SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
Fungal biodiversity: Distribution, conservation and prospecting of fungi from India
C. Manoharachary1,*, K. Sridhar2, Reena Singh3, Alok Adholeya3, T. S. Suryanarayanan4, Seema Rawat5 and B. N. Johri5
Mycology and Plant Pathology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India Department of Biosciences, Mangalore University, Mangalagangotri 574 199, India 3 The Energy and Resources Institute, Habitat Place, Lodhi Road, New Delhi 110 003, India 4 Department of Botany, Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda College, Chennai 600 004, India 5 Department of Microbiology, G. B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar 263 145, India
The variety and galaxy of fungi and their natural beauty occupy prime place in the biological world and India has been the cradle for such fungi. Only a fraction of total fungal wealth has been subjected to scientific scrutiny and mycologists have to unravel the unexplored and hidden wealth. One third of fungal diversity of the globe exists in India. Out of 1.5 million of fungi, only 50% are characterized until now. Unfortunately, only around 5–10% of fungi can be cultured artificially. Fungi are not only beautiful but play a significant role in the daily life of human beings besides their utilization in industry, agriculture, medicine, food industry, textiles, bioremediation, natural cycling, as biofertilizers and many other ways. Fungal biotechnology has become an integral part of the human welfare.
Major groups of fungi are discussed briefly to highlight the extent of diversity and this is followed by the examples of habitats that are unique and deserve greater attention.
Fungi belonging to mastigomycotina form a prevalent group of fungi in water. They comprise of members Chytridiomycetes, Hyphochytridiomyctes and Oomycetes and colonize diverse habitats, such as water, humid soils, insects, keratin, chitin, angiospermic tissue, pollen grains and others, and live either as saprophytes or parasites. Such fungi have been arbitrarily grouped in this sub-division on the basis of zoospore and oospore and comprise 204 genera and 1160 species. Chytridiomycetous fungi occur as saprobes on plants and animal remains in water while other members occur as parasites on algae and aquatic animals. Considerable information on the morphotaxonomy, ecology, physiology, methodology and activities of flagellate fungi has been comprehensively compiled5–7. The Hyphochytridiomycetes are those aquatic fungi whose thallus is holocarpic or eucarpic, monocentric or polycentric and their vegetative system is rhizoidal or hypha-like with intercalary swellings. Sparrow7 has discussed various aspects of this group of fungi. The Oomycetes contain 74 genera and 580 species, which are mostly aquatic and live as parasites or saprophytes. Das Gupta8 and Manoharachary6 have made detailed studies of the floristics, taxonomy and ecology of aquatic fungi from India.
THE number of fungi recorded in India exceeds 27,000 species, the largest biotic community after insects1. The true fungi belong to kingdom Eukaryota which has four phyla, 103 orders, 484 families and 4979 genera. The eighth edition of Dictionary of the Fungi2 has recognized eleven phyla. The Deuteromycotina is not accepted as a formal taxonomic category. The number of fungal genera reported from the world and that from India between 1905 and 1995, are shown in Table 1. About 205 new genera have been described from India, of which 32% were discovered by C. V. Subramanian of the University of Madras. Of these, approximately 27,000 species are reported to colonize diversified habitats1. This indicates a ten-fold increase in the last 70 years. Manoharachary and his co-workers3 have added 12 new genera, 60 new taxa and 500 new additions to fungi of India. The fossil record of fungi dates back to the early phanerozoic and into the proterozic geological era4. The existence of fossil fungi indicates their evolutionary significance besides solving certain phylogenetic complexities.
Table 1. Phyla Myxomycotina Mastigomycotina Zygomycotina Ascomycotina Basidiomycotina Deuteromycotina Total
Fungal genera World 450 308 55 2000 357 4100 7270 India 380 205 50 745 232 468 2080
*For correspondence. (e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org) 58
CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 89, NO. 1, 10 JULY 2005
heavy rainfall in Western Ghats (May–June) results in flushing freshwater and sediments to mangrove habitats and leads to decline of salinity to zero. During post-monsoon until January. respectively20. 10 JULY 2005
.5 and 9. 2000) between 0. 18 and 12% are distributed in the east coast. deltaic and small-large near shore-off shore islands). out of which 70. accumulation. However. some are however indwellers of salt water habitats besides being parasitic (Figures 1 and 2). The fungi belonging to this order occur in soil and are seldom found in strictly aquatic habitats.18.000 sq km13. woody debris and inflorescence15 and hence constitute an ideal habitat for many detritus-dependent fauna and microbes. 59
CURRENT SCIENCE. constant species and high-temperature species. VOL. Unique conditions prevail in these habitats that are responsible for detritus generation.g. processing and turnover. Emers. NO. The Oomycetes are the largest group of heterotrophic Stramenopiles. stem and roots consist of more terrestrial than marine fungi23. Such conditions are favourable for freshwater fungi to exploit mangrove substrata.
Allomyces cystogenus R. terrestrial. moderate-temperature species. Indian peninsula comprises about 7000 sq km of mangroves. Mangrove forests of India are dispersed in tropical as well as subtropical conditions (estuarine. Live and dead twigs of mangrove canopy harbour terrestrial fungi and addition of such substrata into mangrove waters in monsoon15 results in domination of terrestrial fungi for several months22.
Figure 2. For instance. and humid soils. One-fourth of the world’s coastline is dominated by mangroves. salinity increases up to about 50% (17. Plant–fungus ratio in tropics has been predicted as 1 : 33 against 1 : 6 in temperate regions16. the current pattern of assessment of higher fungi in mangrove habitats is mainly oriented towards assessment of typical marine fungi and the rest. which are poorly described. Initial studies of marine fungi in India were mostly confined to marine sediments and mangrove mud. Barr10 had recognized a new order Spizellomycetales under Chytridiomycetes. Plant–fungus
Figure 1. Endophytic fungi of mangrove leaves. 89.5%)21.9 million species17.
Oogonium with oospores of Achlya sp.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
Chytridiales is the largest and least understood order of the Chytridiomycetes that contains over 80 genera. Andaman–Nicobar Islands and west coast. Mangrove fungi are the second largest group among the marine fungi19. In mangrove habitats. Many postulations have estimated global fungal population (May. Mangrove forests generate considerable amount of detritus such as leaf litter. predominantly members of Oomycota with some chytrids. freshwater and terrestrial
Marine and mangrove fungi of India
Fungi are cosmopolitan in oceans and estuaries and occur commonly on decomposing organic matter such as drift and intertidal wood. are neglected. freshwater. 400 × (Chytridiomycota). e. Mangroves constitute the second most important ecosystem among the marine ecosystems in productivity and sustain yield of coral reefs14. Recent study of west coast mangroves revealed that nearly one-third of wood-inhabiting fungi belong to terrestrial group22. ratio is one of the important yardsticks to estimate the richness and diversity of fungi of a region16. particularly Maharashtra coast. Altogether 260 zoosporic fungi are reported from India which include. the families and genera in this group are not phylogenetically delimited9. 1000 × (Oomycota). aero-aquatic fungi. which are distributed in 112 countries and territories comprising about 181. was made by Borse11 and Raghukumar12. Manoharachary5 has classified aquatic fungi into low-temperature species. at least up to six months under low salinity. most of which are inhabitants of freshwater.24. 1. An extensive survey of marine fungi from the west coast of India.
sugar-rich environments like plant surfaces and fruits but are also prevalent in soil. Core group fungi (frequency.) Ces. Ascomycetous yeasts are common in moist. Some fungi such as Lulworthia and others are common
These fungi reproduce asexually by sporangiospores and are dispersed either violently or passively by wind. increased salinity supports the activity of mainly marine fungi on detritus. damp-incubation helps marine and terrestrial fungi. ascocarp details. 1000 ×. Hence. its fungal component seems to have restricted distribution. few are parasitic on plants and animals.
Figure 3. They are ubiquitous in soil and dung. Neurospora. if interval of observation is too long.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
fungi are involved in litter conditioning. Saksenea vasiformis. Techniques of assessment of substrata have significant role in occurrence of fungi. Such endemic or endangered plants need special attention for mycological survey as mangroves are threatened by human interference. plant and animal remains (Figures 3 and 4). 277 anamorphic taxa. 30 basidiomycetes and 14 oomycetes)29. A rough estimate reveals that about 150 species of mangrove fungi (onefourth of globally known) have been reported from the mangroves of the Indian subcontinent. Asci and ascospores of Sordaria fimicola (Rob. Recent checklist of mangrove fungi revealed that a total of 625 fungi exist at global scale (278 ascomycetes. About 1000 fungal species belonging to Zygomycotina have been reported from India. Trichomycetous fungi live in the guts of arthropods.500 species. ascus organi60 Figure 4.
Ascomyceteous fungi comprise a wide variety that differ in morphology. 400 ×. a unique indigenous fungus. Incubation of leaf and woody detritus up to eight weeks resulted in dominance of terrestrial fungi. nature of ascospores. rain or animals. biochemistry and genetics. VOL. medicinal and industrial potential. Ascomycotina is the largest sub-division of the fungi encompassing 2700 genera and 28. NO. like brewing and baking. The above global and Indian scenario on mangroves provides unique opportunities for mycologists to explore fungal diversity and exploit their ecological. CURRENT SCIENCE. is wellknown. Xylaria. If the host plant species is endemic. Members of this fungal group are important in industry. many sporulating anamorphic taxa may disappear. Plating methods usually result in isolation of terrestrial fungi.
Ascospores of Aspergillus stellatus Curgi. & de Not. ultrastructure and other characters besides occurrence in diversified habitats.26. and fresh and marine water bodies. and bubbling-chamber incubation facilitates recovery of freshwater hyphomycetes23. occurring mostly as saprophytes. 89. arenicolous (sand-inhabiting) fungi appeared after 16 weeks of incubation27. 10 JULY 2005
. food and in understanding the physiology. 10%) on woody debris differ between west and east coast of India largely due to difference in diversity of mangrove plant species25. Importance of yeasts in industrial fermentation. In summer (February–May). Sordaria and Ascobolus are common saprophytes in soil. 1. Thus. Chaetomium. while Heritiera fomes (Sterculiaceae) and Nypa fruticans (Palmaceae) were found in one location of east coast of India28. has found special attention in medical mycology. loss of such plants results in total elimination of host-specific fungi from the ecosystem. whereas sporulating marine fungi reached a peak at about 16 weeks. zation. Kandelia candel (Rhizophoraceae) has been recorded only in two locations of the west coast. The mycelial members. ontogeny.
B. Picea smithiana (Wall. etc.Don. fairy clubs. They live as saprophytes however some are serious agents of wood decay. however.000 species. basidiomycetes in particular have attracted considerable attention as a source of new and novel metabolites with antibiotic. Phyllactinia. Truffels form ectomycorrhiza on forest trees and fruit bodies of fungi such as Tuber are a delicacy and highly prized commodity. cereals. Quercus incana Roxb.36.
Mushrooms and other macrofungi
Among fungi.) Loud. size and colour and have attracted the attention of naturalists and are thus prized as drawings.55 N 72. 300 species of mushrooms and toadstools were recovered. Among the new targets used in their medicinal value are. Erysiphe. Species of Ceratocystis. beans and grasses. stinkhorns. antiviral. because of their ability to degrade cellulose and other plant polymers. Taphrina. corn.54 E11 M altitude). a majority is harmless and some are good to eat31.) Boiss. world over (Figure 6).SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
in estuarine environment. sculptures. Geographically. Claviceps. Rhododendron arboreum Smith. Pinus wallichiana A. it is estimated that the Ascomycetes form approximately 40 to 45% of the total fungi and this proportion is also true for Indian records. Pinus roxburghii Sarg. records from Punjab. NO. Cedrus deodara (Roxb. representing 54 species in 36 genera around Mumbai (18. Betula utilis D. Mushrooms occur in various shapes. e. of these. Besides extensive surveys of the Himalayan region that are compiled by Lakhanpal34. Jackson. Species of Arthroderma and Nanninzzia parasitize man and cause diseases. More than 160 genera of rusts have been recorded. What is noteworthy is the component of macrofungi that is mycorrhizal and therefore determines ecosystem dynamics of forests. Some toadstools which are associated with trees form mycorrhiza. etc (Figure 5). a symbiotic association30 while others are severe parasites.39. out of which 46 are monotypic comprising 7000 species. Mushrooms alone are represented by about 41. They appear in all seasons.
This group comprises largely of fleshy fungi which include toadstools. wooden stumps. Sphaerotheca. Based on the published literature. antitumour and immunomodulatory actions of unusual polysaccharides of these macrofungi38. As many as 24 fungal species were found to be associated with Q. nearly 72 species in 15 fungal genera were observed to enter into mycorrhizal relationship with Abies pindrow Royle. paintings. 10 JULY 2005
CURRENT SCIENCE. They are obligate in nature except a few and produce more than one spore forms in their life cycle. Kerala and Western Ghats have been published during the last years35. legumes. All such fungal forms are important in decomposition processes. mushrooms grow wild in almost all types of soils.5 million belong to this group.000 species within the overall fungal estimates of 1.
Rust and smut fungi
Rusts are the largest group of plant parasitic fungi in Basidiomycotina that cause severe diseases of economically important crop plants like wheat. of which approximately 850 species are recorded from India33. About 10. incana alone. however rains favour rapid growth when organic matter or its decomposition products are easily available. In nature. 89. puff balls. bird’s nest fungi and jelly fungi. 1. Singer32 had reported 1320 species belonging to 129 genera under Agaricales. and Quercus semicarpifolia Smith. bracket fungi. For example. earthstars.
Rust spores of Marvalia ehinulata Omo. Lakhanpal37 has recorded that in a survey conducted in the North-Western Himalayas during 1976–1987. Armillaria mellea which destroys a wide range of woody and herbaceous plants.
Psathryella gracilis Fr. etc.g. More than 2000 species of edible mushrooms are reported in the literature from different parts of the world. parasitize plants and cause huge losses. Some fleshy fungi are notorious in being poisonous. rusts are distributed
Figure 5. 1000 ×.
Figure 6. VOL. Deshmukh33 has compiled the folk medicine value of the Indian Basidiomycetes besides recording nearly 60 wild mushrooms. phytotoxic and cytistatic activity. on decaying organic matter.
A small number of important fungi reported from India fall in the category of thermophiles. Alternaria alternata (Fr. Puccinia graminis var.41–44. Henn. popularly known as Southern corn rust.) Keissler. Exobasidiales) mostly parazitize woody plants. 1. a. Fungi of India1. f. mainly on angiospermic monocots. Among the monocots. About 8000 Fungi Imperfecti are reported from India (Figure 7 a–f ). Louis Rene and Charles Tulsane wrote in 1811 at the end of their work ‘In order to study the hidden marvels of these fungi. No smut fungus is known to occur in the plant family Orchidiaceae that has 1800 species. Rust fungi parasitize plants that range from ferns to orchids. These are indexed in volumes. with growth optima45 around 45°C and others that cause disease
Figure 7 a–f. Several smuts in nature also cause considerable economic loss to cultivated plants. recondita Rob. has been recorded in Eucalyptus98–101.. soil and other substrates and contribute extensively towards bio-degradation and recycling of organic matter. besides causing profound mycoses. While the study of tropical trees for sustenance of fungal diversity has not been carried out seriously. and mints to composites. e. around 40–60 fungal species are associated as endophytes with grasses95–97. There is substantial evidence of fungal diversity associated with a particular host plant. immunoregulators. multiply and survive in diverse habitats besides parasitizing plants as obligate parasites and biotrophs. The most widely distributed species of economic significance are. Teliospore forming smuts (Ustilaginomycetes) are parasites on herbaceous.000 known species. No rust fungus is however known to parasitize mosses or yet more primitive plants. Helicosporium sp. and 700 genera of Coelomycetes that cover some 20. 400 ×. An important pathogen which is found around the globe is Puccinia polysora Underw.) J. and Litv. The greatest number of species occur in temperate and near temperate regions. and Tranzschelia discolor (Fck. Meyer. For example. 400 ×. More rust fungi occur on dicots than on monocot plants. litter. Uromyces phaseoli (Rabenh. of which ectomycorrhizae (EM) and arbuscular-mycorrhizae (AM) have been studied extensively across the globe
Deuteromycetes constitute an artificial group. CURRENT SCIENCE. b.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
all over the world except Antartica. 10 JULY 2005
. how much greater is the Joy’.
Fungal diversity and vascular plants
Fungi are known to colonize. one must devote a great deal of labour and patience. About 800 species of smut fungi parasitize grasses alone (family Gramineae). tritici Pers.) Wint. Deuteromycetes comprise 1700 genera of Hyphomycetes.A. The number of recognized smut species is 1450. d. Various kinds of mycorrhizal associations are known to be formed with vascular plants. enzyme production. 89. Smut fungi are plant parasitic. Paecilomyces elegans (Corda) Mason & Hughes 1000 ×. The multiplication occurs by the production of mitotic spores or conidia from specialized hyphae called conidiophores. They colonize. Speiropsis pedatospora Tubaki.. non-woody plants. on account of their growth on keratinaceous material including human skin45. survive and multiply in air. Conidial ontogeny forms the basis for identification and segregation of fungi imperfecti. VOL. 1000 ×. P. industrial production including antibiotics. while those lacking teliospores (Microstromatales. but in gazing upon them when one discovers them. a single leaf. NO. 400 ×. distributed in 77 genera and about 3500 synonyms. grasses support as many species as all other families combined together. Curvularia eragrostidis (P. 1000 × (Anamorphic fungi). simultaneously supporting 6– 10 fungal species as biotrophs and endophytes. Hughes40 had visualized thallic and blastic. allergies and plant diseases. Ex Desm. Trichurus spiralis Hasselbring.) Trans. c. which represents asexual phases of Ascomycotina and Basidiomycotina. as the two basic developmental patterns of fungi. Host plant species numbers approximately 4100. bio-control agents.
The fungi involved are. resistance to plant pathogens and water stress. 1. VOL. Gigaspora. have described the species diversity of epigenous EM fungi of Western Himalaya on oaks (Quercus leucotrichophora and Q. not only on account of their
EM fungi can contribute up to 25% or more of root biomass of forests. only if appropriate information with respect to species richness is known. fibre. Acaulospora.47 however. 400 × (Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi).
Figure 8. They are obligate symbionts and have not been cultured on nutrient media. shrubs and tropical trees. production of growth-promoting substances.
Figure 10. Obligately mutualistic AM fungi have been studied extensively at a global scale. 200 ×. horticultural. 200 ×. Amanita > Boletus > Lactarius > Hygrophorus > Cortinarius. NO. with Amanitas primarily associated with conifers and Boletus and Russula with oaks.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form obligate symbiotic association with many agricultural. belonging to Zygomycotina (Figures 8–10). etc. Species richness values for EM in oak and conifer forests were 43 and 55 respectively. AM fungi colonize about 80% of plants existing on the globe. But such fungal forms can help to develop management strategies of plants at community or local level. Recently. most studies in the Indian context34 have looked at the distribution of various macrofungi without recourse to ecosystem dynamics. 89. EM genera declined in the order. While this information has been extensively generated for forests in North America. Glomus. Sclerocystis. had low tree diversity. Glomus macrocarpum Tulasne & Tulasne. Pande et al. forests exhibiting dominance of EM hosts.
Figure 9. There was clear-cut host specificity as well. Entrophospora and Scutellospora.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
on account of their ability to provide nutrients from the surrounding environment and protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. Oehl and Sieverding48 have recently added a new genus. wallichiana) and deodar (Cedrus deodara). and synergistic interaction with beneficial soil microbes such as nitrogen fixers. ornamental. Sclerocystis microcarpa Iqbal & Bushra. floribunda).
Gigaspora margarita Becker & Hall. Improved plant growth of AM-inoculated plants is attributed to increased nutrient uptake especially of phosphorus. 10 JULY 2005
. however. medicinal. phosphate solubilizers. AM fungi are not host-specific but exhibit genotypic host preference49. 63
CURRENT SCIENCE. which were close to midpoint range for similar other forests studied globally. pines (Pinus roxburghii and P. Diversity of macrofungi has been extensively investigated globally during the last decade or so46. Pacispora in the Glomeromycetes. thus contribute effectively as a major structural component of the forest ecosystem. In terms of the relative number of species.
coastal tropical forest (Kodikkarai Reserve Forest) of Tamil Nadu66. indicating loss of ecosystem function in the latter. and semi-arid grasslands of Maruthamalai hills (off-shoot of the Western Ghats in Peninsular India)81. Till this date.51 proved the singular relationship among mycorrhizal fungal diversity. forest soils and coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh63. van der Heijden et al. Field plots. Germany and Switzerland. some AMF species present in the natural ecosystems are maintained under organic farming but are strongly depressed under conventional farming practices. AMF diversity has been
studied extensively in various natural and man-made ecosystems and some new forms discovered. slowest with the former and fastest with the latter inocula. Tamil Nadu85. Endogone 1. and plant community establishment. wheat. which concurs with the hypothesis that VAM were instrumental in the colonization of land by ancient plants. mosseae. Oehl et al. var.50 have placed the origin of VAM (AM)-like fungi at 353–462 Myr ago. deserts79. pigeonpea and chick pea in Gwalior86 and different agroclimatic regions of India87. AMF spore formation followed a reverse trend. Simon et al.
CURRENT SCIENCE. AM fungi comprise approx. VOL. The occurrences of AM fungi in arid and semi-arid regions were studied in Tamil Nadu78. Endogone 3. Glomus multisubstensum and G. Sengupta and Chaudhari75. AMF communities differed in the two systems. ‘three-country corner’ of France. Mangalore coast of Karnataka72. However. ecosystem dynamics. These sites were representatives of low-input. Endogone gigantea Nicol. only one species was restricted to high-input maize site. Endogone microcarpum. carrying an 18-month-old-grassclover stand were examined in the 23rd year for AMF in both. Sclerocystis sp.. The distribution of AM fungi in stressed ecosystems has also been reported from coal. NO. species-rich grasslands. and Broome. maize. Sclerocystis coremioides Berk. coastal sand dunes at Someshwara. 89. forest soils of Andhra Pradesh68 and black pepper grown in the forest soils of Kerala69. coastal sand dunes of the west coast of India73 and western Ghats of Goa74. Gigaspora calospora. root colonization by AMF was highest with inocula from the permanent grasslands and lowest with high-input monocropping sites.61 reported two species of Glomus.53 studied its influence on AMF diversity in a long-term (22 yr) organic trial underway in Switzerland. and high-input maize monocropping. According to the authors. Glomus multicaule and Sclerocystis sinuosa. Glomus macrocarpum Tul. Increased land use intensity was therefore correlated with a decrease in AMF species richness. Coromandel coast of Tamil Nadu71. The diversity of AM fungi in agricultural fields was reported on Leucaena leucocephala from Bangalore82. crop fields of Konkan and Solapur84. spores of Acaulospora and Scutellospora species were more abundant in the organic system. Oehl et al. and Tul. Servarayan Hills of Tamil Nadu67. seabound Gangetic delta in West Bengal. The data provided by these workers have reemphasized the need to protect AMF and to consider them in ecosystem management practices.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
ability to help plant withstand various kinds of abiotic and biotic stresses but also with their new found role in evolution. some species were prevalent at all sites and were thus ‘generalists’ whereas those forming sporocarps were ‘specialists’ and appeared in grassland sites. G. viz. The diversity of AM fungi has also been studied in the coastal regions of Konkan and Servaravan Hills of Tamil Nadu70. 150 species. lowto-moderate-input farming with a 7-year crop rotation. Bhattacharjee and Mukerji59 described the species Glomus reticulatum from soils of Bangalore. While root occupancy of nearly 85% land plants by AM fungi is known. Tamil Nadu64. ornamentals and cultivated plants at Allahabad and adjoining areas83. order Glomales and on account of their beneficial effect on plant growth.
AM fungal diversity in India
In India. Saraswati Range of Haryana62. tea plantation at Nilgiris. pearl millet.60 reported the structure and hyperparasitism for Gigaspora candida while Bhattacharjee and Mukerji59 described the ultrastructure of Sclerocystis coremioides sporocarp. Trifolium pratense and Lolium perenne. Mangrove of Muthupet estuary was surveyed by Selvaraj and Subramanian77. Bakshi57 was the first to publish an account of 14 spore types: Glomus macrocarpum.. 1. placed in Zygomycotina. Kodayar forest. However what is significant is the extent of diversity in a given ecosystem56. AMF spore abundance and species diversity was significantly higher in the organic than in the conventional systems. geosporum. The occurrence of AM fungi in a natural forest stand was recorded in the Old Delhi Ridge. Endogone 2. Glomus sp. fossil record of such fungi has helped unravel the origin of land flora. forest plants of Nilgiris65. In view of their established significance in plant productivity and stress management. delhiense both from soils of Delhi. Mukerji et al. Acaulospora sp. Bhattacharjee et al.76 studied the occurrence of AM fungi in Sueda maritima (a pioneer mangrove) in terminal. and Gerd. Considering the enhanced soil fertility of agroecosystems through organic farming. 102 AM species have been reported from India.88. viz. On other front. lignite and calcite mine spoils of India64. For example. organic and conventional plots. arid zones of Rajasthan80.52 examined the impact of land use intensity on the species of AMF in agroecosystems at eight sites in the.. Gerdemann and Bakshi58 reported two new species. 10 JULY 2005
. AMF spores and species numbers in the field samples declined in this order.55 but also establishment of a new genus Pacispora. ecosystem variability and productivity. Studies of the central European agroecosystems have led to descriptions of not only new species of Glomus54. When trap cultures were raised with Plantago lanceolata.
These studies indicate that the genus Glomus is ubiquitous in various ecosystems in India. Pythiaceae and Saprolegniaceae were found in the Kumaun region. which suggests that this fungus could have been described several times as different species. In a recent survey. On account of its climatic variability. soils polluted with industrial and sewage effluents91. of fungi in the tropics.128. Furthermore. some endophytes are known to contribute to the fitness of their hosts3–6. Entrophospora. only a few plant hosts and habitats have been studied for endophytes. Cannon and Simmons110
CURRENT SCIENCE.121. petro-effluentirrigated fields. the aquatic hyphomycetes completes their life cycle on submerged substrates. Host specificity of endophytes concomitant with high host diversity is expected to increase the diversity of endophytes and consequently. Many workers have undertaken extensive surveys of such fungi in South India and near the line Kumaun Himalaya and have recovered 60 species from various habitats6. For example. Sati et al.95–99.111 studied tropical forests in the Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve of the Western Ghats for endophyte assemblages based on host recurrence and spatial heterogeneity of their endophytes and concluded that the dry tropical forests had much less endophyte diversity compared to wet tropical forests. benign commensals or latent pathogens are included under the broad term ‘endophytes’95.000 species have been so far described. Suryanarayanan et al. tannery effluent polluted soils of Tamil Nadu92 and stressed soils of Bailadila iron ore sites in Madhya Pradesh93.4. Hawksworth16 estimated that there are 1. as many as 80 species of zoosporic fungi parasitic on cold water fish. have a very wide host and geographical range. of these. such as Phyllosticta capitalensis and Colletotrichum spp. especially since species name in case of the genus Phyllosticta is almost invariably based on the host from which it was isolated. water. They possibly represent a storehouse of new species of fungi. This may be true for a few other coelomycete taxa117.124. Sati125 has reported these fungi from diverse habitats. especially in the tropics120.108.5 million markedly underestimates fungal diversity.103. Suryanarayanan et al. 89. Tropical plants are expected to support a high diversity of endophytes106 and only a few of them have been screened for endophyte presence107. India115 and Brazil116.e. Sclerocystis and Scutellospora is limited. only 75. indicating greater adaptability of Glomus to varied soil conditions. VOL.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
Kothagudam coal mine spoil. Hence. agricultural fields. Watermolds contributes towards the energy flow and productivity of aquatic and semi-aquatic systems through degradation of plant matter. molecular evidence shows that certain fungi. Andhra Pradesh89. Furthermore. Arnold et al.112. 1. NO. capitalensis occurs as an endophyte in South Africa113. in foaming springs and posseses unique conidial morphology. based on the results of their study on leaves of two understorey tree species in Panama. Molecular studies on Colletotrichum endophytes isolated from trees of Guyana have also confirmed that at least in some cases fungal diversity may be inversely related to host diversity118. According to Sati. popularly termed water molds.109. However.5 million species of fungi. Thailand114. the Kumaun region of the Central Himalaya exhibits significant diversity of zoosporic fungi. in their study of 24 trees in the Western Ghats. Recent studies have demonstrated that fungal endophytes are neither passive residents7 nor a mere assemblage of latent pathogens of their hosts119. suggested that tropical forests are hyperdiverse with reference to endophytes to such an extent that the figure of 1. The conidial aquatic fungi are involved in the first stage of leaf decomposition in freshwater streams126.129 collected submerged leaves and water foam from streams located in the western part of the Central
.112 observed neither host specificity among the endophytes nor association of distinct fungal communities with any host tree. viz. The internal tissues of plants harbouring endophytes may well account for a substantial number of new fungi104. Fungi that are biotrophic mutualists.105. However. diseased root seedlings and diseased fish and their eggs. obtained similar results for 12 tree species of Iwokrama forest reserve in Guyana. 10 JULY 2005
Zoosporic and conidial aquatic fungi
The zoosporic fungi predominant in moist soils have been surveyed extensively in the country123. the importance of such studies cannot be overstressed108. such ubiquitous endophytes require reinvestigation using molecular techniques to avoid an exaggerated value of fungal diversity.21. Japan. Such an argument is not untenable since the high plant diversity in the tropics is supposed to mirror endophyte diversity. i. P.122. Since.
Tropical endophytes and the issue of fungal diversity
Fungal endophytes are microfungi that colonize living tissues of plants without producing any apparent symptoms or obvious negative effects94. Another interesting group of aquatic fungi that occurs on air–water interface.127. belonging to families Blastocladiaceae. heavy metal polluted soils of Tamil Nadu90. some recent studies show that not all tropical forests are as hyperdiverse for endophytes110–112. The distribution of other genera. Several mycologists have tried to answer the question ‘Where are the missing fungi?’ by identifying the habitats that are to be studied for the presence of such fungi101. Gigaspora.. The low endophyte diversity in some tropical forests is attributed to the presence of dominant generalists and low frequency of occurrence of host specific forms among the endophytes111. Many endophytes produce unusual secondary metabolites of industrial importance2.
Dwayaangam. Majority of fungi are mesophiles with maximum growth between 25 and 30°C (Mucor mucedo. Soil is the reservoir of such forms that are distributed in genera Acremonium.55. Nematophthora. Pencillium) with low matric potential (aw) while osmotolerants grow at very low osmotic potential (Pichia sp. Microsporum. Maximum structural divergence and species richness amongst mesophilic fungi was high in zero day morphotypes (H′ = 1. Mortierella.54) and the least in peak-heat morphotypes (H′ = 0. The other major habitat of keratinophilic fungi is. Tetraladium. and 79°28″–30″E long. harbours a complete spectrum of microbial diversity – mesophilic and thermophilic. Myceliophthora and Trichophyton. forests and zoo. This suggests that the distribution of keratinophilic fungi in birds depends upon their body temperature.
Fungal diversity and community dynamics in mushroom compost ecosystem
Mushroom compost. crow). What is of greater significance is the occurrence of dermatophytes over keratinophiles since the former cause skin infections. parrot. VOL. Straatsma et al. In a recent study of mushroom composting. Major developments concerning their occurrence and activities are compiled by Kushwaha and Guarro132. Mushroom compost fungi constitute a dominant component with respect to species richness. experiencing high and low temperature. Preponderence of keratinophilic fungi that are responsible for a variety of fungal infections (dermatomycoses) can be gauged by the fact that in a recent study of soils from agricultural fields. Khurpatal (1600 m asl). Microbial community succession occurs at a very fast pace and changes with the temperature gradient of two phases. feather fat and the prevailing environmental conditions. over 150 species are reported130 within the genera Catenaria. and also with abiotic variables in the environment.
Communities of fungi and ecology
Fungi are known to play a vital role as decomposers.68.9 in conventional compost and 1. Malbranchea.75). Kushwaha and Gupta131 recovered 30 keratinophilic fungal isolates that belonged to Chrysosporium. Magdalaenaea. Microsporum. feathers. From a purely microbial ecology point of view. Tricladiopsis and Trinacrium. termed coprophiles. Candida scotti are cold tolerant (psychrotolerant) and can grow near 0°C. 10 JULY 2005
A specialized group of fungi that colonizes keratinaceous substrates such as human hair. others are thermotolerant and grow above 40°C (Rhizomucor. Epidermophyton.01 (zero day to drench) and that of thermophilic fungal counts. Members of mucorales are considered as ruderals since they survive in soil as long as nutrients are available although they are not capable of degrading cellulose or lignin. their cysts and eggs (nematophagous). fourth turning of phase I compost exhibited maximal diversity (H′ = 2. in sea and freshwater. birds feathers and nests. Alatospora. Myceliophthora and Trichophyton.47.. in soil. Malbranchea. from 4. in extreme habitats. Rhopalomyces and Stylopage. gypseum and T.0 : 0. NO.133 reported a biomass ratio of 1. Microsporum. nails. Talaromyces). Dactyella. Penicillium and Trichoderma are stress tolerant.83 to 5. garden. all new to Indian mycoflora. Niglat (1650 m asl). Fungi interact with their hosts.62 to 4. Rawat135 found that the mesophilic fungal counts (log10 CFU) in mushroom compost varied from 4. Chrysosporium.0 : 1.3 in the experimental compost. Chrysosporium.). of which Pilobolous.8 of bacteria to fungi after phase II while according to Weigant134 the ratio was 1.) around Jeolikot (1850 m asl). a complex man-made ecosystem. Arthroderma. These were. mentagrophytes. They occur on rocks. R1 = 0. 23 isolates belonged to the single genus Chrysosporium indicating its wider distribution and relative ability to colonize the keratinaceous substrates in nature. pigeon. Xerotolerant fungi can grow on dry material (Aspergillus.
CURRENT SCIENCE. In a study of their distribution on feathers of Indian birds (chicken. Ascobolus and Basidiobolus are famous for their special shot-gun dispersal mechanism! An interesting ecological group of fungi captures and grows parasitically on nematodes.14) and peak heat stage morphotypes (H′ = 0. 1. distribution and abundance. Flabellocladia. is not matched elsewhere. Gliocladium. Gufa Mahadeu (1850 m asl) and Snow view (2250 m asl) and recorded 14 species of conidial aquatic fungi representing 10 anamorphic genera. Fungi like Fusarium. Anguillospora. skin. this controlled ecosystem is indeed unique since conditions under which the crop is grown and relatively short time required to complete the successional cycles. Thermomyces. 89. viz. Such fungi are good trapping agents in the biological control of nematodes. Leonniera. house sparrow. The relative distribution of keratinophiles depends on the frequency of animals visiting a particular habitat but for species such
. Dimorphospora.0 : 2. Myceliophthora and Trichophyton131. Dung of herbivorous mammals harbours a large number of fungi. as Chrysosporium tropicum it could be considerably high. Kushwaha and Gupta131 recorded 22 species of Acremonium. of these 14 species belonged to the genus Chrysosporium. Harposporium. RI = 2. hooves and horns have been studied extensively in India since several of these are cause of human and animal diseases. Monacrosporium. For thermophilic fungi. M. Penicillium chrysogenium) however Cylindrocarpon sp.64). symbionts of plants and animals and as parasites of plants in different ecosystems.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
Himalaya (20°22″–29″N lat. on dry substrates and in concentrated nutrients.
8S and ITS2 region of rDNA suggests high homology between the isolates with minor sequence variation. Mineral oil storage is a simple method of storage that retains viability of fungi for many years but places strains under selective pressure because of the special conditions of storage. The nutrients available in the agar will allow growth until oxygen is depleted in the storage container. The RAPD analysis and sequence analysis of ITS region of rDNA show wide genetic variation in Torula–Humicola complex144. In the absence of legal protection. some effort needs to be made to have code of practice or suggestive documents stressing the importance of fungal conservation. and Paecilomyces variotii were the additional mesophilic fungi in the later period of composting136. time. For example. The selection of preservation technique for fungi not only depends upon the success of the method but also upon the use of the organism. inventorization. One of the tools that would help in conservation is.
Threats to fungi throughout the globe is of concern since they are not only beautiful but also play a significant role in human welfare. thermophilum in fresh matter of phase II is about 106 g–1 compost141. RAPD analysis of 34 geographically diverse isolates revealed two distinct groups showing differences in the banding pattern. bisporus multiplies without competition. Acremonium sp. S. At the end of the composting process. Penicillium sp.146. In most countries checklists of fungi are not available however such projects are now operative under the umbrella of IUCN. Chaetomium sp. primarily considered as compost fungi. detailed in situ enzymatic investigations are likely to provide a better understanding of the relationship between structural and functional diversity of thermophilic fungal community. and Alternaria sp. grisea var. actinomycetes and bacteria appear to play a decisive role in successful colonization by this thermophile. They are inherently close partners in the degradation processes in compost and provide selectivity to compost138. During the course of composting and at spawning stage most mesophilic fungi exert a deleterious effect on the growth of A. World data center152 now has 350 registered culture collection centers in its database. Rhizopus oryzae. Fungi are very seldom legally protected however in Slovakia. Use of synthetic medium places selective pressure on the organism.. enabling managers to prevent damage to their habitat149. (ii) In-situ conservation of non-mycological reserves/ecological niches. growth techniques allow strain drift. Composts harbour up to 106 propagules of thermophiles139 and these are therefore. The procedure is to cut agar plugs from the edges of actively growing cultures and placing them in sterile distilled water in screw cap bottles. 1.147 observed that the loss of cellulose and lignocellulose and the increase in protein content during the composting period were a result of increased polysaccharolytic activity of the fungal biomass. This could be correlated with differences between the isolates based on morphology and thermogravimetric characteristics145. were observed as dominant mycoflora in the initial stages of composting. 52 species have a special legal status. The genomic DNA variations thus facilitate the differentiation of subgroup within the species. NO.142 while H. with ultimate reduction in yield117. Long-term stability is considered together with the required availability of the culture without delay. the World Federation for Culture Collections (WFCC) has formulated guidelines which outline the necessary requirement150. about 50–70% of the compost biomass is constituted by thermophilic fungi140. facilities and resources available. The number of CFU of S. Aspergillus spp. thermoidea and H.148 have suggested the following steps for fungal conservation: (i) Conservation of habitats. An examination of the genetic distance matrix indicated differences between isolates from Scytalidium thermophilum cultural types 1 and 2. Moore et al. Study of in situ genetic diversity of fungi of mushroom compost by Rawat135. 10 JULY 2005
their nutritional requirements. Their presence throughout the course of composting is largely responsible for maintenance of biological equilibrium that ultimately leads to unique selectivity wherein A. insolens have been described by others143. allowing variants to dominate. 89. While most species are eliminated. The sequence analysis of ITS1. and (iii) Ex situ conservation especially for saprotrophic species growing in culture. has brought into focus presence of 95 distinct bands although only 34 fungal species were recovered. Considering the fact that culturable microbial populations are limited on account of our poor understanding of
CURRENT SCIENCE. Water storage technique may allow growth depending upon the method adopted. The mesophilic microflora forms the pioneer community while thermophiles form the climax community. A collector may select a continuous growth method which is to be backed up with one that reduces the possibility of change during storage. The recolonization of mesophilic mycoflora in the compost can occur at the time of spawning due to fall in temperature and if free cellulose and carbohydrates are still present in compost137. The first service culture collection was that of Frantisek Kral in German Technical University in Prague that was established151 in 1890. Trichoderma viridae. Iiyama et al. To help culture collections centres maintain appropriate standards. bisporus mycelium. VOL. using SSCP as tool. however. Dominance of S. Thermophilic fungi grow extensively during the last phase of composting (phase II) from the spores that survive the pasteurization temperature138. thermophilum has been reported by several workers133.134.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
the least diversity.. Soil storage involves inoculation of spores or mycelium suspended in sterile
. a practice adopted in UK and Switzerland. thermophilum appears as near exclusive species after phase II composting and constitutes a climax species in the mushroom compost along with thermophilic actinomycetes133.138. 5.
L. Sutton. Schmidt.
6. 25–34.. B. Discourse on aquatic Phycomycetes of India... J. 5. 203–212. dung. Coevolution of Fungi with Plants and Animals. L. K. Biodiversity of palm fungi in the tropics: are global fungal diversity estimates realistic? Biodiversity Conserv. D. G. A. K.. and Untawale. distribution of fauna and flora are all important factors contributing to fungal distribution around the world. 26. 1997. 2nd edn. Blasco. 93–107. Dictionary of the Fungi. which is a rich source for exploitation. micro-habitat. S. Barr. Co. 8. Agarwal. Aquatic Phycomycetes. Occurrence and survival of aquatic hyphomycetes in brackish and seawater. Mycol. Cuba and other countries has been well explored for fungal species. 350. 3–21. 35. Can.. 48. Freeze drying entails freezing of the organism and its desiccation by the sublimation of ice under reduced pressure. their geographical distribution and known host plants. D.. M. Spalding. UK. Blasco. D. Fröhlich. Hydrobiol. Sparrow. 7. Ananda. V. M. 111–124. 2003. pp. Ecol. 79–90. 4. The world of fungi provides a fascinating and almost endless source of biological diversity... Sci.. P. Diversity of filamentous fungi on decomposing leaf and woody litter of mangrove forests in the southwest coast of India. pp. An outline for the reclassification of the chytridiales for a new order.. J. D. Manoharachary. C. World Mangrove Atlas. A. 1991. Hawksworth. 68
. 334. K. pp.000 species are named2. Estuaries. 1388–1391. Wafar. R. and Sridhar. Fungal Div.. Untawale. 1996. J. S.. L. 3. L. Studies of fungal distribution and mapping are challenging tasks due to lack of sufficient taxonomic knowledge and lack of mycologists around the world. pp. S. viz. and Suryanarayanan. 16.. 1573–1580. climatic conditions. 2001. 44. Archiv.. 33. 89.5 million fungal species. 2. 109–126.. P. Sridhar.. 423–477.. agrochemicals and industrial products. Indian Rev.).. Nalin K.. Mushrooms and Toadstools – A Study of Activities of Fungi. A. C. Soc. P. 1989. 977–104. and Field.. L. R. C. several of which are most valuable pharmaceuticals. The taxonomy and ecology of freshwater Phycomycetes from India. K. 149–174. 11. Silica gel storage methods are suitable methods for fungal spores that remain viable for periods up to and over 20 years. Singer.. K. 95. Sci. Res. The Agaricales in Modern Taxonomy.... Leonard Hill. Strategies for rapid assessment of fungal diversity. and Hyde. Pirozynski. M. an overview. 1991. 669–680. 60. Classification and evolution of the mangroves of India. 23. Kavaka. 32. 18.. Weinheim..SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
distilled water into sterile soil of approximately 20% moisture content.. K. K.. 113. 1997. 357–374. K. 141–169.. Status report – Mangroves in India. T. E. K. Mycol. Diversity of endophytic fungi in the roots of mangrove species on west coast of India. Biodiversity Conserv.. N. K. 1996. 616. R. Microbial sources such as fungi are well recognized to produce a wide variety of chemical structures. The Spizellomycetales. 1988. S. CURRENT SCIENCE. Longcore. 1187. Coastal Shelf Sci. A. 1980. Krishnamurthy. Borse. litter. 24.. C. Manoharachary. CBS Publishers and Distributors. 17. K. Curr. 1997. 21. Marine fungi from India–XI: Checklist J. J. and Wafar. The Biology of Mycorrhiza. Sarbhoy. Geographic location. automated isolation techniques for fungi are not yet possible because of the extreme diversity in fungal mycelium. NO. M. 1. 1982. Home.. 83. 10. A comparison of the intertidal mycota of five mangrove tree species. Microbiol. Richness and diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangroves along the west coast of India. 38. J. water. Occurrence and distribution of endophytic fungi in a mangrove community. V. 1953. 14. F. Lucknow. K. Michigan Press. D. 1. 1431–1437. D.. 1981. R. Delhi. V. 306. 2002. Fungi of India 1982–1992. 9. 641–655. 58. C. and Hyde. K. P. R. 15. G. M. M. 20. In Current Trends in Limnology (ed. Asian Mar Biol. London. Maria. J. Fungi in the marine realm: status. 87.. Manoharachary. S. 2002. A chicklist of mangroveassociated fungi. Biodiversity of tropical basidiomycetes as sources of novel secondary metabolites. Presidential Address. 70. D. 22. L. 1996. Cannon. J. 1990. Nature represents a formidable pool of bioactive compounds and is more than ever a strategic source for new and successful commercial products. F. Deshmukh. V. 31. Harley. etc. 2nd edn. New Delhi.. and Kaveriappa.. 2002.. L. J. 12. New Delhi.. Resource Management and Optimization. pp. London. Fungal Diversity.. Narendra Publ. F. Kumaresan. Can. 1960. 29. Mycotaxon. Biodiversity. 1987. 6. Sci. 912. F. 25. C. Hawksworth. Korea. 2380–2394. 7. Choudhury. J.. Maria. A. 8.. Cambridge Samara Publ. Unlike prokaryotes. and Pegler. Ann. K. Arbor. S.. Ananda. Colling. A. Res. M. 2001. Das Gupta. Hyde. Litter fall and energy flux in a mangrove ecosystems. Section–Botany. 81. 1999. 28. 2004. K. The kingdom of fungi contains 1. VOL. challenges and prospects. Shastree).. foam. 4th edn. of which 74. multiply and survive in diversified habitats. The Univ. Indian Bot. London. Qasim. D.. pp. The fungal dimension of biodiversity: magnitude and significance and conservation. substrate type. and Sridhar... 1997. 1990. 1995. G.. 1969. 871–878.. Aquatic mycoecology from India. D. Chytridiomycete.. Curr. 2003. C. Kirk.. Z. Ministry of Environment and Forests. Life. 30. Mycotaxon. taxonomy. Recent advances made in genomics. Cryopreservation is the method of storage at ultra low temperatures. Indian Phytopathol.. growth and texture. 2001.. In Microbiology and Biotechnology for Sustainable Development (ed. K. 13. N. Since. Government of India. Academic Press. 1960. CAB Intl. and Shearer. 2.. Trop.. 8. J. and Hawksworth. and Aizpuru. and Sridhar. B. 193–216. Cramer. which is the most successful method for retention of both the viability and characteristics of fungi. and Wafar.. Sarma. Bot. Fungi are ubiquitous and cosmopolitan in distribution covering tropics to poles and mountain tops to the deep oceans. 105. Ramsbottom. Fungal flora of the United Kingdom.. This method of storage can retain viability for 10 to 20 years. 19. 89th Session of Indian Science Congress. 7. Raghukumar. K.
1. 1988. 14. 1–34. proteomics and combinatorial chemistry show that nature maintains compounds that have already the essence of bioactivity or function within the host and in the environment. 27. S. S. G. Diversity of filamentous fungi on woody litter of five mangrove plant species from the southwest coast of India... Trapped pollen and spores from spider webs of Lucknow environs. 153–160. Many of the described species are known only as dead herbarium material and around 5% of species are isolated as pure cultures. and Sridhar. 10 JULY 2005
Prospecting fungi and exploitation of fungal diversity
Fungi are known to colonize. Cambridge. air. soil. Conservation and Biotechnology of Fungi. and Varshney. pp. Jain. R.
van der Heijden. T. Lakhanpal. 81–85. Levesque. Oecologia. E. and Supriyanto). N.
50. Impact of long-term conventional and organic farming on the diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. V. Bot–Angewandte Bot. 1997. M. K.. 1995.. 122(11). Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. N. Endogonaceae of India: two new species.. and Olsen. and Abraham. Soc. Sieverding. P. Med. 2000. A. pp. J. pp.. Wiemken. and Sieverding... Can. and Sieverding. Survey of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in Kodayar Forest. G.. New Delhi. I. and Vijayan. New Delhi. E. Glomus caesaris. Boller. N. Chem..). 715–729.. Kulkarni.
40. S. S. Survey of endomycorrhizal spores in the forest of Servarayan Hills of Tamil Nadu. 46.. Murphy. a new vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal genus in the Glomeromycetes. Br. Butler.. 574–583. 552. Pande. and Mukerji. 77.. Sci. G. 70.).. 1991. R. J. Delhi.. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza. 1999. K..SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
CBS Publishers and Distributors. J. Stem. P. 81– 89. K. and Mahadevan. 2816–2824. I. Bakshi. Bhattacharjee..
CURRENT SCIENCE. 1997. and Mahadevan. M. Kluwer. Diversity of mushroom mycoflora in the North-West Himalaya. and Mahadevan. 81. pp.. Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) in the forest plants of Nilgiris. 100–103. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. A. and Supriyanto). G. A. Mushrooms of Indian Boletaceae. 91–95. Nagarajan. P. G. pp. I. Mycotaxon. Trans. 86. W. Thermophilic Moulds in Biotechnology. Tamil Nadu. N.
38. 7... B. and Sridhar. Mycol. 7. N.. K.
49. Parthipon. Saxena. S.
45. 1999. 1998. M. E. 85–90. 1974. V. and Mueller. and Singh. 138. Soc. Indian For. 2000.. Soc.. Lakhanpal..
55. 1991. 89. 13. Effect of AM consortium and Pseudomonas on the growth and nutrient uptake of Eucalyptus hybrid. The Fungi of India Part III (List and References). et al. In Recent Researches in Ecology. E.. and Bakshi. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara.. Gerdemann. 67–69. Can. Macrofungal diversity of a temperate oak forest: a test of species richness estimators. 1996. Wiemken. H. T. K. New Delhi. Curr. Glomus fasciculatum – a predominant vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus associated with black pepper in forest soils of Kerala. and Tewari. 55–61.
53. F. Johri. Incidence of mycorrhizal association in a forest fire site in Servarayans Hills. Pacispora.. 1982. 31. K. F. Vasudeva – The fungi of India. 73–75.. 1459–1466. Structure and hyperparasitism of a new species of Gigaspora. Bot. 18. and Raman. J. Hackman. J. In Agriculture... and Bisby.. B.). P. E. Mycorrhiza. M. Sieverding. Manoharachary. S. and Nagarajan.. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. 2004. R. Biol. 59. 2004. Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. and Wiemken. 363. ecosystem variability and productivity. and Sieverding.. 35–68.. 72. Mukherji. 354. 128. F. 274 (Abstr. S. L. Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) distribution influenced by salinity gradient in a coastal tropical forest. Proc. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. J. Kumar. V. 45–47. Med. Vijaya. 1991. and Rao. J. Raghupathy. 68. 2000. and Skoropad. F. Mukerji.. A. Exp. 1983. A. S. Bilgrami. K. Atri. Mader. Arun. J. Gopinathan. Mader. M. Raviraja. V. V. A. P. 1992. Appl. Sivaprasad.). Mycol. E. S. T. 1999.. 69
34. and Singh.. Dehra Dun.. Nature. Profile of VA mycorrhizal fungi and nodulation of legumes in the Coromandel coast of Thanjavur District. 84. tumours and immunity. Schmit. Mycol.. K.. F. pp. B.. A. S. J. J.. S. R. 641–643 62.. Hughes. 1991.. 58. K.. Curr. Mathew. 2004. J.. A. 1979. B.. Soc. 1991. T.). 66. K. S. New species of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. and Johri. B. S. M. A. 1033–1039. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity. Lekha. and Liu. G. R. Reddy. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. Manoharachary. 1014–1027. Studies on occurrence of endomycorrhiza in some forest soils of Andhra Pradesh.. 67. India. P. Joseph. 221.. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh. 1960. 78. The Fungi of India. 72–82. A... and Supriyanto).. J. 1998. 2003. R. 71. Bilgrami.. Oehl. N. Sastry. N.. M. Trans. Ineichen. S. and Srivastav. A. R. S. Diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the coastal sand dunes of the west coast of India. and Dubey. Horticulture and Forestry. Virinda. ICAR. P. 480 Project Report. Ineichen.
52. 10 JULY 2005
. I.L. APH Publishing Corporation. Sci. Raghupathy. A. Mycorrhiza and its role in forestry. K. E. Pradeep. S. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. S. 2002. Bousquet. 53–62..). New Delhi. (eds Soerianegara.. M. The International Symposium on Management of Mycorrhizas. Oehl. 60. 340–343. N. T. C. Conidiopores. p. S. S. Bot. Ganesan. R. T. Thapar. 66. S. Ravikumar. Environ.. C. P. K. S.. New Delhi.. Tewari.. NO.
44. Jamaluddin and Rizvi. 86. Appl.). S. The genus Volvariella in Kerala state. 1619– 1623.. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. Role of VAM fungi in Biotechnology. pp. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. pp. S. Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and forest trees. M. P. 1981. pp. 931–936. N. 61. and Lalonde. and Mahadevan. 1991. T. Oehl. 10. 63.. Part I (List and Reference). Dehra Dun. A. pp. S. pp. N. L... and Saini. B. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi of tropical sand dunes of west coast of India. The Fungi of India Part II (Host Index and Addenda). Ooi. Raman. Mukerji. Mushroom Res. C. Indian J. P. Mycotaxon. 65. Beena. Environment and Pollution (eds Sati. a new arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus from the Kaiserstuhl in Germany. and Sridhar. Coastal Res. Bhattacharjee. I. 1982. K. 2000. Industry and Environment (eds Maheshwari. pp. Oehl. 101–104. I. Glomus spinuliferum: A new ornamental species in the Glomales. pp. B. V.. Jamaluddin and Rizvi. G. 39 (Abstr. D. 64. K. K. T.. and Wiemken. R. Satyanarayana. In Microbes – Agriculture. 57. and Uniyal. A. Origin and diversification of endomycorrhizal fungi and coincidence with vascular land plants. M. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. The SEM structure of Sclerocystis coremiodes. K. 1. S. Trans. M. Effect of VAM fungi and Rhizobium on growth of Acacia nilotica in sodic and new forest soils. The Netherlands.. N.. Raja.. Studies in Cryptogamic Botany (ed. P. Bilgrami. F.. Mushroom. 467.. M. 396.).... Vol. pp. Species diversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi associated with temperate forests of Western Himalaya: A preliminary assessment. Mushrooms. T.. India.
35. R. pp. P. 281–293.. K. 1996. India. 1995.. Nova Hedwigia. Raviraja. Revised by R. 42. pp. Jamaluddin and Rizvi. Tamil Nadu. P.. S.. and Gershwin. and Singh. Br. U. Kaur. 73. R. 69. 56. K. Bhattacharjee. Tamil Nadu.
54. Sastry. Tamil Nadu. 379–385. Nature.. G. 2000. Dubois. E. Sharma. New Delhi..
39. Oehl.. Simon. K. pp. 69–72. 36.. 1995. J.
43.. J.. K... C. P. Forest Research Institute and Colleges. 89. A. Taxonomic studies on Agaricus from Punjab plains. A. A. F.. A. 19.. 2003. C. 6–14. Immunomodulation and anticancer activity of polysaccharide–protein complexes.. J. S. K. 798. P. C. K. 577–659. 1993. 184–188. Curr. and Supriyanto). Pande... 79. 41. VOL. M. 2004. and Supriyanto).. T. S. 121– 140. Today and Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers. Boller. Keen. 1976. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. 78. C. India. S. conidia and classification. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. Impact of land use intensity on the species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in agroecosystems of Central Europe. B. M. Br. Berochers. and Singh. 69. 157–162. A.. 1953. D.
37.. Microbiol. 36..
Can.. pp.. 2004. sp. Reddy. Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tea (Camellia sinensis (L. and Singh. Biodiversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in different agroclimatic regions of India. Sheehan. 996–1004.).. Endophytic fungi: a source of novel biologically active secondary metabolites. 82. B.5 million species estimate revisited. Biodiversity of endophytic fungi in tropical regions. V. N. 2002. and Adholeya. Enfield. 3–29. and Chaudhari. 2001.. Römmert. 87. V.. 1581. K. Lodge. K. low molecular weight pharmaceuticals. A. 70 90. N. Hyde. K. 102. V... R. pp. C. Dreyfuss. J. 88. S. and Mahadevan. Fungi from littleexplored and extreme habitats. and Singh. 1994. 1995. D. 19. 52–55 81. 1095–1100. Hawksworth.. 298.. Hyde. M.. Kumaresan. Incidence of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in coal wastes. Muthukumar. P. 57–69.. pp. 1995. 1422– 1432. 320–331... and Singh. vol. 1997. Kumaran. Res. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. S.. pp. 86. B. W. Vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae in dicots of a nutrient-deficient semi-arid grassland. and White. 105. A.. Raman. H. and Sutton.). Res. Microbiol. F. A. Mycol. pp. 84. Bacon. P. C.). 1989. In Trichomycetes and other Fungal Groups (eds Misra. In The Discovery of Natural Products with Therapeutic Potential (ed. pp. W. W. S. and Pandya.. Communities of parasitic microfungi. W. 2001. A. In The Biodiversity of Fungi: Aspects of the Human Dimension (eds Deshmukh. A. 40. Vesicular arbuscular mycorrhiza (VAM) in pioneer salt marsh plants of the Ganges river delta in West Bengal (India). Occurrence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tree species from Western Ghats of Goa.. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. A. A. W. and Singh. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. pp. Sambandan. pp. pp. London. K. Bacon.. pp. Endophytic fungi of Manilkara bidentata leaves in Puerto Rico. and Supriyanto). 271 (Abstr. India. S. 1. Suryanarayanan. D. and Supriyanto). Stone. In Microbial Endophytes (eds. In Handbook of Vegetation Science (ed. Cambridge University Press. R. 104. 541–545.. and Bagyaraj. J.). A. M.. P. pp.. P. X. 225–250. S.. D. 1986. 155–158.. S. 2000. and Singh. In Proceedings of Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. Occurrence and intensity of VAM in weeds. Fungal endophytes: the tropical dimension.). ornamentals and cultivated plants at Allahabad and areas adjoining it. Suryanarayanan. 103. Curr. J. O. W.. M. Prod. I. pp..). 57–60. R. Mycorrhiza Round Table Proceedings of the workshop.. C. P. Nat. G. 1991. Cytotoxicity and insecticidal activity of endophytic fungi from black spruce (Picea mariana) needles. and Singh. 94. The occurrence of vesicular– arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in arable soils of Konkan and Solapur. S. G. F. Neeraj and Verma. and Johnson. 58. and Mahadevan. and Henson. P.. 85. Selvaraj. 1995. and Maheshwari. 2003. Hong Kong. K. R. 105. 93. 310–316.. 18.. D. and Singh. A. Science.). Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal diversity of stressed soils of Bailadila iron ore sites in Bastar region of Madhya Pradesh... S. Sambadan. Mycologia. Cambridge. Sengupta. An overview of endophytic microbes: endophytism defined. 56–58. S. Arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in plants colonizing overburdened soil at an opencast coalmine site. Kehri. NO. and Hippalgaonkar. 1996. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. and White. D. 205–222. Mehrotra. V. Enfield. S. Some endophytic fungi reduce the density of pustules of Puccinia recondita f. Thermotolerance generated by plant/fungal symbiosis. K.. and van den Heuvel. 111–113. pp. Rodrigues.. Reddy. 22–29. IMC 7 – Conference on Mycological Advances. M. pp.. Raghupathy. 1995. 33–48. 100. Khade S. JNU. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. Plant Soil..) O Kuntz) soil.) Dumort – A pioneer mangrove of the Chenopodiaceae. and Supriyanto). Sci. and Selvaraj. L. C. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. A. A. Association of VAM fungi with Casuarina equisetifolia at different soil types in Tamil Nadu. V. 125 (Abstr. J. and Subramanian..).. I. A. and Rai. M. The biology of endophytism in plants with particular reference to woody perennials. and Braun. J. H. K. 1995. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara.). Raman. Dalal. C. C. and McGee. Nalini. K. Curr. pp. S. 1372. 91. Prakash. 24–27. G. F. Hong Kong University Press. 273– 283.. G. 11–17 August 2002...). 76. Rani. X. Fisher. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. B. 15. 1995. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. 108. Boyle. 106. Cambridge University Press. and Singh. K. 733–738. 106. 1422– 1518.. Dordrecht.. 1994..). S. and Kannan. M.. and Whitney. Association of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in soils polluted with industrial and sewage effluents. 75. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. J. JNU. J.. C. B.. Ganesan.. Redman. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. Mycol. The occurrence of vesicular– arbuscular mycorrhiza in pearl millet and other hosts. U. and Hawksworth. New Delhi. 1999. Rodriguez. Sahhadevan. and Chaudhari.. B. 1991. S. Endophytes: a rich source of functional metabolites.. In Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. 1991. and Santhanakrishnan. D. 92.). R. K. J. and Chapela. 2001. 83. VA mycorrhizal spore types present in the root zone of Leucaena leucocephala (LAM) de.. Norway. A. S. 99. 89. T. Sastry. J.. R. Jr. K. Chandra. S. 49–80. 3–7. and Verma. V. 95. 2001. Forest Sci. Sengupta. I. 97. 1992. pp. T. K... Survey of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae in mangroves of Muthupet Estuary: Ecological implications. pp. I. 1995. and Zou. J. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. K. S. A-K. Trop. and Johri. Mycol. Distribution of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in tannery effluent polluted soils of Tamil Nadu. Tan..). and Supriyanto). Distribution of VAM fungi in the Indian Deserts. K. 1991. pp. I. Byra Reddy.. P. 448–459. K. Where are the missing fungi? Mycological Research (ed. 77. K. R. Potential of fungi in the discovery of novel. P. 1987. 197–207. J. and Manoharachary. India.. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae. U. Jr. J. Draeger. 77–80. R. N. 96. 33–37. T. S. CURRENT SCIENCE. tritici in wheat.). Johnson. and Perini. S. 122. pp.). 88. J.). The magnitude of fungal diversity: the 1. P. Rep. Science Publishers. Sci. S. and Rodrigues B. pp. J. and Horn. A. 129–136. pp. In Biodiversity of Tropical Microfungi (ed.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
74. 1990. 168–173.. T.. K. 89. Butterworth–Heinemann. Occurrence of vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae (VAM) in semi-arid region of Tamil Nadu. Hirsch. 77. and Udaiyan. T. 98. In Microbiology of the Phyllosphere (eds Fokkema. pp. Proceedings of the Third National Conference on Mycorrhizae.. 2003. India. R.). VOL. New Delhi. pp. Proceedings of the Second Asian Conference on Mycorrhiza (eds Soerianegara. 101. D. Carroll. Winterhoff. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. and Krohn. J. N. Kluwer. New York. Science Publishers. S. Studies on vesicular–arbuscular mycorrhizae association in seedlings of forest tree species in arid zones of Rajasthan. M. Gullo. 2002. F. 61– 65. Stout. N. 10 JULY 2005
. R.. A. 78. Hyde. A. N. 79. 1987. S. S. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. India. I. and Supriyanto). B. Singh. 107. Occurrence of vesicular– arbuscular mycorrhiza in Sueda maritima (L. B. Marcel Dekker. Parthipon. D. Schulz. J. A.. J.. Mohan. In Mycorrhizae: Biofertilizers for the Future (eds Adholeya. 107. Res. 1991. Dingle.). Singh. K. L. 80. J. Mycorrhiza Round Table Proceedings of workshop. A. 1995.
New Delhi. G. 58. D... P A. Lyons. E and Rotheroe. R. and Ito. N. 46.. Mikrobiol. Johri. 124. Microbial dynamics and its influence in cultivation cycle of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach. Biology of dermatophytes and other keratinophilic fungi.. Evans. K. Grünig. M. J. Suryanarayanan. R. pp. Y. G. 145. Arnold. New Delhi. 126. 114.. A. F. A... H.. 113. Res. 144. 439– 444. New Delhi. Extensive host range of an endophytic fungus Guignardia endophyllicola (anamorph: Phyllosticta capitalensis). Weigant. Mycoscience. 138.. USA. 86. D... 44. 146. 108.. 119. Environ. M. Coley. Sci. Reid. Maynard.. VOL. C. A. The fungal dimension of biodiversity. L D... and Tiwari. HP Univ. Khulbe. Stone. India. 464–515. 122. Mycol. ITS– RFLP and ITS sequence analysis of a foliar endophytic Phyllosticta from different tropical trees. E. 210–220.. Technol.. M. B. Straatsma. Natarajan and Hawksworth). Spain. pp. Khulbe. Indian Phytopathol. 1989. M.. pp. T. G. 5. N. S and Gupta. Baayen. 243–249. 2003. Institute of Fermentation. 249. C. Suryanarayanan. W. A. Spain. 129. In Abstracts XIII Congress of European Mycologists. C. Cambridge University Press. 1666–1674. P. F. 77. Conidial aquatic fungi of Nainital. CURRENT SCIENCE. L. Takishima. 1964. Rodrigues. 141. Osaka. and Newcombe. R. Studies on fungal competitors of Agaricus bisporus. Appl. C. B. 53–63. P. 128. Saxena. Nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer phylogeny and host diversity in the coelomycete Phomopsis. and Jansson. K. Some aquatic Hyphomycetes of Kumaun Himalaya. Solan. T.. H. F. 94. M. H. K.. S. 143. A community of unknown. Cannon. Z. G. Venkatesan.. N. 140.. S. M. Zh. Guide to world data of microorganisms with a list of culture collections in the world. Bilai. 1991. S. F. Oxford and IBH. F.. Mycol. Sly. P. Pandey. 1994. D. Sati. J. endophytic fungi in western white pine. Appl. 843–849.. 5. Endophytic fungal communities in leaves of tropical forest trees: diversity and distribution patterns. T. 2000. 441–456. Agric. A. and Kursar. Curr. 149. 2004. Environ. Can. To celebrate the centenary of the first recorded service culture collection. Alcala de Henares (Madrid) Alcala de Henares.. 1. 1990. S.. Sci. and Uecker. A. identified as a cosmopolitan endophyte of woody plants. Res. J. C..8S–ITS2. 101. 1992. An ecological study of watermolds of forest soils of Kumaun Himalaya. N. 1997. T. 56.. and Samuels. 1971. 1984. 150. O.. 118. 2003. D. 2004. 136. 1991. In Diseases of Nematodes (eds Poinar.. B. S.. Y. K. 353– 363. L. H. Diversity and host preference of leaf endophytic fungi in the Iwokrama Forest Reserve. Rehner. p. and Suryanarayanan. Mer. 1431–1438. and Dubey. and Technology. Rajni. et al.).. C. 1990. P. M.. K.. 135. 131. 89. Shimuira. Microbiol. 60.B. J. J. Microbial diversity of mushroom compost and xylanase of Scytalidium thermophilum. and Holdenreider. Acad. Differentiation of Scytalidium thermophilum isolates by thermogravimetric analysis of their biomass. Res. G. Guyana. Occurrence of water borne conidial fungi on Pinus roxburghi needles. Brunsfeld. Appl.. J. 454–458. M Sc thesis. 152. 137. C. Mycol. 1990. pp. 421– 426.. 108. Fergus. M. Nakagiri. 110. S. India. Japan. Vijay. A. A Manual of Aquatic Fungi. 63–70. 1989. S. 2004. 1994. 262. W. L. Tiwari. 2002. Kushwaha.. Taxonomy of Scytalidium thermophilum. 72. NO. Mycol. S and Guarro. ISSR–PCR amplifications and ITS1–5. A. pp. J. Are tropical fungal endophytes hyperdiverse? Ecol. Today & Tomorrow’s Printers and Publishers.. M. and Gupta.. Cryptogamie Mycol. S. 2001. Sati.. S.. G. 80. J. 121. Lumyong. Curr. 3–37. R.. Mycotaxon. Non pathogenic isolates of the Citrus black spot fungus. R. J. Pant University of Agril. Cannon. Lu. Mycology. J. N. CBS Publishers. 2000. 104.. 115. and Sharma. Sci. 97. Can.. 72. New Delhi. India. Curr. Dhar. Two new endophytic conidial fungi from India. Diversity of aquatic fungi in Kumaun Himalaya: Zoosporic fungi. Reddy. D... Sci. 68... G.. T. S. and Bhat. D. S. and Sugarwara.. 116. T.. its magnitude and significance Mycol. 1999. Lett... L... Mycol. 228–232. and Macauley. 1998. Vogels. G. Rev. and Belwal. C. J.. M. In Microbiology and Biotechnology for Sustainable Development (ed. 134. 2002. 2001. 1992.. S. H.. 464–477. Compost. Ph D thesis. M. Phytopathology. 125. 123. F. and Murali... 1996. 107. and Venkatesan. T. Ganley. K. 827–830. J. 100 years of culture collections Proceedings of the Kral Symposium. H . G. Jacob. A.. Environment and Pollution (eds Sati. Res. Maheshwari. 1993. Iiyama. 1997. Sieber. Guyana. R.B. Pantnagar. and Tiwari. 407–414. Mycologia. P. G. 2003.. 139. Changes in the concentration of soluble anions in compost during composting and mushroom growth.. Molecular comparison of Scytalidium thermophilum using RAPD and ITS nucleotide sequence analysis. 135. Rodrigues. S. 2000. A. B. 2002. 133.. L. 142. L. 199. 130. 7. B. Samson. 2000. Lyons. CRC Press. W. Okane. M. Res.. N. 39. 277–289.). Micol.. O. K. 818–826.. J. N.. Augustijn. and Kirsop. Boca Raton.. Udagawa. S. Diversity and molecular relationships of endophytic Colletotrichum isolates from the Iwokrama Forest Reserve.. I. Mycol. Straatsma. Biotech. 127. J.. Daya Publisher House. 21–25 Sept. T. 10107–10112. 1998. Op Den Camp. Gray. Mangrove fungi in India. R. G. Bilabao. A. S. 45–52. 1301–1307. 267–274. Op Den Camp. R.. G.. Growth characteristics of thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum in relation to production of mushroom compost. Nat. 85. M. Current status and perspectives of conservation of fungi in Slovakia. T. Res. S. The ecology of thermophilic fungi. D. 1990. G.... 321–328. I. 1–16. G. B. Preliminary study of endophytic fungi in a tropical palm... 3. C. Environ. The thermophilic and thermotolerant molds and actinomycetes of mushroom compost during peak heating. 151. Microbiol. P. Arch. Abstracts volume. 32. G. C. pp. 2002. and Simmons. Characterization of Guignardia mangiferae isolated from tropical plants based on morphology. Studies on microflora of mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) Sing. Sridhar. M. S. 127–135. P.. 111.. Bot. Res. R. 92. Hydrobiol. 1586–1587.. Rastogi.. Gilbert. T. LXXXI. Mycotaxon. 2004. 59–70... McKay. C. 1988. Kaushik. 489–493. Kumaun Himalaya. G.SPECIAL SECTION: MICROBIAL DIVERSITY
109. The fate of deal leaves that fall into streams... Gerrits. Proc. 10 JULY 2005 132. Diversity of keratinophilic fungi in soil and on birds. K.. R. Population dynamics of Scytalidium thermophilum in button mushroom compost and stimulatory effects on growth and yield of Agaricus bisporus. 102. van and Van Griensven. Bot. Rajendaran. N. 112. Y. and Simmons.. 39. R. World Data Centre of Micro organisms. P. J. Weigant. pp. Thermophilic micromycete species from mushroom composts. In Tropical Mycology (eds Janardhan. Olijnsma. and Van Griensven. Microbiol. 148.. 71
. 751– 789. Sati. Res. Rawat.. pp... G. J. S. J. Hawksworth. D. S. 407–414. Iberoam. Jaic. 2004. 45.. Moore. Food Sci. 117. and Hynes H. Griensven. 94. 21. A. Samitama... Mushroom Res. Fungal Conservation – Issues and Solutions.. 445–455. V. and Singh. S. Straatsma. Kushwaha. 1991. S. Occurrence and distribution of fungal endophytes in tropical forests across a rainfall gradient. Murali. L. G. 35–38. A simple method to estimate the biomass of thermophilic fungi in composts. D. T.). R.. 1976. L. M. P. R.. G. Sati.. mangiferae (Phyllosticta capitalensis). (Kiev). Mycol. Ecology of thermophilic fungi in mushroom compost with emphasis on Scytalidium thermophilum and growth stimulation of Agaricus bisporus mycelium. Lizon. L. 147. 256... 267–284. A. Nauta. B. Guignardia citricarpa. an important thermophilic fungus in mushroom compost. Tropical Ecol. 81–88. 120. Gerrits. S. and Sharma.. and Samson. 2004. In Recent Research in Ecology. S. Fungi attacking vermiform nematodes.