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MANAGING CHANGE: LEARNING LESSONS FROM THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE UK MINISTRY OF DEFENCE TECHNICAL ENABLING SERVICES.
MICHAEL FINLAY MITCHELL FOR MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (2007)
This dissertation is my own original work and has not been submitted elsewhere in fulfilment of the requirements of this or another award.
On the 1st April 2005 and as part of the United Kingdom (UK), Ministry of Defence (MOD) Defence Acquisition Change Program (DACP) a department known as the Technical Enabling Services (TES) was formed with dual accountability to the Defence Procurement Agency (DPA) and the Defence Logisitics Organisation (DLO).
This dissertation examines the change environment of the MOD and in particular the drivers for change. The research undertaken in support of this dissertation presents a critical review of a range of academic literature on the management of change. The review of literature was achieved by firstly establishing some definitions of change, followed by identification of frameworks and models for change (Lewin; Kotter; Fernandez & Rainey; Shaw; Beer & Nohria; McKinsey; Bridges), approaches to managing change or styles (Goleman; Dunphy & Stace; Balogun & Hope-Hailey; Kubler-Ross; Satir; Weinberg; Whetten & Cameron) and finally in the literature review by exploring the possibility of common themes. Use was also made of other
available secondary data including internal management reports (Gershon; McKane), journals, books and the observations of the author through his direct involvement in the TES change program, to help inform conclusions.
A detailed primary research questionnaire was undertaken in support of this dissertation (quantitative and qualitative) which identified the existence of three
common themes, which were also observed during the review of literature (Leadership, Culture and Communications).
The primary research revealed that there had been a lack of acceptance for the changes in TES by staff, and in some cases, management. It also revealed that there had been little in the way of cultural analysis carried out prior to changes being implemented. This resulted in a fit for purpose organisation with a diverse range of ideals and varying levels of understanding on the purpose of the new organisation. The primary research provided some evidence to support the assertions made in the literature review and the analysis of secondary data. The dissertation concludes with the possibility of developing a maturity model for testing ‘readiness for change’. The model is offered as an opportunity for further research by the author and/or the MOD as a whole.
3 Introduction to Literature Review Definitions of Change Frameworks for Change 3.1 Lewin 3.2 3.Page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH 1.1 3.1 Goleman 3.3 Role of the UK Government Contextualising the UK Ministry of Defence environment Public Sector Drivers for Change 4 5 9 CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW 3.3 1.6 McKinsey 7S Framework 3.2 Dunphy and Stace 14 14 18 18 20 25 26 28 29 31 34 35 36 iii .3.4 Shaw 220.127.116.11.2 Kotter 18.104.22.168.2 1.4 Styles of Managing Change 3.1 2.1 1.3 Fernandez and Rainey 3.4.4 Background to Dissertation Aim of Dissertation Dissertation Objectives Chapter Summary 1 1 1 3 vi vii viii CHAPTER 2: DISSERTATION CONTEXT 2.5 Beer and Nohria 3.7 Bridges transition model 3.3.2 2.
1.4 Cognitive Change – Kubler-Ross.3 5.1 Primary Data 4.2.3 Communication CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 4.2 5.4.2 Secondary Data 4.3.1 5.6 Question 1 Analysis Question 2 Analysis Question 3 Analysis Question 4 Analysis Question 5 Analysis Question 6 Analysis 62 62 62 64 65 66 67 69 iv .1 5.5 5.1 Leadership 3.3 Balogun & Hope Hailey 3.1 Research Methodology 4.2 Quantitative Research 4.2. Weinberg 3.2 4.4 5.4 4.2 Culture 3. Satir.1 Qualitative Research 4.2.5 Hypotheses Research Conclusions 56 56 56 57 57 57 58 58 60 60 38 41 44 46 46 49 54 CHAPTER 5: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 5.Page 22.214.171.124.5 Whetten & Cameron 3.1.5 Common Themes of Change Literature 126.96.36.199.3 Approach adopted for Research Project Data Collection methods 4.3.3 Questionnaire Design and Distribution 4.5.2 Abstract of Primary Questionnaire data Detailed Discussion on Responses to Questionnaire 5.3.2.
2 6.7 5.2.4 6.2.1 6.2.3 5.2.12 5.2.3 6.2.4 Question 7 Analysis Question 8 Analysis Question 9 Analysis Question 10 Analysis Question 11 Analysis Question 12 Analysis Question 13 Analysis Question 14 Analysis 70 71 74 75 76 77 79 81 84 85 Interviews and Observations Summary of Findings CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS OF RESEARCH 6.8 5.2.2 7.5 Benefits of the dissertation Future Potential Implications TES Challenges Reflection 86 87 89 89 90 CHAPTER 7: REFERENCE SECTION 7.13 5.3 References Bibliography Glossary 92 99 101 ANNEX A: PRIMARY DATA – MASTER QUESTIONNAIRE 102 v .10 5.9 5.1 7.14 5.Page 5.2.11 5.
List of Tables Page Table 1 Table 2 Table 3 Table 4 Table 5 Kotter (1996) and Fernandez/Rainey (2006): Comparison Goleman (2000): Six Leadership Styles Dunphy & Stace (1995): A Discussion of Different Styles Bennis (1994): Managers and Leaders Reflection on dissertation aims 25 35 37 47 91 vi .
Plans and Budgets McKinsey (1980) 7S Framework Bridge’s Transition Model (1991) Balogun & Hope-Hailey (2004): Types of Change Satir et al.List of Figures Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 Fig 4 Fig 5 Fig 6 Fig 7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Organisation and structure of the UK MOD (Jan 2007) UK MOD Manpower profile 2005/6 Defence Drivers for Change Kotter (1996): Eight Step Model – Leading Change The Relationship of Vision. Strategies. (1991): Change Curve Weinberg (1997): Critical points in the change process Relationships among factors in a climate of positivity Johnson & Scholes (2005): The Cultural Web Draft maturity model for assessing ‘readiness for change’ Page 6 7 13 20 23 30 31 39 42 43 44 50 88 vii .
Thanks also to Jim Donnelly (a TES colleague) for peer review and for challenging everything at least once (or twice). A special thank you to my wife Carol. Lecturer in Strategic Management. son Cameron and our new addition Cillian who thought it best to arrive into the world in the middle of my studies. Strategy. Operations & Leadership at Glasgow Caledonian University for continued support and ‘frequent’ re-alignment throughout this dissertation.Acknowledgements A big thank you to my tutor Angela Sutherland. viii .
The author also hopes that the project will provide an opportunity to get better visibility of his work and provide him with the opportunity to influence current and future thinking in departmental change. 1 . • Achieve an understanding of the academic theory regarding change and establish whether common themes exist in academia. in particular the TES division. The project and its outcomes will be used by the author to improve his understanding of how change might be managed and in so doing add value to the work being undertaken in the MOD department of TES.” 1.1 BACKGROUND TO DISSERTATION The following research project has been undertaken against the backdrop of huge change in the public sector and in particular the UK MOD.2 AIM OF DISSERTATION The aim of this dissertation is to “Examine the existing Change Processes in the UK MOD. It is hoped that through a study of the available academic literature a clearer understanding might emerge.3 DISSERTATION OBJECTIVES To achieve the overall aim of the dissertation a number of supporting objectives have been set. and propose if applicable a framework for improving the approach. TES faces a number of challenges now and in the future. 1.CHAPTER ONE CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO RESEARCH 1.
• If applicable.CHAPTER ONE • To provide an insight into the environment of the UK MOD and in particular the TES Change Programme. 2 . to propose a framework that enhances future change programmes in TES and the UK MOD. • To understand the related management issues encountered in Change programmes and their applicability. in particular their perception of the relative success of the Change programme to date. • To evaluate the opinion of a sample of the TES Staff.
CHAPTER 2 Describes the specific context of the Public Sector and the UK MOD. CHAPTER 3 Provides a review of the past and current academic literature relating to change management. in particular the drivers for change. aim and supporting objectives of the Dissertation. CHAPTER 1 Describes the background. CHAPTER 6 Discusses the opportunities emerging from the research as well as a reflection on the dissertation.4 CHAPTER SUMMARY The dissertation Chapters are summarised as follows. CHAPTER 5 Provides an analysis of the primary research and detailed comment on the findings. 3 . CHAPTER 4 Describes various research methodologies and the reasons for the chosen method in this project.CHAPTER ONE 1. CHAPTER 7 Comprehensive list of references and acronyms used in the dissertation.
Most departments are headed by ministers. such as the Department for Education and Skills. such as the Department for Work and Pensions. The structure and functions of departments are sometimes re-organized if there are major changes in government policy. and other government-sponsored organisations. For example. cover England. however. They often work alongside local authorities. the MOD) covers the UK as a whole. who is largely independent of the Secretary of State.g. Wales and Scotland. They are staffed by politically impartial civil servants and generally receive their funding from money provided by the Treasury. non-departmental public bodies. are mainly concerned with affairs in England and Wales. Others again.. OFSTED is headed by HM Chief Inspector of Schools in England. A change of government. some are non-ministerial departments headed by a permanent office holder and ministers with other duties are accountable for them to Parliament. the Secretary of State for Education and Skills accounts to Parliament for the work of the Office for Standards in Education (OFSTED).1 ROLE OF THE UK GOVERNMENT The main role of government departments and their constituent parts is to implement policy and to advise ministers. The work of some departments (e. However. Other departments. does not necessarily affect the functions of departments. 4 . but not Northern Ireland.CHAPTER TWO CHAPTER 2: DISSERTATION CONTEXT 2.
The Defence council consists of elected politicians. and is a member of the cabinet chaired by the Prime Minister. The Secretary of State with his four ministerial colleagues. The structure of the higher organisation of the MOD is shown in Figure 1.CHAPTER TWO A non-departmental public body (NDPB) is a national or regional public body. The Secretary of State answers to Parliament for the actions of the Ministry and the armed forces.2 CONTEXTUALISING THE UK MINISTRY OF DEFENCE ENVIRONMENT The MOD is the government department responsible for formulation and execution of defence policy. The department is headed by the Secretary of State for Defence. It is responsible for the operational and administrative control of the armed forces and for the procurement of its equipment. two Ministers and two Parliamentary under Secretaries are the elected politicians of the council. the legal authority for controlling the armed forces. 2. the two heads of the official structure of the Ministry and seven senior service officers and civil servants. working independently of ministers to whom they are accountable. who chairs the Defence Council. 5 .
Alongside him sits the top civil servant known as the Permanent Secretary (PUS). planning and administration of the MOD. A number of other defence-related departments and agencies are also controlled by the MOD. CDS and PUS each have a deputy. Procurement and Intelligence. the heart of the Ministry of Defence planning and policy departments. This position is filled by a senior officer from each of the three services on a rotational basis.CHAPTER TWO Figure 1 – Organisation and structure of the UK MOD (Jan 2007) The highest military post within the MOD is the Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS). These organisations have members of all three armed forces working alongside each other 6 . the Vice-Chief of the Defence Staff (VCDS) and 2nd PUS. His areas of responsibility are finance. Together VCDS and 2nd PUS are the joint heads of the Central Staff. These include Logistics. CDS is the professional head of the Armed Forces and is the principal military advisor to the Secretary of State.
Figure 1 (Organisation and structure of the UK MOD) was accurate until 02 Apr 07 when the Logistics and Procurement wings (highlighted in dashed box) of the MOD merged to create a Chief of Defence Materiel (CDM) and Defence Equipment and Support department (DE&S). The Council consists of the four ministerial posts detailed above and ten senior civilian and military officials. UK MOD accounts show that at the close of 2005/6 the MOD employed over 325k people and spent over £29 billion annually (MOD Departmental Plan 2005-2009).CHAPTER TWO and are often referred to as 'Tri-Service' departments. The highest of these is the Defence Council. chaired by the Secretary of State. There are several boards and committees within the MOD which formulate the many aspects of defence policy. each of the three Services has a permanent Chief of Staff. Army 102720 32% Tri-Service Volunteers 36370 11% Civil Servants 103930 32% Royal Air Force 45300 14% Royal Navy & Marines 37070 11% Figure 2 – UK MOD Manpower profile 2005/6 7 . Within the MOD.
which is in part due to the variety of tasks it undertakes and also its origins. The DPA are concerned with the procurement of the project or equipment before going into service and the DLO are concerned with the maintenance of it once in service (in simple terms procurement and support). the Admiralty. was formed by the amalgamation in 1964 of the old MOD. 8 . Merlin Helicopter. the Defence Logistics Organisation (DLO) and the Defence Procurement Agency (DPA). In 1973. Until 1964 there were five departments of state doing what the unified MOD does now. The organisation of TES was being formed by merging technical support groups from two different areas of the MOD. The present MOD. The staff and budget are being progressively reduced due to the ending of the cold war and more recently political concerns over public expenditure. The MOD can seem complex and confusing to the uninitiated. and the inclusion in 1971 of the Ministry of Aviation Supply. Both groups are involved in the delivery of high value Equipment (Sub-system of a platform) and Platform (e. the War Office and the Air Ministry. the operations of the Atomic Weapons Establishment were transferred from the UK Atomic Energy Authority to the MOD. Challenger tank) projects (known as Integrated Project Teams (IPTs)). April 2007) of defence expenditure is expected to be spent on equipment and service procurement in 2007/8. the Department.g.CHAPTER TWO About 43% or £16 billion (DE&S in brief.
rules and regulations combined with jobs allocated to posts with commensurate authority and positional power. The most visible use of commercial management techniques is the rise of New Public Management (Ferlie. 2001). introducing customer focus. 1996). Gray and Jenkins (2000) consider that the Labour government has continued on a broadly similar course. unresponsive to change. 2005). activities governed by procedures. administration should be replaced by management and that the private sector is superior to the public and thus should provide the model for improvement. This was expected to change the public sector mentality. output management and a more proactive management approach (Donnelly. high formalisation and standardisation. fluid and flexible customer-orientated organisation (Driscoll & Morris. hierarchical stability to a more dynamic. regulation and efficiency (Driscoll & Morris.CHAPTER TWO 2. 2001). 9 . The main aim was a culture shift away from rigid bureaucracy and an adoption of the commercial goals of consumer focus and greater accountability. The current main driver for change in public sector organisations is the “Independent review of Public Sector Efficiency” study carried out by Sir Peter Gershon in 2004. Attempted reforms have been based on the assumptions that the public sector was too large. public sector reformists have been attempting to move public services from their traditional bureaucratic.3 PUBLIC SECTOR DRIVERS FOR CHANGE Since the late 1970s and the Thatcher government. The UK civil service fits Handy’s (1985) “role culture” characterised by strong functional areas.
It is intended that the DIS will provide a clear understanding of the impact of procurement strategies on industry's capability. at both supplier and 10 . Gershon (2004) characterised efficiency in the Public Sector as “…making the best use of the resources available for the provision of public services”. or Additional outputs such as improved quality or increased levels of service. He further identified a range of efficiencies that were necessary in order to release resources to the front line. people or assets). current and future. Gershon efficiency foundations: • Reduced number of available resource (e. on time.CHAPTER TWO In addition to the Gershon (2004) report the UK MOD is further incentivised by the UK Defence Industrial Strategy (DIS) of 2005 which seeks to provide a clear understanding of the impact of MOD procurement strategy on industry’s capability. These are summarised below and are the foundations for much of the public sector reform that is in progress today.g. at both supplier and sector levels. for the same or less input • Increased economy of scale termed as ‘allocative efficiency’ The DIS follows and enforces Defence Policy and its stated need to provide the armed forces with the equipment which they require. The DIS will have a significant bearing on how the MOD conducts its business. and at best value for money to the taxpayer. whilst maintaining the same level of service provision • • Reduced cost for the resources needed to provide public services.
Hon. The DIS makes the following assertion to underline what changes need to take place in the MOD procurement cycle: “We must be able to respond to the rapidly changing strategic and operational environment by adapting current and future capabilities exploiting the opportunities offered by technology innovation.” (DIS 2005:C1. John Reid Minister for Defence 2005-2006 made the following comments regarding the DIS “We need to be assured that we can procure from a sustainable industrial base. We must remain alive to developments in the commercial market. intellectual property and capacity) that are required. 11 .25) These arrangements will be aimed at demonstrating best value for money for defence. which retains within the UK those industrial capabilities (including infrastructure. current and future. Rt. In simple terms it was stated that for every pound spent in the procurement and maintenance of defence capability the front line (armed forces) were denied a pound. particularly in the fields of information and communication technologies that are evolving at a pace that can outstrip the ability of our procurement processes to respond.CHAPTER TWO sector levels. with competitive tendering being used only where it is appropriate. skills. It will improve links with industry in an attempt to shape medium and long term strategic decisions and to create partnering agreements.
Managing Successful Programmes (2004) paper. This relationship is illustrated in Figure 3 having been adapted from the Office of Government Commerce (OGC).CHAPTER TWO from a national security perspective. Many of the drivers for the changes within Defence simultaneously affect different areas of business. 2005) As is the case in many large organisations. to ensure our appropriate sovereignty.” (John Reid. 12 . The MOD believes that change is necessary if it is to ensure that it continues to meet both its customer and stakeholder expectations. In responding to the need to deliver equipment and services more effectively and efficiently. Minister for Defence. teams are considering and implementing revised and improved processes and services. This encourages new ways of thinking. staff working within the MOD are familiar with change. and in some cases provides the opportunity of reviewing and amending relationships with both industry suppliers and front-line customers.
Figure 3 - Defence Drivers for Change
CHAPTER 3: LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1 INTRODUCTION TO LITERATURE REVIEW
The range of literature attributable to Change is both large and diverse with ideas and theories that stretch back two thousand years. Charles Darwin the British naturalist (1809-1882) made the following well known statement in his ‘Origin of the species.’ “It is not the strongest of the species which survive, nor the most intelligent, but the one most responsive to change.” Charles Darwin (1859)
The following literature review attempts to establish renowned and seminal research and theory to identify and discuss where overlap or argument exists. In the final
section of the literature review the idea of common themes and frameworks deemed pertinent to managing change in the MOD will be explored.
DEFINITIONS OF CHANGE
The term ‘Change Management’ can take many forms and cover many change environments. The most common usage of the term refers to “organisational change management”. mission, Examples of organisation-wide change might include a change in operations, new technologies, mergers and major
collaborations (Burnes, 1996; Cameron & Quinn, 1999; Kotter, 1996).
Goodman (1984) tells us that “Change is the alteration from one state to another.” It is generally accepted that the pace of change has increased. Kotter (1996) cites two major drivers for this; faster communication over a wider network and increased
international trade, sometimes referred to as globalisation.
Two distinct types of
change process are recognised, transactional change and transformational change. Transactional change is typically incremental, gradually altering skills, routines and beliefs whilst leaving some factors constant. Transformational change is a more
fundamental change in the culture or paradigm of the organisation. The drivers for, outcomes, of and leadership required for these two types are markedly different. The gradual, evolutionary nature of transactional change means that there are no step changes in processes, expectations or organisational change. This type of
change is relatively easy to effect and can normally be managed rather than led. Transformational change however is totally different. The magnitude of change and consequent disruption to professional and even personnel lives make it a monumentous event, particularly for the more conservative employee, typified by the following sentiment, “The whirlwind of change is taking us into a situation of extreme uncertainty. We are no longer fat and flabby.” CLINTEC CREATE (1996). Sixel (1995) tells us that “…downsizing became popular in the 90s to replace layoffs, but then people started thinking downsizing was too negative”. From that he says, 'rightsizing’ was born. Additionally, new programs such as Total Quality
Management (TQM) or Business Process Re-engineering (BPR) made famous by Hammer and Champy (1993) were also born.
Heller (1997) describes successful organisational change as “…to create so thriving and developing an organic activity that organisations can provide excellent well paid
2004) Johnson & Scholes (2004) perhaps illustrate not so much the importance of process in change management but more the need for a commitment and drive in a change team.” (Clemmer. But it can’t be managed and made to march to some orderly step-by-step process…whether we become change victims or victors depends on our readiness for it. Johnson & Scholes (2004) argue that frameworks for change management are useful only when change agents or those involved are energized. Clemmer (1995) lends support to that view when he talks of change management “It [change] can’t be managed….” This is perhaps an aspirational statement.” This definition and argument offered by 16 .CHAPTER THREE work for all. “Organisations have realized that all the structures in the world are of no use if the people implementing them are not convinced of their necessity” (Johnson & Scholes.it can be ignored. but is useful if only to demonstrate the energy that might be required if an organisation is serious about change. 1995) Change management is also defined in terms of a process and in particular Recardo (1995) states that “it [Change Management] is the process an organisation uses to design. resisted. capitalized upon and created. implement and evaluate appropriate initiatives to deal with demands placed upon them by the external environment”. responded to. .
1967) When it comes to organisational change management. suggests the importance of the psychological factors associated with Organisational Change and how belief might create a better environment for change “Change has a considerable psychological impact on the human mind. 1992). 1982). Indeed. To the confident it is inspiring because the challenge exists to make things better. the forces for maintaining the status quo in most organisations are so strong that some change leaders will plan for a quick and dramatic effort rather than undertake an incremental approach which may place change in the hands of those employees who have a vested interest in leaving existing power relationships unchanged (Paterson. 17 .CHAPTER THREE Recardo (1995) sits neatly with the current mobilisation in the Public Sector and in particular the MOD. where the fallout from Gershon’s (2004) report on Modernising Government has meant that change is not so much a possibility as an inevitability. 1983).” (King Whitney Jnr. To the fearful it is threatening because it means that things may get worse. change agents need to ensure that the change fits the needs of the organisation (Ackerman. they also should be prepared for people who are revolutionary to the change and may resist it and often will try to sabotage it (Dunford. The view offered by King Whitney Jr (1967). To the hopeful it is encouraging because things may get better.
. Where a manager is not using a framework it could be said that the framing of an exception becomes more difficult. 1997.3. This is argued against by the movement who support the notion of Processual Change (Buchanan and Storey. Kanter et al. leadership and politics. and in particular the wider notion of planned change. 1994. allowing the simple and prompt identification of exceptions and thus early planning to manage them effectively. Managers use frameworks to clarify complex situations.. Pettigrew 1997) which has many influences including culture. project’ are more likely to arise. (Dawson. Hatch.1 LEWIN Lewin (1946) offered a planned approach to change and proposed that there were three stages to effecting change within an organisation. Lewin’s (1946) model. 1992) Lewin (1946) makes the assumption in his first step that organisations operate in a state of equilibrium and thus can be interrupted at any time to alter direction.CHAPTER THREE 3. The absence of a framework will increase the level of difficulty associated with putting an exception in the context of the change project/program. 18 .. Kanter et al. Burnes. The first of these stages describes the unfreezing of an organisation followed by movement or moving to a desired future state with the inevitable next step of refreezing.. 1997.1992. 2004. has attracted a degree of criticism in the last two decades. Questions such as ‘…what does this mean for the 3.3 FRAMEWORKS FOR CHANGE Frameworks or theories can help provide stability and order when faced with change.
The three step approach to change he suggests has given rise to numerous bodies of further work in both psychology and organisational change. as well as praise in the last 60 years. There are those however that despite the linear nature of the 3 step process. His seminal work on leadership style and the experiments in planned change which took place in World War II in an effort to alter consumer behaviour launched a whole generation of research in group dynamics and the implementation of change programs.” Edgar Schein (1996) who was himself a notable figure in the field of Change commented favourably on the work of Lewin (1946): “There is little question that the intellectual father of contemporary theories of applied behavioural science. will not be far below the surface. in particular Hendry (1996) “Scratch any account of creating and managing change and the idea that change is a three-stage process which necessarily begins with a process of unfreezing. The 19 . action research and planned change is Kurt Lewin.CHAPTER THREE It has been further said (Burnes. 2004) that it lacked depth and had limited applicability for small scale projects only.” Conclusion: There has been much criticism of Lewin’s work. argue its ongoing credibility.
CHAPTER THREE model may not suit the dynamic nature of today’s organisational environment. • • • • significant loss of market share falling profits threat of impending bankruptcy job losses The MOD is unlikely to go out of business and the drivers can normally be attributed to influences that are external to the department.2 KOTTER To try to explain why change management might be different in the public sector and in particular the UK MOD it is useful to apply Kotter’s Eight step process (Figure 4) to public departments. Sense of urgency – In the private sector this can be generated by one or more of the following.3. in most public sector examples a sense of urgency as is suggested by 20 . such as government policy. Figure 4 – Kotter (1996): Eight Step Model – Leading Change. but it provides the basis for further research. Therefore. 3.
The following vision statement is offered as an exhibit: “By 2010 I want Cleveland Police to be at the forefront of modern policing. the accountability to multiple stakeholders and the lack of empowerment and autonomy given to the leader. 21 . This can and invariably does lead to a lack of staff connection and/or affiliation to the change.CHAPTER THREE Kotter (1996) is never quite established.” Sean Price. This will be achieved by investing in and supporting our staff. Communicate vision and strategy – As a result of the size and complexity of public sector organisations. Tomkins (1987) suggests using greater efficiency as the driver. generation of an accurate achievable vision is difficult. in response to the real needs of the communities we serve. driving forward problem solving police work. he remains accountable to government. through close co-operation with our partners. giving them the skills and equipment they need to deliver the professionalism that the public deserves. Chief Constable. the media and the general public. Cleveland police force (2006). under scrutiny by the National Audit Office. Creating the guiding coalition – This can be difficult in the public sector and in particular in the MOD due to the complexity of the organisation. clearly stating how efficiency and improvements will be assessed. The level of interconnection between departments increases the number of stakeholders. Although the leader may control his budget and staff. Techniques such as managing by objectives and performance measurement are examples.
2002) EURIM also cites “lack of top management and commitment” as a top five reason for public sector project failure..CHAPTER THREE The statement does not make clear how the vision might be achieved given that its success will be partly based on the government’s willingness to sink treasury funds into it.’ (The European Information Society (EURIM). “The complexities of developing and implementing healthcare strategies are obvious”. let’s take shelter in the house.. Without a clear vision detailing everyone’s end state.in successful transformation a vision is but one element in a larger system”. This could render the statement unachievable and perhaps not particularly memorable to those [the organisation] who must identify with it. 22 .it looks like it is going to rain heavily. individuals often cannot see ‘What is in it for me. The word vision can sometimes communicate a grandness or mysticism that is rarely borne out. To illustrate this fact Kotter (1996) offers a model for the relationship between Vision. Plans and Budgets which is illustrated in Figure 5.” Kotter (1996) tells us that “…. The model attempts to illustrate the difference between creating the vision and delivering or managing its achievement. a simple example might be “. Strategies.
Short Term Wins – Again difficult to achieve due primarily to a difficulty in measuring public sector performance and the inability to set realistic. It is however undoubtedly a barrier to swift and agile change.” 23 . The British Medical Association (2002) complained that “…doctors cannot be expected to deliver a ‘sausage-factory’ service based on productivity targets. balanced targets. Arguably this is necessary to ensure standard provision of services across the department. Plans and Budgets Empowering Employees –The very bureaucracy of the public sector prevents any real level of empowerment.CHAPTER THREE VISION LEADERSHIP CREATES STRATEGIES A sensible and appealing picture of the future A logic for how the vision can be achieved Specific steps and timetables to implement the strategies Plans converted into financial projections and goals PLANS MANAGEMENT CREATES BUDGETS Figure 5 – The Relationship of Vision. Responsibilities and levels of authorisation are relatively fixed and people in most positions have clearly delineated power and authority. Strategies.
not for profit. 2004). 24 . and. can be achieved by individuals further down the management chain. The use of words such as ‘consolidate’. The consolidation phase is also unattractive to politicians and managers as it is unlikely to generate good headlines and publicity.” There is often much personal resistance to change. with a clear gap between ‘strategists’ and ‘staff’.g. private sector. The “Sense of urgency” and “…. fairly conservative culture which is particularly difficult to change. The eight steps do not appear to emphasize the need for strategist (senior managers) to follow through with the same vigour as is placed on steps one & two. which continues throughout the program.powerful guiding coalition” that is followed by delegation of work. etc…) will dictate the approach (or framework) required. whereas others suggest that the environment (e. ‘plan’ and ‘institutionalize’ seem to suggest that these steps may be rather more straightforward or easy to accomplish. public sector.CHAPTER THREE Consolidating the Gains – Long reaction times make it difficult to identify change benefits. Kotter’s eight step model is one that appeals to many managers (Cameron & Green. Conclusion: Kotter has identified a range of steps which suggest that their implementation in parallel with a change program would be an additive. identified by Kelly and Amburgey (1991) as “organisational inertia. Anchor New Approaches – Much of the public sector has a deep rooted. Where there may be a problem with the model is in its promotion of early enthusiasm and energy. The problem with Kotter’s steps is that they appear to suggest universal applicability.
1996) and Fernandez & Rainey (2006) follow a logical sequence in a change program. however Fernandez & Rainey place more emphasis on hard elements such as plans and resources in contrast to the softer or less tangible steps provided by Kotter.3 FERNANDEZ AND RAINEY Fernandez and Rainey (2006) have developed a set of eight factors specific to Public Sector change which although similar in nature to Kotter (1996) have a distinctly different emphasis. Kotter (1996) suggests that the eight step model is a linear and progressively additive process. eight steps and factors side by side. Kotter (1996) steps Establish a sense of urgency Create a guiding coalition Develop a vision and strategy Communicate the change vision Empower employees for broad based action Generate short term wins Consolidate gains and produce more change Anchor new approaches in the culture Pursue comprehensive change Provide resources Institutionalize the change Fernandez & Rainey (2006) factors Ensure the need Provide a plan Build internal support for change and overcome resistance Ensure top management support and commitment Build external support Table 1 below sets out the Table 1 – Kotter (1996) and Fernandez/Rainey (2006) Comparison Both of the sets of steps/factors suggested by Kotter (1995. in that they suggest benefit can be obtained (in isolation) from each factor as an additive to change. Fernandez and 25 .3.CHAPTER THREE 3.
taking great care to implement all eight with more than a suggestion that all must be adhered to if success is to be had. 2002) 26 . 3. Models such as Kotter (1996) suggest a linear journey through each step.” (Shaw.4 SHAW Shaw (2002) suggests a model for change but looks at it in a different way. and can provide benefit to the change program in isolation of the other stages. The main benefit that can be seen from the factors are that they stand on their own.3. The starting point for the model is that the environment of an organisation is not in equilibrium and as such the change mechanisms within organisations tend to be 'messy' and to a certain extent operate in reverse to the way outlined by Lewin (1946). where innovation and agility are likely to be less often referred to. Rather the forces for change are already inherent in the system and emerge as the system adapts to its environment. “It is not appropriate to consider the status quo as an appropriate starting point.CHAPTER THREE Rainey perhaps do so in recognition of the more bureaucratic environment that exists within the Public Sector. Conclusion: There is a strong likelihood that the factors identified by Fernandez and Rainey would be more applicable to the environment in which the MOD operates. given that organisations are not static entities. Change is seen as both complex and also evolutionary.
Such different models will have implications on the way organisations and their leaders view change, the way they manage change and the effectiveness of any change initiative. Shaw (2002) questions the way in which much of the theory on change suggests that we can choose and design new future states for organisations.
“...avoiding the widely favoured use of two by two matrices, idealized schemas and simplified typologies that characterize much of the change management literature today. We must be participative if we are to understand and
influence change” (Shaw, 2002)
The approach suggested by Shaw indicates that those participating in change projects or programs should live within the immediate paradoxes and complexities of organisational life. Conclusion: Shaw paints a bleak picture for advocates of change
models/frameworks and their research, with a clear suggestion that the only way to be successful in a change program is to ‘live the dream’. There is some truth in the participative approach that Shaw suggests, however there must still be a strong argument for frameworks if only to guide managers along when managing change.
3.3.5 BEER AND NOHRIA
Beer & Nohria (2000) advocate a model that recognises that change is complex and therefore requires a more complex, albeit still uniform set of responses to ensure its effectiveness. They prescribe a six-step process to achieve effective change. They concentrate on 'task alignment', where employees' roles, responsibilities and relationships are seen as key to bringing about situations that enforce changed ways of thinking, attitudes and behaving. Their stages are: • • • • • • Mobilise commitment to change through joint diagnosis. Develop a shared vision of how to organise. Foster consensus, competence and commitment to shared vision. Spread the word about the change. Institutionalise the change through formal policies. Monitor and adjust as needed.
Conclusion: The advice from Beer and Nohria through their change model leans towards a systemic approach. It acknowledges that a change in one area of an organisation can adversely affect another area of the organisation and it therefore promotes organisational communication at all levels in order to avoid silos inside the department. The premise for Beer and Nohria’s model is one that fits well with the MOD where institutional silos are protected and maintained by senior managers. It is most likely that this approach would encounter difficulty in the MOD, particularly in the softer stages such as “Foster consensus, competence and commitment to shared vision”.
3.3.6 MCKINSEY 7S FRAMEWORK The McKinsey (1980) 7S framework (illustrated at Figure 6) was originally developed as a tool to enable broader thinking when organizing a company effectively, suggesting that strategy must be thought about in terms of how it works in conjunction with a number of other factors. Successful change requires attending to the seven variables of the model and using them as a framework to diagnose how an organisation currently operates and how change might be designed. Moreover, when all seven variables are aligned and facing the vision, mission and strategy, there is a real momentum to successfully operate/change. The premise of the model is that If one element changes then this will also affect all the others. For example, a change in HR management, like skills profile uplifts and associated training will have an impact on organisational culture (management style) and thus will affect structures, processes, and finally the characteristic competences of the organisation.
mission and objective. Staff and Skills – Matching people to the skills needed for the organisation Style – Managerial style (does it fit the organisational circumstances) Hard s’s • • • Strategy – Organisations plan for meeting its objectives. Structure – Who does what and who is responsible for non-achievement Systems – Adequate systems to support the organisation (e.CHAPTER THREE Figure 6 – McKinsey (1980): 7S Framework The McKinsey seven variables are outline below: Soft s’s • • • Shared values – Organisations values.g. beliefs. performance management. etc…) 30 . Communications.
It may be helpful to determine the current state of each element and to compare this with the ideal state. identify who is losing what. Bridge’s Transition Model (1991) The model suggests that before an organisation can begin something new or implement change. Fig 7.CHAPTER THREE Conclusion: The 7-S Model is a useful tool widely used in the public sector (MoD. 31 .7 BRIDGES TRANSITION MODEL The ideas of Bridges (1991) on transition assist in providing an understanding of what is going on when an organisational change takes place. redundancies and mergers.3. identified through benchmarking (Taylor. Based on this it might be possible to develop action plans to achieve the required degree of change. openly acknowledge the losses. 1911). His phased model. mark the endings and continuously repeat information about what is changing and why. illustrated at Figure 7. OGC) to help initiate change processes and to give them some direction. 3. can be particularly useful when organisations are faced with inevitable changes such as site closures. it needs to end what ‘used to be’.
(1998) explain that it may be “…a lot more effective (as well as difficult) to find ways to integrate the best of the new with the most useful of the old. and therefore the organisation. make a new beginning and accept the change: • Gain acknowledgement and acceptance of the purpose for the change (case for change) • • Communicate a picture of how the new organisation will look and feel Communicate and gain a step-by-step understanding of how the organisation will change and reach its desired end-state • Ensure staff involvement (awareness of roles and responsibilities) in the change and the outcome of their efforts in delivering it Embracing the new whilst sweeping out the old may sound in theory like a sensible thing to do.” Too many organisations are subjected to ill-conceived and unnecessary change. The change manager must ensure that people recognize the neutral zone and treat it as part of the organisation’s change process (Cameron & Green. 2004).CHAPTER THREE In the neutral zone. individuals within the organisation feel disoriented with falling motivation and increasing anxiety. The model then suggests that four elements are necessary to help individuals. 32 . Mintzberg et al.
They allow the analysis and research to be bounded by a theoretical and conceptual framework in which to act as the basis for future empirical research. Bridges presents different views of change through the transition model and it is one which could have uses in the public sector where redundancy or closure of a site is inevitable. In this case a long drawn out change process would need to constantly re-focus its aim in context with the external factors affecting it. specifically what emotions are present and at what stages. This is best illustrated where an organisation is in a dynamic sector of the market such as technology.CHAPTER THREE Conclusion: Bridges transition model focuses on the complete change of an organisation and its individuals and in it he makes a clear distinction between planned change and transition. This is an important point that illustrates the need to check and re-check the projected aims of the change program. Practitioners are often focused on achieving the end result of a change such as Quality System Certification. or for. Bridges’ ideas on transition are aimed at gaining a deeper understanding of what is going on in an organisation. 33 . their organisation. without realising the impact on. It is the belief (Johnson & Scholes. As a final few thoughts on the models and frameworks for change Cameron & Green (2004) explain that change models serve as a means to an end. 2004) amongst theorist and researchers that organisational Change models can provide the foundation for study of any type of change and is not tied to any particular field or sector of industry.
34 . Managers have to perform many roles in an organisation and how they handle various situations will depend on their personal style of management. The way in which people co-operate with each other. From the point of view of results.CHAPTER THREE 3. the effectiveness of the organisation is determined by the way work is organized and by the way people work with or against each other.4 STYLES OF MANAGING CHANGE Much has been written and researched on management and the existence of distinct styles. A management style is an overall method of leadership used by a manager (Dunphy & Stace. 1993). with the leadership and with the community. indeed the extent of their commitment to the organisational objectives will depend on the style of management.
The military could generally be identified with the Coercive and Pace Setting styles whilst most civilian managers would fit more neatly with the Democratic style. When staff have a contribution to make (voluntarily) May fail if staff lack experience or ideas Pace-setting Raising the bar. These six leadership traits or styles are listed in Table 2 and adapted to provide a short definition. and listening to this. difficult in maintaining where less skilled and junior staff are employed. The disadvantages of both these styles are evident and include an over-reliance on management. 35 . When the manager is both respected and keen Has a negative effect if the manager is not respected Affiliative Building relationships with people through the use of positive feedback When staff relationships have broken down Cannot be used in isolation Democratic Asking staff what they think. appropriate time to use and potential drawbacks of using a particular style.1 GOLEMAN Daniel Goleman (2000) worked through a set of six different styles through a detailed research of nearly 4000 executives worldwide. People stop thinking If the manager is not a good coach or if staff are not compelled to take part – will not work Table 2 – Goleman (2000): Six Leadership Styles The MOD has a mixed manning (military and civilian) approach to filling senior management positions and these clearly bring different styles (which can be observed overtly).4. Coercive Short Definition Telling people what to do and when Authoritative Persuading and attracting people with an engaging vision When step change is required.CHAPTER THREE 3. and then asking for a little bit more – increasing momentum When staff are self starters and a high degree of competence Can be difficult to maintain momentum – inappropriate when staff need help Coaching Encouraging staff to try new things and ‘upskill’ When there is a gap in the required skillsets When to use this style When there is a crisis Disadvantages of this style Encourages dependence.
The MOD and public sector in general could make use of the ‘when to use’ element of the table. 36 .2 DUNPHY AND STACE Whoever is responsible for managing change must consider the style of management they adopt.4.CHAPTER THREE Conclusion: Goleman has produced a useful map of management styles which are helpful to understanding the styles in use in organisations. Identifying appropriate managers with complimentary styles for circumstances is a more difficult challenge for organisations. Different styles will more than likely have degrees of appropriateness depending on the context and complexity of the desired change. To illustrate this point Dunphy & Stace (1993) offer a matrix to try and assist in identifying the right style and people for managing change. 3.
Burnes. and high credibility”. 1946. rapid transformational change or change in established autocratic cultures Table 3 – Dunphy & Stace (1995): A Discussion of Different Styles The matrix that is offered by Dunphy & Stace (1993) makes some observations that appear in many other areas of change theory (Kotter. 2002). Lewin. 37 .CHAPTER THREE Circumstance of Style Education and Communication Means/Context Group briefings assume internalisation Of strategic logic and Trust of top management Involvement in setting the strategy agenda and/or resolving strategic issues by taskforces or groups Change agent retains co-ordination/control: delegates elements of change Use of authority to set direction and means of change Benefits Overcoming lack of (or mis)information Problems Time consuming Direction or progress may be unclear Time consuming solutions/outcome within existing paradigm Risk of perceived manipulation Incremental or non-crisis transformational change Transformational change effectiveness Incremental Change or long-time horizontal transformational change Collaboration/ Participation Increasing ownership of a decision or process may improve quality of decisions Process is guided/controlled but involvement takes place Clarity and speed Intervention Direction Risk of lack of acceptance and ill -conceived strategy Coercion/edict Explicit use of power through edict May be successful in crises or state of confusion Least successful unless crises Crises. broad expertise. These have been adapted from Johnson & Scholes (2005) and summarised below: • Different stages in the change process will require different styles of management This points towards a mixed bag of styles within the change team and is supported by Kotter (1996) who tells us that the right people will have “…strong position power. 1996.
This is no more so than in the public sector where the drivers for change (Figure 3. 38 . the difficulty again for organisations is the development and/or recruitment of individuals who are capable of adopting appropriate styles when and if required to do so.4. 13) are so wide ranging and in some cases predicated on political gain rather than improved organisational effectiveness. The model underlines the importance of identifying the type of change to be undertaken 3. p. This is illustrated in Figure 8. Conclusion: The Dunphy and Stace research is similar to that of Goleman (2000) with the conclusion being that a contingency approach is required by management if they are to succeed in managing change.CHAPTER THREE • In terms of duration and scale. There is no one ‘right way’ of managing in a time of change. the participative styles are more likely to be appropriate for incremental change within organisations.3 BALOGUN & HOPE HAILEY Balogun & Hope Hailey (2004) offer a scale for identifying the type of change.
• Evolution – change in strategy and paradigm in a progressive manner. May have been instigated to turn around the company. 39 . This may be enacted through analysis of activities and the external envinronment of the company. most commonly used • Reconstruction – rapid change with a fair degree of upheaval although no change in paradigm.CHAPTER THREE Scope of Change Realignment Transformation Nature of Change Incremental Adaptation Evolution Big Bang Reconstruction Revolution Figure 8 – Balogun & Hope-Hailey (2004): Types of Change In the Balogun & Hope-Hailey (2004) model they identify four degrees or types of change outlined below and adapted from Johnson & Scholes (2005). • Revolution – major change in strategy and paradigm in a rapid fashion. This could be present where a hostile takeover threatens the company. • Adaptation – accommodated within the current paradigm.
In his paper. Caldwell (2003) offers the idea that in a change process. culture and systems to make it possible.CHAPTER THREE The Balogun & Hope-Hailey (2004) model advocates a flexible or contingent approach to managing change and recognises the need for an unbiased style of management. This view is supported by Johnson & Scholes (2005) who identify managers in an organisation as facilitators of change whilst the leaders provide strategies. A range of skills and attributes were bestowed on these individuals such as risk taking and the ability to deal with uncertainty. Caldwell (2003) asks the question “Change leaders and change managers: different or complimentary?” The role and importance of leaders of change in organisations has generated much debate in the last twenty years. 1990). 1983. Devanna and Tichy. Conclusion: Balogun & Hope-Hailey present a logical assessment tool which can be practically applied at the outset of a change program or whilst forming a strategy. Models by both Dunphy & Stace and Goleman could be applied in parallel to this model to aid in assessing a more complete picture of the change required and the individual styles needed to support it. This model could have some practical benefit to the MOD in assessing implementation risks in major change programs. managers and leaders or agents of change must coexist. 40 . 1986. Bass & Stogdill. Terms such as ‘champion’ and ‘transformational leadership’ present these individuals or groups as superheroes who would change the world if allowed. but were content to break down the walls of corporate inflexibility (Kanter.
41 . For example a fear of flying once explored and reasoned can be cured through an understanding of how an aircraft works and the safety record associated with it.4 COGNITIVE CHANGE – KUBLER-ROSS. anger. WEINBERG The cognitive approach to change builds upon the behaviourist approach by putting individual behaviour into the context of beliefs. depression and finally acceptance. with a focus on affecting outcomes (Cameron & Green. SATIR. and will not be ironed out by re-framing opinions or through positive re-affirmation (Cameron & Green. 2004). Some obstacles need to be worked through. bargaining. Kubler-Ross (1969) published her now seminal research ‘On death and dying’ which suggested that terminally ill patients would typically go through five stages when coming to terms with their prognosis.4. The stages were denial. In particular Adams.CHAPTER THREE 3. 1991 (Figure 9). This approach looks at building a positive mental attitude backed up by an analysis of which beliefs produce certain behaviours. 2004). Management researchers have developed upon the Kubler-Ross (1969) model. Hayes and Hopson (1976) developed a change curve which was built upon by the work of Satir et al. A drawback of this approach is that it shows a lack of understanding of the internal emotions of the individuals concerned.
42 . If we are to believe the Weinberg (1997) model this idea will develop over time to become ‘the new status quo’. (1991) terms as a ‘foreign element’ enters. (1991) model suggests that relative equilibrium is in place in the ‘old status quo’ where the system is in harmony until what Satir et al. Weinberg (1997) draws heavily on the work of Satir et al. It is often when an individual or organisation has reached the very depths of despair that an idea will emerge (Cameron & Green.CHAPTER THREE Foreign Element Transforming Idea Figure 9 – Satir et al. (1991) to map it onto what he saw as the critical points that will support or undermine a change process. it affects the system. (1991) Change Curve The Satir et al. 2004).. whatever the instance. This could be a new government policy in the case of the public sector or a merger/acquisition in the case of the private sector.
Conclusion: The cognitive style provides change managers and those involved in change with an insight into the emotional turmoil that change creates in organisations and individuals to help us understand where we are at any given time.CHAPTER THREE Old status quo Foreign element introduced Reject Try to reject foreign element Can’t reject Accommodate Try to accommodate foreign element in old model Can’t accommodate Try to transform old model to receive foreign element CHAOS Can’t transform Transforming idea Transform Can’t integrate Try to integrate Integrate Master New status quo Practice to master transformed model Can’t master Figure 10 – Weinberg (1997): Critical points in the change process Weinberg (1997) suggests in his model that if a change is not well planned. Further refining of a public sector model is necessary to recognize the unique environment. Despite the seminal nature of this work it appears to have limited benefit when supporting public sector change such as in the MOD. the change project or program will fail. or if the members of the organisation consciously or unconsciously decide to resist. The Weinberg model suggests that you are able to map out the process of change and tinker with it to get the required outcome in the way in which you would re-design a process model. 43 .
They give us ideas on how best to create a positive 44 . which is most memorable?). four people comment positively on your appearance and one is critical of your attire.CHAPTER THREE 3. People tend to pay more attention to negativity than positivity (e.5 WHETTEN & CAMERON As a final thought on frameworks for change Whetten and Cameron (2005) talk about the importance of leading ‘positive’ change in particular a phenomenon they describe as “bad is stronger than good”. Conclusion: The approach recommended by Whetten and Cameron (2005) is useful in a long term sense.4. Positive Personal Energy and positive energy networks Positive feedback on strengths and the best self Superior individual and organisational performance Expressions of gratitude.g. forgiveness and compassion Figure 11 – Relationships among factors in a climate of positivity. Whetten and Cameron tell us that managers must establish a climate of positivity with three necessary conditions which are highlighted in Figure 11 as leading to superior performance for both the organisation and the individuals.
CHAPTER THREE environment within organisations. has already gone. This approach may be useful to lower level teams within the MOD where the opportunity exists for teambuilding in newly formed IPTs. supportive to change. The opportunity to ‘create’ a positive environment. The problem with this approach is it would not be suitable where a decision has been made to close down a site or to make a number of redundancies. going on to explain that this will have a catalytic effect during change programs. 45 .
Culture and Communication appear to be the principle factors that enable success in a change project or programme.1 LEADERSHIP Mullins (2005) tells us that during change “.leadership is based on interpersonal skills in a broader context. (1994) developed a table for comparison. In order to identify what attributes would be specific to a leader Bennis. It has correlation with the willingness and enthusiasm of the followers”.. passion. Bennis (1994) sought to extol the virtues of ‘visionary leaders’ and through this work he identified what he termed the three basic ingredients: • • • a guiding vision. The work of Kotter (1996) in developing leaders agrees with that of Bennis (1994) and in particular he says that “…we have raised a generation of very talented people to be managers.5 COMMON THEMES OF CHANGE LITERATURE The review of literature has identified three key themes which appear to crop up regularly in Change management research. not 46 . This projects a belief that a ‘good leader’ will be able to engage the support of staff whilst also generating a sense of interest in the outcome of a particular change..5. The following section of the review attempts to draw on existing literature linking back to these three themes in a change project or program.CHAPTER THREE 3. outlined in Table 4. integrity. 3. In no particular order Leadership.
There can be difficulty in generating the ‘positivity’ in the Public Sector where there is limited opportunity to reward individuals for participating in a change. they don’t solve problems they don’t even organize people. Theorists talk about unlocking positivity in individuals during change. For example. unjustified or pose harmful consequences for the members 47 . “Managers cannot be successful without being good leaders and vice versa. 1999. collaboration and meaningfulness in their work (Whetten & Cameron.e. 2005).” (Whetten & Cameron. Quinn. 2004).” Kotter (1996) says of leaders “…they don’t make plans. Research now suggests that those responsible for managing change must be contingent in their approach i. 2005). What they [leaders] do is prepare the organisation for change and help them deal with the struggle as they face it” A Manager Administers Is a copy Maintains Focuses on systems and structure Relies on control Has a short range of view Asks how and when Has his eye on the bottom line Imitates Accepts the status quo Classic good soldier Does things right A Leader Innovates Is an original Develops Focuses on people Inspires trust Has a long range perspective Asks why Has his eye on the horizon Originates Challenges the status quo His own person Does the right thing Table 4 – Bennis (1994): Managers and Leaders More recent research makes clear that such distinctions between leadership and management which may have been useful in previous decades may no longer be relevant (Cameron & Quinn. some ideas for change are simply ill conceived. 2000. If a leader can project the positive benefits of a change they will be able to unlock an individual’s ability to experience appreciation.CHAPTER THREE leader/managers.
2005 . Whetten & Cameron. 48 . well thought out and planned change. 2006). attribute their success in part to the quality of leadership in their organisations. Wallace. Ryanair and Tesco. Mullins. Kotter. If leadership is indeed a key factor in managing change then the MOD must ensure that it can identify those individuals who can not only administer and manage. Michael O’Leary and Terry Leahy roll off the tongue like the ‘A’ list celebrities of today and this forms part of the attraction of working for the organisation (Palmer & Hartley. leaders must build internal support and overcome resistance – no mean feat in the Public Sector (Fernandez & Rainey. including the Virgin Group.CHAPTER THREE of the organisation. 2005). 2002) Opportunity and selection for promotion in the MOD for both civil servants and their military counterparts is generally based on the portrayal of good managerial behaviour. 1996. Even assuming that a well justified. The names of Richard Branson. Many of the most successful private sector organisations. There appears to be much in literature to suggest that positive leadership can make significant gains for organisations (Bennis 1994. 1990. but also portray the kind of behaviours that Bennis (1997) suggests are important in Table 4.
definitions and expectations that characterize organisations and their members. (Cameron. 1999. Researchers (Cameron & Ettington.CHAPTER THREE 3. 1996) agree with the notion that it [organisational culture] is a socially constructed phenomenon. 2004). 2002) argue that organisations should only involve themselves in culture change if the current culture does not adequately support and facilitate the attainment of the strategic objectives.5. O’Reilly & Chatman. 1997) Culture change as an isolated objective is meaningless (Cameron & Green. Schein. particular to organisations. The vast majority of writers are in agreement that it [culture] refers to the taken for granted values. 2004). Cameron & Quinn. 49 . 1996. underlying assumptions.2 CULTURE Although there are more than one hundred and fifty definitions of organisational culture (Kroeber & Kluckholn. In summary it [culture] will affect the way members think. Schein. Figure 12 is an illustrative example of cultural context for change in a Technical Services department in Local Government. 1988. Molenaar et al. 1988. Culture represents and typifies ’How things are done around here’ or the prevailing ideology that is inherent in members and affects their ability to behave independently. which serves to bind them together as a ‘social glue’ (Cameron & Green. behave and feel. you will be able to identify levers to effect a shift in culture to a new state. 1996. This premise is based on the perception that culture can be measured and that by assessing the organisation within a cultural web (Johnson & Scholes. 2005) or paradigm. O’Reilly & Chatman. 1952) important theoretical discussions of (Cameron & Ettington.. 1996.
parking. or paradigm of an organisation and the physical manifestations of organisational culture. narrowly avoiding mistakes ‘Get your head down’ and get on with the job if it goes wrong blame someone else • PARADIGM Strong belief about high quality service in terms of professional standards. rather than on satisfying the needs of the customer • POWER Groups with heads controlling access to to and influence of elected politicians • CONTROL • • Emphasis on formal budgetary control Rapid response to crises and emergencies • ORGANISATION Departments as silos in which services are delivered and conventions preserved Hierarchical and mechanistic. They tell us that the six surrounding physical behaviours will characterize and reinforce the central paradigm.” 50 .CHAPTER THREE STORIES • • How things used to be. reacting to complaints. Johnson & Scholes (2005) define the cultural web as “…a representation of the taken for granted assumptions. strong emphasis on structures and budgets • Figure 12 – Johnson & Scholes (2005): The Cultural Web Johnson & Scholes (2005) have developed the cultural web as an aid to understanding the paradigm in which an organisation operates.g. offices and secretaries for ‘support’ RITUALS • Overloaded problem solvers. ‘it’s their fault The power of Chief Officers • SYMBOLS Symbols of privilege for senior mangers (e.
Hofstede and his colleagues analyzed the differences in the responses of over 100. Hofstede’s (1980) work identified five major dimensions upon which country cultures differed (Adapted from Aiman-Smith (2004): • • • Power distance – how hierarchies and the distribution of power is viewed. Cameron & Quinn 1999) to adapt his work and use it to study and suggest how to change organisational culture. toughness vs tenderness in a culture. 1983. They believe it is of value. 1981. 1997. 1986. Uncertainty avoidance – the extent to which individuals are at ease or not with organisational uncertainty and clarity of structure. versus group dependence and integration. 2000). Individualism – this is the polar opposite of collectivism and is the extent to which individuals are supposed to be self-sufficient and able to look after themselves. Mitroff. Geert Hofstedes’ groundbreaking 1980 book. Masculinity or Femininity – the dimension which has caused most debate.CHAPTER THREE The work of Quinn & Rohrbaugh (1981) and more recently Cameron & Quinn (1999) in developing a framework for diagnosing and changing organisational culture is widely recognised as representing what is of value to people about the nature of an organisations’ performance. ‘Culture’s Consequences’ was borne out of his research within IBM from 1973 to 1978. This laid the groundwork for other research (Quinn & Rohrbaugh. Wilber. Cameron & Etington.000 IBM staff across 50 nations. This dimension is aimed at reflecting hardness vs softness. From what was at that time the world’s largest survey data base. appropriate and good for forming opinions and acting on them (Beyer & Cameron. 1998. • 51 .
Silverman. Case studies based on observation and insider interviews give a sense of reality and currency that captures the attention. 1999. The qualitative school (Dey. and to track the standardized captured components of culture as a linear process. with discussion and analysis. Pallant. 2001. 1993) points out that the richness of perceptions and experience inside an organisation are vital to deep understanding. possibly unreliable (unique to the interpretation of the researcher) qualitative information make the usefulness iffy at best. Robson. you would suspect. and they say that culture cannot be constrained to a two by two matrix or a list of dimensions. offer ways to do qualitative tracking over time. 2002. Looking at an organisation using data gathered in a variety of methods. expensive. Observations of the components of culture. lies somewhere in the middle and managers will be best served by both. Easterby-Smith et al. combines quantitative and qualitative data that can allow managers to capitalize on the advantages of 52 . 1993. and that the drawbacks of getting slow. Having a method for obtaining quantitative data has the advantage of allowing managers to put together more “hard data” analyses to look at culture as a component of management. The truth. Researchers and theorists interested in organisational culture have been at odds discussing the pros and cons of qualitative or quantitative ways of looking at culture. The quantitative school (Morris.CHAPTER THREE • Long term or short term orientation – this has to do with the culture’s members expectation of long or short term reward and recognition. 2002) of researchers argue that managers need to have some hard data.. or triangulation.
CHAPTER THREE quantitative methods as well as capturing a rich not-easily-quantified picture of the organisation. 53 .
5. inadvertently send inconsistent messages. 2005) if the message can be personalized. This is one of the main reasons why timely communication is important.. 2004. Fernandez and Rainey (2006) explain that. 54 . with timescales not being met. The complexity of change projects is often underestimated. 2004. 1996). Change can trigger a number of emotional responses in individuals (Cameron & Green.3 COMMUNICATION The importance of communication in a change project or program cannot be understated. clear communication with the affected group must take place in parallel (Cameron & Green.CHAPTER THREE 3. If you declare a plan for a change activity it is essential that it is adhered to. The message that Kotter (1996) gives us is one that many organisations could identify with today. Kotter (1996) tells us in step four of his eight step model that Or they “…managers undercommunciate. In either case the net result is a stalled transformation”. Face-to-face discussions and communications on an individual basis are especially important when the individual(s) are likely to be adversely affected by the change (Cameron & Green. “…managerial leaders must build internal support for change and reduce resistance to it through widespread participation”. Weinberg. Kotter. If the individuals are directly affected with the change they are more likely to receive them positively (Whetten & Cameron. Managing people’s expectations is the key to communication. and where change to that plan is necessary. and often not by a small amount. 2004). 1997). Satir et al. 1991.
often repeated.” The types of communication that do not allow for feedback. helps enormously.CHAPTER THREE Effective communication of the change program will be a key factor in achieving individual participation and internal support building.” 55 . with feedback. Kotter (1996) explains that communication of a vision is a difficult task to undertake “…it can easily turn into a screeching one-way transmission in which useful feedback is ignored. do not allow for correction of errors. simple. modelled by executive behaviour. during change as does Kotter (1996) who tells us that “…two way discussions are an essential method of helping people answer all the questions that occur to them…” As a final thought on communications (in the context of organisational change) Kotter (1996) offers the following: “Clear. consistent communication from multiple sources. Cameron and Green (2004) talk about the importance of one-to-one discussions. memorable.
For reasons that are better explained at Chapter 4. 4. (2003) as something that people undertake in order to find out things in a systematic way. Research methodology is categorized into two main schools of thought. how often and how many’ questions (Wickham. 2004). 56 . It aims to answer the ‘how much. It aims to answer the ‘who.1 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Research is defined by Saunders et al. The important elements of this definition are ‘systematic’ and ‘to find things out’. Quantitative research provides answers to questions when there is a desire to have them expressed in a statistical or numerical form. what and why’ questions. the modern idea of quantitative research has its roots in Comte's (1855) positivist framework. 2004).2. phenomenology (qualitative) and positivistic (quantitative). (Wickham.1. both the qualitative and quantitative methods were used in this research project 4.1 QUALITATIVE RESEARCH Qualitative research provides a non-specific answer to a question which may give an insight into the respondent’s feelings.2 QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH Although quantitative investigation of the world has existed since records began.1.CHAPTER FOUR CHAPTER 4: RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS 4. thereby increasing their knowledge.
Secondary data is information that has already been collected for another purpose and usually takes the form of existing reports.1932) questions relating to Level 1 of the TES change program. author and TES change team leader. These questions were put to Business Unit Group leaders within TES. As this project is an evaluation of the TES change program in its early stages it was 57 .2 APPROACH ADOPTED FOR RESEARCH PROJECT The primary research for this project was carried out using a mixture of nine qualitative and five quantitative (Likert. and a small selection of their staff in early July 2006. 4.CHAPTER FOUR 4. The final approach was seen as a compromise which would provide depth in terms of the qualitative responses and also some harder statistical data from the quantitative responses.3. The combintion of both methods (qualitative and quantitative) through the use of a questionnaire was adopted following debate between project tutor. when and how). Primary data is collected for the purpose of the research project and is subdivided into qualitative (statistical hard data) and quantitative (subjective who. 2004). articles and information that proves relevant to the project (Wickham. what.3 DATA COLLECTION METHODS Data collection can be divided into the two distinct categories of primary and secondary data.1 PRIMARY DATA The primary data collection most suited for this research is a detailed questionnaire. 4.
4.2 SECONDARY DATA The secondary data required for this research proposal was collected from an extensive and critical literature review of the research topic supporting the aims and objectives of the research. if wide enough conclusions were to be drawn from the questionnaire.. Secondary data was not limited to available publications. 2003) Bourque & Clark (1994) also tell us that when individual questions are being designed by researchers they do one of three things: • • • adopt questions already in use in other questionnaires.3.3 QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN AND DISTRIBUTION The validity and reliability of the data you collect and the response rate you achieve depend. to a large extent.CHAPTER FOUR thought that detailed interviews would be too time consuming. This literature review also included in excess of one hundred journals and a range of research book/guides and Government publications such as McKane and Gershon reports. on the design of your questions.3. adapt questions already in use in other questionnaires. 4. the structure of your questionnaire and the rigour of your pilot testing (Saunders et al. develop new questions 58 . the observations of the author (through direct involvement in the TES change program as an internal consultant) were also used to inform conclusions on applicability of available literature.
Saunders et al. It was never planned to carry out one-to-one interviews as part of the primary research although use was made of the author’s access to senior management to better inform understanding and context. The rationale behind the inclusion of the quantitative questions was that the TES change team leader felt that it would break up the questioning and result in a greater rate of return. The question set was put to both the TES change team leader and the research tutor for opinion and critique. This did indeed prove to be the case with a rate of return of 37% based on 27 out of 74 questionnaires. however the fragility of the MOD infrastructure to the use of Macros necessitated the use of an attachment. 59 .CHAPTER FOUR The initial set of twelve open questions prepared in early June 2006 had been a mixture of all three. Over the next three weeks a series of e-mails and telephone discussions resulted in a set of fourteen questions (see Annex A) which had now included within them. It was recognized that a contingency approach might be necessary if there were no specific conclusions to be drawn from the primary research or if a very poor rate of return emerged. The results were compiled manually due to the small nature of the sample and analysis carried out using an excel spreadsheet as a template for both (quantitative) calculating and (qualitative) analysis of the results. (2003) indicate that 30% would be the average rate of return for an electronically delivered questionnaire within an organisation. five quantitative questions. The survey was initially planned to be embedded into an e-mail and sent directly to participants for them to complete.
4. The secondary data was extremely useful in understanding the internal 60 . The following hypothesis was subsequently developed and if applicable may aid further research and the potential for development of a maturity model to provide a readiness test where a change is deemed necessary. There is significant risk to the credibility of the project in taking this approach however the author felt it necessary to produce a project with a tangible outcome.5 RESEARCH CONCLUSIONS The research methods used provided the author with a range of data both secondary and primary. the academic literature review indicated the possibility of one. “If effective management of change is to be achieved we must address three key areas”: • • • Organisational culture Leadership during transformation Communicating the change message The questionnaire set out to gather evidence in support of the hypothesis which may or may not be supplemented by the secondary data and a critical review of literature on the management of change. This came about following the review of academic literature where it emerged that there may be three potentially dominant themes in the management of change.4 HYPOTHESES Despite there initially being no hypothesis.CHAPTER FOUR 4.
CHAPTER FOUR context of change in the MOD which provided the opportunity to comment on the academic literature. The primary research on the other hand provided a depth of comment from respondent’s that was not expected. these included: • Considerable debate with senior management over the content of the questionnaire • Debate over the timing of the questionnaire o Staff demoralised could lead to biased responses o DPA/DLO merger on the horizon could add further bias 61 . There were a number of issues worth highlighting which were not expected at the outset and had to be overcome to finalise the research.
R3 and so on.1 Q1 . R2. Answers varied wildly from responses such as (R1) “zilch!!” and (R2) “not at all” to those who gave clear accounts of their role in managing and delivering on the change program. 5. This is not intended to identify comments to any individual. but merely to separate out one from another. In order to distinguish between the comments made by respondents. 5. The perception of success from respondents seems to hinge on the extent to which they have been led.2. Culture and Communications although it could be argued that the questions led the respondents partly down that path.2 DETAILED DISCUSSION ON RESPONSES TO QUESTIONNAIRE The following section of the review will look at each question in turn and try to form a judgement on the responses using links to academic research. individual comments made will be identified by the scheme R1. Some however pointed to the 62 .TO WHAT DEGREE DO YOU FEEL YOU HAVE CONTRIBUTED TOWARDS THE CHANGES IN TES?) Question 1 dealt with the respondent’s opinion on their own contribution towards the change program in TES.1 ABSTRACT OF PRIMARY QUESTIONNAIRE DATA The three recurring themes in the primary questionnaire data are: Leadership.CHAPTER FIVE CHAPTER 5: PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF DATA 5. the environment in which they work (culture) and the degree of clarity to which they have been ‘communicated with’.
The change program was broken down into three distinct and separate activities. It is suggested from the responses that different levels of support had filtered down from the directors in TESEX to their respective group leaders. It was not a particular surprise therefore that the majority of the negative responses to Q1 had originated in the ex-DLO groups as they had thought themselves to be the main target of the savings in the TES change program.CHAPTER FIVE autocratic way in which the changes were imposed. There are perhaps lessons from the research through Kotter (1996) who places great importance on ‘creating a guiding coalition’ and ‘developing a vision and strategy’ these do not appear to have been high on the agenda of the initial TES change program. It has been a hierarchical process with limited debate until recently”. the Defence Logistics Organisation (DLO) and the Defence Procurement Agency (DPA). a typical response being (R3) “I have had the opportunity to comment on change proposals but not on the initial direction. A brief summary of these are outlined below: • Level 1 – Merging of the DPA functional groups (FGs) and the DLO business groups (BGs) 63 . The DPA are concerned with the procurement of the project or equipment before going into service and the DLO are concerned with the maintenance of the once in service. There are a number of factors which may have contributed to a bias in the responses and these must be considered. Both groups are involved in the delivery of high value Equipment and Platform projects for IPTs. The organisation of TES was being formed by merging groups from two very different areas of the MOD.
I FEEL THAT I AM EMPOWERED TO MAKE INNOVATIVE SUGGESTIONS ON CHANGES WITHIN TES Question 2 was a Likert (1932) scale question which sought to build upon Q1.I feel that I am empowered to make innovative suggestions on Changes within TES Strongly Disagree 11% Disagree 26% Strongly Agree 15% Neither 15% Agree 33% 64 . to establish whether or not the opportunity had been made available for senior managers to contribute to the change program. to be a relatively spread out response. There is not much that can be read from what appears on the face of it.2. Q2 . 5.2 Q2 .CHAPTER FIVE • Level 2 – Restructuring or rightsizing TES to allow it to serve its customers more effectively • Level 3 – Optimization of TES following the Level 1 merger and customer re-alignment. however with the factors already mentioned in Q1 the split serves to reinforce the DPA/DLO issue on participation.
” Other responses focussed on the lack of a clear and consistent message from the TES Executive Board (TESEX) who were either unaware of the concerns of group heads or chose not to listen. Examples of these types of response include (R3) “Not very much. and where they were involved through necessity. or both).CHAPTER FIVE 5. but it’s not me!” and (R2) “Not at all. The purpose of TES (combining all the various departments under one head) was never communicated (is it to save money. they could not understand the rationale 65 . Responses provided include (R1) “Someone must have the master plan.TO WHAT DEGREE HAVE THE CHANGES IN TES “FOLLOWED A LOGICAL PROCESS” THAT HAS BEEN CLEARLY DEFINED? Question 3 attempted to analyse the planning and ongoing management of the change program.2. It is clear from the responses to Q3 that whilst managers were aware of the changes going on they were not active participants.3 Q3 . improve efficiency. It would be easy to look at the message coming out from inside TES and conclude that there was a lack of support for the changes. Kotter (1996) tells us that the errors made in change programs increase when a sense of urgency has not instilled in managers and employees. Until the real objectives are known there is no logical path to follow” whilst others questioned the original requirement for the change (R4) “It has never been clear what the original ‘exam question’ was therefore I believe a clearly defined and logical process has not been followed”. TES appears to have an agenda to create an organisation on some pre-conceived concept rather that looking for efficiencies and economies within the management of its constituent parts. The question also sought to examine if the process for change had been communicated out to all levels. The majority (85%) of responses were negative in nature.
CHANGES IN TES ARE NECESSARY IF IT IS TO PROVIDE EFFECTIVE POLICY. ADVICE AND GUIDANCE AND TECHNICAL SERVICES TO IPTS Question 4 was a Leikart scale question which was aimed at analysing whether the aim of re-focussing TES to be an organisation that only provided policy. a ‘service’ which did not fit with the future purpose of TES (“Providing IPTs with high quality advice in order to enhance the acquisition of safe. those groups who had been engaged in what TES called ‘transactional activities’ to IPTs.CHAPTER FIVE or individual reasons for the changes. Over half (52%) strongly agreed that changes were necessary with only 19% disagreeing that change was necessary. 66 . supportable and technically sound military equipment”). If this was the case was change necessary in such a significant way? The responses were fairly strong in support of the need for change to realign the various business groups to be more effective in supporting IPTs.2. Those in disagreement. advice and guidance was a just one. followed by confirmation that they understand and are prepared to take responsibility even if they do not necessarily agree. This underlines the need for clear communication with staff during change programs. were in the main.4 Q4 . 5.
one any changes within TES.” 67 . And a growing cynicism at a lower level that it was less to do with vision and more to do with reducing numbers.5 Q5 . The responses to this question were almost unanimous in their criticism of the TESEX and in particular their failure to convey a vision. A sample of the responses are outlined below: (R1) “TES Executive Board simply failed to convey any vision for the creation of TES let al.CHAPTER FIVE Q4 .2.TO WHAT EXTENT DO YOU FEEL THAT THE TESEX CONVEYED A VISION FOR THE CHANGES IN TES? Question 5 aimed to establish how well the TESEX had created a vision which was aligned to the changes being made in TES. Advice and Guidance on Technical Services to IPTs Disagree 15% Neither 7% Strongly Disagree 4% Strongly Agree 52% Agree 22% 5. There was then a lack of communication from the TESEX.Changes in TES are necessary if it is to provide effective Policy. the ensuing actions did not seem to compliment this. However. I believe there is a TES vision statement but it is hardly inspiring” (R2) “Initially there was a vision set.
6 Q6 .2. indeed. it did not make sense to them and did not fit with the actions they saw or were engaged in. no justification for the formation of TES and no direction.” In his research Bennis (1994) identified a guiding vision as one of the pre-requisites to successful change management. who our customers are. Kotter.” (R6) “Not at all. Although some responses talked about a vision being evident in TES. There was a mixed response to this question which was a little surprising given what 68 .” (R4) “Lots of confusion abounds about what our mission now is. 2005).” (R5) “No vision conveyed. Wallace. 2004. 1990. no top level objectives. (Bennis 1994. 5.CHAPTER FIVE (R3) “Not at all. Mullins. Burnes. 1996. They have not been able to convey a reason for TES with respect to its constituent parts. 2005.TO WHAT DEGREE HAVE CHANGES IN TES BEEN “COMMUNICATED WELL WITH STAFF AT ALL LEVELS”? Question 6 dealt specifically with the TES communications processes and their effectiveness in relaying the change agenda to employees throught the department. Whetten & Cameron. Whilst the TESEX may well have had a vision it was not communicated clearly and there is still no overarching vision to cover the over 60 sites that TES occupies. As the leaders of the department the TESEX should have recognized the importance of clarity and simplicity when creating a vision for change. or.
Web site only used by those in the TES management community – therefore totally ineffective way of communicating.” (R2) “Not at all.” 69 .” (R3) “Not well.” (R6) “Quite well – there has been plenty of information reasonably inventively presented. Some responses were in a similiar vein with 3 individuals referring back to Q5 answer. Senior managers have a key role to communicate face-toface with their staff. It has also failed to live up to its own published values.” and.CHAPTER FIVE had already been said in Q5. so that all staff understand the rationale for change and the impact on individuals. This has not been achieved. The TESEX has fallen short of explaining the rationale for TES. Sample of negative followed by contrary positive responses below: (R1) “Lack of a coherent communications message.” (R4) “Low – a major concern that we have lost our way in dealing correctly with staff. (R5) “I have been actively involved and therefore would state that it was done well! I certainly tried to communicate as much information as I felt the staff needed and was relevant to them.
5. We can make the assertion used earlier that the DPA/DLO split is responsible for the agree/disagree result.THE CASE AND NEED FOR CHANGE IN TES HAS BEEN MADE BY THE TES EXECUTIVE BOARD Question 7 has a degree of overlap with Q5 and Q6 although the subtle difference is in whether the TESEX creating the ‘burning platform’ (Kotter. 70 . If there is a lesson for TES. it is that it must be resolute in communicating change and keep making the relevant points until staff can no longer ignore it. There is little to draw from the responses which are even across all of the available options. Latter not always in evidence.” Discussions with those directly involved in managing and administering the changes suggested that there were instances during the Level 1 changes that staff refused to listen to that which they did not want to hear.2.CHAPTER FIVE (R7) “Well. but comms requires both transmitting and listening.7 Q7 . 1996) for employees.
Respondents used this question to make detailed responses on their The experiences and views of how the DPA/DLO merger had been managed.CHAPTER FIVE Q7 .2.TO WHAT DEGREE HAVE CULTURAL ISSUES HAVE BEEN CONSIDERED WHEN EMBARKING ON CHANGE IN TES. following is typical of the overall responses: (R1) “The situation has been one of oil and water in terms of the differing cultures and the reluctance of each to merge. IN PARTICULAR DPA AND DLO CULTURES AS THEY MERGE? Question 8 was aimed at directly addressing the question that is asserted earlier in Q1-Q7. There is a place for healthy tension between different 71 .The case and need for Change in TES has been made by the TES Executive Board Strongly Disagree 15% Strongly Agree 7% Agree 33% Disagree 26% Neither 19% 5.8 Q8 . The DPA and DLO “cultures” are themselves sub-divided by various factions. although the smaller DPA Agency seems more unified behind the need to meet particular key targets than the larger DLO.
” (R3) “It is not apparent that these have been considered. I believe it unlikely that these tribal differences will be resolved quickly. You can’t make an omelette without cracking a few eggs. I have a DPA background and.CHAPTER FIVE specializations within any organisation but it needs to be tempered. I do not think any particular consideration was given to these factors in developing the TES needs for change. if ever.” (R2) “Not at all.” 72 .” (R5) “I do not believe that any cultural issues were considered” (R6) “Too much emphasis has been placed on retaining existing cultures where possible. both sides still view the merger as one taking over the other. indeed DPA sourced elements of TES were enthusiastic about changes they knew would not affect them personally. because of the management style. see TES as a DLO organisation. and are likely to increase as the DLO/DPA merger proceeds. Experience within the DPA has shown that if this is not addressed early on then change is difficult if not impossible.” (R4) “No attempt at all.
This sent out a positive message and the early signs were that he had credibility and was enthusiastic about the changes.CHAPTER FIVE The responses perhaps point to one of the main difficulties experienced in the TES change program. 1999. 1996. timely briefings to staff to explain progress and plans in the program. 1996. The one key ingredient is the lack of an analysis of the people and their environment(s). The research so far in this dissertation points towards the critical nature of understanding the culture of the organisation and assessing whether it is ‘fit for purpose’ for the new desired state (Cameron & Ettington. Molenaar et al. Leadership was a key factor and a new Technical Director (TD) as head of TES this appointment was prior to the next phase of the change program beginning. but would certainly have focussed minds. 2002). 73 . Cameron & Quinn. in other words the culture. Schein. with a new website being developed. direct access to the TD via e-mail and regular. Cameron & Quinn 1999) about measuring the organisational culture and there would have been significant opportunity to look at this prior to embarking on the changes. 1988. Communications was also a key factor in the TES change program. Such an analysis may have given rise to greater consideration of culture. Much has been written (Quinn & Rohrbaugh. 1981. O’Reilly & Chatman. which may not have solved the problem..
Q9 . this may be a admissible factor in the response. unsure about their role with 78% agreeing that their role was clear. The Fernandez and Rainey (2006) paper on public sector change points to evidence that suggests an ability within Public Sector managers to bring about change despite not being behind the reasons.9 WITHIN TES Q9 . The mix of civil servants and military within the MoD is a mix which supports a notion of command and control.I UNDERSTAND THE ROLE I HAVE IN MANAGING CHANGES Question 9 was trying to get a feel for levels of autonomy and delegation within TES.I understand the role I have in managing changes within TES Strongly Disagree Disagree 4% 11% Neither 7% Strongly Agree 33% Agree 45% 74 . The response was particularly surprising given the negativity Only 15% of respondents felt towards the change program in the earlier questions. In particular was it clear what responsibilities each senior manger had in the TES change program.2.CHAPTER FIVE 5.
” There has clearly been a communications problem with relation to the change program and its component parts (Chapter 5.” (R2) “The customer base is still confused as exactly what TES now delivers – services Vs advice/assurance is one large area of confusion. p73) and this is evident in the responses below: (R3) “I do not understand the question. I think the customer facing roles of the 1* is a vast improvement but we need to make these roles work better for the customers.9. Leading.2.2.CHAPTER FIVE 5. as I am not aware of what the Level 1 changes are! Highlights communications issues. the supporting infrastructure and business processes are not fully developed. to a number of groups being in a worse position to deliver outputs and manage resources than before the implementation of level 1 changes.TO WHAT DEGREE HAS TES IMPROVED SINCE THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE LEVEL 1 CHANGES? Question 10 aimed to identify the perception of senior managers that the changes had improved the organisation as a whole. Others had more to say.10 Q10 . in my opinion.” 75 . sample below: (R1) “Whilst there is now a structure and management arrangements in place. Responses were varied with around 35% of respondents citing that it was too early to make a judgment on benefits of the new TES.
Government departments (GD) have long been criticized for their handling of surplus staff. which is not a surprise in itself as the changes are significant and planned to take place over a three to four year period. It did not come as a surprise that there was a resounding negative response to this.MOD RULES AND PROCEDURES ARE SUPPORTIVE TO THE CHANGES THAT TES NEEDS TO MAKE. IN PARTICULAR THE AMBITIOUS REDUCTIONS IN MANPOWER CONTROL TOTALS Question 11 aimed to identify the feeling that the policy on dealing with surplus manpower was an aiding factor for the TES change program.CHAPTER FIVE (R4) “What are Level 1 changes?” (R5) “Level 1 changes is management speak – is there any meaning in there?” The perceived ‘benefits’ sought through the changes in TES do not yet appear to have been realized. The systems have failed to look at the social aspects of such moves not to mention the skills required to carry out the new post. 5.2.11 Q11 . The main focus of the criticism is the notion that staff will happily transfer to other GDs if a post is not available in their current one. Systems for managing this in GDs include the ‘priority posting list’ and the most recent ‘Re-deployment pool’ have all come in for heavy criticism from employees and their Trade Unions. Many of the staff who work in TES have enjoyed long careers in the MOD which has perhaps anaesthetized them to the 76 . even if that post was at the other end of the country. with only 19% of respondents agreeing with the assertion.
Q11 .WHAT ASPECT(S) OF CHANGE WOULD YOU HAVE DONE DIFFERENTLY TO IMPROVE THE TES CHANGE PROCESS Question 12 was essentially a blank sheet of paper for respondents to make suggestions on ways in which the change could have more effectively managed.2. Individuals involved in such redundancies are not afforded the kind of treatment that public sector workers enjoy.12 Q12 .MOD rules and procedures are supportive to the changes that TES needs to make. in particular the ambitious reductions in Manpower control totals. The responses were particularly constructive with many citing the need for a clear vision. the benefits of such an environment are underestimated. Whilst there are well publicised arguments on equal pay for the public sector from the relevant Trade Unions. 77 .CHAPTER FIVE changes going on in the private sector. Strongly Disagree Strongly Agree 0% 15% Agree 19% Neither 19% Disagree 47% 5. It would be difficult however to ignore the media headlines on closures and redundancies which are commonplace.
outsourcing or other means. If the manpower required was then seen to be unaffordable it would be possible to modify plans accordingly or develop alternatives through trade-offs. With a better vision of the required end state at the start of the process and better definition of the output requirements we would have undertaken proper development of the right process and assessment of the manning required to deliver outputs. Follow Kotter!” (R2) “Tease out a greater clarity of vision at the outset – but was this possible until the organisation had been defined?” (R3) “I would have been more open about the drivers and then more radical in the reorganisation. programme management structure. improved communications.CHAPTER FIVE clear strategy for achieving changes. improved communications and strong credible leadership. If we had started with merger. plan the people elements.” (R4) “Originally TES was an amalgamation of various SME outputs under a single 2 Star. Some of the respondents’ comments have already been implemented (at the time of writing) such as an independent change team leader and improved clarity of both the vision and strategy. the journey would have taken a different route. The aiming point has therefore significantly changed since the start of the journey. now it is part of DPA/DLO merger. This would identify the things that need to be done and the means to do them.” 78 . change TES EX role and construct. (R1) “Coherent strategy. better leadership at 1*/ Band B level. A sample of these responses which are typical are outlined below. People have been allowed to ignore the change.
2. The lack of response is not surprising given the (general) 79 . People have largely been allowed to ignore the change. 5. Provide feedback internally to TES on the customer view of their requirements for the future. This was originally the approach favoured by the TESEX. This was one of the most sparsely populated areas of the questionnaire with very little offered in the responses.13 Q13 . rather than imposing change.WHAT ASPECT(S) OF THE TES CHANGE PROCESS DO YOU FEEL HAVE BEEN CARRIED OUT EFFECTIVELY? Question 13 aimed to identify which (if any) elements of the change program had.” (R6) “More communication to bring the workforce on board. It could be argued that the TESEX were left with no option but to be autocratic in the way in which they sought about achieving their targets and objectives. been carried out with a degree of effectiveness.” The responses to Q12 suggest a willingness (on behalf of the Group heads) to participate in the change program which if taken up by the TESEX. could have resulted in a more co-operative process. with group heads taking the lead.CHAPTER FIVE (R5) “Engage with wider management levels and engage with customers at 1star level to understand their requirements. in the view of the respondents.” (R7) “I would have been more open about the drivers and then more radical in the reorganisation. however as the pressure on Defence from the government increased so did the required number of post reductions and cuts against the financial budgets.
The changes have been made but how effective they were are debatable. Manpower targets were never clearly defined and always changing. see below. although the content of the messages appears as though it could have been a little clearer. (R5) “Communication. Although it was chaotic and very little support was in place. even if the message was a bit unclear.CHAPTER FIVE negative feeling about the changes in TES. although admittedly this was outside TESEX control and driven by wider MOD factors.” 80 .” (R3) “I guess that timescales have been achieved. Two or three of the responses pointed towards a forced undemocratic or autocratic approach to the changes.” (R6) “Communication processes but with inadequate content. The function and role of TES has been poorly communicated to potential customers” (R2) “Hardly any! It always seemed there was never enough time to do the required analysis properly.” (R4) “Meeting the Apr 06 implementation date.” (R7) “Communication down of the decisions made – that’s all. but always enough time to do it again when the original answer was considered by TESEX to be the wrong one or did not meet the direction they (thought) they had given us. (R1) “Nothing springs to mind.” Reference was made to the success of the communications process which indicated that some success had been achieved in this area.
This was an ambitious undertaking but sought to solidify the TES role as ‘enabling the acquisition and safe supportability of military equipment.CHAPTER FIVE (R8) “The development and use of communication channels has been effective.2. Some welcomed the opportunity for a final 81 . Another effective element of the TES change program was the appointment of a military 2 star (Rear Admiral Royal Navy) who was dually accountable and sat on both the DPA and DLO boards as the senior technical authority in the MOD.14 Q14 . WHICH MIGHT GIVE INSIGHT INTO HOW YOU FEEL ABOUT THE CHANGES WITHIN TES? Question 14 provided a final opportunity for respondents to suggest additional changes or general observations from the changes to date. The fact remains however that staff have not in all or indeed many cases accepted or been taken with the changes.” A point which has been missed by most if not all respondents is that all of the targets and timelines placed upon TES have been met at the time of this report. There was an excellent response to this final question which will undoubtedly inform the detailed lessons learned from the TES change program. Given the management challenge that can be seen from some of the responses in Q1-Q12 this is a significant achievement.IS THERE ANY ADDITIONAL COMMENT THAT YOU WOULD LIKE TO MAKE. While there has been variation in the perception of the quality of the content there is no doubt that the communications were delivered regularly and that focal points responsible for key areas of development were known. 5.
History demonstrates that getting the IPTs to do some of the expert things often results in their being done either badly or not at all. yet again. three or even four previously. Therefore we find that workload has increased under the ‘banner’ of efficiencies. there was an emphasis on improving output when the real objective was to reduce costs through manpower reductions.CHAPTER FIVE say on the changes and provided detailed responses with pointers towards what might contribute to a more successful second phase of change in TES. The results of such omission are not always readily apparent and indeed can take years to manifest themselves.“ "We trained hard. Coupled with further change at the political level this may lead to continuation of the cycles of upheaval MoD has endured since the days of the Rayner Report and the quotation often attributed to Petronius. However. the continued evolution of the DLO/DPA merger has the potential to prolong the uncertainty. possibly. but it seemed that every time we were beginning to form up into teams we would be reorganised. Presumably the plans for our employment were being changed. but that goodwill is being eroded by the constant pressure to be ‘more efficient’ which really means getting one person to do the work of two. and a wonderful method it can 82 .” (R2) “Make no mistake there are many ways to do some of the things we do and there is a clear danger that the SMEs can become too far removed from the urgency of need at the IPTs level. There is probably a middle ground and the new direction from the new Technical Director has the potential to get us there. perhaps because we are so good at organising. we tend as a nation to meet any new situation by reorganising. The military/civil service have a ‘can do’ approach. (R1) “The changes were necessary in a changing world but. I was to learn later in life that.
Recommendations are often dependant upon other planned developments and revisited many times before a realistic opportunity for implementation ever arises. Change recommendations are made and consultation on the recommendations conducted but an assumption that the recommendations will be implemented. inefficiency and demoralization. to recommendations this should also be recorded.CHAPTER FIVE be for creating the illusion of progress while producing confusion. with good reason. Where there is challenge however.” 83 ." (R3) “Opportunity for feedback on key change reports is not often documented.
This pressure will inevitably reduce the number of professionally qualified staff remaining in TES and present continuity risks for current activities. That is why TES is working towards transforming the way in which it currently delivers services to IPTs to make it easier for them to access clear and consistent support when they need it.CHAPTER FIVE 5. Chiefs of staff in the Ministry talk about the trade-off between flying hours of a helicopter in 84 . generate efficiencies for the greater MOD. At a time when Defence is not seen as a vote winner for the ruling government. and in so doing. Strong arguments have been made to restructure TES have drawn support from the wider MOD (at a senior level).3 INTERVIEWS AND OBSERVATIONS Although no formal recorded interviews were conducted as part of the primary research informal discussions and briefings took place during the research period with TES Change Team Leader and the TES team leader. When budgets are reducing and the armed forces are expected to do more. The strategy for TES is to provide easy access to industry through a series of framework contracts whilst retaining those services where there is justification to do so for sensitivity or value for money reasons. TES is very much a supporting act to the visible elements of the MOD (Front line forces) and is therefore an easier target. There was (and is at the time of this report) enormous pressure on TES to fundamentally change the way in which it supported IPTs. The author of the report has utilised these discussions as well as his own experiences and observations to draw out additional factors not presented through the primary research questionnaire which aid the overall project.
Responses have been critical of the communications processes utilised during the Level 1 changes which has been partly explained at chapter 5. There appears to have been a focussed approach to implementing the Level 1 changes in TES which resulted in a ‘complete at all costs’ mindset for those supporting and implementing the changes and this is evident in the primary research. The net result is that staff become cynical and the vision subsequently becomes less believable. there are still some highly visible individuals who behave in ways that are contrary to the vision.4 SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The primary research has in the main provoked a negative response to the Level 1 changes in TES. The latter appears to have been the case for TES. 85 . Kotter (1996) goes on to say that failure can occur also. when despite clear communication and top-level support for the change. many of the respondents cited 1 star director(s) not projecting the positive benefits of the change and in some cases openly opposing it.2. Kotter (1996) explains that the vision or strategy for change is often under-communicated and despite being in a possession of a clear vision it may only be fed out in a few meetings or memos to staff. 5.6.CHAPTER FIVE Iraq/Afghanistan and detailed technical support (TES) to projects from within the MOD. In particular there has been criticism of the lack of reasons for the changes and absence of a clear vision for the future.
1 BENEFITS OF THE DISSERTATION This dissertation it is hoped will have some tangible as well as unquantifiable benefits for the author and the organisation. Culture. These are summarized below. and the access routes to it • More critical outlook on research.CHAPTER SIX CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS OF RESEARCH 6. Communication) identified where an increased focus might deliver benefits to future change programs • Starting point for assessing readiness for change through the developmental maturity model • Opportunity to undertake further research into organisational change and make subsequent improvements 86 . less willing to accept a theory without testing it first • Ability to take new skills and knowledge to positively impact on current and future change programs within TES and the wider MOD • • Professional recognition of the undertaking and increased credibility Identification of three common themes in change programs Organisation • Evaluation of Level 1 changes in TES with the opportunity to learn from the experience and improve/clarify processes for the future • Three key areas (Leadership. Author • Clearer understanding of the academic literature attributable to change.
1996) to inform the types of training individuals in organisations require if they are to participate and lead on change in the MOD. 1994.2 FUTURE POTENTIAL The dissertation has sought to identify the common themes in change management theory and the implications for TES as a result. Culture and Communications. Three common themes have been identified as Leadership. 1997. As a basis for discussion and to provide a starting point the author has developed a maturity model (Figure 13) using some of the work of researchers on Change (Bennis. as well as have conducted focus groups to establish its applicability and utility.CHAPTER SIX 6. The model is intended as a discussion point for management and given more time it was the intention to have fully developed it. Cameron. 87 . The terms Expert. Kotter. Practitioner and Awareness are terms particular to the MOD when describing organisational competence in a particular skillset or field.
memorable. however not in possession of either experience or significant knowledge of the tools which would benefit a leader. Culture Understand and have tested the current organisational culture against attainment of strategic objectives (Cameron. In possession of the necessary tools. often repeated.CHAPTER SIX Maturity Level Gold Expert Leadership Actively engages the support of staff whilst also generating a sense of interest in the outcome of change. False start No awareness Figure 13 Draft maturity model for assessing ‘readiness for change’ 88 . modelled by executive behaviour (Kotter. Understands whether cultural change is necessary in order to meet strategic objectives. 1994) Understands the challenge and has considerable experience in leading change. (Bennis. Do not believe that culture needs specific consideration prior to embarking on a change Communications Clear. Feedback is actively discouraged. not always modelled by executive behaviour. Aware of the existence of a specific cultural identity. Actively discourages staff involvement in change projects none of the positive benefits of the proposed changes. Feedback loops not used or trusted by staff Communication routes are not established or understood. but has difficulty in projecting the positive benefits of the change. Silver Practitioner Bronze Awareness Aware of the existence of communication routes with varying degrees of success in transmission. 1996) Has established Communication routes with appropriate feedback loops. 1997) Understands the cultural dimensions of the organisation and the levers for change. consistent communication from multiple sources. Not sure of the need to alter the current state to meet with the strategic objectives. simple. Aware of the challenge in managing change. Does not accept the existence of a specific culture.
1 is hoped that this dissertation report will help to inform current and future thinking on change to those who read it.1) where further study is necessary in order help with the challenges ahead. 6. Communications and assessment and subsequent approach to the Cultural dimension of the changes. 89 . 2006).3 IMPLICATIONS As outlined in chapter 6.4 TES CHALLENGES There are no clear recommendations to emerge from this research but there are a number of areas (chapter 6.1) design with the prospect of a detailed look at efficiency (Level 3) just over the horizon. The authors close links to current change activity in the MOD will ensure that where there are clear lessons to be learned these will be as widely circulated as possible within the department. The research project has had direct benefit to the organisation and has helped to provide the author with the skills and opportunity to lead on a large scale change project (TES-Technical Information Group review. This project has been widely praised by senior management for the author’s understanding and measured approach to Leadership.2.CHAPTER SIX 6. At the time of writing this report the group of TES was completing the implementation of Level 2 (chapter 5.
this however is very much the exception. new house) all of which were competing for attention.CHAPTER SIX Some of the assertions and observations made in this dissertation have already been addressed by TES such as appointing a very senior (1 star) lead to focus on change and a clearer approach to communications. The process of carrying out this dissertation was not one that was particularly relished at the outset. new baby. 6. The cultural dimension(s) of TES are unknown although attempts have been made to understand and develop bespoke solutions for geographic issues. These are outlined in Table 5 together with a supporting aim and post dissertation reflection 90 . The period in which the research project was to be carried out had a few other considerations (new job. In the early stages and prior to deciding on a research topic.5 REFLECTION Cameron & Green (2004) tell us about the importance of reflection in our day to day lives and how we will make better decisions if we reflect on what has and is going on around us. some development areas (DA) were jotted down that might benefit from the research. There still remains the fundamental issue of leadership and whilst TES has been successful in managing and administering the necessary changes it has failed to project the positive benefits.
Had to delay the submission of the research as a result of work and family commitments outlined at the beginning of chapter six. Healthy respect established for research . collating and analysis of research material DA3 Concisely communicate the findings DA4 Critically evaluate secondary data DA5 Complete a sustained piece of work within an agreed time frame Aim Improve project management skills and improve ability to manage competing priorities Develop ability to locate relevant data and identify that which is irrelevant and why. Identify a research area and establish a means of primary research. Assume less and investigate more.CHAPTER SIX Table 5 – Reflection on Dissertation Aims Development Area DA1 Plan a piece of research DA2 Carry out the collecting. Conducted a well planned piece of primary research that delivered a large data set for analysis. Be a bit more cynical about written material.‘once tested’. early recognition of relevant and irrelevant data. Develop the ability to take large amounts of data and present relevant elements in a clear and concise way. Post dissertation reflection Vastly improved planning skills although still finding difficulty in managing competing priorities. Improved focus when searching for information. Gather together a number of elements and present in a clear widely readable manner – ‘on time’. Hugely underestimated the demands that the dissertation places on you 91 . Improved ability to summarize and present information accurately and with brevity and clarity. Found myself arguing with highly praised work and at times became overly cynical.
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4 BPR CDM CDS DA DACP DE&S DIS DLO DPA GD IPT MinAF GLOSSARY Business Process Review Chief of Defence Materiel Chief of the Defence Staff Development Areas Defence Acquisition Change Program Defence Equipment and Support Defence Industrial Strategy Defence Logistics Organisation Defence Procurement Agency Government Department Integrated Project Team Minister of State for the Armed Forces Parliamentary Under Secretary of State and Minister of State for Defence Procurement Parliamentary Under SofS and Minister for Veterans’ Affairs Ministry of Defence Non-Departmental Public Body Office for Standards in Education Office of Government Commerce Permanent Secretary Subject Matter Expert Secretary of State for Defence Technical Director Technical Enabling Services Technical Enabling Services Executive Board Total Quality Management United Kingdom Vice Chief of the Defence Staff MinDP MinVA MOD NDPB OFSTED OGC PUS SME SofS TD TES TESEX TQM UK VCDS 101 .CHAPTER SEVEN 7.
the completed response to michael. or post it back to me. I am inviting you to participate in a research project to study the ‘Existing Change Processes in the UK Ministry of Defence. I would sincerely appreciate your participation in completing the responses. Sincerely. This project has been approved as suitable for submission as an MBA dissertation by Glasgow Caledonian University. I guarantee not to share any information that identifies you with anyone outside of my research group which consists of myself and my dissertation tutor.com on or before the 28th July 2006. Attached with this letter is a short questionnaire about the change processes employed. in particular the Technical Enabling Services division’.09. This is a completely anonymous survey.2. you may contact me on 0141 224 2404 or 94561 2404. Glasgow G2 8EX 102 . Regardless of whether you choose to participate. Angela Sutherland. Through your participation I hope to understand more about the way in which we approach change in TES. The results of this project forms part of my research to gain a Masters degree in Business Administration. All completed questionnaires will be entered into a draw to win a £20 Threshers voucher. Michael Mitchell. please let me know if you would like a summary of my findings which I hope to have available by the end of August 2006.ANNEX A ANNEX A: PRIMARY DATA – MASTER QUESTIONNAIRE GLASGOW CALEDONIAN UNIVERSITY SCHOOL OF MANAGEMENT – MASTERS IN BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION Dear Sir/Madam.mitchell926@tig. If you decide to complete the questionnaire I would be most grateful if you could or either e-mail. TES-TIG Business Manager MP 13.mod. Please be as open and honest as you can and it should only take about 10 minutes to complete. If you have any questions or concerns about completing the questionnaire or about being in this study. Your perspective and the time taken to complete and return the questionnaire is appreciated and will be of great value. The aggregated results of the survey will be fed back to Cdre Hockley in his role as Chairman of the people sub-board. Room 1. Level 1 Kentigern House.uk or mf_mitchell@hotmail. 65 Brown St.
Advice and Guidance on Technical Services to IPTs (Please highlight the answer most appropriate to you by highlighting the text in bold) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 103 .ANNEX A Q1 To what degree do you feel you have contributed towards the Changes in TES? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q2 I feel that I am empowered to make innovative suggestions on Changes within TES (Please highlight the answer most appropriate to you by highlighting the text in bold) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Q3 To what degree have the Changes in TES “followed a logical process that has been clearly defined”? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q4 Changes in TES are necessary if it is to provide effective Policy.
in particular DPA and DLO cultures as they merge? (Please type comments into the text box below) 104 .ANNEX A Q5 To what extent do you feel that the TES Executive Board conveyed a vision for the Changes in TES? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q6 To what degree have Changes in TES been “communicated well with staff at all levels”? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q7 The case and need for Change in TES has been made by the TES Executive Board (Please highlight the answer most appropriate to you by highlighting the text in bold) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Q8 To what degree have cultural issues have been considered when embarking on change in TES.
12 What aspect(s) of change would you have done differently to improve the TES change process? (Please type comments into the text box below) 105 . in particular the ambitious reductions in Manpower control totals.ANNEX A Q9 I understand the role I have in managing changes within TES (Please highlight the answer most appropriate to you by highlighting the text in bold) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Q10 To what degree has TES improved since the implementation of the Level 1 changes? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q11 MOD rules and procedures are supportive to the changes that TES needs to make. (Please highlight the answer most appropriate to you by highlighting the text in bold) Strongly Disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly Agree Q.
which might give insight into how you feel about the changes within TES? Many thanks for taking the time to complete this questionnaire your name has been entered into a draw to win a £20 Threshers voucher.14 Is there any additional comment that you would like to make.13 What aspect(s) of the TES change process do you feel have been carried out effectively? (Please type comments into the text box below) Q. The draw will be made after the 21st July and before the 31st August 2006. 106 .ANNEX A Q.
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