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HARNAM SINGH SHAN
The word ‘Sikh’, as we know, is the Punjabised form of the Sanskrit word shishya, meaning a disciple or a learner, especially a seeker of truth. It came to be used for the disciples of Guru Nanak Dev and his nine spiritual successors who graced humanity from 1469 to 1708 A.D. in the Indian subcontinent. Thus, their religion, called Sikhism, literally means the path of discipleship and the new-way of life taught by them. Their faith is the youngest and the most modern of the world’s religions. It originated in Punjab, the land of Five Rivers, about ﬁve centuries ago, during the Muslim rule of Lodhis followed soon after by that of the Mughals in India.
Soon after the passing away, in 1708, of the Tenth Master, Guru Gobind Singh, the Mughal Emperor, Bahadur Shah, issued an imperial ordinance on the 10th of December 1710 from Delhi to “kill and ﬁnish them (the Sikhs) wherever they were found,” ordering thus their wholesale destruction. That royal proclamation, outlawing the Sikhs and seeking their complete annihilation, was repeated by Emperor Farrukh Siyar, and it remained in force for three long years in all parts of the Mughal Empire. “According to it, every Sikh or Nanakpanthi, wherever seen, was to be immediately arrested. He was to be oﬀered only one alternative, either Islam or the sword. He was to be executed there and then without any hesitation or loss of time. A schedule of valuable rewards was proclaimed. For every Sikh head Rs. 25/- were to be given, and for a Sikh captive a sum of Rs. 100/- was to be awarded. Their pretty girls were to be reduced to Concubines, and others were to be made maidservants. When a Muslim died, his grave was to be dug by the Sikhs or their Hindu sympathisers. For begar (unpaid labour), in place of cobblers, Sikhs were to be employed. The Emperor’s orders were strictly obeyed The Governors of Sarhind, Lahore and Jarnmu tried to surpass one another in persecution of the Sikhs in order to win the goodwill of Farrukh Siyar.” Later, in 1746, according to Syed Mohammad Latif, “The Governor (of Punjab), Yahya Khan, issued a proclamation for a general massacre of all Sikhs, wherever they could be found. Death was to be the punishment of all persons who invoked the name of Guru Gobind (Singh), and a reward was oﬀered for the heads of Sikhs. Thousands were put to death daily, and their heads brought before the Subedar of Lahore for reward.” It was reported, on three occasions, to the authorities that the Sikhs had been exterminated root-and-branch. The Afghan invader, Ahmad Shah Abdali, during his invasion of India in 1762 and his continued campaign of the Sikhs’ extermination, killed about twenty ﬁve thousand of them in a single day’s battle. Besides, he ransacked their capital (viz. Amritsar), blew up their Harimandar (the Temple of God, better known as Golden Temple), and desecrated its Sudhasar (sacred pool) with blood, bones and entrails of cows, etc., and had it ﬁlled up with debris.
2 With the establishment, in 1849, of the British rule in Punjab, Dr Ernest Trumpp, a German missionary, appointed by Her Majesty’s Government to translate the sacred Sikh scriptures, asserted in 1877 that “Sikhism is a waning religion that will soon belong to history.” Joginder Nath Bhattacharya rather prophesied in 1896 that “Under British rule, Sikhism is fast losing its vitality and is drifting towards amalgamation with the Hindu faith. In the course of a few more generations, Sikhism is likely to be superseded by one of those forms of Vaishnavism which alone have the best chance of success among a subject nation in times of profound and undisturbable peace.” Max Arthur Macauliﬀe also apprehended such a danger of amalgamation or absorption, when he observed, ﬁrst in his essays and papers (l881-l9O6), and later in his magnum opus (1909) : “Truly wonderful are the strength and vitality of Hinduism. It is like the boa constrictor of the Indian forests. When a petty enemy appears to worry it, it winds round its opponent, crushes it in its folds, and ﬁnally causes it to disappear in its capacious interior. In this way, many centuries ago, Hinduism on its own ground disposed of Buddhism which was largely a Hindu reformation; in this way, in a pre-historic period, it absorbed the religion of the Scythian invaders of Northern India; in this way, it is disposing of the reformed and once hopeful religion of Baba Nanak. Hinduism has embraced Sikhism in its folds; the still comparatively young religion is making a vigorous struggle for life, but its ultimate destruction is, it is apprehended, inevitable without state support.” Gokul Chand Narang posing a self-prophetising question and answering it himself in a self-righteous manner, stated in 1912, “What is their (the Sikhs) future? It is anything but dark. However, it is apparent that the best days of the Khalsa are altogether behind.” During the all-out crusade of extermination against its adherents (who are easily recognizable by their strikingly distinctive appearance sporting unshorn hair and colourful headgear) immediately before and after the partition of India and the creation of Pakistan on the 15th August 1947, thousands of them (the Sikhs) were killed at sight. The rest were uprooted, en masse, from their homes, lands and historic shrines; and were deprived of all other belongings in an unprecedented way. The horrendous holocaust reduced nearly half of their thriving community to a homeless, landless and seething refugee population. So much so that of all other persons, one of its own followers, Khushwant Singh, while prefacing his ﬁrst book about them and their faith, observed in 1953 : “The chief reason for my writing an account of my people is the melancholy thought that contemporary with my labours are being written the last chapters of the story of the Sikhs. By the end of the century, the Sikhs themselves will have passed into oblivion. Before that happens, it is proper that some estimate of their religion, history, traditions and political and cultural achievements should be made by someone identiﬁed with them by faith and association.” Gokul Chand Narang, a staunch Arya-Saniajist, came out in 1960 with another self-fulﬁlling statement asserting that the “Sikhs have no political future as an
assimilation or disappearance. If human life survives the present chapter of man’s history. in India. since the control of their own history has been snatched out of their own hands and their historical potential has been submerged and throttled. All prophets of doom who predicted its extinction had to bite the bullet and their prophesies have proven totally wrong.the Sikhs have achieved a far greater success in all walks of life. but also in every part of the world. not accounted for to this date. as all living things do not want to die. disgracing their women and burning their properties all over India. tough and capable.3 independent community. But in spite of such recurrent persecution and treacherous onslaughts perpetrated on this religion by the rulers and the foreign invaders as well as the ongoing challenges and intimidating prophesies about its absorption. Kapur Singh. such as their ‘stateless status’ . its homeland. and slightly grim. the Sikhs for sure.” Only ten years after that last pronouncement. and in all other parts of India. This too involved not only a multi-pronged attack on their historic shrines and institutions. but is also an autonomous. . So much so that according to the renowned historian Arnold Toynbee. the Sikhs had to face still another holocaust in 1984. complete and dynamic religion. will still be on the map. sacriﬁces and contribution far exceeded their numerical strength in their motherland. All nefarious eﬀorts made from time-to-time to suppress. “they are the burliest men on the face of the planet.” Fourteen years later. born of a direct and deﬁnitive revelation like other major religions of the world. subjugate or exterminate it have gone up in smoke. Its followers are ﬂourishing now in even larger numbers. stated while concluding his speech on 7th of October 1974 at Vancouver: “While as Canadian citizens. It is primary in its source and pure in its contents. only thirty-seven years after the independence of India. another highly learned Sikh.” The fact remains that it has not only survived. contributing a lot to the progress of the communities they live in and wielding “an inﬂuence much in excess of their numerical strength” everywhere in the world. distinct and independent faith. because the Sikhs.” III This is so and shall remain thus. but also a genocidal campaign to slaughter thousands of innocent Sikhs. their country of origin. the Sikhs may look forward to a hopeful and bright future. for the attainment of which their suﬀerings. their historic homeland. in spite of being about two percent of the population of India. Despite various limitations. And I add that the Sikhs want to live. they now face the basic problems of their identity and existence. Even “the boa constrictor has failed to swallow it. Sikhism has stood its ground and withstood all tests of the time. not only in Punjab. but is very much here to stay. profess one of the ‘higher religions’ of the World which is not only an original.
unshakable faith and indomitable spirit as well as the enterprising and self-sacriﬁcing nature of its followers have kept it intact and ﬁrm on its ground in many such crises during its 500 plus year-old history. Many elements of the religion come near the central truths of Christianity. maintaining that “the movement of Nanak which culminated in the formation of a kind of church nation. in its inception. was fed from two sources and attempted to establish a religion combining the higher elements of Hinduism and islam alike.” Concluding his article on Sikhism. he observed. “the religion of Nanak was really intended as a compromise between Hinduism and Muhammadanism. looks more like a Mohammedan than a Hindu. origin. “It is enough for the purpose of this article to have established the fact that Sikhism. simplicity of its beliefs.” In the words of Khushwant Singh. or have been unable to understand rightly its nature. essence. spiritual energy. but scorns the caste system of the Hindus and the historical expansionism of the Muslims. have also tried to identify Sikhism with Mohammadanism. IV Those who have not been able to study Sikhism properly or objectively. F. Some of them. its continued oscillation between theism and pantheism. exalted moral code. is a mixture of Hinduism and Mahomedanism minus circumcision and cow-killing. a Sikh with his short trousers. though these glimpses of revelation are indeed blurred by the strong inﬂuence of Vedantic pantheism and Islamic fatalism. and plus faith in the Sikh Gurus. have often described it wrongly or misleadingly. raising it up again with greater strength and better prospects after every attempt to annihilate it. the element which robs the teaching of the Granth (its sacred scripture. . Heiler. According to him. internal vigour. but an eclectic and ‘composed’ religion. included in the Dictionary of Islam. tenacity of purpose and sustained heroism together with the religious zeal. too. “Sikhism was born out of a wedlock between Hinduism and Islam. Even in outward appearance. have considered it not an original and distinct. Guru Granth Sahib) of any creative power is its eclecticism. if it may not even be spoken of as the religion of a Mohammadan. it is “a pure and elevated religion in which the best of Hinduism and the best of Islam unite.” Some others. was intimately associated with Muhammadanism and that it was intended as a . .” According to Bhattacharya. The only visible sign by which he may be distinguished is the iron ring which he wears on the wrist. like Frederic Pincott.” The Time magazine has recently described him as “a member of a casteless religion that combines elements of Hinduism and Islam. like Estlin Carpenter. forehead free from paint and neck without beads. it may be described brieﬂy as a “Hinduized form of Mahomedanism or a Mahomedinized form of Hinduism.” According to Rev. .” It is “a synthesis of these two faiths.4 The authenticity of its dogmas. Above all. ﬂowing beard. psyche and spirit.
5 means of bridging the gulf which separated the Hindus from the believers in the Prophet. She “ﬁnds a similarity between the reforms of Guru Nanak and those of Martin Luther.” Gandhi. and aimed at the foundations of the top-heavy Brahminical social structure. According to some others.” G. pointing out that Guru Nanak oﬀered a doctrinal synthesis which answered the challenge of Islam.”. according to them. on the other hand. According to Guru Datt also. It is.” Sri Rajagopalachari has described the Sikhs as “no better than uncircumcised Mussalmans. “Nanak was partially Islamised. Nanak remained a thorough Hindu according to all his views. and millions of Hindus believe in Guru Nanak. according to Ernest Trumpp. Maulvi Muhammad Ali.” “Although precipitated by Islam. but intimated that he would be pleased to ﬁnd that the separate tendency is conﬁned to only a very few Sikhs and that the general body regard themselves as Hindus. Baltany has also mentioned this religion “having been largely inﬂuenced by the growing Mohammadanism.” . like Maulvi Insha Ulla Khan. The faith they profess is the basis of the present-day Arya-Samaj. a phase of Hindu religious revival.T. like Muhammad Akbar. Khawaja Hasan Nizami. Nirad C. “Sikhism owes nothing to that religion. to the extent at least of denouncing idolatry. have even denied the distinct identity and separate entity of Sikhism by asserting that “Guru Nanak did not enunciate any new religion.” Ascribing the theistic character of Sikhism to the inﬂuence of Islam. have gone a step further even by claiming Guru Nanak as a great Muslim Fakir who. Monier Williams has stated. There are still others who.” asserts Gokul Chand Narang. records Archer. “acknowledged that he had met some Sikhs who held themselves distinct from Hindus. She calls Sikhism a religious synthesis. Sikhism is a religious synthesis. it is diﬃcult to say whether Sikhs have any separate or distinct religion of their own. The Granth Sahib is ﬁlled with the Hindu spirit and the Hindu legends. but only wanted to reform Hinduism. On the other hand.” Tara Chand has even gone to the extent of asserting that “Nanak took the Prophet of Islam as his model and his teaching was naturally deeply coloured by this fact. and has in consequence retained all essential features of real Hinduism.” Mahatma Gandhi has even claimed that the “Sikhs are a part of the Hindu community. “Sikhism has only an accidental relationship with Muhammadanism.” But the Muslim writers. It is a mistake if Nanak is represented as having endeavoured to unite the Hindu and Muhammadan idea about God.” thus paving the way for Sikhism to be labelled as an oﬀ-shoot of Hinduism. and Shaikh Muhammad Yasuf. taught a religion which in itself was a form of Muhammadanism. like Marian Smith. Chaudhuri has also identiﬁed Sikhism with Hinduism and has described it as one of its diﬀerent forms.
as observed by Sir Lepel Griﬃn in 1870: “The Sikhs had abandoned the Hindu faith and with it the system of law which is the basis of the faith and which was inseparable from it. in the words of Duncan Greenlees. it rejected Hindu formulations and adopted an independent ethical system. .” And this is what Guru Arjun Dev. had already stated. the celebrated author of the World Gospel Series. : . and standards. Guru Granth Sahib.” So much so that in the words of Prof. he asserted. and exalted his mental vision to an ethical ideal beyond the conception of Hindu or Muhammadan. tradition. ritual. the holy compiler of its sacred scripture. the founder of this new and distinct religion. growth and gospel have proclaimed. Macauliﬀe. it “forged its own weapon. It too is a distinct religion like the other great religions of the world . which were totally opposed to theological beliefs of Guru Nanak’s age and country.C. Based on the concept of the unity of God. developed individuality of its own. “Sikhism is a wholly new. . hedged itself behind newer forms and customs. by another code altogether. much as Christianity has a background of Judaism. it is no variant of Muslim teaching . in short. that “Sikhism is no disguised Hindu sect. “cut himself adrift from all associations with prevailing sectarian religions. who devoted thirty long years to its study and research and produced a six-volume monumental work about its prophets. The illustrious author of Vie de Jesus asks whether great originality will again arise. hut an independent revelation of the Truth of all sects. “It would be diﬃcult to point to a religion of greater originality or to a more comprehensive ethical system.” According to Edward Bittencourt.” According to R.” Hence.D. as it would have been for Mohammedans who had embraced Sikhism to appeal to the shariat.A. Majumdar too. and Judaism has a background of Akhnatonism and Zoroastrianism and previous Semitic Paganism. It is an independent religion which naturally may be said to have a background of Hinduism and Islam. For a hundred and ﬁfty years they had been governed as far as chiefships were concerned. etc.” M. .. he is the disciple of the one Eternal Guru. original and genuinely monotheistic religion. but a man who soared to the loftiest heights of divine emotionalism. has himself stated in unambiguous terms as long back as in 1604 A. and developed its own. Indubhushan Banerjee. scripture.6 V But those who have studied Sikhism and have understood its origin. or the world be content to follow the path opened by the daring creators of ancient ages. The Sikh is not a Hindu or a Muslim. Now there is here presented a religion totally unaﬀected by Semitic or Christian inﬂuences. . and it was as reasonable for them to refer to Manu and the Shastras as the source of legal authority. while introducing to the West this religion and its founder as follows: “Guru Nanak was not a priest either by birth or education.” It even fell away from allegiance to their respective codes.
I serve only the sole Lord (i. nor I perform worship at pilgrim places of Hindus. is the speech of the angels. . he tells that Guru Nanak did not believe in divinities and incarnations. Gosain of the Hindus and Allah of the Muslims are one to me. compiled in 1654 AD. “Just as he praised the Mohammadans. have no faith in idols and temples of idols.” Proceeding further. direct descent from or incarnation of God).e. nor say the Muslim prayer. God) and no other. And cannot be mixed with others. I bow to the One Formless Lord in my heart. They do not venerate their temples or idols. etc. practices.7 I observe neither fasting (like a Hindu). he states “They do not read the mantras of the Hindus. at Kiratpur Sahib. Opening his chapter on the subject. But he considered them all to be the created (makhluq) and not the Creator (khaliq). entitled Dabistan-i-Mazahib.. and that too based on ﬁrst-hand information. Mohsin Fani observes “the Nanak Panthis who are known as the Sikhs of the Gurus. and his ballads and couplets are regarded as the ‘key’ to the understanding of the Sikh scriptures. He denied the doctrines of Halool (i. Who alone is both Ram and Allah for us. has categorically stated: The Guru’s Panth is distinct. Guru Hargobind. direct union of the All-pervading God with any particular body). who happened to stay with his son and successor. A contemporary historian. was himself a great scholar and writer. We are neither Hindus nor Musalmans. according to the Hindus. nor do they esteem their avtars. They have no regard for the Sanskrit language which. and who had been the ﬁrst non-Sikh writer to record an account of the Sikhs and Sikhism of those days. nor the month of austerity (like a Muslim). has recorded his statement in his famous work on comparative study of religions. I have broken free from Hindus as from Muslims. Who saves all at the last.e. Our body and soul belong to the One Supreme Being. I neither perform the Hindu worship. tenets...” Bhai Gurdas. so has he praised the incarnations and the gods and goddesses of the Hindus.e. For I serve God alone. Mobid Zulﬁqar Ardistani (popularly known as Shaikh Mohsin Fani). Neither I go to Mccca to perform Hajj (like Muslims). the amanuensis who wrote the Holy Granth at the dictation of Guru Arjun. and Ittihad (i. Indicating (Guru Nanak’s own attitude towards avtars and divinities.
who happened to be the ﬁrst-ever Westerner to write and publish in 1849 the ﬁrst full-ﬂedged history of Sikhism after ﬁghting ﬁerce and decisive battles with its followers. but has also operated materially and given amplitude to their physical frames. therefore. yet in religious faith and worldly aspirations they are wholly diﬀerent from other Indians.. But the misapprehension need not surprise the public nor condemn our scholars. altogether diﬀerent even from that of their other countrymen. longing for social freedom and national ascendancy.’ They are not from amongst the Hindus. taught them a distinct religion). and who completed his “invaluable” Jang Namah in 1765. and they are bound together by a community of inward sentiment and outward object unknown elsewhere. “A living spirit possesses the whole Sikh people. and his persuasion of the near presence of the Divinity. Nur Muhammad tells us that religiously they were absolutely separate from Hindus: The Sikhs are the disciples of the Guru and that august Guru lived at Chak (Amritsar).e. and have a separate religion of their own. The features and external form of a whole people have been modiﬁed. but he eﬀectually roused the dormant energies of a vanquished people. it has been usual to regard the Sikhs as essentially Hindus. He was succeeded by Gobind Singh from whom they received the title of ‘Singh.” The result of the miracle that the Tenth Master wrought. The ways and manners of these people received their impetus from Nanak who showed those Sikhs a separate path (i. Cunningham added “Notwithstanding these changes. J.” Qazi Nur Muhammad who came to India from Baluchistan in the invaders train to record the events of the seventh (dt. and the impress of (Guru) Gobind (Singh) has not only elevated and altered the constitution of their minds. when it is remembered that the learned Greeks and Romans misunderstood the spirit of those humble men who obtained a new . “Hinduism at all levels is rejected and replaced by the practices which have come to be the essential part of Sikh ceremonial use of the Adi Granth and celebration of the anniversaries of the Gurus (gurpurbs). and he relumed it with Promethean ﬁre. and a Sikh Chief is not more distinguishable by his stately person and free and manly bearing than a minister of his faith is by a lofty thoughtfulness of look which marks the fervours of his soul.D. Owen Cole has therefore observed. and they doubtless are so in language and everyday customs. is that. Gobind saw what was yet vital. and ﬁlled them with a lofty. the proper adjuncts of that purity of worship which had been preached by Nanak.8 Basine his conclusion on numerous references and statements contained therein. for Gobind (Singh) did not fetter his disciples with political systems or codes of municipal laws. observed in 1849: “The last apostle of the Sikhs did not live to see his own ends accomplished. Speaking of the religion of the Sikhs against whom the said expedition had been organised. although ﬁtful. l764) invasion of Ahmad Shah Abdali.” Asserting that the people marked by such high spirits and changed features belonged to a distinct faith. has also expressed similar views which are based upon his personal observations and close contacts. tells Cunningham. Cunningham (1812-1851).
the Third Panth.” In the same vein.” Sir Charles Elliot acclaimed it. “The teachings of Guru Nanak have. Tacitus and Suetonius regarded the early Christians as a mere Jewish sect. as alleged above. maintains Ishwari Prasad that “Guru Nanak declared that there was no Hindu or Mussalman. as “a religion of special interest (to mankind). As it does not derive from any established creed. sources. the Sage-Scholar of Pondicherry. “were successful in creating a nation. it does not ﬁght any preceding religion. The order of the Khalsa “from its very birth has claimed the status of a new Way of Life. It has not been formed. composed of selections made from various systems. said Dorothy Field. beliefs and dogmas of the Hindus and Muslims. already known and largely practiced by the peoples of East and West and the inhabitants of India: the Way of the Aryans. since it has created not only a political society.” says Geoﬀrey Parrinder. a separate community. and asked his followers to repeat the name of God.” Explaining it earlier.” Nirmal Kumar Jam has likewise asserted that those who consider this religion as an oﬀ-shoot of Islam “are as mistaken as those who think Sikhism to be an oﬀ-shoot of Hinduism. Sikhism can. however loosely. Sir Aurobindo. but the elements which constitute the synthesis can never be deﬁned.” Recognizing and acclaiming this amazing fact of history. therefore. they failed to perceive the fundamental diﬀerence and to appreciate the latent energy and real excellence of that doctrine which has added dignity and purity to the modern civilization. but also customs so distinctive that those who profess it. A reading of the Granth strongly suggests that Sikhism should be regarded as a new and separate world religion. rank in common esteem as a separate race. and its face was turned not to the past but to the future. The teachings of Guru Nanak do indeed represent a synthesis. represented by Hinduism and its heterodox forms. He set aside the Vedas and the Quran. etc. be termed as an eclectic religion. it must be totally rejected. Like every original religion. It is not based on any scripture. doctrines.” Guru Gobind Singh’s “ordinances”. the eminent author of the World Religions. by combining some rational and acceptable rituals. has similarly observed: “A more striking instance was the founding of the Sikh religion. it is born of a direct revelation. and distinct people from the two Ways of Life. rather than a reformed sect of the Hindus.” Hence. It is similarly not a sect or a form of Muhammadanism. he has stated: “The Sikh Khalsa was an astonishingly original and novel creation.” Thus. “Pure Sikhism is far above dependence on Hindu ritual. It is neither a mixture of both nor a compilation of good points selected from the Hindu and Muslim faiths. its long line of Gurus and the novel direction and form given to it by Guru Gobind Singh in the democratic institution of Khalsa. in no way.9 life by baptism. Buddhism . This is a gross simpliﬁcation. he added. and when expressed in terms of a mixture of Hinduism and Islam. as Hinduism and Islam. “commonly been represented as a syncretic blend of Hindu tradition and Muslim belief.
“According to the Persian historian Ghulam Muhi-ud-Din. Let men of the four castes receive my baptism (of the Doubleedged Sword). rejected their earlier creeds (dharma nash) for the creed of the Khalsa. Let the four Hindu castes. several Brahmins and Khatris stood up. and the Semitic Way of Life.” About eighty thousand men. Brahma and Durga. and feel no aloofness from or contempt for one another. gave up all rituals (karam nash) save that sanctioned by the Sikh faith.”“That such was the unambiguous claim made for his new order of the Khalsa by the Guru (Gobind Singh) himself. about twenty thousand men stood up and promised to obey him. Others. and their place of birth Anandpur. and stopped believing in superstition . on the contrary. Krishna. say Ahmad Shah Batalia and Bute Shah. 1699). sent to the Emperor (Aurangzeb) a copy of the Guru’s address (which) is dated the ﬁrst of Vaisakh Samvat 1756 (AD. when forwarding this proclamation to his master. the newswriter of the period. Eat of the same vessel.10 and Jainism. Let no one deem himself superior to another. represented primarily by the Christians and the Mussulmans.” This is also quite clear from the proclamation he made in the great gathering of the Sikhs at Anandpur Sahib soon after initiating the ﬁrst ﬁve members of the Order of the Khalsa. said that they would never accept any religion which was opposed to the teachings of the Vedas and the Shastras. who have diﬀerent rules laid down for them in the Shastras. Let none pay heed to the Ganga and other places of pilgrimage which are considered to be holy in the Hindu religion. Their names were changed. though several refused to accept the Guru’s religion. and said that they accepted the religion of Guru Nanak and of the other Gurus. The baptism symbolised a rebirth. abandon them altogether. and that they would not renounce at the bidding of a boy. severed their family ties (kul nash) to become the family of Gobind. or worship the Hindu deities such as Rama. Thus. as the Guru’s own assertions on this point amply support the testimony of the contemporary non-Sikh historians and writers. knighting them as Singhs and calling them his Beloved Ones. and is as follows”: I wish you all to embrace one creed and follow one path. on the historic Vaisakhi day of the 30th March. 1699. by which the initiated renounced their previous occupations (krit nash) for that of working for God. cannot be in doubt. submitted his own report: “When the Guru had thus addressed the crowd. the ancient faith which had descended to them from their ancestors. but all should cherish faith in the teachings of Guru Nanak and his successors. The newswriter of the Mughal Court who was present there on the occasion. Do not follow the old scriptures. mix freely with one another. rising above all diﬀerences of the religions as now practised. as they had the fullest faith in his divine mission. and “they were given one family name ‘Singh’ for thenceforth their father was Gobind Singh (so renamed after his own baptism). their mother Sahib Devan. received the Baptism of the Double-edged Sword and joined the Order of the Khalsa during the ﬁrst few days. and adopting the way of mutual help and co-operation.
It also marked “the culmination which had crowned Guru Nanak’s revelation. they were always to wear a knee-length pair of breeches (kach). where the animal had been despatched with one blow. worn by soldiers of the times: they were to carry a steel bangle (kara) on their right wrist. And he whose heart is illumined within By the Light of the Perfect One. night and day. they were to carry a comb (kangha) in the hair to keep it tidy. In fasting and worship of the graves of Muslims Or sepulchres of Hindus. or consume alcoholic drinks. Ceremonial acts of mercy And charity. as was customary with the Muslims. And believes not. He who recognises the one God and not another. Five emblems were prescribed for the Khalsa.” All that ushered in a complete break with the past of all those who joined the Order of the Khalsa. On the Ever-eﬀulgent Light. They were to wear their hair and beard unshorn (kesh). and the basic impulse of the Sikhs and their history can be . even mistakenly. He who is full of love for God and faith in Him. the Guru hailed the converts with a new form of greeting: Waheguru ji ka Khalsa Waheguru ji ki Fateh “Hail the Khalsa who belongs to Lord God! Hail the Lord God to Whom belongs the victory!” The very ﬁrst ordinance issued by the Founder of the Khalsa to the Sikh congregations throughout the subcontinent. not to smoke or chew tobacco. not to eat an animal which had been slaughtered by being bled to death. the converts were to observe four rules of conduct (rahit) not to cut any hair on any part of their body. “That such has been the stout belief.” It also pronounced the complete independence and distinctiveness of the Sikh religion. And does not believe in pilgrimages. In addition to these ﬁve emblems. and they were to be ever armed with a sabre (kirpan).11 (bharam nash) for belief in One God. but eat only jhatka meat. At the end of oathtaking. He is to be recognised then As a pure member of the Order of the Khalsa. And never swerves from the thought of one God. penances and austerities. Kabul and Ghazni conﬁrms the above. and this deﬁnition of the Khalsa corroborates all that further as under in his own words: “He whose mind dwells. and not to molest the person of Muslim women.
who has. . viz.” He or she would surely come to a similar conclusion.” VI But the history and tradition of a religion cannot. ” It is “an independent and conspicuous order of its own. Christians and other peoples. and with Christianity in particular .” McLeod has even gone to the extent of choosing not to accept the aforesaid account of the birth of the Khalsa and the ﬁve emblems and rules of conduct prescribed for it by Guru Gobind Singh himself on the Vaisakhi of 1699. has maintained that. as symbols and examples of all who search for God and Truth . like Hew McLeod. regarded as the living Word of God. which was born just about ﬁve centuries back and which has survived so gloriously through this eventful period of the modern world in full gaze of history. therefore. who. maintain on ﬂimsy props and erroneous conclusions that “Sikhism does not deserve much consideration as it is only a rehash of a minor eﬀete Hindu creed” and that Guru Nanak was not the founder of this religion “as he did not originate a new school of thought or set of teachings. Sikhs may stand. questioned their validity and striven to create doubts about others. Sikhism. . a biased enquirer.” would. Guru Granth Sahib. . on the other hand. . What we do know. Such scepticism is unwarranted particularly in the case of a religion. when it has been duly recognised not only as an original and distinct. Ralph Singh.” The dispassionate enquirer would also ﬁnd like an American convert. “Indeed Sikhism in itself reveals something of what in the last analysis religion is . indicates that traditions relating to the period of Guru Gobind Singh must be. in some considerable measure. and enjoy among Hindus. “not because he ﬁnds any evidence to falsify it. an extraordinary prestige.12 readily ascertained by any dispassionate person who would take pains to enquire with an open mind.” “discarded” or “wiped clean” on the mere suspicions or unjustiﬁed scepticism of an ex-employee of a Christian Mission. but so too do compulsive reasons for scepticism. but by simply refusing to believe it. . The ﬁve centuries of Sikh history provide many lessons in human thought and action which are of more than passing value .” saying. after conducting a critical and comparative study of the Aryan and Semitic religions and recognising the separate entity and identity of Sikhism. . . “Our knowledge of this (18th) century is still limited. More so. Further authentication to this stance has been duly provided by John Clark Archer. Traditions abound. set aside. . The slate must be wiped clean and must not be reinscribed until we have ascertained just what did take place during the eighteenth century. but also as an independent and autonomous higher religion of the world.” But. according to Justice Gurdev Singh “attacked most of the Sikh traditions. that the followers of this distinct faith “have their own Prophets who brought a new divine revelation to earth which is enshrined in their own sacred scripture. and should not be “set aside. however. Moslems. . They preserve among themselves a hardy tradition of religious and political activity. with a character worthy of comparison with that of Hinduism and Islam. institutions and beliefs.
Describing his ﬁrst audience with the Supreme Being. thereby. It is born of a direct and deﬁnitive revelation like all other great and ‘higher religions’ of the world. the Guru sang aloud thus: “I was an idle bard.” Guru Nanak himself vouchsafed this fact and has himself recorded those experiences and revelations.” He has deﬁned this as Khasam-ki-Bani (“Word of the Lord”) in one hymn. He conveyed only those words to the world which God had wished him to give forth as His divine message. in his own bani or revealed word. and he preached what he had been told and taught by God Himself. And feasted me on the holy Name ambrosial The Supreme Being is attained. (“This Word of the Supreme Being”) in another. 0’Lord! Have inspired me to utter. “Instead of drawing authority and inspiration from any revealed scripture. such as the Hindu Puranas and Smritis. received directly from God Himself. Lalo !”  “I have uttered only what You. this is a prophetic religion.” On the other hand. By laudation of the holy Eternal.” The revelation did not also come to him as an ‘external inspiration’ (called wahi zahir ) which “was used for the production of Quran” during whose process “the mind of Muhammad was passive and the message. and Eh Bani Mahan Purakh Ki. was brought to him by Gabriel. “It seems certain. as already stated. an external one. God assigned to me a rewarding task.” says Duncan Greenless. most other great theological systems as regards the authenticity of its dogmas. Bestowed on me the robe of holy laudation. “that his (Guru Nanak’s) views welled up from the deeps of inspiration in his own heart and owed little or nothing to what he received from others. And commanded me to sing His praises night and day. He summoned me to His Eternal Mansion. as stated by him in verses such as the following: “As the Lord’s Word descends to me So I express it. either through books or through their words.” Guru Nanak has also mentioned in another hymn that he was an ordinary minstrel who was commissioned and blessed by God with His service. singling out his religion.13 Besides. “from. Guru Nanak depended on his own mystical experience.” . The spiritual and religious truths which Guru Nanak preached had been revealed to him “through a direct encounter with God at some level of consciousness”. says Nanak. preserved till today in its original and undeﬁled form.
14 As is well-known to students of comparative religion. the unsophisticated.” (iii) “This servant of the Lord while Conveying the Divine Word. my eternal Lord. in their respective writings. None is His equal. BY COMMUNICATION: 1. So he relates mysteries of the Divine Portal.” . Nanak speaks as Thou inspire him to speak. the Third Master: “God is Sole and Supreme. as in the case of Moses.” (ii) “Know the utterance of the holy Preceptor to be pure and true. contents of revealed religion are conveyed to the people by the Supreme Being through His special messengers. As aﬃrmed repeatedly by Guru Arjun Dev. and preserved intact to this day: I. to His task. so He makes me utter. Guru Nanak. compiled in 1604 by the Fifth Master in Guru Granth Sahib.” 2. Disciples of the Master: For.” (ii) “ By myself I do not know what to say: I have stated all by His command.” (iii) “The Lord has appointed me.” (iv) “What can I utter? I know nothing to utter: As the Lord Wills. My utterance is directed by Him. as in the case of Prophet Muhammad. the Fifth Master: (i) “Inaccessible. As regards Sikhism. himself in his own words. the Lord-Creator Himself makes him utter it. I speak as and when He makes me speak. either by calling them to His presence. His successors in the Apostolic Lineage have not only endorsed this fact. but have also recorded their own experiences and audiences. Speaks as the Lord directs him. God is stated to have been pleased to use direct ways to convey His Words. unperceivable. or by communicating His messages to them. the Fourth Master: (i) “To Nanak the Truth was revealed by the Lord. As stated by Guru Amar Das. as under. As conﬁrmed by Guru Ram Das. to its founder. Laws and Commandments.” 3. as stated above by the ﬁrst Sikh Prophet.
because it has been directly revealed by God through a line of Ten Prophetteachers. who. Addressing me. solemn statements. 0. It is so. as has been alleged by those who . prove beyond doubt that Sikhism is a revealed religion. “the revelation that came to Guru Nanak. the Fifth Master: “As I have attained the sought-after Lord.’ The Bountiful Lord granted my prayer. in His grace.Wherein I consumed nectar (of Immortality). the Fourth Master: “I. They reproduced it in exactly the same original form. Hence. Sikhism can in no way be called an admixture or juxta position of various doctrines gathered from this religion or that theological system by its Prophet-teachers who were genuine messengers of God. as the religious literature of the Sikhs show it to be. .15 II. He asked. As stated by Guru Ram Das. and also recorded it in their sacred writings. after receiving its contents directly from Him. nor secondary in its source. in the existence and beneﬁcence of God. to His servant. because it still remains primary in its source. The boon of your ever-abiding Name Divine. nor from any other such source. I have been fully blessed by the Perfect Lord Who has come. Mujeeb.” That being so. BY AUDIENCE: 1. and as independent of history and social circumstances. It is neither selective or elective in its nature. Illumination and joy have ﬁlled me .” 3. ‘Confer on me. nor adulterated in its content. Conferred on me meditation on the Name And blessed me with a robe of honour. And called me into His Presence. It is so.” Such important disclosures.” 2. My Minstrel’ I prayed. Gracious Lord. ‘What brings you here. persistent aﬃrmations and ﬁrm conviction. “The Lord-God called me into His Mansion . The Lord inside listened to my supplication. Came to the Divine Portal. presented it to mankind in word and deed. As aﬃrmed by Guru Arjun Dcv. must have been as direct and immediate. . Its tenets and teachings have been borrowed neither from Hinduism nor from Islam. and pure in its contents. says M. a minstrel of the Lord-God.
a complete religion in all respects like all other original and revealed religions of the world. 1.” “There is no Hindu. besides being “the centre of a World religion. with its world famous Harimandar (Golden Temple) and Akal Takht which are its focal point.C. and a profound symbol of future conﬂuence of the World cultures into a universal culture for mankind. meeting ground of the various facets of the human-spirit. viz.” . soon after his enlightenment and just before his departure for his preaching odysseys in India and abroad. Majuindar.. or striving to achieve in his teachings a judicious mixture of elements from both to be acceptable to all.D. His intention was more radical: “he wanted to point men beyond their accepted condition to a new possibility . above all. Jews. in fact. Guru Nanak was not overruling any existing religious designation or tradition. which lay beyond particularisms. race and country. It is Ahi-al-Maqam.” To a society torn by conﬂict. To do so will mean missing much of his individual genius and misinterpreting the historical development issuing from his revelation. It is true. ‘Hindu’ and ‘Mussalman’. go back to this revelation which Guru Nanak brought to light around 1496 A. with that deep ethical and spiritual commitment which expresses itself in concern for fellowmen. Buddhists. in the words of R. He reminded men of their essential oneness. and to see Sikhism as ‘a deliberate mingling of Hindu and Muslim practices. that “his was the ﬁrst and also the last successful attempt to bring together the Hindus and Muslims in a common fold of spiritual and social brotherhood. The terms. In proclaiming the unity. the holy city of Amritsar (as Mecca is for Islam).a human community with a true spirit of fellowship and justice. Christians and so on.”’ The beginnings of the Sikh faith. there is no Mussalman. His equal attention to Hindu and Muslim identities and use of some of their religious vocabulary have led some to depict him as the reconciler of the two faiths. VII Sikhism is. and for its followers the highest seat of spiritual and temporal authority.” The ﬁrst words he uttered when called to take up the mission of his life after the aforesaid Audience with God were: “Nah ko Hindu Nah Mussalman.16 have not been able to study or understand its essentials properly or dispassionately.. Nor was he seeking a syncretistic union between Hinduism and Islam. this cryptic phrase was “a simple announcement. and yet a signiﬁcant one in the context of India of his day. having its own spiritual and political Capital. he brought a vision of common humanity .” On the face of it. Guru Nanak was asking men of all faiths and denominations to look beyond external divisions and distinctions to the fundamental unity of mankind.a vision which transcended all barriers of creed and caste. included Jainas.
declared: “Whatever is available in my house. It is also through their favour that I am exalted and have attained this position. It has been acclaimed as “the only nondenominational scripture. Guru Gobind Singh. It is Ahl-al-Milla being a true religion revealed by Guru Nanak and having its own fellowship of faith and a cohesive community. knighting them as Singhs. my mind.” which.” After administering Khande di Pahul  to the First Five. he also stated without any reservation that: “It is through their favour that I have won my battles.. while expressing his great love and respect for it. but is also unique among the world’s sacred scriptures. Otherwise.’ Sikhs are a casteless democratic society. Having been initiated . even my head Are ever at the disposal of my people. which is not only the Guru Eternal of its adherents. It is through their favour that I have acquired knowledge And have smothered my enemies. according to Arnold Toynbee. My body. “should be brought within the direct reach of as many people as possible” and which also “deserves close study from the rest of the world.17 2. assuring equal status and respect for all. himself besought to be initiated by them in the same way as he had initiated them. martial and casteless’ Fellowship of Faith. and proclaiming them as his panj piare the inaugurator of that ‘selfabnegating. It is through their favour that I have overcome my troubles And my stores are ﬁlled.” Paying his tribute to their selﬂess services. viz. there are millions of Humble persons like myself going about.” the “scripture of universal religion” and “part of mankind’s common spiritual treasure. It is Ahl-at-Kitab possessing its own holy book. The Turkish and Persian connotations of the word will mean a ‘nation’. And have gifts been bestowed. a ‘people’ and a ‘state. my wealth. Guru Granth Sahib (as Quran is for Islam). It is for this society that Guru Gobind Singh. called sangat and Panth. contributions and achievements.” 3.
cherishing a long and unique line of great martyrdoms. with its own speciﬁc script called Gurmukhi. This speciﬁc weapon is a signiﬁcant part of the required uniform of a member of the Khalsa . It is Ahl-i-Kalam. All this is unheard of in the annals of the religious and spiritual history of the world. It is Ahl-al-Zaban. And it is the Word. The Guide.18 and admitted as such to their brotherhood. called gurdwaras. having its own distinct ﬂag or banner. Guru Tegh Bahadur).. my own image. like those of its two prophets (viz. annals and chronicles. Jhujar Singh. realization and liberation is attained by means of the Word. It keeps on waving over all Sikh temples. as a symbol of power. stand recorded right from the beginning. viz. It is Ahl-al-Shamshir. In it I have my being. The Khalsa is my embodiment. and the Shabad-Guru. the Sahibzadas (Babas Ajit Singh. with Khanda (the Khalsa emblem) inscribed and or installed thereon (as the parcham is for Islam). i. in which its scripture...” “God’s Name is cherished in One’s heart by means of the Word. called Khalsa he later announced that he had created the Khalsa in his own image under the direct command of God. sovereignty and weapon of defence and justiﬁable oﬀence in time of need. there was to be no diﬀerence between him. the Word is Guru and Guide. etc. It is Ahl-al-Shahad. Panjabi (as Arabic is for Islam).e. having its own language. 4. 6. 7. as created and initiated by him in his own image. “God permeates the celestial music of the Word.” 5. The supreme state.” “The Word is the essence of all meditation and discipline. possessing the ceremonial sword called kirpan. the Guru and the Khalsa. the Timeless Being: “The Khalsa is my alter ego.” “The Word alone can ferry us across the Ocean of Existence. the Fifth. Guru Arjun Dev and the Ninth. It is Ahl-al-Nishan. called Kesri Nishan Sahib. Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh) and their followers (such as Bhai Mati Das and Bhai Mani Singh). the Mystery profound and inscrutable. 8. having ﬁrm faith in the doctrine of the Shabad  the holy Word.” Hence. the absence of which Results in spiritual confusion.. The Khalsa is my beloved ideal.” “The holy Word is the true Preceptor.
the good way of life cannot securely prevail in society.” 9. thus.” At the same time. All perfection or perfection-incarnate: “All that the Perfect One has made is perfect. “Since a member of the Khalsa Brotherhood is pledged not to accept any alien restrictions on his civic freedom. obligatory for him to always keep on his body. It is just and righteous to draw the sword. And without political sovereignty.” As he created the Khalsa “to establish the ever-persisting community of saint-soldiers. “When an aﬀair is past every other remedy. but also because it was established. these works cover not only the spiritual discipline and moral code. it was considered essential to equip them with an “instrument of oﬀence and defence and as an emblem of power and dignity which India had lost and which Guru Gobind Singh wanted to restore. There is nothing lacking or excessive in its making. he therefore. made it quite clear that. a complete and perfect religion.” VIII Sikhism is. he is enjoined to insist on and struggle for his unrestricted right to wear and possess arms of oﬀence and defence. being one of the Five Ks or symbols of the Sikh faith. having its own usages. but also the social behaviour of the community whose members “are required to observe a distinctive code of conduct.” It is obvious that the creator of the Khalsa created this new metaphor of the sword “to give a new orientation to the minds of men given to passivity. as proclaimed by him in the following couplet. customs and a distinctive code of conduct recorded in its scripture. one which speciﬁes normative behaviour. he approved and allowed recourse to the sword as the last resort of a reasonable man for settling conﬂicts when all other means have failed in due course. In his letter to Emperor Aurangzeb.19 Brotherhood.” who could assist in the fulﬁlment of Guru Nanak’s revelation and mission. Describing the Sikh way of life. to carry out a speciﬁc command of the Lord-God Who Himself is. outward appearance. compositions of Bhai Gurdas and Bhai Nand Lal. various Rahitnamas and Rahit-Maryada.” . It is Ahl-al-Sunnah[?] as well. as its Founder stated. elements and essentials of a ‘higher-religion’.” According to a quotation attributed to Guru Gobind Singh: “The political power and the State rest on annaments. and social obligation. not only because of its having such prominent features.
Bradshaw. “It is the faith of the New Age. but that day is now past and we are living in the dispensation of Guru Nanak. and whose whole generation had lived as grovelling slaves of the so-called higher classes.” According to the following assertion of the contemporary bards. “It is the summum bonum for the modern man. as stated below: “The eternal foundation laid by Guru Nanak. automobiles and electricity for the horse-drawn carriages and candles of the past. became under the stimulating leadership of Guru Gobind Singh. Just as we appreciate the discovery of modern living and do not want to exchange our modern jet airlines. and who were ready to rush into the jaws of death at the bidding of their Guru.20 It is dynamic. who had never so much as touched the sword. stable and eternal.” On these foundations was raised a glorious spiritual and temporal ediﬁce by Guru Gobind Singh who imparted his “stern Olympian air” to the followers of his. particularly in a period of adversity and crisis. The other religions contain Truth. we do not want to exchange the New Age Faith of Guru Nanak for any of the . The older faiths were good in their day. it also operated materially and gave amplitude to their physical frames. They came to be regarded as models of physical beauty and stateliness of manner. “Guru Nanak founded the True Dominion of God. Even those people who had been considered as dregs of humanity were changed. barbers and confectioners. “The holy Preceptor has laid the immutable foundation of the faith That never and in no way shall shake. as. A tremendous change was aﬀected in the whole tone of their national character. into something rich and strange. Rai Balwand and Satta. Is ever-ascendant. He raised the citadel of Truth on ﬁrm foundations. doughty warriors who conquered fear. The sweepers.” says Rev. according to the holy compiler of its sacred scripture.” IX This revealed. It completely supplants and fulﬁls all the former dispensations of older religions. too. as if by magic. That is so because “His impress not only elevated and altered the constitution of their minds.” Rather. who are recognizable till today by their distinctive appearance and are distinguished by their everpresent high spirits. distinct and complete religion of such self-sacriﬁcing saint-soldiers is a universal world faith with an all-embracing appeal and elevating message for all mankind. it becomes ﬁrmer and ﬁrmer with the passage of each day. but Sikhism contains the fullness of Truth. but contrary to the experience of ethnological experts.
21 old age systems and their antiquated philosophies. It is essentially a practical religion. if indeed it has ever been equalled. the Adi Granth. upon which we all live. The Sikh religion is truly the answer to the problems of the modern man. “Sikhism is capable of a distinct position as a world religion. but I do not ﬁnd elsewhere the same power of appeal to the heart and mind as I ﬁnd here in these volumes. and embraces an ethical system such as has never been excelled. The religion is also one which should appeal to the Occidental mind. who.” Dorothy Field observed as follows in 1914. stated: “The Sikh religion (as compared to other religions) presents no mysteries. it might become one of the ﬁrst religions on this planet. therefore. It oﬀers fewer points of attack than any other theological system. as recently as in 1960: “Mankind’s religious future may be obscure: yet one thing can be foreseen. while addressing the Quest Society in 1910 at London. it was Macauliﬀe. it would rank almost ﬁrst in the world. They speak to persons of any religion or of . The living higher religions are going to inﬂuence each other more than ever before in the days of increasing communication between all parts of the world and all branches of the human race. which is a favourable point of view in some quarters. so long as the Sikhs maintain their distinctiveness.” And it “is the only living faith. and if patronized and cherished.into a ﬁne and loyal warrior is little short of a miracle. Of no other religion can it be said that it had made a nation in so short a time. will have something of special value to say to the rest of the world. is a single entity divided only by arbitrary lines of our own making. Perhaps this sense of unity is the source of power I ﬁnd in these volumes.” It was Arnold Toynbee again who prophesied.” according to Bittencourt. Buck had gained when she observed. until I learned that they are in fact comparatively modern.a notoriously indolent and unstable person . possibly indeed in the whole world. That it should have transformed the outcaste Indian .” This will indeed be so. The religion of the Sikhs is one of the most interesting at present existing in India. after going through the 4-volume English translation (by Dr Gopal Singh) of Guru Granth Sahib:“ I have studied the scriptures of other great religions. “that gives the healing outlook on life. and are a revelation of the vast reach of the human heart. The Sikh faith is the universal religion for the present space age. varying from the most noble concept of God to the recognition and indeed the insistence upon the practical needs of the human body. as its religious and political importance deserves. by a powerful government. If judged from the pragmatical standpoint. There is something strangely modern about these scriptures and this puzzled me. In this coming religious debate. because it will have the opportunity of sharing the sort of experience which the Nobel-laureate Pearl S. the Sikh religion. when explorers were beginning to discover that the globe. compiled as late as the 15th century.” As regards its potential and prospects in the religious domain of the world. and its scripture. They are compact in spite of their length.
” “Some one by shaving his head Becomes a sanyasi.” These and many other hymns contained in Guru Granth Sahib. sex. Among these some are Shias and some are Sunnis. caste. Worship that One alone. May peace and prosperity . indicate that unique concept of unity and universality: “The One Lord is our Father. creed or colour. in the name of their founder. the followers of this universal faith conclude their daily prayer to that One God. Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Gobind Singh. recognises no distinction on account of birth. We are in accord with all . This is testiﬁed by its ﬁrst and last prophets. They speak for the human heart and the searching mind. Recognise all as belonging to the one race of humanity God as Creator (for the Hindus) and God as Good (for the Muslims) God as Sustainer and God as Merciful Is all one and the same God. Recognise not another even in error or in doubt. Which pervades and illuminates everyone. clearly visualize and preach a religion which knows no ethnical. embodies universal respect and concern for all. in the following words: “There is Light among all And that Light is God’s Own. another a yogi. Nor is anyone a stranger to us.” “None is our enemy. We all are His children. . with the following couplets: “May Your holy Name. As He is the Supreme Lord of us all. It is only His form.22 none. and regards all as equals.” Hence. indeed. Some call themselves Hindus. Other claim to be Muslims.” And they do speak in verses such as these which. The one God is pervasive in all creation At the sight of which Nanak is in bloom of Joy. And yet another passes for a monk or ascetic. be ever in ascendance. racial or regional limitations. Guru Nanak Dev. His Light That is diﬀused in one and all. .
lived with virtuous conduct and ﬁrm faith in God.23 come to all!! In Your Will By Your Grace !! They. thereby. None shall dominate over others or cause pain. scientiﬁc in analysis.” Hence.” Sikhism enjoins on its followers social responsibility involving both social service and social action: “He who does dedicated service in the world gets a place at His Portal.” “They alone understand the right way Who eat the bread of their labour. in the following verse: “The Gracious Lord has now promulgated His ordinance. Such is the greatness of the True Preceptor (that through His grace and guidance) One can attain fullness while living with one’s wife and children. Sikhism is also a social and fraternal religion. X Thus. for the maximum good of each and every creature in the world. aspirations and conditions of the modern man and his social set-up. Which enables one to remain unattached in the midst of evil. It is a religion which is concerned with the creation of a just social order. And share it with others. “Contemplation of the True Lord brings illumination.” . it is the religion of our time. apart from being such a distinct monotheistic faith. Guru Arjun Dev. and is committed to social equality and peaceful co-existence. modern in outlook. All shall abide in peace and happiness. but also of the entire humanity. guaranteeing equal status to all human beings and asserting that normal family life. ask for God’s blessings in favour not only of their own community. as proclaimed by its Fifth prophet. surely leads to the path of salvation. standing equally for the common Fatherhood of God and universal Brotherhood of Man. As the governance shall be gentle and aﬀectionate. suited to the needs. rational in approach and practical in adaptability.
24 The above directives of Guru Nanak. Simran: Contemplation and remembrance of God. service and sacriﬁce have been the essential elements of its ethos. Vand ke Chhako are indeed “the foundation of a spiritually oriented. spiritual and social. (couched in his own pithy aphorisms: Nam Japo. spiritually it brought to man freedom from suppression and those false beliefs which enslaved man to a selﬁsh or ignorant priest-craft. it brought to man liberation from feudalism and caste tyranny. it was a movement of freedom from feudalism and caste tyranny. has himself recorded the impact of this unique movement in the following verse: “The eggshell of doubt has shattered. In its social aspects. doctrines. or in the practical lives of its founders and followers. mental. Daan: Giving to others. Human freedom and dignity. This is also the verse on the basis of which Banerjee stated. Kirt Karo. Long before the modern idea of social freedom was evolved in the West. Guru Arjun Dev. Isnan: Purity of mind. And the mind is illumined: The Master has freed us from bondage By cuﬃng oﬀ fetters from our feet. The Sikh Religion.” This is the verse which Macauliﬀe. and sacred pronouncements. While socially. whether in its principles.” His frequent exhortations to follow the under-mentioned six-sided discipline cultivates and follows the virtues associated with it. The history and heritage of this religion. “has been one of exhortation to liberation from all kinds of degrading bondage. seventy years later: “The fetters of ritualistic religion were cut oﬀ and the captives were freed: and the foundations of the Spiritual Empire were laid.” The founder of the holiest Sikh shrine and the compiler of the Sikh Scripture. Seva : Service of mankind. particularly to the needy. published in 1909 by the Oxford University. On these foundations was . Sikhism had brought to mankind the message of freedom. self-realization and self-conﬁdence. dynamic social life. and leads further to the enrichment and fulﬁlment of such an ideal life: Naam: Devotion to the Divine Name. reproduced on the title-page of each of the six volumes of his magnum opus. Satsang: Fellowship or company of true believers: Association with holy men. whether the priest was called Brahmin. while recognizing its lasting signiﬁcance. Yogi or Mullah. XI Sikhism is thus based on humanistic and universal values of the purest form. body and environment.
blessed by Guru Gobind Singh’s never-to-be forgotten utterance: RAJ KAREGA KHALSA.” .25 raised an imposing structure of Temporal Empire.
MA. Transformation of Sikhism.. WL. London.  Khushwant Singh.  Macauliﬀe. Forster George. ‘How the Sikhs became a Militant Race?’ Simla . 2nd. 213.  Gupta. 1. Delhi. James. Divide and Quit by Mr. Gurbachan Singh V Talib. The Sikh Religion and its Advantages to the State. is known as Dooja Wadda Ghalughara. 26-27.  Miskin. 39. Dr Sir Gokul Chand. CXLV.. Dr Hari Ram. 168. vi. also called Ahwal-i-Najib-ud-Daulah. 1956. 319. i.1906.  For details see Muslim League Attack on Sikhs and Hindus in the Punjab by Prof. Calcutta-189l. English Translation by Sir Jadu Sarkar in the Islamic Culture. 187 of B. 26. p Lvii. Sacred Writings and Authors. dated 1811. Tazkirah-Tahmas Miskin.Bibliography  Its operative clause. No. Tawarikh-i-Sikhan. See also Browne.. its Gurus. London-1788. near Malerkotla. Sayyed. Dr Ernest.1877. Vancouver. pp.  Bhattacharya. 1918 of British Museum. cit. 113-114. ed. London. reprint. in the original. V01.  Kapur Singh’s speech entitled. Vol. M’Gregor. M. Tabmas Khan. Vol. Khushwant Rai.. II. 57a (cf. Prof. p. Joginder Nath. Tarikh-e-Najib-ud-Daulah. London.  Macauliﬀe. 350.” Akhbari-Darbar-i-MuaIla (ef. Vol. 404. New Delhi-1978.e. History of the Origin and Progress of the Sikhs (India Tracts). Oxford-l909. 95. Dr Ganda Singh. The History of the Sikhs. Penderal Moon. 13. p. 7. also called Kitab-i-Tawarik. f. 1762 at Kup. 29). 3rd revised edition.1798. Hindu Castes and Sects. Simla 1906. Calcutta-1896..MS. p. by Prof. f.  Narang. p. IL p. London . No. op.  Latif. The Sikhs. London-1846. The Adi Granth.  “Of the total number of persons martyred during the Independence Movement. reads as follows ”Nanak prastan ra bar ja kib bayaband baqaral rasanand.  That fearful bloody carnage which occurred on 5th February. Syed Mohammad. London. A Journey from Bengal to England. p. London-1961. Lahore-1945. reprint-1968. Vol. I.  Nur-ud-Din. Transformation of Sikhism. Sikhs and Sikhism. Or. 350.  Narang. Amritsar1950. No. also called Tahmas Namah.hi-Punjab. 24410 of B. p. p. Pp.  Trumpp. p.D. The Sikh Religion under Banda and its Present Condition in the Calcutta Review. 1971. Lahore-1912.. 7th October 1974. MS. 28.. History of the Sikhs. dated 1779-80 A.. Amritsar. The Sikh Religion. The Partition of Punjab by Dr Kirpal Singh. p. Patiala-1978. p. A Brief Account of the Sikh People. the Second great Holocaust. Husain Khan. 75 26 . 511. London-1953.A. I. MS.M.M. p. p. Vol. 1933-34). Calcutta-1881. p. A History of the Punjab from the Remote Antiquity to the Present Times.
583 and 594. Maulvi.  Picott. p. p.  Khushwant Singh. Monier. Bombay. Vol. ed. dated 12th November. III.  Williams. Muhammad Yusuf. Princeton-1946. 489. The Founder of Sikhism. 1989. Sik.h Qaum aur unke Bani ki ntsbat Mussalamanon ki Muhabbat-amez Rai. J. cit. Chandigarh-1979.  The Hindustan Times. 497. 1984. T. New Delhi-2nd June. London. cit. People’s Union For Civil liberties entitled Who Are The guilty’ New Delhi-1984 and the Citizens For Democracy (entitled Truth About Delhi Violence.” and used as the ‘Code name for the Indian army’s move into Punjab against the Sikhs” during the ﬁrst week of June 1984.  Narang. The Gospel of Sadhu Sunder Singh. Dr Anil Chandra. Frederic. Prof. Muhammad Au.  Battany.  Rajagopalachari. p. E. Sheikh. p.” (Mark Tully and Satish Jacob. pp. World Religions from Ancient History to the Present. New Delhi-1959. A History of the Sikhs.K. Nizami.31st Oct.19 p. Maulvi.  Bhattacharya. 34.  cf.. 169. Vol. Baiala 2nd.. Sri.  Banerjee. Delhi-1985. 53. 1969. Army Action in Punjab. M. New Delhi-1984: Report of the Citizens’ Commission: Delhi. 301. cit. Lahore. G. Abmadabad. The Sikhs Today. Dr.  Parrinder.. pp. Geoﬀrey.  cf. London. p.  Heiler.1983. New Delhi-1985. ill.T. Brahmanism and Hinduism. Moslems.19. The Adi Granth. Transformation of Sikhism. 510.1919. Delhi-1985). Khawaja Hassan. Batala-1919. ch. xiii. p. For some details see Report to the Nation Oppression in Punjab by Citizens the Golden Temple and the Akal Takht .. ci. p. p. Dr. 64.). op. F.1946. 1st.. p. Theism in Medieval india. London-1921.  cf.  Archer. London-1927.P.  cf. Amritsar: Mrs.i.  Tarn Chand. pp. tanks were ordered in and the Akal Takht was virtually reduced to rubble.1885.  History of Sikh Struggles. reprint. op. History of Sikh Struggles. p. Mirza Ghulam Abmed.. p. op. Young India.. Estlin. Guru Nanak: The Teacher of Man. Vol. Hughes. Vaishnava reformers of India.  Khushwant Singh. New York. 829. See also Kapur Singh. ed.  Quadiani. 1902. Hindu Castes and Sects. pp.. Sikhism in the Dictionary of Islam by Rev. For some details see Report to the Nation: Oppression in Punjab by Citizens for Democracy. 28-29. stated to be “the biggest and the most signiﬁcant army action against its own countrymen ever taken in the world. Baba Nanak Ka Mazhab. Gandhi’s Last Battle. . Insha Ulla Khan. p.. Prelude and Aftermath. p.  Time. Qadian-19 19. Prof. May-1924.1985. . Dr IC. 4377-4504. 403. to 4th Nov.. reprint. p. cit. 260. op. 23. Sikhon aur Mussalamanon Ke Ruhani Tualqat. op.39 For some details refer to the Reports to the Nation published under the auspices of the Peoples Union for Democratic Rights. Prof. 393. III. Sikhs and Sikhism. New York. 3. 246.BIBLIOGRAPHY 27  Under ’Operation Blue Star’. 379. Inﬂuence of Islam on Indian Culture.  Gandhi. 17..  Trumpp. in Relation to Hindus. . the Indian army began its attack on the complex at Amritsar which housed the two most sacred shrines of the Sikh Community. Encyclopaedia of World Religions. “ On 5th June 1984. London. 1).  Carpenter. Lahore-1909. 1957. Salya Bachan. Princeton-1963. (Gurmit Singh. Christians and Ahmadiyas a Study in Comparative Religion. 35-36. p. The Silchs. cit. I. Allahabad. p. pp.
 Bittencourt. Pt. 156-159 edited and translated into English by Dr Ganda Singh. A History of the Sikhs from the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of Sutlej. Paris-1882. published in The Arya.  Kenneth. Introduction. 251. dated 1654 A. 457-62. London-1834. pp.  Jain.  Macauliﬀe. extracted. 216.1979. p. p. p.D. Burnes.  Elliot. pp. Lahore-1879. Bombay-1960. p. New Delhi. Synthesis and other Processes in Sikhism in the American Anthropologist. Duncan.  Ibid.1904. 561-564. Calcutta-1936. Ethoc K.. 1. Dr. no. . Vol. Dr Mohammad. 1.h Religion.v.1979. p. p. Rise of the British Power in the East. Sir Lepel.de. H. 1948. pp. Amritsar-1604 AD.. Allahabad-1974. Vol. Guru Granth Sahib. No. July-September. pp. 1.. J. reprint. 129.  “For the history of the Sikhs in particular. Dr Edward A. London-1921. Nirmal Kumar.  Aurobindo. Sir Charles. 59-59 (of the English rendering). A..C. Pondicherry. 5. The Mughal Empire.. The Foundation of Indian Culture. Travels and to Bukhara. 569. 1-1920. The Gospd of the Guru Granzh Sahib. 24. in his Foreword’ to the Sikh Way of Life by Ranbir Singh.  Ibid. p. 1974. lndubhushan. Sikh Religion and Philosophy. cit. Alexander.. The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian. London-1906. History of India. Vol. composed 1600 AD. See also Elphinstone. 30. p.. 4.1887. Capt. VI. (fn. Vol. 272... p. Sri. II. Sri. Qazi. 223. Vol. Dr R. p.D. p.  Banerjee. Prof. The Punjab Under the Mughals.  Ibid. 10. p. 187. p. Var no 3. 50. Akbar. Vol. 28  Smith.  Gurdas Bhai. pp. 58). 39. Sketch of the Sikhs A Singular Nation who inhabits the Provinces of the Punjab. Guru. Amritsar-1939. New Delhi-1976. 267. p. 338. 158-59 (of the text).  Isliwari Prasad. XLI. Nanak Panthis or The Sikhs and Sikhism of the 17th Century. Marian W. 75-76.  Cunningham.  Arjun Dev. VI. Gunjaba-1765. XIX. Vol. New Delhi-1968. London. 182.  Griﬃn.. pp. Dabistan-i-Mazahib. 302..  Aurobindo. Owen. Marenco. Pt. The History and Culture of the Indian People.  Greenlees. p. Delhi-1985. 223.. Vol.1. p. and a knowledge of the country and people in 1764. London-l951. Religions of India. Barth. reprint-1954. London1812... The Sik. 1136  Mohsin Fani. 492-3. Dr.  Nur Muhammad. 150-151. Evolution of the Khalsa. Sikhism and Its Indian Context(1469-1708). 148. Vol. Wi. Vol. 3.5. Shaikh. pp.. See also Ganda Singh. cli. Rag Bhairo. W.  See also Malcolm.Varan.. p. 92-94. II. Amritsar-1940. translated and edited with notes. The Transformation of Sikh Society. reprint. New Delhi-1984. pp. Vol.” according to Sir Jadu Nath Sarkar in his ’Foreword’ to the Jang Namah. No. Delhi. Nirad C. A Defence of Indian Culture.. 242 and 249. (Ardistani. op. Journal of Asian Studies. Jang Namab. vi. p. 1959.1967. Amritsar-January. London-1849. p. Col. I. pauri no  Cole. pp. Rajas of the Punjab. in the Journal of Indian History. M.  Chaudhun. M. pp. .  Majumdar. II. pp. 1. 2. p. Liv. MA. Religion and Spirituality.. p. 233. p. translation Singh Sabha Patrika. pp. Nanak Panthis. Lv. Lt. Prof. 2nd. 285.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ibid. Madras-1952. Mobid Zalﬁqar). Lahore-1943.. Hinduism and Buddhism..
in the Dasam Granth. Kaithal-1843. 93-94. Bombay. James. no. MS. Verses 2-27.  Guru Granth Sahib.  Batalia. M.. Guru Nanak and the Sikh Religion. Bhai.. 1. cit. MA. Dorothy. See also p. M. op. 24. 88-89. Vol. Santokh Singh. pp. cit. 22-23. I. Vol. 406. Oxford 1968: The Evolution of the Sikh Community. Kapur Singh. 722. See MeLeod. 34.  This has been duly mentioned by the earliest chroniclers of Sikh religion. cit. Tawarikh-i-Hind. Ludhiana-1848.  Macauliﬀe. op. V and VII. Bhai Nand Lal (1633-1741) in his Ganj Namah. Delhi-1975. Delhi-1880. New York-19 14. Princeton-1963.I.  Ralph Singh. iii. 566. cit. p. p. 2-3. 1971. 16-18. Teja Singh. ed. op. Muslims. Cit. op.  Archer.. The Sikhs in Relation to Hindus. Anandpur Sahib-171 1.. etc. 1983. MS.  Gobind Singh. op. Rag Tilang. Puratan Janamsakhi (1634 c. such as by Bhai Gurdas (1551-1629) in his var no. I. from Ancient History to the Present. A History of the Sikhs. Patiala-1986.I. cit. verses 48-50. Vol. 68-69. Macauliﬀe. I. p. pp. pp.  McLeod. Bute Shah. Vol. pp. 2nd. A Short History of the Sikhs. W. cit. cit. op. pp. The Religion of the Sikhs.. Vol.  Bute Shah alias Ghulam Muhay-ud-Din. V.A.. M. 83-84. 1620 c.  Ibid. Amritsar-1989. pp. The Sikh Religion. cit. 2nd.. p. latest ed. Prof. 22-23.1950. op. Gurdev Singh. 1 pauri no. 1985.H. 5. op. pp. Parasarprasna or The Baisakhi of Guru Gobind Singh (An Exposition of Sikhism). V. cont.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Field. Sodhi Meharban (1581-1640) in his Sachkhand Pothi (dt. III. op. op.. p.. Rag Majh. Chaubis Avtar. Jalandhar-1959. cit. cit. (7). 150. Edward Geoﬀrey. VI. I.).. p. ch. Guru Nanak. 33 Swaiyyei.. pp. V.  Bannerjee. 29  See Bachitar Natak by Guru Gobind Singh.. op. op.The Teacher of Man..  Baisakhi of Guru Gobind Singh. Perspectives on the Sikh Tradition. 93.  Macauliﬀe.). Justice. pp. p. 8-9.. pp. Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics. Stanza No. Clis. VII. Parasarprasna. Oxford 1980.. 722 and Rag Ramkali. 94. The Sikh Religion.D. 251.. M..  Gurdev Singh. Vol. 1. Rag Tilang. . p. W.  Greenless. 935. Tawarikh-i-Punjab.. Sri Guru Sobha. dated 1818. The Sikh Religion. p. op. 7th impr. Ahmad Shah. pp. 85. viii. p. cit. Parasarprasna. p..A.. M.  Khushwant Singh. pp. The Evolution of the Sikh Community. ch. cit. 2488. p.I.A. MI. The Gospel of Guru Granth Sahib. op. Guru. ed. Sri Gurpratap Suraj Granth.354. 16). Anandpur Sahib-1696. Christians and Ahmadiyas. M.  Macauliﬀe. The Heritage of the Sikhs. p.  Parrinder. p. Early Sikh Tradition. op. cit.. 21. New Delhi-1983. p. Prof..-1987.). cit.H. 95. M. London-1914. Prin. p. Perspectives on the Sikh Tradition.  See Saina Pati. 405-406. 37.I.  Harbans Singh.  Ibid.  Kapur Singh. Tawarikh-i-Punjab.. 44. 148. Sw. and Ganda Singh. dated 1700 A. 4.. 9. Sikhism. 17-18. p.  Guru Granth Sahib. 10... Rag Wadhans. See also Panth Parkash by Giani Gian Singh. pp. 8-9. World Religions.. V. New York-1988 (c..  Hastings. The Sikh Religion. (Ramkali Var Patshahi Daswen ki.
Raga Suhi.  Ahl in Arabic originally meaning those who occupy the same tent.Th. 1967. Islam and Suﬁsm. M. Vol. V.. But this word is often connected with other notions. in Guru Nanak His Life. belonging to it or owner of the same. and let the Hindus concede that Islam. in distinction from the heathens.. and Teachings of Guru Nanak. Prof. Times and Teachings. thus family inmates. M. (Tawrat Torah..  The Golden Temple Amritsar. Tarn Taran-1934. Prof..M.  Ibid. “According to T.  Surendra Nath Banerjee.  Ibid. p. Bombay-1977. Raga Sorath. 12). Berkeley Lectures on Sikhism. 9-10 That terrible conﬂict grew from the fact that the “impact of Islam on north-western India in the 11th century had been through military conquest and sword. M. Lectures on Sikhism. 629. Rag Maru. 4. p. by Prin.4. Raga Gauri. and [slam. Raga Gauri. The Nanak V declared Let Muslims rediscover the truth that the true essence of religious practice is compassion and its goal. The Golden Temple Amritsar. pp. M. etc. M. ch. M.  Ibid.P. creedal.Raga Sarang. 2). p.5. Indjil = Gospel). 4. See Ibid. “No teacher of the populace had uttered words of that import and signiﬁcance. pp. p. Bombay-1960. 9-10. Gurmukh Nihal Singh.3.. his descendents.Raga Sri. spiritual and historical. (see The Encyclopaedia of Islam ed. by M.. thus understood.. Raga Suhi. p. 5. is as respectable and ceremoniously pore as the ﬂowers. 8. p. M. Vol.. p. Sri Guru Nanak Dev and Nation Building. p. the people of the Book.449. p.M.569. where Hinduism gets over its injured superiority and sense of exclusiveness. its arrogance and self centricity born out of military superiority. it is a term used in the Quran for Jews and Christians. Guru Nanaks Religion. 763. left irritating and unfortunate monuments of bigotry and misunderstanding. op.  Ibid. Kapur Singh at Guru Nanak Dev University. Vol. 2nd.  For a detailed account see Guru Nanak The World-Teacher (Jagat Gurubaba).. and this had created reactions in the proud and sensitive Hindu mind such as resulted in impassable barriers of hatred and prejudice between the two World-culture currents. 5.both by Dr Harnam Singh Shan. ahl-al-bait means the household of the Prophet Muhammad. Maqam means place or glorious station. that still mark the Indian scene. ch. 116. New Delhi-1969.. pp.. and Majumdar. Those few words at one stroke felled the giant structures of caste. Berkeley. The Sikh Prophets.C.. 5. and that political utilitarianism and expedience is not basic to Islam as such. p. p. p. p. cit.  Harbans Singh. Raga Wadhans. Zabur = Psalter. IX (ii). 5. sectional and religious diﬀerences. on account of their possessing divine books of revelation. . as believers in a revealed religion. p. 1237. on 24 Oct. Amritsar. a paper read by S. cit. therefore. desired to level down these barriers with a view to discover and provide a common spiritual ground for the two. p. VII. 308  Ibid. Hinduism and Islam. p.  Harbans Singh.1979. (see Quran. the Nanaks. p. 5. Chandigrah.  Ibid. 1084.1203. p. p. ed.5. Raga Sarang. and their mutual contacts have. the puriﬁcation of soul. Leyden-1913.  Ibid. Prof. R. as quoted in The History and Culture of the Indian People. p. 3 1-32 .. op. 17. Therefore.. M.Raga Asa.  According to Dr Mohan Singh. 1977.91. Ibid. New Delhi-1983. Raga Sri. M. Chandigarh-1984. pp. meaning so much as sharing in a thing. Muhammad calls so the Jews and Christians.. since the time of Upanishads.  Ibid.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Ibid.  Ibid. ed. I. 81). the deerskin and the butter-fat. 39. Houtsma and others. New Delhi-1983. p. 30  Mujeeb.. Prof.4.M. 183. VI.” (Guru Granth Sahib. London-1885.. 308.  Ibid. M. 481. 743.” (See his Dictionary of Islam.” (cf. 562. 30-32. Hughes.  Ahl-al-kitab. the silk. 184. 3.
Daya Ram. Shahid through out the Hadith literature and the great privileges that await him in heaven is readily depicted in numerous Hadiths. the lions. p.  See Sarab Loh Granth.R.” (See Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam. New Delhi. 661.  That is. Swaiyya No. p. 571.1978. p. p. cit. A History of the Sikhs. p. op.  Khalsa Mahima.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Khushwant Singh. as distinguished from Din.1953. 109). pp.  Ibid. Penrice. It has been associated with God without attributes. The meaning martyr is not found for Shahid in the Koran. Muhkam Chand.  That is. 515. Kramers. op. p. Raga Parbhati. cit.716. op. from Lahore). 717.A... . Raga Dhanasari. p. rite. the fourth (viz. pp. Raga Asa. Raga Sorath.  Guru Granth Sahib. the Five Beloved Ones. Himmat. Encydopaedia of Islam. UNESCO’s Selections from the Sacred Writings of the Sikhs. p. Ml. evidence and martyrdom. p. Qur’an the Prophet speaks of Abraham’s Milla. ch. In the book of Djihad. New Delhi-1988. p21. p.’ (Guru Granth Sahib.  Ibid. cit. Gibb and JA. “it is expressive of religion as it stands in relation to the Prophet. the two most profound concepts in the Sikh faith” (See The Sacred Scripture Symbol of Spiritual Synthesis. op. cit. op.  Toynbee. Swaiyya no. which signiﬁes religion as its stands in relation to God. cit. The praise of Shahada (martyrdom) led to a real longing to meet a martyr’s death and even Muhammad and ‘Omar longed for it’ (see The Dictionary of Islam. the ﬁfth (viz. a barber from Bidar.” (See Short Encyclopaedia of Islam. by which he means the original revelation in its purity . The development of the meaning of Shahid to martyr took place under Christian inﬂuence. Leiden. The Sikhs.. al-milla means the true religion revealed by Muhammad and is occasionally used eliptically for ahl-al-milla. 210.943. 31  Milla in Arabic means religion.  Ibid.  Ibid. IV. p. The aim of Guru Gobind Singh in founding the Khalsa was to build up a nation of the puriﬁed Ones who would be free from the evils of religion and society. by H. p.. The martyr who seals his belief with his death.. Dictionary of Islam.  Shuhada in Arabic means testimony. Three out of them belonged earlier to the so-called low castes (viz. 380). Sabda is the means by which one gets wisdom and the knowledge of the Lord. 351. 260).  “The majesty of the mystic Sabda (Shabad) which we come across in the Sikh scripture. Shorter Encydopaedia of Islam. the followers of the Muhammadan religion..M. “The ﬁrst technical use of Kalam seems to have been in the phrase Kalam Allah meaning either the Kuran or Allah’s quality (Sifa) called speech. 79-80). The Concise Encyclopaedia of Islam. (Teja Singh and Ganda Singh.” tells Dr R. 72). Cyril. 3.l. ed. with the article. speech. 364) He is one with Nama and Sabda. martyrdom is praised quite in the style of the Hadith. Ml. 35.  That is. p. 103. cit.” (See Dictionary of Islam. A Dictionary and Glossary of the Quran. op. Raga Ramkaii..2. 259-60. Ml. Varanasi-l984. Khalsa Parkash. hardly ﬁnds any parallel in its fullness.635. op. p. Baptism of the Double-edged Sword. from Mazhab which signiﬁes religion with reference to learned doctors. cit. Sikh brotherhood..  ‘Khalsa’ means the pure baptised and initiated Sikhs. According to the Kitab t-Tarifat.1. John. Sahib Chand.  Ibid. . Vol. ‘By the Sabda of the Guru one recognises the abode of the Lord within. As the Guru is the repository of all spiritual jewels. op. p. op..K. so. It is only later commentators that have tried to ﬁnd it in the Sura iv.M. ﬁghting against the inﬁdels... cit.. Arora. a cook from Jagannath. in him enshrines the Sabda and he also imparts it to the devotee. p.269.  See Glasse. 45. p. pp.. a Jat from Delhi). 348-349). Francisco. 9. a Kshatriya or Khatri by caste. cit. Dharam Das. “In. used as surname by all male followers of Sikhism. washerman from Dwarka. . 1342.1989.  Kalam in Arabic means word.
The Religion of the Sikhs. English Version by Dr Gopal Singh. op. M. op... cit...  Guru Granth Sahib. ansu 36. op. op.... pp. 9. 168.L. pp. Sikhism. It was approved by it in 1945 and has since been accepted as an authoritative manual. p. reprint-1978. op. p. Amritsar-1938. Sikhism Its Ideals and Institutions. p.A. Verse No.. Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism.. Calcutta. a manner of life. with Prin. 1. p. in the Sikh Review. 966.. 25. p. p. cit. p. 663. The Sikh Way of L fe.. cit.  Guru Gobind Singh. Essays in Sikhism. the Sikh Code of Conduct compiled by a committee appointed in 1931 by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee.. The manuals in which this code is recorded are called Rahitnamas. cit. op. reprint-1988. p. in his Gurpratap Suraj Granth.  That is. The Sikh Religion A Lecture. . Raga Kanara.. p.L. 552)”. 622). 15/85. (2) or what Muhammad enjoined. M. Hence. cit. M. the tradition which records either the sayings or doings of Muhammad. cit.  Ibid.  Teja Singh. Pearl S..’ that is.” (see Another Encyclopaedia of Islam. A term used in the religion of the Muslims to express the custom or manner of life.  That is. pp. Dma Kangar-1706. xiv. 34-55. 73. “lit. Manchester-1984. Delhi-1960. H. 611. 22. 41. a path or way. M.V. 34.. Raga Gujari. especially as the end on the ultimate determining principle in an ethical system.  Macauliﬀe. cit. Parasaraprasna. Teja Singh as convenor.  A Short History of the Sikhs. Prin.. 32  As stated by Bhai Santokh Singh. Rai Balwand tatha Sattei Dum akhi st. 1412.  Bittencourt. Dr W. cit. cit. According to H..  Toynbee. p. 1 of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. Kaithal-1844 aim 7. Consequently. 71-72. Raga Sorath.  Heritage of the Sikhs. the Sikh religion. Amritsar.. MI. p. London-1910. all traditional law is divided into (1) what Mohammad did. Mrs. Zafarnamah. p. Ramkali ki Var.. Kabit no. Parasarasprasna. 10. cit. p..  By Rahit we mean the distinctive Sikh code of conduct or discipline which is ‘feature of fundamental importance to the life of the Panth.  Sunna or Sunnah means “custom. MV.BIBLIOGRAPHY  Kapur Singh.V. vi.. op.. 108.  Ibid.  Ibid. in her Opinion as published in Vol.  McLeod..V. Hughes. op.T. the chiefgood.  Buck. p. ’Foreword’. statute..” (see his Dictionary of Islam. Raga Dharuzsari.P. op. p.. Raga Sarong.. op.  Ibid.  Guru Gobind Singh.  Bradshaw. (3) or that which was done or said in the presence of Muhammad and which was not forbidden by him. H. A. 33.  Field. op. 1299. Akal Ustat in Sri Dasam Granth. p. 1226. 322. Slok Varan te Vadhik. No. p. 3. use and wont. 11. Lahore1941. pp. UNESCO’s Selections from the Sacred Writings of the Sikhs.  Guru Granth Sahib. cit. M. 90.  Ibid. 500-501. and regarded as the standard guide for the whole community.
Rag Asa. Rag Maru.. M. cit. M. that is the Sikh congregational prayer to God which is a basic religious activity in Sikh religion. p. Rag Asa. M. Amritsar-1969.) and Sikh Rahit Maryada.  Ibid... p.. Rag Sri. Prof. 468...I..I. p. . 5. M. p.  Guru Granth Sahib. 354. Rag Sorath.I. 1002. p.BIBLIOGRAPHY 33  See Ardas. p. 419.I. M.. 72. Raga Dhanasari..e. p.  Ibid. Rag Asa.. op. in his ’Foreword’ to Guru Nanak in His own Words by Dr Harnam Singh Shan. M..  Mujeeb. 944.  Ibid.. xiu..I. M. 74.  Ibid. p... 26. 9. Rag Sri. pp. M. p.. Rag Sarang. Its version is available in various Gutkas (i.  Ibid. 598. q.v. op. cit.  Guru Granth Sahib. p. Rag Ramkali.  Ibid. p. 661.I. 1245. anthologies of hymns meant for daily and occasional prayers etc.  Ibid. M.V.
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