British Royal Family

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The British Royal Family is the group of close relatives of the monarch of the United Kingdom. The term is also commonly applied to the same group of people as the relations of the monarch in her or his role as sovereign of any of the other Commonwealth realms, thus sometimes at variance with official national terms for the family. Members of the royal family belong to, either by birth or marriage, the House of Windsor, since 1917, when George V changed the name of the royal house from Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. This decision was primarily taken because Britain and her Empire were at war with Germany and given the British Royal Family's strong German Ancestry, it was felt that its public image could be improved by choosing a more British house name. The new name chosen, Windsor, had absolutely no connection other than as the name of the castle which was and continues to be a royal residence. Although in the United Kingdom there is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the Royal Family, and different lists will include different people, those carrying the style Her or His Majesty (HM), or Her or His Royal Highness (HRH) are always considered members, which usually results in the application of the term to the monarch, the consort of the monarch, the widowed consorts of previous monarchs, the children of the monarch and previous monarchs, the male-line grandchildren of the monarch and previous monarchs, and the spouses and the widows of a monarch's and previous monarch's sons and male-line grandsons. Members and relatives of the British Royal Family historically represented the monarch in various places throughout the British Empire, sometimes for extended periods as viceroys, or for specific ceremonies or events. Today, they often perform ceremonial and social duties throughout the United Kingdom and abroad on behalf of the UK, but, aside from the monarch, have no constitutional role in the affairs of government. This is the same for the other realms of the Commonwealth though the family there acts on behalf of, is funded by, and represents the sovereign of that particular state, and not the United Kingdom.

and his wife. named Savannah)  .List of members This is a list of current members of the Royal Family that bear the style of Royal Highness:   HM The Queen and HRH The Duke of Edinburgh (her consort) TRH The Prince of Wales and The Duchess of Cornwall (The Queen's eldest son and his second wife) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge (The Prince of Wales's elder son and his wife)  HRH Prince Henry of Wales (Commonly referred to as Prince Harry) (The Prince of Wales's younger son)   HRH The Duke of York (The Queen's second son)   HRH Princess Beatrice of York (The Duke of York's elder daughter) HRH Princess Eugenie of York (The Duke of York's younger daughter) Viscount Severn (The Earl of Wessex's son) Lady Louise Windsor (The Earl of Wessex's daughter)  TRH The Earl and Countess of Wessex (The Queen's third son and his wife)        HRH The Princess Royal (The Queen's daughter) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Gloucester (The Queen's cousin and his wife) TRH The Duke and Duchess of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife) TRH Prince and Princess Michael of Kent (The Queen's cousin and his wife) HRH Princess Alexandra. to whom the Queen's first great-grandchild. a daughter was born on 29 December 2010. The Honourable Lady Ogilvy (The Queen's cousin) Collaterals There are a few immediate family members (a spouse and the children and grandchildren of its current full members) carrying no official style who are sometimes in listings:  VAdm Tim Laurence (The Princess Royal's second and current husband) Mr & Mrs Peter Phillips (The Princess Royal's son by Mark Phillips.

Lady Nicholas. Mrs James Ogilvy. Sylvana. nee Windsor (The Duke of Gloucester's elder daughter) and her husband. and their children Samuel Chatto and Arthur Chatto  Earl of Ulster (The Duke of Gloucester's son) and his wife. nee Sophie Winkelman    The Lady Gabriella Windsor (Prince Michael of Kent's daughter) James Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's son) and his wife. Lord Culloden and Lady Cosima Windsor  The Lady Davina Lewis. The Lady Marina-Charlotte Windsor. King Edward VII. Timothy Taylor and their children: Columbus Taylor. Esq. MBE (The Princess Royal's daughter by Mark Phillips) & Mike Tindall. and Leopold Windsor. and their children. Senna Lewis  The Lady Rose Gilman. and The Lady Amelia Windsor  Lord Nicholas Windsor (The Duke of Kent's younger son) and his wife. Lady Frederick. The Hon. and their sons: Albert Windsor. Gary Lewis and their daughter. and King George V: . nee Princess Paola Doimi de Lupis de Frankopan. Esq. nee Windsor (The Duke of Gloucester's younger daughter) and her husband. nee Tomaselli and their children: Edward Windsor. nee Booth and their children: Xan Windsor. Margarita Armstrong-Jones  Lady Sarah Chatto and Daniel Chatto (Princess Margaret's daughter and her husband).  The Lady Helen Taylor. Lyla Gilman  Earl of St Andrews (The Duke of Kent's elder son) and his wife. and Estella Taylor  Lord Frederick Windsor (Prince Michael of Kent's son) and his wife. nee Windsor (The Duke of Kent's daughter) and her husband. Charles Armstrong-Jones and The Hon. Lord Downpatrick. nee Julia Rawlinson and their children: Alexander Ogilvy and Flora Ogilvy Marina Ogilvy (Princess Alexandra's daughter) and her children: Christian Mowatt and Zenouska Mowatt  The following persons are descendants (or widows) of the younger children of Queen Victoria. Cassius Taylor.Miss Zara Phillips. her fiancé  Viscount & Viscountess Linley (Princess Margaret's son and his wife). George Gilman and their daughter. Claire. Eloise Taylor.

There are three living former spouses of members of the British Royal Family:    Sarah. and her children and grandchildren  The Marquess of Milford Haven. as well as Lord Harewood's descendants. and grandchildren. and great-grandson of HGDH Princess Victoria.  The Duke of Fife (female-line great-grandson of Edward VII) and his children and grandchildren  The Lady Saltoun (widow of Alexander Ramsay of Mar. Duke of Connaught and Strathearn. None of these persons receive any money from the State or undertake official engagements on behalf of the Queen. eldest daughter of HRH The Princess Alice The Grand Duchess of Hesse and by Rhine. Recently deceased members of the Royal Family include: . the third son of Queen Victoria). 1st Earl of Snowdon (the former husband of Princess Margaret). Gerald Lascelles. are so distant from the reigning Sovereign that they are relatives of. his second wife. and his family  The Countess Mountbatten of Burma (elder daughter of Louis Mountbatten. such as the Trooping the Colour. youngest son of HGDH Princess Victoria of Hesse and by Rhine) and her family  The Earl of Harewood is a female-line first cousin of the Queen. as well as the children and grandchildren of his now deceased brother. the Countess Mountbatten of Burma. 2nd Marquess of Milford Haven. grandson of George Mountbatten.The Earl of Harewood (grandson and first grandchild of George V through his daughter Mary. However. The Duke of Fife. the Royal Family. 2nd daughter of HM Queen Victoria. and his children. 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma. Captain Mark Phillips (the first husband of The Princess Royal). a female-line grandson of Prince Arthur. and ceremonial or state funerals. Duchess of York (the former wife of The Duke of York). Princess Royal). the Golden Jubilee celebrations. and their respective families. the Queen does invite them to private family functions and to participate in official royal occasions. rather than members of. and the Lady Saltoun. the Marquess of Milford Haven. and Antony Armstrong-Jones.

was the husband of Princess Alexandra. Duchess of Gloucester (widow of Prince Henry. Duke Royal and of Countess of Gloucester Harewood HRH HRH T Prince he Georg Prince e. Princess of Wales (was first wife of Charles. Family tree of members HM George V HM Edw HM Geor HRH Mary. HRH Prince ard VIII ge VI Princess Henry. Duke of Gloucester. and mother to the present Duke of Gloucester) Diana. Vice-Admiral Timothy Laurence. John Duke of . The Hon. who died in 2004. The Queen Mother (widow of King George VI and mother of The Queen)    HRH The Princess Margaret. Countess of Snowdon (sister of The Queen) HRH Princess Alice. Princess of Wales. As a husband of a Princess of Blood Royal.HM Queen Elizabeth. died in a car crash in 1997. He supported his wife in her Royal duties and sometimes accompanied the Princess during her Royal tours abroad. The Prince of Wales' first wife. Princes William and Harry. They had divorced in 1996. Prince of Wales and the mother of The Duke of Cambridge and Prince Henry of Wales).  Sir Angus Ogilvy. She lost the HRH title but was allowed the style "Princess of Wales" and remained a member of the Royal Family to reflect the fact she was the mother of the second and third in line to the throne. Lady Ogilvy and a first-cousin-in law of the Queen. Diana. he was listed as an immediate member of the Royal Family in the same way as it is today with The Princess Royal's current husband.

HMEliza HRH The The Duke beth II Duchess of of Gloucester Edinburg h HRH The Duke of Gloucester HRHPr incess Alexan dra. Honour HRHPr able HRH T HRH incess Lady HRH The he Prince Michae Ogilvy Duke of Duches Micha l of Kent s of el of Kent The Rt Kent Kent Hon.Kent HRH Prin ce Philip. Lady ess incess Visco Louise Beatrice Eugeni unt Windso of York e of Sever r .Sir Angus Ogilvy HRH The Prince of Wales HRH The Duch ess of Corn wall HRH The Prince ss Royal VAdmTi mothy Laurenc e HRH The Duke of York HRH T HRH he The Counte Earl of ss of Wesse Wessex x HRH The HRH The HRH Prince Duke of Duchess Harry of Cambridg of Wales e Cambrid HRHPrinc HRHPr James.

g. Garden Parties. Max Hastings. and public roles. written and televised commentary on their activities. the funds being supplied to cover office costs. Throughout their lives they draw enormous media coverage in the form of photographic. they often also join the nation in commemorating historical events. As representatives of the Queen.ge York n In the United Kingdom Public role and image Members of the Royal Family participate in hundreds of public engagements yearly throughout the whole of the entire United Kingdom. celebratory and tragic occurrences. These amounts are repaid by The Queen from her private funds. Their travels abroad on behalf of the UK (called State Visits when the sovereign officially meets with other heads of state) draw celebrity-like attention to amicable relations within and between the Commonwealth and other nations. holidays. Funding Members of the Royal Family carry out public duties. to honour. vacation. cultural and social activities. editor of the Daily Telegraph between 1986 and 1995. . Their presence.g. discussed the impact of Andrew Morton's and Jonathan Dimbleby's biographies of." and provide a distinctly British and historical pageantry to ceremonies (e. and to Britain as a historical. the Princess and Charles. to British goods and trade. and may also sponsor or participate in numerous charitable. Ascot). attire. family relationships. institutions and enterprises in a variety of areas of life. Princess of Wales in August 1997. Senior members of the royal family often drive themselves instead of having a driver. and tourist destination. encourage and learn about the achievements or endeavours of individuals. respectively. Trooping the Colour) and flavour to public events (e. these individuals receive an annual payment known as a Parliamentary Annuity. activities and traditional roles constitute the apex of a modern "royal court. rites of passage. personalities. as formally recorded in the Court Circular. behaviour. In a lengthy interview conducted by PBS prior to the death of Diana. Prince of Wales on subsequent news coverage of the Royal Family in the UK.

and the eldest son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales would "have and at all times hold and enjoy the style.Though always voluntarily subject to the Value Added Tax and other indirect taxes. personal jewellery. a queen regnant. The style His Majesty or Her Majesty (HM) is enjoyed by a king." . the Queen agreed to pay taxes on income and capital gains from 1992. although the details of this arrangement are both voluntary and secret. title or attribute of Royal Highness with their titular dignity of Prince or Princess prefixed to their respective Christian names or with their other titles of honour. Sandringham House and Balmoral Castle) will be subject to Inheritance Tax. These Letters Patent state that henceforth only the children of the Sovereign. though bequests from Sovereign to Sovereign are exempt.g. At the same time it was announced that only the Queen and Prince Philip would receive civil list payments. the children of the sons of the Sovereign." They further state. "the grandchildren of the sons of any such Sovereign in the direct male line (save only the eldest living son of the eldest son of the Prince of Wales) shall have the style and title enjoyed by the children of Dukes. and a queen dowager. shareholdings. Royal styles and titles Members of the Royal Family in the Royal box at Westminster Abbeyduring the coronation of Elizabeth II. Since 1993 the Queen's personal estate (e. a queen consort. Use of the style His Royal Highness or Her Royal Highness (HRH) and the titular dignity of prince or princessare governed by Letters Patent issued by George V on 30 November 1917 and published in the London Gazette on 11 December 1917.

King George VI specifically denied the style HRH to the . Lady Ogilvy and Prince Michael of Kent enjoy the titular dignity of Prince or Princess and the style Royal Highness as male-line grandchildren of George V. the wives of the Duke of Kent." and not "HRH Princess Marie-Christine of Kent. Countess of Snowdon. Diana.. a divorced wife of a Prince of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland "shall not be entitled to hold and enjoy the style. Before her divorce. The Duke of Gloucester. and the Earl of Wessex are "HRH The Duchess of Kent." or " HRH The Countess of ." respectively. In Letters Patent dated 28 May 1937. Princess Alexandra and Princess Margaret.. The wives of royal peers are known as "HRH The Duchess of . For example. The children of The Princess Royal. They are not entitled to any royal title. The widows of princes remain HRH." There has been one exception to the convention that wives of princes take their husband's rank. when a woman marries a prince who does not hold a peerage. However." Thus. she is known as HRH Princess [Her husband's Christian name].Under these conventions. while her daughter enjoys the courtesy title Lady." "HRH The Duchess of Gloucester. the courtesy titles as children of dukes. the Duke of Gloucester.. The children of the Princess Royal and Princess Alexandra have no titles. Duke of Cambridge are titled Princes or Princesses and styled Royal Highness. the Hon. However. Princess Margaret's son enjoys the courtesy title Viscount Linley as the son and heir of the Earl of Snowdon. Princess Alexandra. under Queen Elizabeth II's 21 August 1996 Letters Patent. However. because Mark Phillips and Sir Angus Ogilvy did not accept hereditary peerages upon marriage. none of their children has a royal title. the children of Prince Michael of Kent are known as Lord Frederick Windsor and Lady Gabriella Windsor. title or attribute of Royal Highness. but no Letters Patent were issued to deny them their princely status or HRH. the former Birgitte Eva van Deurs was titled "HRH Princess Richard of Gloucester" from her wedding until her husband succeeded to his father's dukedom in 1974. could transmit her title to her children. it was announced that his children would be styled as earl's children. Women marrying sons and male-line grandsons of a Sovereign are normally styled Her Royal Highness followed by the feminised version of her husband's highest title. are not entitled to any royal title since princesses do not transmit their titles to their children. Princess Elizabeth. The Duke of Kent. and the eldest son of Prince William." However. For example." and "HRH The Countess of Wessex. The Queen's children. upon Prince Edward's marriage in 1999. followed by whatever territorial or titular designation. the children of The Prince of Wales." Similarly. Princess of Wales enjoyed the title and style of "HRH The Princess of Wales. The Duke of York and The Earl of Wessex. the former Baroness Marie-Christine von Reibnitz enjoys the title and style of "HRH Princess Michael of Kent. An exception to this rule was when George VI issued Letters Patent such that his heiress presumptive..

his wife HRH The Duchess of Cornwall will not be known as HM Queen Camilla but will take the lesser title of HRH The Princess Consort. was created . Princess of Wales. Male consorts. however. Prince Philip. reverted to her own princely style after being widowed. Female consorts of the British sovereign have not been created peers or peeresses. it was announced by Clarence House that. have sometimes been granted dukedoms. husband of the present Queen. Men who marry the daughters and the male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign. Out of respect for Diana. should The Prince of Wales become King. The daughters and male-line granddaughters of the Sovereign do not lose their royal titles upon marriage. was created Duke of Cumberland in 1683. however. was given the style Royal Highness before his marriage. In 1857. Peerages The British Royal Family in 1880. the husband of the future Queen Anne. Following on a reluctance by the public to universally support the second wife of The Prince of Wales. Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. it was also announced that HRH The Duchess of Cornwall would not be known as HRH The Princess of Wales. the former King Edward VIII. Prince George of Denmark. however. the former Wallis Warfield Simpson was known as "Her Grace The Duchess of Windsor." not "Her Royal Highness The Duchess of Windsor. being a Princess of Greece and Denmark by birth. do not acquire their wives' royal rank and the style HRH.wife of the Duke of Windsor. Prince Albert was not made a British peer. Therefore. Queen Victoria granted him title of Prince Consort." Another exception was made in the case of the last blue-blood to marry into the British royal family: Princess Marina who. Queen Victoria's husband.

The pattern of awarding the dukedom to the second-eldest son of the Sovereign was upset by George I. Some of those dukedoms were used for younger brothers. brother of King Robert III. younger sons of the Sovereign were not styled Princes (except the Prince of Wales). . Every Duke thereafter has either died without heirs or succeeded to the Crown. There are several other dukedoms that have been used for members of the Royal Family. being granted to Edward VIII after he abdicated so that he could marry against the tenets of the Church of England. From the time of Edward III. who gave the Dukedom of York and Albany to his younger brother. Certain dukedoms were granted more often than others. and so has not been able to leave the Royal Family. The Dukedom of York and Albany was next granted by George II to the second son of his son. the dukedom was then suspended under the Titles Deprivation Act after its holder fought on the side of Germany during World War I.Duke of Edinburgh and granted the style Royal Highness the day before his wedding (which occurred prior to her accession). The Dukedom of York is generally created for the second son of the Sovereign. when George III granted it to his second son. It was at the time the only dukedom other than the Dukedom of Rothesay. Cumberland. Normally. who had predeceased him. rather than York and Albany. The dukedom of Windsor was also a Royal dukedom. It was created thrice more in Scotland: twice for the second son of a Sovereign. thus. nearly every son of a Sovereign surviving into adulthood became a Duke. The current duke is The Prince Andrew. Gloucester. most of the time being granted to the third son of the Sovereign. The dukedom was created in 1398 for Robert Stewart. second son of Queen Elizabeth II. The Dukedom of Albany served a function similar to the Dukedom of York in Scotland. to indicate their exalted rank. Generally. York and Albany featured one last time as a dukedom in 1784. It was last created in 1881 for the fourth son of Queen Victoria. Connaught. Edinburgh. a peerage once awarded to a member of the Royal Family is not thereafter granted to any person outside the Royal Family (though some exceptions do exist). The first creation was in 1384. the dukedom has always borne the designation York. Thereafter. the sons of the Sovereign are awarded peerage dignities to mark either adulthood or marriage. nephews and other kinsmen of Sovereigns. Kent and Sussex — others in the Scottish peerage have included Ross and Kintyre. the dukedom merged in the Crown in 1461. Originally. Among the dukedoms granted to still younger sons of the Sovereign are Cambridge. peerage dignities were conferred upon them. Clarence was first used as a dukedom in 1362. Albany and Clarence. including the Dukedoms of York. and once for a brother of a Sovereign.

The convention of granting dukedoms to senior members of the Royal Family was broken most recently in 1999. . later with Ireland. Many of the earls who were sons of Charles later became Dukes. The Earldom of Wessex had not been created earlier by an English or British Sovereign since 1066. The current dukedom will descend to Charles. however. Lady Louise and Lord Severn are always (and without exception) referred to as such. or if he is already Sovereign when the dukedom passes to him. the Duke of Grafton and the Duke of St Alban's. followed in the 1670s: Charles FitzCharles became Earl of Plymouth. the subsidiary titles are associated with Scotland and Northern Ireland. Kent and Cumberland (both named after English places). When The Prince of Wales becomes Sovereign. Prince of Wales.Often. and not to the Earl of Wessex. Many more creations. four are male-line descendants of Charles in the illegitimate line: the Duke of Richmond. The current Duke of York. the daughters of the Duke of York are Princess Beatrice of York and Princess Eugenie of York. the Dukedom of Strathearn (named after a place in Scotland) has been held with the Dukedoms of Connaught (named after an Irish province). on behalf of the relevant state. when The Prince Edward was created Earl of Wessex. Charles Beauclerk Earl of Burford and Charles Lennox Duke of Richmond and Lennox. the unmarried son of The Prince of Wales is Prince Harry of Wales. is also Earl of Inverness and Baron Killyleagh. the dukedom will merge in the Crown and then only become available for a regrant. Lennox and Gordon. The highest peerage dignity belonging to a Prince may be used as a part of the title of that Prince's children. Thus. In other Commonwealth realms As the Royal Family is shared by other Commonwealth realms. Charles FitzRoy Duke of Southampton. have sometimes granted peerage dignities to illegitimate children. Of the current Dukes. (In the last case. respectively. at the wishes of their parents and by order of The Queen.e. Thus. James Scott became Duke of Monmouth in 1663. Henry FitzRoy Earl of Euston. the Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry. Princess Louise of Wessex and Prince James of Wessex)) Sovereigns. its members will often also conduct official and non-official duties outside the United Kingdom. but are nonetheless thought by some experts to legally retain their princely titles (i. This pattern continues in the present Royal Family. and most recently with Wales. George FitzRoy Earl of Northumberland. It has been suggested that the Dukedom of Edinburgh will eventually be granted to the Earl of Wessex. for example. sons of the Sovereign were granted titles associated with England and Scotland. the children of the Earl of Wessex are Lady Louise Windsor and Viscount Severn. especially Charles II. mostly earldoms.

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