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DISASTER MANAGEMENT

UNIT II

KIRUBA

Disaster Operations Management
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Whether natural or man-made in origin, disasters play an ever more significant and visible role in today's increasingly global society. Managing the effects of such disasters is an ever more important service provided both by professional emergency personnel and by volunteers and volunteerbased organizations. By studying how analytical tools from science, engineering, and mathematics can improve the effectiveness of disaster operations .

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Disaster Operations Management
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Different organizations frequently need to work together before, during, and after the occurrence of a disaster. Information sharing is critical for supporting the multi-user and multi-task decision making in this collaborative environment.

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Definition

Disaster operations management (DOM) can be defined as the management of "activities that are performed before, during, and after the occurrence of a disaster with the goal of preventing loss of human life, reducing its impact on the economy, and returning to a state of normalcy"

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Phases of DOM

There are typically considered to be four different phases associated with the managing the effects of a disaster: § Mitigation § Preparedness § Response § Recovery

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Important Aspects of DOM
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Communication and the exchange of knowledge are also important aspects of many operations processes Partnerships in a disaster situation Relevant knowledge about available resources and capabilities. Longer-term service relationships Inspection and maintenance program

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Risk Assessment

Risk Assessment is the art of identifying and prioritizing threats, vulnerability and severity of threat impact with the cost and workload of protection and security.

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Measurement of Risk
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Identifying threats that could damage or negatively impact a facility of operation Quantifying the probability that a threat will occur Evaluating the severity of impact on economic and financial status and reputation of the business Prioritizing preventative actions to protect against threat

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Measurement of Risk
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Examining facility and operations vulnerabilities Evaluating existing security systems and programs Developing and implementing a comprehensive program to prevent and protect against threat and improve safety measures

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Tools in Risk Assessment
Records of past disasters and major natural phenomena. As precise as possible studies on the specific geological, climatic and other hazards in the national and/or regional context. Drafting and updating hazard maps and vulnerability profiles with a maximum level of participation.
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NGO MANAGEMENT
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Public relations Project management Staffing

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Public Relations
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Non-governmental organisations need healthy relationships with the public to meet their goals. Foundations and charities use sophisticated public relations campaigns to raise funds Employ standard lobbying techniques with governments Interest groups may be of political importance because of their ability to influence social and political outcomes

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Project Management
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Increasing awareness that management techniques are crucial to project success in non-governmental organizations Non-governmental organizations that are private have either a community or environmental focus. They mobilize public support and voluntary contributions for aid They often work in areas where government-to-government aid is not possible.

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Staffing
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Not all people working for non-governmental organizations are volunteers. There is some dispute as to whether expatriates should be sent to developing countries. Cons : The cost of foreigners is typically higher, they have no grass root connections in the country they are sent to, and local expertise is often undervalued. Example: By the end of 1995, CONCERN worldwide, an international Northern NGO working against poverty, employed 174 expatriates and just over 5,000 national staff working in ten developing countries in Africa and Asia, and in Haiti.

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SWOT Analysis - Objectives
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For better Response To improve the disaster operations effectiveness To formulate better Pro-active and Re-active strategies For Better Mitigation To Bridge the gap between recourse availability and Requirement For better Capacity building

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Strengths
Structured administrative Setup Co-ordination among various Departments Provisions for adequate funding Immediate relief and rescue operations

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Strengths PPP(private and Public partnership programs Provision for international co-operation and support Highly qualified team of experts

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Weakness
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Participation and Involvement negligence by people and organizations Rehabilitation Negligibility
-Negligible social and psychological treatment - Negligibility in monitoring and evacuation - Negligibility of training the local community - Operational Drawbacks

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Opportunities
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Enormous Scope for R&D(Research and Development) Expert involvements in mitigating disasters NGOs involvement in pre & post Disaster Management Networking between Villages and District headquarters Workforce Availability

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Threats
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Identification of Experienced and credible NGOs Decentralization may lead to corruption Poor control mechanism Poor monitoring System Control over funds and Progress

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Institution Awareness and Safety Programmes

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Primary strategies
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Place Institution safety on the education agenda Form a Institution Safety Advisory Committee (....pre-disaster) Each Institution should prepare a Building Level Emergency Respone Plan Draw in effective guidelines for safety regulations Develop safety policies

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Basic components
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Promoting Awareness and Education Activities Demonstrating Disaster Risk Management Training and Capacity Building Assessing Vulnerability and taking suitable Mitigation Options

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Demonstrating Disaster Risk Mgmt

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Training and Capacity Building

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Assessing of Institution Buildings
80 70 % School Satisfying Requirements 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Diffe re nt Crite ria Architecture Structural Functional External Preparedness

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I. Architectural Observations
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1. Area of the Institution 2. Space in each rooms
2a. Height 2b. Area per person

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3. Location of the staircase
3a. Distance of the staircase from the farthest room

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4. Staircase details 5. Passage/Corridor
5a. Width of corridor 5b. Length of the corridor

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6. No of exits

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II. Structural Observations
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Age of the building Construction History (one phase or multiple phase) Column Orientation Shape of building Are there cracks in structural elements Are major repair works carried out for the strengthening or the damaged part of the building

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III. Functional/Operational Observations
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1. Does the building have a Building Use Certificate 2. Condition of the Electrical panels/mains 3. Lightning Protection of buildings 4. Fixed fire fighting installation 5. Regular building maintenance works 6. Exit requirements
6a. Type of exit (doorway/corridor/passageway) 6b. Condition of the exit route eg: obstructions if any

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7. Is adequate water/toilet facility available at each floor 8. Are staircase functional at all time or some exits are kept locked 9. Distance of Emergency Service from the school 10. Special Provisions for physically handicapped

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IV. External Observation
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1. Any hazardous unit near the surrounding area? 2. Means of access 3. Traffic conditions on the road 4. Speed Breakers 5. Caution sign boards 6. violation near the entrance of the building 7. Chances of water logging 8. Drains 9. Access of fire engine 10. Threat against falling of adjoining buildings/ compound walls/ parapet walls/ chimneys/talls structures/ electricity poles etc. 11. Open space 12. Main entrance to the plot

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V. Preparedness Observations
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1. Are awareness programmes organized for the members of the Institution? 2. Are they aware of the vulnerability or vulnerable areas in the Institution? 4. Safe place/shelters identified in the Institution 5. Assignment of duties and responsibilities for Members 6. Are they been trained for the first-aid? 7. Provision for firefighting systems

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Risk Management

“Risk Management is the Identification, Analysis and Economic Control of those RISKS which can threaten the assets (Property, Human) or the earning capacity of an Enterprise”

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Universe of Risk
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Risk Assessment
FINANCIAL IMPACT: Threshold Limit to be decided based on Size of the corporate

Probability

Medium Risk

Very High Risk
Financial Impact

Low Risk

High Risk

PROBABILITY OF OCCURRENCE: KIRUBA DANIEL J

Handling Risk
Risk Levels
Low & Medium Normal Monitoring at the operational level

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Close control of all potential contributing factors by the Risk Management Team

Very High

Risks of this level should be actively tracked for decisions by the Risk Management Committee.

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Insurance
§ All Risks are not Insurable § Essentials of Insurance

Insurable Interest Utmost good faith
§ Procedure for Insurance

Identification of Risks Quantify the Insurable value Evaluate the choices Proposal Payment of premium Policy Documentation
§ Claims § Administration System

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Insurable Risks
PROPERTY RISKS Damage to Physical Assets
Acts of God Accidents Break down

PEOPLE RISKS Loss to Employees
Ill Health and accident Death Overseas travel

FINANCIAL RISKS Monetary Loss from
Theft and Burglary Business interruption Bad credit

LIABILITIES RISKS Loss from Operations
Product liabilities Public liability

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Focus Areas for Insurance Management
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Identification of Internal & External Pure Risks

Risk inspection Risk Audit
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Scrutiny of Existing Insurance Covers

Coverage Rates & Deductibles (Compulsory self insurance)
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Defining Standard SOP for Claims Control

Guidelines on documentation
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Key Areas of Consideration
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Choice of Insurer

Industry Rating Claims Settlement ability Sustainability of the company Service levels & infrastructure

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Choice of Intermediary

Representation of the insurance market Knowledge of insurance amongst all industry segments Service levels & infrastructure
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KIRUBA DANIEL. J
Lecturer, MBA dept., Sri Venkateswara Institute of Information Technology & Management, Ettimadai, Coimbatore

jkirubadaniel@gmail.com

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