries taste better than pickles. 2. A foot has 12 inches. 3. Math is fun. 4. I am taller than my students. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with opinion and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for opinion and other Power Pix.

Opinion
Common Core Standards W.4.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. A. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer‟s purpose. B. Provide reasons that are supported by facts and details. C. Link opinion and reasons using words and phrases (e.g., for instance, in order to, in addition). D. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. A. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer‟s purpose. B. Provide logically ordered reasons that are supported by facts and details. C. Link opinion and reasons using words, phrases, and clauses (e.g., consequently,specifically). D. Provide a concluding statement or section related to the opinion presented. Question: What is an opinion? Answer: An opinion is what someone believes is true. Gesture: On the word “believes,” shrug your shoulders as if you are not positive. Teaching Suggestion: Explain the difference between opinions and facts. Play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Is it an opinion to say that 2 = 2 = 4? 2. Is it an opinion to say that our playground is beautiful? 3. Is this the opinion gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is it an opinion to say that our summer was too hot? 5. Is it an opinion to say that there are three letters in the word “cat?” Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie; I‟m going to make statements. If the statement is an opinion, please raise your hand.” 1. Strawberries taste better than pickles. 2. A foot has 12 inches. 3. Math is fun. 4. I am taller than my students. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with opinion and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for opinion and other Power Pix.

Fact
Common Core Standards RI.1.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., headings, tables of contents, glossaries, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text. RI.2.5. Know and use various text features (e.g., captions, bold print, subheadings, glossaries, indexes, electronic menus, icons) to locate key facts or information in a text efficiently. W.1.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they name a topic, supply some facts about the topic, and provide some sense of closure. W.2.2. Write informative/explanatory texts in which they introduce a topic, use facts and definitions to develop points, and provide a concluding statement or section. W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. Question: What is a fact? Answer: A fact is a true statement. Gesture: Hold an imaginary magnifying glass up to your face like you‟re a detective looking for facts. Teaching Suggestion: (teach fact and opinion together) After explaining the difference between facts and opinions, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is it a fact that fish swim in water? 2. Is it a fact that birds have wings? 3. Is it a fact that people have three ears? 4. Is this the fact gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to say some sentences. When the sentence is a fact, raise your hand.” 1. A hand has four fingers and a thumb. 2. One and one is three. 3. Rocks are soft. 4. The first letter of the alphabet is “A.” Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with fact and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for fact and other Power Pix.

topic sentence
Common Core Standards W.3.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons. A. Introduce the topic or text they are writing about, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure that lists reasons. W.4.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. A. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which related ideas are grouped to support the writer‟s purpose. W.5.1. Write opinion pieces on topics or texts, supporting a point of view with reasons and information. A. Introduce a topic or text clearly, state an opinion, and create an organizational structure in which ideas are logically grouped to support the writer‟s purpose. W.3.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, and details. W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. W.5.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. B. Develop the topic with facts, definitions, concrete details, quotations, or other information and examples related to the topic. Question: What is a topic sentence? Answer: A topic sentence states the main subject of a paragraph or an essay. Gesture: Stroke your chin as if thinking of a topic sentence. Then nod your head to show that you‟ve found one. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of paragraphs with topic sentences. Point out that the topic sentence is often, but not always, the first sentence. Also, indicate that all the sentences in a well written paragraph are related to the topic sentence. Then Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does every paragraph begin with a topic sentence? 2. Does the topic sentence state the main idea of a paragraph? 3. Is this the topic sentence gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Could every sentence in a paragraph be a topic sentence? 5. Can the main subject of a well written paragraph be different than the topic sentence? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The topic sentence states the main idea of a paragraph. 2. The last sentence of a paragraph is the topic sentence. 3. The first sentence of a paragraph is the topic sentence. 4. Each sentence in a well written paragraph should refer to the topic sentence. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with topic sentence and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for topic sentence and other Power Pix.

Paragraph
Common Core Standards W.4.2. Write informative/explanatory texts to examine a topic and convey ideas and information clearly. A. Introduce a topic clearly and group related information in paragraphs and sections; include formatting (e.g., headings), illustrations, and multimedia when useful to aiding comprehension. W.4.4. Produce clear and coherent writing (including multiple-paragraph texts) in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) W.5.4. Produce clear and coherent writing (including multiple-paragraph texts) in which the development and organization are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specific expectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.) Question: What is a paragraph? Answer: A paragraph begins with an indented sentence and describes one topic. Gesture: Hold up a large imaginary block of text in the air (symbolizing a paragraph), and then hold up one finger (showing that the paragraph is about one topic). Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of paragraphs in fiction and nonfiction. Point out that the length of paragraphs vary but each paragraph is about one main subject. Then, play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Does every paragraph begin with an indented sentence? 2. Can a paragraph have only one sentence? 3. Is this the paragraph gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Could a well written essay have no paragraphs? 5. Can the main topic of a paragraph change with every sentence? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Every paragraph has one or more sentences. 2. All the sentences in a good paragraph refer to the same topic. 3. A paragraph must begin with an indented sentence. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with paragraph and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for paragraph and other Power Pix.

Paraphrase
Common Core Standards W.4.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; take notes, paraphrase and categorize information, and provide a list of sources. W.5.8. Recall relevant information from experiences or gather relevant information from print and digital sources; summarize or paraphrase information in notes and finished work, and provide a list of sources. Question: What is a paraphrase? Answer: A paraphrase explains one or more statements using different words but keeping the original meaning. Gesture: Lift one hand in the air and open and close your fingers as if it is “speaking.” The other hand then mimics this speaking hand, symbolizing paraphrasing. Teaching Suggestion: Explain the difference between a statement and its paraphrase. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does a paraphrase have the same words as the original statement? 2. Does a paraphrase have to mean exactly the same thing as the original statement? 3. Is this the paraphrase gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Can a paraphrase be longer than the original statement? Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. I‟m going to make two statements. If the second statement is a paraphrase of the first statement, please raise your hand.” 1. This book is long. This book has many pages. 2. My favorite candy is chocolate. Of all the candies there are, I like chocolate the best. 3. Reading is my favorite subject. Reading is one of my favorite subjects. 4. Soccer is way more fun than basketball. Both soccer and basketball are fun. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with paraphrase and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for paraphrase and other Power Pix.

Comma
Common Core Standards
L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series. L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas in addresses. C. Use commas and quotation marks in dialogue. Question: What is a comma? Answer: A comma shows a pause in a sentence. Gesture: Make a comma in the air and then fold your hands (symbolizing a pause).

Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write examples of the use of commas on the board. Explain the concept of commas to your students. Then, play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Is this a comma? (Point at letters or commas on the board.) 2. Does a comma show a pause in a sentence? 4. Is this the comma gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. You can only have one comma in a sentence. 2. A comma is a sentence. 3. A comma shows a pause between two words in a sentence. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with comma and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for comma and other Power Pix.

City and state comma rule
Common Core Standards L.3.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas in addresses. Question: What is the city and state comma rule? Answer: The city and state comma rule is: a comma separates the city from the state. Gesture: Draw a “c” in the air symbolizing “city”; then make a comma in the air symbolizing the comma that follows “city.” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write city and states on the board, mixing correct and incorrect use of commas. Then, explain the way commas are used in punctuating city and states. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this city and state correctly punctuated? (Point at various dates on the board.) 2. Does the comma go after the city? 3. Is this the city and state comma rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Does the comma go after the state? 5. Does the before go after the state? Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie, and I‟m going to say some cities and states. When the city and state are correctly punctuated, raise your hand.” 1. St. Louis Missouri comma 2. St. Louis comma Missouri 3. Comma St. Louis comma Missouri Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the city and state comma rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the city and state comma rule and other Power Pix.

dates comma rule
Common Core Standards
L.1.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. c. Use commas in dates and to separate single words in a series.

Question: What is the dates comma rule? Answer: The dates comma rule is: a comma separates the day of the month from the year. Gesture: Draw a “d” in the air symbolizing “day”; then make a comma in the air symbolizing the comma that follows “day.” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write dates on the board, mixing correct and incorrect use of commas. Then, explain the way commas are used in dates. Finally,Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this date correctly punctuated? (Point at various dates on the board.) 2. Does the comma go after the year? 3. Is this the dates comma rule gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Does the comma go after the month? 5. Does the comma go after the day? Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie; I‟m going to say some dates and when the the date is correctly punctuated, raise your hand.” 1. January comma 22 1946 2. January 22 comma 1946 3. January 22 1946 comma Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the dates comma rule and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the dates comma rule and other Power Pix.

Abbreviation Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is an abbreviation? Answer: An abbreviation is a short form of a word that ends in a period. Gesture: Put two fingers together (short form of a word) and then poke one finger in the air as if making a period.

Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write words and abbreviations of words on the board (Sunday, Sun., Mon., Monday, January, Jan, etc.). Explain the concept of abbreviation to your students. Then, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this an abbreviation? (Point at various words on the board.) 2. Does an abbreviation end in a period? 3. Is this the abbreviation gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play, “Now we‟re going to play Cutie. When I spell an abbreviation, raise your hand.” [spell each of the following] 1. Mister 2. Mr. 3. Sunday 4. Sun. 5. Feb. 6. February Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with abbreviation and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for abbreviation and other Power Pix.

atlas Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is an atlas? Answer: An atlas is a book of maps. Gesture: Point your hand to the four corners of the room and then open your hands as if opening a book. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students an atlas and explaining its features, play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Could we find where California is in an atlas? 2. Does an atlas have maps? 3. Is this the atlas gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. An atlas is a book of maps. 2. An atlas is a map of books. 3. We look in an atlas to find where places are. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with atlas and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for atlas and other Power Pix.

draft of a paper Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is a draft of a paper? Answer: A draft of a paper is an unfinished final paper. Gesture: Pretend as if you are polishing a car and wiping sweat from your head because you are not finished. Teaching Suggestion: With your students‟ help, write a paragraph about your school on the board. When the paragraph is finished, label it “first draft.” Then, with your students‟ help make a second draft. Finally, ask your class to point out the ways the first draft is an incomplete version of the second draft. Discuss how the second draft could be improved so that your students understand the writing process can involve many stages. Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is the draft of a paper the same as a final paper? 2. Does a draft of a paper have to have complete sentences? 3. Is this the draft of a paper gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Can you cross out words and sentences in the draft of a paper? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Every paper must have four drafts. 2. We write drafts of a paper after we finish the final paper. 3. A draft of a paper is an unpolished final paper. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with draft of a paper and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for draft of a paper and other Power Pix.

indented sentence Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is an indented sentence? Answer: An indented sentence is the first sentence of every paragraph and begins with a small space. Gesture: Hold your fingers up close together to show the small space that starts an indented sentence. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of paragraphs with indented sentences. Then play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the first sentence of every paragraph have to be indented? 2. Is it correct to indent the second or third sentence in a paragraph? 3. Is this the indented sentence gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Does an indented sentence show where a paragraph ends? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. Every paragraph must begin with an indented sentence. 2. An indented sentence begins with a small space. 3. The only sentence in a paragraph that is indented is the first sentence. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with indented sentence and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for indented sentence and other Power Pix.

Encyclopedia Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is an encyclopedia? Answer: An encyclopedia is a book or set of books with information about almost everything. Gesture: Put both hands on top of your head and then move them away quickly, as if your mind was exploding with information. Teaching Suggestion: Show students examples of single and multi-volume encyclopedias. Point out that the articles are arranged in abc order. Ask students to mention topics and then you look them up in the encyclopedia. This will demonstrate the range of information that an encyclopedia covers. Then play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Could you find information about penguins in an encyclopedia? 2. Could you find information about the planet Mars in an encyclopedia? 3. Is this the encyclopedia gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Could you find information about our state in an encyclopedia? 5. Could you find information about how many students are in our classroom in an encyclopedia? 6. Are encyclopedias the same as an index? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The articles in an encyclopedia are arranged in abc order. 2. Almost anything you can think of could be in an encyclopedia. 3. Encyclopedias contain some articles that are fiction, not true. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with encyclopedia and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for encyclopedia and other Power Pix.

alphabetical order Core Concept, but not mentioned in Standards. Question: What is alphabetical order? Answer: Alphabetical order is abc order. Gesture: Begin with your fist closed and use the following pattern as you speak: “alphabetical order is a (lift thumb on close fist) b (lift forefinger on closed fist) c (lift middle finger on closed fist. three fingers should now be up) order.” Teaching Suggestion: While your class is involved in individual or group activities, write lists of three words on the board; some of the lists have words in alphabetical order. Then, explain the concept of alphabetical ordering. Finally, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Is this list in alphabetical order? (Point at various lists on the board.) 2. Is alphabetical order abc order? 3. Is this the alphabetical order gesture? (Make various gestures.) Quick Test: Say, “We‟re going to play Cutie, I‟m going to say three words in a list. If the list is in alphabetical order, please raise your hand.” 1. apple, orange, pear 2. apple, bear, cat 3. fast, moose, tickle Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with alphabetical order and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for alphabetical order and other Power Pix.

date of a letter California State Second Grade Standard: Writing, 2.2: Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature. Question: What is the date of a letter? Answer: The date of a letter shows the month, day and year separated by commas. Gesture: Look at an imaginary watch on your wrist and tap it three times, once each for the month, day and year. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the location and how to write a date, play Yes/No Way! With questions like the following: 1. Does the date come after the greeting? 2. Should you use the word „dear‟ in a date? 3. Does the date go on the first line of a letter? 4. Is this the date of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 5. Are there commas in a date? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The greeting of a letter comes before the date. 2. The date comes before the greeting. 3. The date in a letter only has the year. 4. The date in a letter has the month, day and year. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the date of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the date of a letter and other Power Pix.

body of a letter California State Second Grade Standard: Writing, 2.2: Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature. Question: What is the body of a letter? Answer: The body of a letter is the letter‟s message. Gesture: Hold an imaginary piece of paper in your hand and then point your other hand at your mouth, as if speaking a message. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the location and a variety of ways to write the body of a letter, Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the body of a letter come after the greeting? 2. Should you put the date in the body of a letter? 3. Is this the body of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the body of the letter the message you want to send to the person reading the letter? 5. Does the closing come after the body of the letter? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The body of a letter is the letter‟s message. 2. The body of the letter comes right after the greeting. 3. The body of the letter comes right after the date. 4. The body of the letter comes before the closing. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the body of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the body of a letter and other Power Pix.

closing of a letter Common Core Standards L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters. Question: What is the closing of a letter? Answer: The closing of a letter is like saying goodbye. Gesture: Wave bye-bye. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the location and a variety of ways to write a closing, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the closing come right after the date? 2. Could you use the words “yours truly” in a closing? 3. Is this the closing of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a letter‟s closing like saying „hello? 5. Does the closing come after the body of the letter? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The closing of a letter is like saying “hello.” 2. The closing of a letter is like saying “goodbye.” 3. The closing of a letter comes before the body of the letter. 4. The closing of the letter comes before the signature. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the closing of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the closing of a letter and other Power Pix.

five parts of a letter California State Second Grade Standard: Writing, 2.2: Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature. Question: What are the five parts of a letter? Answer: [Chant] The five parts of a letter are: One: The date Two: The greeting Three: The body of the letter Four: The closing Five: The signature, yahoo! Gesture: As you count, hold up 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, fingers and then waggle your hands in the air at “yahoo!” Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the features of a letter, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the date come first in a letter? 2. Is the greeting after the body of the letter? 3. Is this the five parts of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is the signature a person‟s name? 5. Are there six parts in a letter?” Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The greeting of a letter comes first. 2. The date comes before the greeting. 3. The signature in a letter comes after the closing. 4. The closing of a letter comes after the signature. Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with five parts of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for five parts of a letter and other Power Pix.

greeting of a letter
Common Core Standards
L.2.2. Demonstrate command of the conventions of standard English capitalization, punctuation, and spelling when writing. B. Use commas in greetings and closings of letters.

Question: What is the greeting of a letter? Answer: The greeting of a letter is like saying “hello” and always begins with a capital letter. Gesture: Shake hands with an imaginary person (as if you are greeting them) and then raise your hand straight up to show capitalization. Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the location and a variety of ways to write a greeting, play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the greeting come after the date? 2. Could you use the word “dear” in a greeting? 3. Is this the greeting of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a letter‟s greeting like saying “hello?” 5. Does the greeting come after the body of the letter? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The greeting of a letter comes before the date. 2. The date comes before the greeting. 3. The greeting of a letter is like saying “hello.” Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the greeting of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the greeting of a letter and other Power Pix.

signature of a letter California State Second Grade Standard: Writing, 2.2: Write a friendly letter complete with the date, salutation, body, closing, and signature. Question: What is the signature of a letter? Answer: The signature of a letter is name of the person writing the letter. Gesture: Pretend as if you are writing your name in the air and then pat your chest to show it is your name.

Teaching Suggestion: After showing students the location and the kinds of signatures (first name only, nickname, first name and last name), Play Yes/No Way! with questions like the following: 1. Does the signature come right after the closing? 2. Could you use the word “hello” in a signature? 3. Is this the signature of a letter gesture? (Make various gestures.) 4. Is a letter‟s signature the same as the name of the person writing the letter? 5. Does the signature come before the body of the letter? Quick Test: Play Cutie with statements like the following: 1. The signature of a letter comes before the date. 2. The signature of a letter is the name of the person writing the letter. 3. The signature of a letter is like saying “hello.” Critical Thinking: Play Compare/Contrast with the signature of a letter and other Power Pix. Review: Ask your students to review with each other the question, answer and gestures for the signature of a letter and other Power Pix.