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DISASTER MANAGEMENT

UNIT III

KIRUBA

Cyber terrorism
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Cyber terror: The deliberate destruction, disruption or distortion of digital data or information flows with widespread effect for political, religious or ideological reasons. Cyber-utilization: The use of on-line networks or data by terrorist organizations for supportive purposes. Cybercrime: The deliberate misuse of digital data or information flows

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Cyber Threat Cycle
Out-of-the-box Linux PC hooked to Internet :
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[30 seconds] First service probes/scans detected [1 hour] [12 hours] First compromise attempts detected PC fully compromised:

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Administrative access obtained System software modified to suit intruder Attack software installed PC actively probing for new hosts to intrude Clear the disk and try again !!
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Vulnerability Exploit Cycle
Novice Intruders Use Crude Exploit Tools Crude Exploit Tools Distributed Advanced Intruders Discover New Vulnerability Automated Scanning/Exploit Tools Developed Widespread Use of Automated Scanning/Exploit Tools Intruders Begin Using New Types of Exploits

Auto Attack Sophistication vs. Intruder Technical Knowledge Coordinated

Tools High

Intruder Knowledge GUI

www attacks

hijacking sessions Attack Sophistication password cracking password guessing

Low
1980

Intruders
1990 1995 2000

1985

Effects of Cyber Terrorism
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Stock may lose a hundred points Businesses may be bankrupted Individuals may lose their social identity Threats not from novice teenagers, but purposeful military, political, and criminal organizations

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Sophistication of Cybercrime
Simple Unstructured: Individuals working with little structure, forethought or preparation Eg. Fake Profiles

Advanced Structured: Groups working with some structure, but little forethought or preparation Eg. Bomb Threats

Complex Coordinated: Groups working with advance preparation with specific targets and objectives. Eg. Hacking Govt. Websites

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Example: Zapatista Cyberstrike
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Mid-1990s rebellion in Mexico Military situation strongly favored Mexican Army Agents of influence circulated rumors of Peso instability Peso crash forced government to negotiating table

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Summary
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Majority of on-line threat is cybercrime Cyber terror is still emerging

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Evolving threat Integrating critical missions with general Internet Increasing damage/speed of attacks Continued vulnerability of off-the-shelf software

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Widely viewed as critical weakness of Western nations

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Remote Sensing Technology
Monitoring of disasters using remote sensing (Global positioning system) has two aspects;
To record the real status of damages due to those disasters such as earthquake, Tsunami, volcanic eruption, high tide, flood etc.,

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To analyze the cause of a disaster and to predict the occurrence of the disaster.

Remote sensing will be integrated with GIS technique in terms of risk management, hazard mapping, public awareness, rehabilitation, evacuation etc.

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Definition
Remote sensing is the technique of deriving information about objects on the surface of the earth without physically coming into contact with them.
This process involves making observations using sensors (cameras, scanners, radiometer, radar etc.) mounted on platforms (aircraft and satellites), which are at a considerable height from the earth surface and recording the observations on a suitable medium (images on photographic films and videotapes or digital data on magnetic tapes).

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Types of remote sensing

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Passive remote sensing Active remote sensing

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Passive remote sensing
Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding area being observed. Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors. Examples of passive remote sensors include film Photography & Infrared

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Active remote sensing
Active remote sensing is the emission of energy in order to scan objects and areas whereupon a sensor then detects and measures the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target.
RADAR is an example of active remote sensing where the time delay between emission and return is measured, establishing the location, height, speed and direction of an object.

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Remote sensing applications
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Monitoring deforestation The effects of climate change on glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic regions, Depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths. Military collection during the cold war made use of collection of data about dangerous border areas.

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Geographical Information Systems
A Geographical Information System (GIS) is a system of hardware, software and procedures to facilitate the management, manipulation, analysis, modeling, representation and display of geo‐referenced data to solve complex problems regarding planning and management of resources.

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Functions & Applications
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Functions of GIS include data entry, data display, data management, information retrieval and analysis. The applications of GIS include mapping locations, quantities and densities, finding distances and mapping and monitoring change.

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GIS in different phases
Planning : Earth observation satellites could be used to view the same area over long periods of time and, as a result, make it possible to monitor environmental change, human impact and natural processes. This would facilitate scientists and planners in creating models that would simulate trends observed in the past, present and also assist with projections for the future.

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GIS in different phases
Mitigation: After potential emergency situations are identified, mitigation needs can be addressed. This process involves analyzing the developments in the immediate aftermath of a disaster, evaluating the damage and determining what facilities are required to be reinforced for construction or relocation purposes

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GIS in different phases
Preparedness :Based on the information provided by GIS, it is also possible to estimate what quantity of food supplies, bed space, clothes and medicine will be required at each shelter based on the number of expected evacuees

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Laser Scanning

“Laser scanning is a technique which can be used to gather data about an object or environment which can be used to create a 3D model or detailed reconstruction. “
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3D using Laser
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Low powered laser used Beams shot at object & recorded Collection of tiny data points Computer program maps a 3D model with the points Object is rotated to get a view of all sides

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Example
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Allows museums to share their collections around the world without having to endanger the objects they are preserving People can log onto a museum website, and explore three dimensional models of objects of interest

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Applications of 3D Laser scanning
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Underground (tunnel) survey Measurement of orientations in exposed rock faces Measurement of discontinuity roughness Open pit mining

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Emotional Intelligence Emotion:
“Emotion is the complex psycho-physiological experience of an individual's state of mind as interacting with biochemical (internal) and environmental (external) influences.” Eg : fear, sad, affection, shame, surprise, love, anxiety

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Emotional Intelligence 1. Physiological : Bodily changes
eg. Sweating, Heavy breathing 2. Psychological : Internal Feeling eg : Excitement, Inferiority complex

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Emotional Intelligence “EI is the ability to know and manage oneself along with an awareness and ability to manage one’s relationships with others”

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Dimensions of EI
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Intrapersonal

Emotional Self-awareness Assertiveness Self-regard (self- respect) Self-actualization Independence

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Interpersonal

Empathy Interpersonal Relationship Social Responsibility

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Dimensions of EI
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Adaptability

Problem-solving Reality testing Flexibility

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Stress Management

Stress tolerance Impulse Control

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General Mood

Happiness Optimism

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KIRUBA DANIEL. J
Lecturer, MBA dept., Sri Venkateswara Institute of Information Technology & Management, Ettimadai, Coimbatore

jkirubadaniel@gmail.com

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