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DISASTER MANAGEMENT

UNIT I

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DISASTER

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Origin from the French word “Desastre” ‘Des’ - bad , ‘aster’ - star. Refers to ‘Bad or Evil star’

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DEFINITION

Any occurrence that causes damage, ecological destruction, loss of human lives, or deterioration of health and health services.

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DISASTER
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A disaster is a result from the combination of hazard, vulnerability and insufficient capacity or measures to reduce the potential chances of risk. A disaster happens when a hazard impacts on the vulnerable population and causes damage, casualties and disruption

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DISASTER

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Hazard may be defined as “a dangerous condition or event, that threat or have the potential for causing injury to life or damage to property or the environment.” Hazards Natural Manmade.

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Types of Hazards
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Manmade hazards §explosions, cyclones, §leakage of toxic waste, tsunamis, §pollution, earthquake §dam failure, volcanic eruption §wars or civil strife Natural hazards
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COMPONENTS OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT
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Hazard Analysis Vulnerability Analysis Prevention and mitigation Preparedness Prediction and warning Response Recovery

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HAZARD ANALYSIS
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Disaster history

Disaster analysis environmental epidemiological meteorological agricultural political
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VULNERABILITY ANALYSIS
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Historical experience Community experience Technical evaluation Land use Building standards Disaster specific vulnerabilities

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PREVENTION AND PREPAREDNESS
Prevention - elimination of hazards (ie: flood control) Mitigation
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- minimize destruction and disruption

Organizational response planning Government structure and disaster legislation Planning mechanisms

stockpile awareness resources communications education
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PREDICTION & WARNING
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Tracking Warning mechanisms Organizational response Public education Communication Evacuation planning

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RESPONSE PHASES Four Major Phases

Activation Implementation Mitigation Recovery

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RECOVERY
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Logistics

Distribution of resources Warehousing Tracking
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Rehabilitation and Reconstruction

Housing Water/sanitation Infrastructure
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PHASES OF DISASTER MANAGEMENT Preparation Rehabilitation Warning Phase

Recovery

Impact

Emergency Response
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Principles of Disaster Management
1. Disaster management is the responsibility of all spheres of government.
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No single service or department in itself has the capability to achieve comprehensive disaster management. Each affected service or department must have a disaster management plan which is coordinated through the Disaster Management Advisory Forum.

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Principles of Disaster Management
2. Disaster management should use resources that exist for a day-to-day purpose.
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There are limited resources available specifically for disasters, and it would be neither cost effective nor practical to have large holdings of dedicated disaster resources. However, municipalities must ensure that there is a minimum budget allocation to enable appropriate response to incidents as they arise, and to prepare for and reduce the risk of disasters occurring.

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Principles of Disaster Management 3. Organisations should function as an extension of their core business.
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Disaster management is about the use of resources in the most effective manner. But it should be done in a coordinated manner across all relevant organisations.

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Principles of Disaster Management 4. Individuals are responsible for their own safety.
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Individuals need to be aware of the hazards that could affect their community and the counter measures, which include the Municipal Disaster Management Plan, that are in place to deal with them.

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Principles of Disaster Management 5. Disaster management planning should focus on large-scale events.
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If you are well prepared for a major disaster you will be able to respond very well to smaller incidents and emergencies.

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Principles of Disaster Management 6. Disaster management planning should recognize the difference between incidents and disasters.
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Incidents - e.g. fires that occur in informal settlements, floods that occur regularly. The scale of the disaster will indicate when it is beyond the capacity of the municipality to respond, and when it needs the involvement of other agencies

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Principles of Disaster Management 7. Disaster management operational arrangements are additional and do not replace incident management operational arrangements.
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Single service incident management operational arrangements will need to continue, whenever practical, during disaster operations.

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Principles of Disaster Management
8. Disaster management planning must take account of the type of physical environment and the structure of the population.
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The physical shape and size of the Municipality and the spread of population must be considered when developing counter disaster plans to ensure that appropriate prevention, preparation, response and recovery mechanisms can be put in place in a timely manner.

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Principles of Disaster Management
9. Disaster management arrangements must recognize the involvement and potential role of non- government agencies.
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Significant skills and resources needed during disaster operations are controlled by nongovernment agencies. These agencies must be consulted and included in the planning process.

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SOP’s
“Standard Operating Procedures (or Emergency Procedures) are documents where the activities of a specific person or organization to face a specific situation (in this case the impact of a hazard) are described in a clear, logical, sequential and methodical manner.”
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a standard operating procedure is “an organizational directive that establishes a standard course of action”.

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NGO’s
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NGO has become synonymous with the image of non-governmental agencies working to serve the public on a national and/or international scale. These thousands of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) are fast becoming an essential dimension of public life at all levels and in all parts of the world.

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NGO - Definition “any non-profit citizens’ voluntary entity organized locally, nationally or internationally, whose activities are determined by the collective will of its members”

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NGO’s - Examples
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Care MSF Oxfam Red Cross Save the Children St John Ambulance World Vision India Red Cross Society, Child Relief and You (CRY),

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NGO’s & Humanitarian Assistance
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Providing humanitarian aid to people who have been struck by disaster, either natural or social (e.g. war). Raising funds for the relief of victims, rushing emergency relief by providing food, clothing and health care and helping to build local capacity to withstand future disasters they can play a role in the early warning system

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NGO’s & Humanitarian Assistance
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can also make a critical difference by working in situations through their local contacts and grassroots links, they can also help empower groups of people, enabling them to better deal with their own problems by giving them the strength to address those problems. act as important channels for raising awareness and education

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Flood Hydrology
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Science that deals with the waters of Earth- their properties, behavior and distribution People who use this science are called Hydrologists

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Flood

the level of a body of water rises until it overflows its natural or artificial confines and submerges land in the surrounding area

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Causes of Flood
1. 2.

Precipitation Flooding is essentially a consequence of the uneven distribution of precipitation.
Coastal Flooding Tsunamis, hurricanes, cyclones, unusually high tides and subsidence. Failure of protective seawalls

1. 2.

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Coastal Flooding in North Carolina,13th Nov, 2009

Click to edit Master text styles Second level ● Third level ● Fourth level ● Fifth level

Causes of Flood 3. Dam Failure

both natural and man made dams fail and create flooding

Eg. Teton Dam Failure, June 1976. During the first filling of the reservoir, the dam burst when the water was 270 feet deep. It drained in less than 6 hours, setting off more than 200 landslides in the canyon below, taking 11 lives, and causing millions of dollars of property KIRUBA DANIEL J damage.

Causes of Flood 4. Heavy Snow Melting. The rising temperature makes the snow caps melt faster Continuous and fast melting snow raises the level of oceanic water, which consequently raises the level of water in rivers

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Causes of Flood 5. Deforestation
Trees are being cleared fast from large areas As result, soil is easily eroded, and the eroded soil gets settled at the bottom of rivers and seas, which raises the level of water in rivers and seas, which consequently causes floods

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Types of Floods
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Coastal flood Urban flood River flood Flash floods

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Flood Control Measures
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Elevation Dry flood proofing Levee and floodwall Seawalls Reservoirs and Detention(arresting) Diversion

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Drought “Drought is either absence or deficiency of rainfall from its normal pattern in a region for an extended period of time leading to general suffering in the society”

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Drought
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It is a slow on-set disaster and it is difficult to demarcate the time of its onset and the end. Drought can occur by improper distribution of rain in time and space. The effects of drought accumulate slowly over a considerable period of time Major drought-prone regions

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eastern Maharashtra, northern Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Gujarat, and Rajasthan.

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Types of Droughts

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Drought Risk Reduction Measures
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Public Awareness and education:
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If the community is aware of the do’s and don’ts, then half of the problem is solved. This includes awareness on the availability of safe drinking water, water conservation techniques. Awareness can be generated by the print, electronic media.

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Drought Risk Reduction Measures
2) Drought Monitoring:
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It is continuous observation of the rainfall situation, availability of water in the reservoirs, lakes, rivers etc and comparing with the existing water needs in various sectors of the society.

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Drought Risk Reduction Measures
3) Water supply augmentation(expansion) and conservation
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Through rainwater harvesting in houses and farmers’ fields increases the content of water available

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Drought Risk Reduction Measures
4)Drought planning
goal of drought planning is to improve the effectiveness of preparedness and response efforts by enhancing monitoring, mitigation and response measures.

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Drought Management
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Monitoring and early warning
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Timing of droughts Drought intensity Drought duration Analysis of the risk of the phenomenon and its likely effect on agricultural production.

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Drought Management 2. Risk and Impact Assessment Assemble the team. Evaluate the effects of past droughts. Rank impacts. Identify underlying causes Identify ways to reduce risk Write a “to do” list
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Drought Management
3. Mitigation and response
Mitigation is defined as short- and long-term actions, programs, or policies implemented during and in advance of drought that reduce the degree of risk to human life, property, and productive capacity.
Eg. Soil & Water Conservation, Using Low-flow toilets, shower
heads, Using Washing Machines, Desalination

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Management Alternatives during Drought
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Public information and education campaigns Emergency conservation programs Water service restrictions Restrictions on nonessential uses of water Prohibition of selected commercial uses Drought emergency pricing

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Management Alternatives during Drought
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Improvements in water systems (for example,
leak detection, lining of transmission canals)

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Emergency sources of supply (for example,
emergency interconnections, drilling new wells)

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Management of available water resources
(for example, emergency water banks)

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Search for new supplies of water

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Cyclone “A cyclone is a storm accompanied by high speed whistling and howling winds. It brings torrential rains”.
Counterclockwise - Northern Hemisphere Clockwise - Southern Hemisphere.

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Origin of a Cyclone
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A cyclonic storm develops over tropical oceans like the Indian Ocean, Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. Its strong winds blow at great speed, which can be more than 118 kilometers per hour.

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Effects of a Cyclone
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causes heavy floods. uproots electricity supply and telecommunication lines. Power supply shuts down and telephones stop functioning. Road and rail movements come to halt. Rail movements are also disrupted because of communication failure. The inclement weather conditions also disrupt Air services. Seaports stop work due to high winds, heavy rains and poor visibility. The high speed winds bends and plucks out trees and plants.

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Effects of a Cyclone
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tears away wall sidings and blows off roofs of houses. Houses collapse and people are rendered homeless. The speeding winds cause loose metal and wooden sheets to fly turning them to potential killers. Broken glass pieces can cause serious injuries. The floodwaters can take time to move away. The floodwaters can turn the fields salty.

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Precautions before a Cyclone
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Have your dwellings checked before a cyclone season starts and carry out whatever repairs that are needed. Create storm awareness by discussing effects of a cyclonic storm with family members so that everyone knows what one can and should do in an emergency. This helps to remove fear and anxiety and prepares everyone to respond to emergencies quickly All doors, windows and openings should be secured.

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Precautions before a Cyclone
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Keep your valuables and documents in containers, which cannot be damaged by water Keep information about your blood group. Keep lanterns filled with kerosene, torches and spare batteries. These must be kept in secure places and handy. Continue to listen to warning bulletins and keep in touch with local officials. Keep radio sets in working condition. Battery powered radio sets are desirable.

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Precautions before a Cyclone
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Evacuate people to places of safety when advised. Store extra drinking water in covered vessels.

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After a Cyclone
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Watch out for broken glass and other sharp items in debris. Watch out for snakes and insects. Try to call for help. Listen to the advice of local officials and emergency workers. Be sure that the storm has subsided before venturing out. Wait for emergency relief teams to arrive. It may take a little time before relief becomes effective. Fishermen should wait for at least 24 hours before resuming fishing.

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Brownsville

Brownsville / South Padre I. KIRUBA DANIEL J Mean Sea Level

Source: UT Space Science Center

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Brownsville

Hurricane Carly 9/11 at 1500 CDT MEOW NW at 8 MPH Surge: 17.3 Feet KIRUBA DANIEL J

Source: UT Space Science Center

Avalanches “An Avalanche is a flow of snow down a mountain side through rock slides”
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They are flows which move under the influence of gravity

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Avalanche Causes

Weather: Avalanches are more likely to occur after a heavy snowstorm. The 24 hours following a storm are the most critical. Snowfall: Recent snowfall puts extra stress on the existing snow pack, especially if the new snow does not adequately bond with the layer of snow already there.

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Avalanche Causes
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Temperature: Changes that last several hours or days, such as a warm front moving through can seriously weaken some of the upper layers of snow. Snow Pack Conditions: Understanding the history of snow pack for that season can reveal several clues about slope stability. Snow pack conditions can change not only over the course of the winter season but over the course of a day. This is why constant awareness and frequent slope testing are necessary.

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Avalanche Causes
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Slope Angle: Most avalanches occur on slopes between 30 and 45 degrees. Wind Direction: Wind usually blows up one side of the slope of the mountain(the windward side), and down the other(the leeward side). When blowing up the windward side, wind will scour snow off the surface and drop it on the leeward side.

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Avalanche zones
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Starting zone: where an avalanche is initiated Avalanche track: where it goes Runout area: where it dissipates

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Initial failure - two types

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Avalanche Beacons
An avalanche beacon, also known as an avalanche transceiver, is a device that is worn across the chest above the base layer of clothing, and that transmits a signal which other avalanche beacons can receive. In the event of a slide, other people can switch their beacons from transmit to receive, and can begin a search for the person stranded in the avalanche. These devices can quickly cut down the time needed to find someone in the snow and digging them out.
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WAYS TO SAFEGUARD FROM AVALANCHES

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Starting zone defenses
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To help reduce avalanches from forming: use of terrace use of supporting structures

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Deflectors
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Arresters are used to slow or stop avalanches need adequate height; if too low, flow can accelerate above barrier, increasing damage

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Splitters
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These are placed directly in front of a single object They redirect and divert the avalanche flow around the structure

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Mounds
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These are used to retard flowing snow at the end of the runout zone

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Snow sheds These sheds allow the avalanche to pass over the structure

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Mangrove
A “mangrove” has been defined as a “tree, shrub, palm or ground fern, generally exceeding more than half a meter in height, and which normally grows above mean sea level in the intertidal zones of marine coastal environments, or estuarine margins” “The term mangrove refers to a diverse group of salttolerant trees and other plant species that are found along sheltered tropical and subtropical shores and estuaries”

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Importance of Mangroves
Mangroves not only help in preventing soil erosion but also act as a catalyst in reclaiming land from seas. This is a very unique phenomenon, since there is a general tendency of water to engulf land. Buffer Protect Zone the between land the from land and erosion. sea.

Play an invaluable role as nature's shield against cyclones, ecological disasters and as protector of shorelines.
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Importance of Mangroves
Breeding and nursery grounds for a variety of marine animals. Main source of income generation for shoreline communities like fisher folk. Save the marine diversity, which is fast diminishing. Purify the water by absorbing impurities and harmful heavy metals and help us to breathe a clean air by absorbing pollutants in the air.

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Importance of Mangroves
Potential source for recreation and tourism. Harbor a variety of life forms like invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and even mammals like tigers. Good source of timber, fuel and fodder.

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Benefits of Mangroves
The mangrove ecosystem provides income from the collection of the molluscs,and fish that live there. Mangroves are harvested for fuel wood, charcoal, timber, and wood chips. Other mangrove services include the filtering and trapping of pollutants and the stabilization of coastal land by trapping sediment and protection against storm damage.
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Major threats
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Land reclamations for construction activity, aquaculture, agriculture, tourism Industrial and domestic pollution Port development Dumping of all kinds of waste and debris

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Forest Fires “A forest fire is a natural disaster consisting of a fire which destroys a forested area, and can be a great danger to people who live in forests as well as wildlife. Forest fires are generally started by lightning, but also by human negligence, and can burn thousands of square kilometers.”
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Causes of Forest Fire
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Natural causes - Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. Man made causes - Fire is caused when a source of fire like cigarette , electric spark or any source of ignition comes into contact with inflammable material.

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Precautions
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Keep the source of fire or source of ignition separated from combustible material. To keep the source of fire under watch and control. Not allow combustible or inflammable material to pile up unnecessarily.

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Precautions
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To adopt safe practices in areas near forests viz. factories, coalmines, oil stores, chemical plants and even in household kitchens. To incorporate fire reducing and fire fighting techniques and equipment while planning a building or coal mining operation. In case of forest fires, the volunteer teams are essential not only for fire fighting but also to keep watch on the start of forest and sound an alert

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Types

Surface Fire

surface litter and loose debris of the forest floor and small vegetation

Crown Fire

crowns of trees and shrubs

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OIL FIRES

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OIL FIRES “Oil well fires are oil wells, commonly oil gushers, that have caught on fire, and burn uncontrollably” Oil well fires can be the result of human actions, such as accidents or natural events, such as lightning.

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Pollutants - smoke of oil Fires
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Burning crude oil produces a wide range of pollutants, such as soot (mostly carbon) and gases (mainly carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, volatile organic compounds [e.g., benzene], polycyclic, aromatic hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, and acidic gases. Leads to the cause for Acid Rain

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Oil Spill
Oil spill is release of liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the ocean or coastal waters, due to human activity, mainly.
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Sinking or leakage of Oil Carrying Vessels or Oil Pipelines. Countries at war. Illegal dumping by Industries. Terrorist activities.

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What does an oil spill do?
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Covers the surface of water by a thick film. (Darker the Thicker) Effects entire marine life. Fishes die, because they cannot breathe. Nature takes up to 10 years to recover, if oil reaches the sea bed.

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NBC Threat
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Nuclear Weapon
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A device, such as a bomb or warhead, whose great explosive power derives from the release of nuclear energy. Bomb or other warhead that derives its force from nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, or both and is delivered by an aircraft, missile, or other system

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Example

During World War II, United States troops dropped atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. As a result, the radiation fallout contaminated the cities' water supplies, food sources, and half of the populations of each city were stricken with disease

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BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
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Biological warfare, or BW, is the use of pathogens or toxins as weapons. Pathogens include bacteria and viruses which cause diseases such as anthrax, cholera, and plague. Pathogens as weapons would be used against strategic targets such as food supplies, troops concentrations, and population centers to create panic and disrupt mobilization plans.

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Bio terrorism

The use of biological agents, such as pathogenic organisms or agricultural pests, for terrorist purposes

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Characteristics
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They have a wide range of effects They are obtained from nature They are easily made by relatively unsophisticated methods They are invisible to the senses Their effects may be delayed They can produce mass casualties

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Routes of Entry
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Ingestion Dermal penetration Inhalation

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CHEMICAL WEAPONS
Chemical warfare agents can be classified by their effects on the body.
1) Blood agents interfere with the transfer of oxygen, suffocating the victim. Hydrogen cyanide is a blood agent which kills quickly and dissipates quickly. 2) Choking agents damage the lungs. 3)Blister agents cause painful blisters on the are especially damaging when inhaled. skin and

4)Nerve agents attack the nervous system, causing difficulty in breathing, nausea, dim vision, convulsions, and death.

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Earth Quake
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An earthquake is the result of a sudden release of energy in the Earth's crust that creates seismic waves. Usually associated with faulting or breaking of rocks On the average, 10,000 people die each year from earthquakes . Earthquakes are recorded with a seismometer, also known as a seismograph.

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Terrorism
Terrorism is defined as political violence in an asymmetrical conflict that is designed to induce terror and psychic fear (sometimes indiscriminate) through the violent victimization and destruction of noncombatant targets Such acts are meant to send a message from an illicit clandestine organization The purpose of terrorism is to exploit the media in order to achieve maximum attainable publicity
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KIRUBA DANIEL. J
Lecturer, MBA dept., Sri Venkateswara Institute of Information Technology & Management, Ettimadai, Coimbatore

jkirubadaniel@gmail.com

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