1

DESIGN OF SHOPPING COMPLEX

By
Rohit Chaurasia

Under the guidance of
Dr. Sunil Kumar

Submitted
In partial fulfilment of the requirement for degree of
Bachelor of Technology in Civil Engineering
to the




Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur
June, 2011

2

CERTIFICATE
It is to certify that Mr. Rohit Chaurasia of 3
rd
year B. Tech Civil engineering (2010-
2011), had done their B. Tech project on ³Design of Shopping Complex´ under my
supervision and guidance. They took keen interest in all the activities regarding the
project. I appreciate their sincerity and efforts.
I wish them bright and prosperous future.

(Dr. Sunil Kumar)
Professor & Head
Deptt .of Civil Engineering.
H.B.T.I Kanpur














3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
We are deeply indebted to all those without whose firm support, encouragement, and
guidance, this report would not have been at this stage.
We wish to express our sincere gratitude to Dr. Sunil Kumar, department of Civil
Engineering for invaluable suggestions and guidance throughout our work at HBTI
Kanpur. He always guided us through the difficulties and made us understand the
concepts needed for the project. His experimental and theoretical knowledge was
indeed very helpful.
Last but not the least we feel privileged in conveying our thanks to all faculty
members for their encouragement and moral support.

June , 2011
Rohit Chaurasia
(S.R. No. 71/08)










ABSTRACT
4

Shopping complexes are imperative for catering the daily needs of people under one
roof. Their utility is of immense importance especially in institutions and residential
areas which are normally located away from main city. However, appropriate design
of such shopping complexes involve complex procedures, complex methods which
needs to be understood by designers, planners and architects. The present study has
been taken to address this aspect.
A shopping complex of built up area 720 m
2
has been designed in the west campus of
HBTI Kanpur. The limit state method of analysis has been used to design the
shopping complex. The design of building is done using IS: 456-2000.














TABLE OF CONTENTS
5

Particulars Page No.
Certificate
Acknowledgements
Abstract
Table of contents
Abbreviations
List of figures
List of tables
Chapter 1: General Consideration 1-2
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Requirement
1.3 Organisation of project work
Chapter 2: Theory, Background and Methodology
1.4 Limit State Design
2.1.1 Characteristic load
1.5 Working Stress Method
1.6 Design Components of Shopping Complex
1.6.1 Foundation
1.6.2 Column
1.6.3 Beam
1.6.4 Slab
1.6.5 Staircase
1.6.6 Water tank
1.6.7 Shell
Chapter 3: Analysis, Design and Results
1.7 Design of Slab (Ground, First and Top floor)
1.8 Design of Beams (Top floor)
1.8.1 Design of Beam µAB¶
1.8.2 Design of Beam µAE¶
6

1.8.3 Design of Beam µEM¶
1.8.4 Design of Beam µBM¶
1.9 Design of Columns (Top floor)
1.9.1 Design of Column D1
1.9.2 Design of Column C1
1.9.3 Design of Column C2
1.9.4 Design of Column D2
1.10 Design of Beams (First and Ground floor)
1.10.1 Design of Beam µAB¶
1.10.2 Design of Beam µAE¶
1.10.3 Design of Beam µEM¶
1.10.4 Design of Beam µBM¶
1.11 Design of Columns (First floor)
1.11.1 Design of Column D1
1.11.2 Design of Column C1
1.11.3 Design of Column C2
1.11.4 Design of Column D2
1.12 Design of Columns (Ground floor)
1.12.1 Design of Column D1
1.12.2 Design of Column C1
1.12.3 Design of Column C2
1.12.4 Design of Column D2
1.13 Design of Footings
1.13.1 Design of Footing for Column D1
1.13.2 Design of footing for Column C1
1.13.3 Design of footing for Column C2
1.13.4 Design of footing for Column D2
1.14 Design of Staircase
1.15 Design of Tank
1.15.1 Design of Slab for Tank
1.15.2 Design of Beam for Tank
1.16 Design of Shell
Chapter 4: Conclusions
7

Bibliography
LIST OF TABLES
Tables Page No
Table 2.1 Limiting value of depth of neutral axis
Table 2.2 Value of moment coefficients
Table 2.3 Value of bending moment coefficient
Table 2.4 Value of shear force coefficients
Table 3.1 Result of slab
Table 3.2 Result of beam µAB¶ (Top floor)
Table 3.3 Result of beam µAE¶ (Top floor)
Table 3.4 Result of beam µEM¶ (Top floor)
Table 3.5 Result of beam µBM¶ (Top floor)
Table 3.6 Result of beam µAB¶ (First and Ground floor)
Table 3.7 Result of beam µAE¶ (First and Ground floor)
Table 3.8 Result of beam µBM¶ (First and Ground floor)
Table 3.9 Final moment calculation
















8



LIST OF FIGURES
Figures Page No
Figure 3.1 Different beams
Figure 3.2 Grid of columns
Figure 3.3 Distribution of pressure below the retaining wall










ABBREVIATIONS
DL = Dead load
LL = Live load
™

= Dead load intensity
™

= Live load intensity
9

†

= Depth of compression reinforcement from the highly compressed face
A
st
= Area of steel.
A
sv
= Total Cross-sectional area of stirrup legs or bent up bars within distance S
v
.
A
ĭ
= Area of cross-section of one bar.
b = Width of beam or shorter dimension of a rectangular column
D = Total Depth.
d = Effective depth.
e = Eccentricity
f = Stress
f
ck
= Characteristic compressive stress.
f
y
= Characteristic strength of steel
f
s
= Characteristic strength of steel
K = Stiffness of member
I = Movement of inertia..
L = Length.
L
d
= Development length.
M = Moment.
m = Modular ratio.
S = Spacing of bars.
V
u
= Shear force due to design load (limit state design).
V
us
= Strength of shear reinforcement (limit state design).
W = Point load; Total load.
x
u
= Depth of neutral axis.
10

Ȗ = Unit weight of soil.
f
cbc
= Permissible stress in concrete due to bending.
f
st
= Permissible tensile stress in reinforcement.
ĭ = Diameter of bar, angle of repose
IJ
bd
= Design bond stress.
IJ
c =
Shear stress in concrete.
IJ
cmax
= Maximum shear stress in concrete with shear reinforcement.
IJ
v =
Nominal shear stress.


=Factored moment along X-axis


= Factored moment along Y-axis

୳୶
=Maximum moment capacity for bending along x-axis only at axial load p

୳୷
=Maximum moment capacity for bending along y-axis only at axial load p
ǹ

=An exponent that depends on the dimension of the cross-section, the amount of
reinforcement, concrete strength and yield stress of steel.
Me = Bending moment at the end of the beam framing in to the column assuming
fixity at the connection.
Mes = Maximum difference between the moments at the ends of the beams framing in
to opposite sides of column each calculated on the assumption that the ends of the
beam are fixed and assuming one of beam unloaded.
ku = Stiffness factor of the upper column
kL = Stiffness factor of lower column
kb1 = Stiffness of beam on one of side of the column
kb2 = Stiffness of the beam on other side of column
11


ǡ

= Maximum moments at mid span on strips of unit width and spansl

ǡ l

;
respectively.
l

= Length of shorter side
l

= Length of longer side
Į

ǡ Į

= Moment coefficients.

















12

CHAPTER-1
GENERAL CONSIDERATION
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Shopping complexes are imperative for catering the daily needs of people under one
roof. Their utility is of immense importance especially in institutions and residential
areas which are normally located away from main city. However, appropriate design
of such shopping complexes involves complex procedures, complex methods which
needs to be understood by designers, planners and architects. The present study has
been taken to address this aspect. A shopping mall, shopping centre, shopping
precinct or simply mall is one or more buildings forming a complex of shops
representing merchandisers, with interconnecting walkways enabling visitors to easily
walk from unit to unit, along with a parking area ² a modern, indoor version of the
traditional marketplace.
Modern "car-friendly" shopping malls corresponded with the rise of suburban living
in many parts of the World. From early on, the design tended to be inward-facing,
with malls following theories of how customers could best be enticed in a controlled
environment. Similar, the concept of a mall having one or more "anchor" or "big box"
stores was pioneered early, with individual stores or smaller-scale chain stores
intended to benefit from the shoppers attracted by the big stores.
A shopping complex of built up area 720m
2
has been designed in the West campus of
HBTI Kanpur. The limit state method of analysis has been used to design the
shopping complex. The design of building is done using IS: 456-2000.
1.2 REQUIREMENT
The West campus of HBTI houses about 1000 students and faculty members. To cater
the everyday needs a weather proof destination was required. So, we decided to
design a shopping complex at a judiciously selected site so as to avail easy reach and
privacy to both students and faculty members. The complex would ensure that
students and faculties get hustle free shopping experience it would enable them to get
easy access to unadulterated milk and food stuff. Healthy competition among the
shops would help in equally competitive pricing. Since the food zone would be under
13

straight monitoring by institution, healthy and delicious cuisines and snacks would be
served.
1.3 ORGANISATION OF PROJECT WORK
Our project report comprises of seven chapters.
Chapter 1- It involves brief introduction regarding the project
Chapter 2- Theory, background and methodology has been discussed in this chapter.
Chapter 3- This chapter includes the analysis, design and results.
Chapter 4- Finally Conclusions have been mentioned in this chapter.















14

CHAPTER 2
THEORY, BACKGROUND AND METHODOLOGY
2.1 LIMIT STATE DESIGN
Limit state design is based on the concept of limit state. The acceptability for the
safety and serviceability requirement before failure is called the limit state .In the
limit state methods of design, the design is to withstand safely all the loads which act
on it during its life. Thus limit state design method certifies the serviceability
requirements also. The aim of design is to achieve acceptable probabilities that the
structure will not its limit state .All relevant limit states are considered to ensure
adequate degree of safety and serviceability. To ensure the above objective the design
is based on the characteristic values for material strength and in loads to be supported.
2.1.1Characteristic load: The term ³characteristic load´ means that value of load
which has 95% probability of not being exceeded during the life of structure.
2.2 WORKING STRESS DESIGN
This has been traditional method used for reinforced concrete where it is assumed that
concrete is elastic .steel and concrete act together elastically and the relationship
between loads and stresses is linear up to the collapse of structure .The basis of
method is that the permissible stress for concrete and steel are not exceeded anywhere
in the structure when it is subjected to the worst combination of working loads.
The working stress method is based on the following assumption:
1: A section which is plane before bending remains plane after bending.
2: Bond between steel and concrete is perfect within the elastic limit of steel.
3: The tensile strength of concrete is ignored.
4: Concrete is elastic.
5: The modular ratio m has the valueሺ
ଶ଼଴
ଷı
ౙౘౙ
) where ı
ୡୠୡ
is the permissible
compressive stress in bending.

15

2.3 DESIGN COMPONENTS OF SHOPPING COMPLEX
The design purpose of design elements of shopping complex is to provide adequate
stability and safety .There are following design elements of shopping complex:
2.3.1 Foundation: Foundations are structural elements that transfer loads from the
building or individual column to the earth. If these loads are to be properly
transmitted, foundation must be designed to prevent excessive settlement or rotation,
to minimize differential settlement and to provide adequate safety against sliding and
overturning. Most foundations may be classified as follows:
(a) Isolated footing under individual columns. They may be square, rectangular or
circular in plan.
(b) Strip foundations and wall footings.
(c) Combined footing supporting two or more column loads. These may be
rectangular or trapezoidal in plan or they may be isolated bases joined by a
beam. The latter case is referred to as strip footing.
(d) Raft or mat foundation is a large continuous foundation supporting all the
column of a structure. This is normally used when soil conditions are poor or
differential settlement is to be avoided.
(e) In pile foundation pile caps are used to tie a group of piles together. These
may be support isolated columns or group of several columns or load bearing
walls.
The choice of type of foundation to be used in a given situation depends on a number
of factors, for example,
(a) Soil strata,
(b) Bearing capacity and standard penetration test value N of soil.
(c) Type of structure,
(d) Type of loads,
(e) Permissible differential settlement, and
(f) Economy.
The size of foundation depends on permissible bearing capacity of the soil. Total load
per unit area under the footing must be less than the permissible bearing capacity of
the soil to prevent excessive settlement. In general, foundations have to resist vertical
16

load, horizontal load and moments. For the purpose of design of foundation, soil
profile, depth of water table, values of density, bearing capacity, N value, coefficient
of internal friction etc of soil are required.
Two terms are used for bearing capacity: Gross bearing capacity and net bearing
capacity. Gross bearing capacity is the total safe bearing pressure at the bottom of the
footing including the load of the superstructure, weight of the footing and that of the
earth lying over the footing. Net safe bearing capacity is the safe bearing pressure at
the bottom of the footing additional to the weight of the earth which existed at that
level before the trench for footing was dug. Thus the net safe bearing capacity is the
gross bearing capacity minus the weight per unit area dug out of trench. Depth of
foundation plays a pivotal role in the load resisting capabilities of footing.
Depth of foundation is governed by the following factors:
(a) To secure safe bearing capacity,
(b) To penetrate below the zone where seasonal weather changes are likely to
cause significant movement due to swelling shrinkage of soils,
(c) To penetrate below the zone that may be affected by frost.
IS: 1080-1962 requires that in all soils a minimum depth of 50cm is necessary.
However, if good rock is met at smaller depth, only removal of top soil may be
sufficient. An estimate of depth of footing below ground level may be obtained by
using Rankine formula, that is,
h =



ଵିୱ୧୬˗
ଵାୱ୧୬˗



Where,
h= minimum depth of foundation
P = gross bearing capacity
ߛ = density of soil
Ɏ= angle of repose of soil.

17

2.3.2 Column: A column may be defined as an element used primarily to support
axial compressive loads and with a height of at le.ast three times its least lateral
dimension. The strength of column depends on the strength of the materials, shape
and size of the cross-section, length and degree of positional and directional restraints
at its ends. A column may be classified based on different criteria such as:
(a) Shape of the cross-section,
(b) Slenderness ratio,
(c) Type of loading,
(d) Pattern of lateral reinforcement.
A column may be classified as short or long column depending on its effective
slenderness ratio. The ratio of effective column length to least lateral dimension is
referred to as slenderness ratio. A short column has a maximum slenderness ratio of
12. Its design is based on the strength of the material and the applied loads. A long
column has a slenderness ratio greater than 12. However maximum slenderness ratio
of a column should not exceed 60. A long column is designed to resist the applied
load plus additional bending moment included due to its tendency to buckle. A
column may be classified as follows based on type of loading:
(a) Axially loaded column,
(b) A column subjected to axial load and uni-axial bending, and
(c) A column subjected to axial load and bi-axial bending.
A reinforced concrete column can also be classified according to the manner, in which
the longitudinal bars are laterally supported, that is,
(a) Tied column, and
(b) Spiral column.
(c) In practise a truly axially loaded column is rare, if not nonexistent. Therefore
every column should be designed for certain minimum eccentricity. This
accidental eccentricity may occur due to end conditions, inaccuracy during
construction or variation in materials even when the load is theoretically axial.
Clause 25.4 of the code requires that the minimum eccentricity should be as
follows:
18

‡
୫୧୬

l
ͷͲͲ

B
͵ͲͲ

൐ ʹͲ
Where,
L= Unsupported length
D= Lateral dimension of column in the direction under consideration in mm.
Moreover there are two types of reinforcement in the column: longitudinal
reinforcement and transverse reinforcement. The purpose of transverse reinforcement
is to hold the vertical bars in position providing lateral support so that individual bars
cannot buckle outwards and split the concrete. Guidelines for longitudinal
reinforcement are:
(a) The minimum area of cross-section of longitudinal bars must be at least 0.8%
of the gross-sectional area of column.
(b) The maximum area of cross-section of longitudinal bars must not exceed 6%
of the gross-sectional area of the concrete.
(c) The bars should not be less than 12mm in diameter so that it is sufficiently to
stand up straight in the column forms during fixing and concreting.
(d) The minimum number of longitudinal bars provided in a column must be four
in rectangular columns and six in circular bars.
(e) Spacing of the longitudinal bars measured along the periphery of a column
should not exceed 300mm.
Transverse reinforcement may be provided in the form of lateral ties or spiral. The
lateral ties may be in the form of polygonal link with internal angle not exceeding
135°. The ends of the transverse reinforcement should be properly anchored. While
providing lateral ties following points are worth note:
(a) The diameter of the polygonal link or lateral ties should not be less than one
fourth of the diameter of the longitudinal bars, and in no case less than 6mm.
(b) The pitch of the lateral ties should not exceed following distances:
y The least lateral dimension of the compression member,
19

y Sixteen times the smaller diameter of the longitudinal
reinforcement bar to be tied, and
y 300mm.
The general non dimensional equation for the load contour at constant µP¶ can be
expressed in the form:
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
”1
Where,


=Factored moment along X-axis


= Factored moment along Y-axis

୳୶
=Maximum moment capacity for bending along x-axis only at axial load p

୳୷
=Maximum moment capacity for bending along y-axis only at axial load p
ǹ

=An exponent that depends on the dimension of the cross-section, the amount of
reinforcement, concrete strength and yield stress of steel.
As per IS: 456- 2000, Frame Analysis method can be used to analyze and design the
columns which are subjected to axial loading and bi-axial bending. The guidelines can
be summed up as follows:
External columns:
Moment for frames of one bay
Moment at foot of upper column = Me (
୩୳
୩୳ା୩୐ା଴Ǥହ୩ୠ
)
Moment at head of lower column = Me(
୩୐
୩୳ା୩୐ା଴Ǥହ୩ୠ
)
Moment for frames of two or more bay
Moment at foot of upper column = Me (
୩୳
୩୳ା୩୐ା୩ୠ
)
Moment at head of lower column = Me (
୩୐
୩୳ା୩୐ା୩ୠ
)

20

Internal columns:
Moments for frame of two or more bays
Moment at foot of upper column = Mes (
୩୳
୩୐ା୩୳ା୩ୠଵା୩ୠଶ
)
Moment at head of lower column = Mes (
୩୐
୩୐ା୩୳ା୩ୠଵା୩ୠଶ
)
Where,
Me = Bending moment at the end of the beam framing in to the column assuming
fixity at the connection.
Mes = Maximum difference between the moments at the ends of the beams framing in
to opposite sides of column each calculated on the assumption that the ends of the
beam are fixed and assuming one of beam unloaded.
ku = Stiffness factor of the upper column
kL = Stiffness factor of lower column
kb1 = Stiffness of beam on one of side of the column
kb2 = Stiffness of the beam on other side of column
2.3.3-Beam: A reinforced concrete flexure member should be able to resist tensile,
compressive and shear stresses induced in it by the loads acting on the member.
There are three types of RCC beams:
(a) Singly reinforced beams
(b) Doubly reinforced beams
(c) Singly or doubly reinforced flanged beams
While designing the beams, following important rules must be kept in mind:
(a) Effective span of a member shall be as follows:
y The effective span of a member that is not built integrally with its
supports shall be taken as clear span plus effective depth of beam or
centre to centre of supports, whichever is lesser.
21

y In case of continuous beams, if the width of the supports is less than
1/12 of the clear span, the effective span shall be taken as above. If the
supports are wider than 1/12 of the clear span or 600mm whichever is
less, the effective span shall be taken as under:
i. For the end span with one end fixed and the other continuous
or for the intermediate spans, the effective span shall be clear
span between supports, and
ii. For the end span with one end free and the other continuous,
the effective shall be equal to the clear span plus half the
effective depth of the beam or the clear span plus half the
width of the discontinuous support, whichever is lesser.
iii. In case of spans with roller or rocker bearings, the effective
span shall always be the distance between the centre of
bearings.
(b) Following specifications can be used for providing reinforcement in beam:
y Minimum area of tension reinforcement shall not be less than that
given by the following:

౩౪
ୠୢ

଴Ǥ଼ହ


.
y Maximum area of tension reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04bD.
(c) Maximum area of compression reinforcement shall not exceed 0.04bD
compression reinforcement in beams shall be enclosed by the stirrups for
effective lateral restraint.
(d) Maximum spacing of shear reinforcement measured along the axis of the
member shall not exceed 0.75d for vertical stirrups and d for inclined stirrups
at 45°Ǥ in no case shall the spacing exceed 300mm.
(e) Minimum shear reinforcement in the form of stirrups shall be provided such
that

ୱ୴
„


ͲǤͶ
ͲǤͺ͹f


Where,

ୱ୴
= Total cross-sectional area of stirrup legs effective in shear


=Stirrup spacing along the length of the member.
22

The limiting values of depth of neutral axis for different grades of steel are shown in
the adjacent table:
Table 2.1- Limiting value of depth of neutral axis
f


š
୳୫ୟ୶
†

250 0.53
415 0.48
500 0.46

2.3.4 Slab: Slabs are plate elements forming floors and roofs of buildings and
carrying distributed loads primarily by flexure. A slab may be simply supported or
continuous over one or more supports and is classified according to the manner of
support:
(a) One -way slab spanning in one direction,
(b) Two-way slab spanning in both direction,
(c) Circular slabs,
(d) Flat slabs resting directly on columns with no beams, and
(e) Grid floor and ribbed slab.
One way slab are those in which length is more than twice the breadth. A one way
slab can be simply supported or continuous. A continuous one way slab can be
analyzed in a manner similar to that for a continuous beam. When the slabs are
supported on four sides, two ways spanning occurs. Such slabs may be simply
supported or continuous on any or all sides. The deflection and bending moments in a
two way slab are considerably reduced as compared to those in one way slab. Thus a
thinner slab can carry the same load when supported on all the four edges. In a square
slab, the two way action is equal in each direction. In long narrow slabs where length
is greater than twice breadth, the two way action effectively reduces to one way action
in the direction of short span although the end beams do carry some slab load.
A two way slab which is simply supported at its edges tends to lift off its supports
near the corners when loaded. Such a slab is the only truly simply supported slab. The
23

values of bending moments used for the design of such slabs can be obtained as
follows:




™l





™l



Where,


ǡ

= Maximum moments at mid span on strips of unit width and spansl

ǡ l

;
respectively.
l

= Length of shorter side
l

= Length of longer side
Į

ǡ Į

= Moment coefficients.
Table showing the values of moment coefficients:
Table 2.2- Value of moment coefficients
l

l


1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.75 2.0
Į

0.062 0.074 0.084 0.093 0.099 0.104 0.113 0.118
Į

0.062 0.061 0.059 0.055 0.051 0.046 0.037 0.029

If the cross-sectional areas of the three basic structural elements: beam, slab and
column are related to the amount of steel reinforcement provided, it will be seen that
the percent steel is usually maximum in a column than a beam and the least in slab.
Slabs are designed by using the same theories and shear as are used for beams. The
following method of analysis is available:
a) Elastic theory analysis- idealization into strips or beams,
b) Semi empirical coefficients as given in the code, and
c) Yield line theory.
Table showing the value of bending moment coefficients is as follows:
24

Table 2.3- Value of bending moment coefficients
Type of load Near middle of
end span
At middle of
interior span
At support next
to end support
At other interior
support
Dead load and
imposed
load(fixed)

ͳ
ͳʹ

ͳ
ͳ͸

ͳ
ͳͲ

ͳ
ͳʹ

Imposed load
(not fixed)

ͳ
ͳͲ

ͳ
ͳʹ

ͳ
ͻ

ͳ
ͻ


Table showing the value of shear force coefficients is as follows:
Table 2.4- Value of shear force coefficients
Type of load At end support At support next to
end support
At all other interior
supports
Dead load and
imposed load(fixed)
0.4 0.6 0.5
Imposed load (not
fixed)
0.45 0.6 0.6

2.3.5 Staircase: The purpose of a staircase is to provide pedestrian access to different
levels within buildings. The geometrical forms of staircases may be quite different
depending on the individual circumstances involved. The shape and structural
arrangement of a staircase generally depend on type of construction of the structure
around the staircase that is, loading bearing brick structure or reinforced concrete
frame structure and availability of space.
There are two main component of a staircase-
y Stairs
y Landing slab
General rules to design staircase are as follows:
25

(a) Between consecutive floors there should be an equal rise for every parallel
step. Similarly, there should be an equal going.
(b) There should be at least 2m headroom measured vertically above any step.
(c) The sum of going of a single step plus twice the rise should be between 550m
and 700m.
(d) The rise of a step should not be more than about 200mm and the going not less
than240mm.
(e) The slope or pitch of stair case should not be more than about 38°.
(f) Width of the staircase will depend on the usage. The width required in a
residential building would be different from that for a cinema hall.
Generally a staircase consists of a sloping slab in the direction of flight and is
supported at each end. Steps are built over this slab. The support at either end may be
as follows:
(a) Walls or beams spanning transversely to the flight, or
(b) A landing slab spanning transversely to the flight, or
(c) A landing slab spanning along the direction of the flight
The effective span of stair slab should be taken as the following distances:
(a) Where supported at bottom risers by beam or wall, the centre to centre
distance of beams;
(b) Where spanning on to the edge of a landing slab which spans transversely to
the flight, a distance equal to the going of stairs plus at each end either half the
width of landing slab or one metre, whichever is smaller, and
(c) Where landing slab spans in the same direction as the stairs, they should be
considered as acting together to form a single slab and the span determined as
centre to centre distance of the supporting beams or walls.
2.3.6 Water tank: A water tank is used to store water to tide over the daily
requirements in general, water tanks can be classified under three heads:
(a) Tanks resting on the ground,
(b) Elevated tanks supported on staging, and
(c) Underground tanks.
26

From shape point of view, water tanks may be of several types, such as:
(a) Circular tanks,
(b) Rectangular tanks,
(c) Spherical tanks,
(d) Intze tanks, and
(e) Circular tanks with conical bottoms.
In the construction of concrete structures for the storage of water and other liquids, the
imperviousness of concrete is most essential. The quantity of cement should not be
less than 330kg/m
3
of concrete. It should also be less than 530kg/m
3
of concrete to
keep the shrinkage low. It is usual to use rich mix like M 30 grade in most of water
tanks.
When water is filled in circular tank, the hydrostatic pressure will try to increase its
diameter at any section. However this increase in the diameter all along the height of
the tank will depend upon the nature of the joint at the junction of wall and bottom
slab. If the joint is flexible it will be free to move outward in a different position.
Hydrostatic pressure at top point is zero; hence there will be no change in the diameter
at the highest point. The hydrostatic pressure at bottom will be maximum, resulting in
maximum increase in diameter there hence maximum movement there if joint is
flexible. When joint is flexible, Hoop tension is developed everywhere in the wall.
Maximum Hoop tension at the bottom, per unit height of wall= wH



Taking permissible stress in steel in direct tension asf

, area of steel per metre height
at the base is given by,

ୱ୦ୀ
™B
ʹf


This area of steel may be provided at the centre of wall, if its thickness is small, or it
may be provided on each face, keeping a minimum cover of 25mm if the thickness is
more than 225mm. The thickness of the wall should be such that tensile stress
developed in the composite section is within safe limits. If f
ୡ୲
is the permissible
tensile stress in the equivalent concrete section, and T is the thickness of the wall, we
have
27

f
ୡ୲

™BȀʹ
ͳͲͲͲT ൅ ሺm െ ͳሻ
ୱ୦

For tanks of smaller capacity, the cost of shuttering for circular tank becomes high.
Rectangular tanks are therefore used in such circumstances. However, rectangular
tanks are not normally used in for large capacities since they are uneconomical and
also its exact analysis is difficult. In such a tank wall of the tank is subjected to both
bending moment as well as direct tension. Though reinforcement is provided for both
moments as well as direct tension, the maximum permissible value of tensile stresses
for M20 concrete may be taken as 1.2N/mm
2
and 1.7N/mm
2
respectively for direct
tension and due to bending. For the design by approximate method, rectangular tanks
may be divided into two categories, tanks in which ratio of length to breadth is less
than 2 and tanks in which ratio is more than 2.
(a) If the ratio L/B is less than 2, the tank walls are designed as continuous frame
subjected to a triangular load. Such a bending is assumed to take place from
top to a height h=H/4 or 1m above base whichever is more. For the bottom
height h, bending is assumed to act in vertical plane as cantilever, subjected to
triangular load, having zero intensity at h and wH at base. For horizontal
bending, the maximum horizontal force per unit height is taken equal to p=
w(H-h) per metre run. The value of bending moment and direct tension is
calculated as below:
Bending moment at centre of span=
୮୆

ଵ଺
(producing tension on outer face)
Bending moment at ends of span=
୮୆

ଵଶ
(producing tension on water face)
Direct tension on long wall= w (H-h) B/2
Direct tension on short wall= w (H-h) L/2.

(b) If ratio L/B is greater than 2, the long walls are assumed to bend vertically as
cantilever fixed at base and subjected to triangularly distributed load. The
short wall is assumed to bend horizontally, supported on long walls for the
portion from top to a height H-h. The load intensity for such a bending is taken
28

as p = w(H-h). The bottom portion of height h of the short wall is designed as
cantilever subject to triangular load. Thus:
For long wall, bending moment at the base, per unit length of the wall = wH
3
/6
For short wall, the maximum bending moment at ends and centre
= w(H-h)B
2
/16
Maximum cantilever bending moment= wHh
2
/6
The direct tension on long wall = w(H-h)B/2
2.3.7 Shell: It is basically a curved surface having small thickness compared to radius
and other dimensions. Shells or skin space roofs are preferable to plane roofs since
they can be used to cover large floor spaces with economical use of materials of
construction. The use of curved space roofs requires 25 % to 40 % less material than
that of plane elements. Shell roofs are architecturally very expressive. Shell roofs are
generally adopted for hangers, sports auditoriums, exhibition halls, industrial
buildings and a variety of other large span structures where uninterrupted floor space
is required. Shells are broadly classified into two major groups as,
(a) Singly curved shells which are developable
(b) Doubly curved shells which are non developable
Under the singly curved shells we have the conical and cylindrical shells. The
common example of doubly curved shells is the circular domes, paraboloid. These
shells are generally grouped under these categories designated as,
(a) Shells of revolution
(b) Shells of translation
(c) Ruled surfaces
Shells are also classified as thin and thick shells. A shell can be considered as thin if
the ratio of the radius to the thickness of the shell is greater than 20. In general, most
of the shells used in practise come under the category of thin shells. The general
guidelines followed for selecting the dimensions of the various structural components
of the shells are detailed below:
29

(a) The overall thickness of a reinforced concrete shell should not be less than
50mm for singly curved shells, 40mm for doubly curved shells and 25mm for
precast shells. Generally the thickness is in the range of 80mm to 120mm for
most of the shells based on practical considerations.
(b) The span of reinforced concrete shells should not be greater than 30m to limit
the size and reinforcement within practicable limits in the edge beams. For
longer spans, prestressed edge beams can be used. The width of the edge
member is limited to 2 to 3 times the thickness of the shell.
(c) For large span shells, depth= 1/6 to 1/12 span, larger figures are applicable to
small spans. For shells without edge members, depth < span/10. For shells
with chord width much larger than the span, depth > 1/10 chord width.
(d) The semi central angle should be in the range of 30 to 45 degrees. If the angle
is less than 45°, the effect of wind load may be ignored.
(e) The diameter of reinforcement should not exceed 10mm for 50mm thick shells
and 12mm for 65mm thick shells and 16mm for shells having thickness
greater than 65mm. In the junction zones where the shell is thickened, larger
diameter bars are permissible. The spacing of the bars should not be more than
five times the thickness of the shell. Minimum clear cover must be 12mm or
the nominal size of reinforcing bars.
(f) In case of shells of long lengths exceeding 40m, expansion joints have to be
provided. The construction joints are provided along the curved length of the
shells where the shear forces are minimum.
Though several methods have been discussed to design a shell but the most widely
used method is Beam theory. In the beam theory the shell is analyzed as a bean of
curved cross-section spanning between the end frames or transverses. In the case of
long shells, the longitudinal force components are predominant and hence the beam
theory is ideally suited for analysis. The beam theory is generally applicable for
cylindrical shells of L/R ratio exceeding the value of ʌ.




30

CHAPTER-3
ANALYSIS, DESIGN AND RESULTS
3.1 DESIGN OF SLAB (TOP, FIRST AND GROUND FLOOR)
Size of slab= 3.33m×8m
Assuming modification factor ൎ 1.2
ୱ୮ୟ୬
ୣ୤୤ୣୡ୲୧୴ୣ ୢୣ୮୲୦
= 26×1.2
Effective depth = 106.7mm
Taking total depth D = 140mm
Hence effective depth d=121m
Dead load due to slab = 25×0.14
=3.5kN/m
2

Surface finish load = 1.5kN/m
2

Hence dead load intensity, ™

= 5kN/ m
2
Live load intensity, ™

= 4kN/ m
2
l

= 3.33 + 0.128
=

3.458 m
l


= 8 + 0.128
=

8.128 m





= 2.3 > 2
Hence one way slab
.

Calculation of Bending Moment:
Bending moment near middle of end span
31


=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴
= 9.763kN-m/ m run
Bending moment at support next to end support
B
ଵଵ
= െ




ଵ଴







= - 9.763kN-m/ m run
Bending moment at middle of interior span


=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 7.726kN-m/ m run
Bending moment at other interior support
B
ଵଶ
= െ




ଵଶ







= 10.29kN-m/ m run
Maximum bending moment = 10.29kN-m/ m run
0.138f
ୡ୩
bd
2
= 10.29 × 1.5× 10
6

d = 74.7mm< 128mm ok.
Reinforcement forܯ

:
Factored BM = 1.5×9.763
=14.64kN-m/ m run
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 335 mm
2
Spacing =
ଵ଴଴଴ൈହ଴Ǥଶସ
ଷଷହ
=149.9mm
Hence providing 8ɮ @ 150mm c/c.
Actual reinforcement provided =
ଵ଴଴଴ൈହ଴Ǥଶସ
ଵହ଴
=334.9 mm
2
32

Hence % tension reinforcement =
ଵ଴଴ൈଷଷସǤଽ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈଵଶଵ
= 0.276%
Reinforcement forܤ
ଵଵ
:
Factored BM = 19.6kN-m/ m run
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 391 mm
2
Spacing
=
ଵ଴଴଴ൈହ଴Ǥଶସ
ଷଽଵ
=130mm
Hence providing 8ɮ @ 130mm c/c.
Reinforcement forܯ

:
Factored BM =11.589kN-m/ m run
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 262 mm
2
Spacing
=
ଵ଴଴଴ൈହ଴Ǥଶସ
ଶ଺ଶ
= 190mm
Hence providing 8ɮ @ 190mm c/c.
Reinforcement forܤ
ଵଶ
:
Factored BM = 15.435kN-m/ m run
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 355 mm
2
Spacing
=
ଵ଴଴଴ൈହ଴Ǥଶସ
ଷହହ
= 140mm
Hence providing 8ɮ @ 140mm c/c
Codal specifications:
Maximum spacing = 3d = 384mm
Minimum area of reinforcement = 0.12 % of BD =168mm
2

Check for shear force:
Maximum shear force occurs at first interior support B
ଵଵ

33


= 0.6×1.5×3.458×11.6 = 36.1kN/m
IJ

=
ଷ଺Ǥଵ
ଵଶ଼
=0.282N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈହ଴ଽǤ଻
ଵ଴଴଴ൈଶ଼
= 0.389 %
IJ

= 0.42N/mm
2
, k = 1.3
IJ

ƍ
= 1.3×0.42 = 0.546N/mm
2

IJ

ƍ
൐ IJ

, hence Ok.
Check for development length:
Ɏ൑
ସIJ
ౘౚ
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤
ౙౡ

ଵǤଷ୑


൅ L


= ͲǤͺ͹ ൈ f


ୱ୲
ሺ† െ


ൈ୅ୱ୲

ౙౡ
ൈୠ
ሻ =7.32kN-m
Shear force V = 0.4™

൅ ͲǤͶͷ™


= 12.92 kN
Ɏ ൑
ସൈଵǤ଺
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈସଵହ

ଵǤଷൈ଻Ǥଷଶ
ଵଶǤଽଶ
൅ ͵ͲͲሻ
൑ ͻmm.
Hence ok.
Check for deflection:
Percentage tension reinforcement = 0.276%
Modification factor ൎ1.5
d =
ଷǤଷଷଷൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶଷൈଵǤହ
= 96.6mm
Hence safe.
A table showing results is as follows:

34

Table 3.1 ± Results of slab
Designation Reinforcement

Diameter

Spacing(c/c)
Near middle of end
span
335mm
2
8mm 150mm
At support next to
end support
391 mm
2
8mm 130mm
At middle of
interior span
262 mm
2
8mm 190mm
At other interior
support
355 mm
2
8mm 140mm

3.2 DESIGN OF BEAM (TOP FLOOR)
3.2.1 Design of Beam µAB¶ Of Span 10m:
Taking width b = 300mm
Effective depth d = 600mm
Total depth D = 625mm
Live load of full slab = Ͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൈ ͺ

=320kN
Dead load = ሺͺ ൈ ͳͲ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷሻ ൅ ሺͺ ൈ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ Ǥ͵ͲͲ ൈ ʹͷሻ
= 317.5kN
A 10 B


8

E M
Fig 3.1- Different beams
35


Live load for triangular portion =
ଵ଺ൈଷଶ଴
଼଴

= 64kN
Live load for trapezoidal portion =
ଵଶସൈଷଶ଴
଼଴

= 96kN
Dead load for triangular portion =
ଵ଺ൈଷଵ଻Ǥହ
଼଴

= 63.5kN
Dead load for trapezoidal portion =
ଶସൈଷଵ଻Ǥହ
଼଴

= 95.25kN
Dead load of AB =
ଽହǤଶହ
ଵ଴

ǤଷൈǤ଺ଶହൈଵ଴ൈଶହ
ଵ଴

™

= 14.2kN/ m
Live load of AB =
ଽ଺
ଵ଴

™

= 9.6kN/ m
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୅୆
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴

= 214.33kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1901.7 mm
2

Hence providing 6 - 20 ɮ.

Bending moment at middle of interior span
36

୆େ
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 168.75kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1392.6 mm
2
Hence providing 5-20ɮ
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴







= െʹͶͺǤ͸͸ kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2370.3 mm
2
Hence providing 8-20ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (A)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 50kN
Shear force at support next to end support (B)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 71.4kN
Check for shear force at µA¶:


= 1.5 x 50
= 75kN
ɒ

=
଻ହ଴଴଴
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

=0.416 N/mm
2

37

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈ଺ൈଷଵସ
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

= 1.04 %
ɒ

= 0.64 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence safe.
Check for shear force at µB¶:


= 1.5 x 71.4
= 107.1kN
ɒ

=
ଵ଴଻ଵ଴଴
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

= 0.595N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈ଼ൈଷଵସ
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

= 1.39 %
ɒ

= 0.69 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Safe hence providing minimum reinforcement
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups

ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤

ൈ୅
౩౬
଴Ǥସൈୠ

= 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
38

Maximum shear force = 71.4kN
Maximum Bending moment = 248.66kN-m
L

= 600mm or 12 ɮ
=240mm
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑
ଵǤଷൈଶସ଼Ǥ଺଺ൈଵ଴଴଴
଻ଵǤସ
൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 40mm
Hence ok.
Table 3.2± Result of beam µAB¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
1901.7mm
2
6 20mm
At middle of
interior span
1392.6mm
2
5 20mm
At support next to
end support
2370.3mm
2
8 20mm

3.2.2 Design of Beam µAE¶ of span 8m:
Dead load = Dead load of triangular portion + dead load of beam
=
଺ଷǤହ
ଵ଴

ǤଷൈǤ଺ଶହൈ଼ൈଶହ
ଵ଴

™

= 12.63 kN/ m
Live load =
଺ସ


™

= 8kN/ m
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
39

Bending moment near middle of end span

୅୉
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴

= 118.56 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 918.6 mm
2
Hence providing 5-16ɮ.
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୉୊
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 93.18kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 702.4 mm
2
Hence providing 4-16ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴







= -137.71kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1091.3 mm
2
Hence providing 6-16ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (A)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 31.01 kN
Shear force at support next to end support (E)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪


40

= 44.712kN
Check for shear force at µA¶:


= 1.5 x 31.01
= 46.515 kN
ɒ

=
ସ଺Ǥହଵହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

= 0.37N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈ଺ൈଶ଴଴Ǥଽ଺
ଷ଴଴ൈ଺଴଴

= 0.66 %
ɒ

= 0.5N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence safe.
Check for shear force at µE¶:


= 1.5 x 44.712
= 67.068 kN
ɒ

= 0.37 N/mm
2
p

= 0.67 %
ɒ

= 0.52 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Safe hence providing minimum reinforcement
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups

ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤

ൈ୅
౩౬
଴Ǥସൈୠ

41

= 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
Maximum shear force = 44.712 kN
Maximum Bending moment = 137.71 kN-m
L

= 600mm or 12 ɮ
=240mm
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹Ɏ ൑
ଵǤଷൈଵଷ଻Ǥ଻ଵൈଵ଴଴଴
ସସǤ଻ଵଶ
൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 40mm. hence ok.
Table 3.3- Result of beam µAE¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
918.6mm
2
5 16mm
At middle of
interior span
702.4mm
2
4 16mm
At support next to
end support
1091mm
2
6 16mm

3.2.3 Design of Beam µEM¶ of span 10m:
Dead load = 2(Dead load of trapezoid) + dead load of beam
™

= 23.7kN/ m
Live load = 2(Live load of trapezoid)
™

= 19.2kN/ m
42

Taking effective depth d = 750mm
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୉୑
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴

= 389.5kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2974.7 mm
2
Hence providing 9-20ɮ.
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୑୔
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 308.1kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2123.3 mm
2
Hence providing 7-20ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴







= -450.33 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 3888 mm
2
Hence providing 13-20ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (E)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 90.6 kN
43

Shear force at support next to end support (M)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 128.7 kN
Check for shear force at µE¶:


= 135.9kN
ɒ

=
ଵଷହǤଽൈଵ଴଴଴
ଷ଴଴ൈ଻ହ଴

= 0.60N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈଽൈଷଵସ
ଷ଴଴ൈ଻ହ଴

= 1.25 %
ɒ

= 0.67 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

, hence safe.
Check for shear force at µM¶:


= 1.5 x 128.7
= 193.05 kN
ɒ

= 0.85 N/mm
2
p

= 1.8%
ɒ

= 0.76 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence shear reinforcement needed to be provided

୳ୱ
= 193.05x1000 ± 0.76x300x750
= 22050kN
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups
44

ܣ
௦௩
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤

ൈ୅
౩౬
ൈୢ

౫౩

= 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
Maximum shear force = 128.7kN
Maximum Bending moment = 450.33kN-m
L

= 600mm or 12 ɮ
=240mm
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑
ଵǤଷൈସହ଴Ǥଷଷൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵଶ଼Ǥ଻
൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 40mm
Hence ok.
Table 3.4 - Result of beam µEM¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
2974.7mm
2
9 20mm
At middle of
interior span
2123.3mm
2
7 20mm
At support next to
end support
3888mm
2
13 20mm



45

3.2.4 Design of Beam µBM¶ of Span 8m:
Dead load = 2(Dead load of triangle) + dead load of beam
™

= 21.5kN/ m
Live load = 2(Live load of triangle)
™

= 16kN/ m
Taking effective depth d = 750mm
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୑୆
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴

= 217.06kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1378 mm
2
Hence providing 5-20ɮ.
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୑୒
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

=199.99kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1253 mm
2
Hence providing 4-20ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴







= - 251.37 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1641 mm
2
Hence providing 6-20ɮ.
46

Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (B)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 63.2kN
Shear force at support next to end support (M)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 90kN
Check for shear force at µB¶:


= 94.8kN
ɒ

=
ଽସǤ଼ൈଵ଴଴଴
ଷ଴଴ൈ଻ହ଴

= 0.42N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈହൈଷଵସ
ଷ଴଴ൈ଻ହ଴

= 0.69 %
ɒ

= 0.5 N/mm
2
, ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence safe.
Check for shear force at µM¶:


= 1.5 x 90 = 135kN
ɒ

= 0.6 N/mm
2
, p

= 0.84%
ɒ

= 0.8 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Safe hence providing minimum reinforcement
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups
47

ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤

ൈ୅
౩౬
଴Ǥସൈୠ

= 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
Maximum shear force = 90kN
Maximum Bending moment = 251.37kN-m
L

= 600mm or 12 ɮ = =240mm
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑
ଵǤଷൈଶହଵǤଷ଻ൈଵ଴଴଴
ଽ଴
൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 45mm. Hence Ɏ = 20mm is ok.
Table 3.5 - Result of beam µBM¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
1378mm
2
5 20mm
At middle of
interior span
1253mm
2
4 20mm
At support next to
end support
1641mm
2
6 20mm





48

1111














Fig 3.2- Grid of Columns

3.3 DESIGN OF COLUMNS (TOP FLOOR)
3.3.1 Design of Column D1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.464
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
A3 A1 A2 A4
B1 B2
B3 B4
C1 C2 C3 C4
D1
D2
D3 D4
49

Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = ͺǤͻͻ ൈ ʹͶ/10
= 21.6kN/m
2

Me = wl
2
/12
= 21.6ൈ10
2
/12
= 175kN-m
Mux = 0.268ൈ ͳ͹ͷ kN-m
= 46.9kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ͲǤ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Me = 95.89kN-m
Muy = 24.55kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 179.8kN
Let assume % reinforcement provided = 0.8%

୤ୡ୩
=
଴Ǥ଼
ଶ଴
= 0.04
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଵ଻ଽǤ଼ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.112
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.09
Mux
1
= 0.09ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.09ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 86.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 86.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.13
50

From graph Į = 1
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ସ଺Ǥଽ
଼଺Ǥସ
)
1
+ (
ଶସǤହହ
଼଺Ǥସ
)
1

= 0.82 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 0.8% gross-area
= 0.008ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 960 mm
2

So provide 4-16 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ

= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.3.2 Design of Column C1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.46
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.15kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
51

= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 179.8kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 0.8%

୤ୡ୩
=
଴Ǥ଼
ଶ଴
= 0.04
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଷହଽǤ଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.22
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.12
Mux
1
= 0.12ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.12ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 115.2kN-m & Muy
1
= 115.2kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.26
From graph Į = 1.0375
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037

52

= 0.93 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 0.8% gross-area
= 0.008ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 960 mm
2

So provide 4-16 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ

= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.3.3 Design of Column C 2:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.106
kL = 0.106
Kb = 0.39
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
53

= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ oǤ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
Dead load= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 719.2kN
Let assume % reinforcement provided = 0.8%

୤ୡ୩
=
଴Ǥ଻
ଶ଴
= 1.4%
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
଻ଵଽǤହൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.44
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.1
Mux
1
= 0.1ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.1ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 96.37kN-m & Muy
1
= 96.37kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.37
From graph Į = 1.02
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037

= 0.93 ”1
Hence design is safe. Ok
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is Ok.
54


= 1.4% gross-area
= 0.014ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 1680 mm
2

So provide 8-16 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1) 300 mm
2)

16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3) 48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.3.4 Design of Column D2:

Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.106
kL = 0.106
kb = 0.39
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 12.6kN/m
2

Mes =2ൈ wl
2
/12
=2 ൈ12.6ൈ10
2
/12
= 350kN-m
Mux = 350ൈ ͲǤͳͲ͸ kN-m
= 37.1kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
55

= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98ൈ ʹ kN/m
= 35.96kN-m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.256ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 49.09kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 359.6kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 0.4%

௙௖௞
=
଴Ǥସ
ଶ଴
= 0.02
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଷହଽǤ଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.22
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.052
Mux
1
= 0.052ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.052ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 49.9kN-m & Muy
1
= 115.2kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.26
From graph Į = 1.0375
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଵହǤଶ
)
1.037

= 0.93 ”1
Hence design is safe. Ok
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is Ok.


= 0.4% gross-area
= 0.004ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 480 mm
2

56

So provide 4-16diameter
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)

16ൈ ͳʹ = 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c


3.4 DESIGN OF BEAM (FIRST & GROUND FLOOR)
3.4.1 Beam µAB¶ of span 10m
Taking width b = 300mm
Effective depth d = 750mm
Assuming thickness = 130mm
Height of wall = 4000- 140
= 3860mm
Dead load = dead load of trapezoid + dead load of beam + self weight of wall
™

= 95.25 + 25×10×0.3×0.75 + 10×3.86×0.13×20
= 25.2kN/m
Live load = live load of trapezoid
™

= 9.6kN/m
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୅୆
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴
= 306 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2104 mm
2

Hence providing 7-20ɮ.
57

Bending moment at middle of interior span

୆େ
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 237.5 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1533 mm
2
Hence providing 5-20ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴







= -358.6 kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2621 mm
2
Hence providing 9-20ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (A)


= 72kN
Shear force at support next to end support (B)


= 104.4kN
Check for shear force at µA¶:


= 108kN
ɒ

= 0.48N/mm
2

p

= 0.97 %
ɒ

= 0.6 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence safe.
58

Check for shear force at µB¶:


= 156.6
ɒ

= 0.696 N/mm
2
p

= 1.26%
ɒ

= 0.68 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence shear reinforcement needed to be provided

୳ୱ
= 3600 kN
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups

ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing = 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑
ଵǤଷൈଷହ଼Ǥ଺଺ൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴ସǤସ
൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 45mm. hence Ok.
Table 3.6 - Results of beam µAB¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
2104mm
2
7 20mm
At middle of
interior span
1533mm
2
5 20mm
At support next to
end support
2621mm
2
9 20mm
59

3.4.2 Beam µAE¶ of span 8m
Dead load = dead load of triangle + dead load of beam + self weight of wall
™

= 23.5kN/m
Live load = live load of triangle
™

= 8kN/m
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୅୉
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴
=176.53kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1087 mm
2
Hence providing 4-20ɮ.
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୉୊
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ
=136.67kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 819 mm
2
Hence providing 3-20ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴






= 207.3kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1306 mm
2
Hence providing 5-20ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (A)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 51.6kN
60

Shear force at support next to end support (E)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

= 75.6kN
Check for shear force at µA¶:


= 77.4kN, ɒ

= 0.34N/mm
2

p

= 0.55%, ɒ

= 0.5 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

, hence safe.
Check for shear force at µE¶:


= 113.4kN, ɒ

= 0.5 N/mm
2
p

= 0.69%, ɒ

= 0.52 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.
Hence minimum reinforcement required
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups,
ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑ ͵ͺͲͶǤ͸ͺ
Ɏ ൑ 45mm, hence Ok.





61

Table 3.7 - Results of beam µAE¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
1087mm
2
4 20mm
At middle of
interior span
819mm
2
3 20mm
At support next to
end support
1306mm
2
5 20mm

3.4.3 Beam µEM¶ of span 10m
Dead load = 2 (dead load of trapezoid) + dead load of beam + self weight of wall
™

=34.7kN/m
Live load = live load of trapezoid
™

=19.2kN/m
Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୉୑
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴

= 481.16kN-m
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୑୔
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ

= 376.8kN-m
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴






= -560.33kN-m

୪୧୫ ୀ଴Ǥଵଷ଼୤
ౙౡ
ୠୢ
మ.
62

=0.138×20×300×750
2
= 465.75kN-m
Ӎ
୪୧୫
= 94.5kN-m
š

= 0.48d
Area of tension steel corresponding to
0.87f

୲ଵ
= 0.36f
ୡ୩
„š

୲ଵ
= 2153mm
2
Taking



=0.1
Ӎ
୪୧୫
= ሺf
ୗେ

ୗେ
െ f
ୡୡ

ୱୡ
ሻሺ† െ †

ୗେ
= 407.22mm
2

Corresponding tension steel:
0.87f

୲ଶ
= f
ୗେ

ୗେ

୲ଶ
= 398.14mm2

୲୭୲ୟ୪ ୲ୣ୬ୱ୧୭୬
=
୲ଵ

୲ଶ

= 25514.14mm
2
.
Maximum area in tension = 0.04bD = 9300mm
2

୲୭୲ୟ୪ ୲ୣ୬ୱ୧୭୬

୫ୟ୶
, hence ok.

3.4.4 Design of Beam µBM¶ of span 8m
Dead load = 2(dead load of triangle) + dead load of beam + self weight of wall
™

= 31.5kN/m
Live load = live load of triangle
™

= 16kN/m
63

Calculation of bending moment and reinforcement:
Bending moment near middle of end span

୆୑
=




ଵଶ
+




ଵ଴
= 270.4kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1796 mm
2
Hence providing 6-20ɮ.
Bending moment at middle of interior span

୑୒
=




ଵ଺
+




ଵଶ
= 211.33kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 1335.7 mm
2
Hence providing 5-20ɮ.
Bending moment at support next to end support


= െ




ଵ଴






= 315.7kN-m
Reinforcement
ୱ୲
= 2190 mm
2

Hence providing 7-20ɮ.
Calculation of shear force:
Shear force at end support (B)


=
଴Ǥସൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥସହൈ୵

ൈ୪


= 79.2kN
Shear force at support next to end support (M)


=
଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

+

଴Ǥ଺ൈ୵

ൈ୪

= 114kN
Check for shear force at µB¶:


= 118.8kN, ɒ

= 0.53N/mm
2

p

= 0.83%, ɒ

= 0.58 N/mm
2

64

ɒ

൐ ɒ

, hence safe.
Check for shear force at µM¶:


= 171kN, ɒ

= 0.76 N/mm
2
p

= 0.98%, ɒ

= 0.61 N/mm
2

ɒ

൐ ɒ

.

୳ୱ
= 33750kN
Using 8mm- 2 legged vertical stirrups,
ୱ୴
= 100.5 mm
2

Spacing =
଴Ǥ଼଻ൈ୤

ൈ୅
౩౬
ൈୢ

౫౩
= 300mm
Providing 8mm-2 legged vertical stirrups @ 300mm c/c.
Check for development length:
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ͷ͹ɮ ൑ ͵ͷͻ͸Ǥ͵ʹ ൅ ʹͶͲ
Ɏ ൑ 45mm, hence ok.
Table 3.8 - Results of beam µBM¶
Designation Reinforcement Number of bars Diameter
Near middle of end
span
1796mm
2
6 20mm
At middle of
interior span
1335.7mm
2
5 20mm
At support next to
end support
2190mm
2
7 20mm

3.5 DESIGN OF COLUMNS (FIRST FLOOR)
3.5.1Design of Column D1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

65

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.464
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = ͺǤͻͻ ൈ ʹͶ/10
= 21.6kN/m
2

Me = wl
2
/12
= 21.6ൈ10
2
/12
= 175kN-m
Mux = 0.268ൈ ͳ͹ͷ kN-m
= 46.9kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Me = 95.89kN-m
Muy = 24.55kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 359.0kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 2%

௙௖௞
=

ଶ଴
= 0.1
66

Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
௉௨
௙௖௞
=
ଷହଽǤ଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.22
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.18
Mux
1
= 0.18ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.18ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 172.8kN-m & Muy
1
= 172.8kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 182kN
Pu/Pz = 0.16
From graph Į = 0.9
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ସ଺Ǥଽ
ଵ଻ଶǤ଼
)
0.9
+ (
ଶସǤହହ
ଵ଻ଶǤ଼
)
0.9

= 0.29 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 0.2% gross-area
= 0.02ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 2400 mm
2

So provide 8-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c


3.5.2 Design of ColumnC1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

67

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.46
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ oǤ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 719.2kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 2%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.1
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
68

୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
଻ଵଽǤଶൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.45
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.14
Mux
1
= 0.14ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.14ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 134.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 134.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.59
From graph Į = 1.4
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.4
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.4

= 0.76 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 0.2% gross-area
= 0.02ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 2400 mm
2

So provide 8-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.5.3 Design of Column C2:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.106
69

kL = 0.106
kb = 0.39
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.87kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 1438.4kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 4%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.2%
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଵସଷ଼ǤସൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.89
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
70

୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.09
Mux
1
= 0.09ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.09ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 86.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 86.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 2574kN
Pu/Pz = 0.8
From graph Į = 1.8
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
଼଺Ǥସ
)
1.8
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
଼଺Ǥସ
)
1.8

= 0.9 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 4% gross-area
= 0.04ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ= 4800 mm
2

So provide 8-25 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1) 300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.5.4 Design of Column D2:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.46
71

Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 719.2kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 2%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.1
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
଻ଵଽǤଶൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.45
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.14
Mux
1
= 0.14ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


72

=0.14ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 134.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 134.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 1378.8kN
Pu/Pz = 0.59
From graph Į = 1.4
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.4
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.4

= 0.76 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 0.2% gross-area
= 0.02ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 2400 mm
2

So provide 8-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.6 DESIGN OF COLUMNS (GROUND FLOOR)
3.6.1 Design of Column D1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.464
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
73

= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = ͺǤͻͻ ൈ ʹͶ/10
= 21.6kN/m
2

Me = wl
2
/12
= 21.6ൈ10
2
/12
= 175kN-m
Mux = 0.268ൈ ͳ͹ͷ kN-m
= 46.9kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Me = 95.89kN-m
Muy = 24.55kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 539.4kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 3%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.15
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ହଷଽǤସൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.33
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.07
Mux
1
= 0.07ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.07ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 67.2kN-m & Muy
1
= 67.2kN-m
74

P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 2200kN
Pu/Pz = 0.36
From graph Į = 1.18
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ସ଺Ǥଽ
଺଻Ǥଶ
)
1.18
+ (
ଶସǤହହ
଺଻Ǥଶ
)
1.18

= 0.9 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 3% gross-area
= 0.03ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 3600 mm
2

So provide 12-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.6.2 Design of Column C1:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.46
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
75

Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 1078.8kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 3%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.15
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.67
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.14
Mux
1
= 0.14ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.14ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 134.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 134.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 2205kN
Pu/Pz = 0.73
76

From graph Į = 1.6
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.6
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.6

= 0.68”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.
ܣ

= 3% gross-area
= 0.03ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 3600 mm
2

So provide 12-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)16ൈ ͳʹ

= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.6.3 Design of Column C2:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.268
kL = 0.268
kb = 0.46
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
77

= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
Total dead load due to slab + beams Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 1078.8kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 3%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.15
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.67
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.14
Mux
1
= 0.14ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.14ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 134.4kN-m & Muy
1
= 134.4kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 2205kN
Pu/Pz = 0.73
From graph Į = 1.6
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.6
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
ଵଷସǤସ
)
1.6

= 0.68”1
78

Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 3% gross-area
= 0.03ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 3600 mm
2

So provide 12-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1)300 mm
2)

16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3)48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c.

3.6.4 Design of Column D2:
Dimension of beam = 300ൈ625

Size of column = 300ൈ400
Moment of inertia of column Ic = bd
3
/12 = 300ൈ ͶͲͲ
3
/12 = 16 ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4
Moment of inertia of beam Ib = 300ൈ ͸ʹͷ
3
/12 = 61ൈ ͳͲ
8
mm
4

Stiffness K of column at joint = 4ൈ ͳͲ
8

Stiffness kb of beam at joint = 6.ͳ ൈ ͳͲ
8

Ku = 0.106
kL = 0.106
kb = 0.39
Total dead load of slab + beam + intermediate beams in X-direction
= 10ൈ8ൈ.14ൈ25 + 0.625ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲ ൅ ʹ ൈ Ǥ͵ ൈ ͲǤ͸ ൈ ͺ ൈ ʹ5
= 398.875kN
= 4.99kN/m
2
Total live load= 4kN/m
2
Total load = 8.99kN/m
2

Load intensity w in X-direction = 43.152kN/m
2

Mes = wl
2
/12
= 43.152ൈ10
2
/12
= 359.6kN-m
Mux = 359.6ൈ ͲǤʹ͸ͺ kN-m
= 96.37kN-m
79

Total dead load due to slab + beam Y-direction
= 10ൈ ͺ ൈ ͲǤͳͶ ൈ ʹͷ ൅ ͲǤ͸ʹͷ ൈ ݋Ǥ ͵ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ8
= 317.5kN
= 3.968kN/m
2

Live load = 4kN/m
2

Total load = 7.97kN/m
2

Load intensity in Y-direction = 17.98kN/m
Mes = 191.78kN-m
Muy = 0.172ൈ ͳͻͳǤ͹ͺ kN-m
= 32.98kN-m
From load distribution axial load Pu = 2157.6kN
Let assume % reinforcement p provided = 4%

୤ୡ୩
=

ଶ଴
= 0.2%
Let effective cover be 50 mm on either side-


=
ହ଴
ସ଴଴
= 0.125
Uniaxial moment capacity of section
୔୳
୤ୡ୩
=
ଶଵହ଻Ǥ଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴ൈଷ଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.89
By using p-M interaction as given by SP: 16
୑୳
୤ୡ୩ǤୠǤୈ

= 0.08
Mux
1
= 0.08ൈ fck ൈ „ ൈ B


=0.08ൈ ʹͲ ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ


Mux
1
= 76.8kN-m & Muy
1
= 76.8kN-m
P
z
= 0.45ൈ fck ൈ

+ 0.75ൈ f


ୱୡ

= 2574kN
Pu/Pz = 0.8
From graph Į = 1.8
The strength of the section can be checked using the interaction
(
୑୳୶
୑୳୶ଵ

Į
+ (
୑୳୷
୑୳୷ଵ

Į
= (
ଽ଺Ǥଷ଻
଻଺Ǥ଼
)
1.8
+ (
ଷଶǤଽ଼
଻଺Ǥ଼
)
1.8

= 0.9 ”1
Hence design is safe. OK
Thus the assumed value of reinforcement % p is OK.


= 4% gross-area
80

= 0.04ൈ ͵ͲͲ ൈ ͶͲͲ = 4800 mm
2

So provide 16-20 diameters
Use 8 mm lateral ties and should be at least of
1) 300 mm
2)

16ൈ ͳʹ= 192mm

3) 48 ൈ ͺ

= 384
Provide bars at 190 mm c/c

3.7 DESIGN OF FOOTING

3.7.1 For Column D1:
Specification:
Grade of concrete = M 25
Bearing capacity = 100kN/m
2

Load on column = 539.4kN/m
2

Area of footing =
ଵǤଵൈହଷଽǤସ
ଵ଴଴
= 5.9334 m
2

Hence providing 3ൈ ʹ m rectangular footing
Bending moment:
Net earth pressure acting upward due to load
P =
ହଷଽǤସ
ଶൈଷ
= 89.9kN
Along long side-
Maximum bending moment = 89.9ൈ1.3
2
/2
= 75.9kN/m
2

Along short side ±
Maximum bending moment = 89.9 ൈ ͲǤͺͷ
2
/2
= 32.48kN/m
2

81

Hence design B.M= 75.9kN/m
2

Effective depth d = ඥሺͳǤͷ ൈ ͹ͷǤͻ ൈ ͳͲ

ሻȀሺͲǤͳ͵ͺ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲͲͲሻ
= 181.8 mm
Total depth D = 181.8 + 50 +
ଶ଴


= 241.8 mm
Assume D = 460 mm
݀

= 460 -50-
ଶ଴


= 400 mm
݀

= 460-50-20 -
ଵ଺

= 382 mm

ୱ୲୶
=
଴Ǥହൈ୤
ౙౡ


[1- ඥͳ െ ሺͶǤ͸ ൈ ͳǤͷ ൈ BǤ Ǥൈ ͳͲ

ሻȀሺf
ୡ୩
ൈ „ ൈ †

2
)]ൈ „ ൈ †


= 1029.92 mm
2

ୱ୲୷
= 354 mm
2

Minimum reinforcement =
଴Ǥଵଶൈଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଺଴
ଵ଴଴

= 552 mm
2

Spacing of 20 diameter bar =
ଷଵସൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴ଷ଴
= 300 mm c/c
Spacing of 16 diameter bar =
ଶ଴ଵൈଵ଴଴଴
଺଴଴
= 300 mm c/c
Hence provide 10 ± 20 diameter @ 300 mm c/c in X-direction
And 6 ± 16 diameter @ 300 mm c/c in Y- direction
Check for one way shear:
Along long side, shear force (V) = p ൈ ͲǤͻ
= 89.9ൈ ͲǤͻ = 80.91kN
82

Shear stress ɒ

=
୚ൈଵ଴଴଴
ୠୢ
=
଼଴ǤଽଵൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴

= 0.34 N/mm
2

݌

=
ଵ଴଴ൈ
భబబబൈయభర
యబబ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.26
ɒ

= 0.37 N/mm
2
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
For M 25 = 3.1 N/mm
2

So, ɒ

൏ ɒ

൏ ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶

Hence no reinforcement is required.
Check for Two shear (Punching shear):
Combined effective depth d =


ାୢ



=
ସ଴଴ାଷ଼ଶ

= 391mm
V = p [3ൈ ʹ Ӎ ͲǤͻ
2
]
= 89.9ൈ ͷǤͳͻ = 466.58kN
ɒ

=
ଵǤହൈସ଺଺Ǥହ଼ൈଵ଴଴଴
ሺ଻ଽଵା଺ଽଵሻൈଷଽଵ
= 0.003 N/mm
2

ɒ

= k





= 1ൈ ͳǤʹͷ = 1.25 N/mm
2

So ɒ
୴ ழ
ɒ
ୡ ழ
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
hence ok.

3.7.2 For Column C1:
Specification:
Grade of concrete = M25
Bearing capacity = 100kN/m
2

83

Load on column = 1078.8kN/m
2

Area of footing =
ଵǤଵൈଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼
ଵ଴଴
= 11.86 m
2

Hence providing 4ൈ ͵ m rectangular footing
Bending moment:
Net earth pressure acting upward due to load
P =
ଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼
ଶൈଷ
= 89.9kN
Along long side-
Maximum bending moment = 89.9ൈ1.8
2
/2
= 145.64kN/m
2

Along short side ±
Maximum bending moment = 89.9 ൈ ͳǤ͵ͷ
2
/2
= 81.92kN/m
2

Hence design B.M. = 145.64kN/m
2

Effective depth d = ඥሺͳǤͷ ൈ ͳͶͷǤ͸Ͷ ൈ ͳͲ

ሻȀሺͲǤͳ͵ͺ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲͲͲሻ
= 251 mm
Total depth D = 251 + 50 +
ଶ଴


= 311 mm
Assume D = 460 mm
†

= 460 -50-
ଶ଴


= 400 mm
†

= 460-50-20 -
ଵ଺

= 382 mm

ୱ୲୶
=1622 mm
2

84

ୱ୲୷
= 883.68 mm
2

Minimum reinforcement =
଴Ǥଵଶൈଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଺଴
ଵ଴଴

= 552 mm
2

Spacing of 20 diameter bars =
ଷଵସൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଺ଶଶ
= 190 mm c/c
Spacing of 16 diameter bars =
ଶ଴ଵൈଵ଴଴଴
଼଼ଷǤ଺଼
= 220 mm c/c
Hence provide 21 ± 20 diameter bars @ 190 mm c/c in X-direction
And 13 ± 16 diameter @ 220 mm c/c in Y- direction
Check for one way shear:
Along long side, shear force (V) = p ൈ ͳǤͶ
= 89.9ൈ ͳǤͶ = 125.86kN
Shear stress ɒ

=
୚ൈଵ଴଴଴
ୠୢ
=
ଵଶହǤ଼଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴

= 0.36 N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈ
భబబబൈయభర
యబబ
ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.26
ɒ

= 0.37 N/mm
2
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
for M 25 = 3.1 N/mm
2

So, ɒ
୴ழ
ɒ


ୡ୫ୟ୶

Hence no reinforcement is required.
Check for two shear (Punching shear):
Combined effective depth d =


ାୢ



=
ସ଴଴ାଷ଼ଶ

= 391mm
V = p [4ൈ ͵ Ӎ ͳǤͶ
2
]
85

= 89.9ൈ ͷǤͳͻ = 902.596 kN
ɒ

=
ଵǤହൈଽ଴ଶǤହଽ଺ൈଵ଴଴଴
ሺ଻ଽଵା଺ଽଵሻൈଷଽଵ
= 1.07 N/mm
2

ɒ

= k





= 1ൈ ͳǤʹͷ = 1.25 N/mm
2

So ɒ
୴ ழ
ɒ
ୡ ழ
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
. Ok.

3.7.3 For Column C2:
Specification:
Grade of concrete = M25
Bearing capacity = 100kN/m
2

Load on column = 2157.6kN/m
2

Area of footing =
ଵǤଵൈଶଵହ଻Ǥ଺
ଵ଴଴
= 23.73 m
2

Hence providing 6ൈ Ͷ m rectangular footing
Bending moment:
Net earth pressure acting upward due to load
P =
ଶଵହ଻Ǥ଺
଺ൈସ
= 89.9kN
Along long side-
Maximum bending moment = 89.9ൈ2.8
2
/2
=352.4kN/m
2

Along short side ±
Maximum bending moment = 89.9 ൈ ͳǤͺͷ
2
/2
=153.8kN/m
2

86

Hence design B.M. = 352.4kN/m
2

Effective depth d = ඥሺͳǤͷ ൈ ͵ͷʹǤͶ ൈ ͳͲ

ሻȀሺͲǤͳ͵ͺ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲͲͲሻ
= 391 mm
Total depth D = 391 + 50 +
ଶ଴


= 451 mm
Assume D = 800 mm
†

= 800 -50-
ଶହ

= 737.5 mm
†

= 800-50-25 -
ଶ଴

= 685 mm

ୱ୲୶
=2084 mm
2
,
ୱ୲୷
= 960 mm
2

Minimum reinforcement =
଴Ǥଵଶൈଵ଴଴଴ൈ଼଴଴
ଵ଴଴

= 960 mm
2

Spacing of 25 diameter bar =
ସଽ଴Ǥ଺ଶହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଴଼ସ
= 230 mm c/c
Spacing of 20 diameter bar =
ଷଵସൈଵ଴଴଴
ଽ଺଴
= 300 mm c/c
Hence provide 26 ± 25 diameters @ 230 mm c/c in X-direction
And 13 ± 20 diameter @ 300 mm c/c in Y- direction
Check for one way shear:
Along long side, shear force (V) = p ൈ ʹǤͲ͸ʹͷ
= 89.9ൈ ʹǤͲ͸ʹͷ = 185.4kN
Shear stress ɒ

=
୚ൈଵ଴଴଴
ୠୢ
=
ଵ଼ହǤସൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴଴଴ൈ଻ଷ଻Ǥହ

= 0.37 N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈሺ
భబబబൈరవబǤలమఱ
మయబ

ଵ଴଴଴ൈ଻ଷ଻Ǥହ
= 0.29
87

ɒ

= 0.39 N/mm
2

ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
For M 25 = 3.1 N/mm
2

So, ɒ
୴ழ
ɒ


ୡ୫ୟ୶

Hence no reinforcement is required.
Check for two shear (Punching shear):
Combined effective depth d =


ାୢ



=
଻ଷ଻Ǥହା଺଼ହ

= 711.25 mm
V = p [6ൈ Ͷ Ӎ ʹǤ͸ʹͷ
2
]
= 89.9ൈ ͳ͹Ǥͳ = 1537 kN
ɒ

=
ଵǤହൈଵହଷ଻ൈଵ଴଴଴
ሺଵଵଵଵǤଶହାଵ଴ଵଵǤଶହሻൈ଻ଵଵǤଶହ
= 1.12 N/mm
2

ɒ

= k





= 1ൈ ͳǤʹͷ = 1.25 N/mm
2

So ɒ
୴ழ
ɒ
ୡ ழ
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
. Ok.

3.7.4 For Column D2:
Specification:
Grade of concrete = M25
Bearing capacity = 100kN/m
2

Load on column = 1078.8kN/m
2

Area of footing =
ଵǤଵൈଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼
ଵ଴଴
= 11.86 m
2

Hence providing 4ൈ ͵ m rectangular footing
Bending moment:
88

Net earth pressure acting upward due to load
P =
ଵ଴଻଼Ǥ଼
ଶൈଷ
= 89.9kN
Along long side-
Maximum bending moment = 89.9ൈ1.8
2
/2
= 145.64kN/m
2

Along short side ±
Maximum bending moment = 89.9 ൈ ͳǤ͵ͷ
2
/2
= 81.92kN/m
2

Hence design B.M. = 145.64kN/m
2

Effective depth d = ඥሺͳǤͷ ൈ ͳͶͷǤ͸Ͷ ൈ ͳͲ

ሻȀሺͲǤͳ͵ͺ ൈ ʹͷ ൈ ͳͲͲͲሻ
= 251 mm
Total depth D = 251 + 50 +
ଶ଴


= 311 mm
Assume D = 460 mm
†

= 460 -50-
ଶ଴


= 400 mm
†

= 460-50-20 -
ଵ଺

= 382 mm

ୱ୲୶
= 1622 mm
2
,
ୱ୲୷
= 883.68 mm
2

Minimum reinforcement =
଴Ǥଵଶൈଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଺଴
ଵ଴଴
= 552 mm
2

Spacing of 20 ɮ bar =
ଷଵସൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଺ଶଶ
= 190 mm c/c
Spacing of 16 ɮ bar =
ଶ଴ଵൈଵ଴଴଴
଼଼ଷǤ଺଼
= 220 mm c/c
89

Hence provide 21 ± 20 ɮ@ 190 mm c/c in X-direction
and13 ± 16 ɮ@ 220 mm c/c in Y- direction
Check for one way shear:
Along long side, shear force (V) = p ൈ ͳǤͶ
= 89.9ൈ ͳǤͶ = 125.86kN
Shear stress ɒ

=
୚ൈଵ଴଴଴
ୠୢ
=
ଵଶହǤ଼଺ൈଵǤହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴

= 0.36 N/mm
2

p

=
ଵ଴଴ൈሺ
భబబబൈయభర
యబబ

ଵ଴଴଴ൈସ଴଴
= 0.26
ɒ

= 0.37 N/mm2
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
For M 25 = 3.1 N/mm2
So, ɒ
୴ழ
ɒ


ୡ୫ୟ୶

Hence no reinforcement is required.
Check for two shear (Punching shear):
Combined effective depth d =


ାୢ


=
ସ଴଴ାଷ଼ଶ

= 391mm
V = p [4ൈ ͵ െ ͳǤͶ
2
]
= 89.9ൈ ͷǤͳͻ = 902.596kN
ɒ

=
ଵǤହൈଽ଴ଶǤହଽ଺ൈଵ଴଴଴
ሺ଻ଽଵା଺ଽଵሻൈଷଽଵ
= 1.07 N/mm
2

ɒ

= k





= 1ൈ ͳǤʹͷ = 1.25 N/mm
2

So ɒ
୴ ழ
ɒ
ୡ ழ
ɒ
ୡ୫ୟ୶
. Hence Ok.

90

3.8 DESIGN OF STAIR CASE:

Assuming thickness of waist slab 200mm.
Dead load of flight:
Step section =0.5×0.28×0.15= 0.021 mm
2

Inclined slab = 0.318×0.2= 0.0640m
2

Finish = (0.28+0.15) ×0.03=0.0130mm
2
Total area = 0.098m
2
, Density of concrete = 25kN/m
3

DL of step section, 1m in width and 280mm in plan length =0.098×25 = 2.45kN/m
DL per m
2
on plan =
ଶǤସହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଶ଼଴
= 8.75kN/m
2

LL per m
2
on plan =5kN/m
2
, Total load = 13.75kN/m
2
, Factored load = 20.6kN/m
2
Taking 1.5m width of slab, load = 1.5×20.6= 31kN/m
Loading A:
Self weight of slab = 0.2×25= 5kN/m
2
Finish= 0.03x25 = 0.75kN/m
2

Live load = 5kN/m
2
Total load = 10.75kN/m
2
Factored load = 16.125kN/m
2
Taking 1.5m width of slab, load = 1.5×16.125= 31kN/m
Loading B:
In a distance equal to 150mm from the wall and a distance equal to 75mm inside the
wall only dead load will be considered.
Total factored load = 1.5×5.75×1.5 = 13kN/m
Design of stair flight:
91

Reaction at support B,

= 62.5kN


= 129.8 62.5 = 67.3kN
Assuming point of zero SF occurs at distance µx¶ from A
67.3 25×0.75 31(x 0.75) = 0 or, x= 2.32m
Hence maximum BM = 67.3×2.32 Ӎ 25×0.75×1.945 38.2 = 82kN-m
d
2
=
଼ଶൈଵ଴

଴Ǥଵଷ଼ൈଶ଴ൈଵହ଴଴
,
d = 141mm
Adopting effective depth as 165mm and overall as 190mm.


=
଼ଶൈଵ଴

଴Ǥ଺ଽହൈସଵହൈଵ଺ହ
= 1765mm
2
Using 16-12mm bars equally spaced in 1.5m width.
Check for shear:
ɒ

= 0.28N/mm
2
, p

= 0.75 %
ɒ

= 0.56 N/mm
2
ɒ

Ԣ = 0.67 N/mm
2
> ɒ

ok.
Check for development length:
L

= 47ɮ ൎ 600mm
Moment of resistance

=
଼ଶൈଵ଼ଵ଴
ଵ଻଺ହ
= 84.1kN-m
V = 62.5kN, Taking L

= 0
L


ଵǤଷൈ୑

൅ L


Ɏ ൑ 21mm, hence ok.
Temperature reinforcement =
଴Ǥଵଶൈଵଽൈଵ଴଴
ଵ଴଴
=2.28 cm
2
/m.
Providing 10mm bars @300mm c/c.
92

Design of landing slab A:
Effective span = 1.5+0.15+1.5+0.165 = 3.315m
Width = 1.5m, Factored load per m
2
= 16.125kN/m
2

Total load = 16.125x1.5x3.315 = 80kN
Reaction from one flight = {31×2.52×2.685+25×1.2×0.825+ 13×0.225× (0.225/2)}
ൊ ͶǤ͸ͻͷ
= 50kN
Reaction from two flight= 100kN
Maximum BM =


ൈ୪

= 75kN-m, Maximum SF = 90kN
Effective depth = 165mm,

= 1450mm
2

Using 16-12mm bars in1.5m width

3.9 DESIGN OF WATER TANK
Capacity = 20 kL, Length =4m, Breadth =3m, Height = 1.7m


=1.33 < 2, h =


or 1m whichever greater = 1m.
Hence bottom 1m will bend as vertical cantilever.
Water pressure at point D, p= w (H-h) = 6860 N-m
FEM for long wall =
୮୪

ଵଶ
=
ସ୮

N-m
FEM for short wall =
୮୆

ଵଶ
= -
ଷ୮

N-m
BF
୅୆
= 0.43, BF
୅ୈ
= 0.57
Moment calculation:

93

Table 3.9 ± Final moment calculation
Member AB AD
DF 0.43 0.57
FEM Ͷp
͵

͵p
Ͷ

Balancing moment

͵ǤͲͳp
ͳʹ

͵Ǥͻͻp
ͳʹ

Final moment
ͳʹǤͻͻp
ͳʹ

ͳʹǤͻͻp
ͳʹ


Hence moment at support

= 7425.95 N-m
Bending moment at centre of long span =
୮୪


Ӎ

= 6294.05 N-m
Bending moment at centre of short span =
୮୆


Ӎ

= 291.55 N-m
Maximum bending moment = 7425.95 N-m
Design of section:
d
2
=
଻ସଶହǤଽହൈଵ଴଴଴
ଵǤଷଶൈଵ଴଴଴
, d = 75mm
Overall depth T= 75 + 35 ൎ200mm
d = 165mm
Determination of pull:
Direct tension on long wall

=
୮୆

= 10290 N
Direct tension on short wall

=
୮୐

= 13720 N
Cantilever moment:
Cantilever moment at base per unit height = wH



= 1633.33 N-m
Reinforcement at corner of long wall:
94

x = d


= 65m

ୱ୲ଵ
=
ሺ ଻ସଶହǤଽହൈଵ଴଴଴ሻ Ȃሺଵ଴ଶଽ଴ൈ଺ହሻ
ଵଵହൈ଴Ǥ଼ହଷൈଵ଺ହ
= 417mm
2

ୱ୲
For pull =
ଵ଴ଶଽ଴
ଵଵହ
= 89.4mm
2

Total
ୱ୲
= 506.8mm
2

Using 8mm bars
˗
= 50.24 mm
2

Spacing = 100mm
Hence providing 8mm @100mm c/c at inner face near corners and at a height 1m
above the base.
Reinforcement at middle of long wall:
Design bending moment = 6294.05 N-m
Direct pull ܲ

= 10290 N

ୱ୲ଵ
= 347.5mm
2
,
ୱ୲ଶ
= 89.47mm
2
Total
ୱ୲
= 436.9mm
2
which is very near

to the reinforcement provided at ends.
Hence providing 8ɮ @ 100mm c/c, also providing additional reinforcement of 8ɮ @
200mm c/c at the outer face.
Reinforcement for short wall:
Bending moment at ends = 7425.95 N-m, Direct pull, ܲ

= 13720 N

ୱ୲ଵ
= 403.7mm
2
,
ୱ୲ଶ
= 119.3mm
2
Total
ୱ୲
= 523mm
2
, Spacing = 100mm
Hence providing 8mm @100mm c/c at inner face near ends of short span.
Reinforcement for cantilever moment:
Maximum cantilever moment =1633.33 N-m
Reinforcement = 144.7mm
2

95

Minimum reinforcement =
଴Ǥଷൈଵ଴଴଴ൈଶ଴଴
ଵ଴଴
= 600mm
2

Providing 300mm
2
vertically on inner face and remaining 300mm
2
vertically at outer
face with spacing = 160mm.
3.9.1 Design of slab (edges simply supported) for tank:
W =17.6kN/m
2
Assume overall thickness as 200 mm
Effective depth = 180 mm
l

= 3.4 + 0.18 = 3.58 mm
l

= 5+ 0.18 = 5.18mm




= 1.44
ן

= 0.099, ן

= 0.051
Dead load of slab =0.2 x 25 = 5kN/m
2

Total load =22.6kN/m
2


= 0.099×22.6×3.58
2
=28.6kN m


= 0.051×22.6×3.582
2
=14.77kN m
M=0.138 f
ୡ୩



d = ξ
ଶ଼Ǥ଺ൈଵ଴

଴Ǥଵଷ଼ൈଶ଴ൈଵ଴଴଴

= 101mm.OK
Area of steel along short span
=
଴Ǥଷ଺ൈ୤
ౙౡ
ୠ୶

଴Ǥ଼଻ ୤


= (0.36×20×1000×0.48×180)/(0.87x415)
= 1722 mm


96

Provide: 25-10ɮ bars
Area of steel along long span

ୱ୲୷
=ͲǤͷ ൈ
ଶ଴
ସଵହ
ൈ ሺͳ െ ξሺͳ െ
ସǤ଺ ൈଵସǤ଻଻ൈଵ଴

ଶ଴ൈଵ଴଴଴ൈଵ଼଴ൈଵ଼଴
) ൈ ͳͲͲͲ ൈ ͳͺͲ
=233 mm


Minimum steel = 0.12%
= 0.0012x180x1000
= 216 mm
2

Hence OK.
3.9.2 Design of beam for tank
Dead Load = 200kN
Factored Load = 1.5 × 200 = 30kN
Load on AB = 51kN
Load on AD = 99kN
Beam AB:

୅୆
=
୛୪

=
ହଵൈଷǤସ

= 21.6kNm
M = 0.138 f
ୡ୩



21.6xͳͲ

=0.138 x 20xd×




d = 250 mm
ܣ
௦௧
=ͲǤͷ ൈ
ଶ଴
ସଵହ
ൈ ሺͳ െ ξሺͳ െ
ସǤ଺ ൈଶଵǤ଺
ଶ଴ൈଵଶହൈଶହ଴ൈଶହ଴
) ൈ ͳʹͷ ൈ ʹͷͲ
= 298 mm


Providing: 7െ8ʣ bars
97

Min steel =
଴Ǥ଼ହ ୠ ୢ


=
଴Ǥ଼ହ ൈଵଶହൈଶହ଴
ସଵହ
= 64 mm


Hence OK.
Beam AD:
ܯ
஺஽
=
୛୪

=
ଽଽൈହ

= 61.87kNm
M=0.138 f
ୡ୩



61.87xͳͲ

=0.138 × 20×
ୢൈୢ



d = 360 mm

ୱ୲
=ͲǤͷ ൈ
ଶ଴
ସଵହ
ൈ ሺͳ െ ξሺͳ െ
ସǤ଺ ൈ଺ଵǤ଼଻
ଶ଴ൈଵଶହൈଶହ଴ൈଶହ଴
) ൈ ͳͺͲ ൈ ͵͸Ͳ
= 586 mm


Provide: 6െ 12 ʣ bars
Minimum steel =
଴Ǥ଼ହ ୠ ୢ


=
଴Ǥ଼ହ ൈଵ଼଴ൈଷ଺଴
ସଵହ
= 132 mm


Hence Ok.

3.10 DESIGN OF SHELL
Radius= 10.10 m, Central rise= 2.35m, Chord width= 13m, Span=30 m
Thickness of shell= 80mm, Semi central angle= 40 degree,
Edge beam size= 200×1880 mm, Reinforcement in edge beam= 16-32ɮ
Width of edge beams= 200mm
Assuming neutral axis cut the shell at an angleߙ. Taking moment of effective areas
about neutral axis, we have

୒୅
= 2׬ †Ʌ– ሺcosɅ െ cosȽሻ


+ m×2

(1.58+RcosĮ 7.75)
98

Putting m=13, R=10.1, ܣ

= (8x8.04)= 64.32cm
2
= 0.0064m
2
R
2
t (sin Į Į cos Į) = mܣ

(R cos Į 6.17)
It gives Į= 26Ǥ ʹͷι ,
୒୅
= 1.835m
4

Self weight of shell = (0.08×25)=1.92kN/m
2

Water proofing and live load = 1.0kN/m
2

Total load = 2.92kN/m
2

Total weight per meter run=2׬ ʹǤͻʹሺ†Ʌሻ
ସ଴

= 40kN/m
Weight of edge beam = 2(0.1x1.88x24) = 9kN/m
Weight of filling in the valley portion = 1.5kN/m
Total load = 50.5kN/m
Maximum BM =
ହ଴Ǥହൈଷ଴


= 5700kN-m
Maximum SF = 0.5x50.5x30 = 757.5kN
Maximum compressive stress at crown, f

=
ହ଻଴଴ൈଵଷଷ଴ൈଵ଴

ଵǤ଼ଷହൈଵ଴
భమ
= 3.52N/m
2

Maximum tensile stress at centre of gravity of steel, f

=
ଷǤହଶൈଶ଺଴଴ൈଶଷ
ଵଷଷ଴
= 89.5N/m
2
Shear stress IJ =
଻ହ଻Ǥହൈଵ଴

ൈସଷହൈଵ଴

ଵǤ଼ଷହൈଶൈ଼଴ൈଵ଴
భమ

Maximum horizontal shear stress at neutral axis =1.12 N/mm
2

Providing 8mm diameter bars inclined at 45ι to the longitudinal axis of shell.
Spacing =
ξଶൈହ଴ൈଶଷ଴
଼଴ൈଵǤଵଶ
= 180mm near supports.
Towards the centre of span where shear stress is less, adopting 6mm diameter bars at
250mm centers.


99

CHAPTER-5
CONCLUSIONS
Shopping complexes are imperative for catering the daily needs of people under one
roof. Their utility is of immense importance especially in institutions and residential
areas which are normally located away from main city. The complex has been
planned and designed to meet the optimum balance between economy and quality.
Ample connectivity has been provided. The complex has throughout natural lighting
and cross ventilation. The guidelines of IS: 456 -2000 has been followed very strictly.
Slab of dimension 8m×3.33m has been designed with total depth 140mm, live load
4kN/m
2
and surface finish load 1.5kN/m
2
. Beams have been designed with same value
of live and surface finish load. Total depth of beam has been kept 625mm at top floor
and 775mm at first and ground floor.
The shell has been designed using ³Beam Theory´. Columns have been analyzed
using ³Substitute Frame Method´. The foundation depth has been kept 2m. Isolated
footings have been provided. The complex meets both design and aesthetic standards.











100

BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. Jain, A.K., ³Design of Reinforced Concrete´, Nem Chand and Bros
Publishers, Roorkee, 2007, Sixth reprint.
2. Krishna Raju, N., ³Advanced Reinforce Concrete Design´, CBS, Publishers &
Distributors, Delhi, 1988, First reprint.
3. Pillai, S.U., Menon, D., ³Reinforced Concrete Design´, Tata McGraw-Hill
Publishing company Ltd., New Delhi, 2007, Eight Reprint.
4. Punmia, B.C., Jain, A.K., Jain, A.K., ³R.C.C. Designs (Reinforced Concrete
Structures)´, Laxmi Publication Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, 2006, Third Reprint.
5. Reddy, C.S., ³Basic Structural Analysis´, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing
Company Ltd., New Delhi, 2006, Fifteenth reprint.
6. IS 456:2000 Code of Practice Plain and Reinforced Concrete.
7. IS: 875 (Part 2) - 1987 Code of Practice for Design Loads (Other than
Earthquake) for Building and Structures.

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