by Afdhal (Afzal) S. Kerawalla

Tafseer III Course Shariah Academy of America April 8, 2011

INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................3 WHAT IS AWRAH?.........................................................................................................8 HIJAB FOR MEN...........................................................................................................15 LATER DEVELOPMENTS...........................................................................................16 RECENT TRENDS.........................................................................................................18 CONCLUSION................................................................................................................20 BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................22


it is clear that] the concept of the word hijab is three-dimensional. III. [It is] a sort of veil which envelops. INTRODUCTION The hijab in Islam is not only a sign of modesty and religious faith but also a symbol of the defense of deen (religion). 57:13). Translated by: Mary Jo Lakeland (Great Britain: Basil Blackwell. the preservation of the family...3 [In the common parlance. 1991) pg 93 4 Sara Harold.. 33:32)…. In general hijab in the Qur’an means a separation: i... conceal” [and is referred to] … any veil placed in front of a person or an object in order to conceal it from view or to isolate it…Scarcely anything is known of the pre-Islamic use of this word. mastur)” (Al-Isra. and the three dimensions often blend into one another. On the Day of Judgment. iv. iii. 1986) Vol. the spatial — but also an abstract reality in the realm of ideas. J. The first dimension is a visual one: to hide something from sight…The second dimension is spatial: to separate. or from behind a veil” (Soorah Ash-Shura. “We place between thee and those who do not believe in the world to come. pg 359 3 Fatima Mernissi. the identity of Muslim society. 38:32). though it is found there only seven times. 2004) pg 2 3 . to mark a border. either actually the sun which vanishes behind the veil of the night.Bismillah Ar Rahman Nir Raheem. 42:51). 33:53.] hijab [comes] from the verb ‘hajaba’ which means “to hide from view. It is also the separate establishment (later the gynaeceum1) which was imposed at first only on the wives of the Prophet (Soorah Al-Ahzab.] Hijab [nowadays] has become almost synonymous with the head-scarf… In fact various pieces of clothing have specific names in the Arabic language and ‘hijab’ is the word which rather refers to the whole ensemble of the required Islamic [code of] dress…4 based on the understanding on the above analysis of 1 2 A building or a portion of the house reserved for women (a women’s quarter) The Encyclopedia of Islam. The Experience of Hijab (Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation. but the Qur’an. and between us and thee there is a veil (Al-Fussilat. except by revelation. the third dimension is ethical: it belongs to the realm of the forbidden. who deduce this interpretation from Qur’an (Soorah Al-Hadid. provides as valuable information on the basic and metaphorical meaning of the term. vi.. 19:17). 41:5). And finally. Brill. which is glossed as wall (sur) by the commentators. therefore. a veil apparently intended to protect the elect from the brilliance of the Divine countenance. [Linguistically. 7: 46). a curtain obstructing (hijab. The unbelievers say to the Prophet “our hearts are veiled. 17:45)…2 [From the above. Qur’an (As-Saad.. the saved will be separated from the damned by a hijab (Soorah ar-Araf. It is the veil or the curtain behind which Maryam isolated herself from her family (Soorah Maryam. and vii. “It belongs not to any mortal that God should speak to him. to establish a threshold. and.. ii. Women and Islam: An Historical and Theological Enquiry. (The Netherlands: E. v. So we have not just tangible categories that exist in the reality of the senses — the visual. and in our ears is a heaviness.

” Allah (swt) tells His Messenger (saws) to command the believing women .e. Juyub is the plural of jayb which means upper part of the shirt just below the neck. Muhammad Shamim. Hence. 2003) pg 36 11 Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri. Most Merciful.islamqa. Israr Ahmad. conditions for proper attire. the root meaning of which is to cover. we will try to understand the Qur’anic verses supported by ahadith which specifically refers to hijab as part of the dress code. The Experience of Hijab (Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation. the difference between the hijab. 2000) draw their Jilbabs over their bodies. Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi'. 2005) Vol. khimar and niqab is that the hijab is something which covers all of the body. which was revealed following the battle of Ahzab after the fifth year of Hijrah. they would mistreat free women under the 5 6 Khimar comes from the word khamara. and which the common folk [i.8 On the other hand. Muhammad Hasan Askari. 2004) pg 3 9 For example the hadith of Hajj. was they used to molest bondwomen from Muslim homes when they came out to take care of family chores. scholars’ opinions over the meaning of awrah and last but not least.6 The distinguishing factor is the wearing of an over-garment known as a ‘jilbab’7 and sometimes referred to as an ‘abaya’ or ‘burqa’ or ‘chador’. 6 pg 413 7 The jilaab is a wrapper. That will be better that they should be known so as not to be annoyed. PROOF IN DIVINE TEXTS The orders of hijab were introduced for the first time in Soorah Al-Ahzab. Religious Obligations of Muslim Women (Lahore: Markazi Anjuman Khuddam ul Qur'an. whilst the khimar in general is something with which a woman covers her head and niqab is that which covers a woman’s face only. Then on occasions. And Allah is Ever Oft-Forgiving. Translated by Prof. Soorah An-Noor was revealed in 6th year after Hijrah and contains explicit commands about Hijab. Khimar 5 is the piece of cloth which women use to cover their head. Ma'ariful-Qur'an. Tafseer Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers & Distributors. when Prophet (saws) said “Wa laa tantaqib al-mar’ah” (And the woman should not cover her face with Niqab) 10 Dr. the present status of ummah with regard to> 25 February 2011 8 Sara Harold. at the time of Ibn Taymiyyah] call the izaar (Islam-qa.especially his wives and daughters. 8 pg 45 4 . because of their position of honor . Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Karachi: Maktaba Darul-Uloom. and it also covers up the neck and bosom. In this discourse. Prof.Question #45869: Ruling on covering the hands in the presence of non-mahram men < http://www.its definition. so that they will be distinct in their appearance from the women of the Jahiliyyah and from slave women. 33:59: “O Prophet! Tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their Jalabib over their .11 From among the general run of hypocrites. which Ibn Mas’ood and others called the rida’ (cloak).10 Let’s understand these ayaat: • Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an in Soorah Al-Ahzab. niqab is that with which a woman veils her face (tantaqib9).

impression that they were bondwomen. Tabarani has quoted 'Abdullah Ibn Mas'ud (ra) that the Prophet (saws) once said: “Casting eye is a poisonous arrow among the arrows of Satan.. which means to bring down or to lower. Vol. or the Tabi`in among men who do not have desire. Allah is All-Aware of what they do. the word (yaghuddu) is derived from (ghadd). so that the majority of women become automatically protected through their own standing conduct in this matter. That is purer for them. Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an in Soorah An-Noor. and protect their private parts.6 pg 408-409 15 The ayaat 24:30-31 were revealed at the time of incident of lfk. Muhammad Shamim. Prof. or their sister's sons. and to draw their veils all over their Juyub and not to reveal their adornment except to their husbands. and the ultimate is adultery. or their brothers or their brother's sons. Whoever turns away his eye fearing from Me (despite demand of the heart). as they simply did not dare act high-handedly against free women.” In the above verse.6 pg 408 14 Ibid. but has protected free women and left bondwomen (to fend for themselves). or their fathers. Vol. Ma'ariful-Qur'an. Muhammad Hasan Askari." (Because of the color and shape of the cloaks they wore). or their right hand possessions. (Raghib) lowering of eyes or to keep eyes down as enjoined in the verse. or their husband's fathers. the delight of which he will feel in his heart” (Ibn Kathir) 14 • Also. • Also. Translated by Prof. Verily. or their women. or children who are not aware of the nakedness of women. And let them not stamp their feet so as to 12 Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi'. 2005) Vol. or their husband's sons. which had happened on return from the battle of Bani Mustaliq or Muraisi' which took place in the 6th Hijrah (Ibid. The scholars have interpreted part of the meaning of “appeared like crows” as meaning that their jilbabs were plain and black. or their sons.6 pg 407) 5 . I will give him such strong faith. and to look without any such motive is makruh (undesirable)..13 The initial act is to cast eye. and protect their private parts and not to show off their adornment except that which is apparent.. The truth of the matter is that this difference was made by these wicked and low people themselves. Vol. 24:30): “Tell the believing men to lower their gaze.12 Abu Dawud related that Ai’shah (ra) said: "After this Ayah was revealed the women of the Ansar appeared like crows. 7 pg 239-241 13 Ibid. Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Karachi: Maktaba DarulUloom. The Shari'ah of Islam took a functional advantage from this difference put into practice by them by ordering the free women to distinguish themselves. Ibn Hibban has given the explanation that to look at a nonMahram woman with intent to have (sexual) pleasure is totally prohibited. means to turn the eyes from something which is prohibited to be seen by Shari'ah (Ibn Kathir). Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an in Soorah An-Noor. 24:31)15: “And tell the believing women to lower their gaze. but chose to tease bondwomen. Islam never allowed difference to exist between free women and bondwomen in the matter of providing protection to the chastity and honor.

Vol. who do not understand anything about women or their awrah and hence. On this 'Umm Salamah (ra) pleaded “O Prophet! But he is only blind. hair and earrings uncovered. women are forbidden to make any movements that would reveal what is hidden. 7 pg 68 18 Ibid. slaves. that is. and the Prophet (saws) asked them to go inside. the zina of the tongue is speech. and with their necks.18 The issue relating to definition of awrah will be covered in detail in the section ‘What is Awrah?’ Later. 20 Abu Hurayrah (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saws) said: “Indeed Allah has decreed for the descendants of Adam his portion of zina (fornication or adultery).. In a hadith. it is clear that for women it is forbidden to look at any man except their mahrams. came in. who did not do that but would pass in front of men with their chests completely uncovered. a list of woman's close relatives are mentioned whom she can never marry (Mahram). Then the Prophet (saws) replied 'Is it that you are blind too?' (Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi – Tirmidhi declared this hadith as hasan) 16 However.6 pg 409-410 Shaykh Safiur-Rahman Al-Mubarakpuri. Women-folk are also included in the injunction along with men. if there is any other kind of adornment that is hidden. but without making a wanton display of herself.” In the initial part of this long ayah the injunction is the same which has been enjoined on men-folk in the preceding ayah. Vol. keep the eyes down or turn away the eyes. 7 pg 70-72 20 Ibid.17 Later in the ayah. that you may be successful. 2000) Vol. This incident had happened after the injunction of women was revealed. Allah (swt) forbade the believing women to do this. 16 17 Ibid. he can't see us'. it is permissible for her to show her adornments to them. O believers. Tafseer Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers & Distributors. And all of you beg Allah to forgive you all... forelocks. but in the next verse there is a separate injunction for them for laying more emphasis. hermaphrodite and children. as it was recorded in the Sahih that the Prophet (saws) was watching the Ethiopians playing with spears in the masjid on the day of Eid. they would stamp their feet so that men could hear their anklets ringing. once 'Umm Salamah and Maimunah (ra) both were with the Prophet (saws) when suddenly 'Abdullah Ibn 'Umm Maktum (ra) who was blind.19 The last part of the ayah refers to the period of Jahiliyyah. when women walked in the street wearing anklets and no one could hear them. until she got bored and went away. 7 pg 73 6 .. Vol. By the same token. the order is that women should not show anything of their adornment to non-Mahram men except for whatever it is impossible to hide… and that they should wear the outer garment in such a way as to cover their chests and ribs.reveal what they hide of their adornment. so that they will be different from the women of the Jahiliyyah. the zina of the eyes is looking. 7 pg 68-69 19 Ibid. and A'ishah (ra) was watching them from behind him and he was concealing her from them. He will attain it inevitably. some scholars said that it is permissible for women to look at non-Mahram men without desire. Hence. Vol.

Translated by: Dr. Al-Hakim said:" it is an authentic hadith in accordance with the conditions of Imam Muslim. Ibn Majah.p. pg 34 7 .p. Al-Albani authenticated it in his book "Al-Hijab".232 and Al-Albani said it Saheeh as in his book "The Hijab" p. As-Siyouti related on behalf of Ibin Abdul'barr that: "The Prophet (saws) intended women who put on light clothes that shows off and shapes the body descriptions."(Related by Abu Dawud. (Dr. (Reported by Imam Ahmad and Abu Na'eem.[n.” (Related by Imam Ahmed. curse them for they are surely cursed. It was also authenticated by Imam Al-Nawawi)24 21 At-Tabarani related this hadith in "Al-Mu'jam As-Sagheer" p.” (Reported by Bukhari.].. Saleh As-Saleh ([n. the following conditions are to be observed: • It should cover the awrah: There is difference of opinion among the scholars as to the permissibility of uncovering the face and the hands of the woman. An-Nasa'i. pg 34 24 Ibid.d. some scholars permit. and AlHakim who said: "it has an authentic chain of narration" and Ad-Dahabi agreed)22 • It should not resemble men's dress: The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: "Women who assume the manners of men are not from us and also those of men who assume the manners of women. then it is prohibited for her to uncover her face and hands.. then she is a Zaniyah (prostitute). on their heads are humps like those of Bukht (one kind of camels). In reality they are naked although they have clothes on them." and Ad-Dahabi agreed. as long as there is no fitna caused by her or inflicted upon her.56. pg 33 23 Ibid.]:[n.and the soul craves and desires and the private parts consent or disprove it. Muhammad Ismail. The Hijab… Why?. We will look at the opinions of the various scholars on the subject in the next section ‘What is Awrah?’ • It must not be transparent: The Messenger of Allah (saws) said:"There shall be. pg 66-67)23 Abu-Hurayrah (ra) narrated that: "The prophet (saws) cursed the man who wears the dress of a woman and the woman who wears the dress of a man. Muslim and Abu Dawud) THE CONDITIONS FOR HIJAB Based on the understanding of the concept of hijab in the divine revelations. the purpose of the clothes should be to disguise the shape. They see that if she is beautiful and beautifies her face and hands with external substances or if the society around her is corrupt where men do not lower their gaze. flowing and not tight: It should not outline the shape of the body. Al-Hakim. • It must not be perfumed with incense: The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: “Any woman who perfumes herself and passes by some people that they smell her scent.]) pg 16) 22 Ibid. in the latter part of my nation. women who are dressed but (in fact) naked."21 • It must be roomy. and Imam Ahmed..

“Whoever wears a garment of fame and vanity. The point was that women were not supposed to deliberately go out to entice men and to show off their beauty and adornments. The question was. rings and hand-paint. hand and ring.28 In the following treatise. Arguments of proponents of full veil (with no display of face and hands): • 25 26 In the ayah 24:31. Sweetness of Hijab (Cairo.” (Soorah Al-Ahzab. Allah (swt) will dress him in a garment of humiliation on the Day of Resurrection.e. 24:31 is a point of difference among scholars. 33:33) Ibn ‘Umar (ra) narrated that the Prophet (saws) said. Sa’id and Ibn Masud (ra) explained that it in fact referred to one’s clothes. V. we will cover the opinions of the other side. there are three proofs of the obligation of Hijab: Ibid. (Related by Abu Dawud. Ibn Taymiyyah said that the hadith has a good chain of narration (i. that reported by Abu Dawud) and that it is a "good hadith". Ibn Abbas and Qatadah (ra) were of the opinion that it included antimony or kohl on the eyes. 2006 ) pg 23 28 Sara Harold. Al-Falah Foundation. so do not wear them. As-Siyouti said:"it is "Hassan: Good" and Ibn Hag'er reported it in ‘Fath Al-Bari’ and supported it with another evidence (a Mursal) with a good chain of narration)25 Abdullah bin Umar (ra) said: "The Prophet (saws) saw me wearing two clothes dyed in saffron. pg 35 Ibid."(Reported by Muslim. whereupon he said: these are the clothes (usually worn) by the Kuffar. The Experience of Hijab (Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation. what is the area or object which can be shown? Some have explained this to mean unintentional revealing of the body and adornments when the wind blows…The two Companions of the Prophet (saws). Ibn Umar (ra) explained that it referred to the face. Some scholars also included the feet in what could be seen.• It must not resemble the garments of the kuffar: The Messenger of Allah (saws) said: "The one who takes the similitude (manner) of a certain people becomes one of them. then set it ablaze.. those who are against this understanding and the refutation of their views as offered by some scholars. Ahmed (as part of a another hadith). Following. 3. we will discuss the opinions of the scholars who favor the covering of the face and hands and their supporting evidences. 2004) pg 11-12 8 . pg 35 27 Safiyyah Zagloul.. The rationale for the uncovering of face and hands was that this was normal when women were buying and selling or perhaps acting as witnesses. hadith # 5173)26 • It must not be a display and fame: Allah (swt) considered the dazzling display of beauty an act of ignorance: “And stay in your houses and do not display yourselves like that of the times of Jahiliyyah (ignorance).” (Reported by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah) 27 WHAT IS AWRAH? The phrase “…except that which is apparent…” which appears in Soorah An-Noor.

Narrated Ali ibn Abi Talhah. Qatadah. daughters. many Muslim scholars such as Abu Bakr Ar-Razi (died 370 AH). according to the following interpreters of Qur’an: Ibn Mas’ud. so Allah (swt) made it forbidden for Muslim women to walk in such a manner. If women are forbidden to stamp their feet on the ground to avoid having men infatuated.” A woman’s veil is what she puts over her head. Ibn Kathir holds that: “Allah (swt) commanded His Messenger (saws) to order the believing women. during Jahiliyyah. if Allah (swt) commands the woman to draw her veil over her body to prevent others from looking at her curves. women used to wear anklets and they would stamp their feet on the ground to produce a rattle in order to attract the attention of men. Emmad Ad-Deen At-Tabari (died 516 AH) Imam Al-Baqawi (died 516 AH). then her face will be the first part of her body to be covered. This is a very clear proof that a woman’s face must be covered whenever strange men or non-maharim are present. so Allah (swt) revealed this verse to command the Prophet’s wives. examining this verse. The part of the verse “…And not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent…” Here Allah (swt) forbids women to show off their adornment absolutely except that which is apparent. ii. this is the interpretation of Abdullah ibn Mas’ud of this verse. especially his wives and daughters. their body. The part of the verse “…And let them not stamp their feet so as to reveal what they hide of their adornment…” As discussed earlier.” The word “Jilbab” (cloak) means the cover over the veil (yashmak). iii.. Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (died 728 AH) and many others confirmed that this verse implies an obvious command that a woman 9 . Ibn Al-Jawzi (died 597 AH) in his tafseer of the Qur’an. that Ibn Abbas is reported to have said: “Allah (swt) has commanded the believing women to cover their faces when they leave their houses for a necessity”. the purpose of the revelation of the verse 59 of Soorah alAzhab is that the free women were harassed by the hypocrites. forbiddance of exposing one’s face takes priority. Ubaydah. Also. and the believing women to cover themselves in order to be distinguished from the slave girls. because what is exposed is something you cannot hide but what is apparent is under your control. Al-Hasan Al-Basri. such as their outer clothes. face. “I asked Ubaydah As-Salmaani about the meaning of Allah’s saying “Draw their cloaks all over their bodies”. Hence. Ibrahim An-Nakha’i. necks and bosoms). it is common sense that a great part of a woman’s beauty lays in her face.e. (for their honor) to draw cloaks on themselves to be distinguished from the non-Muslim women and slave girls. Regarding this verse. Sa’eed bin Zubayr. Mohammad ibn Sereen (a great Muslim scholar) said. therefore.. exposing their face is anytime more attractive than hearing the sound of the rattling anklets.i. and Atta AlKharasani. Also. we see that Allah (swt) says: “Except only that which is apparent” and He does not say: “Except only that which they expose”. so he covered his face and head while exposing his left eye. Also. so if she is ordered to draw her veil all over her body starting from the head ending at the toes. The part of the verse “…And to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i. • As discussed earlier. you can hide it if you wish to do so and you can show it off if you wish to do so. women can only show off their outer clothes because they cannot hide them even if they wish.

elderly women can expose their faces and hands (in the presence of men who are non-maharim) if they wish. • In a hadith narrated by Ai’shah (ra): “May Allah bestow His Mercy on the early emigrant women when Allah (swt) revealed. And Allah is All-Hearer. • Allah (swt) says in the Qur’an in Soorah An-Noor. it is no sin on them if they discard their (outer) clothing in such a way as not to show their adornment. In his explanation of the above-mentioned verse. it is better for them. Also. the greatest scholar of Tafseer. So it is clear that elderly women who are allowed to expose their faces and hands must still observe bashfulness and modesty by not exposing their adornments. this is purer for your hearts and their hearts” is a an obligatory ruling. but if they do not. In the presence of all these proofs. Hence. The obvious meaning in this verse is to discard the outer clothing only and not all their clothing.” Hence.” In this ayah. the meaning of which can be translated 29 Sa`id bin Jubayr. stated in his ‘Book of Tafseer’ that “When you ask the Prophet’s wives and the believing women who are not your wives. 2000) Vol. 24:60): “And the Qawa`id29 among women who do not hope for marriage.” Sheikh Abdulaziz bin Baaz adds: “Allah says that elderly women who are past the age of marriage are not to be counted for misdemeanor for removing their clothes (coverings or veils) off their faces and hands as long as they are not exposing their adornments”. Ad-Dahhak and Qatadah said that these are the women who no longer think that they can bear children or they no longer have any desire for marriage. if Allah (swt) has encouraged elderly women (who by nature do not appear attractive to men) not to remove their veils (covering) from their faces. Tafseer Ibn Kathir (Abridged) (Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers & Distributors. Imam At-Tabri holds that it means there is no sin on them if they discard their veils and their gowns (abayas). it is evident that young women should observe more stringent norms. Muqatil bin Hayyan. • There is no dispute among the Muslim scholars about the meaning of the word hijab (signifying covering of face and hands) as it appears in ayah 53 of Soorah AlAzhab.must cover her face when non-maharim men are around. But to refrain is better for them. Allah (swt) has removed the sin on elderly women (those who had past childbearing age and have no attraction to men) if they discard their outer clothes provided that they do not show their adornment. It must be noted that Allah (swt) has encouraged them to observe Hijab (full covering) when He (swt) says: “But to refrain (not to discard their outer clothing) is better for them. Imam At-Tabri. 7 pg 124) 10 . The only dispute is about one issue whether this verse is restricted only to the wives of the Prophet or is extended to all Muslim women. ask them from behind a Hijab and do not enter their homes (while they are inside the house alone). Imam Abu Ya’ala said: “In this verse there is a proof that it is permissible for elderly women to expose their faces and hands in the presence of men but not their hair because it is forbidden for them as it is forbidden for young women. we can see that this verse undoubtedly means that a Muslim woman must wear a Hijab that will cover her body from head to toes. All-Knower. (Shaykh SafiurRahman Al-Mubarakpuri. which is not only for the Prophet’s wives but also for all Muslim women.

even her finger nails. because the shoes can reveal the shape of the feet. • Ai’shah (ra) said: “Men on camels used to pass by us while we were with the Prophet (saws) and we were in a state of “and to draw their veils all over Juyubihinna (i. and Ahmed) Abu Baker ibn Al-Arabi said: “In the hadith of Ibn Umar. Abu-Dawud. faces.” Sheikh Al-Islam also said: “This is also the interpretation of Imam Malik. “A woman who is in a state of Ihram (ritual purity during Hajj or Umrah) must not wear a niqab (covering the face except the eyes) or gloves. Allah (swt) will not look at the one who trails his loincloth out of arrogance. when the Prophet (saws) said ‘the woman must not wear niqab’ that is because covering the woman’s face is obligatory on every woman who is not elderly except in Hajj (and when praying where no man who is not her mahram sees her)”.) and covered their faces with those torn Muruts. Umm Salamah (ra) asked: what should women do with the hem of their clothes? He (saws) said: “They may lower them a hand’s span” she said: “But their feet would still remain exposed. Malik. necks and bosoms)” . • In another hadith narrated by Ibn Umar (ra). Sheikh Hamoud At-Tiwijri said “This Hadith proves that a woman’s body is all ‘awrah’ (not to be seen by or exposed to men who are non-maharim).they tore their Muruts (a woolen dress. etc. If this verse has a different meaning to it. or a waist -binding cloth or an apron. and then uncover them again. not even her shoes.” (Reported by Abu Dawud and Ibn Majah) Atta.” • In another hadith narrated by Ibn Umar (ra): Allah’s Messenger (saws) is reported to have said. she must not expose any part of her body.” Sheikh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah reported that Imam Ahmad said: “Every part of a woman’s body is awrah. (Fiqh us-Sunnah 5:49). AtTirmidhi. We would cover our faces with our gowns when they passed by us. Ash-Shafi’i. (the ladies) cut their waist sheets at the edges and covered their heads and faces with those cut pieces of cloth.” (Reported by Al-Bukhari. and I also prefer that she buttons her sleeves so that no part of her body should be seen by others. then the Prophet (saws) or at least Ai’shah (ra) (who is one of the Mothers of Believers) would have informed or corrected them regarding the real interpretation of Hijab. • The Prophet (saws) is reported to have said “The woman is awrah (one who is forbidden to be exposed)” (Reported by at-Tirmidhi who said it is Hassan Ghareeb.” (Reported by AlBukhari and Abu-Dawud) The above cited authentic ahadith actually tell us how Muslim women at the time of the Prophet (saws) obeyed Allah (swt) and subsequently implemented the obligation of Hijab. Also As-Siyouti hinted that it is authentic). “On the Day of Resurrection.” He (saws) said “Let them lower those 11 . Malik. their bodies. and Is-haq hold that it is permissible for women to cover their faces while in a state of ihram.” (Reported by AlBukhari) Safiyya bint Shaiba (ra) narrated that “Ai’shah (ra) used to say: “When the verse: … (24:31) was revealed. It was also reported that Imam Ahmed ibn Hanbal said: “A woman’s nails are ‘awrah’ and when she leaves her home. AthThawri. Prophet (saws) is reported to have said.e. Ahmad.

equal to an arm’s length but not more than that. because he had seen me before hijab was enjoined.]). pg 16-35 12 . (Reported by Bukhari Volume 1. Let us examine very closely those “proofs” as to their relevance and authenticity: • As for verse 31 of Soorah An-Noor. 368) Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen in tafseer of this hadith explains “This hadith makes it clear that the Islamic dress is concealing of the entire body as explained in this hadith. and I covered my face with my jilbaab. the face and the hands. thus following the explanation offered by Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) who said: “Except only that which is apparent” refers to the face and hands. there is permission for women to trail their clothes so that their feet would be covered.” Refutation: The statement of Ibn Abbas (ra) is extracted from what has been reported by Ibn Jareer At-Tabri who said: “Ibn Abbas (ra) said that “And not to show off their 30 Abdulaziz Addwesh.” Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saleh ibn Uthaymeen said “In this hadith.p. there is a proof that women are obligated to cover their feet. He recognized me when he saw me. This was the understanding and practice of the Sahabah and they were the best of group.” (Narrated by alBukhari. The Hijab of Muslim Woman ([n. He came to where I had stopped and saw the black shape of a person sleeping.]: Saudi Arabia. Only with the complete cover including the face and hands can a woman not be recognized. An-Nasa’i. it is held that this verse implies permission for women to expose what is apparent from them that is. the noblest in the sight of Allah (swt) with the most complete emaan and noblest of characters. 30 • It was narrated from Ai’shah (ra)… that Safwaan ibn al-Mu’attal al-Sulami alDhakwaani was lagging behind the army.” And Imam Al-Baihaqi said: “This hadith is a proof of the obligation of covering the feet. And it needs no special emphasis that the feet are less attractive than the face or the hands. and this ruling was known to the wives of the rightly-guided companions.d. 3910. Imam At-Tirmidhi said: “In this hadith. I woke up when I heard him saying ‘Inna Lillaahi wa inna ilayhi raaji’oon (verily to Allah we belong and unto Him is our return). Book 8. Muslim. Imam Ahmed. AtTirmidhi. 2770) • Narrated Ai’shah (ra) ‘Prophet (saws) used to offer the Fajr prayer and some believing women covered with their veiling sheets used to attend the Fajr prayer with him and then they would return to their homes unrecognized .’ when he saw me. So if the practice of the women of the Sahabah was to wear the complete veil then how can we deviate from their path? Arguments of opponents of full veil (permitting display of face and hands): Some scholars have a dissenting opinion regarding the obligation of Hijab and they claim that they have textual evidence from the Quran and the Sunnah that can be taken for a proof of the legitimacy of exposing a woman’s face. hadith No. At-Tirmidhi said that this hadith is authentic).” (Reported by Abu-Dawud. [n.

Abdur-Rahman. An-Nasa’i.” This report of At-Tabri has one person in the chain of transmitters who is weak (his narration is absolutely not reliable). Similarly. who quoted Khalid ibn Duraik who stated that Ai’shah (ra) is reported to have said: "Asmaa' bint Abi Bakr (ra) walked in front of the Prophet (saws) wearing thin clothes. said: “Khalid ibn Duraik did not hear from Ai’shah (ra)”. There is another narration of this saying of Ibn Abbas that was reported by Imam AlBaihaqi. which is an authentic narration as confirmed by Ibn Jareer. In the chain of the narrators of this hadith. Ibn Hajar said: “Muslim is a weak narrator. who was also described by Ibn Hajar as being ‘weak’.” The second is Abdullah ibn Muslim ibn Harmooz Al-Makki. And authenticity here is based on the conditions set by Muslim. The first is Ahmed ibn Abdul Jabbar ibn Muhammad Al-Utaradi. and Imam Ath-Thahabi agreed with him. So none of what has been reported on behalf of Ibn Abbas regarding the hijab verse is authentic. it is weak in two respects. then He (saws) turned his face away from her and said: 'O Asmaa! When a girl reaches the age of puberty it is not permissible for her to reveal any part of her body except this and this (pointing to his face and hands). Besides. we see that this evidence is also weak and therefore cannot be taken for a sound proof. his name is Muslim ibn Kisan Addabi Al-Kufy. And Imam ath-Thahabi said that more than one scholar agreed that the narration is weak. Ibn Shaibah and Al-Hakim. the compiler of the set. Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said: “His (Muslim’s) hadith should not be written down.” Also. the opinion held by Ibn Mas’ud (ra). said: “I used to write down what my father dictated to me. there are two weak transmitters among the narrators of the hadith. Ahmed’s own son. who was described by Ibn Hajar as being ‘weak’. Second. it has been reported that Abdullah ibn Mas’ud said that “And not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent” refers to ‘the clothes’. First. there is Sa'eed ibn Basheer who was described as being 'weak' by Ibn Hajar. Ali ibn Al-Madini and Ibn 13 . who said in his book ‘Assunan Al-Kobra’: “Ibn Abbas explained that “And not to show off their adornment except only that which is apparent” refers to ‘what is in the face and hands’. Sheikh Muhammad ibn Saleh ibn Uthaymeen commented on the entire situation saying: “We could have accepted what Ibn Abbas (ra) reported had not we had a different opinion of another Companion that bears more weight to it.” So with this narrator (Muslim) being in the chain of transmitters of the saying reported by Ibn Abbas (ra). Ibn Ma'ain. there is a disconnection in the chain of transmitters (one of the narrators had never met the one whom he claimed he quoted). who quoted Qatadah. and Ibn Al-Madini repeated the word twice. but I stopped doing so when people started referring to him as being weak." (Reported by Abu-Dawud) Refutation: As for this hadith. On the other hand. in the chain of the narrators.” • In a hadith. Abu-Dawud said: "Yaqoub ibn Ka'b Al-Antaki and Mu'amal ibn AlFadil Al-Harrany informed me that Al-Walead told them that he quoted Sa'eed ibn Basheer. Imam Ath-Thahabi reported that “Ibn Ma’ain said that Abdullah ibn Muslim is weak.adornment except only that which is apparent” means “Kohl (‘eyeliner’ in modern terms) and rings. Abu-Dawud.” Imam AlBukhari commented on the same hadith saying: “They (the scholars of hadith) referred to Muslim’s narration as being weak.

Refutation: First. The Prophet (saws) looked behind while Al-Fadl was staring at her. If someone would ask why the Prophet (saws) did not command the woman to cover her face. She said: "O Allah's Messenger (saws)! The obligation of performing Hajj enjoined by Allah on His worshippers has become due (compulsory) on my father who is an old man and who cannot sit firmly on a beast of burden. Will it be convenient if I perform Hajj on his behalf?" He (saws) said "Yes". and for the Prophet (saws) to look up and down at the woman does not necessary mean she was exposing her face and that he (saws) was looking at it. it is legal for a man. the answer is. those who claim that this hadith is a proof that a Muslim woman can expose her face and hands to non-mahram must disregard this piece of unreliable evidence. Thirdly. this story could have occurred before the obligation of hijab.Hiban. a beautiful woman from the tribe of Khath 'am came to ask the Prophet (saws) a question." (Reported by Al-Bukhari and Muslim) The issue here is that Prophet (saws) looked at the woman and did not show any interest in marrying her. to look at her face. (Reported by Al-Bukhari) The issue here is that the woman in this hadith was exposing her face in the presence of the Prophet (saws) and he did not command her to cover it. Refutation: There are three logical and sound answers to this allegation: First. When the lady saw that he did not make any gesture or put any facial expression indicating acceptance. and if her face had not been exposed. when he proposes to a woman. there is no proof in the hadith that states it is legal for a man to look at a woman's face (one who is non-mahram) because the Prophet (saws) did not approve of what Al-Fadl (ra) did. he (saws) turned Al-Fadl's face to the other direction. she sat down . The Prophet (saws) stopped to give the people verdicts (answers to their question regarding Hajj). so that he would not be able to look at her. Al-Fadl stared at her as her beauty attracted him. it could be for that reason that she exposed her face to the Prophet (saws) hoping that he would marry her. So if this woman did expose her face in front of the Prophet (saws).. there is nothing in this hadith that states that the woman was exposing her face. The Prophet (saws) held his hands backwards and caught the chin of Al-Fadl and turned his face (to the other direction). Not 14 . he (saws) might have ordered the woman to cover her face but the narrator of the hadith did not report it. He (saws) raised his eyes and looked at her and then lowered his head.. 10th day of the month of Thul-Hijjah) and Al-Fadl was a handsome man. • It was narrated by Sahl ibn Sa'd (ra): ''A lady came to Allah's Messenger (saws) and said: "O Allah's Messenger! I have come to offer myself to you in marriage). • It was narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra): 'Al-Fadl ibn Abbas (ra) rode behind Allah's Messenger (saws) as his companion rider on the back of his camel on the Day of Nahr (slaughtering of sacrifice. Secondly. he (saws) would not have looked at her. Therefore.etc. Instead. Imam An-Nawawi said: "One thing to be concluded from this hadith is that it is forbidden for men to look at women who are non-mahram". In the meantime.

but he could have seen the curves of her body or part of her skin. this hadith was also narrated by Ali ibn Abi Talib (ra) and Jabir ibn Abdullah (ra) and was compiled by Imam Muslim. do not follow a glance with another. 2701.6 pg 412 15 . Secondly. 31 HIJAB FOR MEN This discussion will be inconclusive if there is no reference to hijab for men. 2010) pg 97 33 Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi'. On the authority of `Ata' ibn Yisar. yet non-Mahrams are not allowed to see them without a lawful need.reporting something does not necessarily mean it did not happen. because Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) left for Muzdalifah at night. his brother never told him that the woman was exposing her face. and they are allowed to pray while these parts are uncovered. They should not engage in or approve of any activity which objectifies or demeans a woman. II. Prof.33 31 32 Ibid. Muhammad Hasan Askari. However. but the Prophet (saws) left in the morning as reported by AlBukhari and Muslim and he was informed of this story by his brother Al-Fadl (ra). 7953).. and that which is below the navel is [part] of nakedness. Also. Ma'ariful-Qur'an. Muhammad Shamim. men are required to take the lead in respecting women. Hence first. he did not mean he saw her face. this hadith was narrated by Abdullah ibn Abbas (ra) who was not present with the Prophet (saws) when this incident took place. The whole matter could have happened by accident. when he said she was beautiful. p. 229)32 The Messenger of Allah (saws) also said: “O Ali. her veil might have fallen down from her face since women in a state of ihram are forbidden to wear niqab. Imam Malik has also ruled that it is not allowed to see the face and palms of a non-Mahram woman without a lawful need. but none of them mentioned anything about the beauty of the woman or that she was exposing her face. The Mukhtasar Al-Quduri: A Manual of Islamic Law According to the Hanafi School (London:Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. Allah (swt) commands men to lower their gaze and guard their modesty in ayah 24:30 which precedes the ayah 24:31 referring to hijab for women. pg 36-49 Aḥmad ibn Muhammad Quduri and Abia Afsar Siddiqui. on the authority of Abu Ayyub. 2005) Vol. who said: I heard the Messenger of Allah (saws) say. which refer to awrah. As mentioned earlier. "That which is above the knees is [part] of nakedness. They must wear decent clothing and avoid activities and places that will cause them to witness that which they should not." (Narrated by Daraqutni (p. for you will be forgiven for the first.” (Reported by al-Tirmidhi. All the conditions relating to hijab mentioned above for women are equally applicable to men except for the first one. Ibn Hajar Makki Shafi'i has quoted in his zawajir that Imam Shafi'i's view is also the same that although women's face and palms are not part of their [awrah]. see Saheeh al-Jaami’. The awrah of a man is from below his navel up to (and including) the knee. but not for the second.85) and Bayhaqi (vol. Thirdly. Translated by Prof. Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani (Karachi: Maktaba DarulUloom. They are also required to cast down their gazes in humility and to observe the general philosophy of modesty of the heart and dress.

2008) pg 200-201 35 Ibid. Muhammad ‘Abduh. This was. His position sparked a number of reactions in juridical circles. support the right of women to appear in public unveiled. and. an Iraqi legal scholar who taught in Baghdad. who had worn the face-veil in modern times had by and large abandoned it in the 1920s and 1930s. and outlining the social costs of the practice. Women. impoverishing home life for husband and wife alike. encourages homosexuality and lesbianism. [Grand Mufti in Egypt] who was rumored to have collaborated with Amin in the writing of Tahrir al-Mar’a. by all accounts. in fact. Qasim Amin. as had most Muslim women in other countries. prevents a woman from acquiring the worldly knowledge she needs to manage her house and educate her children for the good of society as a whole.LATER DEVELOPMENTS There were some significant developments which took place in the 19th and 20th century with regard to the donning of hijab worth mentioning. chose to sidestep the issue… Malak Hifni Nasif held that Islamic law did. noting that the Qur’an does not prescribe the custom. something of a rearguard action because the Egyptian women. Family. but added that society was not yet ready for the unveiled woman. of course. [He] called for an end to veiling. some of which directly addressed the problem of fitna. [were heard] in 1910. 35 Al-Tahir al-Haddad… queried six of the prominent Hanafi and Maliki jurists as to “what part of a woman’s body should be covered in accordance with the moral practices of the sunnah?” he received a range of answers… The differences of opinion among ‘ulama’ on veiling helps explain why it was not until 1937 that the Fatwa Committee of al-Azhar in Cairo finally took up the issue of the face-veil and declared that the Hanafi school of law was not opposed to unveiling and that the Maliki school did not consider veiling a religious requirement. mostly urban and middle to upper class. The veil… also represents obstacles to healthy marriages: [it] precludes a meaningful choice of marriage partner and therefore closeness between the couple and it place the entire burden of work and public life upon the man. pg 201 16 . And Gender In Islamic Law (UK: Cambridge University Press. a French-educated jurist. [He commented that] “Putting a veil on a woman’s face to prevent prostitution resembles putting a muzzle on a dog’s mouth to prevent bites” and we nurture weakness with the veil. There were places. Similar arguments from Jamil Sidqi al-Zahawi. where the face-veil 34 Judith E. Tahrir al-Mar’a (1899) and Al-Mar’a alJadida (1901). al-Tahir al-Haddad marshaled an array of arguments against the face-veil. raised the issues in two books he published. Tucker.34 In Tunisia. He took a firm stand against female seclusion and face veiling.. arguing that Islamic law did not require either practice…and…the impeccable public behavior of European women amply demonstrated that women could maintain their modesty without these encumbrances. In turn-of-the-century Egypt. Veiling stands in the way of a woman realizing her civil rights in court. a number of intellectuals had engaged the questions of seclusion and veiling in unprecedented ways. most importantly of all.

2008) pg 207 42 Ibid. had the right to ban its wearing in state schools. the Conseil Français du Culte Musulman (CFCM)…41 In early 2003. exhibiting an ongoing diversity in Islamic legal opinion. Muslim women who found themselves in this situation. He was quick to add. Tucker. as a religious observance that must be permitted for those women whose personal beliefs so 36 37 Ibid. as a non-Muslim and sovereign country. it is a concept of a secular society. … recommended new legislation to prohibit the wearing of “ostensible” items of dress that “manifest religious or political affiliation” in the public schools.37 The issue of Islamic… dress codes acquired a new global prominence in late 2003 when French President Jacques Chirac endorsed the recommendations of a38 commission… [which] was set up to investigate the principles of Laïcité39. 42 There were subtle differences in the jurists’ positions on the law. that France.40 One of the most prominent jurists to weigh in on the issue was Muhammad Sayyid Tantawi. the Grand Imam of al-Azhar in Cairo. pg 203 38 Ibid. Other Muslim jurists and organizations joined the discussion… like the “official” umbrella organization of French Muslims. but rather issued a number of rules and regulations that prohibited the wearing of them in a variety of locations. pg 208-209 17 . the European Council for Fatwa and Research (ECFR) reacted with respectful disagreement to Shaykh Tantawi’s statement… and later in the year… issued a fatwa affirming that…wearing of hijab was a religious obligation for adult Muslim women. Multiculturalism without Culture (New Jersey: Princeton University Press. were to be regarded as forced by necessity to uncover and therefore were not disobeying the commands of their religion. constrained to remove their hijabs in order to abide by the rules of the country they inhabited. pg 202 Ibid. The state did not ban these items of clothing. 2007) pg 115 41 Judith E. for women in Saudi Arabia..e.endured as a standard item of dress much longer: it was worn by many urban Moroccan women into the 1970s and is still required. … in its 2003 report. i. Shaykh Tantawi made a public declaration to the effect that wearing the hijab (in the meaning of headscarf) was a divine obligation for every Muslim woman. An overwhelming majority of the legislature… passed the law in 2004. 36 The modern state of Turkey emerged in 1923 after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire [and] the government took a consciously secular course and aspired to westernize its population… It… encouraged women to remove both the face-veil and the traditional headscarf in favor of western fashions... however. In late 2003. denoting the absence of religious involvement in government affairs as well as absence of government involvement in religious affairs <http://en. Women. pg 206 39 In French.. Family.wikipedia. as a matter of law. Some chose to emphasize the hijab as an incontrovertible religious obligation… and others recast the debate in the language of universal human rights and constructed the wearing of a headscarf as a right. And Gender In Islamic Law (UK: Cambridge University> 22 February 2011 40 Anne Phillips.

44 RECENT TRENDS With veils in modern days becoming increasingly transparent and cloaks becoming more seductive. under the guise of calling for the liberation of women. including immodest clothing. for public officials in courtrooms in Austria and the Netherlands. The modern "boutique" stores were declining in their trade due to the widespread use of the true Islamic Hijab. in the most controversial country. the markets were flooded with altered forms of Tabar'ruj and Sufur45 under the name 'modern/ contemporary Hijab'. France]. A swimming costume designed especially for Muslim women recruits. makeup and perfume. the official statistics indicate only twelve hundred cases of girls wearing headscarves to school in 2003. wear skimpy clothes and bare their bodies they become liberated. A group of "displaying women" who were embarrassed with the Islamic Hijab rushed towards the "contemporary Hijab" to "relief' themselves from the pressing social realities caused by the spread of Hijab. 2006 ) pg 26 (footnote) 46 Sara Harold. wearing enticing and seducing outfits. Multiculturalism without Culture (New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pg 209 Anne Phillips. Aheda Zanetti 49 Keith D. especially in the Western World47. received a lot of media attention. uncovering you hair. Rethinking Muslim Women and The Veil: Challenging Historical And Modern Stereotypes (UK: The International Institute of Islamic Thought. this was protested and women were cautious. The idea and practice of hijab had lost its original meaning. 43 [Irrespective of all these debates. presently] hijab… has been banned in public institutions in Turkey.. in public schools in France. which in this context means to display your beauty ostentatiously. and in numerous other contexts. Suter. 2002) pg 67 48 Designed by a Lebanese Australian. To quote a few examples: • A new trend of ‘Islamic Swimming Costume with Hijab’ aka ‘burquini’48 has emerged with skin-tight top and leggings. The enemies of Islam have started to spread innovated forms of "Hijab" as a "midway" solution by which the Muslim woman can "please" Allah (swt) (according to their claim) and at the same time "accommodate" her society and preserve her "beauty" and "glamour". and hence showing your beauty to marriageable men. 2007) pg 114 45 Tabar’ruj means being in public all made up and wearing seductive outfits. In the beginning.dictated. 43 44 Ibid. All about Terrorism (Australia: Random House Australia Pty Ltd. The Experience of Hijab (Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation. With time the phenomenon of "concealed display" became widespread and known as "contemporary Hijab".49 • [Amazingly. Moreover.. all worn purposely to seduce men. It started among the Australians of Middle Eastern background. Suddenly. to make Surf Life Saving Clubs around Australia more open and diverse. (Safiyyah Zagloul.. 2008) pg 231 18 . Al-Falah Foundation. Sweetness of Hijab (Cairo.46 This has led many of the women to shed the hijab terming it as backwardness and low-class status. the advocates of immorality sometimes use the feminist agenda to claim that if women remove their veils. Sufur means to uncover one’s body parts for show and seduction. 2004) pg 15 47 Katherine Bullock. veiling per se is not necessarily an expression of modesty. The closest two words which can depict the action of Tabar’ruj and Sufur are flaunting and vanity.

This is seduction. Undesirable attention: Men may be tempted by her. We are Muslim. 50 51 Anne Phillips. 2011 19 . It pushes them to commit various kinds of sins.voanews. a Lebanese born American Shi’ite Muslim won the ‘Miss USA 2010’ title. This is one of the greatest causes of evil and This leads to corruption of morality in The Shaytaan flows through the son of Adam like blood. <http://www. This has led to competition amongst the displaying women in showing off their an article ‘Outside Looking In’ which appeared on Newsweek. Neither men nor women get what they are entitled to in this framework. these pundits claim. especially among the youth and those in adolescence. a surprisingly low number in a country whose Muslim population is estimated at four million. and four exclusions. Multiculturalism without Culture (New Jersey: Princeton University Press. don’t understand that it may feel they are in control in the public situation but they don’t realize that they are attracting undesirable men as well as those who attract them. 2007) pg 118 Smith is a columnist for Tablet Magazine and author of The Strong Horse: Power.thirty court cases. Taking away haya’ (modesty. We might not be as strict. laughs and jokes. and the Clash of Arab Civilizations.html> February 24. shyness): Haya is part of faith and of a woman’s nature (fitrah). Finally. A woman may attract men who will do her harm and inadequate men who have been unable to establish a partnership of their own. We respect the religion. and it leads to the spoiling of morality and leaves women as merchandise articles exhibited for anyone to look at. 2011 53 Voice of America News < http://www. This has lead to commercial abuse of women in the world of advertisement. as happens in the case of many of those who are unveiled. the celebration of female beauty will serve as an “instrument of liberation”… A Muslim woman’s willingness to show off her flesh is no more a triumph for modernity and moderation than the veil is an index of extremism”52 She is noted to have said “I don't define myself around religion and my family does not as well. Women are examples of modesty.50 • Rima Fakih. 52 by Lee Smith51 on May 21. especially if she is beautiful and she flirts. Politics. To enumerate some of the consequences of unveiling: Fitnah (temptation): A woman may be tempted to do things to make her face look more beautiful.html> February in other words.” Taking away a woman’s modesty detracts from her faith and the natural inclination with which she was created. The media grabbed the opportunity .newsweek. “more shy than a virgin in her seclusion. but we're not defined by religion but we do spiritually appreciate every religion. dress immodestly. 2010. he states that “…the crowning of a Michigan girl whose family hails from an area of Lebanon dominated by Hizbullah is a victory for freedom: in the face of dour Islamic fundamentalists. as it was said. they end up destroying each other and their respective families. entertainment and other areas.”53 Women who don’t wear hijab.

Hijab is indeed a religious duty that Allah (swt) has enjoined upon the believing men and women for their own protection and success. rapes. and those who mock her. a walking tent…” But. it is a sign of her strength that would safeguard her dignity and honor against the wickedness of some men. old fashioned. she will not be modest and will not feel too shy to mix with men. they can have no Faith. I would like to quote the following two verses from the Qur’an: Allah (swt) says: “It is not for a believer. shield. when Allah and His Messenger have decreed a matter that they should have any option in their decision. subject themselves to the Wrath of Allah (swt). man or woman. and accordingly. Ad-Dahabi agreed to Al-Hakim's report 20 . she will be the winner on the Day of Judgment and it shows her preference for the Hereafter where she will be among those who will be given the honor to see Allah's Face. The "restrictions" placed upon her regarding her dress and the display of her beauty and ornament is only to guard against all ways of corruption arising from such dazzling displays. emaan (belief) and haya’ (bashfulness). and Al-Hakim who said: "it has a good chain of narrators". For women. it is a protection of the society where she belongs. and find in themselves no resistance against your decisions. And whoever disobeys Allah and His Messenger he has indeed strayed into a plain error. plague and other illnesses that were not present among their predecessors became widespread amongst them.” (Soorah Al-Ahzab. and accept (them) with full submission. tahara (purity)." (Soorah an-Nisaa. taqwah (righteousness).Free mixing of men and women: If a woman thinks that she is equal with men in uncovering her face and going around unveiled. This liberal demeanor causes destruction of family ties and causing a lack of trust between spouses and the rate of divorce is on rampant. Indeed. until they make you (Muhammad (saws)) a judge in all disputes between them. It is a manifestation of adherence to the Qur’an and Sunnah. What Islam has established is not a restriction on the freedom of women but is a firm protection for her from falling down to the lowest levels of humility. All of these further lead to zina (fornication and adultery). iffat (modesty).”54 This is widespread in the Western Society and this contagion is gradually conquering other parts of the world. CONCLUSION The Hijab is an act of obedience. 33:36) Allah (swt) also says: “"But no by your Lord. In the end. unknown diseases (HIV) and children being born out of wedlock. Abu Na'eem. 4:65) 54 Part of a lengthy hadith related by Ibin Majah. As Prophet (saws) said “Sins didn't spread in any particular nation until they openly conduct it and as a result. The woman wearing her Hijab may be looked upon as “reactionary. high rate of divorces. It indicates obedience to Allah (swt) and His Messenger (saws). Hijab is camouflage in a world of flux.

21 .Allah (swt) knows best.

1991 Al-Mubarakpuri. 2005 Suter. Sara. [n. 2004 Islam-qa. Muhammad.d. Lahore: Markazi Anjuman Khuddam ul Qur'an. 2003 Bullock. Tafseer Ibn Kathir (Abridged). 2000 Newsweek.d. Translated by Mary Jo Lakeland. Cairo: Al-Falah Foundation. Maulana Mufti Muhammad. New Jersey: Princeton University Press. The Experience of Hijab. Revised by Justice Mufti Muhammad Taqi Usmani. Ma'ariful-Qur'an. Women and Islam: An Historical and Theological Enquiry. The Netherlands: E.]: Saudi Arabia. Shaykh Safiur-Rahman. UK: The International Institute of Islamic Thought. 2008 22 . Australia: Random House Australia Pty Ltd. All about Terrorism. Muhammad Shamim. Muhammad Hasan Askari. [n.. 2010 Shafi'.BIBLIOGRAPHY Addwesh. Religious Obligations of Muslim Women. Great Britain: Basil Blackwell. Keith D. Rethinking Muslim Women and The Veil: Challenging Historical and Modern Stereotypes. with answers supervised by Shaykh Muhammad Saalih al-Munajjid Ismail. Anne. Aḥmad ibn Muhammad and Siddiqui. 2007 Quduri. website offering insight into Muslim belief and practice through questions. Israr. 1986 Harold. and Gender in Islamic Law. J. Family.p. Abia Afsar. Katherine. The Hijab… Why?.] Ahmad. UK: Cambridge University Press. The Hijab of Muslim Woman.] Mernissi. [n. Riyadh: Darussalam Publishers & Distributors. Dr.]. [n. Saleh As-Saleh. Abdulaziz. London: Ta-Ha Publishers Ltd. Prof.. Translated by Prof. Dr. 2002 The Encyclopedia of Islam.p. Karachi: Maktaba Darul-Uloom. Women. Fatima. 2008 Tucker. Translated by Dr. Multiculturalism without Culture. The Mukhtasar Al-Quduri: A Manual of Islamic Law According to the Hanafi School. Judith Phillips.]: [n.

Sweetness of Hijab. the free encyclopedia Zagloul. Cairo. Safiyyah. 2006 23 .Voice of America News. a Trusted Source of News & Information Wikipedia. Al-Falah Foundation.

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