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Volume 4/2010 (Issue 1)


Hyperion University of Bucharest, Department of Geography Bucharest, Romania

Victor Sorocovschi, University Professor, PhD, was born in Braov City on April 25, 1940, from where he moved together with his family in Jibou Town, Slaj County in 1945. He completed his primary and lower secondary school between 1946 and 1953 in Jibou locality, and his high school studies during the period 1953-1956 at the School for Boys. No. 6 in Cluj-Napoca. He began his university studies in the year 1963 at the Faculty of Biology-Geography, the Department of Geography of Babe-Bolyai University in ClujNapoca, which he graduated in the year 1968, as the best student of his cohort. During his last two university years, he specialized in hydrology, which then determined the orientation of his research and didactic activity later on. Following the results obtained, he was appointed as trainee researcher by the ministry, in the Geographic Research Sector, the Branch of Cluj of the Romanian Academy. Within the geographic research sector, he gradually secured the positions of trainee researcher (1968-1971), scientific researcher (1971-1975) and principal scientific researcher (third degree) (1976-1991). During the period

1975-1990, he was the head of the geographic research sector, a position that he filled with a lot of competence. Since 1991, the high-quality professional training and the experience gained in the domain of research allowed him to secure different positions at the Faculty of Geography of Babe-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, where he was appointed, after the afferent contests, in the following positions: lecturer (1991-1993), reader (1993-1996) and professor (1997-2005). In the autumn of the year 2005 he retired and since then he has secured the position of consulting professor, and, at the same time, since 2006, he has functioned as active professor of the Faculty of Geography of Dimitrie Cantemir University of Trgu Mure. The scientific research and the didactic activity of Professor Victor Sorocovschi has been oriented towards the domain of Physical geography, and especially towards hydrology. His professional training in the domain of hydrology was boosted by a specialization in the Soviet Union (Russian Federation, Moscow, Leningrad/Sankt Petersburg and Tbilisi), during the period August-October 1971, where he focused on aspects concerning the methodology of water resources research, the modification of the hydro balance under the anthropic activities influence and the principles of the determination of the hydro-geographic regions. This specialization provided him with the opportunity of an in-depth study of certain research directions such as the evaluation of the water resources, the typification of the rivers regime phases and periods and the determination of the hydroeconomic regions. His doctoral thesis Resursele de ap ale rurilor din Podiul Trnavelor (The Water Resources of the Rivers in the Trnavelor Plateau) began under the coordination of the Univ. Prof. Dr. Docent Tiberiu Morariu, corresponding member of the Romanian Academy and was concluded under the guidance of the Univ. Prof. Dr. Docent Petre Gtescu, in 1991 at Babe-Bolyai University of Cluj-Napoca, constituting an important step in the substantiation of the knowledge accumulated in the domain of hydrology. He began his didactic activity since the period spent in the Geographic Research Sector, through participations to the students practical applications out in the field, where he conducted the practical observations and the students applications for the specializations hydrology and climatology. Once appointed lecturer, his didactic activity became more intense and continuous. So, during his 20 years of didactic activity he has given numerous lectures in the domains of hydrology (General Hydrology, Hydrometry, Hydrogeology, Urban Hydrology, Limnology of Storage Lakes, Special Hydrological Issues), environment (Environmental Science, The Environment of the Hydrosphere, Environmental Monitoring Techniques and Means), meteorology and climatology (Meteorology, Climatology, Climatic Resources Protection and Assessment, Medical Climatology, Quantitative Indicators and Methods Used in Climatology), natural

hazards (Local, Regional and Global Natural Hazards, Hydro Hazards, The Prevention of and the Fight against Natural Hazards). In support of the disciplines taught, Professor Victor Sorocovschi has published several courses, alone or in collaboration: Hidrometrie (Hydrometry), Litografia Universitii Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, 1994 (collaboration with I. Buta); Mediu hidrosferic (Hydrospheric Environment) (part I), Litografia Universitii Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca, 1996; Hidrologie (Hydrology), Editura Dimitrie Cantemir, Tg.Mure, 2001, Hidrologia uscatului (Land Hydrology), Part I, Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj - Napoca, 2002; Hidrologia uscatului (Land Hydrology), Part II, Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca, 2002; Hidrologia uscatului (Land Hydrology), Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca, Editions I, 2003, II, 2004, III, 2009 and IV, 2010); Hidrogeologie (Hydrogeology), Edit. Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca, 2008 (collaboration with erban, Gh.); Meteorologie i climatologie (Meteorology and Climatology), Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca, 2009. Professor Victor Sorocovschi has competently filled administrative positions as well. So, during the period 1997-2005, while he was head of the Physical Geography Chair, Professor Victor Sorocovschi contributed to the good development of the didactic and scientific activity of the members of the academic team, to the promotion of the young teaching stuff, to the arrangement and endowment of the chairs laboratories and to the organization of three master degrees. During the period 2006-2010, he was elected dean of the Faculty of Geography of the Dimitrie Cantemir University of Trgu Mure, where he also contributed to the formation of a team of competent academics and to the improvement of the scientific and didactic research activity through the publication of courses and the participation to diverse scientific reunions in the country and abroad. The scientific research activity of Professor Victor Sorocovschi has been oriented especially towards the domains of hydrology, natural hazards (mainly hydrological and climatic) and the valorization of the hydro and climatic potential in different activity domains. His scientific research carried out in the Geographic Sector was applicative, being based on contracts. So, during the 23 years of activity in the Geographic Research Sector, Professor Victor Sorocovschi elaborated alone and in collaboration 33 themes concerning the ground and underground water resources, the wind potential in different geographic units of the Transylvanian Depression and its surrounding mountainous area, and the prospecting and the evaluation of certain underground resources (peat, lignite) from the areas belonging to Banat and Transylvania. He continued his contractual research activity as well at the Geography Chair in Cluj-Napoca, coordinating different research themes, such as Studiul posibilitilor de alimentare cu ap a Cmpiei Transilvaniei (Study on the Water

Supply Possibilities of the Plain of Transylvania), being at the same time the coordinator of the team of hydrologists during the elaboration of some major research themes on the territorial organization in different regions of the Romania, especially in Transylvania and the neighboring regions. We shall mention only a few of them: Planul de amenajare a teritoriului Regiunii de Nord-Vest (The Arrangement Plan for the North-West Region), Strategia de dezvoltare a microregiunii Tnad (The Development Strategy for Tnad Micro Region); Planul de Amenajare a Teritoriului Zonal PATZ- periurbanul municipiului Bistria (The Arrangement Plan of the Zonal Territory PATZ Periurban to Bistria Municipality); Analiza strategic de mediu pentru planul de amenajarea teritoriului zonal Valea Hrtibaciului, judeul Sibiu (Strategic Environmental Analysis for the Zonal Territory of Valea Hrtibaciului, Sibiu County); Plan de amenajare teritorial zonal Mrginimea Sibiului (Zonal Territorial Arrangement Plan - Mrginimea Sibiului). He participated as head of the hydrologists team to the realization of an international program Studiul privind stadiul actual al tendinelor dezvoltrii teritoriale n bazinul romnesc al rului Tisa (Study on the Actual Stage of the Territorial Development Tendencies in the Romanian Basin of Tisa River). He coordinated three projects contracted with CNCSIS concerning: The Development of the In-Depth and Doctoral Studies in the Domain of Geography Hydrology (Dezvoltarea programului de studii aprofundate i doctorat n domeniul geografie-hidrologie), Risks Induced by the Inundations on the Rivers in the North of the Transylvanian Depression (Riscurile induse de inundaiile de pe rurile din nordul Depresiunii Transilvaniei), Assessment of the Vulnerability to Natural and Anthropic Hazards of the Rural Settlements in the Plateau of Some (Estimarea vulnerabilitii aezrilor rurale din Podiul somean la hazarde naturale i antropice). At the same time, he has participated as coordinator or team member in eight projects contracted with CNCSIS. He has contributed to the elaboration of nine monographs, the most significant being the following: Aciuni umane asupra jnepeniurilor din Munii Maramureului (Human Actions on the Juniper Shrubs from Maramure Mountains); Munii Rodnei i din alte zone ale Transilvaniei (Rodnei Mountains and Other Transylvanian Areas); Amenajarea teritoriilor periurbane (The Arrangement of the Periurban Areas); Studiu de caz: zona periurban Bistria (Periurban Spatial Planning. Case Study : Bistria Peri-urban Area); Synthetical Approach to the Romanian Tisa Basin; Mrginimea Sibiului. Planificare i amenajare teritorial (Mrginimea Sibiului. Territorial Planning and Arrangement) etc. Beside his contractual research activity, Professor Victor Sorocovschi has taken part (alone or in collaboration) to the elaboration of certain chapters from Geografia Romniei (Romanias Geography) as follows: a chapter underground waters in tome 1, Geografia fizic (Physical Geography), five chapters in tome 3, Carpaii romneti i Depresiunea Transilvaniei (The Romanian Carpathians and the

Transylvanian Depression), issued at the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy. He has published as unique author five books on themes in the hydrological domains - Podiul Trnavelor. Studiu hidrogeografic (Trnavelor Plateau. Hydrogeographic Study), Cmpia Transilvaniei. Studiu hidrogeografic (The Transylvanian Plain. Hydrogeographic Study), Resursele de ap. Potenial i valorificare turistic (Water Resources: Tourist Potential and Valorization) -, climatology - Climatologie i aplicaii bioclimatice n turism (Climatology and Bioclimatic Applications in Tourism) -, and environmental geography - Probleme de mediu i turism (Tourism and Environmental Issues) -, and in collaboration the geographic monographs of Cluj and Slaj County, in the collection Judeele Patriei (Our Countrys Counties) under the coordination of the Geography Institute and published by the Publishing House of the Romanian Academy. Out of his published books, Cmpia Transilvaniei. Studiu hidrogeografic (The Transylvanian Plain. Hydrogeographic Study) obtained the prize of Babe-Bolyai University. Beside the above-mentioned books, his scientific activity has materialized as well in the publication alone or in collaboration - of 194 studies in specialized reviews, of which 156 in Romania and 38 abroad, whose thematics concerns mainly the domains of hydrology, climatology and natural hazards. Out of the papers published abroad, eight have appeared in reviews acknowledged by ISI. He has participated with 138 scientific papers in the domains of hydrology, climatology and hazards to different scientific reunions in Romania (Cluj, Bucharest, Iai, Timioara, Oradea, Constana etc.) and abroad (Hungary, France, Italy, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Germany, Greece). Doctoral coordination. Since the year 1999, when he was awarded the right to coordinate doctoral students theses in the domain of Physical Geography, he coordinated the activity of doctoral students, of whom 15 have defended their theses and 14 are preparing to do this. Most of the theses defended have been published by accredited publishing houses. Out of these theses, we shall mention the ones referring to: Calitatea apei rurilor din bazinul hidrografic al Trnavei / The Quality of the Rivers Water in the Trnave Hydrographic Basin (Vigh Melinda Timea), Lacurilor srate din Depresiunea Transilvaniei / The Salty Lakes of the Transylvanian Depression (Alexe, M.), Lacurile dulci din Podiul Transilvaniei / The Sweet Lakes of the Transylvanian Plateau (Fodoreanu, I.), Studiul lacurilor de acumulare din bazinul superior al Criului Repede / Study on the Storage Lakes of the Upper Basin of Criul Repede (Horvath, Cs.), Studiul viiturilor de pe cursurile de ap din estul Munilor Apuseni i riscurile associate / Study on the High Floods of the Water Courses in the Eastern Apuseni Mountains and the Risks Associated to Them (Arghiu, V), Bazinul Trnave. Amenajri i scurgerea lichid / The Trnave Basin. Arrangement and Liquid Flow (Vod, M.), Culoarul Mureului din Reghin i confluena cu Arieul. Studiu de hidrologie urban / The Corridor of Mure from Reghin and the Confluence with Arie (Coniu, H.), Studiul calitii apelor de

suprafa din bazinul Arieului / Study on the Surface Water Quality in the Arie Basin (Btina, R.). Due to the skills acquired in the domain of scientific and didactic research, Professor Victor Sorocovschi has been appointed president or member in diverse commissions for the promotion of the academics from different universities (Cluj, Iai, Oradea, Tg. Mure) and in Doctoral Commissions led by professors from different university centers (Cluj, Oradea, Iai, Bucharest) and from the Geography Institute in Bucharest. The professional prestige of Professor Victor Sorocovschi has also led to his being appointed member in the editing boards of different specialized reviews (Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai, series: Geografie (Geography) and AMBIENTUM), executive editor (Geographia Napocensis) and editor (Riscuri i catastrophe (Risks and Hazards)). At the same time, during the period 1999-2005, he was a CNCSIS evaluator, member of different scientific societies in Romania Societatea Romn de Geografie (The Romanian Geographic Society), Asociaia Romn de tiine Hidrologice (The Romanian Association of Hydrological Sciences), Asociaia Romn de Limnogeografie (The Romanian Limnogeographical Association) - founding member / vice-president - and abroad International Association of Climatology, International Association of Scientific Hydrology. The University Professor Dr. Victor Sorocovschi, with his prodigious didactic and scientific research activity in the domain of hydrology, limnology and environmental geography, is part of the myriad of scientists formed at alma mater napocensis. The Scientific Board of the Romanian Limnogeographical Association wishes him a long, happy and healthy life, with new accomplishments in the Romanian geographic domain.



Hyperion University of Bucharest, Department of Geography Bucharest, Romania

The article offers a synthesis of the lakes of Romania. We addressed the following questions: genetic types of lakes, geographical distribution and their use in various fields of activities. Thus, in the territory of Romania is a large genetic diversity of lakes distributed on all major forms of relief and recovery in many economic areas. Romania is particularly present fluvial lakes, glacial lakes and anthropogenic lakes (especially reservoirs). Keywords: Romania, lakes, genetic types, dams.


Romania, with a varied relief mountains, hills, plains, delta and sea coast holds an almost complete array of genetic lake types, according to the origin of the basin, and in all these geographic units (from the lakes situated on the Black Sea Coast and those from the Danube Delta to the glacial lakes from the alpine realm). The natural lakes are joined by those made by man the anthropic dam lakes beginning with the Antiquity and continuing through the 15th-19th centuries (the ponds of the Moldavian Plain, the Romanian Plain and the Transylvanian Plain), until 6-8 decades of the last century ( lakes built for water-power, water suply, fishfarming and recreation (Fig. 1). The total number and surface of lakes has varied in time because many floodplain lakes have disappea through damming and drainig, while others (storagelakes) have been planted on the rivers. In the 1970s, an estimate of the lake number recorded the number of 3 450 lakes, of which 1 150 (27%) were anthropic, summing up an area of 2 620 km2. The creation of numerous lakes for different social and economic purposes, increased the total lakes area to 4 620 km2.



Although todays Romanian lakes are small, by the end of the Tertiary and during the Quaternary (the Pliocene-to-Cuaternary transition) there were a number of large and deep lakes-paleolakes, which are drained today. The orogenic movements that occurred resulted in the formation of the Carpathian mountains, through the folding of the deposits accumulated in the existing seas, the fall of other marginal areas and the appearance of certain volcanic eruptions (that triggered the individualization of the longest volcanic mountain chain in Europe), and in the creation of closed deep depressions in-between these mountain summits, which were then occupied by waters. All the depressions of the mountain chain that the local people often call ri (countries) (such as: Fgra, Brsei, Ciucurilor, Giurgeu, Bilbor, Borsec, Dornelor and others) represent traces of the paleolakes (Villafranchian), drained later on and which we can call tectonic and of volcanic dam. Their flat surface, like that of a plain, can still be seen today, only fragmented by the river network, while back then it constituted the bottom of the paleolakes. On the flat bottom of these depressions, one can find up to this day swampy areas, and inside them small waterholes. Such swamps, with small waterholes, can be found in the depression Ciucurilor near Ciceu locality , in the depression of Giurgeu and others. Coming back to the actual picture of the genetic lake types, we shall mention that to their formation contributed numerous factors, but of all these we will recall, according to their size, only the most important: fluviatile processes, climate, the action of the sea on the coastline, the petrographic variety of the rocks, the vertical movements of the Earths shell, wind processes, landslides and others. Analyzing a map of the genetic lake types in Romania, most of them and we could also say the biggest, too (an exception is the Razim-Sinoie lake complex) are floodplain lakes generated by the fluviatile network. Moreover, these lakes appeared in connection to the rivers, are dominant in the plain region because of the larger floodplain and of the bigger flows, and lead to frequent flooding. In the floodplain of the main rivers from the plain area, including the Danube floodplain and the Danube Delta used to be found the most numerous floodplain lakes of Romania. Only in the Danube floodplain, along more than 1000 km, the river used to be accompanied, from Drobeta-Turnu Severin downstream, by over 800 lakes, of which we shall mention: Fntna Banului, Grla Mare, Maglavit, Bistreu, Nedeia, Potelu, Suhaia, Mahru, Greaca, Boianu-Sticleanu, Clrai, Cbl on the Balta Ialomiei, erban on the Balta Brilei, Jijila, Crapina etc. In the Danube Delta, through the agricultural arrangements achieved during the period 1960-1989, several lakes were drained in the areas of Sireasa and Pardina, more important being Tatanir, igaiu Mare, Baciu, Lpuna, Costinu Mare and Costinu Mic, erbnoiu Mare, Pojare etc. Obviously, here, too, some important lakes have been

preserved, such as: Furtuna, Obretinul Mare, Trei Iezere, Bogdaproste, Babina, Merheiu Mare, Matia, these being situated in the Letea Unit; Gorgova, Isac, Uzlina, Rou, Puiu, Lumina, situated in the Caraorman unit; Dranov in the unit bearing the same name. In the floodplain of other rivers it was possible to find such floodplain lakes, too, for example in the case of the floodplain Jiu, Olt, Arge, Ialomia, Buzu, Siret, Prut etc. It can be noticed, within this lake type, not just their significant number, but also the variety of their subtypes. So, in the floodplain it was possible to encounter either large lakes, each being 20 km long, 6 km wide, 74 km2 like the lakes Potelu, Greaca, Brate, or narrow and long lakes, shaped like a horseshoe, a ring and in other ways. The lakes situated in abandoned meanders, with more significant depths (5-9 m), could not be desiccated, and the ones preserved are Bentul Ltenilor, on the Balta Ialomiei, Japa Plopilor and Dunrea Veche, on the Balta Brilei etc. Even their denomination reflects the genesis of the depression. In this sense, we will provide a few more limnonyms: Belciug (that is, Ring) in the Danube Delta, Siretul Stttor (The Stagnant Siret), La Ruptur (At the Breakage), in the floodplain of Siret, Prute (The Small Prut), in the floodplain of Prut etc. The largest floodplain lakes occupy the lower areas of the edge of the external floodplain, being supplied with water by floods and phreatic waters, while the narrow and long ones represent former water courses or in abandoned river meanders. Axed on the less large valleys tributaries of the rivers, but to whose formation actively participated the eustatic movements, including those of rise of the Black Sea level, are the fluviatile and maritime limans. These lakes are situated at the boundary of the most important rivers in the Romanian Plain and along the Black Sea Coast. In these categories we shall mention the lakes: Mangalia, Techirghiol, Taaul, along the Black Sea Coast, Amara - Buzu, Jirlu, Balta Alb - along Buzu, Strachina, Amara - Slobozia, Fundata, Snagov, Cldruani, along Ialomia, Oltina, Mrleanu, Bugeac, Mostitea, Glui, along the Danube. These lakes are extremely important from the viewpoint of their fishing potential and of the recreational activities. The variations of the Black Sea level during the Quaternary influenced both the Black Sea Coast and the Romanian Plain. When the sea level was rising, it flooded the mouths of these small rivers, and when it was going down, the waters withdrew. It is only like this that these small valleys were enlarged at their mouths, as is for instance the case of Mangalia, Tatlageac, Techirghiol, Taaul, Babadag, and the sea coast lakes or the lakes along the fluviatile banks from the area of the Romanian Plain, which we have mentioned above, appeared. Also on the seashore, beside the maritime limans, which are the work of both the hydrographic network and of the sea, one can find lagoons. These are

marine gulfs barred by offshore bars and totally or partially isolated from the marine aquatory. This is how the entire Razim-Sinoie lake complex, Siutghiol Lake and the Swamp of Mangalia appeared. The colder climate of the Pleistocene, which generated the alpine glaciation a very significant geological event - , led to the formation of the glacial relief, as a result of which we can highlight circuses and valleys. In the Carpathians situated on the Romanian territories the last two glacial phases Riss and Wurm affected the heights over 1800m. In the glacial circuses and valleys, after the melting of the glaciers, water gathered, leading to the formation of the glacial lakes, which, in the mountainous massifs - Maramure, Rodna, Climan, Fgra, Parng, RetezatGodeanu include a number of over 200 lakes. Of these lakes, we shall mention Lala Mare and Buhescu, in the Mountains of Rodna, Blea, Capra, Podragu, in the Fgra Mountains, Glcescu, in the Parng Mountains, Bucura, Znoaga, in the Retezat Mountains. Also in the glacial climate, but in the periglacial area, which continues to be present today in the actual climatic conditions of the subalpine area, there appeared as well nival lakes, in the case of which the depression that shelters the lakes appears following the grinding off of certain slopes or structural shelves by the snow avalanches or through the suffusion of the water resulted from the melting of the snow, exerted on the layer of eluvial deposits on which it persists for a longer period of time. Among the lakes with depressions resulted following the excavation of certain structural shelves we shall mention: The Vultures Lake (Lacul Vulturilor) Siriu, The Red Lake (Lacul Rou), a clogged lake in Penteleu Massif, The Black Lake (Lacul Negru) situated under the Piciorul Caprei Peak, from the same massif, created through the nival damming of the glacial circuses from Cibinului Mountains Iezerul Mare and Iezerul Mic, through the sinking / suffusion of the eluvial deposits present on the interfluves - Tul Mare and Tul Mic from Cucurbta, Bihor, Baia Vulturilor from Semenic, efeleica Lake from the Iezer-Ppua Mountains. The persistence of these lakes is ephemeral because of the lack of a hydrographic basin. Despite the fact that in our country one can find the longest volcanic chain in Europe, however, the intact preservation of the volcanic craters to store the water was only possible in the south-eastern extremity of this chain, in the Harghita Mountains, where one can actually find as well the only lake of volcanic origin, in the crater, Saint Ana Lake (Sfnta Ana), near Tunad (this origin is disputable). On the mosaic of the rocks that make up the superficial part of the Earths crust in Romania are present lakes formed on easily soluble rocks (klastokarst), for instance on calcareous stones Ighiu Lake in the Apuseni Mountains, Zton Lake, with a temporary hydro-regime, in the Mehedini Plateau, on salt (Ursu - Sovata and other smaller ones at Ocna Sibiului, Ocna Dej, Ocna Mure, Ocna ugatag, Cotiui etc.), on gyps (nvrtita Lake, Nucoara - Arge), on loess (Ianca, Plopu, Movila Miresii, Leul Srat, in the Romanian Plain). Some of these lakes have been used for

balneary treatment (for instance the Salty Lake/ Lacul Srat-Brila, AmaraSlobozia). In the alpine and hilly area, through the processes of earth fall and landslide there appeared natural dam lakes (The Red Lake / Lacul Rou - Bicaz, Bltu - Vrancea), in the sliding-triggered relief. In this category we shall mention different lakes from the Plain of Transylvania, from the Subcarpathians of Transylvania the Rath Lake (Porumbenii Mari), from the Subcarpathians of Buzu (Manta, Hnsaru), from Petroani Depression (Tul/The Mire from Paroeni), from Brlad and Suceava plateaus, etc. Due to wind action, in the relief among the dunes there appeared small lakes both in the floodplains and in the plains. So, we shall mention the lakes situated between the dunes of the Plain of Nir (but they are drained now), between the sand dunes from Reci (the Depression of Brsa), between the dunes from Apele Vii (the Plain of Romanai), or those from the Danube floodplain, Calafat Ciuperceni and Vnju Mare. Man has been the one who, a long time ago, when he settled in the plains, plateaus and mountains, if nature was hostile to him, he tried to create his own lakes. This is how ponds (Rom. iaz) started to appear, which are lakes formed with anthropic dams, the most numerous being used in traditional fish breeding and also for local irrigations. Documentary mentions can be found since the 15th century for some lakes of the Transylvanian Plain and probably for those of the Moldavian Plain. Dimitrie Cantemir in Descriptio Moldaviae (written during the second half of the 18th century) notices the high number of the ponds of this historical province. Actually, by inventorying the rudimentary dams that can be found on old lakes, it has been appreciated that there were 660 ponds. In the Transylvanian Plain, compared to the several hundreds of ponds mentioned during the Middle Ages, there were only about 150 left in the 20th century, and at the beginning of the 21st century there are just 20 lakes left. So, in some geographic regions, lakes continue to be a characteristic landscape, namely in the Moldavian Plain the true land of the ponds in Romania, in the Transylvanian Plain, where the plains are actually plains not through their morphological features, but only through their vegetation, the Romanian Plain. At the same time, ponds can also be found in the Western Plain, the Moldavian Plateau and even in Dobrogea. In the Moldavian Plain, ponds are abundant along the rivers Volov, Baeu, Jijia, especially along the tributaries Sitna (the biggest pond being Drcani), Miletin (Hlceni) and Bahlui (Tansa). In the Transylvanian Plain, the most significant ponds are along Prul de Cmpie (Zu de Cmpie, Tureni etc.) and Fize (aga Mare, Tul Popii, Sntejude, Ctina etc.). In the Romanian Plain, ponds can be found along most of the small rivers / valleys, such as Clmui-Teleorman, the tributaries of Vedea, Arge, Ialomia, Danube. The Basin of Mostitea is the most representative, as it has been turned into a chain of ponds (142 totaling an

area of about 4 400 ha and 230 mil. m3 water). In the basin of Vedea, too, there are about 110 ponds, used mainly for fish breeding. The above-mentioned regions are characterized by a lack of water multiannually, which determines the need to create such lakes for local and complex uses. A type of anthropic lake, which is no longer created by a dam, from the viewpoint of its realization, is the fish pond (Rom. eleteu), which is frequently encountered in the Plain of Tisa. The fish pond is created on plane, slightly swampy areas, delimited by embankments and supplied with water from nearby rivers or from the underground, which allows for an intensive fish breeding. The best known fish ponds in Romania are at Cefa, Tmajda, Inand, Ineu, Homorog. The bent structures (benturile) used to be characteristic for the Platform Cotmeana from the Gethic Plateau, where the underground water is situated at 50-60 m below the surface. They were small rectangular or square holes, dug in the plane surface of the interfluves with an impermeable clay substratum and used for water supply by storing the water coming from the rain and from the melting of the snow. The hait structures (haiturile), another traditional type of anthropic dam lakes, were small temporary water storages along some smaller mountain waters and which were used quite a lot for the transports of the piles of logs shaped as rafts (Bistria, Iara, Someul Rece, Sebe, Lotru, Capra, Buda and Vlsan along Arge etc.). Other lakes began to be built, even since Roman times, in Apuseni Mountains, in order to separate the golden ores (Roia Montan) and also later on (Cavnic, Baia Sprie), in order to exploit complex and iron ores in Banat (Dognecea, Ocna de Fier, 18th century, Oravia, 19th century), in the Metal-Yielding Mountains/ Munii Metaliferi (Ferag), as the industrial centers developed, to store water for the industrial processes and to supply the population (Baia Mare, Hunedoara, Reia). A particular category is constituted by the lakes situated in salt mines, some of them formed in bell-shaped mines in which the salt was exploited at the surface, as it happened during the Antiquity (the Dacian and Roman Period), and others created through the fall of the ceiling in underground mines (the actual period). This kind of lakes have a small area, of a few thousands m2, and great depths (for instance, Avram Iancu Lake - Ocna Sibiului with 132.5 m). There are about 60 such lakes, which can be found in the area of the diapiric folds, namely in the Depression of Transylvania (Ocna Sibiului, Ocna Mure, Turda, Cojocna, Sic, Ocna Dejului, Jabenia, Sovata), the Depression of Maramure (Ocna ugtag, Cotiui), the Curvature and Gethian Subcarpathians (Telega, Doftana, Slnic, intea, Bicoi, all in Prahova County, Ocnia-Dmbovia, Ocnele Mari-Vlcea, Scelu-Gorj). Given their physico-chemical characteristics (high salinity, heliothermal phenomenon, sapropelic mud), most of them are used in spa

treatments, some locations hosting significant spa resorts (Ocna Sibiului, Sovata, Ocna ugtag, Slnic-Prahova, Ocnele Mari). A special importance in the use and management of the water resources in Romania goes to the storage lakes (reservoirs), simply called accumulri (storages) in the hydro-technical works, which are used not just for hydropower, but also for potable water supply, for irrigations or all these together (complex use). After the year 1960, with the realization of Izvorul Muntelui-Bicaz Lake, along Bistria, the number of the storages multiplied, on such hydrographic arteries such as Bistria, Siret, Arge, Olt, Someul Mic, where series of such lakes were completed, some of them in between two dams. At present, it is estimated that there are 1 975 such lakes, of which about 400 store 15.6 billions m3 water. Among the biggest such lakes, we shall mention: Porile de Fier, along the Danube (2 400 millions m3), Izvorul Muntelui along Bistria (1 130 millions m3), Stnca-Costeti along Prut (735 million m3), Vidraru along Arge (469 millions m3), Vidra along Lotru (340 millions m3) and others. The installed power is estimated to 5 500 MW, representing 25% of the rivers potential and 36% of Romanias power production. Bibliography Antipa, Gr. (1912), Regiunea inundabil a Dunrii. Starea ei actual i mijloacele de a o pune n valoare, An. Inst. geol. Rom., t.IV, fsc.2. Bican,V. (1970), Iazurile din partea de est a Romniei oglindite n documentele istorice i cartografice din sec. XV-XIX, Anal. t. Univ."Al.I Cuza", Iai (serie nou), secia a II-a, C,Geografie, t. XVI. Breier, Ariadna, (1974), Lacurile de pe litoralul romnesc al Mrii Negre. Studiu hidrogeografic [The lakes of the Romanian littoral of the Black Sea. Hydrogeographical study], Edit. Academiei Romne. Driga, B. (2004), Delta Dunrii-sistemul circulaiei apei, Casa crii de tiin, ClujNapoca. Gtescu, P. (1963), Lacurile din R.P. Romn. Genez i regim hidrologic, Edit. Academiei Romne. Gtescu, P. (1971), Lacurile din Romnia. Limnologie regional [The lakes of Romania. Regional limnology], Edit. Academiei Romne Gtescu, P., Anghel, Camelia, (1993), Heliothermy - a peculiarity of some lakes in Romania, Rev. roum. de geographie, t.37 Gtescu, P., Driga, B. (1996), Lacul de baraj antropic - un ecosistem lacustru aparte, Rev. Geografic, Inst. de Geografie, nr. 2, Bucureti. Piota, I. (1971), Lacurile glaciare din Carpaii Meridionali, Edit. Academiei Romne. Romanescu,Gh. (1996), Delta Dunrii-studiu morfohidrograjic, Edit.Corson, Iai.

Sorocovchi, V.(2005), Cmpia Trasilvaniei - studiu hidrogeografic, Edit. Casa crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Ujvari, I. (1972), Geografia apelor Romniei, Edit. tiinific. Bucureti. ***(992), Atlasul Cadastrului Apelor din Romnia, Ministerul Mediului. ***(2006), Romania-space, society, environment, The Publishing House of Romanian Academy



Babe-Bolyai University, Faculty of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, Romania,,

The present paper analyzes the genesis of the lake depressions in the Somean Plateau and the way they evolved in time and space, as well as the morphometric elements characteristic of the different genetic types of lakes. The natural lakes in this region are few and their dimensions are small; they generally appear solitarily and only rarely as lake complexes. In this category have been included the valley lakes, the lakes formed in abandoned meanders and the lakes formed in areas with landslides. The artificial lakes are more numerous and include several genetic types. The most representative are the remnant lakes formed in the depressions resulted from the exploitation of different construction materials (kaolin sands, lime stones) and the anthropic salty lakes lakes formed in abandoned salt mines from the diapir area of the Hills of Dej. The rapid evolution of these types of lakes has been highlighted through the comparative analysis of the morphometric elements obtained on the basis of topometric and bathymetric measurements. The lakes arranged for pisciculture include several subtypes (ponds, fish ponds) that have been identified and characterized for the fist time, their morphometric elements being determined using digital data bases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps. Keywords: lake, genesis, evolution, genetic types, repartition, space

1. General considerations The Somean Plateau occupies the N-NW compartment of the Transylvanian Depression, representing one of the three great divisions of the Transylvanian Plateau. According to the particularities of the geographic components of the Somean Plateau, several sub-units have been highlighted (fig.1). In the Somean Plateau are present numerous lakes with various geneses and morphometric, hydrological and physico-chemical features. Preoccupations for the research of the lacustrine units in the Somean Plateau were recorded among the academics from the Faculties of: Geography (Alexe, M., Btina, R., Fodoreanu, I., Horvath, Cs., Pandi, G., Pnzaru,

Sorocovschi, V., erban, Gh.), Environmental Science (Berkesy L., Vigh Melinda) and Agriculture (Stana Doina) of Cluj-Napoca as well as among the researchers from ICPE Bistria (Berkesy Corina). 2. Lake genesis, evolution and repartition The individualization of the lacustrine depressions in the Somean Plateau was triggered by the action of natural and anthropic factors. From the viewpoint of their origin, the lakes in the area of the Somean Plateau have been included in two big categories: natural and anthropic. Most of the lakes are associated in complexes and only occasionally do they appear solitarily (fig.1.)

Fig.1. Repartition of the lakes and of the geographic subunits of the Somean Plateau


2. 1. Natural lakes The few lakes of natural origin generally have a solitary character; their dimensions and depths are generally low and they are relatively uniform from a genetic viewpoint. To this category belong the valley lakes developed in the lime stone horizons of the Purcre - Boiu Mare Plateau. They appeared following the storage of the water resulted from precipitations and the melting of the snow in the valleys encountered on the Cozlei, Dumbrvii and Purcreului plateaus. Numerous valley lakes can be found as a lacustrine complex situated on the Dumbrava Plateau in the western vicinity of Letca locality. Out of these lakes, we shall mention the lakes Felsam ((300 m2) and Bltocul from Pietrar (Fodoreanu, 2010). A solitary lake with an area of 12,895 m2 has been identified in the western extremity of the Dumbrava Plateau. The morphometric features of the valley lakes have been determined using digital databases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps (table 1).
Table 1. Morphometric elements of the valley lakes in the area of the Purcre-Boiu Mare Plateau PeriWidth (m) Axis (m) Area Length meter Avera maxi(m2) (m) big small (m) ge mum 8935 125 71 102 122 102 354 12895 163 79 123 159 126 434

Name of the lake Cozla Letca

Sinuosity quotient 1.06 1.08

Valley lakes have been identified as well in the area of the calcareous plateau of Cozla, north of the homonymous locality, in the western vicinity of the forest road connecting the localities Cozla and Vlioara. The lakes permanence is assured by the impermeabilization of the depression by a layer of clay that does not allow the infiltration of the water resulted from precipitations. The Jichiul de Sus Lake from the upper basin of the Jichi Rivulet is situated at about 1 km north of the homonymous locality. To the individualization of the lacustrine depression have contributed the landslides that affect the left slope of the Jichi Rivulet. The lake has an area of 10,427 m2; it is 162 m long, and its maximum width reaches 104m (table 2)
. Name of the lake Table 2. Morphometric elements of the Jichiu de Sus Lake* PeriWidth (m) Axis (m) Area Length meter avera maxi2) (m (m) big small (m) ge mum Sinuosity quotient

Jichiu de 10427 162 64 104 157 105 403 1.11 Sus * The morphometric elements have been determined using digital databases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps


In the category of the lakes formed in abandoned meanders is included the lacustrine complex from Urior situated in the riverside of Some near the homonymous locality belonging to the Ceiu Commune (Cluj County). The lacustrine complex from Urior is made up of three lakes whose water surface totals 9.8 ha. The lakes appeared in a deserted meander of Some River following the course regularization works in 1962. Later on, on the former meander, which used to cover a 18.8 ha area, four lake compartments formed, of which only three have been kept to date (Urior I, 3,6 ha, Urior II, 3,4 ha i Urior III, 2,8 ha). Initially, the depression formed used to receive the waters resulted from the treatment plant of the Paper and Cellulose Complex Works (Combinatul de Celuloz i Hrtie) from Dej. At present, the lakes water has good qualities for the development of fish fauna. The water supply for these lakes comes from several springs with rich flows situated in their precincts. 2. 2. The artificial lakes In the Somean Plateau are present numerous artificial or anthropic lakes that can be grouped into several types: anthropic lakes formed in former salt mines, anthropic lakes formed in the holes resulted following the exploitation of different construction materials and ponds. Anthropic salty lakes The presence of this genetic type is related to the millenary exploitation, using the bell-shaped or trapezoidal mine system, of the salt deposits of the diapir area in the margin of the Transylvanian Plateau. The storage of the water coming from precipitations or springs in the former salt mines occurred depending on the type of exploitation. The lacustrine complex of Ocna Dejului is connected to the existence of the salt deposit situated in the area of the former Ocna Dej locality, now quarter of Dej municipality. The perimeter of the salt deposit is crossed by three rivulets flowing from west to east: Codor Rivulet in the north, Ocnei (Srat) Rivulet, in the middle and Scda Rivulet in the south. The morphology of the anthropic salty lakes is subordinated to the type and size of the exploitations and their evolution is influenced by anthropic and natural factors. We have been able to follow the evolution of the lacustrine depressions thanks to a detailed analysis of the topometric and bathymetric measurements carried out by Pnzaru (1969) and Alexe (2004). Pnzaru (1969) identified 14 lakes, which were then grouped according to their genesis and territorial repartition into two distinct sectors. The first, the southern sector, corresponds to Ocnei Valley, including only anthropic lakes, while the

second, the northern sector or Cabdic, is characterized by the presence of the anthropic salty lakes, karst salty lakes and natural dam lakes. The southern sector, situated in the east central area of the neighborhood Ocna Dejului, used to include the lakes: Minei Mari, tefan, Iosif and the pools basin. The northern sector from the northern slope of the Cabdic Hill, used to include four anthropic salty lakes (of which the biggest was Cabdic Lake), three smaller natural dam lakes, and a karst salty lake and three anthropic salty lakes. At present out of the 14 lakes only two have been preserved: Cabdic Lake and Minei Mari Lake. Cabdic Lake, a lake with salty water (called by the local people Toroc Lake) is situated on the hill bearing the same name and appeared following the storage of the water in the hole resulted after the collapse, in August 1926, of an ancient bellshaped exploitation. The movement of the material from the mine roof into the lake lifted the bed of the depression over 2 meters higher. However, the volume of the lake increased by over 3000 m3 due to the extension of the depression in space, especially along the direction of the big axis (table 1).
Table 1. Morphometric and hydrological elements of the lakes from the area of Ocna Dejului determined based on topometric and bathymetric measurements in 1969 (Pnzaru) and 2004 (Alexe). Cabdic Minele Mari Morfphometric and hydrological elements 1969 2004 1969 2004 Area (m2) 1350.0 1524.8 189.0 240.9 Length (m) 45.0 53.9 69.3 78.2 Average width (m) 30.0 28.3 39.3 44.3 Maximum width (m) 42.0 42.1 57.5 65.1 Big axis (m) 45.0 53.9 69.2 78.2 Small axis (m) 42.0 42.1 57.5 65.1 Average depth (m) 7.67 8.85 1.58 1.21 Maximum depth (m) 41.0 38.2 2.85 2.5 Absolute depth (m) 275.08 275.50 Perimeter (m) 132.0 154.0 189.0 240.9 Sinuosity quotient of the borders 1.02 1.11 1.02 1.15 Volume (m3) 10539.2 13499.5 4281.9 4204.6

The other nine lacustrine units identified by Pnzaru (1969) in this sector have reached an advanced evolutionary stage, being invaded by vegetation (reed, rush, bulrush). By means of a non-permanent emissary, Cabdic Lake has a runoff northwards towards a former lake, which has reached an advanced clogging stage. Minei Mari Lake (also called Lacul Mare), situated in the SE of Dej municipality, corresponds to the mining exploitation from the sector of Valea Srat (the Salty Valley). It appeared in the year 1773 on the location of a former closed mine, and has kept, to date, its almost circular shape. It is not known for sure how

much the salty lake stage lasted, yet it is known that in the year 1883, the salt grinding mill of this sector received sweet (fresh) water from the lake. Comparing the morphometric data obtained from the two topometric and bathymetric measurements, it results that the values of those determined in 2004 are slightly higher, except for the maximum depth, which has slightly decreased (table 1), which proves the fact that the lakes clogging process is quite slow. The lakes from the holes resulted following the exploitation of different construction materials (remnant lakes) The denomination of this category of anthropic lakes has been given by Gtescu (1963), and, later on, erban et ali. (2009) called them remnant lakes. The presence of these lakes has to do with the exploitation and processing of the kaolin sands from the hills of Cluj and of the lime stone from the Purcre-Boiu Mare Plateau. In the micro-depressions resulted following the exploitation and processing of the above-mentioned rocks, the water from precipitations and springs gathered and formed lakes of different dimensions. The Lacustrine complex from Aghireu, situated 28 kilometers away from Cluj-Napoca municipality, has appeared on the location of some former kaolin sand mining exploitations in the south-west of the Hills of Cluj. Following the topsoil stripping, the opening and the arrangement of the dumps, there have appeared circular depressions in the middle of which water gathered, giving birth to numerous lakes. The first water storages were arranged by men to use the hydraulic agent to wash the exploited material. Among these lakes, noticeable are the lakes in the vicinity of Bgara locality, which had numerous drainage canals around the quarries. Later on, other new lakes appeared following the crumbling of certain galleries. The superficial erosion and the infiltrations made the galleries roof thinner and favored the penetration of the water in the underground. The shapes of these lakes depressions are very irregular and in some cases they communicate by means of the old galleries, generating different bottom currents. So, their origin is mixed, being both anthropic and natural. By the end of the 70s, several lakes took shape in the holes resulted following the collapse of certain galleries. Based on satellite images, cartographic materials and computerized GPS data processing, 24 lake units were identified (erban, Maria Antonie, Roman, 2009) (fig. 2). Out of the numerous lakes appeared in the area of the kaolin sands exploitations, representative are 14 (Pandi et al., 2010). Because of the very friable and unstable bedrock and because of the numerous unconsolidated sterile dumps from their neighborhood, the lakes depressions have a special dynamics in space and time. So, within the interval of just a few years, some lakes may disappear and some new lakes may appear, as their morphometric characteristics change substantially.

Fig.2. The remnant lakes from Aghireu

The lakes morphology has largely been modified by subaerial factors, the slope processes strongly modeling the lake border and implicitly the lacustrine depressions. The depressions formed following landslides have a higher instability degree, and on their borders there will appear rapidly different forms of zonal and linear erosion. The determination of the main morphometric elements of the remnant lakes on the level of the years 2004 and 2008 allowed the highlighting of the dynamics of the lacustrine units from Aghireu area (table 1).

Table 1. The dynamics of several morphometrical elements of the remnant lakes from Aghireu (Cluj County) (according to erban, Antonie, Maria, Roman, 2009). Surface Length Width Perimeter Quotient of No. Lake / Year (m2) (m) (m) (m) sinuosity 2004 2008 200 200 200 200 2004 2008 2004 2008 4 8 4 8 1 Lake 1 N 4762 7657 105 133 72 75 282 400 1.15 1.29 2 Lake 2 N 2517 75 49 194 1.09 3 Lake 3 N * 2261 7883 330 212 91 96 788 535 1.48 1.70 3 4 "Blue Lagoon" 1958 2171 256 266 149 154 686 823 1.38 1.58 ** 8 9 5 "Little Lagoon" 1086 2306 67 96 23 32 156 222 1.34 1.30 6 Lake 1 C 1221 62 28 146 1.18 7 Lake 2 C 4258 106 72 286 1.24 8 Lake 3 C 3241 96 62 258 1.28 9 Lake 4 C 6380 2336 122 64 66 49 317 193 1.12 1.13 10 Lake 5 C 3483 96 49 264 1.26 11 Lake 6 C 2600 92 39 243 1.34 12 Lake 7 C 3242 151 45 421 2.09 13 Lake 8 C 1886 76 47 216 1.40 14 Lake 1 - E 3699 114 51 302 1.40 15 Lake 2 - E 1645 1438 228 240 93 94 597 717 1.31 1.69 8 4 16 Lake 3 - E 1044 8517 162 154 97 88 417 460 1.15 1.41 5 17 Lake 4 - E 903 61 24 195 1.83 18 Lake 5 - E 665 39 22 111 1.21 19 Lake 6 - E 1752 65 48 237 1.60 20 Aghireu Pond 1200 1020 489 421 398 368 1418 1477 1.15 1.30 90 50 21 Pond Bgara 1 2442 2202 100 926 363 390 2400 2406 1.37 1.45 88 02 2 22 Pond Bgara 2 5412 4944 112 108 678 634 3354 3452 1.29 1.39 60 75 0 2 23 Pond Bgara 3 1578 1610 548 645 337 334 1597 1681 1.13 1.18 63 82 24 Pond Bgara 4 2476 3086 332 353 122 163 758 853 1.36 1.37 2 2 * just two little basins remained along of four years of evolution (the western and the eastern compartments of the basin) - in this table their elements were cumulated **the maximum depth of the Blue Lagoon in 2004 was 7.4 m and its volume was 74,146 m3


Within the lacustrine complex from Aghire, four areas of lake appearance have been highlighted, triggered by specific activities or the continuation or the ceasing of the exploitations. In the northern area, there have been three water surfaces (Lake 1 N, Lake 2 N and Lake 3 N), of which today are still present just the lakes 1 and 3, with great area variations. In exchange, Lake 2 has remained just a small depression without water. In the central area, still under exploitation, the dynamics of the lacustrine units is remarkable. So, on the level of the year 2004, there were just four water surfaces, of which the pearl of the area the Blue Lagoon (fig. 4). At present, the number of the lacustrine units is 9, following the appearance of six new lakes in the depressions remained behind after the disappearance of Lake no. 5. The biggest lake of the Aghireu Complex is the Blue Lagoon (21,719 m2) whose irregular shape has been determined by the shape of the quarry and of the initial galleries. The littoral patch presents an accentuated slope in the north and in the west, while in the other areas it has a gradual slope (fig. 3).

Fig. 3. Blue Lagoon (right) and Small Lagoon (left) (photo Gh. erban).

The lakes length is 255 m, while its width is 132 m. The lakes maximum depth has significantly decreased because of its clogging, so today it is of just 7 m.

The water volume in the lakes depression has been evaluated to 50,000 m3 water (Pandi et al., 2009). In the eastern area are included six lacustrine units, of which four are recent; the lakes from Corneti (lakes 2 and 3) have appeared after the year 2000, just like the Blue Lagoon. In the eastern compartment of the lacustrine complex from Aghire, on the road towards Corneti locality, two large lakes have been identified, which along with the Blue Lagoon and two more lakes from Bgara are considered as the largest lake units of the lacustrine complex from Aghireu. So, the lakes 2 E and 3 E have areas comprised between 13,000 and 16,000 m2 (Pandi, Btina, Vig Melinda, 2010). The morphometric elements of the three lakes have been rendered in table 2.
Table 2. Morphometric data concerning some lakes from the eastern compartment of the lacustrine complex from Aghireu (according to Pandi, Btina, Vig Melinda, 2010). Width PeriDepth (m) Axis (m) Sinuosit Name of Area Length (m) meter y No. (m) Avera Maxi Avera Maxi the lake (m2) (m) Big Small quotient ge mum ge mum 1 Lake 1E 4961 128 2.02 5.60 38.7 51 325 130 56.7 1.30 2 Lake 2E 15278 247 2.92 6.35 61.8 97 739 251 99 1.69 3 Lake 3E 13363 203 1.54 3.70 65.8 107 600 205 107 1.46

The lakes linear morphometric values range from 128 m to 251 m for the length and the big axis, and from 51 m to 107 m for the width and the small axis. The lakes' maximum depth does not go over 7 m, while the depths average values range between 1.5 m and 3 m. The water volumes stored in the lakes depend on their area. So, Lake 3E has twice the volume of 1E, while 2E has more than four times the volume of the first (table 3).
Table 3. The water volumes stored in the lakes of the eastern compartment of the lacustrine complex from Aghireu (according to Pandi, Btina, Vig Melinda, 2010). Partial volumes of depth strata (m3) Total Name of volume 01 12 23 34 45 56 >6 the lake (m3) m m m m m m m Lake 1E 3639.89 2556.09 1954.34 1309.03 519.42 46.45 10025.22 Lake 2E 13676.17 11186.44 8528.98 5897.61 3764.56 1476.12 117.49 44647.37 Lake 3E 10448.84 6949.33 2936.59 310.68 20645.44

Out of the analysis of the bathymetric profiles, it results that the lakes 1 E and 2 E have a cone-shaped form, with just one abyssal compartment, situated centrally. In exchange, Lake 3 E presents a marked irregularity, due to the existence of several abyssal compartments. The small depths and the intense development of the vegetation have turned Lake 3 E into an unattractive lake.

In the southern area are included large lakes, namely the decantation ponds from Bgara Aghireu, which are in an advanced clogging state. The dynamics of the remnant lakes is highlighted not just by the appearance or the disappearance of certain lacustrine units, but also by the substantial modification of the depressions main morphometric elements. So, in the areas where the mining activity has ceased, one can notice a shrinking of the lacustrine areas and of the other morphometric parameters or even the disappearance of some water surfaces. Some increases of the parameters have been signaled in the northern area, where the coating of the bed of the depression with clay and slime as well as the grit stone bedrock have prevented the in-depth infiltration of the water. The retaining of some large lacustrine units has been signaled especially in the central and eastern area. So, the Blue Lagoon resisted in time and recorded a slight increase of its area and a remodeling of its borders (fig. 4). For almost all the lakes preserved during the two topometric measurements (2004 and 2008), an increase of their sinuosity quotient has been signaled. Lakes 2 and 3 E have slightly reduced their area, yet they remain along with the Blue Lagoon the best known and the most visited lacustrine units of the area.

Fig.4. The bathymetric map of the Blue Lagoon Lake, the lakes longitudinal cross-section and the distribution of the water volumes vertically


The lakes in the southern area have recorded a particular evolution, as they functioned as decantation ponds for the exploited material. The intense activity during the communist period determined the increase of the area and volume of the ponds Bgara 1 and 2 and the arrangement of new basins, including in the vicinity of the Aghireu-Fabrici locality. To date, they are clogged and do not represent a valorizable potential, except eventually for amateur fishing, in the deeper sectors, which are still immersed. The lakes in the lime stone quarry from Cuciulat (Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II) are situated in the area of the former quarry, in-between the localities Cuciulat and Bbeni (Slaj County), in the southern extremity of the Purcre-Boiu Mare Plateau. The two lacustrine units are situated 250 m away from the railroad connecting the localities Dej and Jibou. The origin of the two lacustrine units is largely anthropic, the lakes depression resulting following the storage of the precipitations water in the depressions formed in-between the sterile dumps resulted following the processing of the lime stone. It seems that the natural factor has had a contribution as well in the formation of the depression of Lake Cuciulat I. So, this lake can be attributed a mixed origin.
Table 4. Morphometric and hydrological features of the lakes Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II Average Maximum Maximum Maximum Name of Area depth depth width length 2) the lake (m (m) (m) (m) (m) Cuciulat I 759.95 1.36 3.40 22.4 53.2 Cuciulat II 400.22 1.49 3.55 13.4 35.6

Volume (m3) 1038.00 597.33

On the basis of the topometric and bathymetric measurements carried out on August 17, 2009, the bathymetric maps have been drawn and the morphometric and hydrological characteristics of the two lakes have been determined (table 4). The lakes from Cuciulat have small dimensions, ranging between 400.2 m2 (Cuciulat II) and 759.9 m2 (Cuciulat II), while the depths are very close (1.36 m -1.49 m average depth, 3.40 m 3.55 m average depth). Lakes arranged for pisciculture To this category belong the ponds, the fish ponds and the marshes for pisciculture. Among them, the most frequently encountered are the ponds resulted following the damming of certain water courses. Ponds and fish ponds In the Somean Plateau, the ponds do not impose themselves as a major component of the local landscape, as it happens in the Transylvanian Plain. They

are encountered solitarily and more frequently under the form of lacustrine complexes. The ponds have been arranged by damming certain river courses, while the fish ponds are situated laterally to the water course. Most of the ponds are present on the small water courses of the Hills of Cluj and Dej. In the arrangement of these ponds, a significant role has been played by a series of natural factors: the rivers balanced longitudinal profile; the narrowing of the valleys as they crossed tougher rock formations (tuffs, grit stones), landslides and proluvial storages; the presence of impermeable deposits on the bottom of the valleys (clays, marls), preventing the water infiltration. The ponds in the Hills of Cluj are situated on the courses of the rivulets Chinteni, Feiurdeni and Prodae. The ponds area ranges from 6162 m2 (Iazul Caprei) to 245051 m2 (Iazul Cmpeneti I), while their length goes from 113 m (Iazul Caprei) to 1241 m (Iazul Cmpeneti). The morphometric elements of the ponds are presented in table 5.
Table 5. The morphometric elements of the ponds and fish ponds in the Hills of Cluj* Lengt PeriWidth (m) Axis (m) Sinuosity Name of the Area h meter avera maxipond (m2) quotient Big small (m) (m) ge mum Chinteni 136146 1036 131 229 926 190 2604 1.99 Cmpeneti I 245051 1241 197 278 1222 277 2900 1.65 Cmpeneti II 166960 628 266 371 617 370 1773 1.22 Cmpeneti 600 249 280 598 287 1.21 III 149197 1656 Cmpeneti 712 264 343 707 347 1.25 IV 187856 1918 H.Cmpeneti 444 303 372 433 370 1.08 I 134541 1400 H.Cmpeneti 343 214 236 342 235 1.15 II 73351 1107 Caprei 6162 113 55 79 109 79 312 1.12 * The morphometric elements have been determined using digital databases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps

Chinteni Pond represents a solitary lacustrine unit situated in the middle course of the Chinteni Rivulet, whose hydrographic basin is characterized by a not very high relief with frequent slope-related processes, which favored the arrangement of the pond. The initial area of the Chinteni Lake (13.6 ha) has shrunk a lot, because of its clogging and of its invasion by vegetation. The lacustrine complex situated on the lower course of the Feiurdeni Rivulet includes four ponds covering a 71.9 ha area. The ponds area ranges from 14.9 ha (Cmpeneti III) to 24.5 ha (Cmpeneti I) (table 5). The length of the lacustrine units oscillates between 343 m (H. Cmpeneti II) and 1241 m (Cmpeneti I), their

maximum width between 236 m (H. Cmpeneti II) and 371 m (Cmpeneti II), and the sinuosity quotient of the borders between 1.08 and 1.65 (table 5). Downstream from the four ponds, there are two fish ponds (Cmpeneti I and II) and a complex for fish breeding situated between the ponds and the fish ponds. Caprei Pond, situated on the course of Prodae Rivulet, a tributary of Someul Mic, has the smallest linear dimensions of all the ponds in the Somean Plateau (table 5). The ponds from the Hills of Dej and the Corridor of Some are situated on the courses of some small tributaries of Someul Mic (Chiejd), Olpret (Boblna) and Some (Valea Dijei). The lacustrine complex situated along the Valley of Chiejd is made up of four ponds, totaling 7.1 ha and whose length ranges from 207 m (Chiejd I) to 312 m (Chiejd IV). The largest is the pond Chiejd IV whose water surface occupies about 3 ha (2.8 ha), while the other ponds do not go over 2 ha (table 6).
Table 6. Morphometric elements of the ponds in the area of Dejului Hills* Width (m) Axis (m) PeriName of Area Length Sinuosity meter averag maxithe pond (m) (m2) quotient Big small (m) e mum Chiejd I 13886 207 67 82 206 81 564 1.35 Chiejd II 10980 237 46 67 235 67 591 1.59 Chiejd III 18416 280 66 88 277 88 686 1.43 Chiejd IV 27928 312 90 113 303 119 757 1.28 Bbdiu 49369 576 86 105 554 107 1232 1.56 Chiului 52985 494 107 143 489 143 1361 1.67 * The morphometric elements have been determined using digital databases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps

Bbdiu Pond, situated on a tributary of Olpret, in the SW extremity of the homonymous locality, is the biggest lake in the Hills of Dej (4.9 ha). The lakes length is 576 m, and its maximum width reaches 105 m. Chiului Pond in the Corridor of Some has been arranged on the Dijei Valley, a tributary on the right side of Some, downstream from the locality of Glod (Slaj County). Chiului Pond has an area of 5.3 ha and is situated 200 m away from the national road DN 1 C connecting the towns of Dej and Baia Mare. Fish ponds In this category have been included the lacustrine units arranged for pisciculture and which are situated either at the basis of the slopes in areas with an excess of humidity or in the riversides.

The fish ponds from Suceag have been arranged in a former marshy area situated at the basis of the right slope of Nadului Valley, in-between the localities Suceag and Rdaia (Cluj County). Their dimensions are small and they are supplied with water from a basin that receives the water of several springs. Dbca Lake, situated in the meadow of Lonea Rivulet, a tributary of Someul Mic, in-between the localities Pglia and Dbca (Cluj County), has an area of 6302 m2, a length of 134 m and a maximum width of 87 m.
Table 6. Morphometric elements of the fish ponds used for pisciculture* PeriCoef. Width (m) Axis (m) Name of Area Length meter de sin. avera maxithe pond (m) (m2) big small (m) a mal. ge mum Suceag I 2517 87 29 36 85 38 222 1.25 Suceag II 272 23 12 15 21 16 71 1.21 Dbca 6302 134 47 87 127 84 329 1.17 Ciocmani 3216 86 37 75 85 74 229 1.14 *The morphometric elements have been determined using digital databases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps

Ciocmani Lake is situated in the riverside of Some, east of Ciocmani locality (Slaj County), on a semi-permanent water course. Compared to the dimensions of the lakes Dbca and Jichiul de Sus, its dimensions are smaller. So, the lakes area is of 3216 m2, and it is 86 m long. Conclusions The natural lakes in the Somean Plateau are few and of small dimensions and appear in most cases solitarily. In this category have been included: valley lakes, lakes formed in abandoned meanders and lakes formed in areas with landslides. The artificial lakes are more numerous and include several genetic types. The most representative are the remnant lakes formed in depressions resulted from the exploitation of different construction materials and the anthropic salty lakes formed in abandoned salt mines from the diapir area of the Hills of Dej. The rapid evolution of these types of lakes has been highlighted through the comparative analysis of the morphometric elements obtained on the basis of topometric and bathymetric measurements. The lakes arranged for pisciculture include several subtypes (ponds, fish ponds) that have been identified and characterized for the fist time, their morphometric elements being determined using digital data bases, satellite images and detailed topometric maps.

Bibliography Alexe, M., (2010), Studiul lacurilor srate din Depresiunea Transilvaniei (Study on the Salty Lakes of the Transylvanian Depression). Editura Presa Universitar Clujean, Cluj-Napoca. Doboi, A. (1951), Exploatarea ocnelor de sare din Transilvania, Studii i cercetri de istorie medie (The Exploitation of the Salt Mines of Transylvania. Medieval History Studies and Researches), Bucureti. Cocean P., Schreiber W., Cocean Gabriela (2009), The Somean Plateau Regional Identity, Romanian Review of Regional Studies, Volume V, 1, ClujNapoca. Fodoreanu, I. (2010), Lacurile dulci din Podiul Transilvaniei (The Sweet Lakes in the Transylvanian Plateau), Edit. Presa Universitar Clujean, Cluj-Napoca. Gtescu, P. (1963), Lacurile din R.P.Romn, Genez i regim hidrologic (The Lakes of the Popular Republic of Romania. Genesis and Hydrological Regime), Editura Academiei R.P.R., Bucureti. Gtescu, P. (1965), Asupra termenilor de lac i balt (On the Terms of Lake and Pond), Studii i cercetri de geografie, 2, Edit. Academiei R.S. Romnia, Bucureti. Gtescu, P. (1971), Lacurile din Romnia limnologie regional (The Lakes in Romania. Regional Limnology), Edit. Acdemiei R.S. Romnia, Bucureti. Gtescu, P., Driga, B. (1996), Lacul de baraj antropic-un ecosistem lacustru aparte (The Anthropic Dam Lake a Particular Lacustrine Ecosystem), Rev. Geografic, 2, Institutul de Geografie, Bucureti. Horvat, Cs., Bilaco, .,Sorocovschi, V. (2010), Cuciulat (Slaj County) Lakes morpho-bathymetric characteristics and physical properties of water (in press) Meszaros, N. (1997), Regiunile salifere din Bazinul Transilvaniei (The Salt-Yielding Regions of the Transylvanian Basin), Studii i cercetri, Geologie-Geografie, Seria Geologia, nr.5, Bistria. Morariu, T., Gtescu, P., Savu, Sl., Piota, I. (1960), Les types gnetiques de lacs et leur dlimitation sur la territoire de la R.P. Roumanie. Recueil dEtudes gographiques concernant la territoire de la R.P.Roumaine, Edit. de lAcad.R.S.R., Bucureti. Pandi, G., Berkesy, Corina, Vigh, Melinda, Berkesy, L. E., Berkessy P. (2009), The impact of mining upon the features of the Blue Lagoon Lake in the Aghireu area, Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation International Journal of the Bioflux Society, Cluj-Napoca. Pandi, G., Btina, R., Vig Melinda (2010), Evaluarea morfometric a unor uniti lacustre din zona minier Aghireu judeul Cluj (Morphometric assessments of some lakes from the mining area of Aghireu village Cluj County) in Gastescu, P., Bretcan, P (edit.) Resursele de ap din Romnia. Vulnerabilitate la presiunile

antropice. Lucrrile primului simpozion naional, 11-13 iunie 2010, Trgovite, 496p.: 50-54 Pnzaru, T. (1970), Lacurile de la Ocna Dejului (aspecte morfologice i morfometrice) (The Lakes of Ocna Dejului) (morphologic and morphometric aspects), Colocviul Naional de Limnologie Fizic, Institutul de Geografie, Bucureti. Petruvian, N. (1973), Zcminte de minerale utile (Ores Containing Useful Minerals), Editura Tehnic, Bucureti. Savu, AL. (1973), Podiul Somean i raporturile sale cu Podiul Transilvaniei (Somean Plateau and Its Relationships with the Transylvanian Plateau). Realizri n geografia Romniei (Achievements in Romanias Geography), Editura tiinific, Bucureti. Sorocovschi, V. (2008), The lakes of the Transylvanian Plain: genesis, evolution and territorial repartition, Lakes, reservoirs and ponds, Romanian Journal of Limnology, 1st year, no.1-2., Edit. Transversal, Trgovite. Sorocovschi, V. (2009), Somean Plateau Rivers Runoff Regime Seasonal and Monthly Particularities, SUBB, Ser.Geogr. 3, An.LIV, Cluj University Press, ClujNapoca. Sorocovschi V. (2010), Studiul perioadelor pluviometrice din Podiul Somean calculate pe intervale de 3 luni (Study on the Pluviometric Periods of the Somean Plateau, Calculated on Three Month Intervals), Riscuri i catastrophe (Risks and Catastrophes), Editor Victor Sorocovschi, An. IX, nr.8, Edit. Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Sorocovschi, V., Horvat, C. (2007), Potenialul scurgerii medii lichide din Podiul Somean (Potential of the Average Liquid Runoff in the Somean Plateau), Studia Univ. Babe-Bolyai, Geographia, LII, 2, University Press, Cluj-Napoca Sorocovschi, V., Horvath, Cs., Bilaco, t. (2010), Variabilitatea teritorial a resurselor de ap din Podiul Somean (Territorial Variability of the Water Resources in the Somean Plateau), in Gastescu, P., Bretcan, P. (edit.) (2010), Resursele de ap din Romnia, Vulnerabilitate la presiunea antropic (Water Resources in Romania. Vulnerability to the Anthropic Presure), Editura Transversal, Trgovite. Stana Doina, (2006), Caracteristicile lacurilor rezultate n urma exploatrii miniere Aghire i instalarea vegetaiei n jurul acestora (The Features of the Lakes Created following the Mining Exploitation of Arghire and the Setting in of Vegetation around Them), Agricultura tiin i practic nr. 34 (59-60)/2006. erban, Gh., Antonie, Maria, Roman, C. (2009), Remnant lakes formed through the work of kaolin exploiting from Aghireu (Cluj County), Lakes, reservoirs and ponds, Romanian Journal of Limnology, 3, Edit. Transversal, Trgovite.



Faculty of Geography and Geology, Department of Geography Iasi, Romnia

The lakes over the territory of Romania are relatively uniformly distributed in the majority of the physico-geographical regions. A low density is specific to the west, where significant draining works have been done, and the highest density is characteristic to the north-east, with numerous ponds, registered since 14-15th centuries. Most of the lakes on the Romanian territory, especially those analysed in the present study, are human made. Most of the natural lakes are small and they do not have a special ecologic or economic importance. The analysed lakes, although situated in different physico-geographical conditions, are included, in most cases, in the category of good waters from a qualitative point of view, and eutrophic, mesotrophic and hipertrophic, from a trophic point of view. As a result of the fact that most lakes are human made, it is obvious that they are maintained artificially at this stage. Most of the mountain lakes, or those in the volcanic areas, are ultra-oligotrophic and oligotrophic. Keywords: lakes, geographic distribution, genetic type, water quality, pollution.

1. Introduction In the present study all the great natural lakes and most of the artificial lakes from almost all river basins have been analysed. We wanted to emphasize, for each region, river basin and aquatic surface, the quality of the lacustrine waters in order to use them in different fields of activity as well as a life support for the biologic component. The major difficulty, for such a study, was represented by the relatively big dimension of the surface of Romania, the relatively great number of lakes (136), and the extremely varied and fragmented landforms. Some lakes are situated in hardly

accessible places, and as a result, the present study could not be realized during one single year. The complex analysis of the physico-chemical characteristics of the lacustrine waters and of their role in maintaining life was performed. Such a study, for the whole territory of Romania, has rarely been done, and even then, there were important gaps for some river basins and for the isolated lakes. In the places where the lakes in a small area had the same characteristics, only the most important aquatorium was mentioned, as being typical and representative for that territory and for those types of lakes. 2. Methodology There are 3450 lakes in Romania, with a cumulated surface of 2,620 km2, covering 1.1% of the total surface of Romania (Gastescu, 1971). Unfortunately, most of the lakes are human made, and the natural lakes, apart of being few their surface is insignificant (Romanescu, 2006). The seasonal campaign during 6 years (2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 and 2008) had as a main purpose the complex characterization of lacustrine waters quality, by interpreting the results of the field measurements, with reference to the their classification in quality classes. A complex measurement set was used for the measurement of the physico-chemical parameters, and at the same time, samples of phytoplankton specific to the lacustrine waters were taken. The trophicity of the lacustrine waters required the characterization of several physico-chemical and biological indicators, determining and favouring its evolution: pH, CCO-Cr, CC=-Mn, CBO5, total mineral nitrogen, total phosphorous, temperature, dissolved oxygen, transparency, nutrients, structure of aquatic biota (value of phytoplankton biomass, percentile value V90% of the plankton biomass, coli form bacteria) etc. The physico-chemical parameters were interpreted at the Hydrology Laboratory of the Faculty of Geography and Geology, University Al.I.Cuza of Iasi, and the biological parameters were interpreted by the Natural Sciences Museum in Tulcea. As some data for few of the lakes mentioned above were missing from our analysis, they could be taken from the Water Headquarters in Bucharest or from the regional hydrologic offices (I.N.M.H., 2006). The data we obtained were reported to Order 1146/2002 in five quality classes, and the classification of the lakes was established by using the percentile system V (90%).


3. Results and discussions The analysed area refers to the whole territory of Romania, especially to the natural lakes with ecologic and economic importance, as well as the most important human made lakes (figure 1). While in the western part of Romania hydro-technical works have been built and a large part of the flood plain lakes were eliminated, in the eastern part of Romania the situation is reversed. In Moldova, the oldest and the most numerous human made lakes are registered, most of them with small dimensions. Still, some of these lakes cover significant areas and they have a complex role (Romanescu et al., 2005). As a result of the fact that Romania landforms are very diverse (delta, extended flood plain, arid and wet plains, hills with high fragmentation, low and high mountains etc), the genetic types of lakes and the hydrologic balance specific to the above mentioned areas are various as well. The complex analysis of the lakes was done on river basins: Danube (Portile de Fier I, Portile de Fier II, Grla Mare, Bistretu, Suhaia, , Mariuta, Fundulea, Gurbanesti, Frasinet, Iazer, Galatui, Bugeac, Oltina, Dunareni, Brates, Saraturi, Ciuperca); Tisa (Buhaescu, Calinesti-Oas); Somes (Colibita, Firiza, Lala, Gilau, Stiucilor, Vrsolt, Dindesti, Bodi-Mogosa), Mures (Bezid, Ighis, Nedeiu, Petresti, Teliuc, Hateg, Bucura, Taut); Bega-Timis (Trei Ape, Surduc, Gozna, Secu); Nera-Cerna (Taria, Valea lui Iovan, Herculane); Jiu (Isalnita, Valea de Pesti, Lacul Mic, Grla Mare, Rotunda); Olt (Mesteacanu, Sfnta Ana, Frumoasa, Gura Rului, Rmnicu Vlcea, Dopca, Sacele, Babeni, Bradisor, Vidra, Slatina, Scoreiu, Blea); Arges (Zigoneni, Vlcele, Budeasa, Golesti, Vidraru, Rusor, Facau, Gradinari, Pecineagu, Morii, Comana, Cernica); Ialomita (Caldarusani, Snagov, Amara, Fundata, Paltinu, Pucioasa, Maneciu, Dridu); Siret (Bucecea, Rogojesti, Galbeni, Dragomirna, Calimanesti, Izvorul Muntelui, Btca Doamnei, Poiana Uzului, Tungujei, Puscasi, Cazanesti, Solesti, Cuibul Vulturilor, Rpa Albastra, Jirlau, Amara, Balta Alba, Siriu, Cndesti, Rosu, Rediu); Prut (Cal Alb, Stnca-Costesti, Mileanca, Negreni, Dracsani, Catamaresti, Halceni, Tansa, Prcovaci, Podul Iloaiei, Ciric, Gorban); Black Sea (Razim, Sinoie, Babadag, Nuntasi, Gargalc, Tasaul, Siutghiol, Techirghiol, Tatlageac, Mangalia). The most important lakes in all river basins were analysed. The present study does not refer to the salt lakes in the salt massifs (natural and human made) as they present different characteristics and they are used only therapeutically. Analysing the distribution of the lakes over the territory of Romania, one can notice their absence in the western part of the country and an increased number in the east (Moldova, Baragan, and Dobrudja). The absence of lakes in the Plains of Somesului, Crisurilor and Timisului is caused by the drying up hydro-technical works in order to transform the land into agricultural fields.


The great number of lakes in Moldova (the Siret and Prut river basins) is explained by the reduced hydrological resources and the need to preserve them. For that reason, artificial lakes were built since antiquity, they had small dimensions and multiple usage. In the 15-16th centuries, about 3,500 ponds were recorded, while nowadays their number decreased to 350 (Geography of Romania I, 1983). Some of them were abandoned, other ones were silted due to the high rate of soil erosion (friable sub-stratum) (Romanescu et al., 2008).
Table 1 Morphometric characteristics and trophicity of the lakes in Romania
Partially according to I.M.H. Bucharest, 2006
Lake Genetic type Water course Usage Volume Surface mln ha m3 Maximum Water quality (category) depth Nutrients Biology (total nitrogen, total phosphorous) 1,7 2,0 1.70 1.50 0.70 1.40 3,5 1,3 2.5 5 9 50 37.5 2 9 12.7 7 E E E-H E-H E M E M E E E-M E-H E-H E E E E M M-E E E-H E UO M-E E M M M E-H M M M-E H H H H H H O M H H H H H H E E O E O O UO UO M O M M UO M

Portile de Fier I Portile de Fier II Grla Mare Bistretu Suhaia Mariuta Fundulea Gurbanesti Frasinet Iezer Galatui Bugeac Oltina Mrleanu Cochirleni Brates Saraturi Ciuperca Buhaescu CalinestiOas Colibita Firiza Lala Gilau Strmtori Stiucii Geaca Vrsolt Dindesti Bodi-Mogosa Cefa

Human made Human made Floodplain Floodplain Floodplain Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Floodplain Liman Liman Liman Liman Floodplain Floodplain Floodplain Glacial Human made Human made Human made Glacial Human made Human made Karsto-saline Human made Human made Human made Floodplain Human made

Danube Danube Mostistea Mostistea Mostistea Mostistea Mostistea Berza Danube Danube Danube Danube Prut Danube Danube Tur Bistrita Sasar Somesul Mic Firiza Fizes Fizes Crasna Sasar Collecting

Danube river basin energy 2900. 0 energy 1000. 0 Complex 14.0 Complex 49.5 Complex 124.5 Complex 180.0 Complex 280.0 Fishing 8.5 Fishing 41.1 Fishing 60.0 Fishing Fishing complex recreational Tisa river basin 0.004 complex 29.0 Somes river basin complex 101.2 complex complex 4.2 complex 16.6 complex 1.8 complex complex 39.9 complex complex 0.3 Crisuri river basin fishing -

10441 5200 440 680 1460 2600 750 3002 2509 768 7420 75 0.2 160 314 110.0 0.6 70.0 113.0 68.7 1.6 925


Tamasda Zau de Cmpie Bezid Ighis Nedeiu Petresti Teliuc Hateg Bucura Taut Trei Ape Surduc Gozna Secu Taria Valea lui Iovan Herculane Isalnita Valea de Pesti Lacul Mic Grla Mare Rotunda Mesteacanu Sfnta Ana Frumoasa Gura Rului Rmnicu Vlcea Dopca Sacele Babeni Bradisor Vidra Slatina Scoreiu Blea Zigoneni Vlcele Budeasa Golesti Vidraru Rusor Facau Gradinari Pecineagu Morii Comana

Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Glacial Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Glacial Subsidence Floodplain Human made Volcanic Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Glaciar Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Floodplain

Channel Crisul Negru Ludus Cusmed Ighis Sebes Sebes Cerna Rul Mare Rul Mare Nadas Timis Gladna Brzava Brzava Taria Cerna Cerna Jiu Jiul de Vest Barbat Jiu Jiu Olt Frumoasa Cibin Olt Valea Mare Trlung Olt Lotru Lotru Olt Olt Crtisoara Arges Arges Arges Arges Arges Ilfovat Ilfovat Dmbovita Dmbovita Neajlov


200 117



Mures river basin complex -

complex 31.0 150.0 Water supply 13.4 energy energy 1.7 Water supply 41.0 867 complex 14.5 0.487 8.9 complex 20 Bega-Timis river basin complex 6.3 53 complex 66.3 460 complex 12.0 60.0 complex 15.1 105 Nera-Cerna river basin Water supply complex 126.0 292.0 complex 15.7 Jiu river basin Water supply 1.4 Water supply 5.0 Tourism Tourism 0.600 Tourism 1.4 Olt river basin Water supply 1.1 Tourism 0.250 Water supply 10.6 Water supply 15.5 Energy 19.0 Water supply 0.7 Water supply 18.3 Energy 78.3 Complex 38.0 Complex 340.0 Energy 31.0 Energy 5.2 Tourism 0.240 Arges river basin Energy 13.4 Energy 44.0 Complex 55.0 Complex 86.0 Complex 473.0 Energy 68.0 Irrigations 3.0 Complex 12.4 Energy 69.0 Energy 19.6 Tourism 6.0 86.6 100 15 19.5 65 1035 498 180 680 893 182 246 1000

3 40 15.5 30 40 30 107 53 10 16 7.5 17 37 109 10 11.35 155 -


Cernica Caldarusani Snagov Amara Fundata Paltinu Pucioasa Maneciu Dridu Bucecea Rogojesti Galbeni Dragomirna Calimanesti Izvorul Muntelui Btca Doamnei Poiana Uzului Tungujei Puscasi Cazanesti Solesti Cuibul Vulturilor Rpa Albastra Jirlau Amara Balta Alba Siriu Cndesti Rosu Cal Alb StncaCostesti Mileanca Negreni Dracsani Catamaresti Halceni Tansa Prcovaci Podul Iloaiei Ciric Gorban Razim Sinoie Golovita Zmeica Babadag

Human made Liman Liman Liman Liman Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Liman Liman Liman Human made Human made Natural barrage Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Human made Floodplain Lagoon Lagoon Lagoon Lagoon Liman

Colentina Ialomita Ialomita Ialomita Ialomita Doftana Ialomita Teleajen Ialomita Siret Siret Siret Dragomirna Siret Bistrita Bistrita Uz Sacovat Racova Stavnic Vasluiet Tutova Simila Valea Boului Buzoel Boldul Buzau Buzau Bicajel Baseu Prut Podriga Baseu Sitna Sitna Miletin Bahlui Bahlui Bahluiet Taita

Complex 8.8 Ialomita river basin Tourism 4.5 Tourism 17.2 Therapeutic 2.6 Therapeutic 10.0 Water supply 62.3 Water supply 11.0 Complex 58.0 Complex 60.0 Siret river basin Complex 24.5 Complex 48.4 Complex 71.0 Water supply 17.0 Energy 44.3 Complex 1230. 0 Energy 10.0 Water supply Complex Complex Complex Complex Complex Complex Fishing Fishing Therapeutic Complex Complex Tourism 90.0 25.0 20.7 20.6 47.0 54.6 25.8 5.6 3.6 5.1 158.0 4.4

311 224 576 156 510 215 105 192 475 800 1123 106 3000 235 335 1150

5 9 3 5 107 30 9 90 16 75 -



900 600 1012 360 13

3,0 4 7.5 7 1,4 3 2.3 2.5 1.5 3

Prut River basin Complex 11.9 Complex 1400. 140000 0 Complex 9.5 Complex 19.8 304 Complex 9.5 574 Fishing 14.0 Water supply 49.5 Complex 33.0 360 Water supply 5.5 Fishing Complex Black Sea Hydrographic basin Complex 909.0 39400 Complex 17150 Complex 11870 Complex 5460 Fishing 2470


Nuntasi Gargalc Tasaul Siutghiol Techirghiol Agigea Tatlageac Mangalia

Lagoon Marine liman Marine liman Lagoon Marine liman Marine liman Marine liman Marine liman

Cargalc Casimcea Urluchioi Agigea Tatlageac

Complex Complex Complex Tourism Therapeutic Tourism Complex Complex

7.7 60.0 91.0 41.8 0.3 2.2 15.7

1050 528 2306 1960.0 1161.0 64.0 141.0 261.0

1.3 2 3.5 17.5 9.75 0.7 2.5 6



*H-hypertrophic; E-eutrophic; M-mesotrophic; O-oligotrophic; UO-ultraoligotrophic.

The trophicity degree of the lakes in the main river basins of Romania was determined by the analysis of the chemical aspects (according to the value of the nutrients) and the evolution of the aquatic cenoses (according to the value of the phytoplankton biomass). The qualifications are given by the following grades: hypertrophic, eutrophic, mesotrophic, oligotrophic and ultraoligotrophic, to which intermediate categories are added. The eutrophic lakes are characterized by an important primary productivity, resulting in a high nutrient content. On the other side, the oligotrophic lakes have very reduced nutrient content, resulting in a low productivity. The mesotrophic lakes are situated between the two categories, with intermediate productivity. The hypertrophic and ultraoligotrophic lakes are situated ate the two extremes.
Table 2 Lacustrine waters trophicity according to the nutrients value
River basin Total number of lakes 21 2 10 2 9 4 3 5 13 13 8 21 12 13 UO Nr. 1 1 1 % 10.00 11.11 7.69 Nr. O % O-M % N r . 1 10.00 1 1 7.69 7.69 M Nr . 3 3 2 4 1 4 1 Trophicity degree M-E % Nr % . 1 1 1 2 2 1 4 1 4.76 50.00 10.00 40.00 15.38 12.50 19,04 8.33 E Nr . 13 1 2 3 1 2 7 4 3 2 % 61.90 50.00 20.00 33.33 25.00 15.38 53.85 19,04 25.00 15.38 Nr . 4 2 1 3 6 2 1 E-H % 19.04 20.00 11.11 37.50 28,57 16.66 7.69 Nr . 3 3 2 3 5 4 6 6 10 H % 75.00 100.0 0 40.00 23.07 38.46 50.00 28,57 50.00 76.92

Danube Tisa Somes Crisuri Mures BegaTimis NeraCerna Jiu Olt Arges Ialomita Siret Prut Black Sea

14.29 30.00 100.0 0 44.44 20.00 30.77 4,76 -

*H-hypertrophic; E-eutrophic; M-mesotrophic; O-oligotrophic; UO-ultraoligotrophic.

The geographical location of the lakes, in distinct landform units (mountains, hills, and plains, littoral) creates different environment for the manifestation of the trophicity.

We can notice the fact that, according to the value of the nutrients, the greatest part of the lakes are situated in the mesotrophic, meso-eutrophic, eutrophic, eutro-hypertrophic, and hypertrophic category (121 of the total 136, meaning 88.97%). Only in the mesotrophic category 18 lakes are included (13.23%). In the two extreme categories 3 lakes are ultraoligotrphic (2.2%) and 42 lakes are hipertrophic (30.88%).
Table 3. Trophicity of lake waters according to the phytoplankton biomass value
River basin Danube Tisa Somes Crisuri Mures BegaTimis NeraCerna Jiu Olt Arges Ialomita Siret Prut Black Sea Total no of lakes 21 2 10 2 9 4 3 5 13 13 8 21 12 13 UO Nr. 3 3 1 5 3 2 % 30.00 33.33 20.00 38.46 14,28 16.66 Nr. 1 1 3 3 1 1 5 9 3 O % 4.76 50.00 30.00 33.33 20.00 7.69 38.46 42,86 25.00 O-M Nr. % M Nr. 2 4 2 2 2 3 4 8 1 1 Trophicity degree M-E % Nr. % 9.52 1 4.76 40.00 100.00 22.22 66.66 23.07 30.77 38,10 8.33 7.69 1 1 7.69 12.50 E Nr. 3 1 3 1 2 2 3 3 6 % 14.28 50.00 75.00 33.33 40.00 15.38 23.07 37.50 50.00 Nr. 1 1 1 E-H % 20.00 4,76 7.69 Nr. 14 1 1 2 4 11 H % 66.66 11.11 25.00 15.38 50.00 84.61

*H-hypertrophic; E-eutrophic; M-mesotrophic; O-oligotrophic; UO-ultraoligotrophic.

According to the phytoplankton biomass value a large number of lakes are included in the category ultraoligotrophic, oligotrophic and oligo-mesotrophic (91 of 136, representing 66.91%). In the mesotrophic category 29 lakes are included (21.32%). A number of 17 lakes are included in the ultraoligotrophic category (12.5%) and 33 lakes in the hypertrophic category (24.26%). The most hypertrophic lakes are situated in low landform units, where temperatures are high and quantity of nutrients is extremely high. The most favourable area for a high trophicity is represented by the Danube flood plain (Romanian Academy, 1967). The most ultra-oligotrophic lakes are found in the high mountain area. All the glacial lakes are included in this category. To these, the reservoirs with cold water, developed on hard rocks can be added. In the area with the highest density of lakes (Moldova) there are lakes (aquatoriums) with good and very good trophicity (see the Siret and Prut river basins). Because of this reason, many of the accumulation lakes in the Moldavian Plateau are the most important aquatoriums for fishing industry (the second region in Romania, following the Danube Delta).


Besides the climate, the trophicity is strongly influenced by the nature of rocks within the drained river basin, by the erosion rate, by transparency and turbidity etc. The general analysis of the lakes on the territory of Romania clearly demonstrates the fact that they are included, to the greatest extent, into the category of lakes with medium and high trophicity. Conclusions The number of the lakes in Romania is relatively great, but their area is often reduced. The most numerous lakes are human made, situated mainly in the northern Moldova and Transylvania. The most important analysed lakes were limited within the river basins. In the present study the salty lakes in the salt massifs were not analysed as they present different characteristics and they are used only therapeutically. The trophicity degree is given by 5 main qualifications (hypertrophic, eutrophic, mesotrophic, oligotrophic, ultraoligotrophic) and separates the lakes on the territory of Romania according to the landform units and climate. Trophicity can be also influenced by the nature of rocks. According to the value of the nutrients, most of the lakes are included in the mesotrophic, mesoeutrophic, eutrophic, eutrohypertrophic and hypertrophic categories. The lakes with the best trophicity are used for fishing as well. Acknowledgements This research was funded by CNCSIS Romania, GRANT no. 426/2007An important logistic support was received from the Water Headquarters Bucharest, providing a part of the data referring to the trophicity of several lakes on the territory of Romania. Our thanks go to the research teams within the Geo-archaeology Laboratory, Faculty of Geography and Geology Iasi and the Eco-museum research Institute in Tulcea, as they helped us in analysing and partially interpreting the samples.


Gstescu, P., 1971. Lacurile din Romnia. Editura Academiei Romne, Bucuresti. I.N.M.H. (2006), Date inedite, Institutul de Meteorologie si Hidrologie, Bucuresti.

Romanescu Gh. (2006), Complexul lagunar Razim-Sinoie. Studiu morfohidrografic, Editura Universitatii Alexandru Ioan Cuza, Iasi. Romanescu Gh., Romanescu G. (2008), Inventarierea si tipologia zonelor umede si apelor adnci din Grupa Nordica a Carpatilor Orientali, Editura Terra Nostra, Iasi. Romanescu Gh., Romanescu G., Minea I., Ursu A., Margarint M.C., Stoleriu C. (2005), Inventarierea si tipologia zonelor umede din Podisul Moldovei. Studiu de caz pentru judetele Iasi si Botosani, Editura Didactica si Pedagogica, Bucuresti. Romanescu Gh., Romanescu G., Stoleriu C., Ursu A. (2008), Inventarierea si tipologia zonelor umede si apelor adnci din Podisul Moldovei, Editura Terra Nostra, Iasi. *** (1967), Limnologia sectorului romnesc al Dunarii. Studiu monografic, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucuresti. ***(1983), Geografia Romniei I. Geografia fizica, Editura Academiei Romne, Bucuresti.



University of Bucharest, Faculty of Geography

The paper makes a synthesis of the hydrological characteristics of the Iron Gates I reservoir and at the same time, it gives an account of its water quality state. A number of specific issues are revealed such as the feeding sources, level regime, water discharge, sediment load, and sedimentation processes. Likewise, the study highlights the alteration of the main hydrological parameters (levels, liquid and solid discharges) entailed by reservoir creation, by simply comparing the present day situation with that existing before the artificial lake came into being. The analysis of hydrological characteristics relies especially on the datasets provided by the Romanian Waters National Administration for the Bazia, Orova and Drobeta Turnu Severin gauging stations, which have different recording intervals for the period 1921 2006. At the same time, bibliographic sources have been taken into account in order to better understand the hydrological phenomena. As far as water quality is concerned, this has been established based on the quality indicators for the periods 2000 2004 and 2006 2009, which exist in the records of the National Water Monitoring System. Keywords: Romania, Iron Gates, water quality


1. Introduction

The Iron Gates reservoir is by far the largest anthropogenic lake in Romania. It came into existence during the period 1964 1972, when the Iron Gates I Hydropower and Navigation System (H.N.S) was created, which is one of the most impressive engineering works in Europe and certainly the biggest on the Danube. Through its dimensions, complexity and functionality the Iron Gates I H.N.S. has seriously impacted all the environmental components in the area. Hydrological alterations are the most significant and they refer to the following aspects: the raise of water level (as high as 27 m in the vicinity of the dam) and the flooding of tributary

mouths, which have been turned into fluvial-lacustrine inlets; the expansion of water surface and the increase of water volume; the turning of fluvial flow into a fluviallacustrine one, with low velocities and level variations strongly influenced by human pressure; the alteration of solid flow regime, accompanied by changes in river dynamics and sedimentation; the modification of waters physical, chemical and biological properties and, consequently, of the living conditions of aquatic biocenoses, which in their turn have suffered alterations of structure and composition (Zaharia et al., 2003). The present paper highlights the specific hydrological aspects and the water quality of the Iron Gates reservoir. It mostly presents the results of a type A research project funded by C.N.C.S.I.S. in the period 2005 2007. After mentioning some general data regarding reservoir creation and its morphometric features, various other aspects are revealed, which refer to the level regime, the liquid and suspended load discharges, and the sedimentation processes. Finally, an inventory of the pollution sources has been accomplished and comments about water quality have been made. The presented results supplement and update the information about the hydrological characteristics of the reservoir and its impact on the environment, which are found in some previously published works, of which the most important are those authored by Ilie (1979), Trufa and Simion (1982), Vespremeanu and Posea (1988), elu (1996, 2010), Manea (2003), Diaconu (2007) and Zaharia (2008). Other studies focus on landscape management in the area of the Danube Defile, as it is the case of the papers published by Ptroescu, Ghincea, Cenac-Mehedini, Toma and Rozylowicz (1999 2000), or by Ptroescu et al. (2002). Likewise, investigations concerning the impact of the Iron Gates reservoir on the landscape have also been undertaken with the occasion of two research projects coordinated by Ptroescu Maria. These are The impact of land use changes on the biodiversity of the Iron Gates Natural Park, funded by UNESCO (1996 1997), and the European project LIFE NATURE LIFE00/NAT/RO/7171, entitled Iron Gates Natural Park Habitat Conservation and Management (2000 2004). The paper relies mainly on statistical processing and analysis of the hydrological datasets (mean annual and monthly liquid and solid discharges) recorded at the Bazia, Orova and Drobeta Turnu Severin gauging stations, which have been kindly provided by the Romanian Waters National Administration, or which have been extracted from bibliographic sources (the work Dunarea intre Bazia i Ceatal Izmail. Monografie hidrologic, 1967, and the Hydrological Yearbooks for the period 1962 1974). An important part in the preparation of this paper has been played by the field investigations undertaken between 2005 and 2007, which allowed us to collect valuable information on the hydrological processes and phenomena on the basis of our own observations and measurements.

2. General data concerning the Iron Gates reservoir and its economic importance The Iron Gates reservoir is part of the natural border that separates Romania (in the north) from Serbia (in the south) (Fig. 1). It overlaps the Danube Defile, the longest (135 km) and the most spectacular narrowing along the Danube watercourse, which runs on a general west east direction between Bazia and Gura Vii (on a length of 144 km if we consider as its eastern boundary the Transcarpathian reach of the Danube adjacent to Drobeta Tr. Severin City) (Sencu, 1987).

Figure 1. The geographical location of the Iron Gates (Porile de Fier) reservoir

The artificial lake gradually developed behind the dam built along the Gura Vii ip alignment, which forced the waters of the Danube and its tributaries to accumulate. The entire retention structure includes a spillway dam (441 km long), with 14 spillway gates; two hydropower plants (on both sides of the dam, 214 m long each); two navigable locks (one on each side, 53 m wide), designed for a maximum level difference of 35 m; two non-overflow earth dams built between the locks and the river banks (117 m long on the left bank and 186 m on the right bank); control buildings and transformer stations on each side (Pop, 1996). The dam underlies a road that links the two neighboring countries. In addition, there is some room left for the construction of a future railway connection. The development of the Iron Gates I H.N.S. was dictated by two major economic reasons: the necessity to facilitate navigation along the Danube Defile and the need to produce cheap electricity by harnessing the great hydropower potential of the river on this stretch. Consequently, as soon as the water level rose by 30 m behind the dam, the depths of navigable channel grew accordingly, so that at low waters the draught is three to five meters (therefore riverboats can be loaded at full

capacity). Besides, the building of locks has encouraged navigation up and down the river. Under the circumstances, now it takes only 31 hours instead of 120 for a ship to cross the defile, and the transportation capacity of the Danube has grown from 12 14 million tons/yr. to more than 53 million tons/yr. The advantages deriving from the increased navigation capacity are supplemented by the hydropower production. The plant, which is appreciated as efficient and profitable (Ujvari, 1972; Pop, 1996), has a total installed capacity of 2136 MW and a hydropower production capacity of about 5.7 billion KWh/yr. Water accumulation was accomplished in several successive stages in approximately two years (February 1970 November 1971) (Hidroconstrucia, 1984). At present, the lake is about 140 km long, covers 100 km2, and at the maximum retention level (69.5 m a.s.l.) it can store a volume of 2400 million cubic meters of water. In some years, however, the retention level can drop to a minimum of 63 m a.s.l., which corresponds to a water volume of 1700 million m3. When the level keeps at 68 m, as it usually happens, the equivalent volume of water stored in the reservoir is 2100 million m3 (AQUAPROIECT, 1992). The depth ranges from 5 6 m to 110 m (the maximum value being found in a pit lying next to the Tabula Traiana) (Zaharia et al., 2003). The maximum widths are recorded within the depression-like basins that chain along the defile (Moldova Veche, Dubova, Eselnita, Orsova). In the Moldova Veche section, at the maximum retention level the reservoir has the highest width (4.6 km). By contrast, where the defile walls squeeze the Danube valley the reservoir width shrinks to 350 400 m. However, the lowest values of about 200 m are seen in the Cazane area.

3. Hydrological characteristics of the reservoir Hydrological characteristics of the Iron Gates reservoir mirror the interaction between the natural and anthropogenic factors of the Danube river basin in general and of the reservoir area in particular. Of the natural factors, the main role is played by the climatic conditions of the upper and middle course of the Danube (and especially by precipitation and air temperature), whose temporal variability is highlighted by the water and solid discharges that feed the reservoir. The reservoir levels and, implicitly, the water volumes, depend on the economic necessities that require either the retention of the water behind the dam or the draining of the reservoir. However, the main control of these variations is the operating regime of the hydropower plant.


3.1. The feeding of the reservoir

The most important feeding source of the Iron Gates reservoir is the Danube. During the period 1976 2003, the mean multiannual discharge of the river at Bazia gauging station was 5352 m3 /s, corresponding to a mean annual volume of 168909 million m3. The annual discharges at the same station averaged between 3774 m3/s (in 1990) and 6893 m3/s (in 1980), values that account for water volumes of 119107 million m3 and 217543 million m3 respectively (both the discharges and the volumes have been computed based on the data provided by the Romanian Waters National Administration). A low contribution to reservoir feeding is brought by the tributaries that flow into it upstream the dam, along the Danube Defile. The most important of them on the Romanian side is the Cerna River (87 km long and with a catchment area of 1360 km2). Its mean annual discharge is 23.9 m3/s, while the mean water volume corresponding to it is 754.3 million m3/yr (according to the datasets recorded at Toplet gauging station during the period 1950 1995) (Srbu, 2001). With the exception of the Cerna River, the contribution of the other tributaries that drain the Romanian side of the reservoir is extremely low, inasmuch as most of them are very short and their mean multiannual discharge is less than 0.5 m3/s. The only streams that exceed this value are Radimna (0.605 m3/s) and Berzasca (2.19 m3/s) (Table 1).
Table 1 Morphometric and hydrological data of the main tributaries of the Iron Gates reservoir Discharge Mean Mean Area Length Elevation (m) (mc/s) Current gradient elevation Stream (km2) (km) number (m/km) (m) origin mouth 1. Radimna 27 518 69 17 82 391 0.605* 2. Boneag 12 538 119 60 60 444 3. Camenia 14 480 69 29 86 349 4. Orevia 25 740 69 27 102 418 5. Berzeasca 46 1015 69 21 229 549 2.19* 6. Sirina 22 720 69 30 74 550 7. Tiovia 16 730 69 41 33 527 8. Valea 11 700 69 57 20 427 Morilor 9. Mraconia 19 820 69 40 113 508 10. Mala 12 695 69 52 18 436 11. Eelnia 26 1000 69 35 77 539 12. Cerna 87 2070 69 23 1360 737 23.9** 13. Bahna 35 1060 69 28 137 559 Source of morphometric data: Aquaproiect, 1992. Source of hydrological data: * Zaharia, 1993; ** Srbu, 2001.


The precipitation contribution to the direct replenishing of the lake is relatively low. At Drobeta Tr. Severin weather station, for instance, which lies close by the reservoir, downstream the dam, the mean multiannual amount of precipitation for the period 1961 2000 is 662 mm (Administraia Naional de Meteorologie, 2008).
3.2. The levels regime

Water level is the hydrological parameter that has suffered the most important alterations after the creation of the Iron Gates I Hydropower and Navigation System. The levels regime of the reservoir depends on the economic constraints, which require its exploitation either for hydropower generation or for mitigating the flood waves. As mentioned previously, water levels can oscillate between elevations of 69.5 m a.s.l. and 63 m a.s.l., which correspond to the maximum and minimum retention levels. The elevation of 68 m a.s.l. is the same with the natural high water level at Bazia, whereas the elevation of 63 m a.s.l. corresponds to the Danube mean level under natural flow conditions. The most dramatic alteration of the levels regime can be seen near the dam, but the amplitude of oscillations gradually decreases with the increasing distance from it. Thus, at Bazia station, the mean multiannual level recorded after the reservoir came into operation (1976 2003) rose by only 35 cm (from 582 cm to 2146 cm) in comparison with the previous period (1921 1962). Figure 2 shows the influence of the reservoir on the variability of the mean annual discharges.

Figure 2. The variations of the mean annual levels of the Danube (1921 1962) and of the Iron Gates reservoir (1976 2003) at Bazia and Orova gauging stations

Before the creation of the reservoir, the annual levels regime mirrored, to the same extent as the discharges, the specific flow phases of the Danube. Once the huge impoundment appeared, the levels regime has been dictated by economic

reasons. Consequently, during certain periods the water is stored in the reservoir, whereas other times it is released through the spillway gates. Generally, the levels are high at low discharges and drop during high water episodes, because according as the Danube discharges are rising the amount of released water increases. This is more obvious nearer the dam (at Orova for instance), whereas upstream (at Bazia) the level and discharge regimes become similar, both reflecting the natural flow conditions of the river (Fig. 3A and 3 B).

Figure 3. The variation of the mean monthly levels (H) and water discharges (Q) at Orsova (A) and Bazias (B) gauging stations (1976 2003)

Due to the controlled exploitation regime of the reservoir, level amplitudes (determined as the differences between the normal retention level of 69.5 m above the Black Sea level at Sulina and the mean monthly levels) vary significantly. For instance, in the period 1977 2005 they ranged from 0.1 m to 6.2 m (Fig. 4). A remarkable year from the point of view of the rapid and ample variations of the reservoir level was 2006, when water levels oscillated between 1853 cm (March 30) and 2553 cm (November 4), which means a maximum range of seven meters (Zaharia, 2008). From March to June 2006, the water level was very low, with negative ranges of more than 6 m compared to the normal retention level (Photo 1). This can be explained by the need to mitigate the high flood wave that was coming along the Danube from upriver. During this interval, the reservoir transferred a discharge that nearly matched the natural one. The level variations (especially the rapid and ample ones) are among the major controls that alter the dynamics of the banks and slopes, rendering them unstable and causing collapses where the rocks are brittle. In 2006, between March 7 and 17, the water level dropped from 2445 cm to 2088 cm, which is a rate of 3.65 m in 10 days (or 0.36 m/day on an average). The maximum daily range was 1.3 m, a value recorded between March 23 and 24. As far as the rapid risings of water levels are concerned the period March 17 to 22 is the most significant, because in five days the level increased by 4.06 m (from 1900 to 2306 cm, or a mean rate of 0.81 m/day) (Zaharia, 2008).

Figure 4. The range of the mean monthly levels at Orova in relation to the normal retention level of the reservoir (69.5 m above the Black Sea level at Sulina), during the period January 1977 December 2005)

3.3. Water discharge regime

The Iron Gates reservoir is mostly fed by the Danube. The variability of the river discharge at an annual scale mirrors the discharge regime of its main tributaries that flow into it upstream the reservoir: Inn, Drava, Sava, Morava, Tisa, etc. In short, this regime is characterized by high waters in spring, flood events that occur all year round, and low waters in summer, fall and winter (Trufa and Simion, 1982). The Hydropower and Navigation System transfers the Danube discharges through the reservoir, so that at annual scale inflows almost equal outflows. Under the circumstances, the variability of the mean discharges at multiannual scale, under a controlled regime, is almost the same with the natural flow. Thus, at Orova, the mean multiannual discharge under a controlled regime (1972 2005) was 5419 m3/s, whereas under a natural regime (1921 1960) it had been 5390 m3/s. However, at annual scale one can note the regulating role of the reservoir manifested through the increase of discharges during low water periods and through their diminution when waters are high. As Figure 5 shows, during the intervals December February and September October the mean controlled discharges are higher than the natural ones, while in November and from May to August the situation is opposite. In terms of the seasonal distribution of the mean discharges, the highest share is specific for spring, both under controlled and natural regimes: 33.7% and 32.8%, respectively, from the mean annual volume. Summer and winter have rather similar percentages (22 24%), whereas in fall the river shows the lowest mean discharges and volumes under both types of regimes (about 19% of the mean annual volume). The analysis of the seasonal distribution of the mean

discharge highlights a tiny diminution (approximately by 1%) during spring and summer under the controlled regime in comparison with the natural flow conditions and an increase during wintertime (by about 2%), whereas in fall the flow distribution under the two types of regimes is almost similar (Fig. 5). The yearly regime of the mean discharges at Bazia gauging station during the period 1976 2003 is controlled by the climatic conditions of the upper and middle course of the Danube. It shows a maximum during the spring high waters (7778 m3/s in April) and a minimum in fall, when water level drops significantly (3686 m3/s in September) (Fig. 3B).

Figure 5. Mean monthly discharge variability of the Danube River at Orsova (left) and the seasonal flow distribution (right) under natural (1921 1960) and controlled (1970 2005) flow conditions

If at multiannual and annual scale there are no important differences between natural and controlled regimes, during high water periods and flood events the differences become significant, inasmuch as the flood mitigation role of the reservoir is more conspicuous, the inflows being inferior to outflows (Fig. 6). When flood waves menace the safety of the adjacent lands, water level is lowered to 63 m (the minimum elevation at which the turbines can operate), in order to retain the predicted excess water and protect the banks. When discharges top the turbines capacity (9600 m3/s) the spillway gates are opened and water is released downstream (elu, 2010). As a rule, reservoir outflow is superior to inflow discharges in advance of the occurrence of spring high waters and floods, but during low water periods (in early fall) the process is reversed in order to bring the reservoir to its normal retention level. Generally, water use depends on the type of the year (rainy or dry), but also on the existence of the snow layer that feeds the upper course of the Danube. Irrespective of the situation, however, it is necessary to ensure a minimum outflow of 2000 m3/s, in order to keep the channel navigable (elu, 2010).


Figure 6. Inflow (Qa) and outflow (Qd) variability of the Iron Gates reservoir in the period January September 1988 (based on the data elu, 1996)

From the standpoint of water discharge and levels regime, the reservoir can be divided into three sections, whose limits differ according to the transferred water volumes and retention elevations (Trufa and Simion, 1982; Vespremeanu and Posea, 1988), as follows: the lower section, which at low waters (62 63 m) ends up at Ogradena, at mean elevations (65 66 m) extends as far as vinia, and at high waters (68 69 m) reaches the Pescari village, is characterized by a lacustrine regime. However, because the flow is active enough the conditions are not exactly that of a lake. the middle section, whose boundaries are Ogradena vinia at low waters, vinia Moldova Veche at middle elevations and Pescari upstream Moldova Veche at high waters, has a fluvial-lacustrine regime. The fluvial characteristics are obvious during high waters, whereas at low discharges lacustrine features prevail. the upper section, which at high waters ends up downstream of Bazia village, at middle elevations downstream of Moldova Veche and at low waters downstream of Svinia, has a typical fluvial regime, although the backwater effect induced by the dam is still visible.
3.4. The solid discharge and sedimentation processes

The Iron Gates reservoir undergoes a sedimentation process mainly because of the high amounts of solid load carried by the Danube. The streams that flow into the reservoir have a lower contribution and this is also true for the gradational processes induced by lacustrine dynamics, which affect the banks and slopes (Chiriac et al.,1976).

The reservoir creation has brought about significant alterations of sediment transport along the defile. Under a natural flow regime, the solid load of the Danube showed a slight increase from upstream to downstream. After the completion of the reservoir, however, the situation reversed and consequently the mean annual suspended load discharge decreased in the same way, more exactly from 170 kg/s on the Bazia section to 128 kg/s at Orova (values determined for the period 1981 2003 based on the data provided by the Romanian Waters National Administration). The sedimentation processes encouraged by the lower velocity of the flow led to a drastic reduction (by 88%) of the suspended load along the Orova section. Thus, if prior to reservoir formation (1921 1962) the mean multiannual suspended load discharge on this section was 1112 kg/s (35 million tons per year), in the period 1981 2003 the value dropped to 128 kg/s (4 million tons per year), which proves the sedimentation processes are extremely active. The decantation rate is also mirrored by the ratio between water and suspended load discharges, which increases from upstream to downstream, from 29.3 at Bazia to 40.6 at Orova (for the period 1981 2003), proving once again that the intensity of sedimentation processes increases in the mentioned direction. The balance of the sediments deposited on the bottom of the Iron Gates reservoir during the period 1971 2002, computed based on the cumulated differences between Bazia and Drobeta Tr. Severin sections, shows that the total volume of sediments amounted to 117.8 million tons (according to the data provided by Romanian Waters National Administration). At the same time, the mean multiannual suspended load outflow was 33% lower than the inflow, the values decreasing from 353.2 kg/s (at Bazia) to 236.5 kg/s (at Drobeta Tr. Severin) (data provided by Romanian Waters National Administration). Significant reductions were recorded in the first decade after reservoir creation and especially in the years with major flood events (1975, 1978). After 1987, however, one can note a relative homogeneousness of the suspended load on the two sections of the reservoir, as well as a decrease of sedimentation rate (Fig. 7). Although the solid load of the Danube dropped sharply because of the sedimentation processes, the mean monthly regime of suspended load discharges and their seasonal distribution did not suffer significant changes. Thus, the highest amounts of suspended load are specific for spring (March April), a season characterized by high waters and flood events, which affect the upper and middle sections of the Danube river basin. By contrast, the lowest amounts of suspended load are carried from August till October (Fig. 8).


Figure 7 (left). The variability of the Danube mean annual suspended load discharges at Bazia, Orova and Drobeta Tr. Severin (according to the data provided by Romanian Waters National Administration Figure 8 (right). The variability of the mean monthly suspended load discharges on the Bazia and Orova sections (1981 2003)

If prior to reservoir accomplishment the regime, distribution and intensity of sedimentation processes were primarily influenced by liquid discharges, flow velocity and channel morphology, after H.N.S. came into existence an important role has been played by levels oscillations, which, as mentioned previously, may be as high as 7 m. The artificial lowering of water level in the reservoir during high waters periods makes the water surface tilt from upstream towards the dam. Consequently, flow velocity increases and drives the sediments downstream. Apparently, the most important removals occur along the section from Drencova to vinia, where flow velocity exhibits the highest variations (Trufa and Simion, 1982). Sedimentation is more intense at the reservoir tail, within the small inlets formed at the mouth of its tributaries and in the depressionary lacustrine areas, where the course is sluggish. In the Dubova and vinia inlets the sediment layer exceeds 11 m, while in the Cerna Gulf it is more than 6 m thick (elu, 2006). The measurements undertaken during the low waters period of June 2006 revealed that the sediments laid down along the banks of the Cerna Gulf, near the mouth of the Sltinic brook, are thicker than 2 m (Photo 2). In the proximity of the dam, sedimentation is insignificant because the sediments carried by the Danube are permanently disturbed by the incessant movement of water, due to the overflow, the passing of ships through the locks or the use of water for hydropower generation. The high discharge of the Danube and the operating conditions of the hydropower plant have deterred the sedimentation processes along the thalweg, which explains why in the long profile this has almost the same features as during the initial flow conditions. The solid load is laid down somehow parallel with the main stream thus contributing to the silting of the former floodplains and lacustrine areas (elu, 2010).

4. Water quality of the Iron Gates reservoir

The quality of the water stored in the Iron Gates reservoir depends both on the water quality of the Danube (which in its turn is influenced by the riverain European countries lying upstream) and on the pollution sources that exist in the reservoir area. In 2004, the main point pollution sources on the Romanian bank were represented by the Moldova Nou mining enterprise and the human settlements (Photo 3), which discharge into the reservoir wastewaters rich in suspensions and with a high content of fixed residue (Table 2).
Table 2 The main quality indicators of the wastewaters discharged into the Iron Gates reservoir in 2004
Pollution source Total volume of wastewaters Suspensions mil.m3/yr 6.615 1.144 0.649 8.408 285.85 79.053 23.875 388.778

Quantities of pollutants discharged (t/yr)

Fixed residue 2308.42 669.432 268.759 3246.61 CCOMn/O2 44.575 45.221 7.326 97.122 Ammonium 0 35.158 9.294 44.452 Phenols Cu Zn

Moldova Nou mining enterprise IGOSERV Moldova Nou Township of Orova TOTAL

0.012 0.018 0.005 0.035

2.312 0 0 2.312

0.814 0 0 0.814

According to the data provided by the Romanian Waters National Administration, Bucharest

Other water pollution sources in the area are represented by domestic waste, which is disposed of on the reservoir shores or directly into the water. This phenomenon is especially common between Pescari and Moldova Nou (where the town landfill is placed right on the reservoir shore). Consequently, the waters percolate the dump getting loaded with various contaminants, which are carried into the soil and the groundwaters, from where they reach into the reservoir. Sometimes, however, these impaired waters flow directly into the water body. The negative effects are more obvious into the inlets where algal bloom phenomena are common. Domestic waste can also be seen along the reservoir tributaries or right inside their channels, thus having a direct impact on water quality. The flood waves that travel down the streams (especially those produced by the Cerna River) bring into the reservoir large amounts of solid wastes. Another point pollution source is the Orsova shipyard. Besides, agricultural activities use phosphate and nitrogenous fertilizers, which turn into nonpoint pollution sources that impair the reservoir waters.


Photo 1. The lowered level of the waters in the Cerna Gulf in June 2006 (left), in comparison with the normal level recorded in June 2004 (right)

Photo 2. Alluvial deposits on the right bank of the Cerna Gulf (left) and at the junction of the Slatinic brook (right) in June 2006

Photo 3. The wastewater discharge pipe at the Sewage Treatment Plant in Orsova town (picture taken in June 2006 when the lowered levels of the reservoir exposed the pipe that normally is submerged). View from the reservoir to the shore (left) and from the shore to the reservoir (right)


The assessment of reservoir water quality has been accomplished for the period 2000 2004 according the Normative regarding the reference indicators for the classification of surface waters quality 1146/2002 and on the basis of the analyses performed by the laboratories of the National Water Monitoring System. In order to assess water quality state the 90% method was used, because it has the advantage of eliminating extreme outliers, whereas for dissolved oxygen analysis the 10% method was employed. In Table 3, one can see the typical statistical values of the quality indicators determined for the Iron Gates reservoir (on the vinia, Dubova, upstream Orova and upstream the dam sections), as well as the quality class in which the waters fall according to the previously mentioned Normative and working method. The table analysis reveals the water of the Iron Gates reservoir is rich in nutrients (ammonium, nitrates, orthophosphates and total phosphorus), which explains why it belongs to quality Class 3. As far as the total coliforms content is concerned, the water belongs to the same class. Beginning with 2006, the establishment of surface water quality has been done based on the provisions of Order no. 161/2006 regarding the approval of the normative for surface water classification with the purpose of establishing the ecological state of water bodies. According to this normative, from the point of view of nutrients (total nitrogen and total phosphorus) the waters of the Iron Gates reservoir fall into the following trophic categories: Eutrophic (in 2006 and 2007), Eutrophic-Hypertrophic (in 2008), and Hypertrophic (in 2009). From the biological standpoint, during the period 2006 2009 the reservoir waters were Mesotrophic (according to the Reports concerning the water quality, published by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, 2006 2009).
Table 3 The general characterization of the Iron Gates reservoir water quality for the period 2000 2004
Parameter U/M No. of samples Minimum Typical statistical values Mean Maximum Standard deviation 16.3 7.8 39.2 7.75 2.97 4.17 0.252 0.036 0.964 0.0914 28.0 8.5 84.0 10.63 5.60 9.06 0.801 0.100 2.213 0.3400 7.37 0.27 12.75 1.396 1.127 1.947 0.1831 0.0198 0.6462 0.06559 Percent V (90%) Cla ss 8.2 55.0 6.05 4.29 6.44 0.534 0.061 1.951 0.1853 I-IV II II II III III II III

Water physico chemical indicators Physical indicators 0C Water temperature 79 pH 79 Suspensions mg/l 79 Oxygen regime Dissolved oxygen mg O/l 78 CBO5 mg O/l 79 CCO-Mn mg O/l 79 Nutrients Ammonium mg N/l 79 (N-NH4) Nitrites(N-NO2) mg N/l 79 Nitrates (N-NO3) mg N/l 79 Orthophosphates mg P/l 78 (P-PO4)

3.9 7.2 21.0 4.79 0.90 0.46 0.021 0.003 0.154 0.0233


Total phosphorus mg P/l (P) General ions, salinity Filtered residue mg/l Chlorides(Cl) mg/l Sulphates (SO4) mg/l Calcium (Ca) mg/l Magnesium (Mg) mg/l Sodium (Na) mg/l Bicarbonates mg/l (HCO3) 0G Total hardness Total iron (Fe) mg/l Microbiological anlyses Total coliforms nr/100 ml

74 79 79 79 79 79 56 16 63 78 12

0.0090 188.0 11.6 11.8 4.4 6.8 8.0 152.5 7.8 0.01 1100

0.1182 228.4 20.3 33.8 48.3 12.8 15.1 163.9 9.7 0.18 2326

0.3600 357.0 31.3 51.5 68.4 64.0 27.0 183.0 13.0 0.62 4900

0.6607 30.10 2.61 8.48 8.15 6.30 2.88 11.76 1.11 0.151 1394.1

0.2070 260.4 23.6 45.0 57.1 15.5 18.5 183.0 11.2 0.38 4740


Source: Romanian Waters National Administration, Bucharest


The hydrological characteristics of the Iron Gates reservoir are primarily the result of the natural conditions (especially the climatic ones) of the upper and middle sections of the Danube catchment, which are responsible for the variability of the liquid and solid flows that cross the reservoir. At the same time, the exploitation regime of the Iron Gates H.N.S. (either for hydropower generation or for flow regulation) plays an important part in this respect. If prior to reservoir creation the levels regime of the Danube mirrored the river specific flow phases, once the reservoir came into existence the levels have been controlled by the needs to store or discharge the water. Level variations can have ranges as high as 7 m, with rates that sometimes exceed 1 m/day, which encourages the dynamics of the banks and slopes. Generally, the levels are high at low waters and low at high waters, inasmuch as the increased inflows require increased outflows. At the reservoir tail, the influence of water exploitation diminishes, so that the levels regime is rather similar with the discharges evolution under normal flow conditions. Unlike the levels, the discharges regime has been less affected by reservoir creation. The operation of H.N.S. ensures the transfer through the reservoir of the Danube discharges, so that at multiannual, annual and seasonal scale the discharges variability under a controlled flow regime does not stray too much from the natural conditions. However, the analysis of the mean monthly discharge variability has emphasized the role of the reservoir in flow control, through the increase of discharges during low water periods (December February and September October) and through their decrease when the waters are high (May August and November). Significant differences between the two types of regime are seen during the flood events, when flow mitigation process is more obvious, because outflow is superior to inflow.

The accomplishment of the Iron Gates reservoir has entailed significant alterations of sediment transport along the defile. The reduction of water flow velocity has encouraged sedimentation processes. Consequently, at Orova, the amount of suspended load dropped by 88% during the period 1981 2003, in comparison with the interval 1921 1962. The balance of the sediments laid down on the bottom of the reservoir during the interval 1971 2002, estimated on the basis of cumulated differences between Bazia and Drobeta Tr. Severin sections, has shown a total sediment volume of 117.8 million tons. Silting processes are more active at the reservoir tail and within the inlets at the mouth of the tributaries. As far as the water quality is concerned, it mirrors both the influence of pollution sources lying upstream the reservoir on the Danube waters, and the impact of the contamination sources located along the defile (particularly the domestic wastewaters and industrial effluents). During the period 2000 2004, the reservoir waters belonged to quality Class 2 according to the indicators reflecting oxygen regime and iron ions and to quality Class 3 according to most nutrients and total coliforms. Between 2006 and 2009, however, because of nutrients enrichment the water quality worsened, becoming from eutrophic in 2006, eutrophic-hypertrophic in 2008 and hypertrophic in 2009. At the same time, from the biological point of view the waters were mesotrophic. Under the circumstances, it is extremely important to take appropriate measures in order to protect the water quality of the Iron Gates reservoir. References Academia R.S.R., (1972), Atlasul complex Porile de Fier, Ed. Academiei R.S.R., 261 p. Administraia Naional de Meteorologie, (2008), Clima Romniei, Ed. Academiei Romne, Bucureti, 365 p. AQUAPROIECT, (1992), Atlasul Cadastrului apelor din Romania, Bucuresti, 694 p. Chiriac V., Filotti A., Teodorescu I., 1976, Lacuri de acumulare, Ed. Ceres Bucureti, 213 p. Diaconu, D.C., (2007), Caracteristici morfologice ale cuvetei Golfului Orova, Comunicri de Geografie, IX, Ed. Universitii din Bucureti, pag. 327-331. Grigore M., Sencu V., (1987), Defileul Dunrii, in Geografia Romniei, III, Ed. Academiei R.S.R., p. 406-412. Hidroconstrucia, (1984), A XX-a aniversare a S.H.E.N. Porile de Fier I. Ilie, I., (1979), Direcii noi n dezvoltarea proceselor morfogenetice i a condiiilor de solificare din zona Orova Plavievia, dup amenajarea lacului de retenie Porile de Fier I, Analele Universitii Bucureti, ser. Geografie.

Manea G, (2003), Naturalitate i antropizare n Parcul Natural Porile de Fier, Editura Universitii din Bucureti. Ministerul Mediului i Pdurilor, (2010), Reports concerning the water quality, published in 2006 2009,, (consulted on 29.12.2010). Ptroescu, M., Ghincea M., CenacMehedini M., Toma, S., Rozylovicz, L., (1999 2000), Modificri antropice n coridorul fluvial al Dunrii i reflectarea lor n starea mediului, Geographica Timisiensis, VIII-IX, Timioara. Maria Ptroescu, Cristian Ioj, Laureniu Rozylowicz (2002), Principii de management a ariilor protejate din Romnia. Studiu de caz Parcul Natural Porile de Fier, Editura Altius Academy, Iai, pag. 136-146. Pop Gr., (1996), Romnia. Geografie hidroenergetic, Ed. Presa Universitar Clujan, Cluj Napoca, 237 p. Srbu I., (2001), Valea Cernei. Studiu fizico-geografic, cu privire special asupra hidrografiei, Tez de doctorat, University of Bucharest. elu N., (1996), Studiul lacului de acumulare Porile de Fier, manuscris, 36 p. elu N., (2010), Lacul de acumulare Porile de Fier. Caracterizare fizico-geografic i funcional. Scurt istoric, Comunicri de geografie, vol. XIV, Bucureti, p. 85 100. Ujvri I., 1972, Geografia apelor Romniei, Ed. tiinific Bucureti, 591 p. Trufa, V., Simion, I., (1982), Modificarea unor caracteristici hidrologice ale Dunrii, ntre Bazia i Gura Vii, Analele Universitii Bucureti, Anul XXXI, p. 65 82. Vespremeanu, E., Posea, A., (1988), Sedimentarea i sedimentele din lacul de acumulare Porile de Fier 1, n Probleme de geomorfologie, vol. 2, Universitatea din Bucureti, p. 25 101. Zaharia L., (1993), Cteva observaii asupra scurgerii medii a unor ruri tributare Dunrii romneti, Analele Universitii Bucureti, ser. Geogr., XLII, p. 73 - 80. Zaharia L., Diaconu D., Srbu I., (2003), Activiti practice de hidrologie n arealul Porile de Fier Editura CREDIS, Bucureti, 56 p. Zaharia L., (2008), Impactul lacului de acumulare Porile de Fier I asupra morfodinamicii malului i a versantului romnesc, Comunicri de Geografie, vol. XII, Bucureti, p. 223-228. * * * (1967), Dunrea ntre Bazia i Ceatal Izmail. Monografie hidrologic, ISCH, Bucureti, 369 p.



Daniel Constantin DIACONU1, Emanuel MAILAT2
of Geography, University of Bucharest, Bucharest, Romania, 2Romanian Waters National Administrasion Water Directorate Arge Vedea Piteti, Romania

Moho Swamp is an oligotroph swamp, formed in a volcanic crater on the site of a former lake, which permanently changes. Using a series of modern methods such as ultrasound bathymetry, we want to set up a reference base so that in the future one can be able to determine the rhythm and direction of the development of this complex ecosystem, both in terms of morph metrics and chemical hydrology parameters point of view. Bathymetry and geomorfological study represents the most important stage because it makes it possible to establish the concrete characteristics of the investigated lakes as well as their placement. Keywords: volcanism, lake, swamp, bathymetric

1 Introduction Moho Swamp, "The lake with Moss" as translated from Hungarian, was formed 3,000 years ago into a volcanic crater located in Ciomadu (Ciomatu) massive near the famous objective Lacul Sf. Ana (St. Anna Lake). Due to the existence of several particular flora species, the peat bogs was declared a flora reserve and a natural monument. On the carpet of moss (Sphagnum) there are several relict plant species such as the small bur-reed (Sparganium minimum), Reed Bent-Grass (Calamagrostis neglecta), moor grass (Eriophorum gracile), species of the insectivorous plant commonly known as the "Sundews" (Drosera obovata, Drosera rotundifolia), bushes of bog rosemary (Andromeda polifolia), of blueberries (Vaccinium axycoccos). The vegetation is completed with downy birch species (Betula pubescens) and dwarf birch (Betula nana), dwarf pine (Pinus silvestris), their heights being

generally inversely proportional to the layer of peat on which they strive to maintain balance. When it rains or the thick layer of snow melts, the peat layer (thick of about 20 m according to some accounts) becomes soaked with water and behaves like a huge sponge. In the 1960s, an attempt was made to drain the swamp by digging several channels, that are sttill visible and active today, and the 80 acres were used as grassplot. The beauty of Moho Swamp is complemented by several water meshes of diffent surfaces, shapes, depths and colors. 2 The study area Ciomadu is the only compartment of the Harghita Mountains developed in the east of the Olt River, whose work has ceased relatively recently. The last eruption was dated around 15 ka ago, during the upper Pleistocene (Schreiber, 1994; Szakcs & Krzsek, 2006). The main attraction of this volcanic cone is the crater lake, the only one in the country which generated great interest over time. The volcanic activity of the Ciomadu apparatus was a mixed one. There alternated explosion phases with lava outpouring phases, which began with an explosive phase whose products partly deposited over the flysch deposits of Cretaceous era, and partly in the Ciuc basin waters. During this first phase, the eastern slope of Ciomadu, including the eastern side of the Mohos, remained uncovered by lava. There was a dacite lava outpouring phase with green hornblende, which generally covered the explosion products of the first phase, except the eastern flank of part of the southern one. Following these rises, the central and south-eastern parts of the massif were completed. The latest effusion was the basalt hornblende dacites as lava. The forming of the secondary, parasitic cones of the north-western and northern slopes occured during this phase. The Sfanta Ana (Saint Anne) crater was also completed, due to the collapse of the central area over the magmatic oven, emptied during this stage, but not through the central crater but through the intermediary of the peripheral secondary cones. D.P. Radulescu (1973) states that here the volcanism has resulted into a higher explosivity due to more pronounced acidity of the lava. The amphibiol and biotite andesite are considered to be the most acid of the entire Climan-GurghiuHarghita chain. The topography of the Ciomadu volcanic cone distinguishes by its preservation status. The cone is not very high (Ciomadu Mare (Great Ciomadu),

1301 m with a diameter between 5,50-7,00 km) and displays complications on the north-western and northern parts, due to the parasitic cones, such as Ciomadu Mare (Great Ciomadu), Ciomadu Mic (Little Ciomadu), Mohos, Vf. Cetii, Surducu which, by their placing, outline several fracture lines. The greatest attraction is exerted by the two twin craters: Sfnta Ana (Saint Anne) and Mohos (Figure 1).

Figure 1. Profile through the Sfnta Ana (Saint Ana) and Moho craters

The opinions on the genesis of the Sfnta Ana (Saint Anne) crater are contradictory. There are trends according to which the depression where the Sfnta Ana Lake (Saint Anne Lake) would not be a volcanic crater (Hauer and Stache, 1863, D. Slvoac and C. Avramescu, 1956 M. Ilie, 1964, C. Privighetori, 1970, W.E. Schreiber, 1972). Another trend states that indeed, it is a volcanic crater of the Ciomadu massif (H. Wachner, 1934, Aurel Lazar and Adela Arghir, 1964, WE Schreiber, 1972). An interim point of view was issued by P. Cote (1969) considers it to be a special type of caldera, of subsidence, probably formed as a result of the vacuum created through the eruption of Harghita Mountains, settled west of the Olt River and the depression would be the result of the compaction process. W.E. Schreiber (1972) considers that Moho is a blast and enclosure crater, and the Sfnta Ana (Saint Anne) depression is an enclosure and collapse crater.

The Moho crater was drained by Prul Rou (the Red Brook), tributary stream of the Tusnad valley in a sector where the edge of the crater is exclusively made up of pyroclastic rocks. The place where the draining occurred is the oldest part of the cone, as the erosion acted here for a long time. Inside the cone, a peat bog was created. At some point, an attempt was made to drain it and use the land for agriculture purposes but later, after the original owners regained ownership over it, it was declared a nature reserve and correspondingly administered aiming at protecting it and developing low environmental impact travelling in this area. Moho crater depth is currently estimated to be approximately 60.0 m. This value was and is constantly changing due to sedimentation processes that take place here. The main processes can be classified as follows: - Before draining, the collapses affect the steep crater edge, the convergent network and the washings lead to a broadening of the craters and also a reduction in their depth (due to the accumulation of eroded material). - After draining, due to strong erosion of the hydrographical network, there is a discharge of crumbly materials, the widening of the crater continues and it strongly deepens. Sfnta Ana (Saint Anne) volcanic cones and Moho also stand out because the first one is an intact un-drained crater while Moho is a poorly drained crater, keeping almost unchanged in the central area. The most important climatic factors influencing the current shape and development of the vegetation are the air temperature, precipitations and not the least the wind and the duration of sunshine. The area studied is characterized by a typical average height mountain climate where the average annual temperature is +6 ... +7oC and that of January below -6 oC and in the month of July below +15 oC, thus resulting an amplitude of the monthly average temperature of about 21 22oC. Recorded rainfall is between 800 1000 mm per year, with predominance in the hot season. The snow layer lasts for about 75 100 days / year, and has an insulating character for the vegetation of the swamp. The number of days when frost is recorded total between 140 180 days and at the other extreme we count the tropical days which do not exceed 2 days / year. Relative humidity of the warmest month, July, reaches 72 80%. The number of clear days recorded here is 40 50 days per year. Prevailing winds come from the west and north-west, with a frequency above 50%.


3 Methodology The research activities conducted within the lacustrian units of Moho Swamp covered two areas of study: on the spot and in the office. The works on the field consisted in acquiring submerged data, done with an ecological drilling device, single beam SIMRAD CX 33, the number of radar beams emitted towards the lake sink being (1 to 10 seconds). The ecological drilling device must be set to receive GPS corrections from satellites (EGNOS or ARTEMIS), settings made in the Position menu. At the same time, the standard speed of sound in water, which varies depending on salinity, water temperature or turbidity was set. It is worth saying thet the standard values are 1470 m / s in salty water and 1430 m / s in fresh water. Settings for sound frequency (50 kHz) issuing are done depending on the depth and nature of the river bed; the frequency of 50 kHz is used in the areas with abundant vegetation. Thanks to the computer system used within the HYPACK program, one can view jointly or independently on the GIS map or on the orthophotomap, the position within the lacustraian unit, the CSA mark and the reference points situated on the shores, possibly the profile lines used to maintain the direction of the boat, and any obstacles if they were entered into the system. The borders of the water meshes were identified within the Moho Swamp were listed within the Stereo system in 1970 due to a GPS SR 20 with 1 cm error. In order to determine the hydro-chemical parameters of the water of the lakes identified in situ, the HI 9828 kit (Hanna Instruments) was used which allowed measurement of all the necessary parameters in order to assess water quality: the percentage of dissolved oxygen saturation, conductivity, specific weight of water, pH, etc. The office activity includes processing of raw data (topographic and bathymetric) using software applications for filtering and eliminating implausible values in order to compose the digital pattern of the ground, on the basis of which the interest elements of the lake being studied will be calculated. After each profile was partly examined and processed (transverse, longitudinal and additional), a file containing the XYZ coordinates of all points mapped on the ground, be it on the lake shores or in the lake sink. Using the HYPACK program, the digital pattern of the ground was carried out, on the basis of which the volume of the lake at different levels, maximum depth, surfaces depending on the level in the lake were calculated and text reports on all these elements are issued. The digital pattern of the ground is created by making triangles between the nearest XY coordinate points, according to certain criteria defined in the HYPACK program.

Such a criterion is the maximum possible distance between 3 points and the points beyond this distance will not be used in realizing this digital pattern. Given this criterion, it is preferable that on spot, depending on the size of the lake and the desired accuracy of the final results, the distance between the transverse profiles be as short as possible, realize at least three transverse profiles and diagonal profiles (if one wishes more accurate final results). After realizing the digital pattern of the ground, the form of the lake sink is graphically represented in a 3D or 2D image and the bathymetric curves are mapped out depending on the desired spread. The final results of a topo/bathymetry, the volume and surface of the lake area are automatically generated and presented in a text file, for the spread level defined by the user of the HPACK program. The GPS points were positioned using the GIS applications of ArcGIS 9.2 computer program. Data on water temperature were transferred and read on a PC using the DLN 60 application. 4 Results 17-20 water meshes were identified in the Moho Swamp they have different surfaces and depths, different colors and eutrophication degree (Fig. 2 position, tab. 1). Most lakes are oval or round, with low sides and much vegetation. Within it, there is a rich vegetation composed of submerged and floating plants, which have as development limit the depth of 4.0 m. It can be said that this value represents the depth to which light reaches or there is a termocline whose value leads to restrictions on the development of aquatic vegetation at higher depths. Paludous plants of the border area of the lake are part of the herbaceous layer but also of the trees and shrubs that grow in height as they move away from the water mirror of the lake. The high herbaceous vegetation shows the itineraries of the animals that come to drink here, bears and deers, which carefully avoid the misleading channels that can be life threatening. The flotability of the peat layer is surprising. At a stronger pressure it vibrates, thus indicating the existence of water layer below it. The surveys conducted from close to shore and in the places where dwarf pins were knocked down, show that the thickness of the peat layer varies and its shape is the one of a cone trunk, the lake being positioned at the top of it (Figure 3). Making a comparison between the distance from shore water until the first trees that have a height of about 1.20 m and their rythms of growth, we can assume that the process of vegetation covering the gloss of water does not exceed 0,10 - 0,15 m per year as of the growth of the tree.

Figure 2 Position of lakes in the Moho Tinov Table 1 Morphometric characteristics of the lakes identified in the Moho Swamp Volume Name of the Surface Depth (m) Observations (m3) lake (m2) Moho 1 17 1050,94 139,47 Moho 2 22 1876,25 177,93 Moho 3 17 1935,54 341,85 Moho 4 10 378,82 65,55 Moho 5 14 512,21 65,33 Moho 6 10 194,41 36,59 pH - is between 3,1-6,5 Moho 7 10 137,15 23,82 transparency is 0.5 - 0.3 m water color between green Moho 8 5 144,76 101,46 and black Moho 9 7 399,58 137,48 turbidity 0-1,75 Moho 10 10 241,65 61,76 Moho 11 5 19,48 12,14 Moho 12 4 93,05 50,02 Moho 13 10 89,40 27,37 Moho 14 10 350,78 129,02 Moho 15 10 1298,34 212,71

No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15


Figure 3 Morphological sketch of the lakes located in Moho Tinov

Figure 4 Bathymetric sketch of lake no. 2


5 Conclusions The lakes identified within Mohos Swamp show morphological and morphometric characteristics which differentiate them among the other natural lakes at mountain or depression levels. Elucidation of their formation and evolution is the main purpose of researches and this article aims to mark the beginning of the study of these lakes. References Cote, P. (1969), Geomorphology with elements of geology, Publisher Teaching and Pedagogical, Bucharest. Ilie, M. (1964), Achievements in petrography and stratigraphy, Nature Series Geogr.Geol., XVI, 4. Privighetori, C. (1970), Geological and hydrological data in November in explaining the rise of Lake St. Ana-Tunad, n vol. Lucr. Colocv. de limnol. fizic, Bucureti, Inst. de Geol. al Acad. RSR. Rdulescu, D.P., Dimitriu Al., (1973), Considerations on the evolution of magmas during the neogene vulcanism in the Climani, Gurghiu and Harghita Mts., Anuar Inst. Geol., XLI. Schreiber W. E. (1972), Geographical classification and genesis of massive Ciomadu, Studia Univ. "Babes-Bolyai, seria Geogr. XVII, 1, Cluj. Schreiber W. E. (1994), Harghita Mountains - geomorphological study, Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest. Szakcs AL., Krzsek C. (2006), Volcanobasement interaction in the Eastern Carpathians: Explaining unusual tectonic features in the Eastern Transylvanian Basin, Romania. Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 158: 620. *** (2008), Climate Romania, Romanian Academy Publishing House, Bucharest.


Volume 4/2010 (Issue 2)



Laurent TOUCHART1, Pascal BARTOUT2

of Orlans, CEDETE Geographical Laboratory, France 2 Senior Lecturer, University of Orlans, CEDETE Geographical Laboratory, France

1 Professor, University

In the centre-west regions of France, the deep water outlet system known as a monk is used in 13% of bodies of water. The authorities are strongly encouraging this to increase, arguing that this system would reduce pond induced warming of the hydrographical network. We have measured the water temperature in four monk equipped ponds for 13 years to such an extent that this paper draws on an analysis of 142,200 original measurements. Compared to a surface outflow, a monk is a system which shifts the warming of the emissary water course to the end of summer and the autumn which reduces average annual warming by about 1C. This reduces the heating of diurnal maxima but increases warming of the minima. A monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which has acquired its heat by mechanical convection generated by the wind, as opposed to a weir equipped pond which provides surface water warmed by insolation. In winter the monk equipped pond does not damage the thermal living conditions for Fario trout embryos and larvae under the gravel. In summer, the monk prevents night time cooling of the emissary and increases the temperature of the minima excessively for sensitive species. Keywords: pond, stream, basin-head, water temperature, convection, monk, valve, Fario trout


Introduction Water temperature is the major physical property which governs the health and quality of hydrographic networks (Williams, 1968). It directly influences the life of aquatic organisms (Brett, 1956, Burrows, 1967, Brown, 1969, Brooker, 1981, Verneaux, 1973, Dajoz, 1985, Calow and Petts, 1992, Amoros and Wade, 1993, Harper, 1995, Crisp, 1996, Angelier, 2000) and indirectly affects them by affecting oxygen saturation (Truesdale et al., 1955) and gas solubility (Labroue et al., 1995). Less studied than the effect of ponds created by dams on large rivers, the thermal effects of bodies of water on streams requires in depth research. This has become

crucial since the implementation of the 2000 European Framework Directive which requires the quality of the water in river basin heads to be preserved. Does the effect of water bodies on the water quality of the basin-head small hydrographic network depend on the water outlet equipment installed in the banks of those bodies of water? If yes, how can the effect of ponds on the temperature of emissary streams be minimised? In France, the authorities are strongly recommending replacing surface weirs with a more costly device: the monk1. Is this deep or mid-depth water outflow system truly effective and suitable for all situations? This study in the CentreWest region of France, focused on Limousin and Berry, may provide some answers to this. These crystalline regions have a very large number of bodies of water of various sizes, about 20,000 of them, a significant number of which are very deep. Because of these deep ponds, thermal analysis of the depth from which water is drawn out at the pond embankment can be carried out over a particularly wide range. 1. Principle of Operation of the Monk and the Study Site 1.1 How the monk operates and the layer of water extracted at the bottom of the pond The monk is a pond water evacuation system located in front of the dike and drain pipe which is used to draw water at different depths and to control the outgoing flowrate (Huet, 1970, Bachasson, 1997, Arrignon, 1998, Breton, 2001, Schlumberger, 2002, Boch, 2004). It is comprised of masonry built sections, the base slab and the cage, and removable components which form one or more screens and sets of boards. The permanent parts which were formerly made of different materials including brick are nowadays made of concrete. This forms a foundation slab supporting a cage. This is traditionally made up of three vertical walls one parallel to the dike and often attached to it, sometimes a few meters in front of it and the other two perpendicular to it. The cage is open in the direction of the pond (Photo 1). In Limousin and southern Berry however a fourth wall is frequently added so that the structure takes the form of a closed chamber from all sides (Photo 2). In recent

Withdrawal of bottom water with a suitable system delivers cooler water downstream than using surface water but this water may be de-oxygenated (Gonat, 2008, p. 13). A monk is used to control the water level, but can cause shocks (ibid., p. 19). Monk [] advantages: (i) ease of controlling the water level (ii) allows for partial emptying (iii) enables pond bottom water to be drawn off (ibid., p. 51). The thermal impact [] of built in devices such as the monk, enables ponds to be emptied by removing the coldest water from the bottom and therefore to limit this type of impact (Trintignac et Kerlo, 2004, p. 34). The system means that deep water can be drawn off, i.e. cold water, which is advantageous for pisciculture during the summer (Denardou, 1987, p. 5).


monks the cube is even replaced by a cylinder. The dimensions of a monk are such that the distance between the last row of boards and the drain pipe must be equal to at least twice its diameter (Schlumberger, 2002). The interior of the cage is grooved for the removable components to slide within. The most complete monk has three or four slideways, in front or behind which a screen can slide and two or three sets of boards. It is then called a Herrguth monk (Schlumberger, 2002, Boch, 2004). As indicated beforehand, the moveable screen facing the pond is now replaced fairly often with a fixed solid wall. Through this there is only a deep outlet pipe protected by a small mesh. The two or three internal slideways are the most important part of the monk: each of them holds a set of boards, traditionally made of oak and fitted with hooks so they can be raised and lowered. The upstream set does not reach the bottom and the basal space at the bottom can be widened by removing boards; the downstream sets do not reach the top and the space at the top can also be increased by removing boards. The first set is used to control the thickness of the bottom water layer drawn out by the system and the second and third rows control the flowrate between the surface of the water, which is the same in the monk and the pond, and the top of the highest board. The advantages gained by being able to control the position of all the sets of boards on the other hand requires monitoring and maintenance which can be considered as being fastidious. This is why the monk is often made less flexible with a certain number of modifications. The most common and oldest method is to fill the space between the second and third row of boards with clay so that the internal barrier which controls the flowrate is leaktight (Photo 3). As for the first set, it is often concreted completely or at the bottom with a pipe through it at the bottom. In this situation the thickness of the water layer drawn out can no longer be varied (Photo 4 and Photo 5).
1.2. Geographical distribution of monk equipped ponds

Across the Limousin, a region where an inventory of bodies of water has been completed (Bartout, 2010), it is possible to demonstrate the numerical and spatial importance of bodies of water equipped with a monk. Out of the 18,187 bodies of water which can be considered as being ponds1, the water outflow system has been identified for 10,858. Only 1,453 ponds have a monk or 13% of the total studied.

We consider here as bodies of water, so-called tangs (ponds), lacs (ponds) and mares systme de vidange (ponds with an emptying system) as defined by P. Bartout (2010).



This relatively low percentage is well below that desired by the national authorities and shows the amount of work that remains to be done to raise awareness and see this system become the preferred device in pond embankments, if that was ever desirable. However since there is no equivalent data on any other regional scale it is difficult to know if the Limousin is over or under supplied in monk equipped bodies of water compared to weirs. Although it is not possible to make a spatial comparison with any other region the reference base of ponds in the Limousin can be used to analyse the characteristics of monk equipped ponds. Geographically speaking, no region in particular comes out as having a high number of monk equipped ponds, which reinforces the idea that this device reflects individual rather than collective initiative (Fig. 1). However, at another scale, that of the catchment area, the characteristics of monk equipped ponds comes more to the fore. Using the Strahler method for ordering water courses, we see the predisposition of ponds in the Limousin towards basin heads (order 0, 1 and 2). Monk equipped ponds are slightly differentiated overall by favoring order 1 and 2 as against order 0 water courses (Table 1).
Table 1: Distribution of ponds fitted with an emptying system in Limousin ranked on the Strahler scale (original data: P. Bartout).

Order on the Strahler scale Order 0 Order 1 Order 2 Order 3 Order 4 Order 5

Number of ponds per order 4313 3665 1921 703 222 34

Percentage of ponds in the order 39.7 % 33.8 % 17.7 % 6.5 % 2.0 % 0.3 %

Number of monk ponds per order 386 577 336 123 23 8

Percentage of monk ponds in the order 26.6 % 39.7 % 23.1 % 8.5 % 1.6 % 0.6 %

How can this significant difference be explained? Is it a problem of raising awareness with owners of ponds in order 0? A need for a permanent water supply because the monk creates outlet losses which have to be compensated for? Or the effect of legislation, given the presence of the pond on a fluvial continuum, to protect aquatic life directly downstream? All of these theories are correct but in the absence of a more detailed study it is impossible to really know how significant each one is.



Fig. 1. Map showing the location of the four ponds studied and their catchment basin in Limousin and Berry

However, since the Decree of 1999 abolishing the declaration system and the Water Law of 2006, enforcement against owners of undeclared or badly equipped ponds has become more and more pressing, particularly in areas upstream of catchment basins. The issue is that water quality in these basin heads could be affected by the ponds. The response by the authorities which is strongly influenced by the ecological and fishing sectors is a clear choice: either the pond is simply removed or it is fitted with a monk and diversion channel. However this does not take into account the particular features of ponds equipped with a monk compared to those fitted with other drainage systems. In terms of depth, the mean for monk ponds is slightly higher than for all ponds with all drainage systems taken together (2.44 m as against 2.11 m). The difference is increased if the median values are compared (2.20 m against 1.80 m). Similarly in terms of surface area the mean difference between monk ponds and all ponds with all types of drainage system taken together is even greater, since they are more than twice as large: 1.26 ha against 0.60 ha. The median backs this up with 0.52 ha against 0.24 ha. The particular features of monk equipped ponds must be stressed: they are significantly larger (more than 30% of them cover more than 5 ha compared to 11.5% for all types together). They also appear to be slightly deeper than the mean: most of them are between 2 m and 6 m deep while the 0.8 2 m and 2 6 m classes are very close to each other for all ponds together (Table 2).
Table 2. Comparison of surface area and depth of monk equipped ponds with all types of ponds together (original data: P. Bartout).

Pond Percentage surface of total ponds area < 0,1 ha 20.5 % 0.1 <1 ha 67.8 % 1 < 5 ha 5ha 10.3 % 1.4 %

Percentage of monk ponds 8.9 % 61.0 % 26.0 % 4.1 %

Pond depth < 0.8 m 0.8 < 2 m 2<6m 6m

Percentage of total ponds 6.9 % 46.4 % 45.9 % 0.8 %

Percentage of monk ponds 5.9 % 36.8 % 54.9 % 2.4 %

In summary, monk ponds are less frequently present at a source head, cover a surface area significantly above the mean and are slightly deeper than the norm in the Limousin region. Even so, their relative mean depth is much less than the pond mean (10.84 against 17.56 per thousand) which implies a particular morphology with much less pronounced internal slopes than many nearby ponds. In this must be seen the influence of their preferential categorisation in order 1 and 2 of the Strahler scale in the lower concave parts of topographical slopes. Additionally monk ponds are often part of a chain of water bodies (54% compared to 37.6% for all ponds together) and are rarely at the most upstream end

of the chain. In nearly one out of two cases the emissary water has therefore already had its physical properties modified before entering a pond equipped with a monk (mean distance from the closest upstream pond is 70 m compared to 110 m for all ponds taken together). Finally monk ponds are slightly older than the others: 18.5% pre-date 1945 compared to a mean of 14.9%. Perhaps this indicates fewer initial creations compared to restoring old ponds whose bathymetry enables the system to be made viable. These facts all prove that it is not as simple to deal with the problem of ponds as the authorities would like one to believe and therefore it is a matter of adjusting the operation of a monk equipped pond in relation to its weir equipped neighbours. To do that we will use four test basins: Pouge Pond in Haute-Vienne, the Ribires and Chaume Ponds in Creuse and Rochegaudon Pond in Indre.
1.3. Monitoring the four monk equipped ponds

Since the majority of water bodies in the region only have a surface weir, this is the type of system which was prioritised in our research and which has been covered in other reports (Touchart, 1999, 2001, 2007). However, given the importance of the issues and the pressure from the authorities to provide bodies of water with a permanent deep water outlet system, we also included four monk equipped water bodies in our sample which are the subject of this paper. They all belong to the Loire basin and the Vienne sub-basin. The two measuring sites are at Pouge Pond (4547 North 056 East, in the commune of Saint-Auvent) and Chaume Pond (4620 North 127 East, in the commune of Azrables). Each water body is of comparable dimension and bars a water course of order 4 on the Strahler scale. These are the Gorret River (Gorre basin) and the Chaume stream (Creuse basin). We recall that order 4 water courses have the highest diurnal thermal amplitude according to Vannote (1980). This order can be taken as that in which all short timescale variations are the greatest. The monk in each of these two selected water bodies takes water from the bottom so that in theory they have a maximum cooling effect on the water course. Each year their high water spillway operates for a few weeks during the highest spring water levels; at this time of year the emissary water therefore becomes a mixture. Pouge Pond covers 32 hectares and is 5.6 m deep. Its volume is 631,000 cubic meters on the mean dimension (Carlini, 2006). Chaume Pond covers 35 hectares and is 4.3 m deep. Its volume is estimated at 700,000 cubic meters. Two observation sites were added where measurements were not performed as such to quantify the effect of the monk alone. These are complex chains of ponds where not only are there successive bodies of water but also

several water outlet systems such as weirs, bypass channels and monks. The Ribires chain (4555 North 157 East, in the commune of Monteil-au-Vicomte) belongs to the Thaurion basin; the Rochegaudon and Moulin chain (4626 North 117 East, in the commune of Chaillac) belongs to the Creuse basin. In the latter case upstream from the water bodies the Allemette is a Strahler order 0 water course which dries up all summer so that a comparison between the input and output from the Rochegaudon chain can only be performed during the cooler months.
2. Methods of recording the hourly water temperature

Knowing that apart from a few exceptions (Webb & Walling, 1996, 1997), the majority of studies on river water temperatures and how it is affected by water bodies only cover a few continuous months duration (Smithm 1972), the main methodology innovations in this research are the length of time the continuous data series covers and how representative it is spatially. The water temperature is measured by submerged recording thermometers. These are Tinytag Data Loggers, with an internal sensor that has a response time of a minute and a half. This is protected by an IP68 shock resistant enclosure, waterproof down to a depth of 15 m. The thermometers are programmed to take a reading every hour. The only disadvantage of these instruments is their fairly low thermal precision since they use a piezoelectric sensor. According to the manufacturer, they are precise to within 0.2 of a degree. However we calibrated the recording thermometers ourselves with a very high precision manual thermometer. This was a Lufft C100 resistance thermometer with a 4 wire Pt100 sensor. The long class A platinum sensor in a 300 mm long and 4 mm diameter protective stainless steel tube uses the most precise technology, i.e. a 4 wire system, to measure the voltage. This is proportional to the resistance since the device uses constant DC current. The resistance of the wire increases with temperature, increasing from 100 Ohms at 0 C to about 138.5 Ohms at 100 C. However the exact resistance to temperature transfer function is specific to each device. Te general precision given by the manufacturer for this type of instrument is a hundredth of a degree at 0 C and two hundredths of a degree between 40 C and +200 C. The thermometer used in this study has serial number 033.0805.0202. Its precision is guaranteed each year with a certificate issued by Avantecs metrology department for temperatures of 0 C and 30 C. The calibration results between the Lufft C100, which was taken as the benchmark and the Tinytag Data Loggers, which we are currently using in the field vary depending on the age of the data loggers. New instruments had the best precision and achieved a tenth of a degree. As they age, the piezoelectric sensor recording thermometers lose precision.

Out of ten thermometers eight years old, our calibration gave a average precision of 0.37 C (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2. Temperature variation between ten piezoelectric thermometers and a 4 wire platinum thermometer at 23.35 C

From 1997 to 2010 we directly set up, maintained and took measurements in the field from forty underwater recording thermometers distributed over 30 sites in Limousin and Berry. Taking into account malfunctions, losses and other problems we collected in total about one million seven hundred thousand original water temperature readings over a 12 year period (data L. Touchart). Within this total most of the data relates to water bodies with a surface weir and secondly, small dam ponds with a bottom valve. Measurements on monk equipped water bodies are only in third place and represent about 140,000 temperature readings or 8% of our total database. The Pouge water body provided 104,700 readings from December 1997 to September 2002 and at Chaume 24,100 readings from July to November 2007. Water body chains, where monks are used to some extent, provide some additional data. These amount to 2,700 temperature readings in the Ribires chain at Monteilau-Vicomte in July and August 2006 and 10,700 readings from the Rochegaudon chain at Chaillac from June 2009 to February 2010. We placed thermometers in three types of location. First, each tributary into the water body was instrumented several tens or hundreds of meters upstream from the water body. Then each fluvial emissary was instrumented over several hundred meters or kilometres downstream to determine the length of the effect of the water body and how long it took to re-establish the initial fluvial properties. Finally each

water body was instrumented with thermometers in a chain buoyed every 25 cm down to 2 m depth and then every meter down to the bottom. This point is essential. The water body is not considered as being a black box but as an engine for transforming a water course from upstream to downstream. If the way it operates can be analysed then the influence of the monk can be understood and the most suitable work proposed to intelligently manage the environment. 3. Results: moderate but permanent warming of the hydrographic network 3.1. The difference between the inlet and outlet from the pond: warming of the water course but reduction in diurnal variations Over the long term the annual effect measured by comparing the inlet and outlet from Pouge Pond where the continuous data series is the longest can be considered as being a warming slightly in excess of 1 C. The annual mean of 8,760 hourly measurements during 1998 in the Gorret River is 11.2 C at the inlet and 12.4 C at the outlet, or a temperature increase of 1.2 C due to the monk equipped pond. The mean annual temperature increase is exactly the same in 1999 for an inlet temperature of 11.6 C and an outlet of 12.8 C. The annual median warming due to the water body, in other words where 50% of the hourly readings are above and below this value is 1.1 C over both years together. The seasonal cycle analysed using the monthly means shows practically no influence by the pond on the water course during the cold half of the year shifted onto spring, from December to May and a net temperature increase during the warm half of the year shifted onto autumn, from June to November. Warming of the Gorret by Pouge Pond ends in August and September (Table 3). This complete seasonal cycle for the Pouge is corroborated by the incomplete upstream and downstream measurements for the Chaume body of water. The importance of warming in the autumn, which remains strong in October, clearly appears in the data for the second monk equipped pond.
Table 3. Mean monthly temperature difference of the Gorret River between the inlet and outlet from Pouge Pond equipped with a monk (Monthly means calculated from hourly readings over two complete years (1998 and 1999, original data L. Touchart)
Month Inlet-outlet difference J F M A M 0.0 C -0.4 C +0.3 C+0.3 C -0.3 C J +1.5 C J A +2.3+3.7 C C S O N D +3.6+2.0 C+1.6 C -0.4 C C


Over the thirty three complete months available form January 1998 to July 2000 for Pouge and in August and October 2007 for Chaume Pond the mean monthly warming of the water course by the monk equipped pond exceeded 4 C for two months (Pouge in August 1998 and September 1999), was between 3 C and 4 C for three months (Pouge in September 1998 and August 1999, Chaume in August 2007), was between 2 C and 3 C for four months (Pouge en July 1998, July 1999 and October 1999, Chaume in October 2007), was between 1 C and 2 C for five months (Pouge in October 1998, November 1998, June 1999, November 1999 and July 2000). The complex case of the Moulin and Rochegaudon chain at Chaillac can be added to this effect of an isolated monk equipped pond, where the first monk equipped pond has a bypass channel which is dry during the warm season and the second water body has a monk which is fixed to operate as a weir. Between the upstream and downstream of the chain the mean warming for the last three weeks before the tributary dried up in July 2009 was 6.5 C. During winter when the bypass channel for the first monk equipped pond is full of water the chain cooled the water course by a complete monthly mean of 0.4 C in December 2009 and 0.1 C in January 2010. The same chain warmed the water course with an incomplete monthly mean of 1.2 C during the last two weeks of November 2009. If we take the raw hourly data without converting it into monthly means, the annual study shows that the monk equipped body of water warms the water course for two thirds of the year in a range where the class going from 2 to 4 C takes on a remarkable significance. For the 17,520 hours from 01:00H on 1st January 1998 to 23:00H on 31 December 1999, the Gorret River was warmed by Pouge Pond for 11,587 hours or 66% of the time. The temperature was exactly the same (to a tenth of a degree Celsius) between the pond inlet and outlet for 1,116 hours or 6% of the time. The river was cooled by the monk for 4,817 hours or 27% of the time. Of the 11,587 hours where the monk generated heating, 6,040 hours or 34% of the total time over the two years and 52% of the heating time generated values greater than or equal to 2 C; 1,878 hours (11% of the total time and 16% of the heating time) generated values equal to or greater than 4 C; 398 hours (2% of the total time and 3.4% of the heating time) generated values greater than or equal to 6 C and 24 hours (0.1% of the total time and 0.2% of the heating time) values greater than or equal to 8 C. The highest instantaneous variation was recorded on the 1st September 1999 at 08:00H when the outlet temperature from Pouge was 8.5 C higher than the inlet. Upstream and downstream from Chaume Pond the highest instantaneous variation was 7.1 C on the 5 August 2007 at 08:00H. Upstream and downstream from the chain of two monk equipped water bodies of Moulin and Rochegaudon where the bypass channel for the first was dry and the second operated as a weir, the highest instantaneous difference was 9.5 C on 29 June 2009 at 15:00H. Our readings show therefore that the warming generated by a monk

is significant while the existing literature leads one to believe that a surface weir is the only system which causes such levels of warming. On a short timescale, the diurnal minima and maxima, the diurnal amplitudes and the daily average deviations in a water course are changed to a large degree by a monk equipped body of water. The maxima are the least changed. The absolute maximum out of 8,760 hourly temperature readings is practically unchanged by the monk. In 1998 the instantaneous maximum temperature of the Gorret was 22.7 C upstream and 23.0 C downstream. If we look at the absolute maximum for each month, the monk equipped pond reduces the warmest peak values of the river in winter, spring and at the beginning of summer but increases them at the end of summer and in the autumn. Therefore for eight months of the year the pond reduces the absolute monthly maximum hourly temperature. The warmest instantaneous eight monthly average river temperature for 1998 was cooled by 1.4 C by the monk. But the opposite occurs from August to November. The absolute maximum October 1998 hourly temperature reading was 13.8 C upstream from Pouge and 17.7 C downstream, i.e. +3.6 C. The increase due to the monk was +1.8 C in September, +0.4 C in November and +0.3 C in August. These values were confirmed at another pond, the Chaume. The absolute maximum hourly temperature at the end of July and the end of August 2007 was 22.2 C upstream and 23.3 C downstream, i.e. +1.1 C due to the monk. As against the river thermal maxima which are only slightly changed by the monk equipped pond the minima are warmed strongly. Upstream and downstream from Pouge Pond the absolute minimum for all 12 months of 1998 was increased by the monk. This warming ended in August since the temperature never went below 10.6 C upstream and 18.8 C downstream or an increase of 8.2 C due to the monk. The temperature increase in the lowest river values continued significantly in September (+ 4.0 C) and October (+4.7 C). Chaume Pond confirmed this strong increase in the absolute minimum of the hourly data during the end of summer and autumn months since, in August 2007, the temperature never fell below 12.0 C upstream and 16.8 C downstream, i.e. an increase of 4.8 C due to the monk. In October 2007 the minimum instantaneous warming in the stream going through the Chaume was 4.4 C. The maxima were little changed but the minima were strongly warmed. The evident consequence of this is that the monk reduces the temperature difference between night and day. The diurnal amplitude of the river is strongly reduced by the pond at all times during the year. On average, the monk reduces the diurnal amplitude by more than a degree and a half and it is four times lower at the pond outlet than at the inlet (Table 4).


Table 4: Reduction in diurnal thermal amplitude in the Gorret water course due to Pouge Pond equipped with a monk (Values calculated from 1998 and 1999 hourly readings, original data L. Touchart)

Month January 98 February 98 March 98 April 98 May 98 June 98 July 98 August 98 September 98 October 98 November 98 December 98 1998 Year

Mean diurnal amplitude upstream 1.2 C 2.4 C 2.7 C 1.9 C 2.8 C 2.6 C 2.4 C 3.4 C 2.0 C 1.3 C 1.4 C 1.2 C 2.1 C

Mean diurnal amplitude downstream 0.3 C 0.4 C 0.5 C 0.6 C 0.6 C 0.4 C 0.7 C 0.5 C 0.4 C 0.5 C 0.4 C 0.3 C 0.5 C

Difference between upstream and downstream -0.9 C -2.0 C -2.2 C -1.3 C -2.2 C -2.2 C -1.7 C -2.9 C -1.6 C -0.8 C -1.0 C -0.9 C -1.6 C

A final criterion can be used to understand the effect of the monk on short timescale river temperature variations. This is the difference between the maximum and minimum daily mean for each month which will be called the interdiurnal variation. For ten months of 1998 this value was greatly reduced by Pouge Pond. Summer is particularly affected since the highest reduction was measured in June, July and August. For example in June 1998 the interdiurnal variation was 5.8 C upstream and only 1.3 C downstream. Only in May and September was this variable not changed by the monk. In total, the monk equipped pond warms the water course the most at the end of summer, particularly in August and September, both in terms of the monthly mean and the instantaneous maximum. However it is during these hottest months that the monk equipped pond stabilises short term river temperature variations the best, from hour to hour and from day to day. 3.2. The length of emissary affected: a question of diurnal minima The longest linear fluvial length downstream from a pond with a monk for which we have data is along the stream of the Chaume, instrumented with five thermometer recorders positioned over more than ten kilometres downstream from the dike down to where it joins the Benaize. A sixth thermometer was positioned

upstream from the pond (code name combe) to give the unaffected fluvial reference temperature. Complete thermal data from 29 July to 23 August 2007 will be commented upon here as a monthly summary. In August the mean monthly difference between the inlet and outlet to the monk equipped pond was +3.6 C. The difference between the emissary and the inlet was still +1.4 C at a point 4.2 km downstream from the dike and +0.7 C at 10,425 m. The entire linear fluvial of the emissary is therefore influenced by the warming down its confluence with the large river in the region, the Benaize. On average however the emissary is cooled by 3 C over ten kilometres and greatly reduced the thermal anomaly generated by the pond (Fig. 3).

Fig. 3. The linear fluvial influenced by a chain of ponds, the first of which has a monk: the Chaume streamlet as an example

Within this monthly mean, the diurnal maxima are little changed from upstream to downstream and the values are practically the same between the pond inlet and the point located ten kilometres downstream. The small amount of warming caused by the monk was compensated for by cooling along the length of the emissary. On the other hand the diurnal minima, which are strongly warmed by the monk pond, are propagated far downstream. For example the largest instantaneous variation between the thermometer 10,425 m downstream and the one upstream from the pond, which was 2.92 C, was measured on the 1st August at 07:00H. The second, which reached +2.90 C occurred on the 14th August at 06:00H. All these values corresponded to very pronounced upstream diurnal minima while the monk was supplying fairly warm and stable water without variation from one hour to the next.

By having little effect on maxima while warming the minima, the monk equipped pond reduces the diurnal amplitude and this lower deviation is also propagated several kilometres down the outlet emissary (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4: Instantaneous temperatures in the stream of the Chaume over an 11 km linear stretch upstream and downstream from monk equipped Chaume Pond.

4. Discussion: how does deep pond water propagated down a fluvial emissary degrade the biogeographic quality of a water course? 4.1. Limnological Discussion: a thermal effect governed by forced mixing. Even taking account of the fact that the monk is used in Limousin more as a fixed valve at the bottom rather than a mixing system which could provide some flexibility, the emissary water at the pond outlet is despite everything not exactly the same as at the bottom of the pond. It is more a mixture of deep waters. The monk removes a layer of water of a certain thickness and also disturbs the stratification at the embankment. For example, at Pouge the monk takes the water to the bottom, then it passes through a valve which sends it out. When the 251.80 m level is reached, the water goes over the central board of the monk and the emissary flow rate increases. The first passage is 80 cm wide so that the water covers it from the bottom to a depth of 4.80 m, less during low water. At 3.65 m depth (normal level of 251.80 m) a 15 x 15 cm valve is used to control the flowrate.

Therefore it is useful to compare the temperatures taken just outside the monk outlet and those at the bottom of the pond further upstream where there is no risk of the stratification being disturbed by the monk. At Pouge Pond we located the vertical buoyed chain 175 m upstream from the dike where the depth was still 5 m. At Chaume the thermometer chain recorded data in the geometric centre of the pond which is only 120 cm deep at this point, 450 m upstream from the dike (Table 5).
Table 5: Temperature difference between pond bottom and emissary fed by the monk (Monthly means calculated from hourly readings, data L. Touchart. Year 2000: Pouge Pond, temperature at 500 cm depth; Year 2007: Chaume Pond, temperature at 120 cm depth. April: from 13/04 at 16:00 to 30/04 at 23:00. August: from 01/08 at 00:00 to 08/08 at 16:00. May, June, July: complete months. October: from 15/10 at 19:00 to 27/10 at 16:00) Month Pond bottom Monk temperature Difference temperature April 2000 11.28 C 11.76 C +0.48 C May 2000 12.99 C 14.45 C +1.46 C June 2000 16.52 C 18.16 C +1.64 C July 2000 18.41 C 19.01 C +0.60 C August 2000 18.0 C 19.7 C +0.7 C October 2007 11.0 C 11.5 C +0.5 C

In spring, summer and autumn the water which leaves via the monk is systematically warmer than that at the bottom of the pond. This difference can be interpreted by artificial mixing of deep layers occurring in the water outlet system. This difference reaches a maximum during the period of pond thermal stratification when the monk artificially mixes different types of water, adding other warmer layers which were above it to the bottom layer. The temperature of the water drained out through the emissary is then significantly higher than that at the bottom of the pond. On the other hand, the difference falls when the pond is itself naturally mixed which usually occurs in April and October during a thermal reversal or, exceptionally, as in July 2000, marked by a very large number of atmospheric disturbances. Thus it is the temperature of the deep layers in the pond drained out by the monk which determines the temperature of the fluvial emissary. The amount of heat in the pond depths depends on two conditions experienced by the pond during the warm season: stratification and mixing. Most of the time the ponds in Limousin and Berry are stratified at a depth below 1.50 m. During brief and fairly rare intervals the water layer is mixed, down to three to four meters over about a 10 day interval and for four to five weeks beyond that down to five to six metres (Touchart, 2002). During the most long lasting summertime condition, that of thermal stratification, the pond heats the emissary to a moderate degree. The tributary is fairly warm upstream while insolation on the pond isolates a deep layer called the

hypostagnion for several weeks under the thermocline (Touchart, 2007), which has no contact with the surface layers. In general the hypostagnion is certainly a bit warmer than the incoming water course but the difference is small so that the emissary is only slightly warmed by the pond. This is the situation in June. At the end of long hot spells which have warmed the stream upstream while isolating a cold hypostagnion, the monk equipped body of water can even cool the water course. This stratification condition explains how the monk reduces short timescale variations, i.e. diurnal amplitudes or interdiurnal variations. Since there is no exchange with the pond surface the hypostagnion holds water for several weeks at a temperature that does not vary from day to day or between day and night as long as the stratification is not disturbed. Finally this stability in the deep layer of the pond explains why the temperature variation between the water course upstream and downstream from the monk equipped body of water depends almost entirely on upstream variations. Without any change in the outlet water temperature, periods of upstream cooling cause the widest thermal variations with the downstream and periods of upstream heating reduce the temperature difference with the downstream, by creating a situation where the downstream is permanently warmer than the upstream. In concrete terms, during periods of stability, this phenomenon causes diurnal warming maxima generated by the pond on the water course early in the morning when the tributary is coldest. As opposed to the condition of thermal stratification, the deep pond water in Limousin or in the extreme south of Berry experienced several periods of mixing during the warm half of the year. The thermocline broke down, the wind mixed the previously overlying layers and the heat energy in the surface was distributed throughout the body of water down to the bottom. Then the monk drew out water which had been warmed by mixing with the surface. On all timescales, the periods during which the water course is the most warmed by the monk equipped pond correspond to periods when the thermal stratification breaks down. On a long timescale, this explains sustained warming of the emissary which is revealed in the end of summer and autumn monthly means, particularly with elevated values in September. On a short timescale, this explains the strong warming caused by the pond over a few hours when mixing occurs after a period of high insolation during the summer when there is an atmospheric disturbance or a storm. This also explains why the absolute minimum water course temperature during each summer month is the variable the monk equipped pond warms the most from upstream to downstream the body of water. However the situation for the minima is complex and it requires more detailed analysis.


During the warm half of the year, the minima for the water course entering the pond have two sources. The first accompanies atmospheric disturbances and the second is caused by night time radiation during a period of anti-cyclonic stability. The coldest minima in the water courses occur, upstream, when a depression from the west reaches the region and delivers summertime precipitation. Accompanied by the wind, the disturbance causes forced mixing in the pond. Mechanical convection takes the heat which has previously built up in the surface layer down to the bottom. The monk then draws out warmer water from the pond and supplies it to the emissary. Therefore the difference is very high between the inlet water course temperature, which is at its summer minimum and the outlet water course, which is not far from its maximum. Significant absolute warming of the stream is generated by the monk. Another family of tributary water course minima is that from the fairly cold temperatures which occur during periods of calm anti-cyclonic weather in the early hours of the morning, from clear night radiation. It is true that this heat loss also reaches the surface of the pond and causes free convection which makes the thermocline go deeper and weakens it. But, except in thin layered ponds, the phenomenon does not break down the stratification layering. The hypostagnion reduces in thickness but the temperature at the bottom of the pond remains unchanged. This strong nocturnal cooling in the upstream water course which is not felt at the outlet from the monk equipped pond generates a high difference between the inlet and downstream. The monk equipped pond then causes relative warming of the water course, in that upstream cooling occurs while a deep layer in the pond remains unchanged that generates the large temperature difference. During the cold season other processes occur. The most pronounced minima in the upstream water course give the water a temperature close to 0 C. During these periods the pond is frozen or, at least, experiences fairly stable inverse stratification. The monk then draws out water close to the maximum density temperature, causing the water course to warm which can approach 4 C over a few days, raising the minima. At the monthly mean scale however the periods of winter mixing dominate in the temperate hyper-oceanic regions of Centre-West France, so that the monk equipped pond slightly cools the water from December to February. 4.2. Hydrographic Discussion: diurnal minima propagated by the inability of the emissary to cool night time water during the day From the ponds point of maximum influence, corresponding to the water outlet system, the emissary water course tends to progressively regain its initial condition over a distance which depends on climatic conditions, the relationship with groundwater levels and other water inflows. In the case of the catchment area for

the Chaume, the fairly homogeneous crystalline lithology dominated by the Saint Sulpice two-mica granite causes small groundwater layers to form in the alterites which have a fast response time and tend to dry out by the end of the summer. Their effect on the emissary falls to practically zero from August to October. The same applies to surface streams which enter the emissary from Chaume Pond over the eleven kilometres which separate it from its confluence with the Benaize. These are temporary inflows of order 0 in the natural state, some of which have become permanent flows due to the presence of small pools. This is why it is probable that the emissary from Chaume Pond would readjust its temperature depending on climatic conditions, in similar ways to those we had studied previously for a pond on the Millevaches plateau (Touchart, 2007). The distance over which the fluvial properties would be re-established would be about 12 kilometres. The Chaume stream has five bodies of water along it. Two of them, Bardon and Janay are of large size and bar the main course of the emissary. The other smaller ones are on inflowing streams. Some of these also have a monk but most of them only have a surface weir. Monk equipped Chaume Pond is in fact only the first in a succession of water bodies along the water course and this chain of ponds explains the fact that nowhere does the fluvial water have enough distance to reestablish its upstream qualities, since it enters a new pond before having significantly lost its heat gain. Nevertheless, near the confluence with the Benaize, more than 10 km downstream from the monk, the mean warming of 0.7 C is no higher than that described by us on a linear flow without a chain of bodies of water beyond the first one. Notwithstanding the succession of multiple bodies of water after Chaume Pond, the characteristics of the monk in the largest of all these ponds, which is also the first one in the chain, would appear to play a role in the fact that it is the raised minima which are propagated the furthest in such a distinct manner. Anti-cyclonic night time cooling which rapidly affects the stream above the pond does not significantly reduce the river temperature several kilometres downstream from the pond dike. The monk equipped pond had an effect in between the two. However during these calm sunny periods in summer, the pond becomes permanently stratified so that the monk supplies water at a stable temperature which is hardly any cooler at the end of the night than at the end of the day. This relatively warm morning water does not cool down in the emissary since it flows down during daytime hours; we postulate here that the main reason for this is the time shift, creating a maximum difference between the pond inlet and outlet in the early morning, which is a major feature of the operation of a monk compared to other water outlet systems such as a weir. In addition, the phenomenon is perhaps accentuated by the inertia of a river swelled downstream by other inflows.

4.3. Biogeographic Discussion: negative effect of the monk in summer, positive in winter Since it is written by geographers this is not a biological article and the authors make no pretensions in this field. However, it seemed relevant to follow the hydrological discussion with a biogeographical summary, based on rare and sensitive species. Fario trout can be considered as being symbolic for these. For reasons of clarity, the discussion covers two distinct parts. First, the connection between temperature and young and adult life in the water, which is a summertime risk and secondly, the relationship between temperature and sub-gravel life, from egg-laying to emersion, where the risk occurs during the winter. The most widely used indicator, since the biotypology developed by J. Verneaux (1973) was perfected, which enables the link between temperature and water course biology to be quantified in a simple way, is based on the mean temperature of the thirty warmest days during the year. In the case of the Gorret River, classification in descending order of the 365 diurnal means for 1998 showed the significance of Pouge Pond. Upstream from the body of water, the mean of the thirty highest diurnal means was 18.9 C, while downstream from the monk it was 21.2 C, i.e. warming by 2.3 C. However the difference between upstream and downstream increases as the mean diurnal temperature decreases (Fig. 5), confirming that the monk, as opposed to other water outlet systems, warms the lowest summer water course temperatures more than the highest. Due to this the J. Verneaux indicator minimises the influence of the monk or rather shows that the system has a moderate effect on the warmest temperatures which would be detrimental to the most important species.

Fig. 5. 30 warmest diurnal means in 1998 (biotypology) upstream and downstream from monk equipped Pouge Pond


Two other simple criteria give significant indications if we study not the diurnal means but the hourly data. These are the mortality threshold and the preferendum threshold. The first can be set at 25 C and the second at 19 C. If these limits are exceeded it can be quantified in terms of the total number of hours, the number of sequences, the number of consecutive hours in the longest sequence and the highest sequence. The lethal threshold has never been observed to be exceeded at our sites. Of the 17,520 hours from 00:00H on 1st January 1998 to 23:00H on 31 December 1999 no readings ever reached 25 C, either upstream or downstream from monk equipped Pouge Pond. Similarly, for the 669 hours from 18:00H on 26 July 2007 to 14:00H on 23 August 2007, no temperature readings were ever recorded over 25 C, either upstream or downstream from monk equipped Chaume Pond. Studying the sequences enables the analysis to be fine tuned. We performed this on Pouge Pond for all of 1998. Upstream, the 377 hours where the 19 C limit was exceeded are distributed over 33 sequences with the longest being 61 hours (16% of the total). This is not the sequence containing the instantaneous maximum of 22.7 C which occurred during a 45 hour sequence. Downstream, the 1,616 hours where the threshold was exceeded are distributed over 9 sequences, the longest being 1,331 hours (82% of the total) and that sequence also recorded the instantaneous maximum (23 C). Of the 33 upstream sequences, 21 coincide with downstream sequences where the limit was exceeded. During these sequences it can be considered that the monk does not change the thermal properties of the water course. What is significant are the distortions in both directions. During the 12 short sequences, the threshold is exceeded in the water course upstream but not downstream, from the pond. Then the monk can be viewed as a positive factor which prevents the river leaving the preferendum. These short sequences are all concentrated in spring and at the very beginning of summer since they occur between 14 May (a six hour sequence) and 24 June (a seven hour sequence). On the other hand, the threshold is exceeded downstream from the pond during the 8 long sequences while the river stays within the preferendum upstream. Most of these sequences are shifted towards the end of summer with the longest occurring uninterrupted from 5 July to 29 August and the last one in the season occurring from 2 to 11 September. Then the monk can be considered as being a system which degrades river water quality. By preventing the water course from cooling during the night and significantly increasing diurnal minima, from July to September the monk permanently sets up water conditions that are too warm for sensitive species even though the water course only experiences fairly short excess thermal spikes upstream from the pond. In winter the thermal hazard no longer really concerns adult life in the water itself but sub-gravel life, between egg-laying and emersion. If we look at the work by

D.T. Crisp (1996) and Jungwirth & Winkler (1984), optimal development of trout eggs and embryos occurs at daily temperatures between 1 C and 12 C. The date of egg-laying, which occurs from November to February, reaches a maximum in December, knowing that the number of hours of daylight during the shortest days is very important for release of the spawn. Following on from A. Caudron et al. (2008), we will arbitrarily select here 15 December. On the River Gorret upstream from the pond, if the point of departure is taken as 15 December 1997, the 420 degree-days between egg-laying and hatching are reached on 24 February 1998 without any diurnal means exceeding the 12 C threshold. The following 310 degree-days between hatching and emersion are reached on 1 April 1998 at the point when two days, 29 March and 1 April, have just exceeded the 12 C diurnal mean by 0.2 C. Downstream from the monk at Pouge Pond the 420 degree-days between egg-laying and hatching are reached on exactly the same day, 24 February 1998, under the same favourable conditions, with no diurnal means exceeding the 12 C threshold. The following 310 degree-days between hatching and emersion are reached a day earlier on 31 March 1998 under better conditions than upstream with no diurnal mean exceeding 12 C over this period. The following winter confirms the effect of the monk. Upstream from 15 December 1998, the 420 degree-days between egg-laying and hatching are reached on 2 March 1999 without any diurnal means exceeding the 12 C threshold. The following 310 degree-days between hatching and emersion are reached on 4 April 1999, with the limit exceeded over the last four days, reaching a degree above the 12 C threshold. Downstream from the monk at Pouge Pond the 420 degree-days are reached on the 7 March under the same favourable conditions, with no diurnal means exceeding the 12 C threshold. The following 310 degree-days are reached on 7 April under better conditions than upstream with the threshold exceeded by only 0.1 C on the 6th April and by 0.3 C on the 7th April. Therefore it can be considered that both upstream and downstream from the pond the thermal conditions for the sub-gravel existence of Fario Trout embryos and larvae are met. According to this biogeographic criterion the monk does not degrade the thermal properties of the river in any way and even has a tendency to improve it slightly. Conclusions and comparison of the thermal effect of the monk and other pond flow control systems The monk is a system used in a very small number of ponds in crystalline Limousin and Berry but which is being strongly recommended to owners by the authorities to replace surface weirs. The purpose of this study is to analyse the operation of the monk and the effect on the hydrographical network of ponds which

use one compared to other bodies of water. The study is based on original measurements and the actual situation of ponds equipped with a monk which are managed in a complex way. The monk is not a simple device for drawing out deep water. First of all, in Limousin and southern Berry, it is most often used as a fixed bottom valve rather than as a flexible control system. Secondly, it is often used along with other devices: our study on the Moulin and Rochegaudon chain of ponds shows two successive bodies of water with a monk but the first also has a bypass channel which is dry during the four or five warm months and the monk in the second is practically frozen in place to operate as a surface weir. The relevance of our scientific study for regional planning, as a response to a socio-economic demand, requires us to draw conclusions not only about the effect of the monk on water courses but to compare the effect of monk equipped ponds and those which use other devices, i.e. a surface weir or a bypass channel. (i) From a descriptive point of view the monk warms up the annual mean temperature of the emissary by about 1 C, compared to 2 C for a weir. The highest warming season occurs in August and September downstream from the monk while this occurs in June and July downstream from a weir. The summer maxima are practically unchanged by a monk while they are strongly raised by a weir. On the other hand, the summer minima are very significantly warmed by a monk while they are practically unchanged by a weir. In summer the monk and weir each generate very strong warming for the same length of time as each other (Table 6). But the minima are raised to a high degree by the monk while it is the maxima which are strongly warmed downstream from a weir. The monk and weir operate in such a way that downstream warming is very distinct in both cases and only slightly moderated by the monk. In fact, a bypass is the only system which is really different and works effectively against warming.
Table 6. The proportion of time the water course is warmed in summer by the pond as a function of the water outlet device (Percentages calculated in proportion to the total bimonthly time from hourly readings taken by L. Touchart. The monk ponds are Chaume in July and August 2007 (first figure) and Pouge in July and August 1998 (second figure). The surface weir pond is Oussines in July and August 2005. The bypass pond is Ribires in July and August 2006. The water course is order 4 at Chaume, Pouge and Oussines and order 2 at Ribires)

Warming greater than 5 C Warming greater than 4 C Warming greater than 3 C Warming greater than 2 C Warming greater than 1 C

Monk 17 % ; 24 % 41 % ; 38 % 64 % ; 56 % 85 % ; 71 % 97 % ; 83 %

Weir 19 % 59 % 88 % 99 % 100 %

Bypass 0% 0% 0% 2% 35 %


The monk equipped pond reduces the diurnal amplitude of the emissary by three quarters while the pond with a surface weir reduces it by a quarter. But the major difference with the weir pond is that the monk lowers day to day temperature variations, flattening the diurnal means, while the weir increases them. The monk equipped pond can warm emissary water as far as twelve kilometres below the embankment but, over such distances, this warming is particularly visible on the minima, on morning temperatures. While the distances affected are more or less the same downstream from a weir, on the other hand the very warm afternoon temperatures are propagated the furthest. (ii) The above differences are explained by the fact that the monk equipped pond warms the river with deep water which acquired its heat from forced mixing of the pond. This mechanical convection, caused by the wind, occurs after heat has built up in the pond surface by insolation. This explains the time shift in warming of the emissary to the end of summer and autumn, the reduction in total mean warming, the reduction in warming of the maxima and the increase in warming of the minima. This means that the temperature of the air and the emissary, which is supplied by deep pond water from the monk, are not correlated. On the contrary, the temperature of the air and an emissary downstream from a surface weir are correlated because the heat in pond surface water depends on insolation. To simplify things, when stream water upstream from a weir pond is warm it is very warm downstream while stream water above and below a monk equipped pond experiences much less simple and predictable variations. This is because it largely depends on the occurrence of atmospheric disturbances and windy periods which disturb the ponds thermal stratification. (iii) The consequences of these thermal effects on the biogeography of the hydrographic network are sufficiently different for the different devices to be compared. In winter neither monk nor weir ponds degrade water course thermal quality. More precisely, both upstream and downstream of the pond the thermal conditions for the sub-gravel existence of Fario Trout embryos and larvae are met. According to this biogeographic criterion not only does the monk not degrade the thermal properties of the river but it even has a tendency to improve it slightly. There is a larger contrast during the warm season. In summer, the monk tends to prevent the emissary from cooling at night and strongly increases minima temperatures. It thus creates conditions which are continuously too warm for sensitive species while the weir leaves night time downstream cooling windows which are good for the thermal preferendum. On the other hand, the lethal temperature limit is never reached below a monk, while very strong warming peaks exceeding the lethal temperature for the most sensitive species do occur downstream from a weir.


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National Administration Apele Romne, 6 Edgar Quinet street, Sector 1, Bucharest,

The main goal of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive) is the achievement of the good status of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. According to the legal requirements, at the 22nd of December 2009, Romania has elaborated the first National Management Plan synthesis of the River Basin Management Plans. This process assumes the types identification and water bodies delineation on the basis of some abiotic and biotic parameters, such: water category, abiotic and biotic typology, physical features, water status, pressures and their impacts, as well as protected areas. Therefore, for the lower Danube sector between Bazias and Isaccea 4 water bodies have been delineated: 2 reservoirs (Portile de Fier/Iron Gates and Ostrov) and 2 river sectors (Ostrov Chiciu, Chiciu Isaccea). The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts) has shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydromorphological alterations. The Water Framework Directive defines the surface water status through: the ecological status - 5 classes (based on biological, hydro-morphological and physic-chemical elements) and chemical status 2 classes (based on priority substances). In present, the 4 water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being designated as heavily modified water bodies. Keywords: typology, water bodies, pressures, impact, risk assessment, heavily modified water bodies, ecological status/potential, chemical status.

1. Recall of the Water Framework Directive requirements The WFD establishes a framework for the protection of all waters (including inland surface waters, transitional waters, coastal waters and groundwater) which, according to article 1: prevents further deterioration of, protects and enhances the status of water resources; promotes sustainable water use based on long-term protection of water resources; aims at enhancing protection and improvement of the

aquatic environment through specific measures for the progressive reduction of discharges, emissions and losses of priority substances and the cessation or phasing-out of discharges, emissions and losses of the priority hazardous substances; ensures the progressive reduction of pollution of groundwater and prevents its further pollution; and contributes to mitigating the effects of floods and droughts. The necessity of analyzing the anthropogenic pressures and their impacts is declared in the Article 5 of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC Directive): Each Member State shall ensure an analysis of its characteristics, a review of the impact of human activity on the status of surface waters and on groundwater and an economic analysis of water use for each river basin district or for the portion of an international river basin district falling within its territory. Also, Member States shall carry out an assessment of the susceptibility of the surface water status of bodies to the identified pressures. The result is an assessment of the likelihood that surface waters bodies within the river basin district will fail to meet the environmental quality objectives set for the bodies under Article 4. For those water bodies identified as being at risk of failing the environmental quality objectives, further characterization shall, where relevant, be carried out to optimize the design of both the monitoring programmes required under Article 8, and the programmes of measures required under Article 11. The Water Framework Directive requires the achieving the objective of good water status (good ecological and chemical status for surface waters) by defining and implementing the necessary measures within integrated programmes of measures, taking into account existing Community requirements. Where good water status already exists, it should be maintained. The ecological status represents the structure and functioning of aquatic ecosystems, defined according to the provisions of the Annex V of the Water Framework Directive, through biological quality elements, hydro-morphological and physico-chemical general elements as support elements for biological ones, as well as specific pollutants (synthetic and non-synthetic). Member States may designate a body of surface water as artificial or heavily modified, when: (a) the changes to the hydro-morphological characteristics of that body which would be necessary for achieving good ecological status would have significant adverse effects on: the wider environment; navigation, including port facilities, or recreation; activities for the purposes of which water is stored, such as drinking-water supply, power generation or irrigation; water regulation, flood protection, land drainage; or other equally important sustainable human development activities; (b) the beneficial objectives served by the artificial or modified characteristics of the water body cannot, for reasons of technical feasibility or

disproportionate costs, reasonably be achieved by other means, which are a significantly better environmental option. Such designation and the reasons for it shall be specifically mentioned in the river basin management plans required under Article 13 and reviewed every six years. The good ecological potential and good chemical status are environmental objectives for artificial or heavily modified water bodies. 2. Typology and water body delineation The WFD requires that for every surface water category, the surface water bodies shall be differentiated according their types. In Romania, for water courses, the typology has been defined following 3 steps: top down approach - typology based on abiotic descriptive parameters; bottom up approach - typology based on direct measurements of biological communities variability; superposition of the first 2 approaches. The typology for the Danube River was defined based on: harmonized methodology within the GEF/UNDP Danube Regional Project Typology and reference conditions for river Danube using national countries contributions; and national methodologies, considering the abiotic and biotic parameters. The analysis has led to the definition of 3 water bodies types for the Danube River : RO12 Danube River Gorges: ecoregion 12 (Pontic province); Geology: calcareous; catchment area: very large; altitude: 100-200 m; RO13 Danube River Gorges Calarasi: ecoregion 12 (Pontic province); Geology: siliceous; catchment area: very large; altitude: 5-70 m; RO14 - Danube River Calarasi - Isaccea: ecoregion 12 (Pontic province); Geology: siliceous; catchment area: very large; altitude: 5 m. The Water Framework Directive defines a body of surface water as a discrete and significant element of surface water such as a lake, a reservoir, a stream, river or canal, part of a stream, river or canal, a transitional water or a stretch of coastal water. In Romania, the following steps have been taken into consideration in the process of surface water delineation: identification of categories limits of surface waters; identification of types limits of surface waters; identification of water bodies limits using physical characterization; identification of limits of water bodies based on other criteria: surface water status, protected areas location, hydro-morphological alterations. For the Danube River, 4 water bodies (WB) have been delineated (excluding Danube Delta): WB 1 (Bazias - Iron Gate dam) - WB length 132 km (km 1075-943); WB 2 (Iron Gate dam - Ostrov) - WB length 80 km (km 943-863); WB 3

(Ostrov - Chiciu) - WB length 487,5 km (km 863-375.5); WB 4 (Chiciu - Issacea) WB length 275,5 km (km 375.5-100). 3. Assessment of risk of failing the environmental quality objectives The main steps for pressures and impact assessment are: identification of driving forces and pressures; identification of significant pressures; impact evaluation; assessment of risk of failing the environmental quality objectives. For pressures and impact assessment the DPSIR (Driver-Pressure-StateImpact-Response) concept is used. Thus, there is necessary to include information on drivers (anthropogenic activities that may have an environmental effect), pressures (the direct effect of the driver, for example, an effect that causes a change in flow or a change in the water chemistry), state (the condition of the water body resulting from both natural and anthropogenic factors, for example: physical, chemical and biological characteristics), impact (the environmental effect of the pressure, for example: algal growth/eutrophication) and response (the measures taken to improve the state of the water body).

Fig. 1. Pressure and impact assessment

The pressure and impact assessment is used in the processes of water body delineation, water body characterization, water body classification (in 3 categories: natural, heavily modified and artificial water bodies), establishing the

program of measures (especially the supplementary measures), application of cost effectiveness and cost benefit analyses and application of exemptions. The following significant pressures have been identified for the studied Danube water bodies: hydro-morphological alterations and pollution: point and diffuse sources. The Danube River is characterized by numerous hydro-technical structures with the most important uses: hydropower, flood protection, navigation and urbanization. For the Danube River on the Romanian territory, the social and economical activities have played an important role, which have led to significant morphological and hydrological alterations in the last decades.

Fig. 2. The Danube River Water Bodies and hydro-morphological alterations

The main hydro-morphological alterations located on the above mentioned water bodies and their effects are: a. transversal barriers (dams): WB 1 and 2 (Iron Gates I and Ostrov) with interruption of the longitudinal connectivity, changing the water bodies category (from river to reservoir) and with multiple effects

on aquatic fauna and flora; b. extensive embankment: WB 3 - Ostrov Chiciu (embankment: 73 %); WB 4 - Chiciu Isaccea (embankment: 92 %); these embankments have caused the interruption of lateral connectivity, habitats changes, loss of spawning areas and other services ensured by wetlands; c. navigation: for all river sectors (WB 1, WB 2, WB 3, WB 4). For the lower Danube, a significant surface of wetlands and flood plain has been lost (473,556 ha). The hydrological alterations consist in a slight increase of the flow peaks with about 5%; a big decrease of sediment discharge caused by hydraulic works from the Danube basin (69.4 106 t/y at the beginning of the 20th century; 53 106 t/y at the beginning of the 50s; 30 106 t/y at the late 80s; slight increase in the last period). The human agglomerations, the industry and agriculture contribute significantly through point and diffuse sources to the Danube water bodies pollution with organic substances, nutrients and hazardous substances. At the national level, there have been inventoried a number of 1764 point sources, out of which 947 (436 agglomerations, 325 industrial sources, 181 agricultural sources and 5 other types) are significant taking into consideration criteria of significance. Some of these sources directly discharge in the Danube Water Bodies, but the majority discharge into Danube tributaries. Also, the status of the Danube river on the Romanian territory highly depends on the pollutant inputs (especially nutrients and heavy metals) from upstream countries of the entrance of the Danube river into Romania. The impact evaluation process is based on comparing water body status with environmental objectives defined for the analyzed water body. In the framework of significant water management issues process, there have been identified 4 categories of major issues: pollution with organic substances, pollution with nutrients, pollution with hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations, for which the impact has been evaluated and there have been established specific measures in order to reach the environmental objectives. The pollution with organic substances produces a significant impact on aquatic ecosystems measures through species composition changes, species biodiversity decreasing, as well as reduction of fish fauna population or fish mortality in the context of a drastic reduction of dissolved oxygen concentration. The nutrients in high concentration in the water bodies lead to excessive algal growth (eutrophication), especially for stagnant or semi-stagnant water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, shallow rivers running with reduced water velocity), determining species composition changes, species biodiversity decreasing, as well as reduction of water use (drinking water and recreation, etc.). The hazardous substances produces toxicity, persistence and bioaccumulation in the aquatic environment. In the process of risk assessment with hazardous substance the lack of monitoring data should be mentioned.

The procedure for assessment of the environmental objectives risk failing (on the basis of pressures and impacts) has been shown that all 4 water bodies have been identified at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances and hydro-morphological alterations. 4. Heavily modified water bodies designation Heavily modified water body means a body of surface water which as a result of physical alterations by human activity is substantially changed in character. The identification and the designation of the Danube water bodies as heavily modified are based on a step-wise approach (steps 1-8) described in the Guidance document no.4 Identification and Designation of Heavily Modified and Artificial Water Bodies, following the principles of Art. 2 (9) and Art. 4(3) of the Water Framework Directive. The designation of the Danube River as heavily modified water bodies is the result of a long series and in-depth discussions and analysis, a wide range of universities, institutions and organizations being part of this comprehensive process. The identification of the Danube WBs as heavily modified has been assessed in respect of being physically altered, substantially changed in character with extensive/widespread, profound, and irreversible alterations. The assessment of failing good ecological status has been considered as the first step (the precondition) in the process on the national and basin-wide final heavily modified designation of the Danube water bodies. 5. Assessment of ecological status/potential and chemical status The assessment of the ecological status has been based on the Water Framework Directive compliant assessment method developed upon the specific types of the Romanian stretch of the Danube river, which has been derived from: national data - historical data (starting from 1910,1950-1960), reliable empirical data, statistical analyses (recent data from 2001-2007), expert judgment; joint Danube Survey I and Joint Danube Survey II data as a supportive tool in the national assessment process of the Danube River. Nevertheless, one of the most restrictive issues in the assessment of the Danube Rivers water bodies was the difficulty to estimate the reference conditions for considered quality elements. The application of the assessment system for the Danube River based on the improved conceptual and analytic framework considering the Lower Danube river as complex systems / land-waterscape (defined by complex and strong

interactions and interdependences among the main river channel and the lentic, lotic and terrestrial aquatic ecosystems of its floodplain) has led to the conclusion that the 4 analyzed water bodies are not in good ecological status. The ecological status assessment based on compliant methods, has considered the following quality elements: macro-invertebrates, fish fauna and phytoplankton (based on the worst case approach), the general physical and chemical conditions, specific pollutants and hydro-morphological conditions. The detailed results of the ecological status/potential and chemical status evaluation for the Danube water bodies are presented in the table 1.
Table 1. Danube water bodies ecological status/potential and chemical status assessment

Legend: Ecological status/potential classes: H-high; G-good; M-moderate; P-poor; B-bad; Zunknown. Chemical status classes (based on priority substances): G-good; F-failing. Confidence classes in status/potential assessment: Med medium and L low.

Conclusions The main goal of the Water Framework Directive is the achievement of the good status of the water bodies, environmental objective which can be reached through elaboration and implementation of the River Basin Management Plan. The River basin Management Plans shall contain a summary of significant pressures and impact of human activity on the status of surface water and groundwater, including: estimation of point source pollution; estimation of diffuse source pollution, including a summary of land use; estimation of pressures on the quantitative status of water including abstractions; analysis of other impacts of human activity on the status of water.

For the Danube River, all 4 water bodies have been identified as heavily modified water bodies because of hydro-morphological alterations and also all water bodies are at risk from the point of view of organic substances, nutrients, hazardous substances. The water bodies identified on the lower Danube sector do not reach the good status, being necessary measures aiming at reduction of the pollution from human agglomerations, industry and agriculture, both at the national level and in the entire Danube International Hydrographical District, as well as the restoration of the Danube flood plain, having in view the wetlands with specific habitats and biodiversity. Bibliography erban, P., Glie, Andreea, (2006), Managementul apelor. Principii i reglementri europene, Editura Tipored, Bucureti; uchiu, Elena, (2010), Analiza presiunilor antropice i a impactului acestora asupra corpurilor de ap de suprafa-etap important n realizarea planurilor de management, [Analysis of anthropogenic pressures and their impacts on surface water bodies important step in elaboration of the river basin management plans], in Gastescu, P., Bretcan, P (edit.) Resursele de ap din Vdineanu, A., Vdineanu, R.S., Cristofor, S., Adamescu, M. C., Cazacu, C., Postoloache, Carmen, Rnoveanu, Geta., Ignat G., (2009), Scientific arguments for identification of the Lower Danube River System (LDRS) as Heavily Modified Water Body (HMWB), the 6th Symposium for European Freshwater Sciences, Sinaia; ***, (2000), Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy, Official Journal of the European Communities; ***, (2003), Common Implementation Strategy for the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) Guidance for the analysis of pressures and impacts in accordance with the Water Framework Directive, European Commission; ***, (2003), Instruciuni metodologice privind identificarea surselor punctiforme i difuze de poluare i evaluarea impactului acestora asupra apelor de suprafa, [Methodological guidance on point and diffuse sources identification and evaluation of their impact on surface waters], Apele Romne, Bucureti; ***(2005), Raportul 2004-Planurile de Management ale Bazinelor Hidrograficecaracteristici ale bazinului hidrografic,controlul impactului asupra mediului a activitilor umane i economice, analiza apelor uzate, [Report 2004 River Basin Management Plans - Characteristics of the river basin, review of the
117 Romnia. Vulnerabilitate la presiunile antropice. Lucrrile primului simpozion naional, 11-13 iunie 2010, Trgovite, 496p.: 59-66;

environmental impact of human activity and economic analysis of water use], Administraia Naional Apele Romne, Bucureti; ***(2005), Raportul 2004-Planul de Management al Fluviului Dunrea, Delta Dunrii, Spaiului Hidrografic Dobrogea i apelor costiere, [Report 2004 Management Plan of Danube River, Danube Delta, Dobrogea hydrographical space and coastal waters], Administraia Naional Apele Romne, Bucureti; ***(2008), Elemente metodologice privind identificarea presiunilor semnificative i evaluarea impactului acestora asupra apelor de suprafa Identificarea corpurilor de ap care prezint riscul de a nu atinge obiectivele Directivei Cadru Ap, [Methodological elements on significant pressures identification and evaluation of their impact on surface waters Identification of water bodies which have the risk of failing the environmental objectives of the Water Framework Directive], Administraia Naional Apele Romne, Bucureti; ***(2010), Planul Naional de Management aferent poriunii naionale a Bazinului Hidrografic internaional al Fluviului Dunrea-sinteza planurilor de management la nivel de bazine/spaii hidrografice, [National Management Plan afferent to the national part of Danube River Basin District Synthesis of the River Basin/Hydrographical Spaces Management Plans], Administraia Naional Apele Romne, Bucureti.



Marcel MNDRESCU, Ionu Alexandru CRISTEA, Gabriela FLORESCU
University of Suceava, Suceava, Romania

Having been in existence for over 400 years, the natural dammed lakes formed by landslide movements, Iezer and Boltu, enjoy a high level of biodiversity, far above the average of the nearby land area covered with spruce tree forests. Belonging, from the very beginning of their existence, to a land property of Humor Monastery (1495) in Suceava County, the lakes were, for a while, ponds stocked with fish by the monks of that time. Both lakes hold waters situated in the first two water quality categories, the first for Boltu, and the second for Iezer respectively. A very good quality of water, together with the slightly alkaline pH, allowed the formation of favourable conditions for salmonids (trout). In 1960 there has been a trout stocking action, with eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell), but nine years later (1969), a new species, less vulnerable to these altitude conditions had to be introduced, the native trout (Salmo trutta fario) respectively. Stocking actions continued in 1979 from the same source, namely Putna Valley, this time with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson). Excessive proliferation of trout, because of the abundance of food, led to the necessity to also introduce specimens of common minnow (Phoxinus Phoxinus), for the purpose of serving as food for salmonids. The high pressure exerted by the fish species was reflected in the development, extinction and variety of microorganisms such as Cladocera. Thus, there are plenty of reasons for the two lacustrine units to become strict protected areas. Keywords: water quality, ecology, fish, microorganisms, Obcinele Bucovinei

1. Introduction In the midst of a century-old woodland, which was part of the former property of Humor Monastery, there are two lakes located on the course of two streams, tributaries of the Sadova river. With an area of about one hectare, there is Iezer lake, also called by the locals the Eye of Hell. Located somewhere deep in the woods, away from the main roads, one can find its younger brother, Boltu Lake. Despite the fact that Boltu and Iezer lakes were not mentioned at all in the Romanian hydro-limnological literature, they are well defined water bodies, as

well as a thickness of the sediment layers over 4 meters, significantly higher than those of the well known Red Lake (Begy et. al, 2009; Pandi, 2004). In the present study, we relate the data concerning the size of the two lacustrine basins, including bathymetric maps and apparent profiles, ensued by the analysis of water quality, of vegetation, fauna and micro-vertebrates from the sampled lacustrine sediments, which allows us to assess the ecological status of the two lake basins. 2. Study area Boltu and Iezer landslide lakes are located in the north of Romanian Carpathians i.e. the subunit called Obcinele Bucovinei, Obcina Feredeului respectively (Fig. 1).

Figure 1. Geographic location of Iezer and Boltu lakes in the Romanian territory and the Romanian Carpathians

In detail, the two lakes are located in the south-western extremity of Obcina Feredeului under the alignment Obcina Feredeului Peak (1364 m) - Poiana Prislop saddle (1102 m) in Sadova drainage basin (left tributary of Moldova river). Administratively speaking, the lakes belong to the Sadova Comune, about 14.5 kilometers of the Cmpulung Moldovenesc town, limitary of Suceava County. More specifically, the lake Iezer - Feredeu (930 m alt.) is located on the upper stream of one of Sadova rivers left tributaries, who has lent its name (so the correct form of the hydronym should be the genitive - Iezerului Stream, and not Iezer Stream - the nominative, as written on topographic maps), while Boltu - Feredeu lake (1137 m alt.) is on the next left tributary of Sadova river, also named Boltu (the upper course is known under the name Holohoca).


3. Bathymetry and water quality Boltu and Iezer lakes are the largest natural lakes in the Suceava County. Formed as a result of landslide movements which took place over 400 years ago (Mndrescu et. al, 2010), they still have notable sizes. Thus, Iezer Lake has an area of 7500 m and a depth of 4.47 m, while its younger brother, Boltu, has an area of 2350 m area and 5 m depth, respectively (Fig. 2). To these impressive dimensions, comparable to those of glacial lakes of Rodna Masiff, we must add those about 4 m of sediments for Iezer and those over 5.5 m for Boltu.

Figure 2. Bathymetrc maps of Iezer and Boltu

The results interpretation of the determinations which appear in the table below (Tab. 1) was made in accordance with the Order 161/2006 - Normative of elements and standards of biological, chemical and physico-chemical quality, in order to determine the ecological status of surface waters. But from the perspective of other laws and normatives (surface water for drinking and underground drinking water), the conductivity and hardness values for both samples indicate a low level of mineralization, and the low values of turbidity and suspension indicate that the sampling was done on the background of atmospheric calm (no rain or wind).

Because of a slightly increased concentration of nitrates and phosphates (which are part of the group of nutrients), Iezer Lake falls into quality grade II, which means water of good quality. Boltu Lake, according to the values of the determined indicators, is positioned within the quality grade I, which means a very good water quality.
Table 1. Water quality of the Iezer and Boltu UNIT OF BOLATAU QUALITY IEZER MEASURE LAKE GRADE LAKE mg/l 4 2 pH units 7,11 in-grade 7,45 s/cm 157 187,4 mg/l 110 I 130 QUALITY GRADE in-grade I I I I I II I II I I I I I I

INDICATORS Suspensions * pH Conductivity * Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Mg2+ Ca2+ NH4+- N NO2- - N NO3- - N Na+ Total hardness* PO4- - P Total alkalinity Turbidity*

mg/l 3,32 I 4,94 mg/l 17,63 I 24,08 mg/l 0,129 I 0,019 mg/l 0,003 I 0,002 mg/l 0,901 I 1,179 mg/l 9,2 I 7,5 mg/l 6,283 4,937 mg/l 0,014 I 0,153 mg/l 1,1 I 1,4 NTU 3,43 2,02 units SO42mg/l 35,59 I 34,45 O2 mg/l 9,98 I 10,99 Detergents mg/l 0,023 I 0,018 Clmg/l 2,263 I 2,41 Total Iron mg/l 0,073 I 0,051 * these indicators are not normed according to the Order 161/2001 for surface waters.

4. Ecology of the lakes Crustaceans leave some morphological remains in sediments (Frey, 1964), but certainly the chitinized body parts of Cladocera are more common and have been the most widely used (Korhola&Rautio, 2001). Cladoceran species are rearely larger than 1 mm in length, but still play pivotal roles in the functioning of many freshwater systems like Iezer and Boltu. Depending on ambient conditions, they can exert intense graizing pressures, and so can influence the abundance and composition of algal communities. Equally, the abundance, species composition, and even morphology (Kerfoot, 1974) of cladocerans can be influenced by predation from other animals, such as larger invertebrates and fish (Carpenter et al., 1985).

Thus, given that the two lakes were part of the property of a monastery, they were most probably stocked with various species of fish, even since the sixteenth century. So the more the fish population grows, the less are the remains of crustacean kept in lake sediments (fish pressure). Referring to Iezer lake, several ecological distinctive periods can be identified by analyzing the remains of Cladocera family, genus Pleuroxus truncatus (Fig. 3). Moreover, the extinction or expansion of some Cladocera genera (eg. Daphnia ephippium, Pleuroxus truncatus, Alona affinis, Alona guttata) could provide important information on wter level changes in the lakes, as some genera are adapted to deeper waters while others feel better in shallow waters.

Figure 3. Genus Pleuroxus truncatus (Cladocera family) from the sediments of Iezerul Feredeu (0-107 cm) (data supplied by A. Brancelj)

Korhola and Rauttio (2001) have summarized the current techniques used to study Cladocera in paleolimnological research, and Jeppesen et. al. (2001) have reviewed some recent applications of fossil Cladocera to the reconstruction of anthropogenic impacts. Most studies have been related to trophic dynamics and eutrophication issues, but Cladocera have also been used in assessments of lake acidification, metal contamination, salinity changes, shifts in water levels, and exotic species invasions, as well as in other applications. Hygrophile vegetation (Fig. 4) along the perimeter of the Iezer consists of sedges (Carex acutiforium, Carex curvula) and other plants such as: water plantain (Alisma aquatica), bulrush (Typha latifolia), Dutch rash (Bolbosschoenus sp), creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), meadow grass (Poa palustris), sorrel

(Rumaex confertus), forget-me-not (Myosotis alpestris), cuckoo flower (Lichnis flos cuculi) (Forgaci, 2010).

Figure 4. The vegetation of Iezerul Feredeu (June, 2010)

The aquatic fauna is a rich one, consisting of several families of wild ducks (Anas crecca) that seasonally inhabit this surface of water; moreover, around its banks white wagtails (Motacilla alba) pop up, looking for Trichoptera larvae. Among mammals, water shrew (Neomys fodies) has been reported, but in relatively small number. The ichthyofauna, although it has a domestic origin, is very diverse, due to the stocking actions held over time under the initiative of rangers and fishermen living in the area. After a chemical analysis of the water, which proved quite favorable to salmonids, pH 6.0 to 6.5 and with an oxygen concentration of 9.72 mgl (Decei, 1981) (these conditions have been kept the same so far, with some small changes: pH 7.11-7.45 and 9.98-10.99 O2 in March 2010 - the data are presented in Tab. 1) the decision taken was to populate the lake with species of Eastern brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis Mitchell). The action was completed in 1960, with trout coming from Putna Valley trout farm (Suceava), but nine years later (1969), a new species, less vulnerable to these altitude conditions had to be introduced, the native trout (Salmo trutta fario) (Fig. 5). Stocking actions continued in 1979 from the same source, namely Putna Valley, this time with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Richardson), mixed with native trout. The specimens were adults and therefore the action had the desired success, trouts reaching in a short time an

appreciable size, due to the abundance of food (specimens of common minnow (Phoxinus Phoxinus) were placed here, serving as food for salmonids).

Figure 5. Specimens of native trout Salmo trutta fario of Iezerul Feredeu, October, 2009 (note the characteristics of the lake trout, the lack of red points respectively)

Over time, the fishermen who were attracted by the fame of this place promising big catches, also introduced - as a compensation for periods when trout was fussy, species less common for this altitude, such as the crucian carp (Carasius carasius) - in 1998, with specimens coming from Hneti Pond (Botoani) - which, however, even though have survived and multiplied pretty well, do not reach a significant size ; then the chub (Leuciscus cephalus) and later on, even the pike (Esox lucius) (Fig. 6) which seems to have adapted quite well, especially since its favourite food, the crucian carp, can also be found in the lake. Regarding the presence of the crucian carp in the lake, one can say that is a very timely appearance, if we are to report it to the habitat which it currently occupies, that is partially invaded by aquatic vegetation, a habitat unpopular for the trout; in addition to this, as a result of its semi-phytophagous characteristics, this cyprinide has an important role of biocontrol, limiting invasive vegetation. The extent to which the trout population of the lake can be adversely affected by the crucian carp population is yet to be seen, knowing the fact that salmonids are quite vulnerable to diseases transmitted by cyprinids, especially by those species with which they dont

cohabitate naturally, such as in this case.

Figure 6. Specimen of pike (Esox lucius) in Iezerul Feredeu (June 2010)

Another thing to note about the fish population, is that the indigenous trout achieved here, in time, due to the lake conditions, the features of the lake trout (Salmo trutta morfa lacustris), being shorter but much thicker than that found in rivers, with its head smaller reported to the rest of the body, even disproportionately. The color of its back and head is olive green and its flanks and belly are silvery. Flanks are covered, near the belly, with large rough stains, usually X-shaped, and black colored. Stains dont have blue and white rings, as in the case of indigenous or salvelinus species of trout. What is interesting about the coloring is the lack of red spots, so characteristic of common trout, these occurring only incidentally and being almost completely drab in the case of some young specimens. The largest trout caught in this lake exceeded 6 kilos, which is pretty impressive given the relatively small size of the lake. Along with the fish fauna, this lake basin is also home to various species of amphibians, such as the mountain frog (Rana temporaria) and the newt (Triturus alpestris), as well as species of water mammals such as the water shrew (Neomys fodies); among invertebrates, one can mention the great silver water beetle Hidrophilus piceus, the great diving beetle Ditiscus marginalis, Piscia geometra, the water flea Daphnia daphnia, camarons Gammarus fosarum, caddisflies Tricoptera hydropsychidae, Plecoptera cupida, and among the most common dragonflies found

here there is the devils horse Cordulegaster Heros, together with Crocothemis Erythraea and Erythrommana viridulum. The vegetation of Boltu Lake is less rich than that of its older brother, Iezer, but no less spectacular, due to a deep lake basin starting from the sides, which makes vegetation form an unitary whole with the lacustrine area, the trees surrounding it perfectly like a protective mantle (Fig. 7). The basic species are coniferous (spruce and fir), to which we may add the goats willow (Salix caprea), the alder tree (Alnus incana), the trembling poplar (Populus tremula), the birch tree (Betula pendula) among species of trees, and among water-loving herbaceous plants the rush (Bolbosschoenus sp) occurs, but in a lesser extent than in Lake Iezer. The fauna of Boltu is less abundant or rich compared to its larger counterpart, as mentioned previosly. Regarding the fish fauna, there are no official data to support previous stocking actions organized by the authorities or even by amateur fishermen, but the presence of fish is undoubted, because it was shown using our sonar (November 2009). To this we may add the assertions of fishermen who have pointed the existence of native trout in the lake. Also, there are traces of amateur fishing activities, such as various artificial baits or even monofilament hung nets on the fallen trunks. In addition, the presence of the water shrew (a mouse with a sharp nose or the water mouse) was reported here, which can be parallelled with the presence of its favorite food, specifically one made up of specimens of young fish or adult weakened fish. We could also admit the presence of a second species of fish living here, that of the chub rspectively, which we can assume from the appearance on the sonar, at an average depth (between waters) of a species different in shape from that living in the bottom waters (a species we assumed to be salmonids by excluding from the list the crucian carp, which would be eligible as reported to the area of activity but not when considering the size and shape of the fish species shown by the sonar), which fits the ethology of the chub. We can carry this assumption further on - this time from the viewpoint of the origin of these species of fish in the lake - and agree upon the other explanation, according to which the lake was naturally populated with fish, by means of the incidental intermediance of wild ducks stopping here, which made this area a secondary destination after Iezer, which is a more suitable habitat for them from the perspective of size, shelter opportunities and food abundance (this explanation was given by an engineer at ICAS (Institutul de cercetari si amenajari silvice/The institute of forestry research and management) Cmpulung Moldovenesc, who has good knowledge of the lake evolution, which gives him more credibility in accepting this idea of the lake being naturally populated).


Figure 7. Boltu Lake

5. Conclusion Iezer and Boltu lakes are the largest natural lakes in the County of Suceava. Formed by landsliding more than 400 years ago, they still hold impressive dimensions for some lakes born as a result of landslide. Both lakes hold waters situated in the first two water quality categories, the first for Boltu, and the second for Iezer respectively. A very good quality of water, together with the slightly alkaline pH, allowed the formation of significantly favourable conditions for salmonids (trout) and other species of fish. Thus, ecologically speaking, these two lakes are presently in a state of high trophicity, which makes possible the existence of various species of plants and other organisms specific to lacustrine environments, among which the most important being the species of fish, which, at least for Iezer Lake, represent a complex interspecies cohabitation (cyprinids the common minnow, the chub, the crucian carp; salmonids - the indigenous trout; esocidae the pike). Although there is no sign of any accentuated or accelerated degradation of the effective water surface of these lacustrine ecosystems as a result of anthropic or natural influences, still a progressive silting can be observed in the case of Iezer, upstream to downstream, but also from side-left, caused by the input of seasonal alluvia that facilitate the proliferation of hygrophilic vegetation - the rush (Bolbosschoenus sp) as invasive species, as well as others, among which we mention the sedges (Carex acutiforium,

Carex curvula), the water plantain (Colonialism aquatica), the common bulrush (Typha latifolia), the creeping buttercup (Ranunculus repens), the meadow grass (Poa palustris), belonging to the category of secondary species. After completing our analyses on traces of Cladocera, we can assert that the ecology of the lake had a very long and varied history, depending on the natural, but also anthropic factors. Given the fact that the two lakes became part of the property of a monastery, they were most probably stocked with various species of fish, for short periods of time, since the sixteenth century, thus influencing the development and variety of micro-vertebrates (Cladocera). Finally, as an aesthetically attractive element, one can speak of a breaking in the monotony of the landscape, the complex vegetation of this lacustrine unit being in contrast with the surrounding landscape which is typical of mountain mid-altitudes and consists only of coniferous species. We therefore propose the establishment of a fully protected scientific reserve consisting of these two landslide-dammed lakes. Acknowledges We would like to thank Dr. Simon Hutchinson our collaborator at the University of Salford, UK and Dr. Anton Brancelj from the National Institute of Biology, Department of Freshwater and Terrestrial Ecosystems Research, Ljubljana, Slovenia) and PhD-student Forgaci Daniel, and all students of the Department of Geography, University of Suceava, who participated in the field trips. References Begy R., Cosma C., Timar A. (2009), Recent changes in Red Lake (Romania) sedimentation rate determined from depth profiles of 210Pb and 137Cs radioisotopes, Journal of Environmental Radioactivity, 100: 644648. Carpenter, S.R., Kitchell, J.F., Hodgson, J.R., (1985), Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35: 634-639. Decei, P. (1981), Lacuri de munte: Drumeii i pescuit, Edit. Sport-Turism, Bucureti. Forgaci, D., (2010), Perspective turistice n cadrul potenialului natural al comunei Sadova, Lucrare de disertaie, Suceava, 2010. Frey, D. G., (1964), Remains of animals in Quaternary lake and bog sediments and their interpretation, Archiv fr Hydrobiologie, Erge bnisse der Limnologie 2: 1114. Jeppesen, E, Leavitt, P., DeMeester, L. Jensen, J.P. (2001), Functional ecology and palaeolimnology: using cladoceran remains to reconstruct anthropogenic impacts. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 16, 191-198.

Kerfoot, W.C., (1974), Net accumulation rates and history of cladocerean communities. Ecology 55, 51-61. Korhola, A., Rautio, M., (2001), Cladocera and other branchiopod crustaceans. In Smol, J. P., Birks, H.J.B. and Last, W.M. (eds.), Tracking Environmental Change Using Lake Sediments, Volume 4, Zoological Ibdicators. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 5-41. Mndrescu, M., Iosep, I., Cristea I.A., Forgaci, D., Popescu, D.A. (2010), Iezer and Boltu lakes (Feredeului Mts). The oldest landslide-dammed lakes, in Romania, n Gastescu, P., Bretcan, P. (eds.) Resursele de ap. Vulnerabilitate la presiunea activitatilor antropice cu referire si la ecosistemele lacustre, Volumul Simpozionului National, Targoviste, 11-13 iunie 2010: 272-282. Pandi, G. (2004), Lacul Rou. Studiu de hidrogeografie, Ed. Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj.



Al.I.CuzaUniversity, Faculty of Geography and Geology, Iai, Romania,

In order to highlight the quality of the lake waters from the Bahlui drainage basin, we chose to analyse four principal lakes (Prcovaci, Tansa, Chiria, Podu Iloaiei) and six secundary lakes (Aroneanu I and II, Ciric I, II and III and Cucuteni). The global presentation of the lakes water chemistry and quality is a sum of two different ways of analysis: the first based on standards (promulgated in 2006), according to which the lakes are analyzed as static ecosystem (the quality of the water corresponds to five different categories) and the second considering the lakes a dynamic ecosystem and working with the average of different quality parameters, from different periods. After we made the analysis, we showed that from the four first-order lakes, two (Chiria and Prcovaci) can be included in the first quality category, and all the second-order lakes can be included in the third and fourth quality categories. This can be explained trough the clogging of the reservoirs or through the pollution caused by human activities in the hydrographic basin. Keywords: lakes, hydrochemistry, evaluation, Bahlui drainage basin

1. Introduction Bahlui drainage basin is located in the north-east of Romania, overlapping an area with a central position in the central part of the Moldavian Plateau, in direct hydrological relation with the hydrographic network of Prut River (fig.1). In this sense, Bahlui River is a tributary on the right side of Jijia River, in the sector of common riverside of Jijia and Prut. This fact gives Bahlui Basin a certain genetic and evolutionary autonomy in relation to Jijia basin and Prut basin, autonomy manifested in time both in the way in which the water resources appeared and evolved, and in the role of the anthropic factor in their respective management. Considered one of the most anthropized hydrographic basins in our country, arranged in a proportion of 71% from a hydrotehnical viewpoint (Savin Nicoleta, 1998), the hydrographic basin of Bahlui River can be taken as a model of efficient

water resources management in the east of Romania, model that could be extended to the entire geographic area between Prut and Siret.

Fig. 1 The geographic position of the Bahlui hydrographic basin in Romania

In the hilly Plain of Jijia, as in the whole country, the lakes in their various forms (natural and storage lakes, swamps, ponds, fish ponds) occupy an important proportion of the geographical area. The physical-geographic and the socio-economic conditions specific for the southern part of the hilly Plain of Jijia favored in time, the emergence and development of numerous lakes and ponds. The natural lakes are very few (only the so-called bulhace, appeared on slopes affected by landslides). Instead, the anthropogenic lakes exceed 150 units (those larger than 5 ha); they were primarily meant to provide the necessary water supply for the household and industrial consumption of the towns in the basin, having a role of protection of the population and of the farmland against flooding and high floods, and of mitigation of these phenomena and of flow regulation; the water has also been used for irrigation and livestock farms, the arrangement of fisheries or recreational units.

The general scheme of hydrotechnical development of the basin has 12 complex reservoirs (Prcovaci and Tansa, on Bahlui River, Podu Iloaiei, on Bahlue river, Plopi on Gurguiata River, Srca on the Valea Oii River, Cucuteni, on Voineti River, Ciurbeti, Ezreni in Nicolina basin, Aroneanu and Ciric III, on Ciric River, Rediu on Rediu River and Chiria on Chiria River) and six non-permanent reservoirs (Ciurea, Cornet and Brca in Nicolina basin, Crlig and Vntori on Cacaina River and Vmoaia on Vmoaia River). The total volume of these reservoirs is 219 mil.m3 and the area occupied by the water surface exceeds 2000 ha, or approximately 1% of the basin. On the basis of the historical data, cartographic materials and our personal data, in the evolution of the lakes from Bahlui basin can be distinguished several stages: the historical stage until the early 19th century, when most of the lacustrine units appeared, the modern stage, which includes the 19th century and the first half of the 20th century, marked by two periods of decline in the number of lacustrine units (at the beginning of the 19th century and at the beginning of the 20th century), caused by certain socio-economic factors (land reform, lack of continuity in their proper maintenance etc.) and the contemporary period, which started from the second half of the 20th century and stands out through the application of land systematization programs, most of the lake units of this basin being reconditioned and arranged from a hydrotechnical point of view.

Fig. 2 The lake units from the Bahlui drainage basin, in 2009


2. Metodology The research methodology for the lacustrine units in terms of water chemistry and quality does not take into account their origin, so that, the same means and methods of study can be applied to all types of lakes. Beside the morphometrical parameters, the hydrological analysis of a lake unit concerns as well the lake water chemistry and quality parameters, depending on which a series of measures can be taken in order to have the possibility to use these aquatic units for economic purposes. The water supply of a lake comes from generally available sources but also through local sources. The general and durable water sources are represented by the precipitations and by the tributaries, while the local ones, limited in time, are represented by the springs and the runoff from the slopes. The hydrological studies concerning the lake water chemistry in this basin are relatively few. Schram Maria (1971) made an analysis of 40 water samples taken from the reservoirs across the hilly Plain of Jijia. She identified a high degree of mineralization (over 1000 mg/l), with higher values during the dry periods, a hardness between 18 and 30G, and a predominance of the bicarbonated-water lakes in the west of the basin, while the mixed bicabonatated and sulfated waters predominate in the east of the basin. The elaboration of the Management Plans for the hydrographic basin according to the EC Framework Directive 2000/60, led to the realization of an abiotic typology of the lakes according to the origin of the lacustrine basin (natural or anthropogenic), and according to certain parameters (altitude, average depth, geological composition, retention time). For each body of water present at the surface were identified, in terms of pollution, the principal sources (point, diffuse and hydromorphological) and an assessment of the human impact was made through the analysis of five groups of chemical indicators: oxygen regime, general ions, nutrient regime, heavy metals, specific pollutants, determining the quality classes and the ecological condition of the lakes water. In Bahlui basin, where most lakes are of anthropogenic origin, the abiotic typology of the reservoirs includes 11 types of lakes. The storage lakes water quality in the Bahlui hydrographic basin was monitored by specialists from Prut-Iai Water Administration, through the interpretation of the physical-chemical, biological and bacteriological analyses on the samples taken with a frequency determined by the importance of the reservoir (first order every three months, second order every six months) and depending on the temperature and rainfall regime (in the case of the complex storage lakes, the sampling frequency was higher). Please note that the data presented cover the period 1997-2004, during which the tests were made following a methodology as accurate and homogeneous as possible, being partially published in annual reports

concerning The stage of the general water quality in the hydrographic basin of Prut River. Until the year 1995, some data on the chemistry of the lakes in the Bahlui basin can be found here and there in different hydrological directories and specialized papers. To highlight the water quality of Bahlui hydrographic basin, we chose for analysis four first order reservoirs (Prcovaci, Tansa, Chiria and Podu Iloaiei) and six second order storage lakes (Aroneanu I and II, Ciric I, II and III and Cucuteni). The global overview of the water chemistry and quality in the Bahlui hydrographic basin is the result of the correlation of two models of study: a) The first one, the Standard regarding the benchmarks for surface water quality classification (2006), in which it is considered that the reservoir is a static ecosystem, and which operates with the absolute values of the test results. The water quality is rigorously classified into five categories, according to certain limitats. b) The second considers the storage lake to be a dynamic ecosystem, and therefore operates with comparative average values of the quality indicators, from a period considered actual (e.g. the year 2004), compared to a previous period (e.g. the year 1998) (Crciun, 2003). For the application of the second method, for each indicator was calculated the tendency to increase, decrease or stagnate (remain stable) in point of water quality. To this end, we defined a series of characterization parameters (Crciun, 2003): x r1 = b xr where: r1 - rate of change of quality; xb - the percentage of improvement trends; xb - the percentage of worsening trends. If r1 is positive, the trend is of improvement, while if it is negative the trend is of worsening
% xb % xr where: r2 - rate of change of quality classes; xb% - percentage of the tendencies of improvement; x2% - percentage of the tendencies of worsening. This parameter has the same interpretation as the previous one. The last parameter proposed refers to the speed of the evolution (r3) also called projection factor, determined as the ratio obtained by dividing the ratios corresponding to the period under analysis (1997-2004) and those corresponding to the prior period (owing to the lack of data, we took as basis of reference the period 1997-2000). r2 =

Summing up all the trends having the same sense or generating the same effect in the evolution of quality (with or without changing the category of quality), we obtained the tendency frequency chart for each of the reservoirs. Using it, depending on the dynamics of the tendencies, we analyzed the evolution of the water quality, in the sense of improvement, worsening or preservation, for each storage lake and globally for the entire basin. 3. Analysis of the water chemistry and quality for the first order reservoirs In order to analyze the water chemistry and quality of the first order reservoirs we applied the parameters described above. Moreover, we made certain extra observations concerning the change in the main hydrochemical parameters. For Prcovaci reservoir, the trends of the parameters analyzed fall within the group tending towards the deterioration of the water quality: r1=0.7, r2=0. Out of the 26 parameters analyzed, 6 (23%) showed trends of improvement, while 8 (31%) had worsening trends in point of quality, and 12 (46%) maintained the same quality as during the previous year. Even under these conditions, the lakes water quality belongs to the first quality category, but change can occur anytime in the future, especially in the sense of worsening. Chemically speaking, the water quality of the Prcovaci reservoir corresponds to the principal purpose for which it was created, the public water supply of Hrlu town, belonging to the 1st or 2nd category for all the indicators except pH (which in recent years has exceeded the value of 8.1) and hardness (very high, over 240G). The ratio between CCO-Mn and respectively BOD5 and dissolved oxygen has an average value for the period under analysis of respectively 0.77 and 0.39. The evolution in time is relatively constant, but for parameters such as pH, hardness and nitrogen/nitrate, ammonium and phosphorus content, more attention is necessary, especially as this reservoir is meant for public water supply. From a biological perspective, no essential changes have been noticed, both in quantity and in quality of the planktonic biocenoses. The algae microflora has average values of 224000-587000 cel/l, with a relatively low density, which led to an average annual phytoplankton biomass from 0.26 to 1.82 mg/l. The zooplankton density values increased from 110,000 cel/l (1998) to 305,000 cel/l (2003), and the germs from 8000 cel/l (1997/1998) to 14200 cel/l (2001). Analyzing and correlating the physico-chemical indicators to the biological and bacteriological ones, it results that this reservoir belongs, in terms oligotrophic category, to the oligotrophic category, tending to become oligo-mezotrophic. The

overall quality forecast is of worsening towards the second category, if the evolution of the above parameters is not attenuated (Table no. 1). In the Tansa reservoir case, the trend of evolution of the parameters under analysis shows a slight tendency of worsening: r1=0.9, r2=1/2<1. Out of the total of 26 parameters, 6 (23%) produced improvements in quality, 10 (38.5%) recorded a worsening and 10 (38.5%) remained constant. The physico-chemical analyses of the water show a second to third water quality category (according to the parameters: nitrates/nitrites, fixed residues and hardness) and even to fourth category (CCO-Mn, CBO5, ammonia and total iron). Moreover, the ratio between CCO-Mn and respectively BOD5 and dissolved oxygen has an average value for this period of respectively 1.88 and 1.32 (fig. 3). The reason is found in the sources of pollution situated upstream from the reservoir: S.C. Cotnari S.A. and Hrlu town, discharging insufficiently treated water into Bahlui River. Some parameters have changed their quality category from the second category to the third or from the third to the fourth category, even since 2000, in the case of certain parameters such as nitrites, pH, total nitrogen, ammonia or fixed residue. Carbonates, calcium or magnesium preserved the same category throughout the period (Table no. 2).

Fig. 3 Variation of the CCO-Mn and BOD5 parameters, compared to the standard values corresponding to the third class quality, in Tansa reservoir, between 1997-2004

The amount of phytoplankton, which is considered the main link in the food chain of an aquatic ecosystem, underwent qualitative and quantitative changes from 740,000 to 1,500,000 cel/l, with an average biomass of 1.40 to 1.89 mg/l. Diatoms is the most current form of phytoplankton. Among the most frequently encountered zooplankton species, there are rotifers and ciliates and their density ranged in average between 34 and 223 animals/l. The bacteriological analysis situates the reservoir in the third class, and during the hot season even in the fourth category. Although during the years under

analysis no biological flowering of the water occurred during the hot season, there is a permanent (potential) risk of occurrence of this phenomenon because of the polluted water discharged by the upstream businesses, as occurred in 1994 when a biological catastrophe caused by the reduction of the oxygen from the water killed 200 tons of fish. Correlating the results of the physico-chemical, biological and microbiological analyses, the reservoir belongs to the mesotrophic stage with a significant potential of negative change in point of quality, if no measures are taken to prevent the discharge of polluted wastewater into Bahlui river or in the reservoir. The main source of pollution of the Podu Iloaiei reservoir is the treatment station of Targu Frumos town, and a number of livestock farms located along the Bahlue valley. The graph of the frequency of the evolutionary trends of the parameters under analysis shows that Podu Iloaiei reservoir is one of the reservoirs with a constant tendency of slight worsening: r1 = 1.02, r2 = 2/3 <1. Out of the 26 parameters analyzed, 2 (8%) produced a quality improvement, 7 (27%) a worsening, and 17 (65%) had a relatively constant evolution. From a physical-chemical point of view, the reservoir water is in the fourth category, according to pH, CBO5, CCO-Mn, magnesium, iron, ammonium and total hardness and in the third class as far as the nitrate/nitrogen, the phosphorus and the phosphates are concerned. The ratio between CCO-Mn and dissolved oxygen often exceeds the value of 2.5 (3.67 -1 998, 2.70 in 2000, 3.68 in 2003, 3.81 in 2004) and the ratio between CBO5 and dissolved oxygen has the average value of 2.09 (oscillating between 1.5 in 2000 and 2.38 in the year 2003) (Table no. 3). From a biological perspective, the lakes water has a varied biocoenosis, but with a very high density, specific of contaminated waters. Phytoplankton biomass oscillated between 2,100,000 cel/l (1997) and 7.6 million cel/l (1998), with an average value of 450,000 cel/l. The zooplankton density also varied between a minimum of 34,000 cel/l (1997) and 662,000 cel/l (2000), the total biomass ranging from a minimum of 2.64 mg/l to a maximum of 15.3 mg/l. The high values of the biological parameters indicate a high potential of the reservoir in point of nutrients that can cause the "flowering" of water, especially during the hot season of the year. Correlating the results of physical-chemical water analysis, which show a rd-4th water quality category, to the results of the biological tests, it may be 3 considered that this reservoir belongs to the eutrophic category in point of trophicity, without a forecast of good development, if nobody takes into account the need to improve the treatment of the domestic and industrial wastewater at the station of Targu Frumos, or to reduce the pollution caused by the livestock farms in the hydrographic basin.


No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Table no. 1 Water quality categories of Prcovaci reservoir Quality categories Quality parameter 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 pH III III III III IV IV Dissolved O2 (mg/l) I I I I I I Saturation O.D. (%) I I I I I I CBO5 (mg/l) I I I I I I CCO-Mn (mg/l) I I I II I I Minimum total nitrogen I I I I I I (mg/l) Nitrites (mg/l) II II II II II I Nitrates (mg/l) II II II I I I Ammonium (mg/l) II II II II II II Total phosphorus I III II I II II (mg/l) Phosphates (mg/l) I I I I I I Fixed residue (mg/l) I I I I I I Calcium (mg/l) I I I I I I Magnesium (mg/l) I I I I I I Sulfates (mg/l) I I I I I I Chlorides (mg/l) I I I I I I Carbonates (mg/l) I I I I I I Phenols (mg/l) I I I I I I Total iron (mg/l) I I I I III I Total hardness (0G) III III III III III III Coliform bacteria total I I I I I I (1000/l)



*according to the data provided by Prut-Iai Water Administration or taken from the Stage of the overall water quality in the hydrographic basin of Prut River published during the period 1997-2004 by the above-mentioned authority

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Table no. 2. Water quality categories for the Tansa reservoir Quality categories Quality parameter 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 pH III III III IV IV IV Dissolved O2 (mg/l) I I I I I I Saturation O.D. (%) I I I I I I CBO5 (mg/l) II II II III IV IV CCO-Mn (mg/l) II II II III III III Minimum total nitrogen I II II II III II (mg/l) Nitrites (mg/l) III III III IV III III Nitrates (mg/l) III III III II III III Ammonium (mg/l) III III III IV IV IV Total phosphorus (mg/l) I I I I II II Phosphates (mg/l) III III III II II II Fixed residue (mg/l) III II II III III III




13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Calcium (mg/l) Magnesium (mg/l) Sulfates (mg/l) Chlorides (mg/l) Carbonates (mg/l) Phenols (mg/l) Total iron (mg/l) Total hardness (0G) Coliform bacteria total (1000/l)









*according to the data provided by Prut-Iai Water Administration or taken from the Stage of the overall water quality in the hydrographic basin of Prut River published during the period 1997-2004 by the above-mentioned authority

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Table no. 3. Water quality categories for the Podu Iloaiei reservoir Quality categories Quality parameter 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 pH III III III IV IV IV IV Dissolved O2 (mg/l) I I I I I I I Saturation O.D. (%) I I I I I I I CBO5 (mg/l) IV IV IV IV IV IV IV CCO-Mn (mg/l) IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Minimum total II II II II II II II nitrogen (mg/l) Nitrites (mg/l) III III III III III III III Nitrates (mg/l) III III III III III III III Ammonium (mg/l) IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Total phosphorus II III III I III III III (mg/l) Phosphates (mg/l) III III III III III III III Fixed residue (mg/l) II II II II II II II Calcium (mg/l) II II II I I I I Magnesium (mg/l) IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Sulfates (mg/l) I I I I II II II Chlorides (mg/l) II II II II II II II Carbonates (mg/l) I I I II II II II Phenols (mg/l) I I I I I I I Total iron (mg/l) IV IV IV IV V IV IV Total hardness (0G) IV IV IV IV IV IV IV Coliform bacteria total III IV IV IV IV IV IV (1000/l)


*according to the data provided by Prut-Iai Water Administration or taken from the Stage of the overall water quality in the hydrographic basin of Prut River published during the period 1997-2004 by the above-mentioned authority

The Chiria reservoir, situated on the homonymous river, has a particular importance, as source of drinking and industrial water for the city of Iasi. From a

scientific point of view, this reservoir is not particularly interesting, because it is actually a transit reservoir for the water pumped from Prut River. Given the lack of stagnation, there is no possibility to take over the physical-chemical features of the area and form an actual lacustrine ecosystem. So, the physicochemical and biological characteristics of the water from Prut River, considered first quality water, are transferred as well to the water of the reservoir. But not all the physical-chemical parameters fall into this category of quality. The analysis of the frequency chart of the trends of the parameters evaluated shows that the reservoir belongs to the first class, with an obvious tendency of quality conservation (r1=1.0, r2= 0/0). Out of the 26 parameters analyzed, a number of 2 (8%) presented trends of improvement, 4 (15%) had worsening trends, and the remaining 20 (77%) retained the same quality category. In general, the physical-chemical parameters can be included, with a few exceptions, in the first quality category, with a few exceptions concerning the organical and the bacteriological charge, which tend towards the second category (hardness) or even the third category (pH, nitrates, ammonium, CCo-Mn), which reflects a slight degradation of the water from the reservoir. The average value of the zooplankton density is 18,000 cel/l (with maximum values of 12,000 cel/ l in 1998 and 26,000 cel/l in 2001). The phytoplankton has an average value of 265,000 cel/l, while the corresponding phytoplankton biomass has an average value of 0.75 mg/l (ranging from 0.2 mg/l in 1997 to 1.6 mg/l, in the year 2000). Having in view the parameters analyzed for the period 1997-2004 and correlating the physical-chemical indicators with the biological and bacteriological parameters, it results that in terms of trophicity the water quality falls in the oligotrophic category. In the future, there is a possibility for the water quality to deteriorate, especially as it is directly influenced by the water quality of Prut River, upstream of the uora catchment. 4. Analysis of the water chemistry and quality for the second order reservoirs Following the examinations of the water samples taken monthly, these lakes have been classified into quality categories according to the Standard regarding the classification of the surface water quality, approved by Order 161/2006 (Table no. 5). In general, all the second order lakes are classified in the third and fourth categories of quality, which shows a degradation of their water quality, both chemically and especially biologically. The clogging of these lakes, plus the fact that the pollution of the water coming into these reservoirs has increased during the recent years, led to poorer quality parameters.

No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

Table no. 4 Water quality categories of Chiria reservoir Quality categories Quality parameter 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 pH III III III IV IV IV Dissolved O2 (mg/l) I I I I I I Saturation O.D. (%) I I I I I I CBO5 (mg/l) I I I I I I CCO-Mn (mg/l) II II II II III III Minimum total I I I I I I nitrogen (mg/l) Nitrites (mg/l) II III II IV II II Nitrates (mg/l) III III III III III III Ammonium (mg/l) II III II IV III III Total phosphorus I I I I II I (mg/l) Phosphates (mg/l) I I I I I I Fixed residue (mg/l) I I I I I I Calcium (mg/l) I I I I I I Magnesium (mg/l) I I I I II I Sulfates (mg/l) I I I I I I Chlorides (mg/l) I I I I I I Carbonates (mg/l) I I I I I I Phenols (mg/l) I I I I I I Total iron (mg/l) I I I I II I Total hardness (0G) II II II II II II Coliform bacteria total I I I I I I (1000/l)



*according to the data provided by Prut-Iai Water Administration or taken from the Stage of the overall water quality in the hydrographic basin of Prut River published during the period 1997-2004 by the above-mentioned authority

The overall quality of these reservoirs, if we compare the values recorded in 2004 to the ones of the year 1997, is negative, in the sense of the worsening of the water quality (r1 <1 and r2> 1). This can be explained by the wastewater brought in by the tributaries, due to the malfunctioning of the urban water treatment plants upstream or to the uncontrolled discharge of polluted waters by different trading companies. The study of the frequency of the evolutive tendencies in point of global quality shows that all the second order reservoirs have a negative tendency (r3 = 0.85). The trophic stage is generally eutrophic or meso-eutrophic, indicating that in the future there is a possibility to attain a higher quality category only if measures are taken in the sense of reducing the quantity of pollutants that end up in the river and of decreasing the eutrophication degree.


4. Conclusions In general, it has been noticed, for all the first order reservoirs analyzed, that the quality class changes occurred strictly in continuity to the variation of the tendencies of the parameters evaluated: improvement (switching to a higher water quality category) occurred only when the value of the physical-chemical and biological parameters decreased and deterioration (changing to a lower water quality category) occurred only when the value of the parameters increased. These changes are in fact the final result of the increasing density in point of quality, which tends to crowd towards the upper limit of the quality category, generating the dynamics of r1, which in turn affects the variation of r2 (Crciun, 2003). The value of the speed of this dynamics is for the period 1997-2004 (1997-2004/2000-2004): r3 = 0.95, indicating a constant evolution. In conclusion, out of the four first-order reservoirs, two (Chiria and Prcovaci) are included in the first quality category and two belong to the second or even the third category (according to some chemical indicators, Tansa reservoir, and biological indicators, Podu Iloaiei reservoir). In the future, the situation can be improved, especially through investments in the domestic and industrial wastewater treatment of the cities of Hrlu and Trgu Frumos and through a better monitoring of the economic agents that have the potential of discharging pollutants into the hydrographic network or directly in the reservoirs. References: Crciun I. (2003), Contribuii la gestionarea calitii apelor din bazinul hidrografic Bahlui (utiliznd modelarea matematic) [Contribution to management of water quality in Bahlui drainage basin (using mathematical modeling)], Doctoral thesis, Gh Asachi Tehnical University, Iai. Minea I. (2005), Evolutia zonelor lacustre din bazinul hidrografic Bahlui [The evolution of the lacustrine areas in Bahlui drainage basin], Sem.Geogr. Dimitrie Cantemir, no. 25: 127-138, Iai. Minea I. (2009), Bazinul hidrografic Bahluistudiu hidrologic [Bahlui drainage basin hydrological study], Doctoral thesis, Al.I.Cuza University, Iai. Savin Nicoleta (1998), Cercetri privind influena proceselor de colmatare progresiv a unor acumulri asupra funcionrii la ape mari, cu referiri la bazinul Bahlui [Research on the influence of the progressive clogging processes present in certain reservoirs on the functioning during high floods, with references to Bahlui basin], Doctoral thesis, Gh Asachi Tehnical University , Iai.


Schram Maria (1970), Studiul hidrologic al lacurilor din Cmpia Moldovei [Hydrological study of the lakes from the Moldavian Plain], abstract of Doctoral thesis, Babes-Bolyai University, Cluj-Napoca. Schram Maria, (1971), Contribuii la studiul hidrochimic al lacurilor din Cmpia Moldovei [Contributions to the hydrochemical study of the lakes from the Moldavian Plain], Lucrri tiinifice, geografie, Bucureti, p. 145-152


University, Faculty of Geography, Cluj-Napoca, Romania., 2Romanian Academy Cluj Branch, Geography Department of Cluj-Napoca, Romania

The lake units analyzed in this study are located in the Purcre-Boiu Mare plateau, specifically in the formerly Cuciulat quarry (Salaj County). To the origin of the two lake basins, have contributed mostly anthropogenic factors and to a smaller extent natural ones. The lakes formed next to the quarry are significantly influenced by the spoil bank: this can be seen in the lakes form, in their bathymetry and also in some of their physical characteristics. The identification of the lakes morphobathymetric features and of the waters physical characteristics relied on measurements taken in the summer of 2009 (August 17). In the field, we used a Hannah HI 9828 multiparameter instrument to measure the waters physical characteristics and a GPS to pinpoint the measurements position. Also for the depth measurements, because they are shallow lakes, besides the GPS, we used a Seechi disk. To capture the best possible spatial variation of the mentioned characteristics, we used interpolation as modeling method. Keywords: lake bathymetry, Cuciulat quarry, waters physical characteristics

1. Introduction The two lake units (Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II) are situated in the area of the lime quarry from Cuciulat, in between the localities Cuciulat and Bbeni (Slaj County), 250 m away from the railroad connecting the localities Dej and Jibou. As geographic unit, they are located in the north of the Plateau of Some, in the subunit known as the Purcre-Boiu Mare Plateau. The origin of the two lake units is largely anthropic, the lakes basin resulting after the depositing of the sterile material produced during the lime processing. It seems that the Cuciulat I Lake appeared largely naturally, yet the origin of the lakebed cannot be identified with precision, and its origin may be both natural and anthropic.

The determination of the lakes bathymetric elements and of their waters physical features was achieved on the basis of the measurements carried out on August 17, 2009. In order to measure the depth and the physical characteristics of the lakes waters we used a Hannah HI 9828 multiparameter instrument, and in order to pinpoint the measurements position, we used a Magellan Explorist 600 GPS. 2. Morphobathymetric features The analysis of the lakes morphometric features was carried out by interpolating the punctual depths measured using the Esri ArcG.I.S. soft groups. So, the measurements positions were pinpointed using the GPS, and the depths were determined through punctual fathoming using a lead weight tool. The geoinformatic programs included, for the interpolation, a series of specific functions. In the spatial analysis modules of the ArcG.I.S. program are included the following interpolation functions: Spline, Kriging, IDW. In order to choose the interpolation function, we took into account the number of points for which there were available values, and also their distribution in the lakebeds. Taking into account these two elements, we reached the conclusion that the best function for interpolation is the Spatial Analyst IDW, namely the space analysis module of the ArcG.I.S. program. Interpolation is the process by means of which the value of certain features in some unknown points is calculated based on the values in the known points. From a mathematical viewpoint, the interpolation consists in the obtaining of a function f(x) approximating another function, for which only certain values from an interval considered correct are known. The IDW (Inverse Distance Weighting) spatial interpolation function relies on the hypothesis that the influence of the value of a certain point on another point is inversely proportional with the distance between them (Bilaco, 2008). So, after the creation of the lakebeds digital model, it was possible to calculate the area and other morphometric features (Tab. 1), the characteristic curves and last but not least the lakes volume (Pandi & Magyari, 2003). Analyzing the lakes transversal profiles, one can highlight the anthropic impact on the lakebeds shape. The waste dumps from the nearby quarry ended up in the lakebed, so one can notice in the case of Lake Cuciulat I, that on the left border, the depths grow fast, the slope being very steep, as here is located the waste dump that was introduced in the lake, while for the Lake Cuciulat II on the left shore the slope is gentler: being situated further away from the waste dump, the form of the lakebed is less influenced by it. The significant slope on the right shore is due to the natural abrupt slope cut out in calcareous stones from this area.

Fig. 1. Lakes location

Fig. 3. Bathymetric map of the lakes Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II


Fig. 2. Transversal profiles of the Lakes Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II

From the transversal profiles and at the same time from the bathymetric maps, it results that the depths are similar for both of these lakes, reaching a depth of maximum 3.5 m. The analysis of the lakebeds digital model, using ArcG.I.S., has highlighted the following morphometric features (Table 1) (Horvth, 2008) .
Table 1. Morphometric and hydric features of the Lakes Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II

Lakes name Cuciulat 1 Ciciulat II

Area (m2) 759.95 400.22

Average depth (m) 1.36 1.49

Maximum depth (m) 3.4 3.55

Maximum Maximum width (m) length (m) 22.4 53.2 13.4 35.6

Volume (m3) 1038 597.33

We should mention the fact that due to their differentiated altimetric position, as the lake Cuciulat II is situated 28 cm higher than Cuciulat I, when the quantity of precipitations is significant, there appears a self-regulation phenomenon, the surplus volume from lake Cuciulat II overflowing into Lake Cuciulat I. Following this phenomenon, in time there appeared an active overflow channel, which is active only during the periods when the volume of Lake Cuciulat II goes over the maximum retention capacity of its eastern shore. 3. Physical characteristics of the lakes waters An essential lake property, transparency is determined by: the climatic conditions of the area, the morphometric properties of the lakebeds, hydrochemical regime, biological processes, etc. (Burian, 2002). The lakes transparency was determined using a Secchi disk. Given the low depths, we have concluded that the entire lakes volume is situated in the photic area, as the disk was visible for all the measurements until it reached the lacustrine bed. The lakes waters thermal regime is especially interesting, as it explains some phenomena related to the stagnation or to the circulation of the water masses,

which in their turn determine their physico-chemical and biological structure. One can notice, due to the lakes low volume, a close connection between the air and the water temperature (Baranyi, 1980; Pandi 2004). The analysis of the waters physical features was carried out using the spline geostatic interpolation method integrated in ArcGIS. Spline is a deterministic interpolation method, locally stochastic, which can be considered the mathematical equivalent of the matching of a flexible bidimensional surface over several points with an irregular distribution. The analysis of the waters temperature and Ph was carried out both in a vertical and in a horizontal profile. In each depth profile or each profile measured with the Hannah HI 9828 multiparameter instrument, the values of the temperature and of the pH were measured every half meter. After their recording, these values were introduced in a vectorial format in ArcGIS, which made it possible to interpolate each depth in turn (Fig. 4).

Fig. 4. Analysis of the temperatures spatial variation for Lake Cuciulat II

The temperature differences between the surface and the deeper levels are low, and the variation of these values can be followed considering the characteristics of the lakebed. So, in the case of the Cuciulat II Lake, it appears that the temperatures are lower as the depth grows, and the abrupt slope in the area of the southern shore makes this area cooler (Fig. 4). The impact of the depth on the temperatures variation in space can be noticed by superposing the temperatures found at different levels: in the deeper areas, the temperatures are lower. The temperatures variation in space was highlighted using the values of the temperatures from each vertical profile in turn.

The vertical temperature variation for both of these lakes covers a 10 oC range (Fig. 5). In order to follow the temperature and pH variation vertically, we have chosen the longest profiles, which also cover the greatest variation. Given the small temperature difference, the hypolimnion cannot be highlighted very well, and the epilimnion becomes generalized for the entire depth (Sorocovschi, 2004). A not very obvious thermocline appears because of the not very significant depth (Fig. 5). The pH value expresses the concentration of the hydrogen ions, which determine the waters reactivity. It is inversely proportional to the quantity of carbon dioxide, one of the main indicators of the biological production of the water environment. Its variation is influenced by photosynthesis, respiration and nitrogen assimilation. In the Cuciulat I Lake, the pH values have a tendency of decrease with the depth, yet they remain alkaline throughout the vertical line. In the Cuciulat II Lake, the pH records a slight tendency of increase, from 7.67 to 7.76. Due to the low depths of these lakes, the pH values are relatively uniform, the values measured ranking between 7.6 and 8.2, indicating weakly alkaline waters. This situation can be explained by the direct contact between the lakes waters and the limes that form their lakebed, and by the rocks washed up from the slopes situated in the vicinity of the lacustrine units. The small pH difference in the case of the Cuciulat I Lake can be explained through the existence of the lacustrine vegetation from the surface and through the photosynthesis process that can lead to the increase of the pH value.

Fig. 5. Variation in the vertical profile of the temperature and pH for the lakes Cuciulat I and Cuciulat II (August 17, 2009 the longest vertical profiles continuous line - Lake Cuciulat I., interrupted line - Lake Cuciulat II.)

Conclusions The origin of the lakebed of the lakes under analysis is largely anthropic, resulted following the depositing of the spoil bank from the lime quarry of Cuciulat, Slaj County, their water supply being exclusively pluvial.

The morphometric dimensions of the two lake units are moderate, a fact reflected as well in the relatively uniform spatial repartition of the waters physical characteristics, so the temperature does not record significant variations in the vertical profile, the thermal stratification being direct, with higher temperatures toward the surface and lower temperatures deeper under water. The higher temperature recorded in the south-west of the Cuciulat I Lake can be explained as well through the existence of the self-regulation process of the water volume and through the low depths correlated to a gentle slope of the lakebed in this sector. As far as the pH is concerned, in the case of both of these lakes, a generalized pH of over 7.6 can be noticed, indicated weakly alkaline waters within the entire lacustrine volume. Bibliography Baranyi S. (1980), A tavak hidrologija, VITUKI, Budapest. Bilasco St. (2008), Implementarea GIS n modelarea viiturilor de versant [GIS Implementation in Modeling Slope-Triggered High Floods], Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Burian P. V. (2002), Lacul de acumulare: analiza biologic [The Storage Lake: Its Biological Analysis], University Press, Trgu Mure. Gtescu P. (1971), Lacurile din Romnia. Limnologie regional [The Lakes in Romania. Regional Limnology], Editura Academic, Bucureti. Horvath Cs. (2008), Studiul lacurilor de acumulare din bazinul superior al Criului Repede [A Study on the Storage Lakes from the Upper Basin of Criul Repede], Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Lampert W, Sommer U (2007), Limnoecology, Oxford University Press, Oxford. Pandi G. (2004), A Gyilkos-t. Hidrogeogrfiai tanulmny, Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Pandi G., Magyari Zs.(2003), Realizarea hrilor batimetrice pe calculator. Modelul Lacul Rou [Computer-Assisted Bathymetric Mapping. Red Lake Model], Studia Universitatis Babe-Bolyai, Cluj-Napoca. Romanescu, Gh. (2009), The physical and chemical characteristics of the lake wetlands in the central group of the East Carpathian Mountains, Lakes reservoirs and ponds - Romanian Journal of Limnology, Edit. Transversal, Trgovite. Sorocovschi, V. (2004), Hidrologia uscatului [Land Hydrology]. Editura Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. *** (2005). Volumetric Survey of Lake Bonham, Edit. Texas Water Development Board, Austin, Texas.



Arge-Vedea Water Basin Administration, Piteti, Romnia

Having an important hydrographic system, with a significant discharge potential and being located in a place that has all the forms of relief, the basin Arges is, at present, one of the most complex hydroelectric facilities from all the rivers with reservoirs in the country. Vidraru reservoir is the biggest of its 11 reservoirs. The information (data) about the management of the water in Walachia dates from the year 1576, and the oldest writing about protection against floods is known as the Ipsilantis canal, which stated that the big waters of Dambovita river were deviated at Lunguletu in the riverbed of Ciorogarla rivulet and dates from 1774.The effects caused by the hydrotehnical constructions on the environment are numerous and profound, both positive and negative. In this essay, the analysis of the environmental impact of the hydrotehnical facilities on Arges River is made from two perspectives. The first method of analysis is the Water Directive 2000/60 and the second method is basd on a SWOT analysis, a method taken from the economy, but very efficient in establishing the current state, and also the perpective of this environemental impact. Keywords: impact, hydrotechnical facilities, SWOT analysis.


1. Geographic features of the upper course of Arge hydrographic

The upper hydrographic basin of Arge is situated in the center-south of the country, being comprised in the north-south direction between the 45o36 parallel in the upper area and the 44o50 parallel in the lower area, and respectively in the west-east direction between the 24o30 and the 25o28 meridians. From an altitudinal viewpoint, it presents very varied altimetric indicators, including the highest Carpathian Mountains (Fgra Mountains - 2543 m) and unfolds up to about 300 m (the High Plain of Piteti).

In the north and north-west, it is situated near the hydrographic basin of Olt, from which it is separated by large interfluves, and in the north-east and east it is situated in the vicinity of Ialomia Basin. Within these limits, Arge has a total length of 122 km, and together with its tributaries it drains a territory whose surface covers 3,261 km2. In its passage through several relief units (mountains, subcarpathian and piedmont hills, piedmont plain), the aspect of the riverbed changes significantly, from the V-shaped form in the alpine area to the U-shaped form in the hilly regions (fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Geographic setting of the hydrographic basin of Upper Arges

It presents a dendritic, asymmetrical basin, and an almost rectilinear course, with a marked deviation eastwards. The hydrographic network in the area under analysis is represented mainly by Arge River and by a number of 19 of its first order tributaries, the rest of the courses comprised in the cadastre being of inferior orders (II, III, and IV). One of the features of Arge River is the asymmetry with a leftside dominance from the viewpoint of the tributaries and the asymmetry with a rightside dominance from the viewpoint of terrace development (at Piteti their number is of 5-7). There are 9 tributaries on the right, with elongated basins. Among the most important, there are: Modrugaz, Cumpna, Aref and Bascov. Their total length is 118 km and their area covers 308 km2 of the total upper and middle basin of Arge.

The tributaries on the left (a total of 10) are much more developed. Among them, the most important are: Valea cu Peti, Vlsan, Rul Doamnei (the largest tributary in the area under analysis),Vleni.In agreement with the asymmetry of the basin and its more significant development on the left side, the length of the hydrographic network from here is of 266 km and it occupies an area of 2427 km2. From an administrative viewpoint, the entire area is located on the territory of Arge County. Within the area under analysis, the diversity of the geographic landscapes reflects the complexity of the relief forms. So, from north to south, there is a series of relief steps: high mountains (over 2000 m), low and medium mountains (800 1000 m), Subcarpathian and piedmont hills (300-800 m), and piedmont plain. The difference of altitude between the source and the entrance of the river in the plain area is of about 2260 m. The relief is structured in parallel bands, oriented east-west. The main morphostructural units of the area under analysis are the result of a long evolution and have the following weight in the basin area: mountains 29%, Subcarpathian hills 44%, piedmont hills - 19% andpiedmontplain (fig. 2). 2 Short history of the hydrotechnical arrangements in the upper hydrographic basin of Arge The oldest pieces of information concerning the water management in Walachia date back since the year 1576, when hydrotechnical works meant to protect agaist flooding and to supply the city of Bucarest with water were carried out. Canalul lui Ipsilanti (Ipsilantis canal), the oldest defense work in this area, dates since 1774 and was meant to deviate the big waters of Dambovia River in the area of Lunguleu locality, moving them towards the riverbed of Ciorogrla Rivulet.

The first attempts to realize general hydrotechnical works, hydroelectric power plants on the Romanian waters belong to several remarkable engineers from the beginning of the 20th century. In the year 1934, Prof. Dorin Pavel publishes the work Plan gnral damnagement des forces hydrauliques de Roumanie (General arrangement plan for the hydraulic forces of Romania). After the Second World War, the development of the country in the domain of hydroelectric power required a series of studies which analyzed the usefulness of reservoir construction and the evaluation of the hydroelectric power potential. In the basin of Arge, the first large hydroelectric power works began with the arrangement from Vidraru (1965-1971), which, with a height of 166.6 m is the highest dam in Romania (with a volume of 465 million m3). The complex arrangement scheme of Arge River in the upper course comprises a chain of 11 reservoirs (Vidraru, Oeti, Cerbureni, Curtea de Arge, Zigoneni, Vlcele, Budeasa, Bascov, Piteti, Prundu i Goleti), 16 electric power plants, to which should be added the secondary branches: Rul Doamnei-Vlsan-Arge (Vidraru), TopologArge (Vidraru) (fig.3).

Fig. 3. General scheme of Arge River development

Hydrological and technical parameters of the Vidraru reservoir The Vidraru arrangement constitutes a first step in the arrangement of Arge River, its realization being decided on November 1, 1960, its purpose being to produce electric energy, to supply with water the towns downstream (Curtea de Arge, Piteti and Bucharest), to provide water for irrigations, pisciculture and recreational activities. The hydrotechnical arrangement is made up of: a dam holding the reservoir, a main water supply system, a balance tank, a forced intake pipe, an underground hydroelectric power plant the first of its kind in Romania, from where the water is evacuated through an escape pipe, unique at the time of its construction (fig.4).

Fig. 4. Vidraru Lake dam

At present, the Vidraru hydroelectric power system is managed by S.C. Hidrocentrale S.A., the branch Hidrocentrale (Hydroelectric power plants) Curtea de Arge. It began to operate in the year 1966 and presents complex functions: water supply, high flood attenuation, hydropower production, irrigations, and recreational activities. Its main characteristic data are: surface at normal retention level NNR 870.0 ha; dimension at normal retention level NNR 830 mdM; volume at normal retention level NNR 465 mil. m3; high flood reduction volume 22 mil.m3; maximum dam height 166.6 m; type of dam doubly curved arc. The hydroelectric power plant was built between 1961 and 1966, a record period for such a work; it was the second hydroelectric power plant in Romania after that of Stejaru-Bicaz, on Bistrita River, compared to which it presents different features, however. Following the approval of the arrangement scheme for Arge River during the period 1955-1960, on the proposal of the engineers M. Sipiceanu and S. Bogdan, relying on direct measurements that lasted for 18 years at the hydrometric station Tunel - Arge and for shorter periods on the tributaries upstream the dam, this work foresaw the catching of the waters of nine rivers, all with an area of 457 km2 (61.5% of the total), bringing into Vidraru lake a flow of 12.12 m3/s) (table 1, fig. 5.).

Table 1. Secondary waters caught and brought into Vidraru reservoir (According to Cr. Mateescu)



1. Rul Doamnei 2. Prul Draghina Mare 3. Prul Bradului 4. Prul Cernatului 5. Rul Vlsan 6. Prul Dobroneagu 7. Topolog 8. Valea lui Stan 9. Valea Limpedea Total secondary waters caught Arge General total

Reception basin area (km2) 210 10 3.1 42.6 67.9 15.4 80.4 19.7 7.9 457.0 286.0 743.0

Average flow (m3/s) 5.75 0.25 0.06 1.14 1.78 0.32 2.26 0.40 0.16 12.12 7.55 19.67

Fig.5.Vidrau reservoir and drainage basin (Al.Nedelea, 2006)


So, the average yearly flow was supplemented from the ordinary 7.55 m3/s of upper Arge to 19.7m3/s, by catching the hydrographic network afferent to Topolog, Vlsan, Doamna and their direct tributaries from the alpine area. The waterfall, a significant parameter in the hydropower exploitation, consequently increased from 178.2 m to 324 m. With the adoption of this scheme, the power installed in the power plant increased from only 30 MW to 220 MW (7.33 times) (fig.6.).

Fig. 6. Arrangement scheme for the upper basin of Arge

The secondary courses deviated towards the reservoir pass through tunnels in which water circulates gravitationally, dimensioned in such a way as to transport much higher flows than the average value of the waters caught. The eastern tunnels (Rul Doamnei-Vidraru) are 2.5 times bigger, the western one (Topolog-Cumpnia) is 3.5 times bigger, and Valea lui Stan and Limpedea are 5 times bigger. This situation was given by the demand to use a quantity of water as big as possible out of the annual suuply coming from the respective rivers. For the realization of these secondary inputs, three dams were built, in the shape of an arc, made of steel: one on Rul Doamnei (Baciu) between the years 1965-1967, 34 m high and with a lake volume for normal retention level of 585 000m3; another on Vlsan River, 25 m high and with the lake volume of 174 000 m3; a third is situated on Cumpania Valley, is 33 m high and has a volume of 288 000 m3. The latter two were built during the period 1966-1968. The remaining 6 were obtained by creating dams along the water, as overflow thresholds, with arins that function automatically.

3. The impact of the hydrotechnical arrangements on the environment The analysis of the impact produced by a hydrotechnical arrangement on the environment is complex and can be approached in many ways. In the present paper, the impact on the environment shall be analyzed from two perspectives. The first is that our country has the obligation to meet the requirements of the European legislation in the domain of water, so through the prism of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, while the second is an approach from the perspective of a SWOT analysis. 3.1. The Water Framework Directive 2000/60 The Water Framework Directive adopted by the European Parliament on October 23, 2000 was applied beginning with December 22, 2000, when it was published in the Official Journal of the European Union. The goal of the Water Framework Directive is to reach a good condition for all the water bodies, both situated at the surface and in the underground, except for the strongly modified and artificial ones, for which the good ecological potential is defined. The article 5 of the Water Framework Directive foresees the need to analyze the anthropic pressures and their impact, mentioning that each Member State must assure a review of the impact of the human activity on the status of surface waters and on groundwater. For the area under analysis, the significant pressures are the hydromorphological ones, considering the realization of Vidraru reservoir and of the other reservoirs downstream, which required works consisting in: transversal dams; works along the river lateral dams, river regulation and riverside consolidation works; works for gathering and evacuating used waters and works meant to deviate a part of the flow. The hydromorphological pressures result in: modification of the habitats due to physical alterations through transversal dams, lateral dams, canals, etc that influence the aquatic fauna and flora; the modification of the waters hydrological regime and of the sediments regime due to the significant flow regulations, extractions or returns; modifications of the water chemistry with local impact. An important regulation brought by the Water Framework Directive 2000/60 is the definition of a new water category, namely strongly modified water bodies. They are those water bodies that never reach a good ecological condition because of the deep alterations generated by human activities. The relevant human pressures are in the case of the strongly modified water bodies, those that produce the physical alteration of these bodies features. The physical alteration includes changes in the morphology and hydrology of the water bodies. The dams are the

classic examples of physical modifications that lead to changes in the hydrological regime. From the analysis of the impact of the arrangements along Arge Valley according to the criteria of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60, the resulting conclusion is that the natural environment of Arge Valley has been irreversibly changed, which makes it necessary to take some rehabilitation measures in the future (wetland restauration, riverbed restauration and return to its natural condition), rehabilitation / relief modification reduction in the floodable riverside, repopulation of the minor riverbed with fish etc. 3.2. SWOT analysis Vidraru reservoir The SWOT analysis was used in an attempt to make an inventory as complete as possible of the effects induced by the arrangement of the reservoirs along Arge Valley on the environment. In table 2 are presented the analysis points according to the four aspects.

Table . 2. SWOT analysis of the environmental impact of the reservoirs

Strengths - S water supply production of electric energy increase of the irrigable areas defense against flooding fish exploitations tourist development Opportunities -O cheaper and non-polluting electric energy tourist development amateur fishing jobs administrative infrastructure works

Weaknesses -W modification of the natural flow modification of the riverbeds morphology interruption of the river continuity modification of the water quality occupying farm lands landscape modification Threats -T risk of breaking and damage clogging and eutrophisation modification of the riverbed morphology impact on the flora and fauna


Strenghts The arrangement of Arge River highlights as main functional effects the electric energy production, the assurance of the water supply, the regulation of the water flows in Arge basin, by which we understand the decrease of the risk of flooding, as the water surplus can be kept in the reservoirs. -The production of non-polluting electric energy. The realization of the 14 hydroelectric power plants along Arge River up to Piteti with an installed power of 407 MW, and an electric energy production of about 770 GW/year has beneficial immediate and permanent effects. Modifications of the natural water course. Following the use for hydropower and given the existing deviations within the system, significant water transfers appear from one basin to the next. So, through the main secondary branch Vlsan-Vidraru situated in the alpine area of the basin, providing a supplementary water volume in Vidraru Lake, Vlsan River loses a significant amount of water (fig. 7.). One can notice the significant difference between the reconstituted (natural) flow and the flow measured at Brdet hydrometric station (Ph) situated downstream from the deviation.

Fig. 7. The average annual flows, at Brdet Ph, for Vlsan River, and at Bahna Rusului Ph, for Doamnei River

The influence can be noticed very well during the low and average waters. In 2007, a year affected by drought, the recorded flow (1.0 m3/s) represented only 30 % of the flow it should have been naturally (3.3 m3/s). The same situation is encountered for Doamnei River, another river caught in the upper basin through Baciu reservoir and directed through a secondary branch towards Vidraru reservoir. The values of the difference vary between 18.1 % in 2007 and 98% in 2005. So, the impact of these arrangements is both positive and negative. For Arge River, through the passage of the water from one basin into the next, an extremely important extra volume and flow is gained, from the viewpoint of the hydroelectric power, but at the same time Vlsan River and Doamnei River lose a large part of their natural flow, which affects their ecosystem downstream.

- The water supply for different uses is assured by the water stored and through the regulation of the flows in the reservoirs and the secondary branches. The arrangements on Arge River are meant to assure drinkable water for three big towns: Bucharest, Piteti and Curtea de Arge (about 3.2 mil. inhabitants), with a volume of 225,828 m3 and an extra volume of about 200,000 m3 water for industrial, agricultural and piscicultural uses. - The risk of high floods is significantly reduced through the attenuation of the high floods in the lake chain, following strictly respected exploitation regulations. During the high flood of 2005, Arge River did not produce any damage, and Vidraru Lake reached its maximum retention level (832.85 mdM), the water being evacuated through the surface overflow. Weaknesses - The modification of the natural flow regime is one of the principal weak points. By deviating the flows to supply the reservoirs on Arge River, the flow of Arge River increased, while the flows of the deviated rivers from the upper basin (Vlsan and Rul Doamnei) decreased. The most eloquent example is given by the project of the arrangement, as for an optimal functioning of Vidraru Lake, it was determined to supplement the average flow coming into the lake from 7.5 m3/s to 19.7 m3/s by catching the nine rivers from the upper basin of Arge River. In the graphs from fig. 8, one can notice the difference between the measured and the reconstituted flow regime.

Fig. 8.The flow in 2008 at Brdet Ph, for Vlsan River, and Bahna Rusului Ph, for Doamnei River

At Bradet Ph, for Valsan River, and at Bahna Rusului Ph, for Doamnei River, where we are only dealing with water caught upstream, and not with water restituted downstream, the graph of the natural and of the measured flows presents the same tendency, with the remark that the natural values are higher. For the maximum flow, it can be noticed that the peaks are removed and the difference between the extremes is reduced. The real impact produced on the flow regime on

Arge River is the lowering of the maximum flow by attenuating the high flood waves and increasing the minimum flows by regulating the water stocks. - The modification of the riverbeds morphology refers to two aspects: the appearance of new course sectors (the secondary branches meant to supplement the flow and the canals meant to reuse the water for energy) and the modification of the natural riverbed. The waters transversal profile, and also the rivers longitudinal profile, have gone through numerous transformations in time. The appearance of the reservoirs led to the change of the balance profile, as the erosion diminished in certain sectors from where the water was taken away or became accelerated downstream, where the accumulated waters flow through the natural riverbed. In order to highlight this aspect, we analyzed the evolution of the riverbed at the Ph from Cpneni (created in 1943), situated on Arge River, at the rivers exit from the alpine area, downstream from Vidraru Lake, draining a 316 km2 area (fig. 9).

Fig. 9.Transversal profiles of Arge riverbed in the area of Capneni Ph

From the example provided, one can notice the mobility of the riverbed as the talweg changed from the right riverside in the year 1998 to the left riverside in the year 2001. - Modification of the landscape. The landscape changed due to the appearance of a new ecosystem, the artificial lake, and implicitly due to the transformations induced by it (dam, water volume, higher riverside, topoclimate). - Changes in the water quality due to the lacustrine ecosystems with specific biotopic features (relatively stagnant volume with vertical temperature distribution, oxygen concentration, trophicity degree), which determine eutrophisations, affecting the qualitative parameters needed for the development of the aquatic life.


Opportunities - The theoretical hydroenergy potential. In the upper basin of Arge there are adequate conditions for the creation of new arrangements able to valorize the entire existing potential through the construction of micro hydroelectric power stations. -Tourism and recreational activities. The development of tourism represents at the same time an increase of the number of jobs offered and also of the recreational spots. -Amateur fishing and pisciculture constitute an interesting issue, as the tourist flow would be favored by an adequate infrastructure. Threats - Damage risk for the hydrotechnical constructions; yet the proability of such damages is very low. The scenatios foreseeing the breaking of Vidraru dam, the most important of the entire chain, highlight the fact that the created wave would affect all the dams situated downstream, flooding numerous areas (a 200 m long breach in the dam at a height of 159 m would trigger a damage flow of 451,125 m3/s (500.37 mil.m3), and a flood wave corresponding to this flow of 159 m at the dam, corresponding to a 9.28 m wave at Piteti. - The clogging of the reservoirs hinders the functioning of the arrangement at the projected parameters, making it dissicult to provide the water needed for different uses - The modification of the morphology of the riverbeds downstream, due to the lack of the alluvial deposits, which end up in the reservoir. Concerning the clogging, we must remind the impact of the modification of the riverbed morphology both upstream and downstream, following the depositing at the end of the lake. - The impact on the initial flora and fauna through the appearance of new types of ecosystems; the variation of the lake level can have determining effects in the reproduction of the fish fauna and the development of the flora. Negative effects concerning the fish fauna can appear if the fish passages are not maintained. The SWOT analysis provides conclusions meant to help in the elaboration of strategies and of a management that can help reduce/avoid the negative impacts and rehabilitate the affected or modified ecosystems. Conclusions The hydrotechnical arrangements, as the arrangement on Arge River, significantly modify the morphology, the longitudinal profile and the waters drainage regime. By the construction of the dam, the water level is increased and the areas in the vicinity of the riverbed are flooded. Through the creation of the reservoir, the transport of the alluvial deposits - dragged or in suspension - stops, beginning from the end of the lake (the area in which the speed regime changes). This fact leads to

the clogging of the lake, and in the case of the low-depth lakes, even to the creation of lacustrine deltas (swamps). The clogging process is accelerated in the case of flooding, which bring in very significant flows (dragged and solid in suspension) plus the quantities of alluvial deposits stored in the confluential areas, which at a normal flow would not have been transportable. The positive effects actually coincide with the goals of the realization of these arrangements: producing electric energy, assuring the necessary water supply for Curtea de Arge, Piteti and Bucharest and the neighboring localities, regulating the liquid flow along the arranged rivers, avoiding or diminishing the risk caused by flooding, assuring the water flows needed for socio-economic units, agriculture (irrigations), pisciculture. The complexity of the effects induced in all the environmental components by the hydrotechnical arrangements causes multiple interactions, with different degrees of importance. Having in view the need to valorize the water, given their complex functions, the effects of these arrangements are positive for the society. By means of the anthropic intervention, the balance of the natural environment undergoes significant modifications, especially negative. Through a rigorous analysis of the effects, regardless of the method of analysis (be it the Framework Directive or the SWOT analysis), the negative issues are determined and solutions are searched to improve them, or, in case the situation does not allow it, to maintain the present condition without allowing it to get worse. Bibliography Bocioac, M. (1970), Lacul Vidraru. Studiu hidrologic preliminar, [Vidraru lake. Preliminary hydrological study], Lucrrile Colocviului de Limnologie fizic, Institutul de Geografie, Bucureti Constantinescu M. (1990), Construcii hidrotehnice n Romnia [Hydrotechnical Constructions in Romania], Edit. Hidroconstructia, Bucureti Diaconu C., Serban P. (1994), Sinteze i Regionalizari Hidrologice [Hydrological Syntheses and Regionalizations], Edit. Tehnic Diaconu C., Dumitrescu S., Lzrescu D., Ujvari I. (1954), Scurgerea medie specific a rurilor din R. P. Romn [The Specific Average Flow of the Rivers in the Popular Republic of Romania], Lucr. DGH, Seria hidrol., 1 Gtescu P. (1988), Resursele de ap ale rurilor Romniei si repartiia lor n teritoriu [Water Resources of the Romanian Rivers and Their Repartition in the Territory], Terra, nr. 3-4, Bucureti Gtescu,P., Driga,B.(1996), Lacul de baraj antropic-un ecosistem lacustru aparte [Anthropic dam lake-a apart lacustru ecosystem], Revista Geografic, II-III, Institutul de Geografie Bucureti

Gtescu P. (2002), Resursele de ap ale bazinelor hidrografice din Romnia [Water Resources of the Hydrographic Basins in Romania], Terra, vol.1-2 Gtescu P. (1990), Water resources in Carpathians and their economic management, RRGeogr. 34 Gtescu P., Driga B., Sandu Maria (2003), Lacurile de baraj antropic ntre necesitate i modificri ale mediului [Anthropic dam lakes between necessity and environmental changes], in the tome Riscuri i Catastrofe [Risks and Catastrophes], II, Editor Sorocovschi, V., Edit. Casa Crii de tiin, ClujNapoca Ionescu t. (2001), Impactul amenajrilor hidrotehnice asupra mediului [The Impact of the Hydrotechnical Arrangements on the Environment], Edit. H.G.A., Bucureti. Nedelea, Al. (2006), Valea Argeului n sectorul montan. Studiu geomorphologic [Arge valleyin mountain section.Geomorphologycal study], Edit. Uninversitar, Bucureti Rdoane Maria, Rdoane N. (2003), Impactul construciilor hidrotehnice asupra dinamicii reliefului [The Impact of the Hydrotechnical Constructions on the Relief Dynamics], in the tome Riscuri i Catastrofe (Risks and Catastrophes), II, Editor Sorocovschi, V., Edit. Casa Crii de tiin, Cluj-Napoca. Teodor S. (1999), Lacul de baraj si noua morfodinamica. Studiu de caz pentru rul Arges [The Dam Lake and the New Morphodynamics. Case Study: Arge River], Edit. Vergiliu Zvoianu, I., (1978), Morfometria bazinelor hidrografice [Hydrographic Basins Morphometry], Edit.Academiei Romne Zvoianu, I., (1993), Romanias water resources and their use, GeoJournal, 21, I *** (1972-1979), Atlas R.S.Romnia, Inst.Geografie, Edit.Academiei Romne *** (1983), Geografia Romniei [Romanias Geography], vol. I, Geografie Fizic (Physical Geography), Edit.Academiei Romne *** (1971), Rurile Romniei (monografie hidrologic) [The Rivers of Romania. Hydrological Monograph], IMH, Bucureti *** (1992), Atlasul Cadastrului Apelor din Romnia [Atlas of the Water Cadastre in Romania], Bucureti *** (1996), Directiva Cadru 2000/60 a Consiliului Europen [Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC] *** (2004), Planul de Management al spatiului hidrografic Arges-Vedea [Management Plan of the Arge-Vedea Hydrographic Area]



Andreea Mihaela DOMNEANU1, Marcel Trk Oance2

of Geography, West University, Timioara, Romania, 2Faculty of Geography, West University, Timioara, Romania,


The reserve known as the Satchinez Swamps, also called the Delta of Banat is a bird reserve situated in Timi County and concentrating incontestable eco-fauna treasures represented by a number of about 167 bird species, which have been identified within it by ornithologists during over 7 decennia of observations. This reserve is a true oasis providing favorable conditions for the sojourning and the nesting of certain rare species of aquatic migrating birds that go through the migrational corridor situated in the west of Romania. Unfortunately this reserve is in danger as the anthropic impact on it is a strong one, which has triggered a deterioration of the habitats, an unfavorable impact on the birds food, the eutrophisation of the water and the clogging of the swamp, as well as the disappearance of the wet areas. Keywords: bird reserve, swamp, wet areas, aquatic migrating birds


Introduction According to the legislation concerning the protected Romanian areas, the reserve called Mlatinile de la Satchinez (the Satchinez Swamps) is listed as a natural reserve, yet among researchers it is known, more often than not, as a bird reserve, due to the importance of this place for the birds sojourning during their migration, and also for the reproduction of the species within this area and not only. General overview The natural reserve of the Satchinez Swamps is one of the 14 natural reserves in Timi County, being as we have previously mentioned a bird reserve, along with two more such reserves situated in Timi County, namely the Murani Swamps (Mlatinile Murani) and the Bird Reserve from Beba Veche.

Regarding its geographic setting in Timi County, the Satchinez Swamps Reserve is situated about 25 km north-west of Timioara, in between the localities Satchinez and Brteaz (Fig. 1), in the area of Mreti-Rtu Liului (Rtu Duin). From a geomorphological viewpoint, the reserve is situated at the boundary between three plains with distinct geomorphological features, namely the Plain of Vinga, the Plain of Jimbolia (also called the Plain of Torontal) and the Plain of Timi, in the riverside of Ier (Apa Mare) River, an area with large swamps, meanders and deserted backwaters. The area of the Satchinez Swamps was declared a natural reserve since 1942 through the Gazette of the Ministers Council no. 1166. Although later on the status of this reserve has been maintained officially through different decisions and orders of the countys administrations, the protected area was gradually diminished, because of the draining and damming works of the years 1960 1980, whose goal was to fight off the excess of humidity in the Plain of Banat, to integrate the lands in the agricultural circuit. Beside the above mentioned works, nearby the reserve, hydrotechnical works were also carried out, to supply with water the central area of the reserve, but these works were abandoned after 1989, given the lack of necessary funds to maintain them. So, the construction of the dam from the Sicsu Valley and the creation of the storage lake of Satchinez (Photo 1) somehow compensated for the effects of the draining through the appearance of 4 ha water surface and of significant common reed areas (Photo 2).

Photo.1. Satchinez Lake (Domneanu, 2008). Photo. 2. Common reed area (Domneanu, 2008).

The beneficial effect of this lake for the survival of the reserve is also completed by the importance it has for the aquatic birds of the reserve, as this wet area assures a permanent feeding and nesting place for them. So, the Satchinez Swamps, along with the lake complex, are considered a remainder of the former swamps, flooded periodically, which used to cover most of the area of the Plain of Banat.


The importance of this reserve is even greater as it represents a true oasis in this relief unit, as most of the swampy areas of the Plain of Banat have gradually disappeared (Stnescu, 2005). At present, the zone where the protected area of the actual reserve is sums up 122 ha being characterized by the existence of certain swamps with a permanent character alternating with areas covered in common reed, ponds, hayfields and clusters of willows (Fig. 2), favorable conditions for the sojourning and nesting of certain rare aquatic migrating bird species which go through the migratory corridor in the west of the country, while its buffer zone, which totals 1072 ha, is represented by swamps and ponds with a permanent and temporary character, the Satchinez storage lake, Balta Brteaz, Balta Mare, Balta Zootehnie, Balta Verbuncu and areas covered in common reed, areas that represent a feeding place for numerous bird species, but also agricultural lands and localities ( The reserve holds undeniable eco-fauna treasures, such as Egretta garzetta, declared a monument of nature, a bird most of the protectionist and bird research preoccupations from Satchinez have focused on, Egretta alba, a monument of nature, Phalacrocorax pygmaeus, a monument of nature, Himantopus himantopus, a monument of nature, Nycticorax nycticorax, Botaurus stellaris, Ixobrychus minutus, Ardea purpurea, Ardea cinerea, Tachybaptus (Podiceps) ruficollis, Podiceps cristatus, wild duck, Gallinula chloropus, Fulica atra, Rallus aquaticus, Porzana porzana, Vanellus vanellus, etc. Among the birds of prey have been recorded: Circus aeruginosus, Falco vespertinus, Falco tinnunculus, Falco subbuteo, Asio flammeus, Athene noctua, etc. (Stnescu, 2005). The number of the bird species identified by the ornithologists during over 7 decennia of observations on the Satchinez Swamps reserve is 167, of which about 100 species are frequently present in Satchinez, around 42 species are expected to return on and on, and can be declared as birds of the area, and the rest, which is actually not so significant, is represented by species that appeared sporadically or accidentally in the reserve (Stnescu, 2005). Unfortunately, the status of this reserve is endangered, as all the anthropic activities of the last 40 years, in or near the reserve, were not legally accounted for. The analysis of the modifications in space and time of the last 40 years shows that the future evolution of the protected area is not a favorable one for the birds present here; the tendency of clogging of the swamp and the increasing anthropic pressure, correlated to the climatic changes are the reasons that, in the absence of adequate measures, will trigger the disappearance of this reserve in time.


Fig. 2. The map of the Satchinez Swamps Reserve (

So, a salvation for the reserve was the starting in the year 1999 of the project (The conservation of the natural wet habitat of the Satchinez Swamps, by the Environmental Protection Inspectorate of Timioara, opportunity provided by the program LIFE of the European Union between 1999 and 2002 ( The project allowed the realization between 1999 and 2001 of a scientific study highlighting the evolution of the aquatic birds populations, which confirmed the idea that the initial area of the buffer zone is not enough to assure the necessary food for the aquatic birds populations. For this reason, administrative approaches were made to enlarge the area of the reserve, adding new marshes, water areas or areas with temporary humidity excess to it. During the same period a documentary was shot, catching different aspects in the life of the water birds during the ecological seasons (Stnescu, 2005). Another goal proposed by the project was the organization of certain actions meant to educate and to raise the awareness of the local communities regarding the importance of the protection of this reserve, a goal which came true through the arrangement of an information office in the locality of Satchinez. This project was finalized through the realization of the management plan


of the Satchinez reserve, which establishes the main goals and rules of administration of the area for its long-term conservation (Stnescu, 2005). The project elaborated and carried out by the Environmental Protection Agency of Timioara during the period 2002 2005 aimed to implement the management plan, to realize certain hydrotechnical works in the buffer areas to extend the wet lands, to modernize the administrative center of the reserve, to realize a complex ecological study, to make the reserve known nationally and worldwide and to edit a work published in 2005 entitled Mlatinile de la Satchinez (The Satchinez Swamps). Conclusions The conclusion mentioned by the authors of the work Mlatinile de la Satchinez (The Satchinez Swamps) is a sad one for the future of this reserve. Dan Stnescu states that the anthropic impact on this reserve is high and almost none of the rules mentioned by its management plan has been respected. Moreover, the deterioration of the habitats, the fact that the birds food has been affected, the eutrophisation of the water and the clogging of the swamp, leading to the disappearance of the wet areas, are nothing else but the effects of the anthropic activities, which leave their mark on this oasis from the west of Romania, so vital for the birds sojourning here. Bibliography Stnescu, D. (2005) Mlatinile de la Satchinez [The Satchinez Swamps], Editura Art Press, Buc.; Trk Oance, Rodica, Trk Oance, M. (2005) Cercetri ecologice n cadrul Rezervaiei ornitologice Satchinez (Judeul Timi) cu ajutorul Sistemelor Informaionale geografice i a fotografiilor aeriene, lucrare realizat n cadrul programului LIFE Natura Studiul ecologic complex al Rezervaiei Naturale Mlatinile de la Satchinez, Timioara. ex.htm