TO

HIS EXCELLENCY MOHAMMED RASCHID,
PASHA-GENERAL OF SYRIA . HONORED SIR AND BROTHER :

Iw my first interview with the zealous band of Freemasons, lovingly at labor in their foyer maponnique at Smyrna, it was reported to me that the Governor-General of Syria and Palestine, the brave, wise, and learned MOHAMMED RASCHID, is one who delights to wear the Masonic apron, having shared joyfully in the mystic confidences of their fraternal group. And the brethren at Smyrna rejoiced to speak of the intelligence, urbanity, and Masonic skill of their renowned brother at Damascus, and favored me with letters of credence and introduction . Early upon my arrival in Damascus, therefore, I hastened to pay my respects to your Excellency, and to present you the greetings of a half-million American Masons, who are working (in more than six thousand lodges) the same principles of Divine truth, justice, and fraternity in which you, yourself, were inducted in your Masonic initiation at Smyrna . At the same time I laid before your Excellency the peculiar mission upon which I had embarked, and solicited your valued approval and patronage . I have now to acknowledge the very hearty manner in which your Excellency responded to my request ; you afforded me the wisest counsel, and extended to me such aid as none can give so effectually as yourself. Finally, when the plan of the present volume was matured, and I solicited, by letter, the honor of dedicating it to him to whom I am so much indebted, your Excellency granted me the favor, with an urbanity which is in keeping with all I had previously known and enjoyed of your character. .

4

DEDICATION.

Since my return home, I have spoken in more than six hundred lodges, and reported to them the results of my Oriental study and labor. Everywhere I have made grateful mention of our distinguished Brother, the Vali of Syria ; of his bravery in war, his wisdom in council, the respect and love of his people, and particularly his kindness to the American brother_ who had journeyed so far in pursuit of Masonic light. Should you, at any period, honor our country with a visit, your Excellency will find that this story of your kindness to the strange brother has come here before you ; that the lineaments of your countenance are well known to us, and that a welcome awaits you, such as but few visitors have ever received from the Masonic fraternity. Would that your Excellency might so favor us! Would that the mother-land of Freemasonry might send such a representative to_ - this great asylum of freedom, where the principles of the ancient Order have unrestricted sway, and every man feels that in his birth he is the equal of every other! May it please your Excellency : Our earthly lot differs most widely . Your name is spread afar as one to whom God has intrusted the government of a people. Our forms of faith are diverse. In language, customs, and modes of thought, we are cast in different moulds ; but in Masonic UNITY we are one, and one in Masonic FAITH. As our hopes, and aims, and labors are one, we, trusting in one God, and doing, each of us, what we believe to be His expressed will, do humbly expect a common reward when we have passed that common lot which none can escape. To the Divine power, therefore, I tenderly commend your Excellency, both for this world and for that which is to come. TO II . E . MOHAMMED RASCHID This book, Freemasonry in the Holy Land, is, by permission, most respectfully and most fraternally
DEDICATED

PREFACE.
OMMR this book to the Masonic public, in redemption of my pledges to the generous friends who furnished me the means both for

1

circle, and afterwards lend to his neighbors to read ; equally a referencebook to the student, and a hand-book to the traveller ; large enough to embrace so great a subject, yet no effort has been spared to compress the information . The Common Gavel has been used remorselessly in striking off excrescences. Written in the spirit of the Holy Writings, French and German infidelity has not made sufficient inroads into American Masonry, that less than nineteen-twentieths will welcome additional light upon the Divine authenticity of the Bible, and such light I have attempted freely to diffuse through this volume .

my expedition of 1868, and for publishing the book itself . That I have been more than three years getting it up, speaks, I think, for the thorough manner of its preparation. Agreeably to original promise, "the book is adapted to the plainest reader ; one that the owner will take home and read in his domestic

Let every subscriber, after reading the book, bear me testimony that I have kept the faith with him. 1 have avoided the mysterious and romantic style so common amongst writers upon Palestine, and have cultivated the colloquial One would think, to read standard accounts of the trees and birds in the Holy Land, that they are different from birds and trees in

6

PREFACER

other countries. Not so. Making allowance for difference in climate, nature is the same everywhere, and so I have used every-day words in describing them. I have embodied as much practical information as possible ; comparing things Oriental with things Occidental ; things in the experience of patriarchs and prophets with things in the experience of an American observer. And yet I have endeavored to preserve the gravity and dignity due to a theme around which cluster all our hopes in life, in death, and in the world to come . In the abundance of my preparations, and the acreage of my readings-up for this book, I have not unfrequently mingled others' thoughts with my own, and have entered them here often without spt,cial credit. In defence of this I can only say that such is the general usage of writers . If the reader, then, finds passages the property of other persons, he is at liberty to say so ; I will not deny it ; but, with the historian Rollin, I confess "that I do not scruple, nor am ashamed, to borrow that I may adorn and enrich my own history." My own credit, if any, shall consist in the skill with which I bind the beads of the chain together . In the thousands of notes and memorandums I have taken, it would be strange, indeed, if I could preserve the ear-marks of each. In this book I have desired to popularize the study of the Scriptures, by removing some of the difficulties which the unlearned have found in reading them ; by smoothing the way to obscure passages, so

as to enable all to peruse the Sacred Book understandingly, and better to enjoy sermons and commentaries. Had the hundreds of thousands who make up the membership of our lodges this practical knowledge, how easy the teacher's task, in the coming generation, to diffuse

the store of useful knowledge there is for mankind in this world! If any object to the allusions and comparisons to American matters, so freely introduced through these pages, let me confess, old and

PREFACE .

7

cosmopolitan as I am, that patrica fumus igne alieno luculentior-the very smoke of my own native land seems brighter to me than the fire of any other. I trust, however, I have not exhibited this sentiment anywhere offensively . As the narrative of Arculf's Pilgrimage to Palestine, in the eighth century, led to that passion for pilgrimage which has not yet died out, but has made the nineteenth the most illustrious century of all, so I earnestly hope the publication of this book, the first of its class, will inspire many a zealous tourist to visit those countries on Masonic many a penman in his closet to enlarge the literature of which I now make the commencement . To show that the web and woof of Masonic tradition are true, is, by an easy transition, to prove

errands, and

the figures of the pattern real and genuine . In writing Arabic words I have endeavored, in general, to give such English letters as will express them to the ear rather than the eye For instance : instead of harem I write hareem, &c. Yet this rule is but imperfectly carried out, after all ; for were I to adopt it rigidly Sultan would be Sooltarn ; Koran, Korarn ; Hassan, Hassarn, &c If the reader would learn the exact sound of Arabic words (a thing

I never did), he must get an Arabic dictionary (and then he can't dc it!) As so large a proportion of American Masons are professing Chris tians -the demonstration at Baltimore, Maryland, September, 1871, proving that our wisest and best members in very large numbers rejoice to bear the symbolical emblem of the MAN OF GOLGOTHA-I have not hesitated frequently "to name the name of Jesus" in this volume, although no one has so often and publicly demonstrated that Freemasonry was ten centuries old when the Star, of Bethlehem arose . Nor can our Jewish brethren, many of whom have received a welcome into the American lodges, complain that I neglected the interests I

8

PREFACEL

of their long-persecuted but now emerging society while _I was in the East. At the same time I have fully expressed my admiration for much of the character and many of the precepts of Mohammed, as embodied in the Koran. Avoiding the doctrinal points, and read in the spirit of fraternal love, as illustrated in the lectures of Freemasonry, that remarkable book, the Koran, might justly be taken as a comment upon the much older, far wiser, and most remarkable book ever written, TnE OLD TF TAJrrr of the Hebrew dispensation . To those who are accustomed, without the slightest examination, to denounce the Koran (as well as its author), I will simply say, with Isaiah (viii . 20), "To the law and to the testimony ; if it speak not according to this word, it is because there is no light in it ." An unprejudiced mind will admit, not only that the Koran contains far more quotations from and references to the Bible, but is absolutely imbued more with the spirit of the inspired word than a dozen of the best "Saints'

Books" found on the counter of any Catholic bookstore in New York . '~ To the testimony 1 " In affixing the names of my Masonic countrymen freely to places renowned in history, I acknowledge, ubique patriam reminisci, that I remembered my native country in all places, and have attempted thus to join the West to the East by a new and more affecting tie . The Masons who raised nine thousand dollars and upwards to send me to Palestine, and enough, three years afterwards, to publish this volume, have earned the right to Masonic homes among the homes of the first

Masons, and the allotment I have made may be yet very much more largely extended. Even though the idea be one strictly in the region of romance, I shall be greatly mistaken if it does not lead to larger explorations, freer offerings, and greater exertions in this direction on the part of generations yet to come . To Professor A. L. Rawson, of New York, so well known as
11

The

PREFACE.

9

Oriental Artist," who has given his pencil exclusively, for a number of years, to Biblical illustration, I am indebted, not only for the maps and engravings in my volume, but for many practical and useful sug . gestions in the preparation of the work itself . Himself a thorough explorer in Eastern fields, he is giving his mature and experienced judgment to such works as Beecher's, Deems's, Crosby's, and other first-class writers on Biblical themes ; his own excellent "Hand-Book of Bible Knowledge" meanwhile comparing favorably with the best of them. Finally, if any one with dyspeptic tendencies feels to object to the attempt at humor that may possibly be detected in some of these pages, I bare my back to the lash . I did laugh while going, without guard or guide, through the once inspiring but now depressing lands of the tribes -laughed often and freely, and, even at the end of four years, my cachinations are renewed when I think of certain experiences connected with my journey . The ghost of old laughs thus haunting me so long and persistently, and giving its spirit to my ink, the reader is at liberty, without further dispensation, tc laugh too .

THE LAND OF MILK AND HONEY.

"A good land and a large . . . a land flowing with milk and honey." (Deut . vi . 3, xi. 9, etc.) 0 land of wondrous story, old Canaan bright and fair, Thou type of home celestial, where the saints and angels arel In heartfelt admiration we address thy hills divine, And gather consolation on the fields of Palestine . In all our lamentations, in the hour of deepest ill, When sorrow wraps the spirit as the storm-clouds wrap the hill, Some name comes up before us from thy bright immortal band, As the shadow of a great rock falls upon a weary land. The dew of Hermon falling yet, revives the golden days ; Sweet Sharon lends her roses still, to win the poet's lays ; In every vale the lily bends, while o'er them wing the birds Whose cheerful notes so marvellously recall the Saviour's word& From Bethlehem awake the songs of Rachel and of Ruth, From Mizpah's mountain-fastness mournful notes of filial truth ; Magdala gives narration of the Penitent thrice-blest, And Bethany of sister-hosts who loved the gentle Guest. Would we retrace the pilgrimage of Jesus Christ our Lord, Behold his footsteps everywhere, on rocky knoll and sward ; From Bethlehem to Golgotha, his cradle and his tomb, He sanctified old Canaan and accepted it his home . He prayed upon thy mountain-side, he rested in thy grove, He walked upon thy Galilee, when winds with billows strove : Thy land was full of happy homes, that loving hearts did own, E'en foxes and the birds of air-but Jesus Christ had none . Thou land of milk and honey, land of corn and oil and wine, How longs my hungry spirit to enjoy thy food divine 1 I hunger and I thirst afar, the= rolls between, I faintly see thy paradise all clothed in living green . My day of life declineth, and my sun is sinking low ; I near the banks of Jordan, through whose waters I must . go Oh, let me wake beyond the stream, in land celestial blest, To be forever with the Lord in Canaan's promised rest .

DIVISION FIRST-FACING THE EAST .
Whatsoever thy hand 8ndeth to do, do it with thy might ; for there is nt work, nor device, nor knowledge, nor wisdom, in the grave, whither thou goest. . -Eccles ix. 10 . Examine the condition of the Masonic institution, in the land of its nativity . Observe those unaltered customs of the Orientals, whose types are preserved in the rituals of our lodges . Inspect the traditional sites of Tyre, Gebal, Lebanon, Joppa, Succoth, Jerusalem, etc. Collect relics of ancient days and specimens of the natural productions of the land .-Numbers, xiii. 21

COIN OF JERUSALEM : SHEKEL .

CHAPTER I.
CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS .

VERY one who has undertaken to instruct Freemasons, must many times have yearned to visit Palestine, the mother-land of ancient affiliations,-the Orient,-the home of Abraham and David,-of Solomon and Zerubbabel,-of Jesus and Mohammed, the School of the Sacred Writings . So many references to that country are contained in the Masonic rituals, it is a marvel that no one of us had made explorations there prior to 1868 . In common with my fellows in Masonic work, I had keenly experienced the Crusader's impulse " to precipitate myself upon the Syrian shore ;" and often cast about me for the means to gratify the yearning. In the autumn of 1854, I came so near accomplishing this wish, that, by the favor of a loan of $1,000 from the Grand Lodge of Kentucky, joined to the liberality of other friends, I reached New York, having my face earnestly "set towards Jerusalem ." But here an unlucky accident frustrated my hopes, and turned me back to the Occident . Fire, which has so often proved my foe, consumed the Judson House, in which I was a lodger, and by destroying my papers and clothing, etc., so disarranged the scheme, that I could not carry it out successfully at that time . Yet, for all that, though advancing years, and the res anyustcs in domi, the bard realities of life, interposed with a purpose almost inexorable, I never once resigned my determination to go to Palestine, but always in my Masonic descriptions spoke of "those traditional localities which some day I am resolved to visit ." In the meantime, I continued the practice, established long before, of reading whatever publications promised to shed light upon the Lands of the East ; and in church, Sunday-school, and elsewhere, lectured on the subject with a minuteness of detail that compelled me to study the theme in its various historical and scientific associations . This, in fact, served to educate me against the time when it might please the

CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS.

13

G. A . 0 . T . U . to grant me a furlough for the Oriental tour . In purchases of books for my Masonic collections, I gave prominence to those upon Oriental matters, as my old library, now in the keeping of the Grand Lodge of New York, will show. In brief, I sought to emulate the spirit of old Thomas A Kempis in his saying, homo fer• vidus et diligens ad omnia paratur-the earnest and diligent man is prepared for all things-and in the meantime found comfort in the promise of Virgil Forsan et hcec olim meminisse juvabit ; Durate et vosmet rebus servate secundis ; It may possibly be joyful some day to recall these trials ; bear up against them, therefore, and be ready for better times when they come . In 1867, circumstances proved somewhat encouraging to the fulfillment of my purpose. The opening of various lines of steamships from Europe to the Syrian coast was a favorable incident. The enlarged privileges granted by the Turkish government to foreigners sojourning in the Holy Land enabled a person in 1868 to explore twentyfold more than he could have done in 1858, and fortyfold more than in 1848. The publication of scores and hundreds of books of travel in Palestine obviates the necessity of a man's wasting time in merely playing the tourist, and justifies me in beginning, the moment of arrival, the work of exploration . The invaluable aids afforded the Bible student by such publications as Robinson's, Barclay's, Thomson's, etc ., are so much more than mere books of travel, that the reader may in effect transport himself, by their assistance, to the Land of the Bible, being enabled to see with their eyes and hear with their ears whatever is needed to illuminate the sacred pages . In my domestic circle, the growing up of the younger members of my family, and the marriage of the elder, rendered father's presence at home less a matter of necessity than heretofore. One thing more : my labors in the various departments of Masonic history, rituals, poetry, etc ., seemed measurably terminated. Having no money-capital of my own for 'purposes of publication, and the fields of Masonic literature affording little profit to authorship, I felt that in the issuance of seventy-four Masonic publications I had given sufficient evidence of my devotion to the old institution, and might justly claim exemption from further labors and losses in that direction, and enter upon a new field . Finally, a reasonably vigorous constitution, never impaired by excessive living or intemperance,

14

CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS.

some knowledge of the Scriptures in their original and translated forms, a large course of reading in matters relating to Oriental countries, a -circle of Masonic friends reaching round the globe, and a strong will to execute whatever I undertook-these formed the encouragements that bore me out, at the age of fifty, to begin the service of Masonic exploration of the Holy Land, conceived so many years ago, of which the present volume is the record . But how a Masonic exploration ? What has the Masonic institution to do with the Holy Land ? These are no questions for Freemasons to ask ; but as my work will fall into the hands of, and per._s haps be read by, those who are not of the "mystic _tie," the query may properly be answered here. I respond, then, that the Holy Scriptures are the instruction books of the Lodge ; and that a perfect knowledge of the Holy Land is needful to a perfect knowledge of the Holy Scriptures. In 1867, then, I set upon the following plan to secure the necessary funds for my enterprise ; I made up a list of Holy Land specimens, such as the fraternity were most likely to value-such as I should most value, in the way of Biblical and Masonic illustrations, a catalogue embracing specimens of the woods, waters, earths, coins, fossils, etc., from Palestine, and proposed to supply them, at a specified rate, to those who would advance me money for the pilgrimage . The fol . lowing extracts from my published proposals belong to the history of this enterprise : " Those contributors who advance ten dollars, each shall be supplied with one hundred and fifty objects from the Holy Land, including specimens of the ancient building-stone of Jerusalem, Joppa, and Tyre ; shells from the Sea of Galilee and Joppa ; agates from the Arabian deserts ; ancient coins ; rock-salt from Usdum ; an herbarium of ten plants ; the traditional corn, wine, and oil of Masonry ; earth from the clay-grounds near Succoth, etc ., etc" Contributors of five dollars, three dollars, and two dollars, respectively, were promised smaller cabinets composed of similar objects ; those of one dollar, the Journal of the Expedition . A map of the Holy Land, arranged for Masonic purposes, was also a portion of the premiums promised. Having decided upon the plan of appeal, I visited one hundred and thirty lodges in Indiana, Iowa, Kentucky, Illinois, West Virginia, Nebraska, an I New York, and addressed the fraternity . I began by occupying an hour or two with recitations of Masonic poems, such

according to my proposals. viz. in fact. It can readily be seen that the amount advanced me was short of my needs . . to furnish objects of natural history on South America " to those who will advance him the necessary outfit for the journey to that country . the expenses of the Oriental tour. trusting. the Emblems of the Craft. . W . I commend to him the adage of Periander of Corinth.CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS . The whole number of contributors was 3. It is in evidence of the practicability of the plan upon which this money was collected. the aggregate of contributions was $9. printing six issues of the Holy Land Journal for 3. The season. the offer was favorably responded to . industrus nil impossibile. that a noted traveller is now (1872) before the public with proposals. and preparing. To explore that remarkable plain -once the centre of intellectual light and the school of the seven liberal arts and sciences. etc. labelling.. etc. Bartlett. and those of my agent. and then laid before them my propositions for a Masonic mission to the Holy Land. my own expenses. G. or willing to show their respect for an old and industrious laborer.782 contributors . s 3. also of commerce. was one of extreme closeness in the money market. Some of my hearers probably deemed my proposals Quixotic . . high among he Lebanons. and this I was compelled to make up out of the proceeds of lectures on my return home. the Holy Bible. many others contributed the lowest amount asked for. unfortunately. one of "the Seven Wise Men " of antiquity . provision was made for two jears' support of my family .000 specimens.' where the remaining groves of cedar are found. and portions of the country visited were suffering from scanty harvests . Mr. To visit the secluded recesses." By way of encouragement. and forwarding nearly 70. for myself and Mr . 2. as they said..631 . In general. the deficit. the Five Points of Fellowship. borrowed from my programme. printing catalogues. and letters-the Plain of Phcsnicia. yet nearly four hundred of them gave me ten dollars each. while collecting the money . To search for those caves and bays at the base of Lebanon where the "flotes" of timber were made up for shipment to Joppa .782 . to my pluck to accomplish the end proposed. Out of this. the Drunkard's Grave. Our Vows. 15 as the Level and the_ Square. Thomson . freights upon shipments of specimens .200. who came before them with an appeal so reasonable and practical . anything can be accomplished by an industrious man 1 In my addresses to the Lodges I proposed1 . one dollar . exceeded $1. packing. the Letter G.. religion.

Lebanon. Bethany. 454. the square and compass. 9 .in-1-848 . To explore the places named in Masonic lectures. journeying from Joppa to Jerusalem . and to seek for the highway by which they penetrated the precipitous cliff's and bore upward their ponderous burdens .16 CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS. at the extreme northern termination of his journey. 10 . showing upon one side the initial-symbol of him * The emblem of The Broken Column is my "Mark-Master's Mark.. 7... in the track of Hiram's mariners. 4. . exaltation in Lexington Chapter. To make thorough inspection of everything_relating to Solomonic times in and about Jerusalem . it was set up in the snow-drifts . was displayed at his masthead while passing down New York Bay. still extant in the archives of Bane Lodge. out its silken folds. these to be distributed generously to contributors on my return." adopted at v. Joppa. upon plans previously arranged . where the brazen pillars and other holy vessels appertaining to the Temple were cast. Damascus. New York City. and. 5. Bethlehem. Lexington. Sodom. To sail down the coast to Joppa. This little flag of mine accompanied me through all my wanderings* The breeze that sighs across the granite reefs of Tyre blew . 6. especially the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan. 8. To visit the plain of Jordan. No . Gebai. To make full collections of objects illustrating Masonic traditions and Biblical customs. No . and others . Bane's Arctic Explorations of 1853 . Jericho. To examine the ancient port of Joppa with systematic care. Mississippi-. The following cuts of my Masonic flag are appropriate here The idea of this was suggested by the flag used in Dr . 17. His banner. Bethel. such as Jerusalem. Tyre. To follow diligently upon the tracks of the Syrian architects. Hattin.

Fastened upon the boughs of one of Lebanon's grandest cedars. Minnesota (C . the German Masonic historian whose theory of a modern origin of Freemasonry does not recognize the importance of light from the East. Their columns were freely thrown open to my propositions . the Voice of Masonry (Chicago. and the GOD we worship be worshipped there and everywhere. their editorial pens shaped words of encouragement and good counsel . H. as taking the lead in brotherly encouragement and approval . what my own experience warned me of at the time. 0 . Fluttered in the gale that lifts the waters over the rocky ledge at Joppa. Illinois) . " like doves to the windows." and pledged me a cordial greeting in his own country . the National Freemason (New York) . when the Mason-craft shall yet build up Jerusalem. the square and compass on their foresails . Iowa) . Fluttered over the walls of Jerusalem. to possess the same likes and dislikes is. that an active opposition from either of those influential organs of Masonic sentiment might greatly have retarded the entire scheme . Irish) . the architect-symbol of him whose noble end dignifies the purpose and the work of every Mason's Lodge. the Masonic Monthly (Boston. W 2 CO / . Waved before the entrance of a rock-hewn tomb at Gebal. it seemed to call around me the spirits of those who. but it is proper to say that among the most generous supporters of my explorations were the Grand Masters of Iowa (Reuben Mickle) ." deep-laden. and the Freemason's Monthly Magazine (London. How truly has Sallust said : idem velle et idem nolle ea demum firma amicitia est . it spoke in prophetic tones of the good time coming. No official expression was asked for from Grand Lodges. into this harbor." still gave me "the brotherly word. Nebraska (0 . the Dispatch (New York). it recalled the days when the great fleets of Tyre came. well understood its symbolical lessons. or other Masonic organizations . Mass .) . the Masonic Review (Cincinnati. three thousand years a og .) . England). No words of mine can express my sense of all this kindness. it suggested a mysterious meaning to the sturdy limbs and evergreen foliage of the tree. on the other.CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS. The course pursued by the various Masonic journals in regard to this enterprise was almost uniformly generous in the extreme . in point of fact. and in the deep quarry that underlies the city. It will not be deemed invidious if I mention by name the Evergreen (Dubuque. 17 whose name was adored equally in Phoenician and Jewish Lodges . and the friends of the Masonic Holy Land Mission of 1868 should bear in mind. the foundation of lasting friendship . Even Brother Findel.

It was HIS providence that made us one. Johnson) . They took stones and made an heap . while his travelling experience. when we are absent one from another. H. the following lines were composed and extensively disseminated. Once fondly reared in Gilead's mountain-pass . M . of Illinois. formerly Grand Lecturer of that State.-Genesis xxxi. An assistant being deemed desirable. And caused our hearts each other's woes to bear HE kindled in our souls fraternal fire. and uniform good-nature and honesty rendered him an agreeable companion upon the journey . as a farewell.18 CONCEPTION AND PREPARATION& Nash) . Prior to my departure for New York. 46. Therefore was the name of it called Miepeh : for he said. who forwarded me good words and material aid. . I well named the patriarchal stone . inhospitably stern.Counting the scanty moments left to me Till I go hence. And Laban said : This heap is a witness between me and thee . And soothed with mutual charity its woes So. In mutual joys sported at labor's close . Thomson.-and haply not return. Beseeching GOD to watch 'twist me and you . The Lord watch between me and thee. was accepted in that capacity . Mizpn So. sharing mutually what GOD hath given. With common faith we seek a kindred Heaven. Wilson). oh I Brethren.Befitting children of a common SIRE . In mutual labors we have spent our life . of the first eminence. and a large number of present and past Grand Lodge officers. With mutual strength warred against human strife . W. Doubtless the Era ALL-sEEuNG did look down Upon that token of fraternal grace And doubtless Ha who reconciled those men. Who otherwise "perpetual strangers" were HE joined our hands in amity alone. D. In the matter of collecting specimens. looking eastward o'er the angry sea. rear a MIZPEH too. Canada (Wm .The wintry blast. by correspondence and through the press MIZPEH . New York (S. his services were of great utility . until they met again . 7I would. and a singularly zealous advocate of Ancient Craft Masonry. Between them watched. industry.

if in haste. Impute it not. this parting hour. Lie i! I Bring Prayer : the WATCHER in the heavens will heed . bring stones. I leave them. How- . mystic Laborers. I've wounded any of the Brotherhood. Ward off the shafts of calumny accurst . and strictly in accordance with the conciliatory character of their author . with the faithful dead. crown the pile with names of good and blest. fond and dear. And hold my family in sacred trust . while MtzPEH stands. a sin : Forgive lo I Ha by whom all creatures live Grants us forgiveness. Hither with memories of many years I Come round me. Brethren. Though wandering far toward Oriental sun. In Lodge Celestial. we shall surely stand? Oh. Behold our MIZPau and regard our prayer ! Be my defender while in foreign lands . With loving gifts.CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS . Before I trust me to yon stormy sea. He who watched kindly on that mountain-side Will watch between us till the work is done LORD GOD ALMIGHTY I whence all blessings are. Should I no more behold them. though they be at rest Finished : and so I hope whate'er betide. Finally. upon this wintry shore. to Masonic care. Forgetting pledge sealed in WORD DIVINE. Bring stones. or careless mood. and build the heap with Rear up a MIZPEH. though with many tears :EH. Whose memories linger. e'en as we forgive 1 One of the journals alluded to (the National Freemason) said of these lines : " The sentiments are touching and appropriate. Lay them on MtzPEH 1 and the names revered Of those who've vanished from our mystic Band Are we not taught that. once more. Bring Types significant of deathless hope Bring Words in whispers only to be said Bring Hand-grasps strong to lift the helpless up Bring all those Reminiscences of light That have inspired us many a wintry night . My labors vindicate.

the tailors in Beyrout will make you up suits quite as good and one half cheaper than New York tradesmen . however. but I never found occasion to use them. was. and other choice spirits of the generation that is fast dropping into the grave . at the age of fifty. and withal the man who. witty. . the admitted good fellow. I had written a few leading Brethren. As to reading. B . and the request was cordially granted . and introductions are concerned. the only document I ever found occasion to use . none who know him but will accord to him a pure and disinterested purpose. having something in common with those of whom the poet long ago sangBound for holy Palestine. Hubbard. Charles Scott. amply sufficed me for reading on the journey . 1868. and wise.20 CONCEPTION AND PREPARATIONS& ever much some of the Brotherhood may have differed with Brother Morris in regard to his plan for Uniformity of Work. Even my passport. After these preliminaries. soliciting letters of general introduction. Nimbly we brushed the level brine. I found it unnecessary to encumber myself inconveniently . the man who has published seventy-four different volumes of a Masonic character . LaGrange. with some trouble and expense. kindly presented me an elegant diploma of the thirty-seco nd-degree . Thomson's Land and Book . was of not the slightest service to me. Philip C . which I had taken the precaution to procure from Washington. Salem Town. books. Henry Wingate. ' genial.' of Masonic circles. French. Two suits of clothes and half a dozen books were quite sufficient . B . February 2. Kentucky. No . Sunday morning. Osborne's Past and Present of Palestine. McLeod Moore. The confidential friend of such men as William B . Cosmopolitan_ Consistory. 47. W. and a few others._ New York city. B. My own diploma as a Master Mason and member of Fortitude Lodge. has yet to find anything in his pocket to compensate him for labors given to the best interests of Freemasonry. J. it suffices to say that I took passage from New York.-he cannot leave our shores for a long and laborious tour into Oriental countries without bearing with him. and others. So far as clothing is concerned. a man going to Palestine must go carrying his reading in his head . the ' God bless the old enthusiast ! may his return be blest! ' " So far as baggage. Tucker. although I would recommend every traveller to take one . everywhere. he will get but little time to accumulate it there .

COIN OF BAR-CHOBA& . And made the dancing billows glow . and boldly sung.-T. 21 Wharton.CONCEPTION AND PEEPAEATION& All in azure steel arrayed O'er the waves our banners played. High upon the trophied prow Many a warrior-minstrel swung His sounding harp.

yet to many of those who will peruse these " Hand-marks. and form. but withdraw myself to a solitary place and consider. our ship has the tastes of a woman. New York. The critic may sneer at my title. The ferruginous mass moved reluctantly from her bed. of all the days in the year. I have discovered. seemingly regretful of the necessity of leaving the cosy seat on which she had reposed for two weeks . 1868. a bright. It was on the second day of February. to the icy waves of ocean. Hence I make this chapter of daily life upon the sea . she may well prefer her quiet berth. and the cold criticisms of sea monsters who await her comAs ing yonder." the pennings of other Eastern travellers are as though they were never written . as the feminine pronoun implies. and. If. and that nothing new can be said upon the subject.CHAPTER IL CROSSING THE ATLANTIC. to witness the castingoff of lines and her departure from Pier No . North River. that nothing in a traveller's recollection is too trivial to interest those who do not travel. The moment of departure is a solemn one to me . Very likely . in a spirit of ." Captain Grace." that I mounted the steps of the steamship " France. figure-head. cloudless "Lord's day. the act of severing the last tie that binds me to my native land makes me sad. and who peruse the smaller incidents of travel with a relish. " Crossing the Atlantic. and that the most interesting facts in the tourist's journal are those which personally be may deem too trifling for publication . I cannot join in the parting words exchanged between ship and shore." ill-naturedly affirming that a thousand voyagers have already described the occurrences of ocean-life. 47. during a winter-voyage of twelve days . since my return. ELABORATE this chapter for the benefit of that large class of readers to whom " the ocean wave " is a romance. and the praises of the admiring crowds who have been so loud in their approval of her fine bust.

In my travelling bags I have a judicious selection of works upon Oriental themes. England. or is it mere romance that is taking me. The France is a fine new vessel. The moral and material encouragement of nearly four thousand friends is the basis of my mission. There is also a German line which ops at Havre. And so in that mood. and so I swung out upon that ocean which in Bible times no sailor dared even cross. as all the American steamships were driven from the sea during the civil war . For myself I can honestly aver that I look to nothing but hard labor. Shall I again tread those streets? Am I really justified in making this pilgrimage . but I cannot recommend it to the reader. and diligent study.428 tons . the wife of twenty-seven years. and at Southampton. February 1st. and I feel that the Godspeed of half a million more is wafted on the breezes behind me . France. Both are English lines. Members of the Masonic fraternity and others have forwarded me letters and credentials in generous supply . Her tonnage is 2. my thoughts review the situation . upon so long a journey? And may I expect the blessing of the GRAND MASTER upon an enterprise so much out of the accustomed routine of my profession? In that hour of self-examination. In going down the bay I occupied the hours in writing parting letters to the members of my family. I chose this of the "National Line" of Liverpool boats. going. coming. with an ample supply of paper to fix my own observations. American currency. but which now is underlaid by telegraphic wires. at my years. Out of three steamers announced to sail from New York across the Atlantic. I solemnly declare it. during the months before me .GOING DOWN THE BAY . in a solitary corner of the busy ship. I stood self vindicated and supported by the feeling that something more than mere curiosity had moved me to the work I had undertaken. also to a number of devoted friends whose words and deeds clung to me in parting moments with a tenacity that nothing can loosen . 28 prayerful inquiry the questions. economical fare. and the seven children who call me father . connecting my home at La Grange with the City of Jerusalem itself. this being her fourth voyage. It was on this line that I returned in July. a first-class passage was given. while the same accommodations in the " Cunard" line would cost one hundred and sixty-five dollars . For one hundred dollars. in breadth of t . In length she is 405 feet . and that I could rely upon the same HAND which had untiringly led me up and down through an itinerancy of fifty years .

or as the W. 30 feet . while a Masonic Lodge is usually the reverse!* The steering apparatus of the France is. in depth. placed in a small. and passengers. cramped-up crypt. and when the wind is fair. I was fain to compare the whole apparatus to the silent. As I could never see the screw. British-fashion. But it would never do for an Englishman to adopt a Yankee invention. that is. riveted together in the manner of steam-boilers. When an order is sent from the foreship to the stern. even the good woman France herself. M." moves these five thousand tons of boat. mysterious power that keeps in motion a well-disciplined Lodge of Masons . Like all the vessels of this line. as it was the greater part of my voyage. and it is best to provide in fair weather for foul . her instrument of propulsion is a screw set up at the stern. and jolly-boats are stowed along the sides of the vessel. The speed of the vessel may be seen from the following table of distances run for the first eight days. at the rate of ten miles an hour. from the upper deck to the keel.24 DESCRIPTION OF THE sTRA]1RM beam. computed every day at HIGH XII : • In all our Masonic communications on board the France we were never unmindful of the fact that a lady was present. and life-boats. Our fine steamer is built of rolled iron plates. requires to get his will and pleasure known to the Lodge . indeed. and so steering-lines to their steamers and check-ropes to their railroad trains are postponed until after the millennium . his fortune is made . who turn the spokes of the wheel in the same inartistic style that the Phoenicians practised in the days of Sesostris . stanch and tight . which. if the sewing-machine man who calls quarterly at my house to sell me a machine. which holds a half-dozen sailors. in the most mysterious manner and "in solemn silence. 42 feet . at the stern. A reasonable supply of longboats. she is a screw-propeller. it takes as many messengers to pass it from one to the other as for a general of division to move Company C 'of the 53d Regiment into line of battle. We have three masts. suggesting that ocean-life is uncertain. nor the machinery that moved it. and freight. the sails afford considerable assistance in propulsion . will only invent such a lock-stitch as this. and we governed ourselves accordingly ! . The analogy would be perfect were it not that a steamship is of the feminine gender. There is not the least danger of these seams ripping . thirty inches wide and one inch thick.

being almost as regular as life upon the rail . and most ridiculously misnamed . kept in training for promotion in due time : for as no man can be Master who has not served in training as Warden. crew. well-educated men. February 3. ary on ocean steamers. " 7. is marked on all the ship's linen and furniture .272 " Monday. The only thing on board that I can name American is the coal.. . slush-buckets. Every passenger on board. in nursery language. Money is reckoned in "tuppences. and if the captain's expressed (and profane) opinion may be relied upon. but. The whole crew. " 5. a surgeon.. He declined in a single word. Commodore Wilkes himself couldn't mistake the nationality of this steamer. Besides these. officers.000 . it is said. who acts as quartermaster of the ship . as they are termed . it is claimed.265 " Saturday. Our ship is officered by a captain and four mates. by day and night. 9. and wet-nurses the ship. " 8. except three. when I asked him if he would conduct the service of prayers. Captain Grace is a rough-featured. so no man can be captain who has not served as mate . like a mother hovering over her babe . from captain to chambermaid. in fact. he is on the alert.. even down to the acceptable sirloins of beef served daily to the passengers . there is a purser. under a settled condition of weather. as is custom. the latter being hearty. a short $3. and d. At all hours. " 10. taciturn and gruff.260 " Wednesday. Monday. The only time I ever spoke to him was one Sunday morning. according to fixed rules of naval service . and assistants in abundance . All the working charges of the ship are apportioned among these four. and then the conversation flagged .271 " The remarkable uniformity of these daily footings-up will strike the reader . " 4. six engineers. a thorough sailor. Tuesday.268 Thursday. none but a born Briton ever could do before me ! That mythic animal. numbers 104 . talks about "going home" whenever Great Britain is named. the British unicorn. steamship travel... His pay is £600 per annum. or ship's officers.272 " Sunday." and I had not been a week aboard before I could compute a considerable sum in £.OFFICERS AND CREW . even that were better British too. &c . Of course everything is intensely British. a thing which. 260 miles . " 6. s. rough-mannered sailor of thirty. an extremely short one.259 " Friday. .

when they gathered up the treasures of the Roman world. and capacity of this old Tyrian barque. These see the works of the Lord and his wonders in the deep . 1000 will afford a forcible contrast . their soul is melted because of trouble .NICIAN BARQUE . They mount up to the heaven . Nowhere will this portion of the grand Psalm cvii . He maketh the storm a calm. the tin. as when you are lying. which liftetb up the waves thereof . that do business in the great waters . They reel to and fro. so he bringeth them to their desired haven. the copper. the spices needed in the erection. they go down to the depths . . read with such vividness. and worship of Solomon's Temple . so that the waves thereof are still . In one of my chapters I will describe the size.V A PHa. construction. the marble. and bringing from all quarters the gold. and stagger like a drunken man. such as those invincible mariners sailed in. the ivory. adornment. For he commandeth and raiseth the stormy wind. turning to the right as far as Scotland and the Baltic Sea. and to the left as far as the African coast trended southwards. and he bringeth them out of their distresses . After this description of a first-class Atlantic steamer in the year of grace 1868. and are at their wit's end. the following picture of a Phoenician vessel of B. Then they cry to the Lord in their trouble. of a quiet Sunday hour. passing through the Straits of Gibraltar. Then are they glad because they be quiet . C. in your state-room at sea They that go down to the sea in ships.

. through the four weeks' journey from New York to Beyrout. Luncheon is at High XII. which in itself is a meal . Three regular meals per diem are spread. and the twelve months' journeys necessary to procure it. and things to be done at each place. accompanied by the best of tea and tolerable coffee. not forensic) is stocked with wines. with room for nearly one hundred . at any hour . when I visited that city. toast. cutting tools and war-like implements were made. besides a luncheon. or second-class passengers. of a character rarely * On the Bill of Fare of Feb. 27 The size and tonnage of one of these Phoenician vessels would scarcely compare now with a Lake Erie sloop. But hearts of oak controlled them. Under the head of "Tyre. as to afford me all the assistance that a company of guides could have rendered .. and the services of the ship's surgeon . and state-room stewards upon the gentlemen. and cheese . presenting soups. This." and following the sinuous lines of Portugal. and spirits. by which. M. Of cabin. can be accommodated through the steward with a special supply of provisions. I had more than one hundred distinct facts and suggestions in alphabetical form. Supper at 71-. To us of the cabin every possible convenience is. there are sixty-four. by the time I reached Palestine. all without extra charge . risks. a passenger who. cheese. and reached the place of their destination . a substantial British meal. afforded . bread. Dinner appears at 4 p. for which they receive good.REFRESHMENTS ON BOARD. for any reason. my researches were very greatly expedited . or first-class passengers. was made so full. cold meats in large variety.* Let me recall the eating arrangements : Breakfast is announced at 8 A. prairie chickens appeared among the items of dinner . M. Spain. Chambermaids are in attendance upon the ladies. written out in a blank-book. we have twenty-four. The importance of tin in hardening the copper. the latter being made up of coffee. The bar (fluid. ales. . and pickles. justified all these pains. was that of making an alphabetical agenda of places to be visited. and his skill is ever at our command . of course. of which their . An experienced surgeon is one of the regular officers of the ship. fails to report himself at the regular hours. 5. The particular matter upon which my pen was engaged. Besides these." for instance. wholesome victuals. The latter pay only twenty-five dollars each. and coasth-g all the way round the northern shores of the Mediterranean they came out into the ocean between their own "Pillars of Hercules. and France. bread. struck finally into the mouth of the broad Channel. of steerage.

a man must be harder to please than I am. Brandy and other spirits make a good toddy to stay his stomach after nausea. want of appetite. I never go upon water without being seasick. be regular in your habits . accompanied with elasticity of spirits and digestion. As to remedies. then follows an appetite. walk a good deal in the fresh air . indigestion. produce low sprits. are those who cannot vomit. and. amidst the sneers of men and the laughter of women. This reconciles me in some degree to the motion of the vessel. staggering. matched on the American side of the "great drink. and go to bed with the cook . Even a slight swell on Lake Erie has sent me to the dead-level. therefore. wear thick overshoes . as the French call it. I always make my calculations to give up the first few days to the tergiversations of my stomach. and costiveness. the gay and rosy damsels of our company were so transmogrified by the ungallant sea-god. by the assistance of four or five . but will not prevent it Citrate of magnesia may be recommended as a good thing to neutralize the acidity produced in the earlier stages of seasickness. and wobegone. Some of this class have scarcely a moment's ease during the voyage . I come. also some Brandreth pills . Pale. With such arrangements for table comforts. in the course of time. at moderate prices . ready made . who can discover grounds of complaint . and in a sea voyage. Was I not obliged to go ashore. a few lemons. . spells of vomiting per diem.28 SEASICKNESS. settle my accounts in the most disgraceful manner ? Yes . on that little Cleveland fishing excursion which Peter Thatcher provided for me in 1863. Nausea. such as go with my best reminiscences of childhood. or who vomit with great difficulty and pain . and I advise you to provide yourself with some bottles of it . that their best friends could scarcely recognize them . a quart-bottle of strong coffee. incontinently . suffer. and there. to a mariner's status . be sociable . Dress warm . rise with the seagull. the third day he was afraid he should not ! Ladies suffer more from seasickness than gentlemen . When seasickness passes off. The worst sufferers from the mal de mer. Such an one is reported to have said that the first day he went to sea he was afraid he should die ." and these are charged topassengers who order them. all that a seasick person wants is something to assist him through his unpleasant paroxysms. a flask of pure cordial gin . That class of persons who boast that they are never seasick (and there are always some bores of the sort). with white sugar. and some good sour apples. Does the reader inquire whether I was seasick? I was. ill-temper. and a very hatred of existence .

at 3$ strikes seven. at 3 strikes six. The ship's bell at 122 strikes one. genteel breeding and the like will pine in the corner. and so many to refreshment and sleep . 29 upon the whole. and no one is valued bawbee. so many to the composition of letters and memoranda . and don't believe there was a dog on board . when rendered sleepless by nausea and ennui.") Barclay ("City of the Great King") .AMUSEMENTS Al dBA. at 2 strikes four. 13) on board the ship France. How about myself? I give so many hours a day to the study of Thomson (11 Land and Book . Each of these periods of four hours is termed a watch-of which there are six in the twenty-four . meet upon the level_ and part upon the square . Osborne ( " Palestine. How often they recalled to me the lines I have sung in so many a lodge-room and by so many a grave Solemn strikes the funeral chime. like Fr eemasons. There is a piece of advice that I will offer you here : Don't suppose that anybody else cares a straw who you are. Past and Present") . a second series begins at 48 and extends to 8 . except as he possesses a powers of pleasing. at 4 strikes eight. One of these intervals I am told is termed the Dog watch . Industrious persons play checkers and cards .Notes of our departing time . the rest walk the deck. but can never forget . Travellers. the dullest of the company . while a cheerful readiness of song and anecdote brings its possessor into social prominence. I could never detect them. although I listened attentively for canine indications. the Holy Writings and other tomes bearing upon Oriental matters . at 1$ strikes three. marks these solemn chimes of the ship's bell with feelings that he cannot analyze. quite as much as the rest. The time of ocean travellers is variously and generally uselessly employed . for the hour. at 1 strikes two. Everything on board conduces to regularity. eat. so many to checkers (my favorite vanity) . will testify to . and sleep. For if they are never seasick. or where you are going. at 2$ strikes five. The traveller. enabling him both to receive and impart pleasure during the tedium of the way . but. Fine manners. they are never seawell. Through a pilgrimage of wo. . I venture to say that the genus loci. smoke. which being the extent of its striking powers. dignity. the spirit that inhabits my old state-room (No . While we journey here below. but mope around during the voyage.

Try horizontals . fifty pairs of iron-gray wings " go in " for it . in fact. Lay levels . nor left us a moment until we sighted the Irish coast . Raise perpendiculars . Among the various theories concerning the origin of sea-gulls. or even a bit of a Masonic Monitor. as an expiation for the innumerable lies they told during their earthly career l A cheerful mind will derive amusement from almost any combination of circumstances . the gulls settle down upon the water to ride and sleep . which are being constantly thrown into the water. for a season. condemned. tables. and I gathered a fund of it in watching our family of twenty-four passengers at their meals. But this can scarcely be. now . Now she keels over to starboard to an angle of forty-five degrees . but it is finally conceded that he only saw the spout. to gather the fragments from the steward's pantry. nothing at all but a large following of sea-gulls that took up with us at Sandy Hook. a cracker. to follow in the wake of outward-bound vessels. One traveller. in spite of all you can do. Bang goes the ship again to starboard. for keen-eyed and strong-winged as they are. then one strong fowl rises from the sea with it in his billall with a velocity that makes you giddy to observe. and fifty pairs of eyes detect it . The reader shall have his share of the fun . Imagine everything fastened to the floor. they could not see and overtake the ship again after twelve hours' sail. Not a fragment of a wreck appeared in sight . forty-five degrees to larboard . Their motive in pursuing us so closely is strictly mercenary. How or when they rest. etc.80 DINNER UNDER DIFFICULTIESM having heard me sing it three score times and ten.. indeed. a convulsive grip upon the table with the left. Soup-plate in the right hand. chair. There was almost nothing visible to the eye during our voyage . is a mystery more than Masonic . Away goes the ship on the other side. declares he saw a whale . not a whale .. not an iceberg. during a three-days' storm that came down on us about the middle of the trip . if indeed they ever do rest upon these long flights of twelve days. The ship is swaying from side to side like a five-second pendulum . a pill-box. that they are the ghosts of newspaper reporters. as I lay there and mused upon the lessons of the ship's bell . viz. a piece of soap. the soup spurts up your sleeve. the hot soup slops over upon your hand. Not a vessel. and the ladies and gentlemen fastened as tightly to their seats as human muscle can do it .. viz . These the sea-birds seize with great expertness. I will venture my own. Cast anything overboard. The sailors believe that when night comes on.

Thomson. Brooklyn. D. of cariners' Lodge. Barrett. Jersey City. and spoons. uniting the best elements of all societies. 4. And so for an hour the dinner is a running accompaniment of china. Rose. Liverpool. At 2 P . Y . 8. William Carroll. composed the evening before. having previously tested each other. William Dempster. 9. as S. as Treasurer. of Varick Lode No . 194. Wayne Co . 409. W. (Chief Baker of the Steamship France). Senior Warden of Rose Lodge No . we opened a moot lodge upon the First Degree. late Grand Lecturer of Illinois. W M 2. D. My own share in the proceedings was made up of the following lines.FREEMASONRY AT SEA . David W. 31 soup. New Brunswick (first officer of the Steamship France). as 1st Master of Cer. " we of the mystic level. Thomas Hughes. 6. of Commonwealth Lodge No. as . and there. W. 1868. as J. glasses. J . New York city (Purser of the Steamship France). on the 13th of February. of Piatt Lodge No. laughable to witness . William Thomas.. avoids the offensive peculiarities of any. James Wilson. and zeal rarely equalled and never surpassed. England (ChiefEngineer of the Steamship France). in all respects. Remarks were volunteered concerning the practical nature of a fraternity that. 3. Stratford. G . 831. Robert Morris. of New York city (Chief Steward of the Steamship France). as Secretary . of St. This symposium was." as poor Burns used to call the Masonic fraternity. England (fourth officer of the Steamship France). George Catchp ole. cutlery.and approved methods. as Tyler. John's Lodge. fervency. 5. by ancient . of British Oak Lodge No . a notable one.M . as 2d Master of Cer. 10. 323." The names of our temporary dignitaries were these 1 . N. and proceedings of a particularly pleasant character were had . N . 31. 7. of Amity Lodge No. 590. upon first beholding Skellig Revolving Light on the coast of Ireland . Thomson as the sequel to an address delivered by him in good style. W. George Campbell. as J. The poem entitled The Checkered Pavement was recited by Mr. New York. "for Special Purposes . late Grand Master of Masons in Kentucky. as S. plate and all are swashed into your bosom with a freedom.. stole quietly away from the crowd to the Purser's room.

M. The Skellig Light beams out again ! So. was arrested. By ocean-breakers rudely chased. 'Tis but to try our faithfulness : Should He our pilgrimage enshroud. In gloomiest hour. under the apprehension tl tt they had come ti invade the land .and while I am writing this paragraph I see that on the Irish Grand Lodge Registry. are 327 lodges. . as I learned afterwards. draw nigh and learn with me These lessons from Freemasonry ! Each implement in mystic hand Bids us this precept understand They who would serve the Master's state. unerringly. February 12. THE SKELLIG LIGHT. We joy to catch the flashing ray That guides.. When hastening eastward o'er the waste. may we The tempest tost and weary find. by God's grace. To draw us safely. Should He withdraw His smiling face. * were sailing up the Irish Channel all day * This was in the middle of a Fenian scare. Oh.32 FREEMASONRY AT SEA.Lo I flashing far across the main. from heavenly sun. in Patience wait / a We sighted the Irish coast at 3 P. He stands behind the threatening cloud : And though He smite us with a blow. 1. It is His gentle chastening too I Craftsmen.What though the clouds may settle down. Craftsmen. landed passengers at Queenstown the next morning . smoothly on. in saddest mind. and every one of them. igorously examined. our way . Must work in Faith. Our Skellig Light. Wednesday. Our eager eye seeks for the smile That marks the dangerous Skellig Isle.872. wandering on life's stormy sea. What though in momentary gloom Night may resume her sable plume. and detained for twenty-four horn. And threaten ocean's stormiest frown.

the 14th. days of peaceful enjoyment. and finally reached the docks of Liverpool by daylight of Friday. who had brought me thus far not only in safety. I shall ever remember the period of my passage from New York to Liverpool as halcyonii dies. after a pleasant voyage of twelve days. 33 Thursday.GRATEFUL MEMORIES . grateful to God. COIN OF TRYPHON 3 v. . but with a degree of contentment and satisfaction that I had not anticipated .

and the failure to secure a passage in her would entail the loss of ten days' time . I regretted the necessity of passing a_ city _so noted for its attention to Masonic interests as Liverpool . however. of the same day. so as to arrive at 5 P.CHAPTER III. and proceeded to London. however. but the Marseilles steamer for Beyrout was advertised for Tuesday." The package being exhibited (two pounds of niggerhead). Not one of the five travelling-bags was opened. and naturally enough I saw that . The modus operandi of CustomHouse search was simple enough . but it did not turn out so . but II found John Bull much more complaisant than I had hoped for. tacitus sustinuique pedem-I stood astonished. a lthough capacious enough to contain cigars to supply even the Prince of Wales for a . the officer continued. and silently kept my feet . I passed the coin of the realm known by that denomination into his itching palm-without thinking of the violation of my vows as a Good_ Templar-and so covered the cost of the proposed imbibition . The six travelling bags containing the effects of myself and assistant lying in a corner by themselves." stands. Travellers' tales had led me to expect a severe examination of baggage in Liverpool . Of course I could observe little or nothing of Liverpool during a morning's stay . An edifice designated as "Masonic Hall. LANDED at Liverpool Friday morning . February 18. with this non sequitur : " Then I suppose you can give me a shilling to drink your health ?" At this unexpected suggestion-obstupui." responded my friend. M. This was my only examination . a burly-looking officer came up and asked " Have you any tobacco ? " "A little for my own use. He may possibly have intended his remark as a joke. Recovering. February 14. CROSSING ENGLAND AND THE CONTINENT. 1868. not far from tLa railway station. Every hour's delay would abridge my stay in Palestine by so much . in a moment. "only enough for my own use.

The motion of cars on the Erie is smooth as oil . I do much of my reading and writing while travelling in American oars. in an express train making fortyfive miles an hour. the pick of the miner. to barter Oriental products for this metal. the English cars run like tin pans on wheel-barrows .'C . The weather seemed to me warm for the season . cuirasses. tight little" island of England. are proverbial . water-closets. No other questions were asked. bucklers.-and to the Baltic for amber . Compare this with the Erie Railway. and I confess to have departed From Liverpool with most agreeable impressions . three facing the front. the hammer and compass of the architect. copper is the Damon of this compound. The carriages are awkwardly separated into small closets. The railway fare.. but you can do no writing here . lanceheads and javelins. . Swiftly as we were drawn across this "right little. statues.HASTY RIDE THROUGH ENGLAND . they have but four wheels to a car. foots up about $9 . The journey through England. the sailors of Tyre came to the Isles of Tin (Cassiterides). swords. Into these little rooms you are locked by the conductor (styled the guard). first-class. All manner of tools were made of this alloy. Liverpool to London. bronze . helmets. New York to Elmira. the burin of the engraver. and of course two centuries before Solomon's day. &c. three the rear. Accidents almost never occur. while the Erie has twelve . I gave thought to the subject alluded to in the last chapter-the voyages of the Phoenicians to these islands in the most ancient days . however. Reason is. were alike unknown to railway travellers in England and Europe in the year of grace 1868 . Even before the Trojan war (B . and have no means of exit except through his key . 270 miles. 35 twelvemonth . The swiftness and safety of railway-travel in Great Britain. The copper found abundantly in Asia Minor and Cyprus was alloyed at Tyre with tin. and means of warming the vehicles. 210 miles. If tin is the` Pythias. &c. and so bronze was made. and reading and talking are performed under difficulties . transversely cut off from the main structure. medals. lying between England and Ireland. there was so little appearance of snow and ice that the plowmen were busy in hundreds of fields near the roadside . each containing room for six passengers. affords but scanty opportunities for observation . the proper material for arms. $8. arrowheads. Sleeping-cars. 1184). the plowshare of the farmer. fountains of drinking-water.

'° Circumapice. Castles are distinct enough. so ridiculously applied on the seal of the State of Michigan . few and far between . I descended. Paul's Cathedral.. . inspected the Parliament buildings. . plowman . Thence by the Thames river to Westminster ." &c. g in ' London 5 P. At this hotel. and Ireland . Scotland. and the fa "tux's removed for the purpose. and found it went through intact . a house which I had seen advertised. and the " eating department " all t*n be desired.. Visited the tomb G . under a riii emblem in a publication onboard ship. . making a vow that I would never go up there again. Saturday was spent in active pursuits . It is an old estaban. I visited St. for. to the top of which I climbed.with it. In the Whispering Gallery I tried a Masonic communication with a friend. &c .street.His entity is simply that of the number of his bedroom. jam pauca aratro jugera mm1es. and give at least a sketch of Pr" Masonry as-it exists in London. t-. Kentucky .of . It reminded me for all the world of ' 's oration before the Grand Lodge of . and read its appropriate epitaph. I drove to Anderton's Hotel. Xo.The waiters are attentive. and it does really puzzle the observer to sed -farts or the farmers are .. which I find already crumbling to dust as rapidly as the Court-House in Louisville.eed not say that I felt it to be a real deprivation to pass through without calling -upon the Masonic brethren there . and 4JAbers but farm-houses. then spent a gloriou two hours in Westminster Abbey .a3o large a portion' . the rooms are dark and misty. and his bills are made out accordingly. name is not asked . ii.on this side the Atlantic a traveller's . it was explained that the lodge-rooms up-ataire are r uderguing a course of cleansing and restoration. the island-6Dvered by noblemen's a' man of his Horace . only to look out through a fog so dense that the secretary of my lodge might write . as well as in the three Grand Lodges of England. I first remarked t . Christopher Wren.reh~nquent-'the palaces of the great suffer scanty to the. I have no idea that " the gentlemanly aleck "'of Atderton's Hotel knows my name even to this day . Disgusted with the fog. And I never have." the honored builder of the cathedral. but on I tun I hoped to take more time. The upper story of this hotel has long been °f€tr' Masonic tnectin s Observing quite a pile of Wardens' stabering-up the stairs. but kept scrupulously .

and plainly grows out of the autocraEic character of Freemasonry in monarchical countries.Itook the SoutheaaU"n .4 bend the=}cute Greek Chapel of the Holy Sepulchre. and at 8 .. sent the holy spark to our Western fields that has kind e *11 . that from hrre' wws' the clay of which Adam was made l In the same light I . This was producing considerable ill feeling in the Grand Lodge . 3. peculiar to this country. to 4. cluster around the spot. &c.F"*x"O1i$T LN The rest of the day was'oocup ed 'ons parture. is the true Masonic Centre. the centre of Ancient York Masonry.000 Even the lodges of . Vvea' ad by a Mark Grand Lodge of England. one. In a circle of pavement stands a short •n 1e di to designate so remarkable a punetum 1 Traditiens tfwezons. for Dover. A visitor to Jerusalem is shown a spot. Scotland. o England. is the fact that all or nearly all the officers of the Grand Lodge are appointed by the Grand Master. who. one American lodge swelling (in 139 yeam)to t0447. ' don. and as there was no way to reach the Grand Secretary ex- . is simply clerk of the Grand Lodge. &c. in England.'Rut What . this anecdote is related of the Grand Lodge of England in 1868 : Complaints had been made against the Grand Secretary for his want of communicativeness and courtesy to those who call upon him. ters here (lodges whose rituals are based upon a mere a4s'Wwo the degree of fellow-craft) number in 1872 about 100. From bftpe.m.. Grand Director of Ceremonies. of the T from this dust was our Masonic Adam moulded l The Grand Lodge of England is composed substantially of the same officers as our own.' 9. declined to interfere. This is particularly the case with the Grand Secretary. and the four original lodges of London metes zng. Apropos of this absolute subordination of the Grand Secretary to the Grand Master.30 r. Grand Organist. such as Grand Superintendent of. whose officers are the princes the land. adding a few not usually nouiin&ted our side of the water. and as Ahe Earl of Zetland. . the Grand Master. which was reached at 1020 p:AC. Ireland. &P. W goodly ablaze. then. the Enropei n nations and' tb6 cal in all quarters of the earth.000. wielding and assuming none of the despotic powers often so offensively assumed and wielded in the American Grand Lodges by that functionary.$aUw&y at Ca street station. or perhaps was unable to apply a remedy. styled the geggio4 of the earth. This. partic ularly.

give other consideration to the details of the Masonic institution than to_reside and extraordinary communications of Grand Lodges. as it is styled. By this. and scarcely ever allowed his little bill of "stationery and postage-money" for his trouble .to disturb the smooth digestion of his dinner . in point of fact. of right . E . who . at the ordinary and the festivals that constitute the sequelcs -of those occasions. It is social position alone that qualifies a gentleman here for the high office of Grand Master . It cannot be denied.38 FREEMASONRY IN ENGLAND. are pushed into his lordt ship's pocket. It is not likely. it was not even seconded . D . that such men as the Duke of Sussex. The most exalted nobleman who will accept it has it. indeed. otherwise they will scarcely have attention. In addressing the Grand Master of England. the Duke of Leinster. All these matters have a common direction here. or the Grand Secretary . that of the Board of General Purposes. of irregularities in Masonic proceedings. This Board. compared with that of an American Grand Master. so thoroughly digests the greater part of the business submitted to its charge. for all that. Bro. a sort of imperium in imperio. and noblemen of those high grades. sometimes tyrannized over by his own Grand Secretary.is often crowded with correspondence. it will be seen how easy is his berth.s . cept by displacing the Grand Master. that it is never heard of again. have some of the intended effect . and the like. the Earl of Zetland. happily unknown in the United States . and nominated himself for Grand Master. Cooke. Masonic etiquette demands that all communications shall pass through the hands of the Deputy Grand Master. sounds queerly to those who are accustomed to . Quoting from an article from the pen of my old coadjutor. I am told. but simply to the social position he may occupy ." All this. Neither does the Grand Master of England ever deliver formal addresses to his Grand Lodge . yet it may. expressly stating that the reason for this unprecedented and apparently immodest act was that a Grand Secretary ought to be appointed who would attend to the business of the office and pay a decent respect to the feelings of his brethren ! Of course the nomination failed . "The election of Grand Master in this country is not due to any knowledge a man may possess of the institution. or any ability on his part to perform the duties of that exalted position. of lodge altercations. No vexata questiones of usage. No questions upon Masonic Law are submitted to the Grand Master . the Grand Registrar. a distinguished London brothel arose in open Grand Lodge.

39 view the Masonic fraternity as a band of men who "meet upon the level and who Tart_upon the square . your banker. to go abroad in the fall or winter. when you inquire of . which are extremely scanty. I notice that "the project of a steam-ferry across the Straits of Dover is approved by a commission of the French Assembly. February 16. The meeting being over. or your general correspondent. if himself a nonMason. From about the middle of June to October there is no life in European Masonry whatever. your landlord. and. These replies are based upon ignorance of the peculiarities of the Order in England ." and the editor of one of the New York papers commentmg upon the fact justly says. But at that season the Masonic Lodges do not meet at all." Americans visiting Europe _are scarcely ever able to tell us anything of Freemasonry in that country. Sunday. nearly all travellers from our own country to Europe go abroad in the summer. ctive. most likely volunteers the opinion that there is no Freemason's Lodge in the place 1 Again.. had the estuary of the Delaware been as broad as the English Channel at Dover. is a gorgeous palace. Most Lodges here have no halls . On being questioned. I left Calais at 1. then. or that nobody could tell them where the lodge-room was. "where is the lodge-hall ?" he confesses his ignorance. on the Tennessee river. Their Masonic furniture and paraphernalia.' compared with which the one that connects Snooksborough with Pumpkinville. and the room restored to travellers' uses Of course. when Freemasonry in all the Masonic countries of Europe is active. Second. are brought out of chests and wardrobes and arranged for the single occasion . M. even though they may themselves be members of the craft . The remedies are twofold : Firstz to provide one's self with a Masonic Reg ter of the foreign Lodges .AMERICAN MASONS TRAVELLING. these sacred objects are again concealed from public sight. but . 1872). and reached the capital of France in six hours . No wonder then that our countrymen come back to us as ignorant upon peculiarities of the Order in foreign countries as they left . they would reply that they could not find out the time of lodge-meetings .few of them have even a room of their own . Crossing the channel between Dover and Calais in a ferry-boat.30 A . when they come home. They meet for the greater part in the upper rooms of taverns rented by the season. Just as I hand this page to the printer (February 1. it would long ago have been bridged by magnificent ferry-boats such as ply between New York . This used to strike me strangely.

at 5} P.. and took second-class ticket to Beyrout. but he assured me that this was unnecessary. reached it at noon on Monday. Also visited the American Consul to have passport viseed . M. where the graves of Marshal Massena. Thence to Notre-Dame Cathedral.). Yet the great Cities of London and Paris have not hitherto been able to devise any better means of crossing their narrow sea than cock-boats. _a century behind 1868 . At Marseilles visited The Sailors' Club. and a host of others demand consideration . dinner at 5 P. seventeen Masonic periodicals being published here. But as the cars have no heating apparatus. on the model of our Young Men's Christian Associations .40 PARIS AND MARSEILLES. these Parisians have literature enough. The system of forwarding baggage on the English and Continental railways is exactly what it was in our country in 1850 . of which I knew so much in youthful days from reading " The Hunchback" of Victor Hugo . . we are happy to see. Called at the office of the great steamship line. M. givingg me a vivid apprehension of a blow-up every minute . I sailed from Marseilles in the French steamer L'Am6rique (The America) . Owing to the detention of a piece of baggage by some blundering official. hfessageries Imperiales (the Imperial Express Co. : breakfast at 10 A. There is a prospect now. I was detained in Paris till 8 P. On Tuesday. after a delightful journey through the heart of France . Arago. and thirty-nine in Germany . left Paris for Marseilles . The harbor is a marvel of natural and artificial strength . which make every one sick who sets foot on them. a philanthropic institution. and put it under my feet.. the servants brought in a cylinder of hot water every hundred miles or so. M. Thence to the garden of the Tuileries and places adjacent . though. and Jersey City. The Place de la Concorde is the most splendid collection of objects grand and sublime that I ever witnessed At 8 P. unless I was going to Rome . Only two meals a day are served on these boats. I spent Sunday in Paris by visiting P6re la Chaise Cemetery. and I survive . But they give me a good cup of coffee and a crust of bread at rising. the iron steamers alone being a host. M. Anything like a "through baggage system" of duplicate checks has not passed through the wool of railway theorists in Europe. February 18. Abelard and Heloise. M. as far as Freemasonry is concerned. viz . of an improvement. The amount of shipping seen in it is very great.

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. ETC .STREET SCENES AT JERUSALEM . SEE PAGES 402.

via Palermo. Mersina. the twin. I left Marseilles February 18th. On L'Amerique. as I have said. prodigious monoliths similar in purpose to the artificial pyramids . in the days when giants might be imagined. whose devices were the firewhite horns of the globed 4shtaroth. Alexandrette. Paris. to be expended in Syrian Explorations. Before we reached Smyrna another Mason. He is a resident of Marseilles.-Jennin. So to the Phoenician sailors who first descried and then stemmed boldly through these peaked and majestic straits. a fellow-passenger. first officer of the steamer L'Amerique . but turning my face sternly to The Orient I passed on . F. Eaton. stood. entrusted to me. . Passing southeastwardly. Rhodes. a sacred deposit. appeared these monster rocks. London. were far on my right hand. Messina. guarded by the Pillars of Hercules. and Tripoli. Latakia. Currey. Brother Le Maitre. Capt . and particularly well informed in the details of French Masonry . named respectively Calpe and Abylo. of the brig C. These pillars. COASTING THE MEDITERRANEAN. and Marseilles. came on board . and of course invisible. o _oue Masonic passenger was at first visible. It was a temptation hardly to be resisted to devote at least a month to revive old friendships. H. pillar-portals. and form new ones among the Masons of those cities . his membership being in Halifax. on the French steamship L'Amerique (America). and due at Beyrout March 3d .qs' Rosicrucians . E . the Straits of Gibraltar. But I had a higher work before meMoneys had been. passed too rapidly through Liverpool. spending but a day in each .-so to those men of Tyre. Nova Scotia. and one o cer. bound for Beyrout. so I listened not to the voice of the tempter. Smyrna.CHAPTER IV . Syra. fire-topped as the last world-beacon closing in that classic sea. They must have struck the gaze of the astonished and awed discoverers navigating this silent Mediterranean as the colossal pillars on which burned the double lights of Baal. of New York.

2 . Secret Judge . marked " A " on the map. Nova lux oculis effulsit et ingens-new and great light bursts upon our vision . Perfect Initiate . Its ritual comprised three degrees : 1. the single aim of the whole being the restoration of Napoleon . was chosen Grand Master. there are several that commemorate his Masonic affiliation . born on this mountainous isle. It is about a century since his boyish eyes ooked forth from those snowy crags over the beautiful and memoeable sea before me. with the square and compass grouped in an oak crown. I begin at Corsica. Passing the island of Corsica. 1807 . Knight of the Oaken Crown. 50 ms I AND MAP OF CORSICA. COIN WITH PILLARS OF HERCULES. On the reverse we have in French the words Silence. I gave some hours of contemplation to that great man. 1807. Napoleon Bonaparte . 3. 3. dated December 31. -our Masonic brother. to locate the .wonderful man whose patronage of the Masonic institution gave it an impetus in France and Europe which it never k-g lost.44 CORSICA AND NAPOLEON.-Macoy's Masonic Cyclopedia. (How perfect the parallel between this and the various Scotch and chapitral rites established to advance the restoration of the Pretender to the English crown . On the obverse is a cabinet of Masonic emblems. by the. 2. Commander . Friendship. and the words (in French) Orient of Leghorn. all having reference to Napoleon. below a star with five radiating cusps. We need not indorse all his actions to acknowledge him as a brother. Knight .) Among the medals struck during the brilliant career of Napoleon. then a voluntary exile with his imperial master at St. In memory of this.adherents of the then exiled Napoleon . Grand Elect . The third degree was divided into three classes : 1 . and the words Lodge Ecossai_se Napoleon (Scottish Napoleon Lodge) . Beneficence. Helena. has for motto. Bertrand. one. A Masonic fraternity was founded at Paris in 1816.

an unknown country. as I sailed. [The announcement of the death of this excellent man reaches me while. Cox. in 1871. S. commemorated in the Freemason's Monitor in these words : 1 ° Our ancient friend and brother. closed to Freemasonry. was initiated into several orders of priesthood and raised to * Since this page was written the Grand Lodge of Italy has been transferred to Rome. in his travels through Asia. To the left. Cox shows that it is the connecting link between the two continents. of the great Christian itinerant and martyr. Africa. the place of Paul's shipwreck . hrecalled the name and labors of Pythagoras. Scylla and Charybdis. Verily the whirligig of time makes wondrous changes! . was then a political prisoner . to the pine. and the vegetable growth of each . from the lemon. the Pope having lost all political power. I am conning over this chapter. of whom I shall have more to say in this work. and oak. then and now. the place from which his most wonderful epistles were dated. General Anderson . and unite the fruitful vigor of the former with the rugged grandeur of the latter. viz . and write here ten eminent in military as well as Masonic fame. PAUL. the island had been terra incognita. General Woodruff. Between Italy and Sicily I first struck the track. S. General Washburn. Garibaldi. Sailing near Crotona. called. A Search for Winter Sunbeams . published in 1870. in the centre of the basin of the Western Mediterranean . General Herron.] An excellent book upon Corsica is that of Hon . lay in the distance Malta. the great Pythagoras. and Europe. General Zollicoffer. General Hurlbut. on which the Grand Master of Italian Masons. was Rome. Before this. :-General Hancock. orange. 4$ names of American Masons. St . for many hundred years. on the right and left of which stood those ancient terrors. ilex. General Manson. figuratively speaking. But Mr. yonder. who. General Butler. On the right. Nearer was the Island of Caprera. and only remaining in Rome 3n suf ferance. He might have been in his doorway looking out upon our steamer as we passed. the scene of chivalric exploits. and date. Here I began to realize that I was entering upon Scriptural scenes and events . this broken region produces everything. Paul. Its mountains are midway between the Atlas range and the Alps. almost in sight.TRACK OF ST. Like the Holy Land.* the scene of Paul's martyrdom. General McClellan. on the eastern coast of Italy. Before me were the straits.

who lived four hundred years earlier. W. and more especially in Geometry or Masonry . and lived about B. marked "B" upon the map. Damon and Pythias. . the names of ten Masonic authors of modern times whose labors run parallel with those of the sublime Pythagoras. were pupils of the Pythagorean school. as for instance Crotona Lodge No. S. Out of their story some ingenious Americans have recently modelled a "secret order. in which the sciences enumerated in the Fellow-Crafts Lecture were inculcated." Here. William S .C. music. Chase. rhetoric. viz . I have located here. not inspired author. It teaches Masons to be general lovers of the arts and sciences . George Gray. 339. on this subject he drew out many problems and theorems. 387. Pearson. The island itself is about . must have been very extensive . whose friendship was modelled after that of David and Jonathan. In memory of this wonderful man. in the Grecian language signifying I havefound it ! and upon the discovery of which he is said to have sacrificed a hecatomb . With the small vessels employed in Phoenician commerce. geometry. and the quarries upon this island of Paros. it was a stupendous labor to convey such.46 PYTHAGORAS. Passing the island of Paros. G. logic. opportunity to see the quarries . Huramen. and so many. Wilkins Tannehill. Masonic honors are paid to Pythagoras as the reputed discoverer of the forty-seventh problem of Euclid. From Pythagoras (often erroneously accented on the penult) many of our Masonic lodges are named. Rockwell. who perhaps did more to shape the philosophy and cultus of the ancient world than any other." In the degree of Eureka Hiatus. Steinbrenner. W. George W. Yates. 539. about B. which. Ky.C . C. arithmetic. A. viz. and astronomy . Giles F. and any number of Pythagoras lodges. at Crotona. all hewn from the finest Parian marble._' surnamed Knights of Pythias. grammar. his celebrated school of philosophy was established. at Crotona. T." If this calculation is correct. I reflected upon that famous fabric " which was supported by fourteen hundred and fifty-three columns and two thousand nine hundred and six pilasters. James B. Mitchell.. the traffic between Joppa. the sublime degree of a Master Mason . and Sidney Hayden. this discovery is attributed to an aged brother. and among the most distinguished he erected this. however. 1 had no . in the joy of his heart. he called Eureka. columns and pilasters over the seas . Taylor. the seaport of Jerusalem. thus acknowledged in the Monitor : '° This wise philosopher enriched his mind abundantly in a general knowledge of things.. J .

The pilot guided me in pointing my finger toward it . James Cruikshank.c . Brown. Toward the Acropolis. marked °'D" on the map.c . It was the very sanctuary of the arts. viz. a member . Borden. it is most accessible from the northwest Robiuson . J . as the first essential condition of happiness. Rubottom. John Sheville. George W. The following outline cut will give an idea of it. He says that. at Athens. I directed a longing gaze . I locate the names of ten Masonic characters as beautifully proportioned in their moral members as the statue of Jupiter was in the physical. traditionally associated with Ancient Operative Masonry.. Stillman Blanchard. Frank Darrow. I locate the names of ten such" shafts of Parian marble" as King Solomon would_ have approved. Westfield. Millard. N. he shrugged his shoulders Greek fashion. Here stood the sixth of the seven ancient wonders of the world. John Robin McDaniel. like the hill on which Solomon's Temple stood. Elisha D. Enos. debarred for want of time from visiting scenes with which my studies have familiarized me from boyhood . the glory and the religion of ancient Athens . laid it down. James L. J . J. and replied : "Lucky for Solon he does not live here now I" At Syra we had taken in as a passenger Bro. erected by Phidias. 440. and James Crooks .says that on the oblong area of its levelled surface were collected the noblest monuments of Grecian taste . and William S. Norris. Combs. 600. Robert N . In conversation with our Greek pilot. I . marked 1°C" upon the map. at Athens. George D . when I told him that Solon. ing. To commemorate this ancient wonder. L. Stackhouse. which measured thirty-nine feet in height . W. Daniel Sickels. 47 thirty miles in length .PAROS AND ATHENS . In memory of a place perpetuated in Masonic tradition. It was a trial to my feelings to skirt thus rapidly the coasts of Greece . R. viz . George Babcock. William Hacker. FlemMAP OF PAROS . Gould. Cooke. B. Jerome B. J. the ivory and gold statue of Jupiter Olympus. B.. that a man should live in a well-ordered country.

M. and is now the oldest working lodge in Smyrna . St . Worshipful Master of Homer Lodge No. They work the American rituals pure and simple. The names of the various Masonic bodies. so far as I can gather them. where I found about twoscore of the brethren. owing to representations I made to the proper author ities. 1871. they renewed the dispensation of this chapter in 1868. under authority of the Italian Grand Orient . at Smyrna. The period for the return of the dispensation (September. It is deservedly ranked as one of the best lodges on the English Register. furniture and equipments of the lodge the same . 1865) having been permitted. 3 .-Working Rosicrucian Masonry. I could not secure reliable reports .-The dispensation for this chapter was granted by the G . of Homer Lodge No . and a warrant in September following . To understand my description the reader is informed that Smyrna is a city made up." . but movements were making to secure a new dispensation at once. of representatives of all civilized nations . 1868 . and have good apartments fitted up expressly for Royal Arch use. September. 1. It had lately been set to work . 32° . John's. Westfield. 806 . I was fortunate in securing. 4 . outside the mother-country. together with a Consistory S . and the companions are now (in 1872) briskly at work. in the proceedings of the General Grand Royal Arch Chapter.48 FREEMASONRY AT SMYRNA. I am sure I can never forget it. The • It is pleasant to add that. Tur . George Lodge No . the labors of the chapter temporarily ceased . through Bro . inadvertently. and enjoyed an entertainment as novel to me as it was delightful. This lodge has about sixty-five members . Homer Lodge No . High-Priest of the G. St . in my brief stay. in its foreign elements. of February 25th. Smyrna. Of this.-Warranted in 1860 . R. P. G.015-Authorized in 1866 by the Grand Lodge of England. an introduction to Bro . The elements incorporated in this chapter are of the very best .30 P. September 18. S. are these 1. 1863. to elapse without the performance of that necessary duty. 1863 . as " St. 806. Franchia. and through him to a large number of Masons. John's Royal Arch Chapter U. This has forty-five or fifty members. The chapter is reported. As we were to lie some fortyeight hours in Smyrna. A Chapter (name unknown to me) . 806. May 6th. G. The rituals are the English standards .* 2 . A meeting was promptly called at 8 . It has in 1872 at least seven lodges and two Royal Arch Chapters. Royal Arch Chapter of the United States. key. D . May.

FROM THE SEA. PALMYRA : TADMOR . 4 .SMYRNA.

.

Arthur Lawson. a commodious. W. Joly. abundant ante-chambers. The emblems usually delineated on the Master's carpet. Dr. llattou. There is no Altar. St. Jo. Mollhausen. Kossonis. St. J . G. The rituals are the same as those of St. Louis M eyer. The arrangements of an English lodge will doubtless be novel to many of my readers . Decran Lodge No. of Jewish brethren. 7. A. than merely painted emblems. but a pedestal directly in front of the Worshipful Master serves the purpose of one. Papworth. The stations of the officers are substantially the same as oars . S. James lLees. Papps. Georganspula. 9. Fraughia. with handsome cornices. Globes. but its officers and members resided in Smyrna . at 8 j P. Fraughia.-Working under English authority . Nubarian. as I understand. and the like. Joly. Joly. O'Counor. but. which all members are requested punctually to attend. W. Tuesday. C . Perrin. Eleusinian Lodge No. etc . well-ventilated apartment. Ed. This lodge has about sixty members. L . F. Th . 1. The rituals are Italian . etc. Ilaco.M. I was unable to get much information concerning this lodge .FREEMASONRY AT SMYRNA ... IIefter. Spiegelthal. John's Lodge No. indeed. Issigonis. Secretary . but the membership is Armenian-a class here embracing. the 25th of February. The form of notification sent out by the Worshipful Master was this : "An Emergency General Meeting of Masons will be held today. St . G. F. F. E . J . 6 . Iladgi . All these Smyrna_lodges hold their meetings in the same room . J. T . Shotton.014. Stano. l yfe. Dirutzuyan. Fres. F. Slella Ionia Lodge No. A. Foutrier. Parodis. Ii. N . 952 . and form very attractive images to the eye ." Some of the names minuted for the Tyler's use on this Summons are : Thomas Janson.-This was organized at the close of the year 1870. Raboly. are presented here in the form of tangible objects grouped around and in front of the Master's station. such as the Ashlars. The Greek population of Smyrna is very large and respectable. Tokens of Service.-Warranted by the Grand Lodge of England in 1864. J . many of the wealthiest people of the city. 5 . 8. translated literally from the English . Fraser. T . E . The business of the evening will be to receive two American Masonic Brethren . George. Sion's Lodge. Ganon.-This was intended as a summer lodge at Ephesus. more so. G . This lodge has about seventy-five members. -. 987 .-Warranted by the Grand Lodge of Italy in 1864. 51 • rituals are in the Greek language.

scattered so abundantly and so mournfully there. Paul Clement. T. S .) I told them how . and welcomed in an eloquent manner by Brother Carr6re . It was pleasant to observe that as each brother prepared himself "to serve" his Divine Master in the opening and work of the lodge.. tions into the sacred land. Carrere. by promise to my constituents at home. viz . Manoli Casaimati. My reply.. two bearing large swords of state and wands. and I was inducted _into the Oriental chair. Charlton. the results of my researches and a full account of my travels would be published for general perusal.. I recalled to their memory one greatly beloved in Smyrna. had returned to England after doing a good work for Freemasonry in the Levant. G . and quietly entered "the sacred retreat of friendship. 0 . This "Emergency Lodge" was opened on the degree of Entered Apprentice at 8 . 11 . of Him who fashioneth our hearts alike.. Bottomly. waited upon me in the recaptior-room and escorted me in . 8) with his apron. R . it being then 1. yet dignified and commanding. and that copies should be placed in . A . P. (Ps . xvi. which occupied about thirty minutes. Jacob Berchten." the S. 15 . xxxiii. The variety of languages represented in this nomenclature will forcibly strike the reader. and I assured them that my mission had his valued approbation .52 A JOYFUL OCCASION. A Salute of Honor was given (the "Private Grand Honors" as we call the Salute).m. and of T. of the C raft Universal . J . Bro. The gracefulness and ease of his rendering cannot be surpassed . Barnard.D. at La Grange. James Alhon . In a later chapter of this book I will give his portrait . I began by solemnly saluting the assembly in the name of the speaker . I regretted to find. I informed them that. (Ps. a barrister of high eminence here . G. was translated into French by Brother C . Hyde Clark . the badge of _innocence.30 P. LL. numerous is the great Fraternity in the United States. some four thousand of them had united in making me in some sort a representative for the purpose of initiating a series of investiga . and its ruins. who. I told them that I was then upon my journey to the Holy Land . and having been taught in our Masonic traditions that Freemasonry originated in Palestine. I Manusso Dani. six hours thirty-six minutes . he "girded himself" (as intimated in Luke xvii .m . C. U.44 P . P Batty.) A committee of six. I assured them that we Americans are in general an inquiring people. Kentucky-difference in time. and of what classes of citizens it is composed . at whose _ right hand are eternal pleasures . His manner is polished.

French. Dirutzuyan. Cassimarti. One Hour milk You . Armenian. of the Greek. as indeed did they all. Then I gave them The Level and Square . which I accepted. Jedeschi. owing to my adopting a different route on my return home in June . Franghia. Fontrier. Responses were made by Bro . Georganspula. Bro. Issigonis. This was interpreted to me by Bro . at ancient Ephesus. IIe encouraged me greatly in my Eastern researches. a few of which I would proceed to recite. Nubarian. which I did . originally from Boston. of the Lodge at Ephesus . The Oriental usage of meeting and parting with a kiss of peace (Romans xvi. His theory of Masonic patriotism and benevolence is very lofty and grand . Karacoussis. climbing to the great castle in the rear of the city. and The Gavel Song . and perambulating it in all directions. Thukides. Our Vows . S. I told them that in my literary labo . I cannot leave the subject of my visit to Smyrna without recalling the truly Masonic earnestness manifested by all . Staab. however. Hadji. in the reception- . Raboly. Carrcre. and English . Westfield. Stepham.s I had composed a number of poems. and one at considerable length in Greek by Bro . was Brother Landon. Karacoussis. This plan. while it seems strange in others. from which I managed to withdraw so as to be on board the steamer by midnight . failed. about twenty-five miles south of Smyrna . it may readily be imagined that I was in a condition dem a nding repose . a Greek physician of eminence here .53 their hands. an American . His death in 1870 left a wide hiatus in that Masonic and social circle. whose acquaintance I formed. Landon. As one evidence of the national variety that made up this meeting. and others in English.THE KISS OF PEACE. appears strangely appropriate among these Levant Masons. more than forty years a Mason. . 1868. Jimoni. and in whom the sacred fire was burning unimpaired. all of which seemed to give them pleasure. and Venezeans. Worshipful Master . A call was then made upon me to close the lodge strictly upon the American system. The only American brother resident here. Staab. Dr. As I had spent the day mostly in visiting bazaars. The learned doctor takes the same view of the Oriental origin and antiq it of Freemasonry that we do. An invitation was tendered to me to spend some time here next summer. I mention the names of Bro . Then we adjourned to refreshments. When I mentioned casually. and we arranged for a Masonic Picnic to be held June 24th. 16). a German . Carrere.

St. about B. promising even to eclipse Constantinople. as "That hieroglyphic bright Which none but Craftsmen ever saw. HISTORY OF SMYRNA. for the house of his God.C. an Amazon. I know thy works and tribulation and poverty ." the good St. B . by a woman of the same name. and here was that one of the seven churches of Asia to which "the beloved Disciple. I occupy but short space with a description.C. and never estimated so highly its mighty powers for good . to the cause of suffering Greece. he who bare record of the word of God and the testimony of the Lord Jesus Christ. the same salutations were exchanged . wood. was perhaps born here. I gave. brass. about B. 2." (1 Chr. Homer. Paul unquestionably had one of his preaching stations at Smyrna. 2). gold. styled the ornament of Asia (agalma tees Asiax). in 1826. John the Evangelist. Smyrna has ten times risen from her ruins. and must have spent much of his early life here. and of all things that he saw . and a soil extremely productive. only a few miles south of Smyrna. i. says. This city." Great names are associated with Smyrna. 570 at Samos. of the Cumteans. the Greek brethren present almost smothered me with kisses . I confess that I never before felt the universality of Freemasons as now. 962. iron. and-whom all loving Masons claim as a brother. And when I said farewell to the party who accompanied me to the ship on the 26th. "it has the finest sky and climate in the world. Pgtlcagoras was born about B . onyx-stones and all manner of precious stones and marble stones in abundance . all my auditors arose and stood befure that "shadowed image" to which the sweet bard of Scottish ed age" Freemasonry refers. It was founded. and is still the largest commercial city of Asia Minor. room.C. silver. which was dead and is alive . 444.54 . the period when King David was "preparing with all his might.C . wrote this thrilling epistle : "These things saith the first and last. probably.) Although ten times destroyed by fierce throes of nature and fiercer men. that the first money which. was celebrated by the ancients as one of the fairest and noblest cities of Ionia. (Itev. Whenever in my remarks to the Lodge-1 used the name of Deity. One ceremony they perform in these Smyrna lodges I may relate without a violation of confidence . axis. as a little boy. llerodotus. I ever possessed. 1015." As every reader can learn what he wants to know by looking for "Smyrna" in the Cyclopedia.

and I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews -----are not. Chicago. looking to the east . read thus : "1 conquered this country by the might of my arms ." (Rev. under the reign of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus ." . II . he ordered all the heads of the slain to be built iiato the walls with mortar and stone . would fill a volume . 1869. the other to Magnesia and Kassaba. of England. behold. with an introduction by our good Mason brother Prof. Amongst these ruins the most remarkable is the sculpture made by Sesostris at Kara-Bell. with twenty photographs pasted on the corresponuing leaves. J . the best description of which I have seen being that in "The Seven Churches of Asia. although described by Ilerodotus more than 2. These were only discovered in 1839. An account of the sieges this city has suffered. A copy of this. 8-10 . 53 (but thou art rich)." by A . in height about seven feet. Fear and -------none of those things which thou shalt suffer . making good testimony of his faith by suffering death at the stake A . calcareous hard rock.) And here that grand old evangelist Polycarp (what an appropriate name. B . designated by a fine old cypress-tree . one finished to Aidin (Tralles) by way of Ephesus. The image is represented in profile. Smyrna and the country around it abound in antiquities. It is sculptured in relief. Svoboda. Goodrich. sixty miles. ii.300 years ago . In rebuilding a portion for military purposes. eighty miles . 1402. is in the possession of Col. The inscription. as described by Herodotus. which I shall minutely describe in their place .D . Illinois . and the terrible disasters consequent upon its numerous captures and destruction. sunk in a panel cut into the perpendicular surface of a massive. the devil shall cast some of you into prison that ye may be tried . but are the synagogue of Satan . His tomb is still shown. the seed_-abo und i ng!) preached and labored for seventy-four years. Along the east side of the city is a beautiful plain full of villages . and ye shall have tribulation ten days . after a blockade of fourteen days. although now obliterated by the tooth of time in thirty-four centuries. 167. H . History fails to say what sort of materials these proved to be. Tristam. Operative Masons will be interested to know that when Timour the Tartar (Taimour-lang) captured Smyrna.ANTIQUITIES OF ASIA MINOR. be thou faithful unto death and I will give thee a crown of life .D. Two lines of railway run out in that direction . not long after those cut on the rocks near Beyrout. he slew all the inhabitants and demolished the houses . A. Trains run daily over these lines at the rate of twenty-five miles an hour.

William E .c. It was built B. Herodotus says it was erected by tradesmen. A few pages from my note-book will serve to show bow my mind was affected. are the remains of the largest tomb in the world. Vitus . gesticulate like St . his queen. always five camels in a row. with the unexpected variety of scenes.86 LEAVES FROM A DIARY. 357. and strumpets. mechanics. Grand Masters. Hiram Bassett. but never did . taken from these ruins. is now in the British Museum at London . having inside of it a small bell with a clapper . In the vicinity of Smyrna..800 feet in circumference and very lofty . In passing through Smyrna. talk in strident tones as if quarreling . Parvin. to whom the adage "rich as Creesus" applies . 350. McCorkle. prices of labor. and the customs. handkerchiefs around head . stately-steppin. D. Artemisia invited all the literary men of the age to compete for the best elegiac panegyric upon the deceased. H. tying them neck to neck . erected by Artemisia. This im mense monument is 3. Doyle. solemn. and weighted to accommodate feeble wrists . they face the way they row . each wears a nose-bag like a huge mouclwir . J . silent. Pine. cotton bales hooped with five iron bands . D . so novel to an American . M . piles of madder on docks . clipper-rigged. : Theodore S. number six wears a large cow-bell. B . low . I was struck. through whole day's ramble felt as if in lanes and by-ways. The base is of very large stones. merchandise. The statue of Mausolus. the rest earth . father of the opulent Creesus." the names of ten eminent Masons. was at Halicarnassus. King of Caria. Win. as though to grasp them and secure a footing . and that I should presently come out into a broad street. John Scott. Camel. the first Oriental city I had ever visited. Philip C. S. not far from Smyrna . Thomas A. and adjudged the prize to Theopompus. Wheeler. six miles from Sardis. and will exhibit my method of jotting down information during my whole journey through the East Greek boatmen in pantalettes . Wilson. Tucker. that of Algattes. following a little donkey who carries a bigger one on his back : the procession of six is coupled by cords six feet. To commemorate this model of all funeral piles. Samuel M . viz . Jr. M . marked on the map "I. and Past Grand Masters. and rather oddly adds that the latter did the most of it I The fur-famed mausoleum of Mansolus. Todd. the people of so many colors and creeds. his spongy feet sprawling all over the wide paving-stones. I locate at this place. serious ship of the desert. streets only eight to twelve feet wide . and the second of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world. Cregier. as all travellers are.c . C . oars fastened to rowlocks. un• .

tobacco. blacksmith. front doors open. tobacco. snaky neck level as the Level of the Senior Warden . hear no muezzin . matted with ragged mats . Turkish Carrier with wooden frame on his back supports a great load .cap aitd t. each stock worth from $50 to $500 all told . first washing feet. every man's stock is open in front. my servant Joseph. Armenian_wo e oese 0 expose breasts indecorously . scholars all leave their shoes outside. and trade . no singing. fruits. no nothing . no girls . built ` magnificent view from summit . matches. sight of my fur cap delighted the boys . being a Jew. fruits. no preaching .--and so on with tobacco as a staple. not well compressed . as in American shops . and whole city full of them scattered in followj ings of five . confectionery. etc . nail to go in stocking feet stockings had holes in them) . thread. Mt. mostly of the cheap and nasty sort . with drawings on gravestones. and scouring mouth. and walks off with a long. a barrel of flour being strapped on it. caravan of 500 of them ust in from Persia. with no counter or railing . quick stride as silently and solemnly as the camel himself . display hall with settees. these loads do not shorten the three-feet 's steps or reduce the stately stepping.-barbers' tools. M clook that hangs over the fireplace at home . regular barn of a place . jewelry. arms. set mosaically in cement . kept my hat on according to orders . palm. confectioneries particularly well got up . Cybele with its srtowT. no cakes nor pison things. . four in a row . Turkish _ _ women wear cloth over face. such a rheumatism as he will have when he gets to be sixty . etc. stonemason. every hundred yards or so an open court. you just sit down on the shopfloor. those who spoke to one another whispered . only one butcher-shop an hour . debarred admission. Old Fort on kill . to show dead men's business oil earth. worshipers barefooted . England (such scissors! to cut your nails will take the edge off!) . ton . . etc. mostly paved. hands. of good quality . stayed outside and watched my boots while rwent in . bread in loaves and rings. camels loaded with madder in bales . numbered in Arabic and English . galleries. . Armenian Graveyard. his long.. perfectly safe.. in front of the merchant.LEAVES FROM A DIARY . ears. gesticulations marvellous. tools of carpenters. but nobody there . and trees of orange. as regular as Mrs . hardware from Birmingham. also with cot . brass vessels (very bright and tasty too) . nobody sells more than one line of goods . grasps tightly a stick fastened by a string to his neck. with fountain in centre. in Armenian quarters. all boys. neck and head. small stock of drugs . no furniture nor seats . then drygoods. tobacco again. noise startling. first is a tobacco-store. Women . Turkish School. no arrangements for warming or lighting . nice. etc . the door was a quilted leather affair that hun tapestry-fashion . woolen caps with silk tassels . other women not . crescent on top of the church . be leans forward. paved elaborately with pebbles . and ._ at high twelve people pray . no signboards . 57 musical sounds . each carryii g two large round bags of cotton of about 300 lbs . calico. the markets called bazaars . the fifty pairs not worth a dime fur the lot . nearly horizontal. Turkish Mosq a . each.

Marry. delicious prunes. graveyard full of broken columns. in which Polycarp is said to have preached. and they "but just a drappy in the ee'. had stones thrown at me here by schoolboys. they are so narrow that a loaded camel fills one up even. many epitaphs in gilt . Streets cleaner than I expected. the city is full of them . atitTone t iii excited my gratitude .idtd•of the Eastern legend commemorating the extreme homeli. shelled almonds..58 THE SHIP OF THE DESERT. but at the next turning of all. Fountains . many traditions . turning . gave me a pint of native money in copper and alloyed silver. etc . turn of no hand. pomegranates. loaded with cotton). inscriptions written from right to left. cauliflowers. and slope upwards. but the boulders are rude. turban on gravestones of men . carob pods." as poor Burns used to say. where one of his characters gives these directions to a sorely-puzzled traveller : " Turn upon your right hand at the next . more filthy than those of Cairo (Illinois). Shakespeare must have had a description of them before penning that laughable thing in the . at the very next turning. "The first man who beheld a camel faint' :d with . imagine St . but turn down indirectly to the Jew's house!" No marvel at the answer : "'Twill be a hard way to hit!" Seeing here the first caravan of camels I had ever beheld (some five hundred of them. are the words (in ancient Greek). group negroes playing cards . none handsome . soldiers with French muskets.Jferchant of Venice (Act ii . English walnuts. seedless raisins. the fort a grand piece of labor and skill. hazelnuts. Fruits. and well paved. 1olycarp the Divine Shepherd. in changing a twentyfranc piece they only charged two cents premium . figs. dates. and very many others . to take a first view of Smyrna preparatory to preaching here . but only because my uide was a Jew . I am -Viiii. . but few beggars . dates. oranges. all free . and hurt the feet . lemons. very base . on your left . street-brokers everywhere with a peck or two of money ready for exchange . everybody's nationality and religion recognized by his dress. but little importunity among merchants to get my custom . a modern innovation. Over the old Greek church. rosebuds on women .. curiously carved work upon them . Scene 2). percussion locks. * * * * * * And so on for a dozen pages for quantity . a Turkish hobby founding fountains. . only two tipsy men. garlic. but ton entirely in ruins . g The streets of Smyrna are ludicrous parodies on the word I More crooked than those of Boston. I am told . once doubtless forming parts of ancient temples. carried at half-shoulder shift . looking southeast. fig-paste. six enormous ones lately exhumed by Exploration Society. Turkish Grareyard .. just in from Persia. handsomest race is the Armenian .ness-of_thikfbeast . etc. Costumes. Paul coming to the top of the hill.

the third roped him and put him to work!" In good sooth. The Sultan himself is an avowed friend to this society . says Anthon in his Classical Dictionary. twenty fathoms deep and two stadia long. especially that of 1870. 59 dismay . 570 . Of this the great officers of the empire are well aware. drew tremblingly near . the 26th February. who deceased the following year. and V. Murray Lyon.) The first inhabitants were Carians and Leleges . W . Bate. At that time three thousand houses were burned to their foundations . which was one of a series that have devastated this devoted city for many generations . lying off the lower part of the coast of Ionia. Amongst these I name that distinguished officer. W . remarked that he did not know to what fate or misfortune this city was subject in suffering so much. A few years since he directed one of his secretaries to become a Mason. I again recall the history and labors of the sublime Pythagoras.C. Charles Purton Cooper. of the lodge-tyler compared with the other officers . Hyde Clark. I left Smyrna on Wednesday. Matthew Cooke." nine honored names of British craftsmen. To commemorate the Masonic spirit manifested in this ancient Masonic and ecclesiastical city of Smyrna.. A mole. Constantinople is intimately associated in our minds with terrible conflagrations. T. 1607. he is a failure in animal architecture. and nearly opposite the Trogilian promontory. the second one. are located here. The intervening strait was about seven stadia in its narrowest part . Passing the island of Samos. J. A traveller in 1610. Il:ughan. whose names will survive them. Charles Warren. . born here B. viz. and the secretary's report upon the aims and principles of the institution was so favorable as to secure the imperial favor. but I was assured by well-informed gentlemen at Smyrna that some of the highest officials of the empire are acknowledged members of the Masonic fraternity there. Fuad Pasha. still one week's journey from Holy Land . marked on the map " E. D . Stephen Barton Wilson. as compared with the other beasts. Samos. E . defended the harbor . (A stadium was the eighth of an English mile. referring to the sad fire of October 14. to convey water from a distant fountain to the city. THE MASON. A tunnel was carried through the mountain seven stadia. It was not in my route to visit Constantinople . The temple and worship of Juno contributed much to its fame and affluence.FUAD PASHA. reminding us. is an island of the Agean. Rogers.

land. Langridge. B.C. sailing north from Patmos. of Ephesus. a little ways west MAP OF SAMOS. Cope. in a Masonic pic-nzc among the ruins of Ephesus . the anniversary of our patron-saint John the Baptist. bat finally destroyed by the Goths A . The island. It was supported by 127 marble columns 60 feet high.gean also. I note the fact that Eleusinian Lodge No . 356. The Temple was 425 feet by 225 . each weighing 150 tons. II. not only in the Ionian Sea but the . deep beds of charcoal and fleeces of wool were laid in trenches.D. and thick in proportion. Each column was a present from a separate king. is very conspicuous. although for a very different reason . John Leach. This building was set on fire by Eratostratus the same night Alexander was born. It was rebuilt. at the common charge of all the Asiatic States. At so appropriate a locality as Samos. Bruen. Corson. Pliny describes the difficulty en'. equal to 75 English miles It yielded almost every kind of Levantine produce. of which the venerable Brother Landon is W. Here at Ephesus were many of the most celebrated structures of antiquity. and so a substantial base was formed . The town stood chiefly in a plain rising gradually from the sea . A . It is the most conspicuous object.ountered in moving and raising the enormous blocks of stone . The city of Samos was exactly opposite the Trogilian promontory and Mount Mycale. It would have been a rare experience indeed. The circuit of Samos was 600 stadia. two hundred and twenty years were expended in the work . its chief architect being Ctesiphon . The port was secure and convenient for ships . Daniel B. J . 11. M. Wheeler. Morris . P . W . were artificial.. viz . like those of King Solomon's. holds its sessions here. except wine .60 SAMOs. marked 'I F " on the map. Taylor. Passing off the coast. I place the names of Thomas J. B. The foundations of this Temple. A. 987.. 256 to 262. although the city at present is but a poor place ." the Temple of Diana. McCormick. so much so that the ancients styled any very lofty place Samos. J. The following cut will give an idea of its shape . I had promised the Smyrna Masons to return to them in June next and spend the 24th. The soil being marshy. and John A . 552. including that third" Wonder of the World. This noted edifice was erected B .C. Cornelius Moore.

Fitch . Bayless. this is credible . H. James Fenton.freight was the puzzle . the transport of so much stone would demand whole fleets of vessels. The supply of marble for these works was of course immense . to be as good as new. So the wood in the old church at Bethlehem seems now as good as new. G. The architect contrived to raise the architraves by means of bags of sand piled upon an inclined plane to the height of the columns (60 feet) and by gradually emptying them the blocks fell to their assigned places .. this Temple was so beautiful that Philon burst out in rapture concerning it." The roof of this Temple was of cedar. although the distance. by the discovery of a quarry of fine marble on Mount Prion. the pure flesh of the apostle of peace had . G. those of Ctesiphon and Paros. was insignificant .500 years old . when opened. F. Hough. a problem which exercises the wits of all who traverse Egypt and the East. 67 wrought into this Temple. But the question of. Reynolds. to which reference has been made on preceding pages. G. S . Moore. 75. although then 400 years old . marked on the map "H. Joseph B. and it shone there like a meteor. in the vicinity of Ephesus. Three ancient quarries were open. Upon the whole. as I sail past. " it is the only house of the gods . But his tomb. All the wood before using was glued together and left four years to season . and the city itself is a vast and almost indistinguishable ruin .c. The difficulty was solved in the nick of time. the doors of cypress (Solomon's were of olive). although more than 1. and the stairway of vine-wood . saying. S . miasmatic marsh between us. you will think when you see it that the gods have left heaven and come to live here!" Its position was at the head of the port facing me. D . Palmer.EPHESIIS. Tisdall.a reedy. And there the people believe our good December-Saint John lies buried behind the high altar . As the grapevines in the East are often twelve to fifteen inches in diameter. like Solomon's. as compared with that traversed by the fleets of Hiram." I locate the following Masonic names : Charles W. In the present instance he says : . and E. F. David Clark. and to which I shall give attention further on . But now the sea has receded three miles eastward and left . Gouley. The very site of the Temple of Diana is in dispute. So well was this seasoning executed that the wood of the Second Temple was found by Mucianus. was found to have lost its body . brought to light by the butting off of a piece by the horns of a ram ! At this ancient Queen City of the Levant Ephesus. B. and Proconessus . Henry D .

now called Palino. to record them I How I should like to spend a week here and read it through . I read with uncommon interest that collection of imagery. So Jericho. The following engraving gives a correct idea of its appearance . 67 "-' marked «G" on the map. To commemorate a place so sacred in Masonic and Biblical. anciently called "the city of palm-trees" (Dent . i .. xxxiv. 95 to 97. followed Jesus to the celestial courts . a prisoner" for the Word of God and for the Testimony of Jesus Christ (Rev ." his raptured soul dwelling in the midst of opal and amethyst and chalcedony and sardonyx and gold ." and whereon that celebrated Lord's day lie was 11 in the spirit. that the name Palinosa wasgiven to the island . I locate at Patmos. it reads as though a woman were peeping into a lodge-room. as the practice was to choose rocky and desolate islands for such purposes. Passing along. witnessing the ceremonies of Freemasonry. Here. John the Evangelist. by the island of Patmos.000 years ago. Entering into the spirit of this strange book. which makes up the Apocalypse or Revelation of St . with raptured pen. Only one palm-tree remains upon it. leaving that Celestial bread of the Royal Arch in its place . making the whole something in the shape of an hour-glass . thrilling and inimitable. Here dwelt St . has now only one palm remaining. turncd to manna. or the body itself had been translated to heaven. Much of these figures is embodied in various degrees of the Scotch Rite. H . and in his death-day he walked there voluntarily and laid himself down iu it . John. which explains why it was selected as a place of exile for St . in which God opened the pearly gates of paradise. on the 26th. The aspect of the island is peculiarly rugged and bare. probably from A. eminent both in Masonio MAP ON PATHOS . too. when he was nearly a hundred years old .27). viz .D . although so numerous were they 1. 3). while alive. is divided equally by a very narrow isthmus. at the age of seventy-two years. during part of the reign of Domitian. and religious relations. This island. . Mary (John xix . 9). This grave had been made under his own instructions. who. J. and trying. lie led his adopted mother. in which the Apostle saw as the spiritual city and all her spires and gateways in a glory like one pearl. 26. John. Fitch. the names of ten clergymen.62 THE GOLDEN SABBATH AT PATMOS.

Bowdish. S. J. being allowed to withdraw from the island with all their possessions. about B. Dennis. about B . 63 Hiram A. being thrown down by an earthquake. G . overborne with numbers.. Robert McMurdy. but few traces of the glory of ancient . and a rainbow was upon his head. styled the Colossus of Rhodes. 290. 224. but not long enough to go on shore . Rhodes is specially worthy of Masonic study. and his feet as pillars of fire . they were compelled to surrender. and remained a few hours off the city. Burney. 27. Those gallant warriors fortified it so strongly and defended it so gallantly as to resist for a considerable period the utmost power of the Ottoman Empire . and commanded all .C . I arrived at Rhodes Feb . Jr. and onethird the same in breadth.000. numerable galleys that once swarmed out of yonder port.RHODES. It was erected by Chares of Lindus. Charles Loshier. but only stood about sixty years. as being the site of the fifth of the seven ancient wonders of the world.C . like pigeons from their totes. D .~r~ Rhodes are visible . Knickerbacker. and weakened by famine and the unintermitting assaults of their enemies. Instead of the inMAP orr fUODES. St. the vast brazen image of the sun. clothed with a cloud. whose majestic ruins fill the vista as I gaze upon them from the deck of the ship . It is about forty miles long. John doubtless saw this remarkable piece of art. II. This was seventy cubits high (about sixty-five feet) . Bunter. and he had in his hand a little book open . and it may have suggested to his mind the allegory in the tenth chapter of his Revelat ion : " And I saw another mighty angel come down from heaven. John Trimble.. and his face was as it were the sun. Robert Collier. they capitulated upon the most honorable conditions. Its population is about 25.. largely Greeks and Jews." The following engraving will give a clear idea of this island. It was the refuge of the Christian Knights when they were finally driven from the Holy Land in the fifteenth century . and he set his right foot upon the sea and his left foot upon the earth . I recalled some facts which commend the island particularly to the attention of Knights Templars. and to go to Malta . and when at last. C . William S. The modern city only covers onefourth the area of the ancient city.

E . John A . was probably derived from Ros. I locate here at Rhodes. Ames. Orrin Welch. and compromised all informalities concerning them by accepting two piastres (eight cents) for his own pocket! I venture to say that that fat gentleman yonder would "pass" a whole cargo for a moderate compensation without a blush. marked "K" upon the map. A. I am told that this town lies at the mouth of the river Cydnus. Gardner. Fred Wiltsie. has exercised the greatest influence upon the minds of his race . II . these seas by their numbers and daring. and Rome ! To commemorate a place so intimately associated with the glory of Christian Knighthood. and commanded by an indolent Turk. save a few skiffs seeking to take passengers ashore. Porter. having parted the day before with the Christian brethren of Miletus and Ephesus. Fellows. the names of ten Masons. I find time to read Acts xxi. Lathrop. a rose. thence miraculously confounded and . where Paul. in imagination. Rhodes. CEesarea. Q . which rows round and round us during our stay here to see that we do no smuggling ..) From childhood I have been accustomed to consider the Apostle Paul the man who. Alfred E. : J . eminent in the Christian Orders of Knighthood. that he should be for salvation unto the ends of the earth (Acts xiii . Malta. V. February 29 (this being leapyear).64 TARSUS. The name of the island. William S ." and so on through his subsequent journey to Jerusalem. Remaining twelve hours at Mersina. Being thus within six miles of his birthplace. G . who lazily examined my box of figs and the roll of stationery which 1 had purchased in the bazaars. and a custom-house boat manned by ten red-capped sailors. D . his footsteps hence. Lefferts. A. Carpenter. I cannot but follow. a flat-bottomed barge for our freight. viz. the man who was set to be a light to the Gentiles. the birthplace of the great Paul. referring to the multitude and variety of that sweet blossom here . Otis . next to Moses. "came with a straight course unto Coos. William E . and the day following Rhodes. Waiting upon the slow movements of the customs officers. and is only six miles from ancient Tarsus. 47. nothing has come forth during the four hours I have lain off this harbor. to the theological school of Gamaliel at Jerusalem . B . thence on a 'fanatical errand to Damascus . Probably his "fidelity to his trust" equals that of the custom-house officer on the wharf at Smyrna. and George L.

in perils in the city. and the time of my departure is at hand . Paul might be expurgated. and life. xi. I have kept the faith . is fulfilled. to visit the Holy Land. in deaths oft . in watchings often . in journeyings often. G. whatever he may know in science and literature. a night and a day in the deep . U. A." (2 Cor.SAINT PAUL . in cold and nakedness. in perils in the wilderness. establishing churches. I am permitted to stand upon a portion of earth so hallowed by Biblical and classical recollections as this . thence on journeys hither and thither. labor. will. in perils among false brethren . no one can help respecting him for the fidelity he evinced in the performance of duty . bearing painful testimonials "in labors more abundant . My first act was to fall upon my knees and praise T . in perils by the heathen. in perils in the sea. 6 . that purpose has been kindled into a longing desire . One of the fixed purposes of my whole life. the day being but a few hours old . once stoned . the opening hours of spring. in perils by his own countrymen.) Mighty soul 1 hast thou not satisfied those immortal longings ere this! Gathered with the saints at the River of Life. receiving forty stripes save one thrice beaten with rods . in perils of robbers. 0 . iv. in hunger and thirst . and action .) Whatever one may think of the particular cause to which this man gave his learning. which the Lord. unlimited capacity. but I must say that his conception of St . I have fought a good fight . At Alexandrette. is not thy weariness refreshed and thy thirst satisfied? I don't fancy Renan's views upon religious subjects. shall give in that day:' (2 Tim. henceforth there is laid up for me a crown of righteousness. in prisons more frequent . in perils of waters. five times. T. the righteous judge. and so made a valuable book. thrice suffering shipwreck . in weariness and painfulness . or Scandaroon. in stripes above measure . 65 converted to the Christian faith . Paul's character is fine and just . a man of boundless vigor. He describes his soul as growing great and expanding without ceasing . of the Jews. I have finished my course . His Life of St . or to share the triumphant glow which inspired him when he wrote in his old age to Timothy : "I am now ready to be offered. near the going down of my earthly sun. Since I began to read with understanding the Sacred Writings. that now at length. I was permitted to go on shore and remain for some hours. At last my desires are gratified. We sighted the Syrian shores on the first day of March. And surely no Mason who has dropped the tear over the martyred Hiram can refuse the sympathetic drop to the memory of Paul . in fastings often.

333.moves toward the Orient. scientific. and by the Evangelists of Jesus . viz . James M . Irish. H. destroyed lands.C. in effect. The terraced houses of Tripoli. to the northwest. a few miles in the interior. as Kamiakam. being the northeast corner" of the Mediterranean Sea. religious. now heavily banked in snow. only for its tobacco. whose portrait adorns a subsequent page of this volume. a short two days' journey.66 THE NORTHEAST CORNER . On Monday. Alexander achieved that victory which. A little nearer is the battle-field of Issus. and contiguous to several localities of thrilling memory . olution that. marked "M" upon the map. and John B. we called successively at Latakia. Austin. has been trodden again and again by the conquerors of the earth. Nash. and only thirty miles from me. : Charles W. Thomas B . and open a way for me. Reuben Mickel. like Gebal. the 2d March. Alexandrette is a good place at which to enter the Holy Land. all well-known in the Masonic records as Past Grand Masters. 0 . Hebrew conception found fresh expression . and Tripoli. beyond which is Baalbec. B. John H. are beautiful C0 . The literary history of the world-Masonic. In the spread and conquests of Grecian heroes. I formed a res . famous now. the seaport of Antioch. and beyond that. There was once a pigeon-express maintained between this place and Bagdad. is Antioch. our good brother Noureddin Effendi. as the march of empires to the Occident. South of this. Johnson. Adams Allen. is the purely Oriental city of Aleppo . of scholars. and about the same distance. if the Grand Architect of the Universe would spare my life. 1846). wherein. Howry. Brown. Around yonder point. Unplowed lands are the search and prize of nations . is Tarsus. Charles Scott. It is in every respect a good beginning point for my survey of the Holy Land . the thoughts of the East were wedded to the words of the West. the birthplace of Paul . where at this time (1872) is stationed. ind viewed through the clear ethereal atmosphere peculiar to this classical and Biblical clime. Jno . " where the disciples were first called Christians." East of me. Fravel. H .. I have placed the ten following names. Damascus The road over those mountains. To commemorate this northeast corner of the Mediterranean. I would as surely set foot upon the sacred soil before my Masonic career should be closed . bathed in bright Oriental sunshine . Upon my entrance into Freemasonry (March. the ancient Laodicea. was the conquest of the world . S .

under the name of Phsnicia. whose tenants 3. the moon and stars shining with such celestial beauty. The sky so pure and bright. and like a luminous summit to an .000 years ago were laid in their everlasting rest with the same symbolical rites that will some day accompany my own interment . the vast and lofty Lebanon behind. to read the Bible. It is best described in the words of another : " Above a vast hemicircle of clouds shone a little crescent moon fading into her last quarter. above all. marked " 0 " on the map. the illimitable Mediterranean before it. and invoked the blessing of the Most High that I might accomplish it. and even the knowledge of letters itself . in which I walked the steamer's deck till midnight. to tread upon the sites of ancient cities. and having and wanting no other Guide . 1921. in the land of the Bible. the whole Bible. The night-scenes on the Mediterranean are delightful to contemplate . and even at that early period was far advanced in the knowledge of the arts and sciences. can never be forgotten .500 feet. the morning air peculiarly bracing and tonic-this whole journey from Marseilles has been a delicious recreation.C . and. all of it. to build the Temple at Jerusalem . Going south I begin to wonder at the narrowness of the little shelf of level land. This narrow shelf was then crowded with towns and cities . as I had proposed. The highest point to be surmounted is only 1. 67 The only available passage for a railroad eastward from this coast is said to lead out of Tripoli. which. forms of speech. One of them. B . My reflections on approaching the coast of Syria were colored by the expectations upon which my mission was founded . We pass ancient Gebal. at the call of King Solomon. modes of thought. Going southward here the Lebanon mountains rise higher and higher as we advance. exercised such influence upon the minds and fortunes of the human race . This nation was here when Abram came down from Mesopotamia. and the ascent is without very heavy grades. to descend into rock-hewn sepulchres. and from here the line has been engineered to the East Indies by an English company . to travel through the length and breadth of this country with this Guide in my hand . emblems whose original meaning is obscured in the lapse of thirty centuries . from whence sprung all science and art. such was the work for which I girded up my loins on the 1st day of March.REFLECTIONS AT APPROACHING SY1tIA. from whence some of the most experienced Masons went. To trace up to their sources ancient habits.

• Brindisi " 25th. • ITINERARY. Reached Gebal March 17th. Over the waves she traced a path of trembling light. • Damascus " Tyre April 14th . Arrived at Palermo " 20th. Tibnin " 21st.093 mies . Southampton " 7th." Early on Tuesday morning. 26th. K Syra " 23d. Left cc " 26th . London July 2d. Whole distance from Marseilles to Beyrout. and so this first division of my volume ends. George's Bay). we cast anchor in the Bay of Beyrout (St . the chapters following not being arranged in chronological order. Jerusalem 3d. the 3d of March. It only remains to add a sketch of the whole route.68 ITINERARY immense pyramid of shade. • Marseilles K 17th. . • Paris " 16th. 2. • Mersina " 28th. Arrived at Liverpool " 14th. Left New York February 2d. • Alexandrette March 1st. • • The Cedars " 26th. • Latakia " 2d . 96 Smyrna " 24th . Joppa May 1st. • Nazareth " 17th. • Cairo " 16th. Left " 18th. " Tripoli " 2d. Arrived at Rhodes " 27th. " Messina " 21st. " London " 14th. • Alexandria June 15th . • Beyrout " 3d. Paris " 28th.

February. . Liverpool to London. THE ARABIC ALPHABET . (Bead fro. 1st class passage $100 00 " 9 00 Railway. 2d a " London to Marseilles.?IQM to 14ft. . . New York to Liverpool. Marseilles to Beyrout. " 21st.) . " La Grange. Kentucky .EXPENSE ACCOUNT. I have added such a premium as makes the amounts equal to Federal currency. 1st 47 00 " 125 00 Steamer. A note of passage-money paid for one passenger. 2d $281 00 These fares being paid in gold. 1868 . 69 Reached New York July 18th . may be interesting to close the chapter Steamer. New York to Beyrout.

The measure of the soul. to me. while life abide. Not useless : were it but to prove What aspirations are in man ..%'11 V.AA M r%% . Original Measurements . perpen dioulaf height. Not useless : cold must be the heart Can linoer here in critic-mood. Not useless : were it but to stir The sense of awe within the breast : What grandeur does the pile attestl Is it a mortal's sepulchre ? Not useless : no . 480 feet . Almost divine this mighty planAlmost an impulse from above. 13-1 acres. Its utmost stretch of thought shall be My memories of the Pyramid .-Length on each side is 753 feet . and so depart. And look and sneer. And fail to recognize the good. VAM ME THE PYRA31ID OF CHEOPS .

. FROM THE SOUTH .TYRE.

3-5.DIVISION SECOND . as the sea causeth his waves to come up .-TYRE . Bards. oh Tyrus. MOSLEM FORMS OF PRAYER.) Patriots were here in freedom's battle slain . : Nothing is don. . I am against thee. Nil alum oredena. Priests. And lovers of our race whose labors gave Their names a memory that defies the grave . whose long lives were closed without a stain . It shall be a place for the spreading of nets in the midst of the sea . And they shall destroy the walls of Tyrus. and will cause many nations to come up against thee. worthy him who breathed the poet's mind . dum quid superesset agendum . Thus saith the Lord God. Ezekie4 `xvii. and break down her towers : I will also scrape her dust from her and make her like the top of a rock .-LuoA while anything is left undone. Founders of arts that dignify mankind .

. in the Bible . My headquarters at Beyrout were in the hospitable mansion of Brother Samuel Hallock. N Deuteronomy. and about fifty miles east of Jerusalem . He accommodates me with a room. for which I supply myself with a few pieces of furniture . and all Naphtali. They were sent out from this place. which constituted headquarters during my Oriental explorations. as I shall show in subsequent pages. and all the land of Judah unto the utmost sea . has no place in ancient Masonic history. Moses is described as taking hia panoramic view of the Land of Canaan. FROM BEYROUT TO TYRE. at Beyrout. The sacred record affirms that he "went to the top of Pisgah. This city of Beyrout. one hundred miles south . George's Bay." In a map lacing a subsequent chapter may be found this stand-point of Moses. a member of Lodge No . if at all. said to have occurred at this place . and the Lord showed him all the land of Gilead unto Dan. Pa . My name of "The Bay of Freemasonry. as lying on the south side of the beautiful sheet of water which I shall style the Bay of the Rafts . It is called here St. nearly east of the northeast corner of the Dead Sea.. Philadelphia. xxxiv . the long-drawn battle is graphically described . from the southeast. or Bay of the Rafts. to the port of Tyre. Between the two lies the whole land of Canaan. although it is now (1872) the site of the only lodges in this country . and so in all my sojourning thrcngh Holy . however. from the fabulous encounter of that hero with the dragon. My standpoint for a first view of Palestine is in the extreme northwest of the Holy Land. and as thorough and genuine a Mason as ever old Number Nine turned out from its busy Atelier. It is indeed scarcely mentioned. and the land of Ephraim and Manasseh. 9.CHAPTER V. In Spenser's Faerie Queen." is derived from its ancient use for making up the rafts or "flotes" of cedars provided by King Hiram for Solomon's Temple. It is interesting to Freemasons. our respec tive stand-points being about one hundred and fifty miles apart . diagonally opposite that of Moses .

The condition of Freemasonry in Beyrout. I learned that it was gratifying to them. however. will be fully detailed in a subsequent chapter. five to ten thousand feet high. is that which would first strike the eye of Phoenician sailors coming. therefore. My first work.. and east. was to forward by mail. called in Arabic Ras. in the most impressive grandeur. upon a head-land. Brother Hallock is the electrotypist of the printing-house connected with the American Protestant Mission. able hour did we two stranger Masons enjoy in mutual confidences and the interchange of useful thoughts . This growth more resembles one of our Western railroad towns than anything in this old-fogy land. south. For here the mighty Lebanons exhibit their vast proportions. and by telegraph with points north. Beyrout has outgrown gates and walls.000 . a specimen of the "productions of the land" in the form of an Olive Leaf. and is spreading abroad into the suburbs on all sides . from the westward. it enjoys the best business of the coast. Its latitude is 33 ° 54' north. with the mountains behind it. March 3d. which projects about five miles into the sea from the foot of Mt. On the east runs the river Beyrout. Upon my . upon landing at Beyrout. and has risen rapidly from a population of 10. and a contributor to the New York Journal of Commerce. 1868 . The place. Being connected by a turnpike road eighty-four miles long with Damascus. Many a profit. as remarked above. Spelled in the geography '1 Beirut. the Magoras-in dry seasons." it is properly pronounced Bay-root. (meaning head). The town stands. striking the clouds with their hoary tops and planting their roots deep at the earth's very centre . Lebanon. as I did.HEADQUARTER& 75 Land I have an abode to which I can turn as home. at Beyrout. I commence this second division. This head-land.000 to 60. 415). called by Pliny. where I landed. Beyrout has been adopted as the seat of the general consulates of all the great powers. Having the best harbor that exists along the coast (although at the best it is only third-rate). I doubt whether all Syria affords another such view as these white-capped heights. a mere creek . both as a veritable token from the Holy Land and an appropriate tessera of brotherly remembrance. has no particular mention in Biblical or Masonic history. to each of several hundreds of old correspondents. like Joppa. eighteen hundred years ago. yet its traditions imply that it is one of the oldest of Phoenician cities . longitude 35° 29' east of Greenwich. and the elder lodge (Palestine Lodge No.

and lo. The deadliest hands. with one cluster of grapes. in her mouth was the Olive-leaf pluckt off . March 6th. And to the Patriarch's fingers bare The missive with its high accord . The Olive speaks. Lines composed to accompany olive-leaves plucked from the groves of Beyrout. The Ark on storm-tossed ways did cease . and blessed. the Bird Pluckt this green leaf with mystic care. upraised in hate.76 THE OLIVE-LEAF. The wrathful flood was overpast : The gladsome sun beamed forth at last . and cut down from thence a branch. In hours of rest. Before this gentle missive drop . This was the ancient type of peace . The direst discord then must stop . the laboring Band . Each of the olive leaves sent from Beyrout was accompanied by a copy of the following lines THE OLIVE-LEAF. Like wandering Dove. 1868. and brought of the pomegranates and the figs . And the Dove came in to him in the evening . the Messenger of love . xiii. of the land. the floods abate. so Noah knew that the waters were abated from the Earth . whose restless feet Could find no solid landing-place. I went heavily laden with "the searching-. and bare it between two upon a staff.'even more than the twelve spies who " came unto the brook Eshcol. 23 . return home in July. viii. 11 . I pluck this Olive-Leaf to grace A memory very pure and sweet. It speaks a sentiment above All other language to convey. to you this Olive-spray I send.) These and hundreds of other specimens I bore to my friends . Then from the Olive-Bough. . that shone. Dear Friend. by Brother Morris . in the Holy Land. The Olive. Gen.-glory of this land Our Ancient Craft from this expressed The Oil of Joy." (Num.

1 K .00 per day.25 per day. riding a second horse and carrying my impedimenta of blankets. v. On the morning of April 13th. is to hire two horses and their owner for a certain number of days (in this case. working tools. I started on horseback with an Arab servant. So. essential to it . and as long as I please. At the conclusion of the last chapter I gave an itinerary of my entire travels while in Syria. stopping when I please and where I please. The stipulated price with Hassan was twelve francs a day for the whole. he to subsist himself and his horses and be his own quartermaster.-Tyre. etc. with none to molest me or . Tyre and its surroundings therefore come foremost . DIVISION SEVENTH. the site of the Temple.. the site of Hiram's furnaces and foundries.00 per day . the source of the cedars . which I recommend to all travellers who do not fancy making themselves slaves to dragomans. one Hassan Mardby.. at 7 o'clock. my own board and lodging cost me about $2 .-Lebanon. that so it might be framed and preserved . I follow the natural order of a Masonic narrative thus DIVIsIox FinsT. were quotations from Dent . etc . Iii . I go as an independent traveller. DIvIsIoN FouRTH . 8 . the home and school of Hiram the Architect. the royal seat of King Hiram . for $5. now called Soor (or Tsoor) . the port of trans-shipment . My plan. etc. DrvIsIoN SI%TH . !i All this and more I fain would teach From this bright ancient verdant text . 11 . The " words annexed. overcoats. cxxviii ." in the last stanza. viii . and Egypt . Having been nearly six weeks in the country. DIvIsICN THIRD. 3. and the quantity of baggage.-Gebal. provisions. during which I had made four excursions. A space was left in the printed copy to fasten the olive leaf upon. however. DIVISION SECOND.STARTING DOWN TO TYRE.-The Bay of the Rafts where the cedars were floated. In the making up of this volume. 8 . six) . Ps .. or thereabouts.-Jerusalem.-Joppa. to visit the city of Tyre. books. etc . Palestine.Be yours the sermon that they preach ! . Take it with all the words annexed . I felt posted upon the best method of travel. equal at the then rates of gold to $3. DIVISION FIFTH .-The clay-grounds. Besides this.

the tomb of Jonah . This bay will be identified by travellers by the circumstance that. shaped much like a TroweL This. Kentucky. between the Syrians under Antiochus the Great. The road from Beyrout to Sidon runs for five miles over singular red sand-hills. threatening some day to submerge the whole city of Beyrout . more strictly a cafe. where the wind seizes it when dry. or coffee-house. once so nearly related in religion. in Egypt. It is sug gested by some that this sand is blown into the sea. juat south of it. 218. called Heby Younas. ancient Freemasonry . as a good. its shores abounding in shells and sponges. near the mouth of the Nile. and the Egyptians under Ptolemy. Coins of these two kings will be found figured in this book. and dedicating them to American lodges . closer than blood-relationship . the only link now connecting Egypt and Phoenicia. where several times in passing I spent a quiet hour.C. Indiana . brought by the prevailing currents to this shore. . The latter was defeated with fearful slaughter . sipping the native coffee. This road over the sand-hills was described six centuries ago. Not far from it is a Moslem tomb. as you rise the hill on the old Roman road. is the traditional disgorging place of the disobedient prophet. make me afraid . and in every way worthy its dedication . The Bay of the Trowel is a charming little nook of water. and drifts it westward like snow. deep road. I had already inaugurated the practice of naming the best-marked hays on this coast after Masonic emblems. in a little bay close in front of the tomb. between whom there runs a line of Masonic similarity. B . or tavern.78 HARD ROADS. Shall I record the memorandums made of "what I resolved to do every day while in this country?" For four months. by some attributed to Queen Helena. do my interpreting. who went southwest when ordered to go northeast. and writing up my notes. and fortes fortuna adjuvat. I took considerable quantities of this desert-sand. Indianapolis. and La Grange. the only deposits of the sort on the coast . I acted upon the plan following. but probably Phoenician in its make . Iowa . and dedicated to the genial and generous brethren of Manchester. For miles the horses stepped fetlock deep in the sand . and never was one better named . Close by the tomb is a Khan. therefore. and all the details of . Here a great battle was fought. and here. symbology. There is one such at the distance of five hours (about fifteen miles) from Beyrout. Hassan stipulates to collect specimens for me. I dubbed The Bay of the Trowel. there is an ancient watchtower of squared stone. and serve me in every way that he is ordered.

Liliputian indeed. At Neby Younas I saw the first truly sick person I had come in contact with in the Holy Land. I should build a Jonah's tomb too . when congratulated upon his vast discoveries. I will simply look and see things as they are made. costumes. and despairing face. the coffee coming to you in Turkish cups. He should be skilled in trees. . As a French savant said. where the Mohammedans report a visit from this celebrated traveller. How invigorating prceterea nihil. 79 as Pliny Senior said. that recalled a thousand sad memories of dying friends . Barnum procured it also ! For there are already five tombs where Jonah is buried. and see what they are made of. peoples . study. but those who have written upon this country seem to have known nothing of such things when the landed. Were I opening a coffee-house. : at Sephoris. I am resolved to-day. It would pay. All it has is coffee and smoke. hollow cheek. and tell the story as it is . to mention Jonah's tomb at Raphiah. described by Layard . viz. The hard. customs. These people have a perfect passion for medicine. I forgot. Tyre. and travel to bear on the scenes before me. I will examine the earth and rocks. The ordinary grade of tourists' observations upon Holy Land is scarcely above an infant's. the smoke through the great water-pipe styled narghileh (nargeely). For my part. only a sound .JONAH'S TAVERN. and it is enough to give one the dyspepsia to look through them . and he insisted on having some of me. and get my money's worth out of it . after all. plants." But' this Neby Yonnas Khan (literally Jonah House) is voz It is a local liquoring place . just before he was gobbled up by Mount Vesuvius : "A person visiting any strange country should possess practised powers of observation. Alexandrette. near the Dead Sea. Finding that every other museum had the club that killed Captain Cooke. or his travels can present no useful results. sunken eye. to bring forty years of reading. and the one near Babylon. fetid breath. near Egypt. for instance. and the tomb itself recalls the old Barnum story of Captain Cook's war-club . What drive makes up their books ! I have hundreds of them in my library. were so many indications of rapid approach to the grave. I gave him half of the ginger-root I always carry in my pocket . besides this one. His broken cough. Hebron. rocks. smooth beach around Jonah's Bay by Neby Yonnas tempts me for the first time to-day into a gallop. I will consider this ancient country as a naturalist's museum. and for my coming four months. and but little more when they sailed away .

ROMAN STANDARDS. THE ALMOND. ANCIENT POTS AND JARS. . ANCIENT LAMP. METHOD OF SHROUDING A CORPSE .

So. with a spirit of repartee that I had not supposed was in him. But no. scratched himself. my hat blows off. the shriek of the gull.M. in sight of the crenulated battlements of the Gothic chateau of St. Continuing my journey. sometimes across the rocky points of the hills. I abandoned the examination in chief and began the cross-examination "But. pomegranates. about 4 P . figuratively speaking. surrounded on the land-side by groves of fruit-trees. and so the rest of the day's journey is done in a slow walk . made so abundantly here. almonds.. out of his pockets. figs. I am twenty years younger again. Sidon abounded. It was called of the Phoenicians Sidon. of old. I quietly asked the landlord : «ghanjee. he sat for a moment a monument of inanity . that thousands of trees are stripped of blossoms every season. saffron. to supply the wants of the perfume-makers . for nothing less than the Fellow-Craft's number will suffice a drinker from these cups in an Oriental cafe. The orange groves surrounding this ancient city are so charming 6 . . His fishy eyes brightened up. The neroli. Then. Howadji.A NATIVE REPARTEE. In dismounting to get it I turn my ankle. or oil distilled from orange blossoms. and then of the city of Sidon itself. and answered : "But. As I sat imbibing the coffee of Jonah's Tavern in a steady draught. yonder is the spot . where is the place?" And so the subject dropped . into his pockets." It was a suitable place. He took his hands. and emptying a few more cups. Lois. and showed a good taste of selection either in the whale or the Khanjee . sometimes along the hard beach of this sea without tides. after looking pleasingly towards it. where along this coast did the great fish discharge the prophet Jonah ?" The Khanjee had learned this part of his lesson well. In remounting I break my pocket-comb. 81 the Western breeze. The query had never before been propounded the stupid fellow . and other rare objects of desire . sugar-cane. he raised his head. ghanjee. which never go to maturity of fruit. the flight of my sinewy horse . is so far superior to that extracted from orange-peel. oranges. if that is not the place. Dropping his head and returning his hands. how do you know that is the place? Here was a puzzler. answered. figuratively speaking. "Howadji. the solemn awash of the wave. and then pointing the dirtiest finger in the direction of a little bay a hundred yards in the southwest. coriander. in citrons. in regard to the abundance of fish . sometimes in the deep sands a little ways back. I came.

For four months they hang on the trees ripening. The present Mr. too. as I have seen an old New-England family on Thanksgiving-day grouped together in the third and fourth generation . olives. or. the bud. with Rev. working on the First Degree. which I transcribe as follows : These at no time do their rare fruits forego. in company with Pliny Fisk. peaches. I was conducted by a smart little son of Mr . 1) an appropriate passage. I reached Sidon about 4 P. They united with our ancient Order under the hope that through its cosmopolitan character and influence their holy work might be expedited . and spent the night. lemons. although possessing the general spirit of one. one of the American missionaries stationed here . home-like and sweet. Eddy is not a Mason. about the year 1824. to the establishment of a potter. and other fruits in variety and abundance . the most luxuriant bananas. In the bazaar may be seen oranges by the cargo. by invitation. On returning to Beyrout some days afterwards. figs. plums. translates from the Odyssey (ii .ripe fruit cluster. preparatory to embarking for the Holy Land as a missionary ." large trees. " the acacia waves her golden hair. Here. and succeed so orderly .m . The fruit is abundant. and the germ. quinces. as to make the poor old place look by contrast worse than it should . lining the avenues of the city on the east . almonds. ten w twelve inches in diameter. iv. apricots. Eddy. side by side. breathing Zephyrus maketh some to grow. both going and returning. Wm. dates. raisins. piled in huge heaps. and made by Jeremiah (xviii. Sandys. 23. cleared up to my mind a number of Scriptural allusions The work.) and other Bible writers a subject of imagery. growing fruits supply The gathered. M . the flower. as I have seen in an old and livelyy lodge of Masons. In a subsequent chapter I will describe this tree. He made my stay at his house. and delicious . Still. more graphically. The father of this hospitable gentleman was made a Mason. large. since sent to America to be educated. the blossom. and the ripened fruit in the three classes of Craftsmen there assembled . An old author. the bud. pomegranates. limes.. A view Df this an„Tent art. esteemed honorable in 1 Chron . grapes. Others to ripen .82 THE FRUITS OF SIDON. . the green fruit and the . Eddy. outside the gate. famous in Masonic uses.

whom I met the following June at Beyrout. A. . Sidon has been four times taken. xxxiii. I locate here the following names of worthy and eminent Masons : 0 . It is a city well adapted for a lodge. I little thought that the city which Miss Bremer had styled in her admiration "the home of Loki and Thor. In three hours I arrived at Sarepta. the supernatural powers. turned sandstone into sand and limestone into gas. and dismantled . There is no lodge of Masons at Sidon.. B . cxliii . I had some genial hours in that Christian family. high and ample chambers being found in abundance. plundered. I observed here that every man you meet is wearing the dress in which "be lieth down at night "-a fact that explains various things. Oct. B . Luke E . (Ps . George W. and . Tuesday morning. meditating on all his works. to dust and ashes. 83 men. Washington Galland. Chaytor. and the privilege of sifting out the debris for the precious metals found in them was sold to an enterprising pedlar for a considerable sum . and Mark vii. As I sat there watching the chief potter. This is the first ground sacred to Jesus upon which I had trodden. and a resident population that would afford an abundance of good " timbers " (materials) for Masonic work .THE HARD FORTUNES OF SIDON. where Jesus cast out a demon from the widow's child . On one occasion (most memorable) it was absolutely reduced to ashes and cinders. F . I hope to learn that a lodge ere long will be established here . I left Sidon for Tyre . of the same lump to make one vessel unto honor and another unto dishonor?" and my answer was in the affirmative. named in 2 Kings viii . Barber. Whitney. R. musing on the work of God's hands. remembering the days of old. Simmons. I read Romans ix . In the hope of such a desirable consummation.1871. when I made notes of Sidon. were an unsightly set . but quite a number of the craft live here. that at first glance puzzles you in the East. At 8 o'clock. Alas." could become in any way a parallel in desolation . April 14. three Arabs with only four good eyes among them . however. Van Saun. and believed to be the city alluded to in Matthew xv . and heard a very lovely song of one that hath a pleasant voice and can play well on an instrument (Ez . 32). entomological and otherwise. Elwood Evans . Henry Hitt. Main. Anthony. H. 8-11.. and melting the most obdurate metals as wax. 21 : "Hath not the potter power over the clay. G. Jesse B . One of these fearful conflagrations of Sidon may be compared in several points with that unparalleled fire which reduced Chicago. 5). Spending a Sabbath-day here in the following June.

but its owner handled it as gracefully as a Charleston dandy handles his cane. bits of glass. and a swift and noiseless pace. representing this once famed city . had an eye full of fire and intelligence.. It was armed with a sharp iron ferule at the lower end. twenty-one hundred years later. Mount . having a feminine voice. This is truly a formidable weapon. raw-boned. The following conversation gives a good idea of the rider : Howadji. Because I am the son of the desert. ornamented near the top with two large black tufts feathered. dwelt in tents and conducted their flocks to the same springs and pastures as their fathers of the earliest times . like one of our moccasin-shod Indians of the West . forehead rather straight. the unnatural and ungraceful movement of a trot being deemed unworthy of an Arab courser. body round and good. tawny. His horse was a genuine specimen of the Arab stock . fine at the withers. old Jebel-es-Sheikh. He was broken to travel only at the walk and gallop. He said the race of horses he was riding had been four hundred years in his family. so as to enable its holder to strike it into the ground at an easy blow . "wild men. Where would you rather live? Bedouin . I took occasion while here to examine the spear of an Arab sheikh. He was larger than ordinary American horses. At Sarepta I oaught a view of Jebel. I cut the Square and Compass with my chisel upon a huge ashlar belonging to some ancient temple. There is not a house now standing at Sarepta. head well set on. who stopped to drink water at Ain Kanterah. Howadji . quarters well turned.84 A BEDOUIN AND HIS HORSE. and loaded my servant with a hundred weight of marble and granite fragments. etc . legs clean. one of the Bedouin persuasion. and exploring the ruins . In the desert . Why in the desert ? Bedouin . where was once a large city." who in the days of Moses. collecting specimens. It was fourteen feet long. in the shadow of a tamarisk-tree. and that no money could buy this one . He wears upon his face the features of his ancestors. The Bedouin himself was of low stature. pasterns long . I spent several hours at Sarepta. shells. The life of this Arab is one of danger and distress from his youth . In my chapter on the Itinerary of Jesus I will refer to it again . and not the son of the city . and of Mohammed. a serviceable-looking animal.

was once celebrated for the quantity and quality of its wine . or do worse. Freemasonry's grandest type of brotherly love . condenses.HERMON. And the gay dance resounded-all is mute . even life forevermore . How often in Masonic lectures have I quoted the passage from David : " Like the dew of Hermon and like the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion . Hermon is the mountain that passeth into the clouds and joins to the upper air . for there the Lord commanded the blessing. or a winedrinker. Along this dreary waste. and returns the moisture ascending from the parched earth. one of "the eternal hills" raised to an elevation that cools. And a moist radiance from the skies Shoots trembling down . when we consider the acknowledged fact that a single inch of water spread level over one acre of ground weighs one hundred tons ! To this dewy thought the poet alludes : When the West Opens his golden bowers of rest. . My noontide at Sarepta did not pass without an appeal to the Macaulay. fifty miles in the southeast. a grapevine. But here I remark that the amount of moisture the earth receives from this great watercooler and atmospheric regulator must be immense. 85 Hermon." How often have I sung the paraphrase of the good Giles F . Where rapture echoed from the warbling lute. rains. where the " drummers " are said to carry full flasks with them. His snowy cap gives him prominence in the clear blue sky . and springs. The mountain seems from this point like a pale blue snow-capped peak peering over the intervening ranges of Lebanon . Iowa. sending it back in grateful dews. Sarepta. now without a winepress. Yates. But a man hunting his morning dram in 1868 would be as badly off as at Grinnell. whom I knew so well in 1855-7 : ~° Like Hermon's dew. MOUNT OF DEWS. where once there rung The festal lay which smiling virgins sung . I am loth to lay aside the theme . so richly shed On Zion's sacred hills!" In a future chapter I will give a full description of this mountain.

the gushing water of Ain Kanterah flowing at my feet. APRIL 14. the shady tamarisks embowering me. Led by a hand invisible. the romantic mountains behind and the sea before me . and sin. the very debris of ruins. happy hour. .86 THE MUSE AT SAREPTA. How looked the Saviour? oh. the affecting story of Jesus on the open page on my knee. And gave the tortured child release . The charming flowers-all. withal. it was easy to pen the following LINES AT SAREPTA. 0 woman. And oh. murmuring fountain. nor let me lose One feature of the wondrous scene : The mother clamorous with her plea. And want. The sky serene. bliss complete. I come at last to view the place Where Jesus broke the power of hell. Oh. The very crumbs of Jesus' feast Better than all the world's repast . all were here . promises fulfilled of God ! These mountains looked on Christ that day i This fountain murmured in His ear .'1868 . The apostle's cold. muse. the utterance of the Lord ! Cease. to see His face divine! Was it in grief At human pain. The demon's fetters broke at last . oh. go ! Already is the child made whole!" The chain of evil power released. Grant me to drink the spirit in Of that great hour. impatient word. Amidst these undecipherable ruins. And let His utterance reach my soul : "Great is thy faith. and misery. Faith's trial and sure victory. the sight obstructed by deep holes dug by the laborers to get materials for the buildings at Beyrout. cease thy flow. and unbelief ? Beneath this tamarisk-tree I muse . the glassy bay. And can it be my wearied feet Press the same earth that Jesus trod? Oh.

where there is now not only no city nor village. I sung my favorite lines God bless the laboring man. I rise. but not even a house. backed by ranges of mountains. lulling streams . Lord. interested me greatly . My sands of life make haste to run . there were once sixteen prosperous towns l As the distance is a scant twenty-five miles. Onward and onward moments fly. Never to view these scenes again . 4. Where founts celestial smoothly flow. This noontide at barepta's fount I Sing. But I shall meet Him I yes. grant me favor ere I die. I know. Broken Sarepta's fleeting dreams. And perfect blessedness allures . and the sweet spring that to the latest hour of my life will be associated with romantic memories. I pray . piled tier upon tier to the snow-covered crests of Lebanon . A basket of the Mediterranean fish had been shown me at Khan Younas . 87 No longer to restrain my tears. My inmost being this assures. a narrow strip of plain rarely extending more than a mile or two in width from the shore. waiting to cast their hand-nets at the approach of schools of fish. along by whose base passed the man. The vision will return no more .000 years ago. on the shore . and on my way depart. I passed on southwards over Phoenicia. murmuring waters. Far o'er the western sea my heart Wanders from lone Sarepta's shrine . the suburbs of these contiguous towns must have been very much restricted. The sight of fishermen standing naked in the hot sunshine. foamy breakers. Such gratitude these drops recount : 'Tis surely worth myVIty years. remembering that between Sidon and Tyre. the wall of one city almost meeting that of the next. . When I saw what severe labor the poor fellows undergo. in whom the whole Church was contained. Roar.BETWEEN SAREPTA AND TYRE. To leave no appointed task undone ! Leaving the sight of that mountain. Make sure his wages every day .

Dorcas. two feet high at the shoulder. afield. I think there is always a group of gazelles feeding in the meadow . Their airy and graceful forms are very attractive . seeing a dead duck floating under the bridge. Altogether. The current is so swift that. and Waterloo. some eighteen miles' distance . from its peculiar form. and other perfumed plants.88 ARRIVAL AT TYRE. sharply defined against the -background of the sky and hills . the old Leontes. In my visit to Damascus. The first group of them that I saw stood motionless. This bay may be known from an ancient watch-tower standing directly on the edge of the bay at its southwestern extremity. Arrived at Tyre about six o'clock . Omaha. for a moderate price . I ran to the other side. the house of a native family. Tabitha. After a moment they threw their heads up. They are the Gazella Arabica." called now Nahr-el-Kasimiyeh (but you will not pronounce it as the Arabs do in fifty times trying! I got a sore throat and wasted two miles trying to catch it from Hassan. distant about six miles south of Sidon. and bounded away like the flight of birds . Western Virginia . The bridge is a single arch. . Afield. etc. A few miles north of Tyre I crossed the "willful headlong river.) The words mean. a document directed to all governors of towns and villages throughout Syria. closely resembling the Jordan. marjorum. etc. I passed here three times. I named a charming little bay. afloat. hyssop. and always found gazelles. who were extremely attentive to my wants. Found accommodations in . very neat and strong. commanding them to see that I was furnished with suitable accommodations for myself and servants. Iowa . two weeks before. and about thirty feet wide . Afloat. together with guards in going from place to place. no doubt. Nebraska . and all at reasonable prices . the Bay of the Square. and a beautiful stream it is. The Scriptural names are Ariel. but the duck had got past me on its way to the sea. lands a few miles north of Tyre-meadows so rich that one of the old pilgrims declared that those bad roads were fully recompensed to him by the fragrant savors of rosemary. I had procured from the Governor-General. This document. Mohammed Raschid. and dedicated it to the Freemasons of Wheeling. "the Dividing River .. as I afterwards saw. The heavy load I had imposed upon Hassan necessitated the poor fellow's walking all the way from Sarepta to Tyre. bay." It is. Make honest work its wages yield .

The two together never failed to secure for me all the attentions I needed.A BUYURULDI . according to the regulations. E. I have also a Firman from the Sultan himself. addressed to H . You. was of service to me in every place I visited . about twentyfour by thirty inches in dimensions. Yaffa (Joppa). In earth point of view. sent me through the kind influence of Brother John P . he who strengthens the edifice of the Empire and secures its prosperity . Abd-ul-Aziz. Mohammed Raschid. I have therefore issued the present Noble Order . The following is a translation of the Firman referred to. and settles all important affairs with singular judgment . 89 called a Buyuruldi. via Beyrout. and their vicinity. at Constantinople. the model of the world . and receive guards to enable him to pass through all dangerous places . called a Toogra "Imperial Travelling Firman of Sultan Abdul Aziz Khan. Written on the 7th of moon of Zil. for a reasonable consideration . A.. Sham Shereef (Damascus). "To my Minister and very glorious Councillor. etc . Be careful to provide for the execution of my present Sublime Command . know that the American Legation at the Capital of my Empire. that he be provided with horses. Governor-General of the Vilayet of Syria . therefore. It is written upon a thick and substantial sheet of paper. who invigorates the columns of felicity and magnificence . in a peculiarly complicated anagram. the Governor-General of the Vilayet of Syria . is desirous of travelling from Constantinople to S yria. Pasha and Vizier . will see that the aforesaid traveller. wearer of the First Class of the Decoration of the Mejidiah. and asks that while on his way. Khuds Shereef (Jerusalem). wherever he may go or desire to stay on his journey. etc. Abdul Aziz. at the top of which is the name of the Sultan. Mohammed Raschid. a traveller. has reported that an American citizen. in fine. 1284. Robert Morris. H .." . Secretary of the American Embassy there. he who directs the public interests with rare wisdom. the Governor-General before mentioned. or residin g in an y place. Pasha. which was secured strictly through Masonic influence. be treated with respect and regard . the regulator of the regulations of the universe . who is the especial recipient of the power and favor of the Most High Sovereign of the universe . Brown. grated in favor of Robert Morris. may the Most High prolon g his grandeur! "When the present sublime Imperial Document reaches you. he be protected and aided .

f . DANCING DERVISHES.CHURNING BUTTER.

and upon all the ships of Tarshish " (ii . and these massive buttresses of Tyre and the hosts of gallant men behind them could not preserve her from her predicted doom. TIE E CITY OF KING HIRAM . and upon every fenced wall. It lies.CHAPTER VI . and somebody's convent of male sisters. It was a private house. twenty to fifty feet beneath a debris of many centuries . Her fleets of richly burdened ships and. after vacillating between the military barracks. 26) . RRIVED at the city of Tyre about sundown. to which you go up by stone steps on the outside. and I felt the force of the expression of Isaiah : "Her gates lament and mourn" (iii . Formerly . without inhabitants (v . but for a very moderate price he took me in and provided well for my wants . B. like Jerusalem. 9) . who. who lived in his second story. As Isaiah had written nearly four centuries before. and she was devoured with fire (Zech . ranges of strong forts were but so many incentives to the Grecian conueror.C. Tyre is practically a city under ground. in which silver was heaped up as the dust and fine gold as the mire of streets . I entered through the opening where until recently a thick and strongly guarded gate stood. the room over the blacksmith's shop. with that army well styled "Invincible. but the Lord cast her out and smote her power in the sea. even great and fair. flushed with his conquest over Darius. came down here. a Christian. I was lodged. ix. Alexander. in which his oldest son sells arrack and brandy to the soldiers. 332." the rich and powerful city of Sidon surrendering to him without a struggle. and even joining her fleets to his to aid in the subjugation of sister cities. 2) . and so this magnificent city proved under the hand of Alexander . Many of her houses are desolate. 15) . in the house of a very clever man. Gravis lira regum semper-the wrath of kings is always dreadful' . "The day of the Lord was upon every high tower. She had been a stronghold. and divided the ground-floor between stables for his asses and a drinking saloon.

I saw the place on the beach where that fearful butcher of his fellow-men crucified 3 . and of the commanding officer of the garrison. Ezekiel xxviii . 9. and received the wages of " corn. by way of Joppa. The city is said. . longitude 35 ° 12' E. to con- 04 . this space was filled in by Alexander the Great when he captured the city. xxvi . 1242. with a costly aqueduct. like most of the ancient commercial cities. Joel iii. Having the friendship of the American Vice-Consul. Judges. Its latitude is 33° 18' N . was about 130 English miles. this fountain-head. Amos i .C. 2 Samuel xxiv. It was never a republic. was called from Gebal by King Hiram. This is better than for me to crowd ao many quotations into my book. The local tradition at Tyre is. . to prepare all the sacred emblems for King Solomon's Temple. The ancient word "Tzur" means a rock. but always a monarchy. The location is now a peninsula joined by a long sandy i sthmus . 16 . 2 Chronicles xi . and oil" stipulated. 11 . 7. The distance travelled by him from Tyre to Jerusalem. King Solomon showed his gratitude for the skill. B. Jacob Akkad. and so became an isthmus . About three miles southeast of the city there is a remarkable spring of water. 3. As early as the time of Solomon. at his own expense. and v. 332. and xxvii . Ras-el-Ain. and being well posted in the objects of which I was in search. separated from the shore about one half-mile. Zechariah ix. Joshua xix . i. and specimens. the Head of the Fountain . styled. . I advise my readers to take the first Sunday afternoon they have at command. coins. and read critically the following passages giving the best biblical history of Tyre. . wine. There is also a fountain of this name at Baalbec . Jeremiah xxv .t o the mainland. and Hiram. Captain George Demetry. and fidelity of his Phoenician allies by building. that is. the widow's son. B.92 TYRE IN ITS DECAY . I could not hear of a single Freemason at Tyre . from Greenwich. of various kinds.000 of the gallant and patriotic defenders of Tyre.. to have been founded 230 years before the corner-stone of Solomon's Temple was planted. 22. of Tyre. C. I collected very large quantities of relics. that when Hiram had done all the work which he contracted to do at Jerusalem. I let no opportunity escape me to secure both facts and things. in Arabic.. etc. funeral lamps. 10 . 31 and 32 . 29 . patience. Mr. 1 Kings vii. etc. tear-bottles.. by Josephus. at Tyre and vicinity . 13-45. its people had became famous for their skill in manufactures and arts .

The Western Arch to John L .000 . HighPriest of the same body. and its gate is still in use. King Hiram. artificially wrought. about one-half being Arabs of the Metawileh tribe. Those who . Never. Auro pulsa fides. II. six feet in diameter and twenty-six feet long ! This is the largest single piece of stone. The poet Virgil. undertook to have it removed there.000 and 4. that I saw in the Holy Land. Don't let the visitor to Tyre fail to visit this pillar . auro venalia jura. Quid non mortalia pectora cogis?-to what crimes dost thou not impel a mortal's breast? Propertius justly embodies the thought in the words. would have located his auri sacra fames. the other half Christians of various Roman Catholic sects. beautifully devised. had he known it. The Middle Arch to Albert G . and finely preserved. High-Priest of the G. The old wall is built across the isthmus. surely. III. admit . G. G . there is a fragment comprising three perfect arches. which measures seventeen feet in length . erected according to tradition by the Masonic Pillar of Wisdom. and a sprinkling of Protestants. in these Oriental parts . first G . King Solomon. Among the ruins is a block of stone bearing the unmistakable mark of the Phoenician architects (the bevel or rebate). G. These three arches. A double column of red granite lies among the ruins of the ancient cathedral at Tyre. It is the true idol that Mohammed left after destroying the others . native and foreign. Mackey. about seventy years ago.THE GREAT GRANITE COLUMN . twenty-five miles below here. which stand at the eastern point of the isthmus that connects Tyre with the mainland. 93 vey the water into the city. Lewis. Royal Arch Chapter of the United States . G. and we may well propound Virgil's inquiry. Aurum lox sequitur . Sufficient portions of the aqueduct remain to prove that it was a magnificent structure . the accursed greed of gold. more as a convenient military post than anything else. High_`riest of the same body. for such is the condition of Syrian morals. in 1859-65 G . The Eastern Arch to De Witt Clinton. Amongst the rest. for the town is in no sense protected by it . was a country where money is worshipped as here. either from the north or south . in 1865-8 G. One of the former governors of Acre. for the Masonic Pillar of Strength. but all the skill and machinery his engineers could apply to it failed to stir the monument . I have ventured to dedicate as follows I . The present population of this renowned city is between 3. as all writers. and attract the eye of every traveller approaching Tyre.

Among all the great men whose names'are associated with this Phoenician. 19. Stephen. The funeral procession of Frederick. and thec only edifice whose ruins have not been entirely removed. We perceive. (Sterna Anglica). . when raised in dust . quietly riding in the scarcely perceptible swell. the graceful.D . none are more worthy of remembrance than William. The Christian Father Origen is also buried here. dilapidated temples._ either by reflected heat upon this calcareous soil. Cathedral built about A . which loves calm and shallow water. while the consolation he gives to the generous is inspired both by the precepts of his own Koran and the Holy Scriptures of Masonry. proto-martyr . or by the sharp. " Prostrate and broken columns. too. the moralist. in Acts ix. as it came down from Tarsus. two thousand years before . Judging from the exquisite specimens of engraving on precious stones that are dug up here. Here. north of the town. still preserved in his works. William of Tyre . Beyrout. 310. affirm that his denunciations against this greedy covetousness of the people are severe . reads like the hundreds of Masonic dedicatory effusions. and Sidon. that a church was established here dating from the martyrdom of St. of Germany. mounds of buried fragments. also. the Adriatic gull (Larus melanocephalus). I should think the old artists had better eyesight than I seehere now . and in its presence gives omen of fine settled weather . is the old Christian . The derision in which he holds up the miser to his auditors is terrible. These natural history facts and others I derive from Brother . past Gebal. acrid nature of the soil itself. and here mouldez the bones of Frederick Barbarossa. A writer has accumulated in one sentence a strong sketch of Tyre : . Roman. and medieval city. once lived the historian. gull-billed tern . preached Eusebius.94 THE CATHEDRAL OF TYREL have heard our good brother. whose apsides are used by the natives for privies. to which pile I myself have added some weak specimens . preach to his theological classes at Damascus. Abd-el-Kader. whose splendid career was brought to an ignominious close by a trifling accident ." I saw in the bay. Many natives of Tyre are afflicted with sore and inflamed eyes. or so mucldisarranged that the plans are entirely lost. In this now ruined but once glorious church. must haveawakened memories among the Freemasons of that grander funeral of Hiram of Tyre. some three hundred miles. mark the once proud and populous city . and his Dedication Address.

and it was pleasant to see the fellow's awe as he pointed it out to me. the lower being used for stables. the houses are built smaller and lower than formerly. Esculapius was associated with the city of Tyre. and inclosing a quadrangle . his family reside in the second story." Somebody had presented an Arab here with a phrenological bust (or may-be he stole it). flowers. at the same time they conceal the persons on the roof from neighboring eyes . the sea and sky of such even and utter blueness that any visible horizon is out of the question ." etc . As in all these dwellings. Among my pleasant memories of the days spent in Tyre was a visit to the good Jacob Akkad.THE AMERICAN VICE-CONSUL 95 H. Tyre was destroyed. for very many years United States Vice-Consul of Tyre. arched within. by reason of the often earthquakes whereunto the town is miserably subject. The god of medicine and patron of the barber's pole had listened to the rustling of leaves. B. and so every barber's pole in the universe is in some sense a Masonic emblem referring to this place. built of rough stones. Often the roofs are covered with mats and hurdles . with its inhabitants. recalling forcibly the passage relative to Zacynthus. In a neighboring house a woman was having that sorrow in travail because her time had come (John xv . But it was useless to explain the" sell" to him. and reptiles . although I. I thought of him as I sat on the rocks one twilight evening. Since the awful convulsion of the last century. Tristam's most readable work. and had told him it was a likeness of Jeff. "The streets unpaved. low." which I bought in Jerusalem. by an earthquake. etc. 21). He has also published a "Natural History of Palestine. self-improvement. who have known Mr . leader in the American rebellion. until he learned to make music for himself ." not republished in this country . with advice as to best pursuit. both in style and composition . He signalized my call upon him by raising the flag of our country upon the staff that dominates the roof of his two-story house. beasts. About a century ago. the tones of water-fall and wave.. flat on the roof. indorsed on the back. Davis ever since 1848. It is full of allusions to birds. The walls surmounting the roof for battlements are wrought through with pottery tubes to catch and strike down the refreshing winds. In the rebuilding. Davis. could enjoy it . the songs of birds. the buildings low. which so moves the sensibility of every . in this then beautiful land. "The Land of Israel. and the hum of insects. the houses are mean. "Description of character.

and sealed the parchment with a drop of blood . and compare it with the sheikhs' contract. I met four men walking in a line behind each other. up the Mount of Olives (2 Sam . by simply dipping his finger in the ink and pressing it on the paper. being very hot. as his frequent visits to his laborers in garden and orchard testified . These people never parch coffee until about to use it. I should like to see the original papyrus agreement between Solomon and Hiram. and so the Worshipful Master should always remain seated while giving instructions to his lodge!). . as the Scripture sayeth . In the Vice-Consul's office I saw a sheikh (pronounced shek) signing an agreement with another sheikh (pronounced shek also). and his companions were mourning with him for company. In the centre of Akkad's room was a stool (souffra). doubtless signed and sealed in this very town. oculus domini saginat equum-the eye of the master fattens the horse. as I did many a time in boyish days . There is no end to the legends related of Tyre. each one barefoot and with drooping head. was not unmindful of the adage. Each of us took a mrouthful of the jelly from the common spoon. and. with as many cushions around it as there were guests . is placed for use in a metal receiver called a fingan. black. They stir it up slab with a spoon . and supped a cup of the thick. Somehow. The seal thus formed resembled a squashed bed-bug . very aromatic.96 THE LEGENDS OF TYRER feeling heart I sent up a heartfelt petition that she might have a safe delivery . in his sorrow. highly-sweetened coffee. xv. He works quite a number of hands. 30) . so as not to burn the fingers. and cigarettes . coffee. drank a mouthful of sherbet. it reminded me of Mephistopheles and the fellow who sold his soul's salvation. and as He sat there He forgave the Canaanitish woman. The servant brought in sweetmeats. This was like David when he walked barefoot with his head covered. sherbet. it is said. gets his money's worth out of them. One was told six hundred years ago of a stone still lying in front of the gate on which Jesus sat when he preached (for all Oriental discourses were and are preached sitting. and. Leaving his house. intent as he was on hospitable cares. The leader had lost a friend by death. The coffeecup is a trifle larger than half an egg-shell. But the good Yacob Akkad. because they pound the grains instead of grinding them . and make it as muddy as chocolate. which was something concerning a sucking colt and a small patch of barley.

the New York of the Mediterranean coast. and what they could not purchase they made. Crane. Bower. skirted the Mediterranean coast. to secure a certain number of conscripts for the army. Robert D. and just as they got fairly into the trenches digging. H. They came in a hundred strong. Hosmer. but could contrive no ordinary way to catch them. he passed them all except two. Hodges. and profits made . Commerce. whose name. Written about s . As a fitting group of American Craftsmen to associate with this illustrious locality. Hartsock. I would insert it entire . F .c. bound. It was from Tyre that the itinera mercatorum--the roads of the traders. Rev. In this way the unsuspecting and hard-fisted farmers of the locality were deluded . The disgust with which he contemplated my question prevented him from waiting for the backsheesh which I was about to give him. and his head shaved. Albert G. and.A PRACTIOAL JOKE . Everything to be shipped was shipped from this port. by asking him why it was that he was called Father when he had no children. R . could only be done . I have forgotten. had I space here. I am sorry to say. searched out every place in the world where products could be exchanged for products. who had but one leg each. So he gave out that he was opening the old water-channels that connect the city with Ras-el-Ain. Deems. Tyre was the metropolis. Robert Macoy. penetrated Arabia . F . H : J: Goodrich. James R . for ages. D. They ran from Tyre into the heart of Africa. illustrates the biography of a former governor of this district. He had orders from the Vali (Pasha) at Damascus. a man with both feet bare. A story more modern and better established than that I have just given. Holmes (deceased). all diverged. and offered large wages to all who would come and dig . a detachment of troops surrounded them. they were truly what the British for some centuries claimed to be.. seized. and brought them before the Regimental Surgeon for inspection . C. by these people . I enroll the ten following : John J. it is as minute as a Philadelphia merchant's invoice of goods shipped. in short. lords of the seas. I ought to be sorry to record that I gave utter and irreconcilable offence to a Roman priest here. 0. wound through the Straits of Gibraltar along by Portugal and France. To his credit. a cabletow four times round his unwashed body. Hatch. and in the oldest atlas they are marked in red ink . The perusal of the 27th chapter of Ezekiel illustrates this point thoroughly . 97 In times of old. M. it is said. 590. and 7 .

the latter was put in jail till he got well . is own brother to those in Egypt. fishes. in Mesopotamia. six feet by twenty-six. a man carrying a banner." an event that elicited the since celebrated flute-story from John W . with its palm-trees." and are probably there yet . . was considered a success. Hassan had been left behind at Tibnin with a foundered horse. that lies in the court-yard of the ancient Basilica .. 041 another page I have alluded to the great Syenite column. they turned away without being in the least impressed with the music itself I This was my first and last attempt at emulating Ossian E. Dodge while in the Holy Land. Simons. with really artistic minuteness. had come up to smoke their pipes and talk to the great American Howadji . and I can say in strictness that there wasn't a man in the place with whom I could exchange a single thought But it made no particular difference. I played the Freemasons' March.. very friendly and courteous men they were. as a joke. After entertaining them as well as I could. This glorious shaft. The officers of the garrison. my flute being the same silver-lined instrument inscribed. It is a very singular fact that in the ruins of Konyunjih. T . by the Freemasons of New York. proceeding from the same quarry of Syene. It is pleasant to see how little language a man can get along with when he tries.98 POOR SUCCESS AS A. returning from fraternal graves. and equally related to the granite beams of the King's Chamber in the Great Pyramid of Cheops. FLUTIST. May. after those heathens had admired the silver bands of the flute. I shall never forget the second night I spent in Tyre . etc. "Presented to Rob Morris. Will the reader believe me. 1855. one who had psoriasis (if that's the word for itch) horribly . The Egyptians seem always to have thought of gigantic constructions when they used this Syenitic granite . The first time I was at Tyre. The whole thing. and a good many other stories from the genial fellows who were gathered roupd Thayer's table that night at 383 Broadway . The second time I came to Tyre. to which many generations have stepped briskly.. K . there still exists a slab of stone on which is delineated this ancient city of Tyre. a worthy representative of the Broken Shaft buried with such mourning rites at Jerusalem. . etc. and amused themselves with the way I puckered up my lips in making the embouchure. near Mosul. The rest were "grafted into the army. I always had to call Hassan to communicate my most familiar wishes to the family and visitors . that oldest of Masonic tunes. The measurements of those beams just named will be given hereafter .

too small to be visible by the naked eye. that may-be this lamp is burned to deceive the insects as to the time. some of which I group together here for want of space . Minn .. in the shade of the fountain outside the town. it was a failure . remind me that recent researches at Konyunjih show the use of the microscope in ancient times . and to me quite disagreeable . was once a great and good city of the Christians . cornelian. An old man coming for water. Twigley. Its name. If so. -Indiana. I experienced a touch of the Ehantseen.A PAGE FROM A DIARY. Maundeville. Grasshopper Falls Lodge. It : excited nervous irritation. 15). 96' During my stay here. made me dyspeptic.. wrote that here. at its session in 1871 . The custom of keeping a lamp burning all night in the house is universal throughout the East. I felt its effects more severely . etc. A . The extremely fine work I see upon the ancient gems exhumed here every day. Minute lens and specula of magnifying lens have been found. Stevens describes a man living in a tomb on the banks of the Nile. Cornelian. in Tennyson's words : `° The man was no more than a voice in the white winter of his age. was spent in making notes. Some of the lodges in America are named after those Oriental gems. shortened my sleep. and gave me slow fever. denoting fifty. before the American Association for Advancement of Science. in which 600 tons of dust fell within a radius of twenty miles . and the like. "a fountain of gardens and a well of living waters . and attributed to a very ancient date . 1870. Bear Wallow Lodge.. etc . 1322. at Tyre. And purer grows by being shone upon . far more appropriate than that of High Log Lodge. recalls the lines Like the stained web that whitens in the sun. Afterwards. seated upon the tradition-stone I have named. An hour's nooning. on the sea-side many rubies were found. found in Persia. An irreverent friend has suggested. so says Prof. in Clinton County. J . viz . 40. The amount of dust carried before it is suggested by a storm December 24. in coloring the cotton and woolen fabrics so . chalcedony. so very ancient that. and the well is here of which Solomon wrote.. emerald." (Song iv . at Beyrout. in view of the buggy condition of the native houses. that celebrated desert-wind known in its perfection as the Sinaoom and• Sirocco. is now in the British Museum.." The sight of the prostrate columns yonder covered with nets placed there to dry. implies the length of time it usually traverses the desert . so I blew mine out at Tyre every time . A cone engraved with a table of cubes.D . who keeps his night-lamp going as steadily as the one in the lighthouse on the Skellig rock . jasper. The great use made of blue dye in this country.

But it would do no good . 73. he ought to carry weights in his pockets to keep from being blown away. I had picked up a plow one day belonging to a Metawely. I instance a few. No.100 COMPLIMENTS TO HIRAM .. Virginia . They tell a story of the " Ladder of Tyre " yonder. dates back to B. The poet has referred to this color in the linesThe deep. Mass.C . Wis . where the lawgiver requires every Jew to wear a fringe of blue. and swam to Tyre ! I was offered to-day an ancient marble statue dug up here a few years since. B . . . D. Bishop of Tyre. No . Florida . Nos . 1500. so small. New Hampshire . No . 315 derives its title from the same source. moderately robed. 21. Kentucky . was martyred here A . No. 4. dead or far away . In the present instance. Texas . Nos . 42. "They that sit in the gate speak against me . 5. a brutish man knoweth not" (xcii . is described . and had . Tennessee . and 95. to quote David against a Metawely. and he cursed me by all his gods for touching it. No. but they are more fanatical than the descendant of Abraham ever was. in mindfulness Of friends or kindred. 110. etc. No . and 449. the melancholy dress Bokhara's maidens wear. Maryland . Louisiana . Nos . and scores of others . 144. 18. 30. 187 and 198. 1 and 12. Mississippi . that a bold fellow once jumped from the top of it. . Michigan . A fellow passed me. swearing that he would never use it again . . 21 and 51. Nos. No. 1xix . 105. No . 330 . some 1. No. C. called Metawely. C . full size. 42. as derived from my " Old Prudence-Book' of 1868 : No . 51.C . No. Methodius. and I was the song of the drunkards" (Ps . I had been in Paul's tracks for several weeks. 28. 14. and in admirable preservation . Were it not for the difficulty of transportation I would not have begrudged the rice . he was on his way from Miletus and Rhodes to Jerusalem. as the poet 1'hiletas of Cos did. and I called him kelb back again . Canada . Nos . . No. and become somewhat familiar with his movements . The style of Arabs who people this place. Ct. Nos . N.800 years ago. 6). Alabama . 7. Cal . a matron.D . In England. Ohio . in the expressions. 78. and i's suggested in the Mosaic code.12) . 7. so I simply called the fellow kelb . 37. deep blue. 43. 10. very much resemble the Jew in features . Nos. CQ I spent a quiet and solitary hour on the sea-shore reading Acts xxi. No . No .. No. It is that of a female figure. He called me kelb (dog). and 89. The name of Hiram has been still more extensively adopted in lodge nomenclature. Pa . 9. Nos. Nos . No. as witness No . . Georgia . 18 and 88. 103. Michigan . The number of lodges in America named from Tyre is very arge . 81 and 261. universally worn. New York . Iowa . in which the visit of Paul to Tyre. No . 40 and 98. Indiana . 70. Illinois . in the style of our Sam Patch. 1311. The hatred of this miserable race against the Christians is foreshadowed by David. 5. No. Maine .

for a permanent lodge. and kneeled down on the shore and prayed. And while Tyre is scarcely adapted. by the character of its population. which resembles Tyre in the same particular . quite a number of native gentlemen. COIN OF ALEXANDER . . those who. for there the ship was to unlade her burden . STRUCK AT TYRE. by day. like myself. the same distance south. could unite in the plan in regard to Ephesus. or Acre (or Caifa). I would say that." and weie a lodge opened. while there are no members of the Masonic society resident here. to open the lodge at Ephesus and do its regular work . To peruse the account on the spot gives it a reality .ST. and some foreigners. might have a lodge at Tyre without being residents here . 101 " landed at Tyre. these would become petitioners . In closing this chapter. Acre or Caifa. " have long entertained" the necessary "opinion. on the regular occasions. while the lodge is nominally located at Ephesus. There. the members all live at Smyrna. and as he departed all the Christian people followed him out of the city with their wives and children." He remained here seven days. twenty-five miles north. PAUL'S VISIT . feel that the home of Hiram should not be entirely overlooked. and go together. So the brethren at Sidon. civil and military. either in Sidon. twenty-five miles north.

'VVMMIVH TIV9 .

Everybody I meet here has a welcome word and sign for me. There all day long a group of men sit smoking. as I have said. They discussed me for several days in all my bearings. I crossed the isthmus connecting the island. drift upon drift. April 14th. " if ye salute your brethren only. This isthmus seems to have been crowded as . v.CHAPTER VII. lies a hundred yards in front of the gate. with the mainland. The way thither is through the only gate of Tyre now in use . this group of observant idlers is so thoroughly posted in all Tyrian news. as the Italians have it . It much resembles a sarcophagus that I saw at Gebal a few weeks since. I arrived at Tyre. with unwearying patience . A splendidly carved marble sarcophagus. degraded now to the uses of a horsetrough ! On its four corners are rams' heads beautifully carved . called by the natives Kabr Hairan. my bully boys? " with which I greet them day after day. N Tuesday. of whom the Great Teacher said. went out five miles east. after two days' hard horseback exercise from Beyrout. that what they don't know isn't worth knowing. now only a dreary waste of white sand. chatting and enjoying their dolce far nzente. or my cheeriest of " how are ye. to view the celebrated monument of antiquity. once of large cost and rare beauty. the Metawelies . and early next morning. and I hope came to favorable conclusions. They are on a par with the publicans. THE TOMB OF HIRAM. what do ye more than others?" (Matt . and made a second visit to it a month later . for they pay no sort of attention to my most graceful of salaams. on which Tyre was originally built. returning late in the afternoon to Tyre. except those ill-conditioned brutes. April 15th. 47). In the survey of this old relic I spent the day. meaning Hiram's Tomb. Nobody reads newspapers in Tyre .

its triple walls broken down. black. the principal grain raised upon it at the present day. however. so I turn my back upon it and ride eastward. let him stand upon the eminence where the sand-billows have drifted the highest. its magnificent church reduced to fragments of walls whose inclosures are used for the vilest purposes. They are loaded chiefly with charcoal from the mountains. but the native plows only tickle the ground . however. then cast his eye over yonder poor crumbling ruins called Tyre. full of wisdom and perfect beauty . The plain of Tyre. and for that charcoal is the cheapest . Many of these camels. indestructible basalt that lies heaped in petrified billows east of the Sea of Galilee . no manure is used. The barley. These are also shipped in different directions. up and down the coast in considerable quantities by the small coasting-boats . and read from the twenty-seventh and twenty-eighth chapters of Ezekiel such passages as these : "Thou sealest up the sum. far into the water as it can be. Many groves of mulberry-trees attract the eye. Thy borders are in the midst of the seas. are loaded with millstones. As the daily "Prices-Current" of Tyre are not published. It is shipped from here. made of the hard. the snow . I do not think that even the display of fishers' nets spread over the costly marble and granite ruins of Tyre affect me so much as this cheerless waste of sand . cheerily whistling " Over the hills and far away . If a man would have a lesson of the mutuability of earthly things. is at this time about a foot high. thy builders have perfected thy beauty. and I learn upon inquiry that an attempt is making to raise silk here ." I have nowhere seen such a number of camels as throng this road . I apprehend. each of the huge beasts carrying two immense hampers filled with it . But the theme is too painful to contemplate this charming April day." and other paragraphs of this nature . its incalculable traffic comprised now in a few small boats . In about one hour's ride I begin to ascend the hills.104 CAMELS AND CHARCOAL. Fuel is so scarce in this country that no one thinks of making a fire for any purpose save cooking. that the unhealthiness of the neighborhood will always make against that. Doubtless a good system of farming would develop immense crops here . They have the" chills and fever" around Tyre as bad as in the Wabash Swamps of Indiana. and everything is done in a barbarous way . the seed is scantily sown. is extremely beautiful. and looks promising . and form one of the leading articles of Tyrian traffic. I could not find out the ruling prices of millstones . after I passed the sand-drifts.

to my delight. and chapiters. having a chiselled groove down the side. I feel involuntarily to burst forth. the valleys . at Beyrout. it is part of an olivePress. the town of Hanaweigh. Going on eastward I open my eyes widely to catch the first view of Hiram's Tomb. But the very olive-trees that supplied the fruit for this press have disappeared . Dr. mellowed in the distance . built. W. and other places. This led me to call for my chisel and hammer. calling to each other. This is one of the most charming days I have seen in Palestine. as the shepherd-poet at Bethlehem : "The Lord is MY shepherd. author of Land and Book. 105 capped Lebanons seeming to rise just before me. and my very soul and lungs expand as I draw in this invigorating breeze from Lebanon . It is an immense block. There are no remains of Hebrew. reach my ears. Thomson informs me. and sarcophagi. though I know very well that a day's hard riding will not more than reach them . I shall not want . upon a steep hill to the right. perhaps. my kingly birds watch ing me keenly. He restoreth my soul. Mount Olivet. and I soon collected enough of the tesserce from this checker-work to fill my carpet-bag . I see. and as I observe the little lambs tenderly cared for by their rude Arab keepers. well cemented on the sides and bottom . leaving on my right and left great fragments of pillars. M . Thomson. having two eagles a mile or so overhead. as Dr . out of the rains of the country seats and summer residences of Tyre's merchant-princes. and scramble up to it through a field of barley. No one shall point it out to me . Seeing a large upright stone on the top of a high hill on the left. are white with sheep . The mountain-sides are black with goats. I afterwards collected stores of similar objects from Mount Zion at Jerusalem. a thousand years out of use . I press on. so interesting to a Freemason . he leadeth ME beside the still waters. Near it is a large cistern cut in the solid rock. I leave my horse with Hassan. A few steps lower down are the remains of a house in which. I pass by groves of olives and figs. and. Greek and Roman periods so numerous as patches of the Mosaic pavement . I make my two servants fall behind me in the road. and the press has been." May I never be less submissive to HIM than these poor creatures are to their shepherd . even their stumps are gone. He maketh ME to lie down in green pastures . the voices of their keepers. as I afterwards learned from the well-posted missionary. I found large patches of a Mosaic pavement. .MOSAIC PAVEMENT. and deep pits cut in the solid rock for the reception of water for Hiram's men in the older times .

it stands out clear and sharp against the mountains beyond . I meet caravan after caravan of camels. At last I see the burial-place of the great Huram. H. Standing on the farthest point eastward. and so say I . so suggestive of that Masonic fervency on which I have so often expatiated. who bath given to David the king a wise son. the regal fowls looking down upon it so knowingly. Blessed be the Lord God of Israel that made the Heaven and the earth. whose tragic history seasons every instruction of the Freemason's lodge . Thus our first three Grand Masters were united in this as in other matters interesting to all Masons . So says Prof. that might build an house for the Lord. that the plan of the structure itself was drawn by the pencil of Hiram. I love to think that the Phoenician monarch selected his burial-spot in his own lifetime. I am watching out for Kabr Hairan. and a little beyond its apex. It is impossible to disprove the local tradition which assigns this tomb to the great Tyrian King ." my legionary birds drawing still nearer to me. the sepulchre of Hiram . he hath made thee king over them . the Widow's Son . Here lies the Master of the Widow's Son. with their loads of charcoal. Thomson. 11. and who wrote generously in acknowledgment of the royal missive announcing Solomon's intention to build an house unto the name of the Lord his God : "Because the Lord hath loved his people. Tristam. and an house for his kingdom" (2 Chronicles ii . and at a spot where the brightest Orient rays come down from the Lebanon ranges. from which a clear view of the sea-coast is obtained. There is no mistaking it. the hill I have been ascending.106 FIRST VIEW OF THE BABE . B. in accordance with the customs of his country . 12). Riding more slowly towards the resting-place of " this friend of Solomon. it is the place of all others for the Tomb . its grand sepulchral stone crowning the structure with a massiveness proportioned to the whole . who was ever a lover of David (1 Kings v . A little to the right of. 1). But I have no eyes for these things . Kabr Hairan bears about it unmistakable marks of extreme antiquity ! So says Dr. and that the munificence of King Solomon bore the expense of its erection . Nowhere in all the world have my eyes beheld anything like it . that once crowned these hills . Yonder it is ! It is worth coming all the way from the United States to see it. endued with prudence and understanding. and so say L Much more will be felt than uttered by a Masonic visitor . and who rejoiced greatly when he heard the words of Solomon.

These are numbered K. in my plan. forming a pleasing sort of ledge or cornice . N. No one would have supposed that this underground layer existed but for the fact of there being a deep-arched well or cistern on the north side of the monument. in an artistic manner . There is a layer of stones. This one stone is thirty-four inches in height. the spirit of the locality. I . gave me his . The first layer of the monument aboveground consists of four stones. D . G. These extend in every direction several inches outside the tier below. Elevated as this sarcophagus is-more than ten feet from the ground-it presents a majestic appearance. together with the bed of grout on which that first tier of stones rested . F. who mounted before me. II . IV . resting upon a bed of grout (that is. It is numbered 0 in my plan . This tier is two feet ten inches high . The second tier consists of five stones. as will be seen in the plan. They are numbered in my plan E. H. This remarkable structure consists of fifteen stones arranged in five layers of the ordinary hard cretaceous limestone. These exactly cover the lower tier. The fourth tier is monolithal. 107 of Hiram . This tier is four feet high. and I know it. and verified them on my second visit here. in the top. This is the monument of Hiram . was hewn a huge cavity for the reception of the corpse. This tier is two feet eleven inches high . is worth a hundred cold arguments based upon tape-lines and parchment records. Out of the centre of this. The genus loci. small pebbles intermixed with mortar) six or eight inches deep. III. Not finding any accurate measurements of Hiram's Tomb in the books. and inclining to a crystalline structure . about fifteen feet by ten. The third tier consists of four stones .DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB . in digging which a part of the substructure was exposed. but I take it for granted that this layer extends equally under the whole monument . and durable. and four feet long . V. M. I took them myself. yonder eagles know it. breaking the joints. it is very hard. firm. L. B. without any marked lines of stratification. I . solid. I climbed up to it by the help of an Arab. C. the outer surface blunting the edge of the chisel much like glass . There is only one stone (near the northwest corner) belonging to this foundation exposed . consisting of one great block of stone . numbered in my plan A. As I know very well from having cut into it with my chisel.

probably by earthquakes. no doubt. 9 ft. 10 in. The great stones of this monument being considerably shattered. 7 ft. labors under the impression that it is my name. in . Walking round to the eastern end of it. in . eastern end. 8 in. in . 9 in. in . bursting down a large piece at the northeast corner. making the lid of the sarcophagus. 2 ft. The fifth tier aboveground is also monolithal. By this hole I looked immediately into the place where once lay the body of King Hiram. empty. on the second tier. in. 11 in. 10 in . 0 1 11 1 in . [See Drawings . 4 in. 3 ft. upon the cornice already described. A B C D EAST TO WEST. My Arab servant. 4 in. E F G H I Third Tier K L 5 ft. 11 in . 4 ft. 11 in . in . 4 ft. 3 ft. and did so abundantly . The dead body was reached by those who rifled it by going to the top of this lid. 10 in. 4 ft. I found it easy to procure pieces of them. 10 in . I sum up in the follow. 4 ft. This lid was made with a tenon on the under side. 0 10 11 9 9 2 ft. and tells everybody so. Afterwards I crept into the coffin itself. I found that the burial-place had been burst open and was empty . 8 ft. more than two thousand years . and by nature's own grip assisted me to rise. 4 ft. 1 in . 2 ft. 4 ft . hand. I cut the Square and Compass deeply on the monument. but presume that it was. 4 in . I also exposed my Masonic flag there . 8 ft. 4 ft. 4 ft. 5 ft.] FROM FROM NOHTH TO SOUTH. 9 ft. 2 ft 11 in. 7 ft. 8 in. HEIGHT . I could not tell whether cement was used in fastening down the lid. my two eagles looking curiously down upon the effort . . 0 0 0 0 in. in.108 DESCRIPTION OF THE TOMB . 7 ft. 4 ft. in. in . First Tier. in. 2 ft. Second Tier. 5 ft . 0 in. in. so an entrance was effected. VI. having seen me do this at other places. 0 in. ing tables all my measurements of this curious relic of antiquity : SIZES OF THE FIFTEEN ASHLARS IN KABR HAIRAN . 2 ft. 2 ft. 3 ft. and measured it . 9 in . which fitted into the cavity or coffin of the sarcophagus . 6 ft. near the northeast corner . then breaking out the end of the sarcophagus immediately below it . 2 ft 10 in. 6 ft. Hassan. 2 ft. 8 in .

piece out of upper and southwest corner . large piece burst off northeast corner . best condition of all . 0 12 . very large piece gone at north end under side . I. of England. 9 in. 11 in. My chiselling of the Square and Compass was done on block E. 12 ft. Second Tier. in good condition. 0 in. 1 ft. Masonic Moralist . EAST TO WEST. Masonic Moralist. D. 15 ft. shattered at south end . P 12 ft . • George Washington. F. cracked by earthquake . DIMENSIONS OF THE RESPECTIVE TIERS. 12 ft. in. 7 ft. 0. 11 in . 11 in. 11 in . N. 0 in . P. • Thomas Smith Webb. 6 ft. northeast and southwest corners much shattered . 7 in. 11 6 ft. CONDITION OF THE RESPECTIVE BLOCKS . Masonic Ritualist. L and M. broken at upper and northwest corner . FROM FROM NORTH TO SOUTH . 1 in. on the east face . Third Tier. 8 in . cracked through by earthquake . 10 2 ft. 14 ft . in good condition. in. broken open at east end. E. considerable piece out of the upper and northeast corner . 11 in. 7 ft. 109 M N Lid. in . of United States. in. EAST TO WEST. 4 ft. The coffin or cavity in the great sepulchral stone is in length 6 ft 3 in . 2 ft. of United States. piece out of the upper and southwest corner. 8 in. 8 in. Masonic Ritualise. 2 in . 3 ft. . DEDICATIONS OF THE FIFTEEN ASHLARS. depth. 7 ft. Sarcophagus . 3 ft. in. .DIMENSIONS. A William Preston. . in. G. ft. 10 in. 5 3 ft. A. 2 ft. of England. in . width. H. 3 ft . 11 in . 0 2 ft. 7 ft. FROM 8 ft. Total height 19 ft. 8 ft . in . HEIGHT. First Tier. NORTH To SOUTH. K. B. Fifth Tier. C. C Thaddeus Mason Harris. 6 in . Fourth Tier. FROM 0 in. 9 ft. 6 HEIGHT. 9 ft. 8 8 11 8 8 in. 11 in. 9 ft. 11 in. • William Hutchinson. and lower and northeast corner . in . 14 ft . 2 ft.

been fairly earned by their respective recipients. T . abundantly proves . • Edward A. of United States. No . Masonic Journalist ." Will it not bring many Masonic pilgrims to this sacred locality. in earlier and later times. six by . The workmen themselves are such as the Royal Grand Master would have hailed worthy associates. of Scotland. I think. The honor of these dedications has. Otherwise the tomb would be concealed (as the great wall of Mount Moriah is) one-half its height . Guilbert. and I cannot but approve the enthusiasm of that thoroughly good Mason. I think. Rogers. 415. we have the burial-place of the Pillar of Strength ! Surely it was good for me that I came here . long Grand Master of England . was laid the body of our Grand Master. • The Duke of Sussex. was to preserve the water-cistern for use . This cistern is six feet north of the monument. Masonic Jurist. in these fifteen huge stones. and "their works do follow them . of United States. that of the Widow's' Son (like that of Moses) °° no man knoweth . Murray Lyon. • The Earl of Zetland. • The Illustrious Dead of the Masonic Craft . • Pliny Fisk. Masonic Moralist . Brother E ." but here. • The Zealous Living Workers of the Masonic Craft . years ago. who projected. The resting-place of Solomon is lost . a Masonic visit and pic-nic to this memorable fane . I Wellins Calcott. I lump together a number of notes of measurements and descriptions made on the spot . • John W. as the history of Freemasonry. The accumulations of earth and debris from the field on the north have been walled up around the monument a few feet distant. first (Masonic) Protestant Missionary to Palestine . when there may be grouped together around the great pile so many of the richest associations in our history? I am confident of having the approving sentiment of every Mason of intelligence in adopting Kabr Hairan as the best remaining monument of the most ancient Masonic period . long Grand Master of England . and reached by stone steps from the northwest corner of the tomb . leaving an alley on the three sides of it .11) MASONIC PICNIC . King of Tyre . Here. Go down eastward by four narrow steps to a platform. at Beyrout. The object of this extraordinary care. Masonic Journalist . Hiram. F Benjamin Franklin . of England. bl: D . Simons. so different from what we generally observe in this country. Master (in 1868) of the Palestine Lodge.

Arched entrance to the cistern is four by ten feet . " what for all my writing ? " I told him I had come six thousand miles over yonder blue sea.. asked. so far as I could discover. two feet deep.VIEW FROM THE SUMMIT. but by the aid of the compass furnished me by my old friend. bound for Egypt. Hyssop grows abundantly in the cracks. A steamer was passing southward. by ten feet. at high twelve. I readily crept in there. While taking measurements and making notes. the plain of Phcenicia almost to Sidon. Cistern itself is nearly hemispherical in shape. Tyeeb" (good). Ky . The sides of the coffin or cavity have three notches on the north side and one on the south. either that the variation here is fifteen or twenty degrees from the true meridian.and tufted appearance for old Hiram. at the joinings of the tiers . I conclude. six feet long . an old man. with its head exposed. then turn northward and go down five narrow steps to the water. I sat in the shadow of the tomb and wrote these lines . Kabr Hairan is usually described as standing due east and west. and makes quite a green. No hieroglyphics of any kind are on the monument. or thereabouts . 715. through the break made by the robbers. In the hot hour. Brother Edward Jewell. and quite a number of sail-vessels. 111 four feet . set in cement and sherds of old pottery . B . It is plastered with gravel-stones. Water cool and good. through my servant. and went on his way to tell his companions of the Melican Howadji who had come so far over the sea to look at Kabr Hairan . and he cried out. but none overhead . or that the monument is not oriented to face the four points of the compass. perhaps of Sennacherib. From the top of the monument there is a fine view of Tyre. continuo eastward by four broad steps. stopped and looking on for a few minutes. which stretched out majestically at our feet. " Tyeeb. This pleased him. with the accompanying gesticulation. fifteen feet from north to south. and that when I return home I shall tell my friends all about the great and curious Kabr Hairan . head of a party of camel-drivers. s. of Louisville. But I saw no snakes around here . and the Great Sea beyond . No signs of tools can be seen where the break was made into the sepulchre . Lizards abound in the tomb. much liked by the villagers of Hanaweigh .c. and Brother H . pointing to the Mediterranean. Tristam (in Land of Israel) killed a large adder that lay asleep.

Where in thy lifetime thou hadst reared This Tomb. as detailed in Rollin's Ancient History. The title " Sea-Queen " is therefore highly appropriate . And thy loved ocean-isle behind. (5) It was the custom of the princes and rulers of Phoenicia to prepare for themselves great and costly sepulchres. when thy work was done. (1) Before thee soared the mountain heights.112 POEM AT HIGH XIL KABR HAIRAN. (2) Formerly all these offshoots and spurs of the Lebanon Mountains were probably eovered with cedars. read that of Alexan. The Cedars bowed their kingly tops As Hiram. Where thou. as prepared by the pen of King Solomon . where the sun First gleams above gray Hermon's side. Chief of Masons. And laid thee here in royal pride They brought thee with the noblest rites The wisest of our Craft enjoined . They brought thee. at the Tomb of Hiram . (3) As I write these lines. 1868. two of those noble birds are soaring in the clear sky above me . but all shattered and empty. though now the nearest grove of which I have any knowledge is thirty or forty miles north of Hiram's Tomb . (Written April 15th.) Eastward from Tyre. And %id thee in thy bed of state : (6) (1) See note 10 for an explanation of this . King Hiram was traditionally buried with the Masonic Honors. the hills around KAaR HAIRa are full of these. passed : (2) O'er Lebanon's all-snowy slopes The eagle screamed upon the blast : (3) Westward the foaming sea was crowned With snow-white sails returning home Their Sea-Queen (4) glorious they found. (4) For many centuries the City of Tyre was the commercial metropolis of the world. . (6) To comprehend the splendor of Dram's burial procession. ier the Great. even while living . should no more come . (5) They bore thee. Monarch loved and feared. their King. befitting one so great.

a pageant. (10) The centuries wore apace . The grief of Tyre fitly shares : His matchless pen such words indites Of true report and sacred woe. which lies about twa-tyfive miles north of Tyre. (8) Jebale (styled in the Scriptures Gebal) is about seventy-five miles north of Tyre. Loud was the wail on Zidon's hill. (11) It was but a few years after Hiram's death that his own kingdom. and once marked the boundary of Hiram's possessions .POE3t AT HIGH XIL 1 13 They closed thee in with cunning art And left thee to thy well-earned fame 'Twas all the living can impart. That to this hour. Freemasons' rites Within his wise direction go . was under his rule . And white-robed craftsmen wept their lord And strewed the mystic leaves again . and changed The kingdom of each royal Sire Ephraim from Judah was estranged. (9) Nor these alone . And Zidon separate from Tyre : (11) (7) At the period of Hiram's reign. the city of Zidon.Her Sages mourned thee as their own : (7) Loud the lament on far Jebale Her wisest Son of Light was gone : (8) The ships of Tyre bore the word On every wind across the main.--on Zion too A Brother joins his tears with thsirs : King Solomon.A tomb. It was the seat of the Archi . was rent in twain by internal convulsions . tectural and Philosophical Schools of early ages . to friendship true. 8 . (9) The various colonies of Tyre were established at all the prominent points on the Mediterranean Sea. (10) According to Masonic tradition. as well as . and a name . the funeral rites under which King Hiram wag buried were composed by King Solomon : they were substantially the same as those in am at the present day .hat of his royal friend Solomon.

The daisy blossoms at the foot. And templed shrine and kingly hall Are but the shadow of a name . about four hundred years after Hiram's death . These time-stained ashlars still doth kiss . and Judah. Still warm thine eastern front the rays That call the Craftsmen to the wall : Here let me chisel this device. His latest gleam. The frost and rain have gently seared . The olive its peace-lessons owns. (12) Yet here thy burial-place is kept. Stand thou. The oldest. The lizard darts within thy walls. from western shore. Though shadows of old time have crept Along these stones three thousand years .Still this MEMORIAL appears. Hiram's rest .114 POEM AT HIGH XIL Then swept the deluge over all . Vast relics once of lordly halls Around in mute suggestion lie : The hyssop springs between the stones. The Orient-sun bath kindly blest : And earthquakes shattering have spared Our Kabr Hairan. The Arab stalks indifferent by. Let Craftsmen seek this ancient shrine kingdoms sit) Referring to the Chaldean monarch Nebuchadnezzar. Israel. Great type of Masonry divine! From eastern height. (1`0 I chiselled the Square and Compass deeply on the tomb near the northern corner . in smile or frown. holiest of all ! (13) And as the western sun goes down To give the wearied Craft release. till time shall be no more. who conquered the of Phoenicia. Best moral where all else is mute. The Conqueror came with sword and flame .

A. culled anemones and poppies. saying. extended sail-like six or eight feet horizontally! Whatever their intentions in thus following me. while I examined olive-presses. Come. and compared that bitter and hasty nation. its golden eagles. as they came down from Antioch. And from each pilgrim this be heard. the double-headed one. in case they : I used should refuse to hearken unto the voice of the Loin their God . so graphically described by W. running eastward from Tyre." (Dent xxviii . from the end of the earth." and what is better just now. around me. and browsed generally along the way. and the Germans."They poise themselves for a moment. 8. And now is my best time to embody Scriptural references to the Eagle in these pages . 49 . made the "unclean bird" (Lev . xi._ Thomson. a thousand years later. my eye is again attracted by that pair of mountain eagles who started across the isthmus of Tyre with me this morning. Roman cohorts and Roman legions have often enough displayed their eagles along this rocky road. like a bolt . Observing its swiftness of flight. 1099. Grand old fellows ! how they hang up there in the sky on their broad wings. M. collected mosaic tesaercs. then. " Honor and gratitude we pay! " Sitting on the north side of this old structure. As from one humble voice to-day : "Honor to Hiram. and let us study the Bird of Jove together.) Habakkuk : I took up the figure of Moses 885 years afterward. to guard my way by old Hiram's sarcophagus .THE EAGLES OF LEBANON. "the place of darkness. to the capture of Jerusalem. the Chaldeans.-Masons' lord. and prophesying of the grace that should come " to fallen men? Who of you all have. I declared that the nation whom God should send against Israel. 18) your emblem? Moses it in threatenings against my people.) This prophet had doubtless seen the swoop by which the eagle descends upon its prey. But what use did you prophets make of the eagle when "inquiring and searching diligently. ye inspired prophets. exhibited theirs. 11l.D. their patience is most praiseworthy . and I feel it to be a good omen that King Hiram's Lellanon has sent down two of its aquilce aurce. should come "as swift as the eagle flieth . to yonder bird. of coolness. "they shall fly (against Israel) as the eagle hasteth to eat" (i . and have been watching me with unwearying patience.

) EAGLE AND PREY. wends to introduce this bird into the lesson. fluttereth over her young. spreadeth abroad her wings. yet the Lord will bring him down . (Ps.) David : I sung of God's bounty. beareth them on her wings. 11 . I reminded them of the eagle's care for her young : "As an eagle stirreth up her nest. (xlix. as the eagle that has established his eyrie in yonder inaccessible crag of Lebanon. with wings collapsed. down they come. though they should make their nest on high. ciii. The voice of Jehovah. taketh them." and snatch the defenceless lamb from under the very eye of the shepherd. showing his almighty power to Job. conde . xxxii. 5. head foremost.116 THE EAGLES OF LEBANON. Seir. from the clear sky. in these grand words . 1G . so the Lord alone did lead him . ites at Mt. Jeremiah : I denounced the pride and self-confidence of the Edom . declaring that he renews the youth of his saints as the moulting eagle renews his glorious pinions . and declared that.) Moses : In promising the tender mercies of God to an obedient race." (Dent .

when Sated was shaken together as a heap . although my Scriptural references to the eagle are not half exhausted . 31). Are never felt by thee I" Could I question the mighty bird. The entire tomb is about 21 feet high . 6 feet high . on the Acropolis. and I must to my measurements. as in the numerous welies (tombs) of the Moslems" Van der Velde admits the tradition that claims this as the monu- .EARTHQUAKE OF 1837. I imagine the imperial bird descending from these heights upon the sceptre in the left hand of the statue of Jupiter Olympus. I have left out "mounting up on wings as eagles" (Is. 8 feet 6 inches wide. 5 feet high . 6 feet high . and was removed like a cottage (xxiv . This is surmounted by an oblong stone of the same dimensions. From thence she seeketh the prey. upon the crag of the rock. xl . 11) . And I must not forget what Mrs. To compare my measurements and descriptions with those of other writers. . and pangs and sorrows took hold of them. 14 feet long. far in the northwest . and her eyes behold afar off. four-sided pedestal. when El Jish was totally destroyed . Her young ones also suck up blood. when the earth reeled to and fro as a drunkard. and copy what he says "Hiram's tomb stands on an oblong. and the strong place . and a score of passages. when every hand was faint and every heart melted. 20) . 3 feet 9 inches high .) But my hour is exhausted. Above this is a truncated pyramid. and where the slain are. I have looked up Van der Velde's. Tiberias cracked and shattered . 8 feet 9 inches broad. it would be an interesting inquiry with what sentiments he viewed the dreadful earthquake that racked all this country. (Job xxxix. and they were amazed one at another (Isaiah xiii . 12 feet 1 inch long. A number of our American lodges are named Eagle Lodge. There is nothing to prevent passengers from approaching the monument. hewn out of a single rock. 8) . and bid her rooted mountains quake. 10 broad. 27 . on New Year's day. Ellet says : "Imperial wanderer 1 the storms that shake Earth's towers. The third layer is 15 feet long. and the death-cries of three thousand souls went up to heaven from yonder eastern range . 117 a d "both the eagle mount up at thy command. 1837 . when the great house was smitten with breaches and the little house with clefts (Joel vi . and make her nest on high ? She dwelleth and abideth on the rock. of two layers of huge stones. there is she . no peculiar sanctity being ascribed to it.

The sheikh of the little village has come over to ask Hassan what I am doing up there . and nowhere else in this country. 30. with the darkest shade of bronze . an old-fashioned X. so long in charge of the Jerusalem Explorations. eyes keen." I fancy it must have been put there since May. How well I know bow he feels . he says. and the number and variety of travellers was no doubt beyond the ordinary . all Moslems are Rechabrtes (Jer . was going on at Tyre the day I first visited Kabr Hairan. I should think. something like the one at Bint Jebale. I took down a score or two of notes. and suffer. except at Jerusalem. Charles Warren. As the wind blew in their faces they had all turned themselves to the rear. and thinks the popular belief well founded. But he loathes it. Here passes a man in. The sheikh is a short man. and so avoided the draft . very recently cut . of the Byzantine type. I think. "Them that honor me. sitting in my stocking-feet on the cornice at the east end of the monument. eighteen in all. a confirmation of the Lord's words. and was going to ship it to America. a man whom wine overcometh (Jer .t18 PAGES FROM MY DIARY . These Arab saddles are just like a sawhorse. excruciating pain. xxiii. which I shall describe in another chapter." Brother Capt . 1868. Solomon's friend and ally. as follows : " We passed out of our way to visit Hiram's Tomb. and I remember it . or Just out of. And the word wine reminds me to offer him some arrack from my leather bottle. . but he evidently told him something else. xi . ment of Hiram. all mounted on camels. He may say as the prophet of Anathoth did : All my bones shake . skin so dried and withered it seems cleaving from the bones . and unsettled . it appears to be ancient . 9) . under date July. I told Hassan (sarcastically) to say that I had bought this tomb from the Pasha. on which you can face either way. 4). He sees in this remembrance of Tyre's great monarch. as I was anxious to see if there were any masons' marks on the stone. an ague fit. I will honor. lxii . No heathen king. is there so large a monument as this. in 1 Sam . roving. makes a note of Hiram's Tomb. except the leader. but I have sat for ten minutes at a time on a sharp-edged fence-rail. I am like a drunken man. I could only see two. and (I judge by the sound) curses me inwardly (Ps . and here are specimens of them A party of Arab charcoal-dealers. no matter which way you sit . 1869. Some sort of a fair. thus visibly preserved in this monument. teeth white . at the western end . I was never on a camel in my life. Truth is. The other consists of a square and compass. or one so appropriate to such a king .-one is a Christian Cross. was ever in such close relationship with Israel as the King of Tyre." As I saw nothing of thin " Christian Cross.

and doubtless as "full of all subtlety" (Acts xiii . makes everything delightful up here. On his way to Sarepta. just over the hill yonder." are among the works reserved for Masonic explorers. How truly that city of Tyre. and was afraid he would forget it if not promptly disbursed ! As the body of King Cheops is probably resting. Like the eccentric Wors . B. if the miserable people only knew it. and bellow as bulls (er. the pencil-marks on my note-book are invisible to him . 2). Jesus and his disciples passed this monument. broken. as I will show in a coming chapter. is a sheet of white paper. sparkling eyes of the females. high. Master. and when the time for great explorations in this locality arrives. He told me a great deal . and time given the natives to prepare for defence . and Cheops from that subterranean chamber "forever flowed about by water. The long line of telegraph poles between me and Tyre yonder. ix . Some cows pass by from the pastures of Kanah. David and Solomon from Sion. even as travellers do now . on a certain day blessed in all the history of this country.. 119 xxxv . as in the story of the miracle at Capernaum . The next is a party of . 13 . suggests how differently certain passages of Scripture would read had Morse only appeared 3. That old camel-sheikh. not in the King's Chamber. it may be found there . and so all through the sacred pages . having told the candidate "all he knew" and closed the lodge.000 years sooner . and when I had paid him for his information and dismissed him with thanks. both by the unveiled faces and black. the copy of my Arabic newspaper. L. with a withered hand. Some are fat as heifers at grass. as it comes down from the hills in the east. Hiram from this hill. And here. and the neater houses and cleaner streets . Jonah need never have gone personally to Nineveh . An ungainly. was said to have been planted in a pleasant place! (Hoe . To bring to light the remains of Abraham from Hebron.) A sheikh is passing by. Joseph need not have come to Palestine before finding that Archelaus did reign in place of his father Herod . One is what Jeremiah calls (xl . 0. A chap climbed up side of me for purposes of instruction. It is easy to recognize a Christian village. wabbling creature. doubtless looking up to it and passing comments upon it. El Hadekhat. 20) a very fair heifer. L 11) . he remembered a great deal more and came back again . explaining that he had just then remembered something else. Warren that the body of the eat Hiram was never laid in this sarcophagus. as the Scripture expresses it. the movements of invading armies would have been telegraphed. there passed one who. The purity of the atmosphere and gentle freshness of the air. gorgeously apparelled. five miles yonder in the west. but in a vault far below the last. yet for our sakes became poor. with his eye like a hawk's. can see ten miles off . nor Chamber of Projection (subterranean). But he cannot reverse the telescope . but underneath.-who. though rich. 10) as his progenitor in the days of Peter . so I suggested the theory to Capt . and rugged.PAGES FROM MY DIARY. nor Queen's Chamber. per aps far underneath. summoned tkem together again "in called communication" a few minutes afterwards.

seems plain enough this morning. Zizyphus vulq aril. looking up the almost illegible carvings on old stones. the flowers (as I gather the class-names from other authors). That we were made of °dust." and other passages. " according to the expression (Genesis ii . The dust of these roads. vigorous. showing that Holy Land was always Dusty Land. literally. and the lazy people. " And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground. Senecio vernalis. walking staff in hand. orange. yellow hair flowing thick and plentiful. Next there comes a fine. comely girl. Reseda su fruticosa. larger than ours at home. 7). Klauber can't make a photograph of me half so accurate as they will . gather on the bank in front. almost level with my face. and take a long stare at me . and of different color . In this vicinity this morning. The old man. powdering the face. tall. Parietaria o icinalis. judging from dress. in the beautiful costume of the Lebanons. and that "unto dust" all the generations of this country have. and the like. graceful. I was sorry be knew so little English. Draba verna. expression mild. oleander. for what little he did know did him good . but it is noble and god-like to bear with calmness and observe with pity the failings of others :' Whereupon I (figuratively) gave him my hat . called here Maroof. of divers ages and sexes. perhaps explains the peculiarly acrid and unpleasant flavor to which have referred. And now a whole party. Now come two men with silver beards. The trees that I observed this morning are the olive. etc . cum crela in the mouth. " Hakeem. to . The country around is rocky and impracticable. with bracelets round leer arms and ankles . Their beaks and feet are red. irritating the eyes. lemon. that the oppression the Jews had received from the world would naturally sour them against their tyrants. Ranunculus m!riophyllus. The caravans that go by kick up a dreadful dust. until every gullet is croaking with that abhorrent password of beggary. cypress. Swedes. The next is a grave.120 PAGES FROM MY DIARY. Jesus told his disciples to shake the dust off their feet at the doors of inhospitable men as a testimony against them It may be that explains the dust-heaps I have seen at so many thresholds! In the fourteenth century the English government instituted a court styled The Court of Dusty Feet (pie-poudre). by a stare equally persistent. and leaving a taste of hyd. He is followed in coarser tones by another and another of the crowd. The little Scops owl." leads off in the hated dissyllable backsheesh . they have no real appreciation of that which money only represents-lime. and hair . tamarisk. I stirred up a number of partridges. however they may value money. prove that. manners singularly engaging. and much overgrown with thorn . whose philosophy is good enough for Socrates . but not half so wise. and plumes ashy gray. One of them recalls the portrait of Gustavus Adolphus. who do not even deign me a nod . with "childish treble. . eyes. stares at me from an olive-tree close by. Anchusa italica. returned. Replying to my remark. recalls a host of Scripture passages. like the color of the dust . patient-looking Rabbi. palm. he said. in his own inquisitive style .

he is. in one great reservoir. long. A wild-looking man. 121 be held at markets.) At the top of this fountain. The Turks themselves employ men with loud voices. "Whereupon there grow roses and lilies. been stirred by the suggestive sound . the old city of Philadelphia. in the native traditions. A fakir. asking aid towards purchasing a church-bell . to have been erected at the expense of King Solomon. . 44.THE CHURCH BELL.. shading a wild. with a subscription paper. struck with a setting-maul. or native beggarpriest. or "Head of the Spring. viz . styled muezzins. Who is it wrote these lines. I should think Raschid Pasha might introduce it here with equal regularity and propriety . This was inclosed by immense stone walls until the water rose about twenty feet. and said. I was glad to give my mejeedia (ninety-four cents) to this desirable end. I was accosted by one of the officers of the Protestant Church at Kanah. These fountains are the finest I saw in Syria. And so I quietly go back to Tyre. is the presenting that man with a Turkish dollar for the purpose of buying that church-bell at Kanah . that occur to me in my survey of old Kabr Hairan ? As if time had been to it all sunlight and soft dew. therefore. having in fact no clothing save a sheepskin tied around his hips. of the class that subsists on charity .. taking upon my way the celebrated fountains called Ras-el-Ain. connected in my mind with these abounding waters of Ras-el-Ain. from which are emitted odors of wonderful smell . from which it was carried off by aqueducts towards the city . a grim fanatic. haggard face . a timber of heavy. The last association. as a present to his royal friend Hiram . to settle difficulties between buyers and sellers on the spot. who station themselves in the minarets (steeples) of the mosques and roar out the holy news with incredible force." (2 Esdras vi. flowers of unchangeable color. Originally there was a large spring broke out here . to dinner and to bed . This abundance of sweet water makes everything around a mass of vegetation. six miles east. and I hope the echoes of Lebanon have. Gathering up my effects at 4 P. naked to the waist. matted hair." four miles from Tyre. It is but a late thing that the Turkish government has permitted the use of bells in churches . having heretofore answered the purpose of a bell in calling God's people together . porous wood. In all Asia Minor there is only one Christian church supplied with a bell. recalling the beautiful expression. I started to return to Tyre. As if upon its freshness the cold rime Of decay should never fall . in all the uses of the word. ere this.M.

........° at rr ^ 9 . r 10 a x ----------------------z ~| ! a .. ..... -----------------------4n ° THE FIVE TIERS OF STONE IN HzuMem cuu& .

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here they repose. . of the eternal truth and majesty of Him who is working here the melancholy penalty of sin. Draughts of life to me.DIVISION THIRD . free wind. They take their sleep together. Sacred land by blood and tears of God. nettles and brambles in the fortresses theta of. After their generous toil . A field of ruins. to all who visit here. Instinct with thrills of consecrated life . Pour forth thy vials like torrents from air-fountains. and yet it tells A nobler history than pillared piles Or the eternal . Thorns coming up in her palaces. blowing from the mountains. Fresh wind. Here rest the great and good . And gather them again as winter frowns . a sacred band. There is a tongue in every rock. while the year Comes with its early flowers to deck their graves. in the sorrow and degradation which surround nun. Loud wind. The quaint. Theirs is no vulgar sepulchre . enamelled eyes That on the green turf suck the honeyed showers. which witnesses. green sods Are all their monument . The ground all purpled with the vernal flowers These bells and flowerets of a thousand hues. a scene of unutterable desolation . They need No statue nor inspiration to reveal Their greatness. pyramids . sweeping o'er the sea. a habitation of dragons and a court of owls. strong wind.-GEBAL . a voice from every leaf.

good-natured Arab. or Bay of I . such as chisel. one for me. These three persons and animals bore with them all needful supplies of blankets. twelve servants. Yasoof (meaning Joseph. one boy. and one for the kitchen. lodge. the latter (whom I had named Boanerges. addicted to lying down without the slightest warning. Hassan.. three tents. a distance of about twenty-four miles. and a good quantity of provisions for my personal use. as Tar as the mouth of Nahr-el-Kelb (Dog River). and find me for five days. who generously offered to convey me to Gebal. I asked him if he thought I had come all the way from Kentucky to eat dinners of five courses . because I don't remember the singular form of the word). working-tools.. feed. a stout. who knows considerable English of the hassanic quality (the joke here consists in the fact that the word hassan means a horse) . a place all travellers visit. The conundrum remains unanswered to this day. mallet. HE Second of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities that my visit to the Holy Land enables me to identify and describe. and that my dinner should consist of five courses . I am told). My expeditionary force consisted of one man. etc. In view of this five days' trip I had consulted a professional dragoman. described in Chapter V. accent on the last syllable) . GOING UP TO GEBAL .CHAPTER VIII. a cook. March 17. to inspect the ancient inscriptions on the rocks there . overcoats. These will be fully described in my account of the Masonic Bay. and to making the most excruciating noises that organized nostrils ever projected. for five days. two horses and a donkey . he replied that he should take nine horses and mules. is Gebal (pronounced Jebale. returning on the 21st. I went there from Beyrout. This was the third visit I had made up the coast from Beyrout. and all for the insignificant sum of $1251 When I asked him what sort of accommodation he could afford for that trifling remuneration. and remained three days. one for himself and servants.

a place of refuge and covert from storm and from rain (Isa . In these terrific passages of sound I learned the propriety of the Hebrew name for echo. thanks to my goat and a gum-coat. and while making notes there a second cloud swept through the passes of old Lebanon and poured its contents. by an interval of about 300 feet. 127 the Rafts. a thousand feet in height. when the bay became lashed into fury by a gale . 6). 1868 (the twentysecond anniversary of my Masonic Initiation). It was on the 5th of March. not all wet ." I was so impressed with the unparalleled sublimity of this scene. as to me. on my return that night to the shelter of Hallock's hospitable (flat) roof.THUNDER-STORM IN LEBANON. I had scarcely got out of Beyrout . and entered. I was riding a donkey a trifle larger than the conventional goat of the Masonic lodge. A dozen people with their beasts were in there before me. George. and my prospects of escaping a drenching and a pelting were solely based on his speed . in tempest and fire. The sides of these tremendous heights gave back the awful thunder-peals in countless The lightnings flashed across the defile with a reverberations. on the sea-shore. This convulsion of nature was inconceivably grand and awful. I was unable to sleep. I was startled by the roar of thunder in the rear . But I shall not find so good a place as this to describe a thunder-storm in which I was caught. I have nothing parallel to it in all my memory. I could conceive that the spirits of the mighty dead were revisiting these scenes of their earthly grandeur. " the daughter of the voice . if report is true. true as the plumb-line. but spent the hours composing the folic wing verses. I went on to the inscriptions. A tremendous thunder-storm swept grandly a little way before. and my purpose was to inspect those ancient proofs of human pride and grandeur . Looking back. as they once addressed the world. v. on me. that bellowed a thousand times worse than Spenser makes the dragon bellow who was killed right at this spot. and speaking. that. as I cowered under shelter of the overhanging rocks. in Division Fourth . a mile or more further north. the first visit I made to the place. and I reached a native khan. together with music to them . The gorge through which Dog River runs separates two mountains. Capricornus did his utmost. I saw myself pursued by one of Mount Lebanon's blackest clouds. or tavern (like the one described at Neby Younas). The storm being over. by St. vividness blasting to the eyeballs . the old khan proving to them. and as I was congratulating myself on escaping its fury.

Thy heights in walls secure. In days to come. lxxii. so rough and difficult that the heaviest sandbanks appear as green meadows in the comparison. A roseate mount like thee! Oh fearful Mount ! thy stormy Crown. The violence of Lebanon (Hab. xxix . iii. Lebanon (Dent. THE GLORY OF LEBANON . the wine of Lebanon (Hosea xiv . xxii. iv. The church of God shall be. Open thy doors. 34) . 11) . occurred to me as a capital place to work the Royal Arch degree ! It presents a regular suc- . And bids adore His name! Oh Lebanon 1 oh darkened throne. Then you come to a spur of the stony hills. xcii . He maketh Leb. Y be righteous shall grow like a cedar in Lebanon (Ps. xxxv. 13) . about six miles from Beyrout. a castled home. Thy gushing springs. until you look longingly up the mountain-slopes on your right. The head of Lebanon (Jer . 10). One of these rocky passes. 6 and 7) . anon to skip like a calf (Ps . and sheltered dales. A solid mount like thee ! Oh mighty Mount 1 thy stony gates. 17) . And birds of sweetest sound ! Oh Lebanon! oh roseate throne. and painted wings. 2 and lx . Whose awful word proclaims its God. A forted mount like thee! The road to Gebal is fearfully bad . The church of God shall be. 12) . In days to come. The flower of Lebanon (Nahum i . an anchored home. 16) . strewed with boulders. 6) . Lebanon shall fall like a mighty one (Is . i. 6) . x . The church of God shall be. 4) . His smell as Lebanon . Like the smell of Lebanon (Cant . Oh charming Mount! thy flowery sides.12 8 THE ROAD TO GEBAL. Thy heights with cedars crowned. a flowery home. and wish you were ascending the steepest of them . ii. 0 Lebanon (Zech . And guardians tried and sure! Oh Lebanon ! oh guarded throne. That goodly mountain. The glory of Lebanon (Is. Thy dizzy hills. 25) . The fruit shall shake like Lebanon Ps. Thy echoing tongues of flame. You go a few miles painfully through deep sand. In days to come.

COLUMN. H. originally erected probably as a Roman milestone. and ending in a frightful climax. Newcomb. Perley Poore. yearning to behold the places that Christ had sanctified by His corporal presence . 1867 . delicious to the heart of a Principal Sojourner. It has passed great men along this way. at this fitting place. Yet this is one of the most noted highways in the world . W . yet 200 miles in the distance . all the missionary apostles traversing it again and again. and along this road. Elizabethtown. as I hope some of them will. N . The Chapter room at Akron. north or south. Iowa . 1099.C. 332. and J . so that ordinary travelers may not observe it. Fearn. in the summer of A. Kentucky. Solon Thornton. and Saladin . Furnas. I see something fluttering among the rocks. Almond. 129 cession of difficult passages. Rameses came here from the south about B . 700 years latter . there is a beautiful sheet of water styled Junia Bay (the word Junia meaning a plain) . going to conquest. broken in the midst. It was equally the turnpikeway. I cannot even sum up those great names .D. or going to defeat . the following names of Masons who have emulated the fortitude of him whose emblem was the Broken Column W. Thanksgiving night. Hellena. Near the middle of the curve of this bay stands a large Stone Column. at an extremely old age. and of Vespasian. . and Sennacherib from the north. as they went to and from Antioch. about A. B . xxxi. Walking aside from this great milestone. preaching to a sinful world . I also locate. By this highway. and dedicated it to the lodges at Del Moines. the armies of the Cross slowly worked their way southward towards Jerusalem. About-half way between Beyrout and Gebal. let them stop and see how upon the face of the everlasting rock here I imprinted this mark of loving remembrance . If eves those members come along this way. of Sesostris. W. nor lizard nor snake. yet standing erect. P . By this route had come the Assyrian with his shadowy shroud and high stature (Ez . 400 years later . Upon this I engraved with my chisel the memorial Square and Compass. Alex. Iowa.C. It was the apostolical highway. B . and Dubuque.THE BROKEN . came the venerable mother of Constantine the Great. and close to the road. of Alexander. Langford. cutting it in the sea-ward side. P. Goodwin. R. Richard Vaux. Charles Marsh.D . increasing in roughness every step. Ohio. George R . but . its sweet love-notes changed to piteous 9 . who gave me such a royal reception. 320. 1500. and up and down.). the lower part about ten feet long. but a wounded dove. and on strict examination discover. reminds me of it .

the portrait of my wife. "a dumb dove in distant places . but I am sure I counted five species of lice on my coat-sleeve as I came out. might be considered invidious . annually ran blood.130 TUBAL CAIN. by which the old city was supplied with water . this country. is to put it out of its misery ." At the distance of about three miles south of Gebal. in commemoration of the death of Adonis. existed ." which. with its great flutter of wings. I answered through Hassan . Am I mistaken in thinking there is a passage in David's life recalling this incident ? No . Just beyond the bridge. or River of Abraham. and of each species. moans. ten or twelve deep. To say it was the dirtiest house I had ever seen before. with Mrs . I will refer to the subject again. I showed them my pistol. who sat with us. running from this river towards Gebal." The best I can do for this poor Noah's messenger. my self-folding measuring tape (a startling piece of ingenuity to them . eighteen-bladed jack-knife. a dreadful piece of Arabic writing. and a number of juvenile Cains. here it is. Cain. I crossed the Nahr Ibrahim. about one hundred and fifty feet wide. This is the first I had seen. a broken side and a useless wing being very far above my powers of surgery . in the caption of the 56th Psalm. I observed a handsome piece of Mosaic Pavement. of which there is a great deal existing in . and on the right hand side of the road. and fringed with the usual willow. studying human nature. A Syrian gentleman. a regular Jonath elem-verhobim. and even pulled out my Firman. according to tradition. as I presume they always are after such a severe rain-storm as we had had the night before. but imperfectly describes the loathsome squalor in which that Tubal-Cain. varieties. The river was quite full. part of a splendid edifice once standing there . cane. Travellers also describe the remains of an ancient aqueduct. and oleandergrowth of the country . they never wearied of it). which occurred on the heights near the head-waters of this stream . On my way I stopped frequently to rest and refresh myself. large as a table-cloth. The waters of Nahr Ibrahim were unquestionably tinged with red the day I crossed it. "When the Philistines took him in Gath . my india-rubber bottle full of coffee. but I did not observe this . (They raised cain at the rate of seven every ten years!) To say that this atelier was more infested with fleas and lice than other places in Holy Land. as the ancient Hebrew would have called it. At a blacksmith-shop I had a good time . They asked me questions and questions . famous in mythology as "the River of Adonis. amused at my efforts . of which I gave a translation in a preceding chapter.

Another of the company was a tall. in Marseilles . so often and so much in the way. I had noticed this same peculiarity among the French officers of my steamer. insinuating . vine. five-lobed leaves and spreading branches is devils . quite a young man. Either they possess the faculty of talking and hearing at the same time (a thing I cannot do). meaning Everybody who visits this country notices the dogs. it was a dog that discovered the use of the celebrated Tyrian dye that became so world-renowned. where "there is not much depth of earth . from first to last. Strange that the Bible-writers. L'Amerique. uniformly agree in this . barren places. and the Koran of Mohammed fully confirms the Oriental idea of the dog . with which I am familiar : manner. He went barefoot usually . thin man. recalls the description of such. and but little more than the blacksmith's wife. He has some fine fig-trees around his house . graceful. Barclay gives to his dog the credit of discovering the great quarry under Jerusalem . olive. and palm . cordial. Moses in the Pentateuch . a tree which flourishes best in stony. In this blacksmith's shop. our Saviour in His parables ." It does not like the companionship of other trees . or they are so disposed to garrulity as to talk without caring to be heard . David in his matchless psalms . and what is worse than a cowan! At parting I gave the good fellow several paras (a para is onefourth of a cent). Hassan stigmatized the whole crowd to me in an undertone as Shaitan. ready and sultry as the Syrian sunlight . and promised to call again . . I mustn't say too much in favor of the dog. 131 to please the blacksmith and his family. He had really a fine beard. with dark face. But his ignorance was startling. but life comes early under the sun which fondles the fig. have made the dog the image of scorn and contempt. However. Paul in his Epistles . John in his Apocalypse. And yet. as the Masonic word Cowan is probably derived from it . The shade produced by its succulent. almost covered with a black beard . the exceedingly loquacious natives all talked at once. easy. nothing but the olive is congenial company to the fig on these stony hills . if the tradition is true. As we came out. and an expression of earnestness and simplicity of character. alert. He actually seemed to know less than the blacksmith. Job in his noble allegory . The blacksmith had nine of them . And Dr . smile.BLACKSMITH-SHOP.

with as much security as at home. 19) it was only for Arab lips that he created this particular fruit! And yet. not to jest on holy themes. every man under his vine and under his fig-tree . the mere tourist who only wants to see and pass along will find not the least . If. and encouragement. 1 shall have so much advice to give to Masonic travellers all through this volume. and made the soles of my shoes uncomfortably warm. for several to go in company. a Dragoman. It is the explorer only who experiences any difficulty in pursuing his aims . and exposes the seeker for light to delays. It is the easiest as well as the least praiseworthy effort of wit. to expose the ancient foundations. A few chunks. you might learn enough of it (some travellers don't) to call the plural of dragoman dragomans. unless he is qualifying himself for a Professor. The fanaticism of the Mohammedan has given way to the craving for gold . As to the difficulty or danger in traversing this country. both for mutual protection in digging." as he likes to call himself). etc .132 STUDYING ARABIC . I really wouldn't advise any American to learn it. Zech . to pull down. in general. and every admirer of Mark Twain must regret that "Pilgrims Abroad" did not terminate their journey where they began it. right here. I felt the force of the expression in 1 Kings iv . The latter ("Mark Twain. I noticed to-day that while the earth under my feet was really hot. for which it is elegantly adapted . and sometimes worse . 4 . in Europe . and of . iii. etc. where alone can anything valuable be looked for . The most careless traveller in the East is constantly reminded that he is in the land of the Bible. or a Missionary. very fine. extortions. the ground under this large fig-tree was cool and pleasant . facile humorist as he is. as an irreverent friend did under the same circumstances. I am afraid you will say. 49. John i. and it is in poor taste to make such tours as Browne and Clements did for the sole purpose of making sport." In this verse the fig-tree is named as a symbol of peace and plenty. it is this that revives the ancient hatred. in spite of my warnings. 25 : " And Judah and Israel dwelt safely. the cry of backsheesh drowns the old clamor of Allah it Allah . To excavate. that when "God created the fruit of the lips" (Isaiah lvii .. a Consul. For this reason it is best. that it will be politic to scatter it along in chunks. He can ride over the sacred hills. and rest himself under the offered shelters of Palestine. In regard to the Arabic language. might have recalled the school-day adage. 10 . ludere cum sacris. So in Micah iv. you undertake it. then.

to the guidance of religious sects whose debates shake the world. there slumber powers which might have elevated their possessors to the bead of armies. His Egyptian travels began in 1815 . unsubdued as yet . If you wish to talk to respectable people. About one hundred words in Arabic are enough for any one to travel on here. Belzoni. Dragomen is as near right aspen is the plural of pan. asks a pious lady over her Bible." how the goaded cattle "kick against the pricks . his death obcurred in 1823 . seated on the ground. reigns here. The natives say there is a plant grows here which. rat. too. because embracing all other faults . and roach) have never been introduced into Syria! The flea. vigorously." how the native salt "loses its savor .IRON GRIP OF DESPOTISM . with his miserable little back-action hand-saw.--but there is no end to these analogies . to saw up a lot of seasoned olive-wood which I had purchased. that it was so in ancient times? Did Deborah. Don't disparage too much the race who now inhabit this country . whose every moment is bestowed in wringing from the soil a scanty subsistence. see how bread is made "daily . Costar's Exterminators (cat. Make a point of comparing daily objects with those Scriptural facts that enter into our prayers and sermons . it is unpardonable. Abibut the theme becomes too affecting! I will say. The very earth teems with them. Is it possible. and consider that in the minds of many a peasant here. . 133 Moslem Moslems . had fortune been more propitious to them . learn French . See what they have produced when temporarily released from the iron grip of despotism. when powdered.ail ever. in fact. is grim death to fleas. how. began as a circus-rider. to the rule of literary coteries. It is a merit in an Oriental traveller to have muscle-bodily vigor. But I think they never powder it . their granaries would enjoy the results of it . By the third day he had gathered round him all the idlers in the place. Miriam. for which his great size and muscular development qwell adapted him . The indolence of these people is like the offence of contumacy in the Masonic code . and persistently as they do their calloused bodies. to thrones. done. that if the plowmen here would only scratch the earth as deeply. . Our good Masonic brother. who became one of the most famous of Egyptian explorers." how the south wind blows heat and the west wind rain . To give an instance of native laziness which annoyed me greatly I hired a man in Beyrout. at daily wages. and I venture the assertion that the eight hours' work for which I paid him.

. and. and vulgarity. could all have been done in one hour by an American competitor . generally. Smith. to find the low. An American Mason. swearing." This is a good field to disseminate Sunday-School ideas . must suppose Robinson had spent the years of an active life travelling and making all those discoveries. where the largest Sunday-School in the world is maintained (300 teachers. the country. merely to show how fast they can travel. Dr ." as the old translators rendered it . three large volumes. and it was his knowledge.500 scholars). They are. Those who have read Robinson's Biblical Researches. and his God . You must not be disappointed. of course. MEAN VICES. reflecting honor upon the craft. an incurious race. in confidence. 1. petty theft. That experienced Masonic traveller.134 THE LOW. that made up those valuable books. That which gave the books their real value was. was perfectly familiar with the people. I had an agreeable hour describing to him my old "Berean Bible-Class" in the First Presbyterian Church at Chicago. they have yet to understand the first principles embodied in the degree of "Grand Inquisitor Commander. with a fourth volume of maps. in a country so unfortunate in its history as this. I met a man in England who appreciated it . sifted and crystallized by Robinson. He styles such characters " combinations of silliness and absurdity. He was from Stockport. England. and he admitted to me. who is not addicted to these degrading habits. becomes an effective missionary of morality to these heathen. extremely common . himself. there was nothing in the field before them except works written by Catholic travellers. No such thing . fittingly rebukes that class of tourists who hurry over the ground. Dr . or small sketch-books not worth shelf-room in a library. mean vices of lying. Anything so practical and fruitful in good results as the American SundaySchool system is bound to succeed among such people as these . abuse and look ferocious at their companions. had spent very many years here. But the better opening remains for you to teach them a better way . an ignorant one . and holding the wood with his toes. He was here only a few weeks! but his companion. Livingstone. Illinois. that the Americans are far ahead of them in this department of instruction . and the language. who only know what "the Church" tells them. his country.

and from ofie to two miles back .CHAPTER IX. There is a force of about one hundred and fifty soldiers. except for exhibiting the marks of old age. is none the worse for its years . ARRIVED at Gebal a little before night and was lodged in the Bachelors' Hall of some Maronite (Roman Catholic) priests. palaces. walls. the remains of which. and. which is considered a curiosity by all lovers of ecclesiastical architecture . purchasing coins and antiquities.00) of Masonic money towards its conservation and repair. and that does not date beyond the Crusades. But now Gebal is a poor and forlorn little village of five hundred inhabitants . QEBAL. while the grand old castle next the sea is suffered to fall into irreparable decay . already alluded to. The roof. I was so much interested in this ancient relic that I gave a Napoleon ($4 . It was built about 800 years ago. floor. the slope extending about two miles along the coast. My time during three days at this place was spent between visiting the more prominent localities. who have charge of an ancient church here. The town of Gebal lies about twenty-five miles up the coast (north) from Beyrout. It stands upon an easy and regular slope from the sea eastward. there is nothing w9oden about it. are visible in every stone-fence upon the surface. and Lebanon limestone. who live in some new buildings. All this space and more was once thronged with temples. marble. There is not one edifice standing now that has the least attractions. and appear in excavations at depths varying from ten to thirty feet. unless it be the old Maronite Church. red-legged Turkish Zouaves. in granite. and supports are all of stone. the remnants of more costly structures. and other splendid erections. Desolation and neglect are written upon all the remains of Gebal . given by King Solomon in the twelfth chapter of Ecclesiastes. In fact. and .

In the days of Solomon. and refers to the city I am now describing. as it was the first of my more extended Masonic explorations.136 STONE-SQUARERS OF GEBAL. in Joshua xiii . etc. 'The Greeks changed the name to Byblos. such as coins in great numbers . writing up my notes for preservation It is one of my peculiarities that I cannot think freely unless I have pencil in hand. made it so well-nigh impossible for me to write by daylight that I soon took to the free use of candles. and so wrought out my plans in ink after all Gebal had succumbed to the dominion of slumber." This. that the word Giblites. hence my large use of white paper upon occasions like these . I longed to make good collections of the early spring-flowers that paint this beautiful site of Gebal . 9). bidden or unbidden. imported here at incalculable expense in the olden times . the people of Gebal were the most skillful sailors and artists under the dominion of King Hiram . I found I was not able personally to make many botanical collections in the Holy Land .300 years ago . while the original name was retained. Gebal also gave its name to the country around it. but in this case. Here I find upon the monstrous ashlars of Phoenician ages (hewn stones eighteen feet long and upwards) the distinguishing mark. is termed "the land of the Giblites. tear-bottles and beads from the Phoenician tombs. the rebate or bevel. of which I have so much read. the title imposed by the conquerors fell into oblivion. in Hebrew. . This was written about 400 years after the building of Solomon's Temple. 18) . specimens of the red and gray granites and porphyry. a most remarkable circumstance (1 Kings v . or 3. is translated stone-squarers. which. be says ." the ancients of Gebal and the wise men thereof were in thee thy talkers" (Ez . As I have told the thousands of brothers and fellows who will read these pages. as in many others. xxvii . has impressed itself more deeply upon my mind than any future visit could be expected to do . more active limbs and flexible spine than I can boast of at the age of fifty . funeral lamps . etc . My visit to Gebal.. In the tremendous denunciations by Ezekiel against all Phoenicia. So eminent were they in architecture. but now for the first time in my life I see . all stones .. This is the Masonic mark of ancient-craft Masonry . but this is a matter requiring a longer stay. it will be remembered. 5. purchased in the bazaars. sea-shells . Gebal derived its name originally from the hill on which it stood . The Oriental custom of crowding the traveller's room by day and night with guests. was more than fourteen centuries before Christ. The objects collected here are numerous and varied.

but I must be permitted to say that a system which had the favor and support of the wisest and best-cultivated of the human race for two thousand years . and we. two. so long the institution of Freemasonry will survive! This is the lesson they inculcate to me as I turn away silently from them and draw my breath with amazement . The stones themselves strike an American. 131 having this mark upon them belong to us ! Our fathers wrought them. three. from twelve to thirty inches in diameter. that led to the cultivation of the fine arts as they ha ~ e never . . drawn up this steep hill by human hands. and finally reared up. Let the Blanchardites note it with dismay . as enormous . This worship was the Freemasonry of the heathen. their surfaces often as smooth and unaffected by the weather as on the day they left Egypt. their lineal descendants in the mystical line. are here. As the wild stock into which the inspired Word was engrafted. they are used with a profuseness that shows the inexhaustible quantities of them that now lie concealed among the ruins. they are built into the military castle. and set them up in useful places in great edifices. but of course do not compare with some at Baalbec and Jerusalem . landed here. with all the enormous labor which the working of that primitive stone requires . or four thousand years ago . doubtless with shoutings and rejoicings . They are twice as heavy as any wrought ashlars I had ever before seen.THE MIGHTY SHAFTS . these Rites of Tammuz deserve the attention of Masonic writers. unused to such architectural prodigies. both of the red and white varieties. taken from the quarries of Egypt. shipped thence on Phoenician vessels or rafts to this coast. must not forget our inheritance therein. Thousands of them. they are worked into stone walls . It is but a brief seven miles east of this place that Aphaca.the principal seat of the worship of Adonis. stood . and the system upon which King Solomon engrafted the revealed precepts given his fathers upon Sinai . This is not the place to enlarge upon the theme . They prop up the stalls in the bazaars . brought a thousand miles down the Nile . And this deep-plowed furrow upon their edges-what a hopeful thought does this convey to a Freemason ! So long as that mark remains-so long as the main surface of the wall stands out far enough to protect and shield that mystic device of the Phoenician. Gebal is full of the " Handmarks of Hiram. or Tammuz. in short. and other public edifices in numbers . I say." Hundreds and thousands of granite columns are here. and from ten to forty feet in length. they sustain the filthy roofs of stables .

of adoption and incorporation into the inspired theology.D . and where such a genius as his could be fitly schooled . cannot have been altogether vile. I reserve to this place. it may have become so corrupt that that zealous reformer thought it necessary to uproot the last traces of it. But the same thing may be said of the prevailing system of Christianity at the same period . to whom a seeker of knowledge like himself could come for instruction. however. excavations painfully chiselled in the hard blue limestone of the hills . by the age of Constantine. let us believe earth's best spirits. Hopes of some kind (the resurrection and the soul's immortality) we know those old Masons had . Here. I stood within the tombs of some of these Giblites. which was thought unapproachable for beauty. was a congregation of earth's wisest. to justify Freemasons in selecting Gebal as one of their seven prominent Masonic localities . A. It was then. and that was thought worthy. but to conceal them even at the risk of their being forever lost as to their esoteric meaning? I find in my note-book this acrostic : . scaraboei and other tokens of their faith. palace. on the Island of Cyprus yonder. That. that this wide-spread system of worship gave to the poet his idea of the Age of Gold . the Widow's Son. that crowns the plateau of Baalbec. but they must have presented many innocent and pure traits to attract the admiration of a Solomon . doubtless. just as from here fared the Masters of the Building Art who went southward down the coast to build a matchless Pane on Mount Moriah. in the days of Hiram. that here was the great School of Architecture and of the seven liberal arts and sciences . But a resurrection to what? and immortality for what? what secrets were so held within their emblems ? what made them so anxious to express them in outward marks. at Jerusalem. The Paphian Temple. It is. been cultivated since . I purchased many of their funeral lamps. by so far-reaching a mind as King Solomon's. By the age of Constantine the Rites of Adonis had probably accomplished whatever good was embodied in them . I saw a row of their stone coffins (sarcophagi) opened . the rites handed down through so many generations from them to us clearly prove that.138 SARCOPHAGI OF GEBAL . From this centre of learning went the men who planned that unparalleled Temple across the hills eastward. and stronghold did. doubtless received its inspiration from the same men. and coming back to my housetop I walked and mused upon the hopes embodied in these emblems . as many another temple. is quite likely. 306. during successions of ages . in the west.

The worship of the sun constituted the religion of all the neighboring . Gebal is supposed to be the country of the ancient Giblites. my eyes fixed on the falling pediment of that Parthenon. workmen to cut. this enormous ashlar that forms the base of the old castle-wall near the seashore . in a khan (tavern) outside the city. who supplied King Hiram with squares of stone for the building of the Temple of Solomon. beveled as this . ordered a number of stones cut upon this model. It is nearly twenty feet long. who. on a rising ground overlooking the sea . To reason. it is said. and built on this the foundation of the Temple-wall in Mount Moriah. better than history. twins From ancient night. as I see to-day. while visiting another spot famous in history. below . Extinguished all thy lamps above. city of the wise . the colossal grandeur of a people . drafted from this city. and eyes to comprehend and admire such an edifice as this ! Where again shall we find such a people. recumbent beneath the shade. Announcing to the ages as they go. And here at Gebal I am insensibly reminded of the reflection made by a distinguished poet (Lamartine). solemn sisters. Let me quote it : "I pass delicious hours. That column of true majesty in man . an architect to conceive. Its aspect displays." who constituted so large a portion of the mystic number twenty-seven in a Lodge of Select Masters. of course. and broad and deep in proportion .TWENTY-TWO FROM GEBAL 139 Gone. is. Life from the tombs and light in Heaven's perpetual glow I Did he who prepared the rituals of the Select Master's Degree have in mind that exquisite passage from an English poetSilence and darkness. a people to pay. as is seen to this day. and on reason build resolve. The "twenty-two from Gebal. and each of them must have seen. But from this dust a viewless spirit cries. a sculptor to decorate. What superhuman civilization was that which supplied a great man to command. were. statuaries to execute. The father of Adonis had a palace here . 1833) : "I slept at Gebal. or such a period ? Nowhere ! " The same poetical writer records his impressions of Gebal in these words-(he was here April 13. who mark the tender thought. gone thy glories. To whom can I dedicate it with so great propriety as to King Solomon himself.

R . I sought out the entrance of one of the great Phoenician tombs. A. A . with perfect ease : Il Allah-ah-ah-ah. Dispatch f . but among the officers in the garrison several. J. where the only thing that ever seems to smile is the camel . William M . many centuries before . has fallen. Logan. to publish' in the New York Sunday "I would fain disport me in this exceedingly solemn and unhilarious country. So the "procul. Emmet Blackshear." and my heart answers : "Amen : So mote it be!" So the trumpets of the Crusaders sounded as they came down this coast from Antioch. In my preface I alluded to the provocations to laughter that meet the traveller here. Maine. Holmes (now. John Augustus Williams. named below. Before leaving Gebal. sounds move with the greatest freedom . I went up to pat him and he bit me . 90. alas! silent in the grave). in the pure air of this mountain region. in writing squares of stone for squarers of stone. Such is life . as I verified to-day. etc. carved out of the face of the cliffs high above the town. A . or his translator. John S . procul" of the priests of Adonis rang through this clear air. dedicating it to a number of active working and renowned members of the Craft. On this cliff. Cunningham. countries of Tyre . and this is only a pretence. Cotton. on their way to the Holy City . I found no member of the Masonic fraternity here. Perry. I haven't had a good laugh since I landed on the Syrian coast. James Gibson. 1099. when. Winslow Lewis. I hear the muezzin in the minaret of the mosque. too. Hunt. No. as. "No God but God. for instance. attracted by the pleasing manner in which he threw his lower jaw around his upper one. In selecting appropriate names of Masons worthy to be associated with this School of Hiram's builders. a mile away. who have probably since united with the lodge at Beyrout . There." My readers will readily correct the mistake into which our French brother. Abell. G . I waved aloft my Masonic banner in the strong breeze blowing from the sea . I anticipate the general approval of the following : L. E. and there cut deeply with my chisel the Square and Compass. Will my readers accept a little nonsense that I wrote from Gebal for that genial brother. In the nomenclature of American lodges some are named Hiram Abif Lodge. Robert D .D .140 MARK OF THE CRAFT. Thomas H.

Buckles. I rigged up a seat upon an upright stone by covering it with all my overcoats and blankets. avowedly from Phoenician tombs. Nobody seems to have been here before. If you undertake to turn to the right you go over Jebel Sunnin. some eight thousand feet high (one thousand of it solid snow-banks). without the intervention of Jonah's whale . the strictest honor in dealing out small change. "My arrival was the signal for all Gebal to gather at my quarters with what they call ' anteeks. therefore. and this made me skeptical . and if I can get it all shipped to America. I took an extensive walk . secured the golden opportunity. yet the severest decision in requiring an honest compensation . firmness mingled with suavity (suaviter in modo. I felt. chiefly to collect relics . I was getting cheap. at least I couldn't find anybody that knew anything about it. A number of decanter stoppers.. as all Gebal will testify. several crates full. you experience Jonah's fate. Intelligence of expression. Broken crockery. etc . viz . and the only guide-book that speaks of it is the Holy Writings-good authority. I got here easy enough. you have the rest) . as you know. This. cast off by the military. but proud. I. and probably the murderer of Helen Jewett. these are the true principles for traffic in ' anteeks.' Poor.. because all you have to do is to follow the coast. The next day. Dignity is not wasted even on Arabs.THE ANTEEK-HUNTER. one para is one-fortieth part of ten cents) . I came in eight hours.' And such antics as the bare-legged fellows do cut when they call on you! Try to realize the condition of the American Howadji trading for ' anteeks. I secured in good supply . for I shall open a wholesale establishment of Syrian sherds . I was also slightly in hopes of finding the remains of the Christian tribes of Israel. and if you would deviate even slightly to the left. and upon that I sat in state. but rather ancient as a book of travels. you must advertise for me.' and these the American Howadji (if the court knows herself) has displayed. one para for ten pieces (now. 141 "I came from Beyrout to Gebal the other day. who. However. cost me quite a handful of ten-para pieces. would have been extremely shocked bad they understood my question when I politely inquired as to the health of their wives and children . long lost. no doubt. and took lodgings in a house kept by three priests. " My first purchases of ' anteeks' were curious. however. I think I should have gone on purchasing buckles to the last had I not found the trade-mark " Smith & Brown" on one.

across. and I should testify. in the form of tear-bottles. Agassiz himself might well defer to him. the modern Giblites sneered . in various stages of dilapidation! Still. I was guided by an old. it was the love of backsheesh. until. The Howadji was amazed. and began to inquire for ancient coins . could convey such burdens. but sadly mutilated . and emblems abound.300 years ago. if upon oath. At this. Had the mainspring of his zeal been the love of science. salable as the articles they had been furnishing me admittedly were. °' In making my daily tour around and beneath the place (I mean the tombs so wonderfully excoriated beneath the surface). if I bought them all. inscriptions. " Having bought up all the buckles. brass tacks. bare-legged barnacle. often in the best state of preservation . cornelian scarabEei. and under Gebal. around. and bought. etc . yet the old coins of Phoenicia and her conquerors were what I had come for . why so many broken vessels? But this discovery stopped further purchases of sherds. seals of various devices. portraits. and I wonder that even that fellow who goes out on the top of the Mohammedan mosque every little while to scream out ' Hu Mah !' didn't stop to laugh as he saw it . I saw that I was making no headway. I must honestly aver that I didn't know there was so much specie of the copper coinage in the whole world as there is here among the ruins of Gebal . who clung to me from first to last with unwearying devotion . Query : Did the ancient Phoenicians slosh around and break things as they do in Alabama? If not. tops of pewter buttons. one to get me to the . and several elegant carvings in marble. and brought them in . ani bought. Coins ? Why. Names. Then they went out for a few hours. in his right hand a longstemmed pipe. they told Hassan the very earth was old coins. It was the funniest sight in the world to look at my procession. that one-half the soil is broken crockery . and began to ask himself what conveyance. « Of genuine relics and antiques (let me be serious for a moment) I procured a good supply. are stamped on them . Every object in nature.1 42 BARE-LEGGED BARNACLE . which I was assured had curious inscriptions on them.. and then I closed my purchases . He had but two passions. glass beads. I bought. and a great many objects out of nature. that used to come down this road some 2. funeral lamps. together with a considerable quantity of musket-flints. nature and my small change were exhausted. but alas. I insisted that. under the elephants of Antiochus. First went the bare-legged old gray-beard.

Afterward. courteously excuses me from taking off my boots. now plucking an extraordinary specimen of the anemone. or at the least ophthalmia. the place of honor . Let me give you a specimen . you tobakky got? Me say no. to . of course. he wore it five days in succession . or. and seats me in the Lewan. all cut into the solid rock . it is of less importance . This Howadji never did so much tall walking to so little purpose in his life. It has every element of sublimity near to profundity . now sipping coffee with some Giblite gentleman. He was ornamented with a red cap. Then he irons. is a subject of gratitude. 1° Next to Hassan come the rabble . That sunstroke. big irons on my leg . So from ruin to ruin we wandered-now looking sadly at a group of sarcophagi wherein once lay the beloved dead. with ruthless hand. used only for water-troughs and baser purposes . now chaffering for an ' anteek •' now twisting my lame ankle round a boulder until I seem to have more than the usual number of joints in it . This dialect of our common tongue is formed chiefly out of nouns. ' Sojer man come to me-say. because everybody buys one of them for his sins . with a few adjectives. make no mention of it to the discredit of the American Howadji . Hassan is telling me how to smuggle a few ekes of Gebal tobacco into Beyrout. but as there is no Sunday paper published at Gebal (nor for that matter any other).' And all this the fellow tells me with perfect gravity. however. 143 interesting localities. you can easily make the estimate. not having the least idea but that the language is eminently chaste and proper . now standing by some high wall anathematizing the barbarism of its builders. I dare not tell you how many persons have followed me about Gebal. which he bought at Smyrna.BLUNDERS OF HASSAN. he took matters more into his own hands . I fear that some of my company were disreputable characters. who destroyed chapiters. which crimsons all these hills as with the blood of Adonis . now creeping into an excavation lined with loculi or places for the dead. as in following old Backsheesh the first day. Next came Hassan. He says. pillars. did not supervene. and as no strangers ever visit the place. Next to the"guide came the subscriber . He say to you. people are so skeptical of travellers' tales . But as there are only six hundred people here. my interpreter. and sarcophagi. the other to get me away from them before I could see anything. still worse. and certainly no living man can beat it . broken to pieces. who invites me to his house. who was all the time interpreting Arabic into hassanic English . You will. you tobakky got? You tell him go way dam fool-go hell-he go.

Ask him (in Arabic) to direct you to my house . Avoid that camel . as they did mine . for while the audience enjoyed the music they were naturally . Now enter that street-don't call it a mere drain . it is a good six feet wide-until you meet the camel . now sitting. now from some high place looking over the blue sea and heaving a homesick sigh after that steamer whose prow points westward . now walking over the piles of granite columns in . who had a little dark cellar near the castle . He was evidently in partnership with a coffee-seller. though they may break your spectacles. take the blind beggar on your left shoulder. and I took advantage of the opportunity to increase my stock of knowledge . avoiding as far as you can those eight donkeys that are always coming round that particular corner with their loads of stone from the quarry ." While I was at Gebal. near the three granite columns. I will give you explicit directions for finding my boardinghouse. 'to follow directions. and conning over the past and the glories of Gebal till the sun goes down and the jackal begins his cry. The darlings . "As you or some friend may desire to call on me while I am domiciled here. then. and come round the new barracks. if you will only ' follow the directions .' " Well. Let us suppose you starting out at some well-marked locality in the city-say at the corner where the blind beggar sits. and I return to my room to write out the adventures of the American Howadji for the New York Dispatch and its million readers. Now you will have no difficulty in tracing the way to my residence. They are saying something in Arabic that is doubtless a blessing on . smile and pass on . he snapped at me one morning. to relieve aching foot. On again to the second or third turning to the right-usually you will find there a man who sells bread .the stranger's head . So far you have made a good start.144 HUNTING THE HOWADJI. undoing m a day what years of labor was necessary to construct . build it. On now to where the boys are playing marbles . their little arms are not strong enough to hurt you much. the harbor .' The embarrassment experienced by some people in getting round cur Oriental city is greatly exaggerated by their neglect . Look back. with his two bales of cotton. a native musician of some note was favoring the people with his performances. a little east of the narghileh establishment half-way up the hill. If they throw stones at you.

has excited the sympathies of a great circle of friends and brethren . And cry. a shirt on-only this and nothing more . He would sing a minute or two (I shall describe Arabic music in future chapters) at the top of his voice. smile. Or pour away the dregs and the deadliest lhalf'of it!" But still the cup lie held . He sat on an earthen platform. and such hairs with which it was strung! From a donkey's mane and tail every one of them . bid me not to quaff of it. and I had hopes lie was going off into an epileptic fit. sometimes as high as fifteen or twenty cents for the lot. it turned to sweetness as I drained it! * The news that comes to me in November. for in the spirit of Kentucky hospitality I always "treated the crowd" with cigarettes and coffee. raised about four feet from the floor . Then my hands went up to my ears. for me to drink from it. of which I made notes. A stool was always brought for me. It was a real treat to watch that fellow and his proceedings . One of the songs. and repented of them . lay an Arabic book. and was so entertained thereby as to return to it frequently. The black and nauseating draught did make me shrink from it. Alger's poetical version of Eastern poems. But such a string! It was an inch or two wide. 1 45 stimulated to buy tobacco and coffee. "0 Thou who every draught alike dispensest. lie had a sort of fiddle with one string . 1871. One glance at Him. And such a bow! the wooden part of it like an ox-bow . And it was full of acrid bitterness intensest . I stumbled on the establishment one morning. folio.* He gives it thus-but I must say it didn't sound at all like it My God once mixed a harsh cup. It was rather expensive to me . Then I thought of all the bad things I had ever done. front teeth missing. that this amiable gentleman and marvellous scholar has gone deranged through excessive study. on which his blind eye was steadily fixed . else whence the hideous bray that fiddle made? The man had one eye. R. But I didn't begrudge it . 10 . On his knees. the good one watching me. Just such men had sat and sung and listened here ages before Romulus with his copper plowshare drew the boundaries of Rome . This cup of anguish sore. as lie sat. IIassan translated for me . and I sat facing him . The rest of the company squatted on the ground. until he turned purple in the face. when he would suddenly stop. I found. and seeing lie ordained it. and this involved an outlay. and rasp that broad string .afterwards in Brother W. and sipped and smoked at my expense .FIDDLER AND HIS FIDDLE .

and Gerard the Crusader. chief of the Saracens (born at Takreet. When I explore one of these ancient churches. I suspect. but the theory is divine. at certain hours of the day. for they always wear clean white clothes in the graveyard. occupying all the eligible hollows and shady places. only stone and wood. until it became almost dark. of whose death-dealing arm we shall read when we come to the field of slaughter. parents. and found my pathway through the cemetery blocked up by these mourning women . The cemetery of Gebal was right under my windows . was thronged with women." entirely enveloped in their concealing garments." and Tancred. and really look handsome at a distance . presents a parallel to the Scriptures in this : the thought it embodies is divine. first King of Jerusalem . and IIaroun-alRaschid and his Nights' Entertainment on the other. In the middle of it was a small summer-house which. George. children and friends In . who have a practice here of praying by the graves of husbands. they throw stones at you if you do. Glory gilds their sepulchres and embalms their memories . For El bfamoun was the son and (unworthy) successor of Aaron the Great (Haroun-al-Raschid) . fastened together with lime and iron . A. one sense the custom works well . 1137). In this venerable fane have stood the feet of Godfrey. who chose rather to die than inflict dishonor on the holy cause he professed. So the material facts making up the inspired narrative are but commonplace. he who' . The ordinary dress of the women has much in . Ilattin-fatal Friday of July. increased the glory of his people when like a giant he put on his arms for the fight . In fact. about sundown. on the Tigris. I spent a good many hours in the old Church of St . It is considered bad manners for a man to interrupt women in the graveyard. I was hurrying to dinner. though the materials of which it is composed are of the coarsest. from the leering and sensuous smiles of Hassan and the other auditors. I am affected by the thought that it . Into this church has entered Salah-ed-deen (Saladin).D. and. never to be obliterated on the page of history . were such as a married man ought not to hear . and the dirty sans-culotte who thus afforded merriment connected us by a simple tie with El bfamoun and the Pyramid of Cheops on the one hand. 1187. The subjects selected were more usually amatory. to which I have before alluded . One evening. And there they "sot and sot.146 CEMETERY OF G}EBAL . Yet this is characteristic of Eastern verse.

and so confined myself to a few pounds of the tobacco for which Gebal has been famous ever since tobacco was introduced here. I struck the knocker three times. a reverend old gentleman. apricots. per Naps marking the resting-place of some early disciple of the Crucified . another having a small quantity of rice. etc. and seeing who it was. The variety sold in these miscellaneous collections of shanties called bazaars. a few centuries back . sitting on the ground. a lamp. domestic utensils . and the mat on which Father Yusef sat. My host had a visitor. beef. skinny. small and cheap . his assistant Latoof. These Oriental bazaars shall have full description in future chapters . mounted the stone stairs to the top of the house. figs. The private room of my landlord was furnished scantily enough . But I discovered he was allowed his little commission on my purchases. 30).-the list is as long as my arm . a small box. mutton. . rather. with voluble tongue and winning behavior. or. tattered garment. fish. This was in the second story of the house. that I boarded.. When I wanted to enter. pulled a cord which lifted a heavy wooden latch. A large wooden door opened from the street. the lower being the stables . with a bushel of dirty wheat lying on a fine cloth before him. cut in marble. and eggs . poultry. quinces. Close by him women were seated. I saw in this one an old man wrapped in a coarse. 141 common with that of the men . generally Father Yusef. a dirty white tunic (vulgarly called shirt) bound round with a leathern girdle. I pushed the gate open. "looked out of the window" (as Jezebel did at Jezreel. and so entered my room.MY GEBAL LANDLORD. who used to show me through the bazaars and persuade me to buy things. somewhat in the style of our Patron-Saint John the Baptist. while in Gebal. one with a few oranges. first story. raisins. is something remarkable . No house in the Holy Land has more than one door. olives. and then. selling it by the gallon. hired a room. of some Maronite priests . A heavy iron knocker adorned that door. with some muscular effort and fearful squeaking of hinges. and other fruit . and saw three old presses. I bought of a man here a simple. pomegranates. or. I was glad when they left and I could proceed to my dinner. cotton and silk clothes . reading his breviary and keeping time by the motion of his body and the droning of his voice. etc. I remarked before. I looked in upon him one morning. 2 Kings ix. One of the priests. grapes. plain cross.

cleared and prepared for a throw with one turn of his right hand . The sound of a convent-bell high up in Lebanon sometimes affected me to tears . Then. Certainly. its empty glories. but think I could . and was so pleased with the experiment that he kept trying until he invented the first iron saw. in Parian marble. or on a jutting column . even as Talus performed that exploit with the jaws of a serpent. Now a jelly-fish. On one occasion I found the dead body of that enemy of flocks and herds. the evening star. and soon to be swallowed by the gulls as one would gulp down a mouthful of blanc-mange. Of one I made this note : his net is gathered on his left arm. and breaking in the most beautiful and majestic manner. and gives way to the solemnity of the seas constantly doing their work. exquisitely wrought. The net opens and spreads as it goes. The world retires with its noisy discords. and a glorious night breaking in around me . I have not time to learn the art. Also. as again and again they roll majestically in to the shore. he makes his throw. the sun throwing a shadow behind him. It is a charming memory of Gebal. Now an oyster-shell (the ostrea edulis). about sundown.148 REFRESHING MEMORIES . The sea-line here presents a constant succession of novelties . Now the jaws of a shark. I had no idea that the Baltimore oyster lives near Gebal . a little ways in the sea. that eater of grain when meat cannot be had. smooth as the clearest mirror . noiselessly and with much dexterity. but so abundantly supplied with teeth that I sawed my riding-stick through upon one of them in a jiffy . strangely out of its element. the sun descending magnificently into it . On another occasion the waves were rolling. Taking advantage of the ripples made by the wind. of the evenings. is more than I can describe . he runs along the shore until he sees a school of fish. rapidly pushing each other. so that a bag that could be compressed in my bat covers a space of twenty-five feet in circumference. the creamy mass of foam tossed by the sparkling waves. One. It was a constant source of interest to me to watch the fishermen who stood. that gourmand of the flesh of asses. a faunus. when I was accustomed to walk alone around the old Phoenician harbor. The sea. its poor shows. not very large. naked. the hyena . and riding over each other in merry play like the sea-gods of old gambolling among the isles of the Agean. crooked. I can never forget it . soon followed by the whole host of the heavenly lights. a fragment of an elegant statuette. but what business it has here. Both these rare objects were burned three years afterward in the great fire at Chicago . foaming.

M. and fumbling for my pencil expressly to do so . I soon had to stop looking for specimens after 10 A. One of them has learned a compound English oath of four hundred horse-power. and subdued the wave. and divide my piece of ginger-root with them . that my slumbers on that stony couch were disturbed by the jackals. with her torch beside. All I could do. partridges running up the hillsides. another one repeated to me an expression so obscene. Our missionary friends down there at Beyrout. James. John. they prove themselves apt scholars . that I was glad to believe he himself didn't know what it meant . As the Giblites know I am a Doctor (not M. late one night.. was to look serious. anything smaller than four-line pica fails to serve them without glasses . Of a sarcophagus. and little cupids Dropping upon an urn their mar'. I say. however. along these territories of the old PhoenicianWhose-iron arm did make the mighty world A reach of beauty. getting up. by a shrewd discerner. Of the effect of the sunlight upon this cretaceous stone and soil." born on the shores of Galilee . the glare of '1 the sun waxed hot" upon the calcareous rock seeming almost to blear my eyeballs . some worthy of record. in printing books for them. de tears . and those other "fishers of men. I append a page or two. 149 do it with practice . Of the jackals I write. I say. which none but a sailor could have taught him. but how should they appreciate the difference?) they often came to me with their wants. seeming to threaten me with a penalty for intruding on their ancient dominion .. though not to be dovetailed with connected subjects. and this may be seen. This labor promotes meditation.D . The natives suppose every American to ae a hakeem (doctor). when I show these people my pocket Bible. Even for this they seemed thankful. I notice. always acknowledging my kindness by the tender . and hard enough to raise the sheet-anchor without a windlass . Of the boys in the bazaars. elegantly carved. they scarcely distinguish the letters . Some tourists delight to corrupt these unsophisticated youth . I made hundreds of notes under the excitement of the moment. No wonder these people have weak eyes . perhaps. and a very little surgical and medical skill makes the traveller extremely useful to them .PAGES FROM MY DIARY. feel the pulse. From a hilly knob just above the town I write : it is a stirring scene-the gazelles playing in the valleys. as old Izaak Walton so often acknowledged. whose dismal howlings rent the air. in the character of Peter. use a type extremely large . I quote : Faith. lighting a candle."-Southey.

it does not lose. with our own : The Roman mile was 0. cost him twenty napoleons-about 880.150 PAGES FROM MY DIARY. as they came to Antioch. the hues they wear . and this oom Will never whiten for despair . by some stupid treasure-seeker. it is well to compare the standards used at different times in this country. Afterwards they became so fond of it as to cultivate the plant and erect large mills for grinding and purifying it. scarcely larger than a pair of yearlings in Kentucky. recalls Sveboda's description of a similar attempt to find gold and silver.689 " German mile 4. The Crusaders. This flower that purples when it dies . fragmentary and heaped up on every hand. Asia Minor. In giving my measurements of distances.. All travel here is ordinarily so slow that the dromedary who carries the mail at the rate of six miles an hour. under the belief that in the centre of the skull is a rich deposit. Of the uncounted mass of art-treasures. Love is triumphant. The fair horse. Whose pale white blossoms at the tips (All else as driven snow) are pink. cornices. Amongst the flowers most common here I no e the cyclamen. Rather it deepens as it lies. One man. and kissed. The people below here are cutting and planting joints of sugar-cane. • • • Old. kept. running north of Junia Bay. word backsheesh. and en . Numbers of camels were winding down the mountain-side laden with squared stones for buildings at Beyront . still shows the ruts worn into it by Roman chariots in the days of the empire. was plowing with two little oxen. A wheelbarrow couldn't now be trundled over it without . A nd mi nd me of my true love's li ps.000 " The average caravan journey with camels is reckoned at about sixteen miles per day . are prodigies in comparison. by boring into the head of the stone statue at Pergamos. in l 98. The sight of a great cavity bored in the monstrous ashlar in the castle.055 " Turkish mile 0.710 of a geographical mile. today. and recall the lines'Tis cyclamen I choose to give.thrown together with common stone to make walls for the fields. The fellow who did it hadn't much in the centre of his skull . As other flowers. mules make about eighteen miles . and the blooded Arabian who gallops one hundred a day. such as I am riding. Hassan says the camel here is worth from 8100 to 8125 for a good one. Arabic mile 1 . first ate and described sugar-cane . The old Roman road. I say : these elegant mouldings. etc. tablatures are . near Jericho.

the blue and grand sea. the magnificent Lebanon in the rear . where no docks can be built. I told him to invite the soldiers to coffee at my expense. 151 danger to the wheel.ence . The town of Junia is beautifully located. is still kept up. for W cups. I watched the exercises of the soldiers here to-day. is in the hillside. and it would have shocked old Baron Steuben to see how quick he (the drill-master) lighted it and commenced smoking. On a coast like this. A mile north of it is a place of romantic interest . partly artificial. and-. the interminable line of telegraphic wire connecting this retired nook with the outer world . and got a cut for it from the drill-master's ratan.why was I not an artist?' To-day I first saw that the ancient custom of hauling the coasting vessels on the shore for repairs. traces of an arch inclosing it with faint l ii . Could they have kept their eyes off me. particularly in the Manual of Arms. the thundering roar of the breakers making its walls quiver . i#n ancient ruin crowning a high point near by . at an outlay to me of a trifle less than a dollar (6 mills a cup. which he did. I smiled every time . is how much?) . while one hundred and fifty mouths watered to do the like. fifty pairs of eyes made me their focus As I saw they wanted me to smile in token of approbation. which they went through well enough . I offered him one of Hassan's cigarettes (I don't smoke myself).PAGES FROM MY DIARY. with four sail-vessels in sight . a palm-tree on another emit . where the workmen were talking and repairing them. but every time the drill-master rested for an instant. one hundred and . and I do not wonder the rich citizens of Beyrout like to reside here in warm weather . such a method is indispensable. they would have done better . in a sheltered cove. This made the lance-corporal so happy that he snickered. or for wintering and storms.good enough for him . As I saw the drill-master wanted an excuse to speak to me. A cave.es around the top . A number of themwere thus disposed of a few miles from Gebal. about three hundred feet from the beach.

PAPYRUS IN LAKE HULEH.

THE FIG.

THE TALL CEDARS OF LEBANON.

DIVISION FOURTIL-LEBANON

As Lebanon's small mountain-flood Is rendered holy by the ranks Of sainted cedars on its banks . Hangs o'er sainted Lebanon. Whose head in wintry grandeur towers, And whitens with eternal sleet, While summer in a vale of flowers Is sleeping rosy at his feet, Lifting their dreamy tops far into the heavens, there seems to be a commons majesty about them : keeping ward and watch over the world below, they stand, Like earth's gigantic sentinels Discoursing in the skies . How calm, how beautiful comes on The stilly hour when storms are gone . Palestine sits, as represented in the well-known coin of Vespaslan, desolate, robbed, and spoiled, a widow amidst the graves of husband, children, and friends . And the trees, once so numerous that everybody in the land had heard of them, and almost every one had seen them, are now so few that, as Isaiah Predicted (x. 19), a child may count them . Lebanon is ashamed and hewn down (Isaiah xzxUL 9).

Like a glory, the broad sun

CHAPTER X.
CLIMBING UP LEBANON .

HE third of the Se vpn Grand Masonic Localities, according to my system, is Mount Lebanon, the site of the cedars . First, I took my readers to Tyre, whence came the Pillar of Strength, King Hiram, and his multitude of skilled employes, to whom the work of temple-building was familiar. Second, I led them to Gebal, the seat of the Schools of Architecture, whence came out that wisest of ancient Builders, Hiram Abif. In the present division I shall discuss Lebanon, the source of the cedar-trees, of which such large quantities were used by King Solomon, not only for the construction of the Temple, but for his palace in Zion, in which this material was so largely employed that the edifice was called 11 the house of the forest of Lebanon:' Following the order already commenced, the reader may expect to be conducted successively to the bay in which the cedars were gathered into rafts (11 flotes ") ; to Joppa, where they were drawn ashore for land-shipment ; to the clay-grounds in the plain of Jordan, where the foundries were established, and finally to Jerusalem, where everything was consummated, both inoperative and speculative Masonry . Until within a few years, it was thought that the only remains of the once abundant forests of cedars that crowned the caps of Lebanon, in its entire range, were at a point about three days' journey northeast of Beyrout, and nearly due east of Tripoli . It was there that travellers sought them, and many a glowing account of their immense trunks, their lofty tops and spreading foliage, has been transmitted to us through travellers' journals. There are about five hundred trees, great and small, in the grove at that place, on the head-waters of the Kadisha (the Sacred River), that flows into the Mediterranean Sea near Tripoli. Latterly, however, large groves of the same trees have been discovered, particularly one within a day's journey of Beyrout. The trees here, though not quite so large as the others, are of the same

BEGINNING A STAGE-RIDE.

.

157

species of cedar, viz ., the Cedrus Libani, or Pinus Cedrus, as another botanist styles it, and amply repays the visit of the tourist . I started from Beyrout to see them, April 25th, in company with Brother Samuel Hallock, and propose now to make report of my journey. The way out of Beyrout is by the French turnpike towards Damascus. . This I followed for twenty-five and a half French miles, equal to about eighteen of ours. It is an excellent road, perfectly smooth, ascending the whole way in a romantic serpentine, in which the traveller is never out of sight of the sea. The thick groves of olive and mulberry trees around Beyrout, with the heavy snow-banks that crown the mountain-tops before you, and the increasing coolness of the breeze, afford delightful sensations. Some of these valleys around which the road winds, are deep and impressive, while the variety of travellers, the cultivated terraces, and the thousand novelties of which one never gets weary, take away from the monotony of ordinary travel, and give a delightful zest to the undertaking . To give an accurate account of travel upon these mountains, I insert here, as the most fitting place, a description of my stage-ride, a month earlier, from Beyrout to Damascus . There is only one stageline in all Syria' and Palestine, and for this good reason, only one road on which a stage could travel . Wheels are a superfluity here ; legs have the monopoly . Over this one stage-road I passed, March 26th, 1868, on my journey from Beyrout to Damascus . The road is 1.10 French miles in length (equal to about seventy-five American miles) and is passed over in fourteen hours ; the way, of course, being extremely mountainous . The stage (or, as termed here, diligence, pronounced dily-zhonce) starts for Beyrout at 4 A .m., and arrives at Damascus at 6 P.m. I arise at 3 A.M ., being called by my host, Brother Hallock, who has insured his own waking up by the primitive process of sitting up all night ; get a good cup of coffee and a bite, and go, followed by his faithful servant Asaph (pronounced Hasaf, accent on the last syllable), down to the stage-office, lantern in hand . A person in any Oriental city caught out after dark without a lantern goes to prison, or only avoids that penalty by a heavy backsheesh to the officer who arrests him. As we walk down the narrow lanes (which are over-honored by being called streets) the only living objects met by us are the police (who are soldiers carrying muskets, so very useful a weapon in the dark!) and the dogs. The latter, having no owners, lie out at nights and bark at all who approach them .

1 58

YELLAH ! YELLAH ! YELLAH !

The stage-office is a room twelve feet by eight, in which the baggage is weighed . I am allowed a weight often okes (whatever that means), and as mine weighed eleven I pay a piaster and a half (nine cents) extra for that . My stage-fare, 101 piasters, is equal to about $4.00 in our currency. At this season the stage is so much in demand by travellers that seats must be engaged several days in advance. Seven mules, three abreast, draw the diligence. Seats are arranged in four compartments, and tickets sold accordingly . The lower story is divided into two rooms. On top there is a seat for four immediately behind the driver, and a place still further back among the baggage where a dozen or more can sit, uncomfortably. The whole diligence is nearly as large and quite as heavy as an ordinarily sized Masonic lodge-room in the United States . My seat is on deck, beside the driver, the pleasantest berth of all, and cheaper than in the lower cabin. The front room below is occupied by a Syrian, his wife, servant, and child ; the back room by a Turk with his hareem. By the way, I got a sight at the women at breakfast-time, but am not tempted to a second peep. Pale, sickly, and faded, like bundles of old pinks -that is about the way they look, to me . The seven mules are started by the driver coming down in his seat with a concussion like a heavy rock, and screaming out in French " beep." If that word has the same effect upon horses accustomed to the English language, I recommend my readers to try it ; it will stimulate into motion even the most obdurate . Our seven quadru. peds go off like a shot ; the assistant driver, whose business it is to manage the brakes, shouts yellah, yellah, at the top of his voice . This word, I am told, was originally intended as blasphemy, but in modern parlance it only means go ahead. YELLAH ! right through the public square, where in the day-time all manner of professions are followed, from trading horses to cheat . ing us Franks in the purchase of antiques . YELLAH ! into a narrow lane and up a hill, with the tail-end of the constellation Scorpio right before me, as I peer over the driver's head upon the morning sky beyond . YELLAH ! past the stonecutters' shops where yesterday I saw the descendants of the ancient "Giblites" at their devices, each one squatted upon his hams in true Oriental style . YELLAH ! past the office of the American Consul, the kind and gentlemanly Mr. J. A. Johnson, his national coat-of-arms appearing faintly over the gate, near which all day sits his military guard, sword in hand, as becomes the armed defender of so great a nation .

ENGINEERING OVER LEBANON.

159

YELLAH! past the dwellings of Beyrout's aristocracy, each with its verandas with galleries, and queer eyelet holes, its orange-groves in the trickling grounds of water from the fountains in the court . YELLAH ! past the big sycamore trees holding their great limbs horizontally out, each strong enough for a dozen of Zaccheus . YELLAH! past the last military station on the borders of the city, and along the lanes lined with the great cactus-leaves, faithful to their trust as any lodge-tyler, and through the interminable mulberry groves with which the suburbs of Beyrout are planted . YELLAH ! past the three palm-trees on the left and the two on the right, and skirting the forest of pine-trees planted here centuries ago by the great Fakah-ad-din, and past those carob-trees, reminding me of the Prodigal Son, and through more lanes of the prickly-pear and past more palm-trees and more sycamores, and now at the foot of the mountains, we address ourselves, about 5 A .M., to the ascent of Lebanon . Let me read a Biblical passage ; it is good to go up the sides of Lebanon with the Word of God in one's mouth : "The glory of Lebanon shall come unto thee, the fir-tree, the pine-tree and the box together to sanctify the place of my sanctuary ; and I will make the place of my feet glorious ." And shall I this day in good truth pan over Lebanon? Forty-five years ago I read that passage in Isaiah, when a little boy at my mother's knee. "At last ; all things come round at last ! " The French engineers did their work well in building this road . Its grade is nowhere (except in one place) more than the ordinary road-level of a good highway, though to get over the range, which is some 8,000 feet in altitude, the task is a serious one . The road, in fact, winds like a serpent, often returning almost into itself, and traversing a mile of length to gain a quarter in height . A milestone (of French measure) is set for every mile. A telegraph-line, with two wires, accompanies it in the main, but often leaves it for awhile, to gain the short cuts. Lightning, I discover, can go uphill by a steeper grade than the most diligent diligence. In three hours we have attained to the twenty-fifth milestone . By this time the toiling world has fully commenced its day's work, and we are meeting it in endless variety. First an old man driving his loaded donkey ; then a cavalcade of mules heavily laden ; then a lot of camels piled tip with rawhides ; then a long succession of covered wagons be'. longing to the telegraph company, each drawn by three mules ten-

160

LOOKING BACK.

deco. We change our own team every hour, usually putting on siz horses or mules, sometimes only five, in one instance eight, according to the character of the grade . At the stations all the Arabs of the vicinity gather in, and every one helps, with tongue and hands, to shout and fasten the rope-harness used in this country . The horses are in general miserable, worn-out, half-fed beasts ; the mules look better. At the foot of the mountain I had observed the snowy top in advance, apparently quite near ; but it was not until nearly nine o'clock, and I had come thirty miles, that I reached it . Snow has fallen enormously deep up here, and even now the banks are very thick, and the snow so hard as to bear the weight of a horse . No wonder it is so cold here as to require gloves, overcoats, and wrappers, although at Beyrout it was too warm for any of them . About daylight we see a jackal sneaking into a ravine from his dirty deeds of darkness . He reminds me for all the world of a prairie-wolf. Looking up the mountain-flanks, all seems desolate and uncultivated ; but, looking backwards from this height, what a mistake l every square rod of ground is cultivated, mulberry-trees, fig-trees, olive . trees, etc, by millions striking their roots into this soil, the latter especially "sucking oil from the flinty rock," as the Scriptures figure it. The picture is the reverse of the locust image ; for, as you ascend the mountain, before you seems the desert, behind you the garden. Grain is shooting greenly from every flat, and promising its owners an hundredfold. 'Tis curious, however, to ask where these people live, for while surveying a vast area of cultivated land you don't see a single house. The reason, however, is, that the houses are built of stone, with flat roofs covered with earth, on which, at this season, grass is thickly growing. They are not distinguishable to the eye for want of chimney-smoke, windows, etc ., etc., as in our country. By nine o'clock I am nearly at the top, after five hours of steady climbing. What a magnificent valley is this on my left! grand indeed ; and here the fig-tree takes the place of the mulberry . The two classes are easily distinguished from each other, as the mulberry is always pollarded and trained to a few horizontal limbs near the ground, being raised only for the leaves . Now the driver and his assistant eat their breakfast ; nothing but a few of the thin, black, heavy, unleavened cakes, whic} is the native bread. No meat, no cheese, no drink of any kind ; cheap boarding I

DINNER IN OSLO-SYRIA .

161

The culverts on this road are of splendid mason-work . The heavy torrents of these mountains demand the strongest kind of conduits to resist their erasive power . An immense machine, made to press the surface of the road into compactness, meets me. We pass the crown of the mountain about half-past nine ; here eight horses are scarcely able to drag us up, with two assistants to run along and whip them . Great crowds of travellers. An officer with thirty foot-soldiers, all in gay spirits. Camels, horses, donkeys, and mules . No private conveyances are met on this road . Going down Lebanon. Good gracious, what speed ! ten miles in forty minutes . Full gallop, and everybody bawling yellah at the top of his voice. It quite takes my breath away to look out from my elevated seat in the parquette. In meeting the loaded animals their conductors have great difficulty in dragging, pushing, and cursing them out of the way. These Arabs do cuss amazingly. One poor donkey, staggering under a load of sacks that almost concealed him, was knocked endwise by our carriage over the parapet, and, . for aught I know, may be rolling down Mount Lebanon yet . The assistant, however, holds the handle of our brakes, and so regulates the motion that we arrive safely in the valley of the Bukaa, the ancient " Ceelosyria," a magnificent prairie-plain, from ten to fifteen miles wide, of the richest soil, all in cultivation . Here, at the stagebarn, I get my "d6jeuner," or breakfast, for which I pay twelve piasters (they call them herrish ; five of them make a French franc) . It was worth it. The courses were fish, stewed meat, fried meat, oranges from the Sidon gardens, Lebanon figs, small but excellent, . the large walnuts (what we call English walnuts), wine of the best, . and coffee. A half-hour to eat it in . No other passengers partake, they having basketsfull of their own . Here in Ccelosyria I hope to catch a glimpse of Mount Hermon, which lies under the sun from my position, and about forty miles off . "As the dew of Hermon and as the dew that descended upon the mountains of Zion ;" how often have I read that passage and longed to cast my eyes upon that memorable height. But I look in vain, nor in all the day's ride can I feast my vision upon it . YELLAH ! a caravan of camels, to which the sight of a stage-coach drawn by six horses is a novelty. They are greatly disturbed at our appearance . They twist their long curly necks in every direction, as if to find a retired spot for escape, and with difficulty are made to obey their masters' voices and keep the road . 11

162

SONGS OF THE PASSENGERS .

A company of gentlemen, mounted on splendid Arabian horses Their saddles are gayly decorated with yellow tasselling ; their large shovel-stirrups ring out a merry music ; their riders are proud to put them to their paces . Everybody here rides with short stirrupleathers, which do not add to equestrian gracefulness . The women whom I meet are generally barefoot, and carry their shoes in their hands ; their lords shuffle along, however, with all the dignity of slippers . Both sexes have their legs bare to a height that I dare not measure with the eye . These women trudging over the highways of Lebanon are about as good-looking as Indian squaws of the squaw-class . Five out of six of them have children in their arms. One of the Syrians, who has his family in the "toupee," comes up and sits by my side. He sings for an hour in the monotonous style usual in this country, and of which no language of mine can afford the slightest idea . Mostly an entire song is limited to three full tones, with its accompanying semitones . It abounds in shakes, in which a particular syllable is made to do service for a whole bar or more of each. I don't understand the words, and I don't want to . It is the very infancy of music, such as would occupy a child at the very earliest age when melody attracts his mind . Accompanied, as it sometimes is, by an instrument of one string, played upon by a bow, and capable of only three notes, these Arabs will continue it in a long, drawling, melancholy monotone for half the night . My Syrian evidently enjoys his own gifts, and so do the driver and assistant, who occasionally pitch in, in a sort of chorus, but all singing the same notes, either in unison or in octaves . Considered as music it is fearful . People here smoke all the time when not compelled by some urgent necessity to intermit the amusement. In travelling they smoke cigarettes, occupying their valuable time in making one while they are smoking another. The tobacco is about the average strength of dried cabbage-leaves ; and as much annoyed as I am when people puff tobacco-smoke into my face, I can really scarcely tell now when this millet-flavored weed is consuming around me . Everybody carries cigarette papers and a box of matches . At home they smoke the narghilela, in which the smoke is drawn through cold water, still more reducing its strength of nicotine, and rendering the habit less deleterious. Were it not that I have been so loud in denouncing the use of tobacco all my life, I might even use a narghileh (" hubble-

OLD-FASHIONED PLOWING .

163

bubble," as the machine is called) myself. But there is nothing like consistency. Leaving my breakfast-place, where I had been studying the Scriptural image of "the sparrow on the house-tops," away we go at a gallop through Ccelosyria . We cross the memorable River Litany (which I shall see again near the city of Tyre ere long), upon a wooden bridge with iron railings. What would the mighty conquerors of antiquity think of that? Meet the western-bound stage from Damascus at 11 A .M., full of passengers . Foreign travellers this year very numerous. This is at the forty-seventh milestone. People plowing on every side, generally with two heifers yoked together . The plow is a crooked stick, forked, the short end having an iron coulter. One hand of the plowman holds the end of the stick, the other prods the poor little cows along at the rate of a mile an hour . Such caricature of plowing ! The wheat and barley not advanced here as in the valley of the Mediterranean, which indeed is very much lower, and consequently warmer. Opposite milestone No . 53, pass a "tell," or hill, such as often occurs in Scripture history . It is black with browsing goats . This magnificent plain is a very garden of the Lord's own spreading forth ; but with such want of agricultural skill it yields scanty returns. Oh for a colony of good American or European farmers, with cattle, and implements of modern make ! I observe that the skirts of the Lebanon mountains that slope towards this beautiful valley are not terraced or cultivated at all . Near the east end of the valley is another "tell," green with springing grain. Near it is a Mohammedan wely or tomb, as I should guess from its appearance . The streams that run along this valley are all full to overflowing from the melting snows in the heights above. At the sixtieth milestone, at noon, we begin to rise the mountains of anti-Lebanon, nothing like so high or steep as the other, yet high enough, and wanting in all the beautiful terrace-cultivation, etc ., of the forepart of the day. For four hours we scarcely meet a person, or observe any signs of human life, save the numerous laborers on the road, and one little town on the left . I forgot to mention several crowds of English and American tourists, hurrying to Beyrout to catch the steamer of Sunday next . The Oriental lives of these amiable and helpless beings is divided into two anxious parts, one to get to a place, and the other to get away. These folks got to Damas-

164

ORCHARDS OF APRICOT AND PEACH,

9

eus, a hundred of them, night before last . All day yesterday they spent in contriving the means to get away from there this morning . They pay fabulous sums of money to accomplish these two objects, and when they get home all they can with truth tell, as the reward of their travels, is the dust, the lies, the swindles, the fatigues, and the great expenses of their tours . I shall grin with fiendish look for the rest of my life when I hear them talk of their travels. Travel enough they have, in all conscience, but all that they see except vanity and vexation can be put into a pomegranate-seed . At the change of horses at milestone 85, I walked on ahead for a half-hour. Saw an enormous lizard, out-lizarding everything I had conceived of in the lizard line . Saw an old-fashioned home, which a family had established for itself by setting up thorns round the month of a cave . It is the "camel-thorn," so called, and a terrible thorn indeed. Here, too, I first observed the basaltic rock of this range, black, metallic, and sonorous when struck . The bright crimson anemone waves in charming contrast with it . Ten miles further, and I am approaching Damascus, called by the French "Damas," without the cus, and by the natives, "Es Shems ." Here the fence-walls, out-buildings, and finally the buildings themselves, begin to be made of clay-bricks, cut out about four feet square, dried in the sun and set upon their edges . These are the adobes of the Mexican people, and, I am told, make quite durable material for building purposes ; certainly they are cheap. Crows in great abundance are calling to each other, in the purest crow-English, just such as I remember from a boy . If a certain distinguished Iowa gentleman were here, he could sing his " crow song," and be respected . Vast apricot and peach orchards in full bloom . Fig-trees in abundance. No more prickly-pears . The sycamore-trees gigantic . A straight wet-land tree in close clusters . Another jackal creeps up the hill, followed by the curses, both loud and deep, of the driver . I don't know enough of the language to inquire why he is so down on the jackal : probably his folks have been foully dealt with by them . At 105th milestone we begin to strike the River Barada, one of those lovely streams of which the proud Naaman declared " it is better than all the waters of Israel." I think so too. Filled to overflowing from the mountains in which it rises, it pours through its narrow channel brim-full, end we follow it clear down to Damascus, now crossing it upon a wide-constructed bridge of French masonry ; anon

the oldest city in the world . Here the peculiar training of the horse is seen in the perfect caution and safety with which he does his work . and taking the worst places he comes to so cheerfully as to show he is accustomed to it. Finding that there is no other way. dropping down on two feet at a time when the descent is too great for one. But a Syrian horse is accustomed to be ridden or driven.INTELLIGENCE OF HORSES . now leaving it for a short distance to take advantage of some short cut . Teetering from rock to rock. and others . you get down and attempt to lead your horse . the device of the Square and Compass. the object of one of my life-long dreams--Damascus . I engraved. and explains the perfect preservation of such monuments as Hiram's tomb. The extreme hardness of this material. Leaving the turnpike. washed out by wintry storms from a forsaken road . If you are alone. the change to a Lebanon bridle-way is at once painfully evident. now pressing closely upon it. the beautiful gem where two of Mohammed's daughters lie interred . Sometimes we rounded the sides of precipices so high and steep that I was fain to shut my eyes in dismay. You begin to descend a hill so steep that you involuntarily stop and look around to see that the road before you has no been abandoned. Finally . and prepares to mount the second . the Fountains of Solomon at Etham. so long exposed to the weather. That day's journey gave me a new idea of the intelligence of a Syrian horse . Sometimes we meandered among gigantic masses of rocks shaken from the mountains by some old earthquakes . on the surface of a large. Sometimes we crossed stone bridges so narrow and rough that nothing but the peculiar construction of the horse's shoes (made to cover the whole foot) prevented him from slipping . springing up a long step. 165 galloping along its beautiful banks under the shadows of these dense orchards . At the point where I left the turnpike. the horse soon brings you to the foot of the first hill. the gateway to the road to Palmyra . smooth stone on the left-hand side of the way. almost into its waters. At first sight it resembles those deep gullies some times observed in our own country. until the river Barada and our stage-coach burst forth together into the plain of Damascus. thus we go at headlong speed. placing his feet successively into crevices barely large enough for them. there is no other remedy but to remount and let the animal bear you down the hill at his own discretion . made the task a painful one to wristmuscle. so narrow is the glen through which it flows . not led. the city of Abraham and Elisha and Paul . the great inclosing wall of Mount Moriah.

22) . roads rocky and bad. and Lebanon fell by a mighty one (Isaiah x. paths tortuous and fatiguing . hardly prudent to remain on horseback.166 PATHS TORTUOUS AND FATIGUING . 6) . Where the summits glitter with streaks of snow. as the Latins used to say. it is a poem without words . when the Lord of hosts lopped the bough with terror. this is the pines allapenses of the botanist. and the high ones of stature were hewn down with iron. covered with a hundred wintry water-courses . sharp. a bitter. low as the hill is high. A few memorandums that I made on the point of a precipice will come in very well here . toiling far beyond my strength until " my face did wax pale" (Isaiah xxix . the cliff before and the wolf behind . cut by every rain . perpendicular rocks. mutum est pictura poenza. The experience of a ride up Lebanon is something never to be forgotten . the crest of a steep bill in the midst of a wilderness of rugged ravines and impracticable crags . and not far from here the Owely . cold wind sweeping down from the snow-clad heights of Lebanon . A hill that none but man can climb. with many twistings up and down. the grass fails. 34) . the other an inaccessible wall . roads winding to all points of the compass. we arrived at the village of Ain-Zehalteh and closed our first day's stage . bare and stony. a tergo lupus. " A lowly vale. a fronte precipitum. as the precipices are frightful. up and down among the hills . a frightful mountain-pass . some hollow vale . My view from this point suggested a thousand passages referring to height. going high up where "the hay withers away. and there is no green thing" (Isaiah xv. with their swift waters. but romantic and picturesque . one side dropping down upon high. the picture would be complete. xxix ." where the hardy pine-tree thrusts its roots deep into the rocky side of the mountain . It seemed if I was on "the highest part of the dust of the earth" (Proverbs viii. poured from gushing springs. past beds of iron-stone. over a country wild of aspect. stony and wooded . ways very narrow. "As when the winter streams rush down the mountain sides and fill below. Roads tortuous and rocky. . 7) which Israel gave for the service of the house of the Lord . And the villages crown the knobs below. which I crossed the other day going from Beyrout to Sidon. recalling the "one hundred thousand talents of iron" (1 Chron . 26) . If the reader could only see how my hair stood on end with fright while writing them. and the risk of rolling over with the horse is imminent ." Here rises the Damoor.

in 1852. a company of 100 men came down from the mountain. resembling the lions graven on the side of St. naturally divert attention from close examination of the features . slovenly fellow. Scanning this man's dress I observe. for such are observed to oversize those who dwell in low levels . These regular Turks seem tome generally to wear alight and florid complexion . undf. and flowing beard. even Alit . Another man passes us. and the work of cutting and removing the cedars was intrusted to the mountaineers . arms. He has a long venerable beard. Not a man in the company was less than six feet. that the Turkish dress hides all deformities of limb and person. They gave us the best fare at their command. 8) is that in which the mountain that had been widowed of its noblest trees by Sennacherib and other Assyrian tyrants." At the interment of Past Grand Master Henry Clay. in the preacher's room. 167 In the destruction of Assyria. I read of an herb growing along this road that colors of a golden hue the teeth of animals that browse upon it. of whom I inquire what part of these mountains no man can pass over . At the village of Ain-Zehalteh there is an old fountain. while the variety of color. can run through ! A female school recently opened here. Stephen's Gate. Kentucky. supposed to be . at Lexington. Old Sandys remarked. The mountaineer replies that he can go up or down any wady on horseback that water. enabled me to secure pleasant accommodations with the teachers . a thing from which military officers and soldiers are debarred . The men living among these crags are considerably larger and far more muscular than the dwellers in the plains . His sash holds his pistols and sword. in 1610 : "Perhaps the cause of their strength and big proportions is that they are bred in the mountains .THE PEOPLE 1 MEET. and left us to a repose needed after the day's ride . and their average weight was 240 lbs. spread for us on the floor. sufficient bedding.r the patronage 0f the Protestant Missions of the country. Lebanon is said to rejoice. When a boy. at Jerusalem. an ill-favored. joins in the cry of exultation that goes up to heaven at the downfall of the kingdom . which has a pair of carved leopards on it. now disused. One of the finest thoughts in Isaiah's prophecies (xiv . what other writers have remarked before. Doubtless it was so in Hiram's day. but I can find nobody here who ever heard of it. ! A man has just passed me with yellow slippers and red shoes over them. riding blood-horses .

standing in the snow-drifts. and as it proved. 18). a cedar-tree fifteen feet in circumference. Beams of our house are cedars (Cant . high up on the mountain-side . The cedars of Lebanon rejoice at thee (Is . civ. several tombs of that singular people. xiv. but that piece of work took the conceit out of me forever and a day. The particular connections between the cedars and the mountains are these : Devour the cedars of Lebanon (Jud . Looking above me. ii. 8) . We mounted mile after mile. Again I went on. to whose particular form of Free . Grow like a cedar (Ps. also. ix . 12) . and occasion : high 12-Lebanon-visit to the cedars ! While recovering my breath I referred to some of the authorities concerning these memorable trees-such as these : An house of cedar (2 Sam . cold as win ter. however. The cedars of . which once beheld can never be forgotten . from the cedar (1 Kings iv . which. 17) . Boards of cedar (viii . and finally the line of vegetable and insect life . and the line of singing-birds. 1 . masonry I will call attention in a subsequent chapter . Upon all the cedars of Lebanon (Is. 2 Chr. which occupied a slope of ground almost perpendicular . 'We passed the line of scarlet poppies and other gay flowers. and devoted the first hour reflecting upon the time. Now I came to the line of the snow-drifts. We passed the highest barley-fields. Here we left our horses hnd made the ascent on foot . and divided symmetrically into four noble trunks . 2) . At last I reached the lowest. Here I threw myself exhausted. The cedars of Lebanon (Ps. Some forty other references may be traced through the concordance . This is the first time I discovered that a man's knees at fifty are not the same machinery as at thirty . I used to be noted as a good walker and climber . with tottering knees. 33) .168 AT THE FOOT OF THE CEDARS . xcii. The mountain-air revived me in my heat and fatigue. The thistle sent to the cedars (2 Kings xiv . Early the next morning we took a guide and started for the cedars. It took us two hours' hard riding even to the foot of the slopes below them . 15). 16) . the Druses. There are here. vii. xxv. and withdraw as I advanced . across which the winds sobbed. as I stopped occasionally to look back and enjoy the splendid panorama of the Mediterranean Sea seen from Mount Lebanon. 9 . the cedars appeared to mock my desires. remains of the Crusaders' period. were in plain view. 9) . He spake of trees. 13) . place. the largest of thR grove. and muscular system so paralyzed by the unwonted strain that I seemed to have no control over it .

as I have served good specimens to them . The King's House on Mount Zion was made of it. the whole of this great range of mountains. with its dark-green leaves. The second and third temples weree equally constructed of cedar. I am here just on the level of Wyoming Territory. generally. the tree of the Lord. but in most of the Biblical references this tree which is now shad:iig me is doubtless meant . and he replied. I asked my guide the name of the tree that bent so grandly over me . equivalent in good Arabic to arz . abounded in this noble tree. The word is applied in Scripture. xiv. and will quote from the description . under which I am sitting. The Amorite in his arrogance and the Assyrian in his greatness were compared to cedars. in the United States.. In the days of the Old Testament writers. hundreds of my patrons are enabled to judge of that for themselves. etc ." The cedar was the prince of trees .THE TALL CEDARS OF LEBANON . to the trees of the pine family. and Solomon used it very largely in the Temple. but especially to the cedar of Lebanon (Cedrus Libani) . The roof of the Church of the Nativity. etc. 5). at Bethany. The Hebrew name erez. Every one who has seen it amongst the snows of Lebanon will recognize the force of the glorious and majestic imagery of the prophets . It is also the model of expansiveness . Monarch of the Forests. the high and lifted up. as it is in the vernacular Arabic. in his corrupt vernacular. The constant growth of the righteous man is described under this similitude . and found only upon spots nearly inaccessible to visitors . 169 Lebanon to make masts for thee (Ezekiel xxvii . probably. with massive branches spreading their foliage rather in layers than in flakes. It worked well in carvings.262 feet above the sea-level. It is certainly close in grain. with its gnarled and contorted stems and its scaly bark. as well as in his own palace. is preseri ed still among the Arabs . now so scarce. etc . This great monarch of twenty or thirty centuries. Everywhere the symbolic expressions of the cedar of Lebanon are lofty and grand : it is the glory of Lebanon. 4. as well as dark in color.. is made of it . and various others . Of the quality of the wood I need not say much . fully asserts its title. 8. was probably the timber of a fragrant species of juniper growing among the rocks of Sinai . Its fragrance is not overlooked in such expressions as "the smell of thy garment is like the smell of Lebanon . arruz. and was used by the Tyrian shipwrights for their masts . The cedar-tree named in Lev.

Doubtless the prophet Obadiah was regarding him under this aspect when he wrote. through the broad spreading branches of the cedars. saith the Lord" (i ." Gradual as the snow at Heaven's breath Melts off and shows the azure flowers beneath. I saw no signs of animated nature. ROCKS. and other varieties of mountain surface . is extremely grand. adorned. far below him . and size. crossing deep snow-drifts. twenty miles nearly in the west . in his statue by Phidias. and. I could see Sidon. they present every color. The view of the great mountain-eagle. were it not for yonder projecting point. was made of cedar-wood. the sides and summits of these everlasting hills are bedecked with the greatest variety and the grandest display of flowers that ever grew . From my present standpoint. and hears the thunder burst. ebony.170 SNOW-DRIFTS. or snow-plant. form. Ten thousand axe-men are now (the winter of 1872) chopping pines in the forests of Michigan alone. at so great a distance. the lighter and more delicate the colors . " Though thou exalt thyself as the eagle. loose gravel-beds. every blow struck must be equal to six of Hiram's choppers. with gold. and mounted to the top of the range. an exquisite gem of floral beauty . 4) . and had not the wind been blowing so excessively cold. using the clumsy copper axes . thence will I bring thee down. piles of rocks. I should have enjoyed a longer tarry. With the exception of a few pheasants or partridges that whirred out of a pile of rocks before me. though. at the very loftiest summits grows the palmito nivalis. I could see the island of Cyprus. The higher the peak. eighty miles in the northwest . in an untroubled atmosphere. and a few insects. is inspiring. grand old cedar. sees the lightnings leap and play. and the hurricane roar far. and though thou set thy nest among the stars. with their improved steel axes. The view from the top of the range. my companion and myself left our overcoats at the foot of this. at Athens. Gorgeously arrayed in countless numbers. he sails alone where the eye of man cannot pierce. ivory. no . Serene as the sublime untrodden heights around him. The throne. which is here about 8. and colors. and a few specimens of flowers exhausted the botanical exhibit . AND GRAVEL . of course. were the sun setting so that I might have the full benefit of his light. precious stones. of a traveller there : '1 For nine months in the year.000 feet high. After a good rest. Villages by scores and hundreds dot the hill-sues in every direction. on which the statue of Jupiter Olympus sat. and.

I had chosen to be my Goliath of Gath.TREE OF THE CARDINAL VIhTUES . and William. as valuable additions to their cabinets . present Emperor of Germany. How he has managed to climb so high with his poor little cattle. I secured a large trunk of a tree. who in their day did not deem it derogatory to their greatness to patronize the Masonic assemblies. and call up in succession the names of seventeen persons whom I have reason to remember with gratitude or kindness. and then. dated " On Mount Lebanon. the sight thereof to the end of all the earth . preparatory to sowing his late barley . and what he expects to raise in this mountain-zone. after carving the Square and Compass deftly upon its root. Of the wool. the leaves fair. viz . still less good boards . of all the trees around me. I return to my great cedar. 171 signs of inhabitants can -be detected. : Frederick the Great. the Tree of the Four Cardinal Virtues. the natives had doubtless gathered the best for fuel .. and indeed so many others as to give the entire grove a stumpy appearance. the present Charles XV . From all of them the Arabs have lopped off the superfluous branches. I ate heartily of the victuals we had prudently provided before leaving Beyrout. save a single plowman far beneath me. long since felled . 1868. snug myself in a nook on the leeward-side of the tree. which. mostly of good size. Returning. those large and handsome seedvessels. of France . reaching unto heaven. I named it. I apply four names of earth's monarchs. Upon only one did I discover any cones. cut in two. who is turning up the earth between two snow-drifts. and the height thereof great. the very one which Daniel might in spirit have seen and described as his "tree in the midst of the earth. To each one of these I wrote a letter. the beasts of the field having shadow under it. King of Sweden . of Prussia . however. had it rolled down the mountain-side the day following my departure. April 26. I cannot tell. My guide. but none of them tall enough to furnish a mast or beam. and sent them down to Beyrout . to this tree. on account of its four prominent divisions. I say. Napoleon the Great. 10) . and the fowls of heaven dwelling in the boughs thereof' (iv. so much sought after by travellers . my frozen hands and feet and general discomforts were amply compensated . afterwards collected one thousand for me. The number of trees in this grove is probably a thousand. With these I supplied my patrons. . perhaps rot natural to it ." If these epistles were received and read with half the pleasure they afforded me in the composition. To the four great divisions of this tree. shooting its branches so magnificently abroad. and brought to me on the back of a camel .

a hundred names . So. and collecting an abundance of sprigs and leaves. which mark the birthplace of the Kadisha or Holy River . in fact. it will take no time at all to people it with legends . nor are they entirely confined to the grove . My very knee-caps twinge now with the remembrance as I write of that slipping. and around it are gathered the very tallest and grayest heads of Lebanon . and waving my Masonic flag to the winds of Lebanon. not more than five hundred trees. I again spent the night at Ain-Zehalteb. I alluded to the great cedar-grove at the head of the River Kadisha . great and small. How glad I was to have the relief of my saddle I need not say. they are no higher than the younger trees. Those are much the largest specimens of the Cedrus Libani known to be in existence. and retail their shenanegan around it. back to that of Lamartine. Though the patriarchs are of enormous growth. surrounded with the dwarf round-topped pine and -umbrageous carob (the name means "The spring that has moved"). In the opening of this article. Young trees are constantly springing up from the roots of old ones. Some of these trees have been struck by lightning. grouped irregularly on the sides of shallow ravines. The extreme cold of the mountain-air warned me away . Willebald. I started upon the descent. scrambling. will be engraved here . or broken by enormous loads of snow. As soon as this grove is thoroughly" discovered. From my own cognomen. yes. Professor Tristam says of them : " The trees are not too close. which is the Bible of all English-reading tourists. highly gratified with my successful and invigorating visit to Lebanon. Thompson says : "The platform where the cedars stand is many thousand feet above the Mediterranean. the same as seen in the " Sacred Grove. Every tree will have its name. The forest is not large. and-I forget the list. The whole of the upper terrace of Lebanon might again be covered with groves of those noble trees ." and gets into Porter's Hand-Book. many of which reach a circumference of eighteen feet ." Dr.172 CEDAR-GROVE ON KADISHA. or torn to fragments by tempests. Monks will come here and build their shanties. after cutting a good stick. and it is quite probable that some of them even antedate the time of the Hirams . only less adventurous and even more tedious than the ascent . tumbling journey to the base of Mount Lebanon . and returned next day to Beyrout." at the head of the Kadisha-a regular itinerant directory. worse than the one on Cheops' pyramid. and from seeds of ripe cones. will be carved all over with names .

They shall cut down her forest" (xlvi. And now for a few desultory passages from my diary : Sitting under this" Tree of the Four Cardinal Virtues. and then " took a great stone and set it up there under an oak." and made it a witness unto them.c. and it is said there are more of them now within fifty miles of London than on all Lebanon :' It is said also that these groves of cedar east of Ain-Zehalteh. a branch that springs out at a height of fifty feet being six feet in diameter. 1427). 12) : "The day of the Lord is upon all the cedars of Lebanon that are high and lifted up . nearly five centuries before . and recounted all that God had done for them since the call of Abraham (B . as hewers of wood . could. however. This was. They have been propagated by the nut or seed in many parts of Europe. a few years ago." Down at Bethlehem. as compared with the size and abundance of the cedar forests in olden time. one stump has been measured which was thirteen feet in diameter . 1322." let me summon up one of that cloud of witnesses who found the cedar a worthy type of inspired truth. who cut them down for pitch . As Joshua. so let me set this rude ashlar on its end. the rows of unpainted beams in the old church acknowledge this forest as their source . is of course a much larger tree than anv of these. I said. 173 and furnish timber enough. what we commonly style cones. and made a covenant with them. are springing upon every side .-xxv. when he had waxed old and was stricken in age. I can only say that the largest tree I found there was but five feet in diameter (fifteen in circumference) . boast of their ten thousand cedars . Vigorous young plants.D . They shall march with an army. but the sheikh sold them to a native. Seeing how few and comparatively dwarfish these are. An old pilgrim who was here A . The so-called California pine. 22) . a hundred miles southward. not only for Solomon's Temple %nd ' the house of the forest of Lebanon. called all Israel together at Shechem (B . of course. "lest they should deny their God" (Joshua xxiii .' but for all the houses along this coast.SETTING UP A MEMORIAL. thirty feet in diameter.c. wrote that cedar-trees grow very high in these hills and produce apples as great as a man's head . he who noted the rush of the workmen that poured up these slopes at the command of Hiram to cut the great trees.) . we see the force of Isaiah's expression (ii . 1921). which I have just visited. Jeremiah : "When I prophesied of the hosts who should swarm under Nebuchadnezzar to destroy Jerusalem. and come against her with axes. and gratefully recount what God has done for me since I left my native laud .

" 9 inches square. of the following dimensions Yellow pine. as late as 1837. fastened to the forehead by a strong cushion.174 FROM LEBANON TO MORIAH. 18 to 20 inches quare.000 trees of different sorts . 2. The incalculable quantities of cedar transported by the mariners of King Hiram.052. but sinewy and patient of labor . 80 feet Green pine. At Ain-Zehalteh. and supporting a white veil which concealed the face . 35 Linden. From the vicinity of Alexandrette they furnish yellow pine and other sticks. I remarked that nothing is sc painful among these grand historic mountains as to see the degradation of the women of the Lebanon villages . or silver horn." and he asked leave to build "an house of cedar" for Divine worship . when stepping on a stone. and scanty garb . and govern themselves accordingly. 500 years later . Year by year from that time from 50. In 2 Samuel vii . that the reader is almost tempted to suggest an exaggeration in the figures. contrast so widely with the scanty yield of the present day. Yet. coarse. bending under. 70.000 to 60. clothed as they are in filthy. David says to the pr-)phet Nathan : "I dwell in an house of cedar.000 were required to be thirty-five feet long and eight inches square . to calculate on its rolling. often two feet in length. A generation back. and compelled to witness their unseemly deportment.000 trees were shipped thence to Egypt . But this strange and characteristic ornament is now dispensed with . The horses I meet are lean and poor in flesh. two months ago . As I do not know why they wore it. It is humiliating to be the object of their silly stare and rude laughter. Evidently they are accustomed. neither can I explain why they have discontinued it . the Pasha of Egypt sent to these same mountains with an order for 1. Assumed at her marriage. « 15 " cc " 27 The allusions to the use of the Lebanon cedar in the construction of Solomon's various works are frequent . the Druse women of Lebanon wore the tantura. 20 Beech. the rest smaller. Descending from the steeps in lengthened files. The . from Lebanon to Jerusalem. she never laid this aside until prepared for the grave. Their nimbleness at a stumble is only inferior to a goat's . burdens which their weak frames can ill sustain-here are the women of the Koran . Of these. with heavy loads of wood upon their heads. The same appear in the Zerubbabol constructions. 50 long.

which was reserved for his son Solomon. 5 : "They have taken cedars of Lebanon to make masts for thee ." "He built the walls of the house within with boards of cedar . It stood "upon four rows of . To facilitate the work of constructing a temple. contained in 1 Kings and 2 Chronicles. are seen these references to cedar material : "He covered the house with beams and boards of cedar . It is. such quantities of cedar were used as surpass all computation . loftiness. the cedars of Lebanon which He hath planted. to draw them. King of Tyre." the chambers. five cubits high against the house. with boards of cedar ." the altar in the holy place was of cedar. to bring them down 6." In two minute accounts of the temple-building. was truly immense." "The cedar of the house within was calved with knops and open flowers ." Many other references of this sort may be found in the Old Testament by the aid of a concordance. It was. on Mount Zion." for this very reason . all was cedar . both the floor and the walls. 13 : " The cedars of Lebanon are high and lifted up . we read : "The trees of the Lord are full of sap . and. to the plain . But his own house.000 to 8.600 feet by the way . and defies calculation. still more profusely abounded with this costly wood. to shape them into the various uses demanded by the great builder-this labor. The labor necessary to fell these upon the high mountains . ascending some 2.000 feet of perpendicular height. indeed. the same who was afterwards so munificent to Solomon . we say. and they of Tyre brought much cedar wood to David? The cedars of Lebanon are ever a symbol of beauty. to make them up into rafts in the coves and inlets of the coast . In Psalm civ. and grandeur. he collected " cedar trees in abundance for the Zidonians. where the birds make their nests:' In Isaiah ii. when arrived at Jerusalem. to bear them by land thirty or forty miles across the country. to float them seventy-five miles along the shore . 11. termed "the house of the forest of Lebanon." "He built twenty cubits on the sides of the house. "rested on the house with timber of cedar . there was no stone seen . had furnished Solomon with cedar-trees according to all his desire. through frightful passes and down giddy chasms. indeed. In the construction of the great temple upon Mount Moriah." In Ezekiel xxvii . water-sodden. up the acclivity at Joppa . well said in 1 Kings ix . 175 material for his palace had been secured through the friendship of the King of Phoenicia. 16. covered with pure gold.GREAT WORK OF TRANSPORTATION . that "Hiram.

who then possessed the defiles of the Lebanons. and to them of Tyre. No . No . 46. and drink. Stephen Merrill. 229. . cedar pillars. No. 35. Makeany. No 7. . . Ky . No. 191. stand cedars of Lebanon. commenced about B. Y. Foote. 535. . King of Persia. La. No . Tenn . Among them I instance No . or Mount Lebanon .. 32 and 49.. according to the grant they had of Cyrus. 117. etc . . through the Phoenicians. and meat. N. 26. Royal G. D . No. 59. which was by that time greatly decayed. and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams that lay on forty-five pillars. C. Libanus. Ohio . W . C . 226. stretching their wide branches over English earth. either Lebanon. Ala. and oil unto them of Zidon. H." The porch of judgment "was covered with cedar from one side of the floor to the other . as we learn from the writings of the Jewish historian Josephus. As names appropriate to lay upon this great Masonic locality. we read that "they gave money. and procured. 0. Rev. the needed wood for the reparation . Forbes. J. fifteen in a row . No. Nos. Clayton.D . . 104. A very large number of American Lodges are named after this mountain. H. Jacob H. No. 97. Oliver George." In an excellent volume by Mrs . viz. L. . 27) : "The King made cedars to be as the sycamore trees that are in the vale for abundance. : Fred Webber. Medairy. with cedar beams upon the pillars. under the title of "A Woman's First Impressions of Europe. Mass . J." the following passage occurs : "Down the long vistas of the park of Warwick Castle. . the sacred historian says (1 Kings x. . etc. W. undertook to restore the house of the Lord. by Zerubbabel. . 104. Pa . A . . N . perhaps brought from Palestine by the great Earl Guy himself. . N . Md. No . No . Millard. England." To sum up this profusion in a few words. to bring cedar trees from Lebanon to the sea of Joppa." The same thing occurred about 500 years later. that renowned builder.c. the following are selected. W. when Herod." In the re-construction of the temple. Ark . M .176 ZERUBBABEL AND HIS CEDARS .. lately published. No. . Bailey. 86. Vt. and William Mead.

lil n. ANCIENT ALTARS .II01IIIIUMIB MIN11. . GRAND PORTAL 12 AT BAALBEC .

.GENTLEMEN DININQ.

I am therefore chiefly indebted to Brother A. etc . and there hire horses and servants. the Oriental artist and scribe. I noticed." so called in French. The site of Baalbec is a pleasant one. the City of the Sun. a party setting out from there to Baalbec. and be paid for it. There is not a horse in Damascus that couldn't keep the track between that place and Baalbec with his eyes shut .CHAPTER XI. but it is fashionable here to . described in my last chapter. Rawson. the remains of Baalbec and Palmyra are covered with the "Handmarks of Hiram's Builders ! " Baalbec. In other words. For all particulars of the history. have a dragoman. Baalbec lies well up the valley. at my dining station in the Bukaa valley. because doubtless built by the same bands whose chiselmarks are found to-day indented upon the walls and ashlars in the great quarry at Jerusalem . Porter. and buy a "yaller" silk scarf in the bazaars to carry home. or by whom. though the mountain-ride across from Damascus is very rough and disagreeable . with that inevitable and dreadful bore. just as it is to tie a piece of (dirty) white cotton cloth around your hat. At what period. L. thus avoiding three times crossing the bills between that and Damascus-a sensible procedure . It is usual for travellers to go first to Damascus by stage (°° diligence. T was not in my power to visit Baalbec and Palmyra without neglecting more important interests . the . BAALBEC AND PALMYRA. the dragoman. interesting especially to the Masonic antiquary. at the opening of a little nook leading into the main valley . for my notes upon those wonderful (wonder full !) localities. is situated about thirty miles to the left of the route between Beyrout and Damascus. etc.. or Heliopolis. because an exceedingly "slow coach"). Not that there is the least need of this fellow . to torment you. of the place. near some charming rivulets of water. I refer the reader to the larger works of Thomson. Robinson.

D. Julius Caesar. the Greeks. under the name of Heliopolis. The city of Baalbec was irregular in form. there are extant. covering an area of about a mile in diameter (more accurately. copies of the accurate works of Wood and Dawkins. now absent. as Professor Rawson has done. If an American reader. Lebanon limestone.. On the coins of Augustus Caesar. while the colossal platform of the Temple and the be'led masonry under the great peristyle point to the Phoenician architects. in turn.c. and showing that formerly a grand and massive stairway. the Peristyle Temple. The platform itself is elevated twenty feet. Some extremely large and elegant columns of porphyry were taken from here 1. who has never seen any erections larger or finer than the Capitol at Washington. and the Temple of the Sun . 98. were standing than now.c . and porphyry. the wall below being built of large undressed stones. made it a Roman colony. at Constantinople . had a hand in the erection of the later structures. local tradition asso . Sophia. and now form portions of the Mosque of St. The whole ruin maybe best divided. and therefore comparatively recent. about B .500 years since. when many more of the great columns. about B . "Col . into the Great Temple." A sacred oracle was established here a century later. for examination. which the Emperor Trajan. and Syrians have all. in the great American libraries. Romans. two miles in circumference). etc . city was founded is unknown . A . granite. consulted prior to an expedition against the Parthians . and this whole space is piled up with debris of costly and exquisite architecture in marble. we find the corroboration of this fact in the inscription. led up to it from the direction of the rising sun. and thirty-seven feet deep . 31. First comes the portico. ciates it with King Solomon. Fortunately. the . Julia Augusta Felix Heliopolis.180 HISTORY OF BAALBEC. looking west. but it is probably coeval with the most prosperous period of Phoenician history . Weeks and months are profitably spent by architectural students in the study of these three monuments. Only the bases of the columns of the portico remain. . let him be supposed to be standing on the eastern edge of a platform. A slight examination shows that. figured. who explored. will set his imagination to work as to the designs originally drawn on the trestleboard by the Grand Architect of Baalbec (perhaps Hiram Abif himself). 47. just as we know that many of the inscriptions are Saracenic. and wrote up the place in the last century. one hundred and eighty feet from north to south.

On the east. which have been used by the present government as forts . so that a person mounted on the highest projection of the wall is one hundred and thirty-nine feet above the surrounding plain . Syenite. It is four hundred and forty feet from east to west. through the portico. in their very ruin. measuring two hundred and ninety feet from east to west. the two courts. But the wings of the portico. at each end ten . including base. a portion of them being of that hardest and heaviest of stone. 181 columns themselves having been removed or destroyed. The frieze has garlands hung between projections. each of which is adorned with an acanthus leaf and a bust. Great rows of columns surrounded this enormous court. built of stones from twenty to twenty-four feet long. is nearly three hundred yards . the shaft three (fastened together inwardly by massive iron cramps). stairways lead down from them into the body of the massive platform below . The entablature is exquisitely done. north. and south sides of this vast court are right-angled recesses. It is a vast peristyle. The style is Corinthian . are overpoweringly magnificent . which surpasses all of human grandeur that the world contains. two hundred feet deep by three hundred wide (from north to south) . remain almost intact . we find a portal fifty feet wide opening into the second court. of these columns have just been given. and filled up with the egg and dice ornaments . one . etc. we enter a hexagon (six-sided) court. "the mouldings being deep. is composed of six pieces. Passing westward from the portico through a triple gateway. : the base is one. and entablature. and the entablature crossing from pillar to pillar. the dimensions. each having four columns in front of it. and broad and high in proportion. eighty-nine feet! Each of these tremendous works. and three hundred and seventy from north to south . This temple stood on massive walls fifty feet high.GREAT TEMPLE AT BAALBEC. viz . On each side of it were nineteen columns. we come now to the real edifice for which all these costly approaches were made. except some Egyptian edifices. . It was entirely encompassed by recesses and niches which. and the temple itself.. Thus the whole distance from the eastern edge of the platform. Into each wing you may enter from the portico into chambers thirty-one by thirty-eight feet. Still continuing westward. their bases being seven feet three inches in diameter. capital. the capital one. by one hundred and sixty. Still passing westward. and their height." But we are yet only in the outer court of Baalbec's vast temple .

one sixty-three feet eight inches. gigantic architraves. huge capitals that look. situated about three hundred. friezes. Here are the three great stones. Ears of grain. there stands. It is sixty-eight feet in length. and depth eleven. with little figures of genii or elves hid among them. or Apollo. but on a platform considerably lower. and the largest of them all . but the earthquake of 1759 threw down three of these. in the most florid Corinthian style . of which the western part of the platform is composed . From these great ashlars the building was named by the Greeks "the Three-stoned" (trilithon) . attract the eye and gratify the taste. when on the ground. Their height is thirteen feet. lie under the base of the hill. From the centre of all these ruins the great quarries. in one confused mass. Near the southwest angle of this temple is a heap of ruins that form a most striking image of the desolation of architecture . and many choice touches of scroll-work. the most perfect and most magnificent monument of ancient art in Syria. colossal columns of shafts. The portal to this temple. Like the other. and they are twenty feet above the ground. but never used. and nine feet seven inches wide . Near this wonderful building I have just described. yards from the others . the third sixty-three feet. was probably the most striking and beautiful gateway in the world . one-half mile west . to the south. It was ornamented. and ceilings . so long and justly celebrated. finished in the quarry. when entire. the Temple of the Sun. vine-leaves. with every device that could be used. The style is also Corinthian. each about thirty-one by thirteen feet. Here is a stone. The third of these ancient structures to which the traveller will give attention is the Circular Temple. In the northern part of this platform are nine stones. That which my readers will view with the greatest astonishment is the collection of enormous ashlars. and is two hundred and twenty-seven feet by one hundred and seventeen. something larger than the Parthenon at Athens . from which the material for the underlying walls was procured. In 1751. one being sixty-four feet in length. and grapes. making their combined length one hundred and ninety feet eight inches.182 TEMPLE O' THE SUN . Wood and Dawkins found nine columns standing on the south side of this edifice . in the heavy masonry of the wall . fourteen feet two inches . says Rawson. And even this does not express the greatest architectural wonder of Baalbec. and nine from the temple first described . out of all proportion with the airy columns that rise up beside them. it faces the east.

weighs about one hundred and fifteen tons . The column of Alexander. which is seventy-two feet high. a block of Syenite granite has been found that measures one hundred cubic metres (a metre is about two feet) . England. in Egypt. by means of which he was initiated into the mysteries of Egypt. weighs forty tons . and weighs about' one thousand two hundred tons . To a student of the human intellect. The corner-stone of the State House of Illinois. and twelve feet diameter at the base. the man who was visited by Pythagoras. more than thirteen thousand cubic feet of stone. with letters of introduction from the governor of Samos. and thirteen feet broad . Ms . How well it may be said of all these grand buildings : They dreamed not of a perishable home. 183 high. under King Amadis. and seven high . The sarcophagus of King Hiram. A block of granite was quarried a few years since. Gibbon describes an obelisk of the same material. and whatever was abstruse and important in their religion. weighs fourteen tons! In the Emporium Romanum. as being removed from Egypt to Rome. calculated to weigh about one thousand three hundred tons . It was brought from Elephantine . and estimated to weigh four hundred tons .FOUR VAST ASHLARS . it were worth a visit to Baalbec. is eighty-four feet high and fourteen in diameter. Petersburg. and six high. thirteen broad. eleven wide. three hundred and fifty feet long. that is one hundred and twenty-five feet in length. To detach it from the matrix. 569. It contains. The corner-stone at the southwestern angle of Mount Moriah. that is eighteen feet long. therefore. there is a chapel. now in Paris. Who thus could build ! And yet the ancients had no mechanical powers other than those . is estimated to weigh one hundred and twenty tons . One of the ashlars in the ancient work at Stonehenge. It was finished about B. within a few years. for instance. cut from a single block. at Monson. another in the same wall is reckoned at two hundred and thirty tons . weighs about fifty tong. described in a previous chapter. a granite monolith. to muse upon this ashlar! It would be an interesting study to compare it with a few of the great stones wrought in different parts of the world by ancient builders . four thick. Two thousand men were employed for three years in carrying the mass down the Nile .. thirty feet by eight. spoken of in the papers as something ponderous. at St . eleven thousand and four holes were drilled in a line parallel with its front edge . at Sais. The Luxor Obelisk. another seventy.C.

but. 975.184 HOW THE STONES WERE MOVED . or evil spirits) being subjugated by King Solomon. Charles Buckle calculates that if only muscular power was applied to it. were compelled by that remarkable executive to excavate these majestic stones. the death of the Great King was announced to them. as indeed all other extraordinary things in this country. three hundred years ago. It surely was not of any member of the races now inhabiting this valley . at Constantinople. to King Solomon . were taken by the Roman Emperor Aurelian. The dial which the wizard time Has raised to count his ages by ." I remarked before that the eight porphyry columns seen in the Mosque of St. The coins struck here. that time carries his secrets away. The story they tell of the Great Ashlar is. being on the road from Tyre to Tadmor (Palmyra). B . leaving his enigmas to perplex us . I have already remarked that popular tradition attributes these stupendous works. and they incontinently refused to work any longer . by an examination of these unexcelled productions. now in ruins. When that . A poet-author suggests good thoughts in these lines These lonely columns stand sublime. to be cracked from its native matrix. the Phoenician masons who were employed to construct that wonderful vision of the Desert. Mr. Thomson very forcibly suggests that. So far as I can ascertain. they have done nothing in the architectural way since . from the temple at Baalbec. we possess . They are themselves but a stupid race. in Syria. Sophia. Flinging their shadows from on high . Of their flight the Arabic poets say. in the time of Septimius Severus (crowned A. Dr. travellers reported them as exhibiting a skull so large that :~ man could put his head in it. that the devils (genii. W. Some writer has elegantly said here. allowing one hundred and seventy-six pounds to each. just as the largest stone was about. 222) have on the reverse this temple. " they filled the air with the sound of their chains.000 men would not be too large a force. these perfect gems of human art .C . M . Of the largest ashlar I have mentioned. 20. and lay them in order in the platform at Baalbec .D. with the inscription Colonia Heliopolitana Iovi Optimo Maximo Heliopolitana. though. nor theirs half so perfectly at command as our builders have. could refresh their memory in the grandest architectural details.

A. to be described in a later chapter. To visit the place at present involves so heavy an expense. in purchasing protection from the . and his name is even now a household word for liberality and largeness of idea . 71. 262. Boyd Foster. Maynard. the Hebrew tribe that possessed this end of the country as far as David's kingdom extended. was not in a condition to silence the braggadocio . and are best delineated in the splendid work to which I have already referred. 203. Whittaker. equal those of the Pyramid of Cheops. published in England about one hundred and twenty years since . Lodge No . R . Gillette.. M. having been in his royal sepulchre for some thirteen centuries. who. Georgia . is nan)ed. for instance. Breed. His descriptions are unparalleled for elegance of language. W . I have never seen a work that the student of the French language can read with so much profit as his " Souvenirs. 1832-1833. par M . set out for this place from Beyrout. Cochrane. on Notes d'un Voyageur. J. Our good brother Mason. Massachusetts . Charles Spaeth. by planting amongst these grand old Masonic ruins the names of ten brethren. 70. that of Wood and . viz . T . which is the Bible-name of the place.Dawkins. Massachusetts . Ohio. The French poet made a noise in these mountains. From Naphtali. B . E. 1833. McLeod Moore. Quite a number of American lodges have names suggested by this place. also. we may bear in mind that they do not at all. Pennsylvania. honored on the register of American and Canadian Masons. he is said to have cried out. J. or Tadmor. long afterwards. Impressions. Solomon W. We enlarge the circle of association. I have surpassed you ! " This was hard on Solomon. Pensees et Paysages pendant un Voyage en Orient. Iowa . Mahan. " Solomon. The ruins of Palmyra. Sophia was dedicated by Justinian. X . 276. or by particular objects found in its ruins. William 0. 185 great Church of St . Michigan ." In the life-long sorrows of this remarkable man was exemplified the truth of the adage Cuivis dolori remedium est patientia-the remedy for every sorrow is patience. as. After all. when we come to charge our thoughts full of these stupendous proportions. Hobak Lodge (from a Biblical locality between Baalbec and Damascus) is No . March 28th. William Storer.HISTORY OF PALMYRA . are only second in extent and grandeur to those just described. Baalbec Lodge No. and Enoch P. and I regret that I have not more space to give them. 111. Ashlar Lodge No. with twenty-six horses and a whole company of natives for servants and escort . 91. De Lamartine. Lamartine.

for. etc. from Damascus. I saw members of her tribe (the Anazeh) in Damascus. So much was said in the papers against Mrs . as a writer says. for reasons I will detail in my. The tribe to which he is attached is that of El Besher. the piercing. The Anazeh. and faithful . vertical stripes of white and brown . Over this is thrown the cloak (abate) of goats' hair. I was within the turn of a hand in securing a free and safe passage. generous. of five days by the ordinary mode of travel . having usually broad. These people are small and low of stature (about five feet six inches). and have very long pendant points . lined with fur. It is a journey. Digby. 90. The sheikh who furnishes the required escort is named Miguel. kind. and boasting of 10. on the staff of the Pasha. covering the desert from the River Euphrates to Syria. gray or blue. where she is attentive to religious duties. fitful. in April." On their faces is the expression of a wild. that I am constrained to record this testimony in her favor . and are as graceful in movements as our Western Indians before they learn the mysteries of "tangle-foot . The sheikh Miguel married an Englishwoman. an undergarment of calico. viz . but failed at the last moment. chapter on Damascus . it is said. free nature .. he will be found.A 186 SHEIKH OF PALMYRA . the most numerous of the Anazeh tribes . is a nation of itself. The chiefs wear a short scarlet pelisse.000 camelriders.. and large red boots . in the fashion of our June-saint. John the Baptist . Arabs. step light. that but few travellers care to attempt it. while their abrupt speech. and the rest of the time among civilized people in Damascus. but walk erect. On the head is the handkerchief (Kafeeyah) of yellow silk or cotton. whom I met twice in the Protestant Church at Damascus. I hailed a squad of them on the mounds outside the east gate of Damascus one morning. is like the sudden bark of a dog . a few years since. Digby. although his charges are exorbitant-$100 to $150 a head-yet when he has your money in his belt and your life in his power. The sleeves are wide. Mrs .000 horsemen. daring flash of the eye is startling. She lives part of the year in the deserts with her husband. etc. and bears a good reputation among the Protestant missionaries with whom I made acquaintance there . but the common people go barefoot . all wearing the conventional dress of the clan. a fine specimen of the Bedouin . by the way. passed twice round . the most powerful of the Arab clans. tied round the temples by a cord of black camels' hair. and the manner in which they turned on me and snapped their jaws . extending to the mid-leg. and fastened round the waist by a leathern girdle. 1868. by making use of some friendly expression.

187 together would have been alarming. rising up out of huge piles of white stones . With this city the history of Zenobia is associated-Zenobia. horse-pistols like blunderbuses. An abundance of good water was here. for 1. established these as essential points on the journey . Et face ut emptori verba dedisse juvet : -only let me have a profit. Abraham must have come this way B. and asked me for backsheesh. and walls. they laughed too. I only laughed at them. in irregular clumps and single pillars. and arches. half-way from the Euphra. such is the general view of the great "Peddlers' city" of King Solomon . and political importance . and looked about as dangerous as a corner-group of Five-Points loafers . All roads in this country must be regulated by the water-supply. and porticoes . leading her . The reader will particularly recall that of Ovid : Da modo lucra mini da facto gaudia lucro . The way to Palmyra (I had almost forgotten my subject) is by Kuryetein. Here that far-seeing " Merchant-King " established a vast depot for the exchange of commodities . who. the poets derived many of their keenest jests . tes to the Jordan. and on what was once the highway from . and returned again twenty years later . Jacob went to Padanaram by this route. and the fountains of Kuryetein and Palmyra. so desolate. But Jim Fisk's old peddler-wagon could carry all the goods that pass along here now . it is claimed. and a dagger. only that I don't scare worth a cent.500 years. Long lines of columns. and twiddled my fingers gracefully from the end of my nose . Whereat. the wealth of the east and the commerce of the west were conveyed along this highway . Mesopotamia to Syria. Palmyra vindicated the forethought of Solomon in wealth. The appearance of Palmyra is said to be startling and romantic . When Palmyra was in its glory. exist nowhere else . after a moment's exchange of glances with each other. and so. has nothing to compare with it . let me enjoy the delight of making a bargain.w APPEARANCE OF PALMYRA. Ruins so extensive. Queen of the East. so bare. The exiles of Israel and of Judah well knew this weary road . where a supply of water must be taken to cross the desert. 1921. Each of those ruffians of Anazeh had a gun. power. containing a large Christian church . Out of the enormous developments of the trading spirit in those days. fragments of gateways. and impose on my customers ! The situation was the best in the world. Which they didn't get. Syria. Here you are forty miles from Palmyra.C. This is quite a town.

It is of a yellowish white . North Carolina . are of compact limestone. encompassed the Sanctum Sanctorum. 68. brought. 108. so fine and firm in texture as to receive a polish nearly equal to marble . The central door was thirty-two feet high and sixteen wide. which extended through the city about 4. with bronze capitals. a little way east of Tadmor. with walls seventy feet high .000 feet . together 'with the buildings and walls. She was overcome. Lodge No . 248. on the inner side. New York . The entrance to this was on the western side. The sculptures are much like those at Baalbec. had a bracket for a statue . including base and capital. which is one of the great attractions of Palmyra. But. and was doubtless quarried near by . however. and Mesopotamia. and defied the Roman himself . was the temple . 147. Asia Minol. through a triple gateway. it is the Great Colonnade that constitutes the chief wonder of Palmyra. 1. supporting an unbroken entablature. we have the name of Euphrates Lodge No. color. high up the Nile. Virginia . viz . 157. From that period the decline of Palmyra began. ornamented by festoons of fruits and flowers. 740 feet on a side. and others. Two or three columns are still seen here of the Syenite (red Egyptian) granite. Its sides and lintel were monoliths. 274. of course. is fifty-seven feet . A. 55. and near the southeastern corner. Each column. All the other columns. Wisconsin. In this court. all the way from the quarries of Syene. There are remaining about 150 of these columns out of the original number. itself A single row of fluted Corinthian columns. ornamented by a portico of ten columns. armies from these deserts. and taken a prisoner to Rome . Kentucky . Their height.. and not inferior in design or execution .188 THE GREAT COLONNADE. Nearly 100 of the grand columns of this court are yet standing . is contained within a square court. conquered Syria. held up at intervals by winged figures . The names Tadmor and Palmyra have been used in the distinctive titles of American Lodges. sixty-four feet high. It was originally composed of rows of columns. however. and now its population is scarcely three hundred souls. richly sculptured with garlands of fruits and flowers .D. thus forming one -central and two side avenues. From the river. The signs of the Zodiac are seen on a portion of the remaining wall. Porter observes. who reside in some fifty wretched hovels built within the court of the temple.500. as Dr. The Temple of the Sun. England .

S. 0 .LACK OF EXPLORERS . that they do not visit Palmyra. John Hoole. beginning at the top and reading the lines toward the right hand : Messina . B. Minor. Megara . Egypt . It is a strange neglect of those rich and powerful associations.. Panormus . Noble D. Lentini . the London Palestine Fund. Syracuse . Seg esta . A . Wadhams. and bring modern learning and skill to bear upon this ancient and renowned city of the East. Morris. R West. Trapane . the following list of American Masons is associated with Palmyra : Martin H. H. Al . D . Egypt . Tracey. Egypt . Alfred Burnett . so nonored in history. COIN-NOTES EXPLANATORY OF PAGE 862. Rice. etc. Severus . A. Agrigentum . The coins so forcibly delineated on page 362. Harris. Syracuse . . Unnamed . Macrinus . Catania . 189 To make a still closer union of Masonic names with this. COIN OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT. Larner. George W . Alfred W. are thus named.

b ~ an. za Circles I01Triles .D ~ n .ICa rge ma D ZARETH ''k MAIN NEM AR MAHAN 9:ELLA - 1y F ~I r s - N ao ~' „ I ~ ~ ~WIIIO s HE °' aco1 sW 3a` Zydda r.r Y CA PERIED a (. -b $ ~ ' I ) L a ASKEW W so by PY C- rus Guth on' • 35 ~ HEBRON.. A-u . K... ur ve SHILOH E HRAIM .>i • TiJ N .~' - or PALESTINE a1AP USUFMNIN I WO 0 30 . ImEd" rA1a•' 3dW/ll 30 30 / i ~/~ . . R vuaa I Q~ t HA • Kttaz F AU a lids H ~.QSA nih THLE ETHA' d" o . Ancient xuins .Ternin in the time of C$Ivrjr' • 3t - York. • MMAU I. Kiln ll. JAK IA -0 70 BETHEL. :. ~ 7tctmle ~ / 00 . saph .p-O rc)t RILE GI`s z he •W'br.

OR BAY OF THE FLOTES.MASONIC BAY . .

The Holy Land is a country of ruins. Of the signs and ceremonies of Freemasonry. All those objects referred to in the Holy Writings. but far more of arduous labor. 13 . -how fkr these raise its records above the unreal and unconnected rhapsodies and the vain repetitions of the sacred books of other religions . especially in their religious and burial ceremonies . and indeed it is only by such examina- tion that we can appreciate its minute accuracy. By its constant reference to localities. to actual persons. and it is necessary to go under ground and see what "mother-earth" has "heled" there. the land of apostles. of fragments . are in ruins. rock. as well as the Masonic lectures.the Bible seems to invite examination . As the bodies of the ancient craft lie in dust in their stone coffins. the land of Emmanuel. "dust and ashes " symbolize them. matter-of-fact statements of actual occurrences. so of their works .-the Hors LAND 1 The antiquities of this country display less beauty than those of Greece. plain. They remind us greatly more of the people than the artist. and martyrs. the remains of ancient mysteries . in actual places.-THE BAY OF THE FLOTES .DIVISION FIFTH . tree. before any labors of the past ages can be established .-mountain. and confessors . The land of patriarchs and prophets . river. and realize how far its plain. fragmentary remains are preserved here in the customs of the common people.

So down he fell.CHAPTER XIL THE MASONIC BAY. So down he fell. to give a verse showing how hard and heavy the beast died So down he fell. ii) . as feeble do great load to lift. says : 11 My . that earth him underneath Did groan. and like an heaped mountain lay . 2 Chron . his very scales . To amuse strangers and extort from them their loose piastres. the Arab guides even now will show the cave from whence the dragon issued on that memorable occasion. and comparing it with all the other bays upon the coast near by. and forth his life did breathe. So down he fell. I have _modernized Spenser's language. is the MASONIC BAY.and bones . in his celebrated letter to Solomon. This is the sheet of water in modem times known as the Bay of Beyrout. and embarked for Joppa . George's Bay. (Book 1. . on the shores of which the materials of cedar and fir were made up into rafts (" flotes "). And rolling down. that here was the chief of those natural coves or harbors used by our ancient brethren in making up " flotes " of the cedars. which they felled from the sides of the hills. that rise above it. With dreadful poise is from the mainland rift. as a huge rocky clift Whose false foundation waves have washed away. this title referring to the fabled encounter of that hero with the dragon. so graphically described in Spenser's Faerie Queene. That vanished into smoke and clouds all swift . HE fourth of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities visited and identified during my researches in Bible lands. Hiram. George. great Neptune doth dismay . After repeatedly exploring the Bay of St . or more commonly St. Canto XI) . and shipped to Joppa (1 Kings v . I came to the settled conclusion. and for a suitable consideration. which fire cannot burn out of me.

on which his name and his victories were.them to be discharged there. and thou shalt receive them. came down this way to the conquest of Egypt. 700. as I have described in a preceding chapter .INSCRIPTIONS ON THE ROCKS . Lebanon running into the sea. Through the hard limestone of Lebanon. As such it was used for more than three thousand years . in the Assyrian cuneiform . the mighty Egyptian conqueror. passed up this coast. just north of the Bay of St. chiseled in the sides of the native stone for that purpose. when Sennacherib. of which four. had collect ed before me . right in front of it. after achieving great victories in the East. about B. where some ten or twelve other persons. That the reader may understand the subject perfectly. and the unparalleled grandeur of the overhanging hills upon the east . hieroglyphical records of his victories. a work. one of them quite recently stranded. he engraved upon large smooth panels. unto the place that thou shalt appoint me.C. On the day I first rode around it (March 5) the bay was lashed into fury by a gale. considering they only had copper or bronze tools. 1400. its clean white sands. Those inscriptions are still here. On his return to Egypt. I succeeded. it is at the best but an insecure anchorage . George. though thirtythree centuries have passed since the edge of the chisel indented them 1 As I sat and made drawings of them. say 2. and will cause . while it is the best of the Syria harbors. the sea-breeze whistled mournfully through the insulator of the telegraph-pole that is fixed in a crevice of the rock. Again. weather-bound. however. When Rameses. I will explain that through this maritime country (Phoenicia) lies the only great military road formerly connecting Asia with Africa . . met my eyes as I rode along the beach . say 3. And I saw that. with their beasts of burden. 195 servants shall bring them (the timbers) down from Lebanon to the sea in flotes. he found his progress impeded by this spur of Mt . about B.600 years ago.of immense labor. on which my chisel has rung so often. The Masonic Bay is famous at the present day for its wrecks. Near the northern extremity of the bay is the celebrated military pass of Nahr-el-Kelb (Dog River). or Sesostris. by the side of which may be seen the most remarkable collection of ancient emblems and inscriptions in the world . he ordered panels of the same character cut by the side of the last." A charming place indeed is this Masonic Bay. its deep blue waters. and entering the little khan. on his way to the conquest of Assyria. C.300 years ago. in reaching the foot if the mountain. his engineers cut a military road. the Assyrian conqueror. with its beautifu curves and coves.

one of the Saracenic conquerors. Beginning at the south. Germ Maximvs Pontifex Maximvs. finding the old Sesostris-Sennacherib military road in disrepair. of the haughtiness of this monarch. And so finally did the French soldiers who were here in 1860 and 1861 . I found nine of them on the old or upper road (that of Sesostris). say 1. Max . about A. that this work was constructed about A . too. about A. Coos. Max. Now. March 5. characters. Montibvs Imminentibvs Lyco Flvmini Coosis Viam Delatavit Per Antoninianam Svam. I found it necessary. he caused a new one to be excavated from the solid rock. Here it is. and this also remains. viz. was the twenty-second anniversary of my own initiation into Freemasonry). 1868 (which. when the Roman Emperor Aurelian had completed his conquests in this country. No doubt there were originally more of these carved panels-lost by the breaking away of the cliffs on the south side. and these. says Porter. the carvings are thus arranged. cut elegantly in a stone panel. and his murder at the hands of his own sons . to gather the original idea satisfactorily . was made for the particular purpose of inspecting these ancient emblems and inscriptions . or upper end of the road. on my fifth visit there : Imp . his great victories. M . Avrelivs Antonlnvs Pivs Felix Avgvstvs Part. just as I copied it. When the light strikes the ancient carvings properly. about twenty feet lower down the mountain-spur than the other . I read in Isaiah xxxvii.196 SESOSTRIS TO NAPOLEON .D. still remain ! After I had copied them. and six Assyrian . Three are considered to be Egyptian. they stand out plainly enough to the eye. however. Aurelian commemorated the act by an inscription that still remains.D. duly recorded. to stand off fifteen or twenty feet from them. in square. the terrible destruction of his armies by a simoon. Again. 1400. left an inscription here. beautiful Roman letters. It is probable. 173. : . The portion after Per was carefully erased by somebody long since . 173 . my visit to Nahr-el-Kelb. D.700 years ago. on the same plan as that adopted by his predecessors. Again. it is this which is now used . Brit. which to reach now requires considerable climbing. by the way. giving his name and his exploits.

and in company with the British Consul. T. Assyrian . with the aesign called cavetto. 5 . 1 . Nearly on the apex of that spur of Lebanon through which the engineers of Sesostris made their arduous way. Two small figures at the top. Egyptian. were constructed to protect the carvings from the weather . I solemnly consecrated the place to a suitable number of those Masonic brethren whose patronage enabled me to set about this mission . and bent across the breast . In the corners of the three Egyptian tablets are holes. probably of bronze.THE GREAT HUMAN IMAGE. King Sennacherib at full length . with a border encircling it. A figure like No. and Rome combined. Assyrian. The place of this inscription is a romantic one . Egyptian . it overlooks the Mediterranean Sea for twenty miles out.' A few weeks after this was done. and cut in the solid rock an emblem more expressive and glorious than all the symbolisms of Egypt. 2. 191 1st. A figure like that in No. Assyrian. Esq . giving an outlook towards Gebal northward. Round-topped. Assyrian . Square at top . This was to the intent that a Masonic interest might attach to the place. Egyptian . Much like No . the outline only discernible . 5th. 7th. 6th. (the Worshipful Master of Palestine Lodge. viz . whose right hand is raised in such a suggestive attitude towards heaven. Figures like No. his left arm grasping a club. ornamented with a cornice. 3d . Square-topped . Rounded at the top.. Assyrian. Admiral Lord Paget visited Beyrout with a squadron of ships . 2d . 1. the Square and Compass. the right arm raised . in good preservation. . E. looking upon the Square and Compass conspicuously engraven here. The whole tablet or panel is covered with an inscription in the Assyrian cunei characters. Figure indistinct. which Rawlinson and Lepsius have read without much difficulty . and inscriptions below . 9th . with a cornice . Near the tablet marked No . and over the Masonic Bay beyond Beyrout southward. In Layard's N ineveh you see this figure again and again repeated. Assyria. Square-topped . the whole rather indistinct . 1 . 1 . and that the future tourist. A fine figure of a bearded man. Square-topped. showing that doors. apparently made to insert staples for hinges. 4th. I selected a spot a few feet south of the Human Image. Figure like that in No . Rogers. no inscriptions . After cutting this emblem. Assyrian. may recall those names which our institution °° does not willingly let die . 8th.

at the north end of the bay. No. M. put on a knowing look. Rev. R ." journeying to that school of architecture. 415.. The natural avenues to the sea which were presented by the ravine of Nahr-el-Kelb. Just above it the overhanging mountains. Charles E . afforded the most desirable inclines down which the cedar-trunks could be moved from the mountains . skillful ' to find out every device " (2 Chron . first of all to the memory of "the Widow's Son. The names of Masons located here. 14). Benton. but none that presented such a combination of favorable circumstances as this. Passing where I passed this morning. which only by taking the utmost advantage of the sunlight I can now barely trace out . to read all these hieroglyphics. the old mariner. King of Tyre . Chesnutwood. ii . Luke Lockwood. at Beyrout). In consecrating this spot." I do not forget that he must many a time have "gone this way. 7) . and Beyrout River at the south end. Griffith. it is said. Blumenthal. and associated thus intimately with Hiram. now so bleak and unclothed. twenty miles up the coast . etc . William Leas. then. doubtless. ii . and when that monarch had chosen his own namesake. the Widow's Son . W. which I call Masonic Bay. the King's Friend. are the following : Thomas H . to examine these three ancient Egyptian tablets. as Moses was . Dewey. Robinson. J . It is to the effect that. and. the renowned Hiram Abif. B. William Potts. Adoniram. Seeing the Square and Compass chiseled upon that hillside. the latter promptly accepted the trust. perfectly distinct to an eye like his. Prince of Judah .D . Gebal. made an examination of these ancient localities.. J . and Zabud. when King Solomon had forwarded to King Hiram of Tyre his royal request. and made a remark which my readers would have perfectly understood had they only heard it. and probably learned in all the knowledge of the Egyptians. and skillful to grave with his own cunning men" (2 Chron . Jr. It was easy for Hiram.' One of the most elegant myths connected with the history of Freemasonry in the Holy Land is associated with this spot . M. at the mouth of Nahr-el-Kelb. A number of bays met his view. and set off for a tour through the Lebanons. This place . H.198 THE WIDOW'S SON. abounded in the finest groves of cedar and fir. Hiram Abif. then scarcely five centuries old. James Walsh. he must have halted and stood where I now stand. M. and the best natural coves in which they could be made up into flotes and embarked. "to send him a man cunning to work in gold. to designate the most accessible groves of cedar.

and during the seven years in which the best science and skill of Phoenicia were expended in the erection of King Solomon's Temple at Jerusalem. purple. the shores of this bay presented an appearance only paralleled. that various questions in regard to the construction of Freemasonry. and settled from time to time at their conferences in Jerusalem . emblematic of that fervency and zeal so strikingly illustrated in his own character . Hiram stored his mind with so many arguments in favor of the adoption of that color. that in the human heart There ever is a deathless longing For life eternal . as suggestive of that expansion and universality which. King Solomon preferred red. that when the three Grand Masters held their next conference at Jerusalem his logic proved irresistible. King Hiram expressed his choice of the royal color. Tyre. stop . by those vast depots of pine-timber in which the supplies of Maine and Wisconsin are hoarded up. And now to recall the myth alluded to . Wrote on earth's history their hope To have eternity of fame Traveller upon these mountains. or scarlet. I strive to call before me all The sum of this symbolic story : It is. would become characteristics of the new society . at the present time. they all hoped. in blood and flame. It seems. These conquerors. were made subjects of discussion by the three Grand Masters. a hue associated with his own metropolis. from death's rest The immortal soul expects returning ." as we call it. ever since the purple-shell had been utilized as emblematic of the noblest precepts . and gazing over the vast sea before him-a sea famed in all ages for its depths of blue. One of the most interesting of these was that of an appropriate color .THE MUSE AT DOG RIVER. Upon this point the minds of the three philosophers were strangely diverse . and so the "cerulean hue" was adopted as the unchangeable type of Masonry. The following lines were written at this locality Thoughtfully gazing on this wall. the boundary of his vision only limited by a clearness of blue. Standing here on this lofty point of rocks. or " speculative masonry. By Egypt carved for Egypt's glory. 199 was therefore selected . Hiram Abif was partial to blue. from the traditions sf the craft.

fig-trees. He stood so long in one place that. that I first learned to view with infinite scorn and contempt the practices of ordinary tourists who throng this country . to which I alluded in my description of a stage-ride from Beyrout to Damascus.) Riding one day in search of shells.200 TERRACE-CULTIVATION . . The dell beneath the mountain's crest Yawned like a gash on warrior's breast . as I see here l And it was here. (This. and fruitful fields. and olives. and sleep soundly all next night .C. What an amount of time and industry has been expended in these terraces! But they show. -Scott. the terrace-cultivation. but without the bird's powers of perception. too.-the same that fires And animates your generous blood. by the way. and orchards. both along the beach and at the foot of the mountains . better than anything else. They skim the country like a bird. But. 70. Here. if he had worn a broad-brimmed hat instead of a tar5oush.D. is an old Kentucky joke . is seen in perfection . from B. you know. And pay obeisance 1 'twas a good And worthy hope. Their "beastly-looking place. That is the history and the pith of their diaries. a neighbor of mine did kill his tobacco-plants in that way. how a dense and industrious population like that of the Jews. mulberries. the laziness of the natives ! Ignavis semper feriCs sunt is their motto-it is always holiday to the idle ." became more disagreeable to my ears than a whole volley of Arabic gutturals . oh. They ride all day to sleep soundly all night. where a few handfuls of dirt scattered among the rocks can produce such vines. that they may ride all next day. What richness must be in this disintegrated limestone-soil. or report lies . succeeded in turning the hillsides of Palestine into gardens. It gave me the fidgets to see one of them hoeing in his garden . as Porter says. 1450 to A . I accustomed myself to avoiding them as the genuine bores of the land . the shade might affect the growth of the plants. near the mouth of Nahr-el-KelbI found a will and strange retreat As e'er was trod by outlaw feet . These terraces typify the golden future of this country. if they keep diaries while in Palestine . And to all noble deeds inspires ! The examination of this beautiful Bay of the Rafts was the subject of numerous explorations. After meeting and greeting the first dozen or two of them.

is keef-heaven on earth. but whose faith in " General Morris" is of that sort which "removes mountains. small of stature. The fencing to the fields and gardens around this bay is usually the large cactus or prickly-pear. sittingby the fireside. The word keef expresses comfort. who all the time was drinking my coffee. makes an impenetrable ohevaux-de frise. is one thing. about forty. however graphic. he arose. where the spider sparkles like a rich setting of pearls and rubies. and smoke tombac. and a Bible in head. keen as a fox." and so left me without a thank-you . which is the celestial idea of these Orientals . which may have seemed clear before. and a Bible in heart. and cabbage-raising. will appear doubly clear . But to read it amidst the same surroundings in which it was written. used for fencing in Florida. AND HEART. Then the casual allusions. I told him all that Horace Greeley "knows about farming . while many passages that the language of nature. HAND. and cattle. sip coffee. what impression did all this make on his mind? Why. and. and chicken-raising. smiled a smile of contempt. with its long pointed leaves interlocking. it is a good thing . of the Old or New Testament. 201 Riding. To lie back in cushions. I met an Arab sheikh. described the success of my (much) "better half" in butter-and-milk raising. whose powers of interpretation are sorely tried when I tell these people things they never heard of before. under the aqueduct. and makes his web a marvel of geometric preciseness. I say. you will ask. must clear up. and is equally truth in Occidental as in Oriental lands . as far as it goes. can only be estimated by one who has seen what floods of light are shed by Holy Writ upon holy scenes. From my note-book I propose to illustrate this subject by a few . and hogs . and not human language.BIBLE IN HEAD. To read a passage. along the mouth of that grand gorge through which the Dog River flows." I really did expatiate and spread myself before the eyes of that Arab sheikh. will be illuminated . or in the class at school. which reminds me that our agave americanus. By means of Hassan. the dolce far niente." And." all my own experience in raising corn. is quite another and a better thing. and forming a most formidable barrier against stock . after imbibing the last drop of coffee in my rubber-bottle. How much the traveller will miss who journeys through these Oriental lands without a Bible in hand. with whom I had a long talk about farming . and smoking cigarettes at the expense of the "Masonic Exploration Fund . Truth is cosmopolitan. and said in three or four jaw-cracking words (in Arabic) "No keef. quiet.

" This poor fellah. is scarcely high enough to confine a skipping lamb. Think you that the grain which our sower is scattering there can ever come to maturity? Surely no . A generation back it was hard." Look in the skirts of the inclosure yonder. and watch the husbandman's operations while he sows his grain : "There went out a sower to sow. and immediately it sprung up. for he dare not sleep. but there is no depth of earth . and because it had no root. "And others fell on good ground. it was scorched. just as you begin to mount the pass before arriving at Nahr-el-Kelb. it withered away . where it had not much earth . has also come out from yonder village. or native farmer. And how warm the soil is to the feel . scenes in Holy Land. and the thorns grew up and choked it." a stone wall. I begin with an incident that struck me as I went from Beyrout to Gebal . Un- . "And some fell on stony ground. or Dog River . but when the sun was up. next the fence .. it can have no root . it will be outgrown by the thorns . lest the robber come upon him unawares and impoverish him . some sixty. as I ride slowly through this petty inclosure of an acre or two." Look at this fat soil ." supposed by some to be even the same spiny growth of which our Saviour's plaited crown was woven . whose "landmark. The earth is but a half inch deep on those rocks . George. it must wither away. in that recess of the hills. that sprung up and increased and brought forth . gathered them from this thicket of the "camel's thorn. let me read the narrative in Mark iv . in the nook of the mountains.202 THE FOWLS OF THE AIR . the season is the sowing-time of grain . There are the sparrows (called by naturalists the passer salicicola and the passer montanus and the passer cisalpina) and other grain-eating birds . The location of the fact was at the northern end of the Bay of St. nor keep his little pair of plow-heifers outside of stone walls. examined Bible in hand. and it yielded no fruit" Look yonder. The withered old woman whom we met a few minutes since. how dense the thorns . like the stony cliffs overhanging it . some fell by the wayside. several miles away. rendered fruitless . bearing her bundle of sticks. " And it came to pass. " And some fell among thorns. blue limestone. Doubtless this grain will spring up most quickly of all that he is sowing . and the fowls of the air came and devoured it up . some thirty. and some an hundred . and did yield fruit. as he sowed. because it had no depth of earth ." Look how busy they are yonder. choked by them . Here.

Has not the quarter-hour been well spent? As I mount and ride forward upon my way. as Pope says. Here the beautiful language of our Masonic Monitor concerning mother-earth will be realized . All the fertilizing phosphates and carbonates. Where sun. and other chemical elements that mother-earth so covets in her transforming processes. a greedy train. where the thorns cannot encroach. will increase . it has kindly yielded as we now see it . where there is ample depth of earth . And choked them all . But some on the good ground. Some fell upon a rock . But when the summer sun shone hotly there. Till all was gone. Rocks fall to dust. The accursed weeds luxuriantly o'erspread. in mystic words indeed.A fertile soil . here in this " good ground. smiling swains did tell An hundredfold i * The text of my paraphrase is that in the eighth chapter of Luke . will bring forth . For." the poor man's grain will spring up . the skies in smoke decay. which I composed many years ago He that hath ears to hear May listen now. Some by the wayside fell . And went to sow. On breezes borne. Some fell among the thorns." . And snatched with hasty appetite the grain. And in the harvest. dew. And greenly soon They sprouted as for harvest. and mountains melt away . where the birds dare not alight. are here . While I shall tell. God's precious mould. and the quickening sunshine. The fowls of heaven flew down. But ere the grain could raise its timid head. strong and fair . 203 der the bright showers of heaven. and upon these level flats. and showers apportioned well . " The seas shall fail. breeze.SOWING THE SEED . let me try my memory tipon a paraphrase of this divine narative. Of a good husbandman who took his seed. They wilted down .

Antiochus III. Antiochus II . Need I say that all this comes naturally to mind.. . Seleucus . . The coins so forcibly delineated on page 498. and his love for. Seleucus Callinicus . Palermo .. ANTIOCHUS VII . Seleucus III .204 STUPIDITY OF TOURISTS . . . . Alexander II. while journeying through these Bible lands? I pity the traveller who has enjoyed such opportunities as a visit to Palestine at the present day affords. Demetrius Nicator . are thus named beginning at the top and reading the lines toward the right hand Dentella . COIN-NOTES EXPLANATOY OF PAGE 498 . KING OF SYRIA . and yet has not increased his knowledge in. the Holy Scriptures. Antiochus VI . Mamerco. Heraclea .

Pliny_ Fisk. When this earth shall restore those that are asleep in her. and plucked a sprig from the funeral cypress-tree that grows straight and tall at the head of the grave . A1 33 years. in company with Brother Samuel Hallock. and afterwards published in an American journal. 1825. THE MASON-MISSIONARY . written in pencil. in this connection. but it exists. Rev. is a modest structure. where the black cypresses shoot up their pyramidal cones into the sky. earnestness. and the dust those that dwell in silence. The Rev. Pliny Fisk. His emotions are expressed in the lines following . 32). died Oct . In the Protestant graveyard at Beyrout. 23. the man of eloquence. this man is most worthy of honor in Masonic memories . built of the Lebanon limestone. who gave his young life here to his work. will lead all the rest. He came here full of hopes and holy impulses in the . "Rev. and often men of the greatest intelligence are most free to acknowledge the influence . and where. and the secret places shall deliver those souls that were committed unto them (2 Esdras vii . than to insert an article. Pliny Fisk was the first American missionary to the Holy Land. first visited this hallowed spot on the 23d of March. sitting upon this tomb. of all places on earth. inscribed at the top. 1868. the form of our first Protestant missionary.CHAPTER XIIL BEYROUT. in the Holy Land. Among the dead who calmly repose under the thick shade of these mourning cypresses. We may not be able to understand the fascination that draws us to the graveside of such men and holds us solemnly there . I cannot do better." The writer. BEGIN this chapter by describing my visit to the Protestant Cemetery. lies our brother. and deep piety.

gave me a quotation. to seek the lost. this Masonic history of Pliny Fisk 'Neath our weeping. At the period of his entrance upon this work. I dis. Master's work .206 THE MUSE UNDER THE CYPRESS . Rent his home-ties all asunder. Jesus move him with his story. overflowin with kindly sentiments. from which I . Promised him the heavenly glory. When the stroke of death did free him I Burst the chains that long impeded. his lovely spirit. And. as he passes. to see him .. oh. in old files of the Missionary Herald. copious extracts from Fisk's own diary. Lies the young disciple sleeping. the fraternity assisted him with money and moral encouragement . several years ago. favor my destined urn. covered. had he live doubtless the mission here had been in advance of what it now is . after reading this article. Quenched the sorrows he had heeded . did wander. Earnest spirit. While his vows of service keeping . Breathe the faith that once did move him. his zeal. With lucky words. and. won him hosts of friends. Brother Fisk was a Freemason . How he did that fire inherit! How. A friend. to see him .'neath our weeping. I have thought recently that perhaps my own mission to the Holy Land was partly suggested by reading. Blessed resting. earnest spirit. And his martyr's crown did merit . Oh. Green and fragrant life attesting . Not a jar of earth molesting . But it was not so to be . as the records of the Grand Lodge of Vermont show. add to the rest So may some gentle muse. Leaves of cypress sigh above him. together with biographical details. which . blessed resting. Angels to his home convey him . His youth. turn And bid fair peace be to my sable shroud! After composing these notes concerning the man of God. The Master called him up " higher." and he passed beyond.

The two grand inquiries ever present to your mind will be. in Persia. and pursued his labors there during the first year. Every Freemason feels interested to know that the American Mission to Syria. in 1811. where. in . graduating August. were met with that union of firmness and gentleness best calculated to subdue them to the obedience of the faith . on the 23d of October. 1819. while Mr. On the third of November. From 1815 to 1818 he pursued a regular course of divinity in the Theological Seminary at Andover. and from Zion. thoughts. and affectionate. As a son. Then he established his mission at Beyrout. June 24. He engaged in Oriental studies at Smyrna. from Olivet. dutiful. was born at Shelburne. 1815. few possessed so happy a combination of qualities for the work as Mr. strike the keynote of all his labors . Fisk entered Jerusalem. Massachusetts. He diligently improved his scanty literary advantages. and was then appointed. What good can be done. he expired. 1823. to the Palestine mission. and entered Middlebury College. The pointed and inveterate hostility of the enemies of the Gospel. now the most prosperous and successful of all the missionary operations upon the face of the earth." Will not the time come when Freemasons will unite in erecting a monument to this Masonic apostle ? Pliny Fisk. Connecticut. Among all who have given their lives to missionary labors in foreign lands. from Calvary. Franklin county. From early youth he was distinguished for an engaging disposition and unusual sobriety. In January. In April. in Syria. 2011 cull some additional. with earnest attention. was initiated by a Freemason. he sailed for that country. 1814. The instructions given him by the society under whose charge he was operating. 1792 . Fisk . Parsons made a preliminary survey of the Holy Land. 1825. and will survey. he was faithful. Mr . a victim to one of the fevers of the country.DUTIFUL : FAITHFUL : AFFECTIONATE . Parsons. "From the heights of the Holy Land. you will take an extended view of the wide-spread desolations and variegated scenes presenting themselves on every side to Christian sensibility . and by what means ? What can be done for the Jews? what for the Pagans? what for the Mohammedans? what for the Christians? what for the people in Palestine? what for those in Egypt. Persevering application was a prominent trait in his disposition. the fourth son of Ebenezer and Sarah Fisk. the various tribes and classes of fellow-beings who dwell in that land and in the surrounding country . in connection with Mr. assisted by Masonic funds and other encouragements from the "great fraternity . he was licensed to preach the gospel .

all the flags of the different Consulates were suspended at half-mast . then the mulberry groves. aged father : I compose a few lines for you upon a sick. And now for some account of the city of Beyrout. 20.000. The southwestern side of this promontory. under so many troubles.M. the same day. one-third of them being Mohammedans. It occupies the southern horn of the crescent of the Masonic Bay. Oct. His funeral was attended at 4 P. As soon as the news of his death was announced. embowered in foliage. our number have been enabled to give themselves to Christ. for a mile or two. running up to the summit of the heights .1 perambulated one day on foot. deeply-indented rocks and cliffs. You know to whom to look for consolation and support. and for nearly four months . and my brothers and sisters. first. though so long separated from you . and that we shall meet with our departed mother in heaven:' He died on Sabbath morning at 3 o'clock . then a broad margin of picturesque villas. my nephews and nieces. that I love you all most dearly. with the aspect of a desert . The same God who has comforted you so many years. is formed of a range of irregular. The population of the city is about 75. I hope all. I leave these lines as a pledge to you. in other countries to which your inquiries may be extended? " Upon his death-bed. which I frequently traversed in search of shells and general information. is composed of loose drifting sand. It is growing fast in size and importance . will comfort you under this . When you gave me up for this mission. Armenia. Between these rocks the ground rises gradually. and here and there groups of palms and cypresses . You know His consolations are neither few nor small . Fisk dictated the following letter to his father : BEYROUT. the apex projecting three miles into the Mediterranean. as the rocky pass at the mouth of Dog River occupies the northern horn .208 EARLY SUMMONED. which . but the northwestern side is very different. a dense nucleus of substantial buildings . 1325 . in the presence of a numerous and orderly concourse of people . or nearly all. and the base running along the foot of Lebanon . In the middle of the shore-line stands the city . The shore-line. to the height of 200 feet. probably a dying bed . covering the acclivities. A writer describes it as exceedingly beautiful. The promontory upon which it stands is triangular. Mr. "My beloved. the rest Christians and Jews . As my headquarters were at Beyrout. you gave me up for life and death .

in a foreign country like Syria." by Rev. Churchill. at the house of Brother Samuel Hallock . and are followed by a distribution of tea and cakes. of whom I was one . and other subjects by Col . they are so magniloquently designated in the English papers. Mr. At Jerusalem there are but a few foreign families." by Rev . through the cooler seasons. and other gentlemen of repute. These were given at private houses. I am competent to affirm that the only city in Palestine or Syria where there is any " social life. and scientific subjects. and cultivate the social spirit with people who are their equals in all but the accident of birth . But at Beyrout are found all the materials for society. The lectures occupy about an hour each. while in no other Syrian city is there even so much as at Jerusalem. as genial and cheerful as those at home. not enough to form a circle for social life. finding no other members of the "upper classes. "nobility and gentry. "Abyssinia. . and well are they manipulated. Washburn." still less of the . 209 I was passing in and out of the city. entitled. at home. thrown open to all respectable visitors. A society of young gentlemen was formed at Beyrout. The truth is that. or the " upper classes. "The nobility and gentry. J . in 1867. Mr. people lay aside. those socialI distinctions which. educational. Very gracefully do they develop themselves . Aug." as the American press somewhat vaguely styles them." which met every Wednesday evening. is Beyrout. 14 ." with whom they can associate. "The Once-a-Week Club. that would bear honorable comparison with those in any country . Johnson (the American Consul-General). among the topics handled were " Petra. a weekly series of lectures upon historical. There were about twenty members.. offered with a hospitality that is truly refreshing. Dodge ." in the sense that Americans attach to the term. this club embraced other features that made its assemblies pleasant to all concerned . Modeled partly upon the old-fashioned system of debating societies. and various honorary members." as. "Turkey in Europe." by Bishop Gobat . to a great extent. But these superficial demonstrations of social life are only slight indications of the great under-current . No persons can make themselves more agreeable . Mr.1 SOCIAL LIFE IN BEYROUT. I attended several of these seances with ever-increasing pleasure . form an almost impassable barrier between them and their neighbors . come gradually down from the upper and mysterious atmosphere in which they were born. There is given. During the winter of 1867-8.

they mingle. Those who have spent a summer among these people. the waters of the harbor. Below are the gleaming roofs. a yielding of social position. have nothing further to look for to realize the perfection of hospitality . this blending of respectable people. in a manner partaking of the free-and-easy spirit that animates the whole circle. the outlines of a battlemented wall. that would be hard to find anywhere else. Robinson. During the hot season. doubtless. existence in Beyrout is intolerable to foreigners . has a summer residence in some one of the innumerable villages that dot the cool and breezy mountain-sides overhanging Beyrout on the east . included some of the bestinstructed spiritual minds that I ever met in such a eircle . therefore. say from June 15th to October 1st. At church. Every family. their hearts in the prayers . under the superintendence of Rev . and there is a kind of Reading Club Subscription. in English. a Scotch minister. These are exchanged and loaned or distributed. So many ministers. a blending of luxury with plainness. a castle by the sea. From the highest point of Bassoul's Hotel the view by starlight is a charming one . it is to be presumed. as. are taken by the English-speaking population here in great numbers . etc. a faint view of prostrate pillars of Egyptian granite at the landing-place. At Beyrout. and in family parties. some of conversation. the dark shadows of winding streets. in the range of the Lebanons. of so many denominations. The religious circles are equally free and social . all attend and blend their voices in the psalmody.2 10 PERFECTION OF HOSPIIALITY . exerts his best efforts . each one who is thus called upon to officiate. until there is no lack of good reading for all . religious and secular. silvery with the starlight. at lecture. some of music. that the variety of pulpit gifts is uncommonly great. forms the principal charm of society . that goes right to the heart of the stranger . At the regular Sunday morning service. an open hand and heart. and generosity with all. A Bible-class. The best English and American periodicals. regardless of other distinctions . at funeral. Here an unbounded hospitality is maintained. But one of the most agreeable foatures of "social life in Beyrout" remains to be described . Here he can find. for the purchase of periodicals and cheaper literature . among the most refined classes of people. A considerable library is attached to the American Mission. are found among the tourists to this country. the dark . who has charge of the Beyrout church. while. Mr. each bringing his share to the enjoyment of the whole .

Thomson : a bluff. Dr. scratched amidst the bustle and yells of an Arab market-place! Saffron : piles of it sold here . but in Nineveh the sculptures. and then wait until noon for breakfast . M . Sparrow : this bird is on every house-top. and that in the apocryphal book of Baruch . The ancients used saws for wood-cutting. xx . xii. Meal-times : awkward hours to Americans. As life in Beyrout is analogous to all Oriental experience. prove that the Assyrians used the cross-cut or doublehandled saw. and 1 Chron . according to the requirements of the old Jewish law . so soft is the rock in its native condition. 1539 .m. A. nothing but bread. I have already lost my way on three several days going from }Iallock's to the American Consulate . just as the blocks of stone from the old Temple quarry under Jerusalem.D. 33). and stuffing materials of nests into every crevice . After turning half a dozen corners in t Iese narrow lanes. Saws were used in punishing criminals (2 Sam . weather . yet not so much so as to prevent accurate details . solemn ramparts of Lebanon . 211 sweep of the pines beyond the city. it will defy anything but an intelligent dog to tell where you are . W. genial. of iron . The stones for the Temple of Solomon were cut with saws (1 Kings vii . and coffee. Hyssop : it 11 springeth out of the wall" abundantly here. I give here quite a number of extracts from my diary. were taken out with saws. Bazaars these and the mechanics' shops are unending sources of curiosity and instruction . carried by pilgrims to England. and awaits such a botanist as Solomon to describe it (1 Kings iv. building nests on every jutting. copper and tin alloy) . I can give to a score of applicants without impoverishing myself . Lucky there are few cats here to worry them . by the sombre. mostly made in a day's stroll through the bazaars. Behold my notes. 3). to eat at 8 o'clock . being worth only half a cent a piece. for want of their steak . The tools used by these mechanics would give an American artisan the horrors . and amidst the din and turmoil of the streets. and these. The saws of the Egyptians were single-handed and straight. as the text shows. cats are only once mentioned in the Bible. jam. and viewed things in a cynical mood. 9). I notice strangers seem wolfish about 10 A.NOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS. I find the eighth-piastre pieces capital coin for this purpose . were of iron . name from the Arabic saphor. Battlements : every roof more than six or eight feet above the ground has a battlement. nearly as old as Solomon's time. signifying hot . probably. I was under the effects of that southern wind called %hamsin. made. Thomson has so well described in his Land and Book. 31. which Dr. and this is the only pattern that I noticed in Palestine . and all closed in. on the east. Blindness blind "beggars by the wayside" in sufficient abundance to deplete my spare change . which I brought home with me. for I notice that no two writers agree as to its identity. fruit. though the saws from the Egyptian tombs of the same period are of bronze (that is.

but when it comes to eating them. but unable to cross the mountains . for $28 the entire suit . Barclay. hooked. as a noble cortribution to oriental literature . worth in New York $8 per yard. The snows on Mount Lebanon. favorably known in American journals as a vigorous writer .212 NOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS . attached to the Protestant mission here. I have purchased the numbers of this splendid production so far as issued. desiring to visit Damascus. ningly. accurate traveller : "I saw divers of the women with their chins stained with blue knots and flowers. I brought him letters from his wife. beaten old Buckeye (Ohio) American. a most intelligent physician. Dr . A. Starring. Their firm. and of them I can repeat another observation of the same ancient. Clothing : had full suit made of French cloth. J. Thomson (who has been in this country thirty-six years).ugustus Johnson. on a bit of membrane not a quarter of an inch long nor half so wide. to appear corpulent. enveloping sheet they spread out their arms cun . I prefer sardines. and I shall read. wellselected and well-filled. Dr. Kenrick's Phoenicia. of Atlas Lodge. were deeper in 1868. ready to communicate all that he knows. as I was informed by Dr. Lamartine's Pilgrimage. I made early and frequent calls upon the United States Consul-General. made by pricking the skin with needles and rubbing it over with the juice of an herb (henna). and Renan's new work on Phoenicia." Snails : a wonderful place for them ." as the old traveller Sandys remarked. M . scarcely had a meeting for a year . a Chicago Mason . One of the Past Masters is an Israelite . West Virginia. rasping denticles to the number of 10. then visiting Bethany. Fortunately. cordial and _ kind. He ought to be a Mason. which will never wear out again . A number of travellers were detained at Beyrout on this account. Anderson's Geological Survey of Syria. always an obstacle to travel in the month of March. thinking it an especial honor. Mr . Massachusetts . and tongues. But among the lower classes of the Arabs less care is taken to conceal the countenance from strangers. Johnson met me cordially. very large and edible for those who hanker after them . all nearly through with their Syrian travels. Brigstoek. with sharp. Palestine Lodge is in a low condition-want of harmony among the brethren . there is a library. than lie had ever known them before. He returned to New York in 1870 . Freemasons I found here Brother Todd. Gen .-all this is very well in natural history. New York . for I did not see the face of a Turkish woman all the time of my pilgrimage in the Holy Land . in the most affable and unpretending manner . the first died at Jerusalem). M. and tendered me all the aid in his power to further the purposes of my visit. Women : under the white. Hasselquist's Oriental Botany. . just coming out in parts . the veteran Jerusalem explorer and missionary. as all the English Consuls are.* * Since returning home. J. while in this country. the residence of her father. lately W. crescentshaped jaws. Rimes. and many of them are fat!" So far as their faces are concerned. His wife (second wife. I can say nothing. and Brother J. and can heartily recommend it to all who read French.000 or more. a member of the lodge at Newburyport. Mission de Phenicie. T . an Italian lady. "to be fat .

and was converted to Christianity. rheumatisms. and styled them Faith. just as the plan of the city of Alexander was first drawn by the architect when inaugurating that work . representing three of the angles of a perfect square.D. It was here at Beyrout that Gregory was coming. His neighbor. were divinely distributed to every leading people . and I might possibly catch a glimpse of the faces of some of his wives . was born here A. I took often and copious draughts .NOTE-TAKING IN THE BAZAARS . are wiser. the three theological virtues of our order . But there is a blessing in cool. I spend considerable time every day. and Sitka . in the provision-store here. The weather here has had close observers . Klein. VII. Hope. etc . Beyrout is said to be the cleanest place in Syria . blindness . not to look down into the adjacent courtyard . Josephus. Groups of women returning from the cemetery. 1). and Charity. constitutes a fair retail store . freighted with kerosene in barrels and cases . 'Twas a droll sight to see my French tailor's row of Arab journeymen.D . New York. says that while Java has from 159 to 110. Of course. when he met Origen. squatting in the street. One hundred of these drygoods stores would not make one such establishment as in the Bowery. sitting through such damp days as these on the cold ground upon the graves . spreading meal upon his hat and delineating the topography with his finger. to attend the famous law-school. has his hareem there. who weep.to that one necessarily material centre (the Great Pyramid of Cheops. Three fine columns of gray granite are standing behind the donkey-stables of Beyrout.. after such a warning. A . in his Wars of the Jews (Wars. 231. and martyred A . The return freight is wool. Dr. in Egypt).. Hallock particularly requests me. beat the breast. They only go out professionally. Beyrout has 4 . A fountain with an Arabic inscription. This advertisement reminds me that the only merchantable commodity sent by the United States to this country is kerosene. . by contract. He had collected a very complete library of Christian literature. 1870 . 12 . white as the "White Lady of Avenel . fevers. wrapped in shrouds. when I walk on the flat roof of his house. looking. 300. these noble pillars are some thirty feet long." No wonder they catch catarrhs. in this spirit. and especially in the East. 3." Adv. in a primeval age. the fourth being absent . outside the shop. I have dedicated them to Freemasonry. howl. Pamphylus. iii . from which those material things called weights and measures.D. it is a good time to commence the inquiry. of which three or four cargoes are landed here annually from Boston. 275. 213 An educated Syrian. comparing the mean annual frequency of thunder-storms throughout the world. " Bark from Boston. how far they can be t raced. said to be an invocation to God for a blessing to him who drinks . stitching away for dear life .200 bbls . and remain but a few minutes . The hired mourners. and thick in proportion . Sept . In looking at the antique weights and measures used by these people. sweet water everywhere. all destroyed long since . capacity. a chaste Mohammedan. described the Dead Sea to me with accuracy. but thus far in vain . 1-1 per annum. The presbyter.

expects to see something upon the subject of Turkish baths . I made an article. I recognize its general accuracy . He is. Everybody who reads travels in the Holy Land. a Calvin Edson. gives interesting details concerning Beyrout . spiced with some exaggeration. Only 1 forgot to say that one of those bathservants has been in the profession. that was published in the Masonic department of the New York Sunday Dispatch . it is said. as I remember Calvin. He looks it. for forty years .214 TURKISH BATHS. In reading it. washed away by palm-fibre and olive-oil soap . . three years afterwards. a dried-up old man. COIN OF SARDIS . the "Living Skeleton " of Barnum's time.

spent a few days here . of Ayr. is given me by Brother D . in 1818. Beyrout. rightly judging that nothing would bring them so near to the hearts of the Mohammedans . Fisk had the Masonic claim. and learning-all of which our missionaries have abundantly-Mr . The first two men. and afterwards fell in for a moment with Brother General Starring. Breckinridge. An account of tho orgin of Palestine Lodge. No . 415.. to whom I wrote for information on the subject . Pliny Fisk and Mr . 17). Fisk died. where I stopped . of Kentucky. became members of the Masonic Order before leaving the United States. Murray Lyon. Eddy. A few weeks before my arrival. whom I met in Beyrout. 1 am enabled to examine and describe their lodge-room . which they have not . " where the lambs feed after their manner" (Isaiah v . Mr . he was mourned for by them with regrets that no missionary now operating there can expect to inspire among that class. simply because. Extract from the records . in 1825. and when Mr. The consequence was. after a short and brilliant career. not natives. The following day I made the acquaintance of Brother Hallock. they enjoyed an intimacy with the natives such as no missionary has done since . who was passing hastily through the city . From time to time. visiting a company of white-aproned brothers. with whom I was associated in the Grand Lodge of that State as far back as 1853. The first two to that country. guests at Bassoul's Hotel. Brother John 0 . already alluded to more than once. were Masons.CHAPTER XIV. piety. FREEMASONRY IN BEYROUT. I have given their names in a preceding chapter . And this. Scotland. I enlarged my circle of fraternal acquaintance. and at last. in addition to zeal. an ardent devotee of the order. WAS disappointed by finding that none of the American missionaries in the Holy Land are Masons .

W. and included brethren at Sidon. 1869 . to settle differences oetween the brethren. Since my departure. etc. the Grand Master thereupon moved that. The order of Freemasonry at Beyrout is not." I cannot discover whether this idea was made practical or not . My informant says " It is destined to throw out deep roots into the Syrian soil . they are such as do not in the least . the M . or Board of Relief) for Masonic travellers . March 4th. at Beyrout. June. if possible. or creditable to the great cause in which the fraternity are engaged . the Grand Lodge (Orient) of France has established a second lodge here. also a library and a Masonic Tribunal of Conciliation. S. the Marquis of Tullibardine. W. to be called The Lodge of Palestine." This action was confirmed by the Grand Lodge at its next session . Damascus. This lodge set out with a feature peculiar to itself. the Grand Committee should authorize the issue of the charter in question. Brother Haggy. in a condition satisfactory to the members there. That the application had come to ais son. W . Brother Mossip. W. This lodge was installed January 4th. and in their relation with the outside world . M . Hums. in 1868i the lodge had a membership of about seventy-five. 1868. Acre. . It was therefore unanimously resolved to issue the charter. The reasons for this need not be enlarged upon . under the peculiarly pressing circumstances of the case . Aleppo. by the hands of Lieutenant Colonel Burnaby. entitled Le Liban . Commissioner of the British Government to the French Army of Occupation at present in Syria . I regret to say. 1861. which comprises the creation of an establishment of relief (Relief Lodge.216 MASONIC LODGES IN BEYROUT.. On the occasion of my visit. scattered as faf^as Gaza on the south and Bagdad on the east. be taken out by him. . The M. Nablous. That Colonel Burnaby intended to return to Syria immediately. etc. at Beyrout. and the parties were most anxious that the charter should. W . to spread abroad bright rays amidst ignorance and superstition. and he felt confident that the Grand Lodge would confirm their resolution . described in the Grand Lodge records thus : " Your Committee on Administration proposes to you to sanction the remarkable by-law of the Lodge Liban. of the Grand Lodge of Scotland : " In Grand Committee." I hope it may . but this should form no precedent for the future. and to spread the protecting shadow of peace and fraternity over all . the Grand Master stated that he had received an application for a charter for a new lodge in Syria. J . in the special circumstances of the case. Brother Lambert.

I opened the purposes of my mission to Palestine. That functionary had been away on leave of absence tc his native country for nearly a year. I had postponed my intention to have the good fellows of Beyrout called together. But upon the return of Brother Eldridge. J . and Jerusalem. Paris. nor will it require any extraordinary effort to rem( ve them . The night. accomplished in the affairs of the lodge. the actual Master. in pursuance of my mission. M. similar to those I saw in Smyrna. Amongst them were Brother Eldridge. of Philadelphia. T. that. The extreme heat rendering the lodge-room insupportable. the present Master. very tastily arranged. Consul-General of Syria. 217 compromise the honor of the individual craft at Beyrout. Dr . about thirty . owing to the protracted absence of Brother G . B. M . that would serve as tokens '. the 6th of June . The visitors included Brother Samuel Hallock. Eldridge. just named . George's Bay). Brigstock. 415. and others . the Bay of Rafts (St . Master-elect of this lodge . during which period little or nothing had been . Brigstock . Personally there is the best of feeling amongst the brethren concerning future operations. and had coltected relics' from every part of the land. Alexandria. W . I said. Here. especially Tyre. an old and highly-respected merchant here. and the other officers declining to act in his absence . I had visited all places particularly memorable in the history of our society. and one was called for Saturday.MY MEETING WITH No . it -was understood.D . and elsewhere . after an introduction to the brethren. with special powers for the extension of Freemasonry in this country . my remarks being excellently interpreted by Brother Rogers. that I had come to the land of historical and Masonic associations. and I feel confident that the opening of a new era for Masonic progress upon the Syrian coast is not distant .o our friends at home . Mount Lebanon. Brother E. Joppa.. 415) and who had been endowed. Brother Ridley. yet the attendance embraced nearly all the resident members of Beyrout. most of whom spoke Arabic only. that the most profound interest is felt in .. a general wish was expressed by the fraternity of Beyrout that we should have a meeting. of course. Rogers. representing a large number of the enterprising mgmbers of the fraternity in the United States . one of the best Oriental scholars upon this coast . This is a well-furnished apartment. we used the parlor of the lodge for our meeting . Pa . etc . Gebal. was oppressively sultry. H . being much engaged in the engrossing duties of his profession. Brother R. in brief. late Master of the lodge here (Palestine Lodge No .

Jaffa. and glowed with the desire to extend the honorable and useful reputation of the fraternity . that they let the surrounding community know who they are and where they are. that is to say. and the benefits of the royal order would be increased an hundredfold . without exception. a large body of Masons. and a goodly number at Sidon. for the reading of their on members and the outer world. I told them of our methods of operation in the United States . Then I pointed to the world-wide reach and extent of our ancient ssociations. another upon the Mediterranean steamer . a company of sixteen Masons in Damascus. at Smyrna . is one of the fundamental principles of the order . I showed them that a prudent reticence. are essential to the successful workings of the institution anywhere. to establish regular meetings . with more earnestness than those relating to the condition of Freemasonry here. seemed earnest and zealous in the cause.218 MASONIC ADDRESS. that they publish a number of journals devoted to the interests of Freemasonry . on my return. and profoundest caution in the admission of members to the lodge. representing seven or more lodges. and that it only needed for the Masons of Beyrout to strengthen themselves . so rare in this country. charity in relieving the wants of . showing them that I had found a group of the memoers of this fraternity upon the steamer that brought me to Liverpool . That obedience to the laws and regulations of the society . and principles. the United States in all matters relative to Syria and Palestine . Then I sketched the principles and aims of the Masonic Institution. and Jerusalem . secrecy in preserving the fundamental esotery of the order . the most scrupulous honor in our dealings with each other . and what they are endeavoring to do . fidelity in regard to exchanged confidences. that our lodges held regular meetings in places well-known to every one . that all these. that the prospects were now bright for the establishment of lodges at Damascus and Jerusalem. that no questions will be propounded me. to publish their laws. the distressed . aims. that when a stranger calls at one of their assemblies there is an . I assured them that Freemasonry stands very high in the opinion of the better classes in Syria and Palestine . amongst the governing classes and those who would do more credit to its affiliation . to establish a few more lodges in the city . promptness in recognizing Masonic summonses . where men talk more freely of each other than anywhere else.

one of the lodge-officers suggested that." Both seemed to give satisfaction . and the object of this one. My general statements were substantiated by Brother G . Egypt (the Loge des Pyrarides). they would be pleased. invitations. representing more than one-half' of all the Freemasons in the world. I invited them to come and see us and verify the statements I had made . and that his stay in the place is made pleasant in consequence of the Masonic associations thus formed. and will. and by the other English-speaking Masons present. In a lodge that I visited at Alexandria. if its uses are at all commensurate with the enjoyment it gave that good set of fellows." and "to come often. I cannot close the chapter without pointing out the chief difficulties with which the Masonic devotee in this country must necessarily contend . This assembly was one of unmingled enjoyment. I explained what a "side degree" is. covenants. Eldridge. do good . I was overwhelmed with kind wishes. specially charged with the duty of welcoming and accommodating him. An hour was then spent in the interchange of friendly sentiments . the Senior Deacon. is not to be sneered at . All expressed their wish to receive it . my words were interpreted into Arabic to them by Brother Rogers . and certainly. the Secret Monitor. and introducing him to the officers and members of the lodge . it will be to duplicate the agreeable sensations of that evening among the Masons of Beyrout . On behalf of the great American fraternity." and if anything can tempt me once more to undertake the long journey from La Grange to Beyrout. whoever got it up. and all foreigners in Syria speak French. the work is done alternately in . and solicitations "to come again. I then recited "The Level and the Square. There is a fervor about these Syrian Masons that is extremely pleasant to a stranger. and this compels the Worshipful Master to extemporize the lectures. It is the necessity of working the rituals both in French and Arabic . A portion speak French only. now Deputy Grand Master for the District of Syria. J. as in all other inculcations of the evening. By special request. Anxious to gratify them. 219 officer. no matter what may be their nationality . "Our Vows . In this. as he goes along.THE SECRET MONITOR . I think.. But the natives generally only speak Arabic. etc ." following after. a task immensely difficult . and perhaps benefited by the communication of the Secret Monitor. as few of the craft there had ever received a "side degree" of any kind. Before dissolving the meeting. No one in Syria has the rituals in the Arabic language.

is of Scotch parentage. and generally of Eastern lodges. and lend them warm wishes and sympathy in their future operations . too. and running no risk of suspension. are as impracticable as they are trifling . The Masons of Beyrout. 415. their mother-lodge. Although Lebanon Lodge. Houseless and homeless. instead of blaming our Syrian brethren for their want of progress. an Oriental tongue whose phrases and trains of thought are essentially different from the French and English . Fatherless. the wanderer here. are kept correspondingly . Let one of my readers. while the discipline due for unmasonic conduct will not fall so promptly as in American lodges . sisterless.220 RITUALS IN ARABIC. In conversation with them during my various visits to Beyrout. which I examined. I think that in foreign countries the society is not so much a moral institution as with us. I think I have said enough to show that. as long as they live . is increased when that foreign tongue is the Arabic. like the Masons of Connecticut. I learned much of the high claims that charity makes upon them . clause by clause. as Southey calls them. retain affiliation with their alma mater. conceive. those bizarre ceremonies. brotherless." and evidently considered that this expresses the whole theory of Freemasonry. we should give them credit for what they have done. French and Arabic. know nothing of demitting. having any claims upon Masonic charity. They may transfer their membership to other lodges. which. as they could never be adapted to a cosmopolitan system. who is Master of a lodge. the labor of being compelled to translate into a foreign tongue. will realize them with less difficulty than with us. One of them quoted to me"The drying up of a single tear has more Of honest fame than shedding seas of gore. and the record-books. as they choose . not in Arabic. but. or become members of as many other lodges. the language of the rituals. . they are charged no dues. This embarrassment. the product of the French mind. But even there the rituals-(in all French 'odges the rituals are printed and laid out on the pedestals for the officers' use)-are printed in French. so that the candidate may understand it. at the same time. if he can. and this reproduces the difficulty above alluded to. yet it has been worked under some of those new-fangled whimseys. motherless. but has more of the social and benevolent features . No.

supporting. Embracing all. I like what I've been used to . and stern opponents of innovation. Thou only GOD. . is common here. all motion guide . and mother. therefore a violation of one of the landmarks of Oriental society! In relation to the NAME of DEITY as a Masonic emblem. 221 With the Oriental dislike to change. or to inquire after her health. Even to ask a Moslem if he has a wife or daughter. readily distinguished by the imbecility of his countenance and moroseness of manner . strangely disputed by some American reformers. These alterations. but with that reverential awe . Unchanged through time's all-devastating flight. The only innovation possible to Oriental Masons is that of omission They may (and do) drop out. as Isaiah terms him (1vi. these craftsmen will be strong advocates of uniformity. that dry-tree of Freemasonry.THE GREAT NAME OF GOD. whose presence bright All space doth occupy. growing out of that respect for the sex which colors all our communications with each other. artificially made. I found no variety of opinion in the East . and so fail to exhibit the great principles in as heavy relief (basso-relievo) as we do in America. widow. Whom none can comprehend and none explore. ruling o'er . 3). And love the good old fashions ." The eunuch. and know no more ! And yet if there is any one precept in Masonry more persistently violated by these people than another.-there is no GOD beside! Being above all beings. Who fill'st existence with Thyself alone. This is too clear to an observer in one of their lodges to bear contradiction . of the Master Mason. saying with Southey : " It don't look well. is carried here to excess . sir ! I'm an old man." tattered as it may be . lop off. sister.is a violation of social etiquette . He is the conventional non-Mason of this as well as all jurisdictions . or to make any allusion to her existence. daughter. and the following English translation of a Russian poem by Derzhaven embodies their views as well as ours Oh thou eternal ONE. But they never "put new cloth upon the old garment. The holy nature of our obligations to the wife. Being whom we call GOD. more or less of the work. Mighty ONE. it is that Masonic injunction t'Never to mention the name of God.

whether Christian. for Peter. fox . "made imprecations and swore. 10) . of this sacred volume . No .222 THE OPEN WORD ON THE ALTAR . "For swearing the land mourneth. which some Masonic writers have suggested as a fitting substitute on Masonic altars." may well be said of the Orient. oh God! and in a hundred. in spite of Gallic influences. But as it used to be said so often. that the Koran has been. or broken its everlasting covenants (Isaiah xxiv . this is a good time to consider the subject . in Mohammedan countries. tion against profanity was as positive as human language could make it. go ahead. An entire chapter. or changed its ordinances." is Yellah (Ya Allah). would not be too much to dissect that singular work. or may be. by old and young . or will be. " and the Emblem of Deity. though the sycamores are cut down. Long may these ancient landmarks of the craft be maintained! Every Freemason. by our Masonic authors. have not transgressed the fundamental laws of Masonry. and even ridiculously used here. author of the Bible. which is due from a creature to his Creator. irreverently. is willing to abide by the precepts. or Mohammedan. in lodge-use. 5) . Occidental reformers may encourage their Oriental brethren with the hope that though "the bricks are fallen down. revere the mysteries. so far as he has the power. The expression to your horse or ass. yet the name of God is persistently. yea. still greets his first upward glance to the Orient. The Crusaders swore like Trim's "army in Flanders. "Get up . with all their lack of skill in rituals. had got to the same point in the days of Jesus . a thousand other forms the Divine Name is made contemptible among them. and equally forms a part of the Mohammedan's Koran as of the Book of Exodus . This is a subject to which the Masonic moralist here should turn his first attention . the Open Word is yet spread out on the altar in Palestine Lodge. in his shameful fall and denial. It is peculiarly gratifying to know that. and practise the principles. and these genial craftsmen. It is always ringin$ in your ears while travelling among Mohammedans . I suppose. substituted for the Hebrew Scriptures." taking heavy blasphemies on his tongue when he cut loose his friendship for the MAN who had fallen into evil hands. The Jews. had I the space. 415. admire the beauty. we will build with hewn stones . we will change them into cedars" (Isaiah ix. to gladden the first sight of the Masonic Candidate " brought to light ." and the Oriental Catholics and Greek Christians are as bad as the Mohammedans." The Mosaic prohibi . Jewish.

and awaited for years the pen of the historian .THE KORAN . Let us only have like charity for the Koran. The history of the one. prodigals. severe against the perjured. is very similar to that of the other . beautiful in his person . That all the doctrines (as distinguished from the legends) are sound and good. low. is quoted from the Hebrew Scriptures. strictly so called." 2 . and notably from the Ten Commandments. we are unwilling that it shall be treated harshly . can 3nly be proved by a more extended comparison than can be made here. to receive the mysteries of Masonry. then. false witnesses. to take it for granted that as Freemasons we may so recognize it .not by a few isolated passages. " May this book (or the original) be used on the Masonic altar as a substitute for the Hebrew Scriptures?" From that essay the following is extracted 1. to mistake their meaning ! As believers in its authenticity. religious precept. charity. a great preacher of patience. that the so-styled "True Believers" are qualified. It inculcates the mode of life exemplified by its giver . It follows. and a frequent celebrator of the divine praises . and of him Spanhemius says : "He was richly furnished with natural endowments . Many of its traditions and teachings were delivered orally. About twenty years since I made a critical commentary on Sale's Koran. murderers. Is the Koran a book to support the hands of a Freemason? The perusal of it will show1 . and are therefore reliable . and these. in his Illustrations. That it is the Bible of Mohammedan Masons may be admitted in one sense. mercy. That nearly every maxim. The Bible is to be judged by its general scope and intention. That it is principally derived from the Holy Scriptures. gratitude-honoring of parents and superiors . in these respects. and doctrine. 2. and is then sound and good . possibly. beneficence. and illustrate the numerous topics introduced into this volume. after a thoughtful examination of the quotations that fol . a high reverence for the name of God . . and it will not stand so much condemned. and. adulterers. How easy. etc. That the larger portion of its legends (traditions. slanderers. as to religious belief. then. misconceived in the process of translation from a language highly idiomatic and poetical to one extremely practical . above all. agreeable behavior-showing liberality to the poor -courtesy to every one-fortitude against his enemies-and. and Preston seems. the student is referred to the body of the work . covetous. of a subtle wit . with special reference to the question. 3. 223 the Hebrew Scriptures. . historical passages) are borrowed from the same source.

Truth is from the Lord . to Him belongeth whatsoever is in heaven or on earth . a belief in a revealed Word. the self-subsisting . Unless he possess the former. God is bountiful unto whom He pleaseth. follows as a corollary upon the establishment of the second proposition . The proof that the Koran is such a Revelation to those who believe it. no pledge. With both. he can know nothing. God is easy to be reconciled and merciful . Faith in God. rivers shall flow beneath the same . for God is gracious and merciful. God is mighty and wise . is found in its pages. 4. If it be asked of those who fear God. 3 . any other law . he possesses that veneration for truth which the Institution requires. 5 . the living. Direct us in the right way. from which the following extracts are taken . are the first requisites of a candidate for Masonic honors and privileges . spiritually. and fight in God's cause. obligation. 'that its traditions are mainly true. nor of those who go astray. They who believe. verily God is grateful and giving. and ye have no patron or helper beside God. and of Thee do we beg assistance . " God is almighty . or covenant. there is no God but He. and that horror of falsehood so eloquently illustrated in Masonic rites . If ye attempt to reckon up the favors of God. and they are many millions .224 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN . gardens of eternal abode. What hath your Lord sent down? they shall answer. fear God and be sincere . reference is only made here to the Scriptures of the Old and New Testaments. without measure . The fitness of the ]Koran for Masonic uses. therefore. Unto God belongeth the kingdom of heaven and of earth . Without the latter. they shall hope for the mercy of God . 11 Who forgiveth sins except God ? God loveth the beneficent. nor desire to have. neither sleep nor slumber seizeth Him . into which they shall enter . He knoweth that which is past and that which is to come. it is as fully the standard of Mohammedan brethren as are the Holy Writings to the Hebrew and the Christian . It is the Bible of the Moslems. and happy shall be the dwelling of the pious. God is surely gracious and merciful. 0. and who fly for the sake of religion. " Thee do we worship. may be considered from the first of these propositions . therein shall . God is gracious and merciful unto men . '• GOD. God is easy to be reconciled and merciful . He giveth life. religious and civil . and to Masonic tradition . namely. But the children of the next life shall be better . true believers. ye shall not be able to complete their number . can be considered binding upon him . Good !-unto those who do right shall be given an excellent reward in this world . and He causeth to die . nations are governed by its precepts. of the former. they neither have. in the way of those to whom Thou hast been gracious-not of those against whom Thou hast been incensed. God is omnipresent and omniscient . As for him who voluntarily performeth a good work.

who provideth food for you from heaven and earth ? The promise of God is true . and the needy. and the righteous work He will exhort . and give alms . they shall have their reward with the Lord . and for redemption of captives . "Praise be unto God. "They who purchase this life at the price of that which is to come. this shall be better for him . for God's sake. remember the favor of God towards you!-is there any Creator besides God. and what He shall withhold there is none who can bestow. The mercy which God shall freely bestow on mankind. He who resigneth himself to God. cleanseth himself to the advantage of his own soul. for all shall be assembled before God at the last day . neither shall they be grieved . "Ask help with perseverance and prayer . Oh men. and giveth alms . whoever believeth in God and the last day. for God is with the patient. and what treasures ye have laid up in heaven. Thus will God recompense the pious. 0 men. gut for that which your hearts have assented to . and be constant at prayer. and Christians. and speak that which is good unto men. "Ye shall show kindness to your parents and kindred. Whosoever deviseth excellence. and who behave themselves patiently in adversity and hardship. and deal justly. and those who Judaize. " He who voluntarily dealeth better with the poor man than he is obliged. ye shall find them with God . who giveth money. "The pious distribute alms out of what God has bestowed on them . unto Him ascendeth the good speech . "Beg assistance. there shall no fear come on them. " lake not God lightly the object of your oaths. and of those who perform their covenant.-these are they who are true. and doth that which is right. "Surely those who believe. therefore. and in time of violence. and to orphans. unto his kindred and unto orphans. and the prophets . Whosoever cleanseth himself from the guilt of disobedience. their punishment shall be complete. who is constant at prayer. but God is self-sufficient . the present life deceive you. and doth that which is right. "Righteousness is of him who believeth in God and the last day. the Creator of heaven and earth . and Sabines. he shall have his reward with his Lord . and these are they who fear God. and give alms . "Be constant in prayer. "God will not punish you for an inconsiderate word in your oaths . Let not. and the angels.SYNOPSIS OF Tni KORAN. there is none who can withhold . and be devout. unto God Both all excellence belong . and the stranger. with patience and prayer. and make peace among men . and those who ask. and to the poor. and the Scriptures. when they have covenanted. and they shall be without help. 15 . ye have need of God. 225 they enjoy whatsoever they wish .

and will again "restore you to life . lest ye become of the number of transgressors . God will surely love . shall he sent to a most grievous punishment . is already directed in the right way. "God sent down the Law and the Gospel. But they who make merchandise of God's covenant and their oaths. "Whatever alms ye shall give. and when IIe divided the sea for you and delivered you. or whatever vow ye shall vow verily God knoweth it . "God said. and also the distinction between good and evil . "Since ye were dead. dwell thou and thy wife in the garden. "He delivered the Book of the Law unto Moses. ~° God shall judge between us. ~~ What is with God shall be better for the righteous than shortlived worldly prosperity . "Solomon was a believer . concerning that about which we now disagree . and appointed out of them twelve leaders . acid ye shall not be questioned concerning what others have done . The Scriptures descend upon the heart. . "God created you out of one man. . "Whoso keepeth his covenant. shall have no other reward than shame in this life. and God gave you life. "Do you believe in part of the Book of the Law. who grievously oppressed you. when God delivered you from the people of Pharaoh. and from them two bath multiplied many. the Son of Mary. "Observe justice when ye appear as witnesses before God. at the day of resurrection. shall suffer a grievous punishment. and slew your male children . and let not hatred towards any induce you to do wrong. . and ye shall have what ye gain . "If there be any debtor under a difficulty of paying his debt. . But Satan caused them to forfeit Paradise. "God formerly accepted the covenant of the children of Israel. and strengthened Him with the Holy Spirit. "Fear God that ye may prosper. a direction unto men . "God shall lead the believer out of darkness into light. and feareth God. and out of him created his wife. but approach not this tree. and reject other parts thereof ? Whoso among you doth this. The dead have what they have gained. let his creditor wait till it be easy for him to do it . by the per41 . and turned them out of the state of happiness wherein they had been. " God raiseth the dead to life . God will bring you all back at the resurrection . "Remember. 0 Adam. " He who cleaveth firmly unto God. . "Let there be no violence in religion . and on the day of resurrection . he will hereafter cause you to die. ~° Wherever ye be. and gave evident miracles to Jesus. and eat of the fruit plentifully wherever ye will . then shall ye return unto him .226 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN .

and shall work righteousness. ye are not grounded on anything until ye observe the Law and the Gospel. Oh God. 0. with more or less accuracy. to bear what we have not strength to bear. or dealt unjustly with their own souls. though often in a distorted state." G But of all the matters of Masonic interest in this parallelism between the Koran and the Bible. their reward shall be pardon from the Lord . and if they observe the Law and the Gospel. ye who have received the Scriptures. oh Lord. a direction and good tidings to the faithful . they shall remain in the same forever . and the other Scriptures which have been sent down unto them from their Lord. Paradise is prepared for the godly. and forgive men . and spare us. and they shall suffer a grievous punishment. lay vot on us a burden like that which Thou hast laid on those who have been before us . and they shall meet therein with greeting and salutation . Oh God. and He will lead them into gardens of pleasure . call all men to judgment. who give alms in prosperity and adversity. Those who shall believe. Nearly every incident is transferred." is startling enough for the firmest believer in eternal punishment . and those of chief importance are repeated several times . they shall surely eat of good things. God will cast him to be broiled in hell-fire. with their respective leaders . of the historical facts and narratives that make up so large a portion of the latter . they shall be companions of hell-fire . both from above them and from under their feet . they shall taste the punishment for that which they have gained . On a certain day God will. For instance : 1 Iy they who have received the Scriptures believe and fear God. and over them shall be coverings of fire . God shall not speak to them on the day of resurrection. because they have persevered with constancy." The Scriptural doctrine of a future state of rewards and punishments is everywhere taught in the Koran : "Whosoever doeth maliciously and wickedly. who bridle their anger. "Their couch shall be in hell. and that which hath been sent down unto you from your Lord. neither make us. They who have committed a crime. and persevere not in what they have done. who shall remember God. God will surely introduce into Paradise among the upright . punish us not if we forget or act sinfully . 221 mission of God. They who conceal any part of the Scriptures. but be favorable unto us. and ask pardon for their sins.SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN . confirming that which was before revealed." Injunctions to believe and obey the Scriptures abound everywhere f in the Koran . He will surely expiate their sins from them. whoever hath been blind in this life shall also be blind in the next . it shall be an excellent abode and a delightful station . the righteous shall be rewarded with the highest appointments in Paradise. perhaps none is so striking as the introduction into the former. "Whosoever believeth not the Scriptures shall perish . and be merciful unto us .

the Deluge. we have many facts-some. We have the facts of his idolatrous youth. etc. Give him suck . the Angel Gabriel. and Abel." .. The Old Testament relations concerning Moses. saying.. which they sought to avoid . Balaam. Sennacherib. etc. etc. sacrifice. entertainment of the angels. Concerning Abraham. there is the face of God. And when she had put the child n the ark. escape from destruction. etc . disputations with Nimrod. his penitence with prayer. and he said. and have had all things bestowed on us . plea to God for evidence of the resurrection. the Golden Calf. whithersoever way ye turn yourselves to pray. his offering up of Isaac. I give specimens " Solomon was David's heir. David and Goliath. is fed with a miracle. Aaron. God's promise of Isaac. fanciful enough-yet generally agreeable to the Bible . if thou fearest for him. retirement with her. and to establish a place for them in the earth . See chapter xxviii . and several of his sons. cast him into the river. Pharaoh. of the Koran for a minute history of these transactions. by revelation." and of Moses-" Now Pharaoh lifted himself up in the land of Egypt : and he caused his subjects to be divided into parties . the tower of Babel. And God directed the mother of Moses. for he was an oppressor. Ezekiel. etc . his being worshipped by the angels. Elisha. are detailed with minuteness .and to make them the heirs of the wealth of Pharaoh and his people. and to show Pharaoh and Haman. the Koran is even more diffuse. Nimrod. the most merciful. this is manifest excellence . God is our support. God knoweth the innermost part of the breasts of men . Ye shall not worship any other except God . Cain. Ishmael.. Oh men. Mount Ararat. and fear not. Jacob. Lot.228 SYNOPSIS OF THE KORAN. Concerning Adam. and appoint him one of our apostles . therefore.. for we will restore him unto thee. and He is severe in punishing . serve your God who hath created you . his grievous fall. and the most excellent patron . etc. his destruction of the idols of his father's family. he is called the friend of God. it must be confessed." etc . we have been taught the speech of birds. God contracteth and extendeth his hand as he pleaseth . Enoch. Ezra. They refer to his creation. for instance. and. Dost thou not know that God is almighty? that unto Him belongeth the kingdom of heaven and earth? that ye have no helper or protector except God? To God belongeth the east and the west . Caleb. And God was minded to be gracious unto those who were weakened in the land. that destruction of their kingdom and nation by them. and their forces. there is no God but He. the Queen of Sheba. his conversion. his preaching to the people. Elijah. their stature. Solomon. and to make them models of religion. neither be afflicted . Jonah. prayer for his father. his meeting with Eve. "Your God is our God . All power belongeth unto God. he weakened one party of them by slaying their male children and preserving their females alive . Oh men. Joshua.

Abu Laheb.* the hands of Abu Laheb shall perish. and if we perish. entitled Abu Laheb. As a specimen of the style in which this singular work is composed. "I* ae name of the Most Merciful God" EGYPTIAN WILLOW BASKET& . And she shall have on her neck a rope twisted of the fibres of the palm-tree" The name of Mohammed's aunt. Neither his riches nor his gains shall be of service to him . and show how florid is Oriental imagery : The Helping Hand (107). and there be burned . let us take the third chapter. carrying fuel to feed the infernal flames . the chiefs of Arab tribes meet together on the eve of a military expedition. The Swift War-Horses (100). The Frowning Brow (80). for refusing to accept his prophetic misson. The Unjust Measure (83). to whom he threatened such diabolical penalties. and launched the following missile against him : " In the name of the Most Merciful God. was 0mm (mother) Jemeel. that I trust the space I have given this subject will be considered fitly occupied . Mohammed had become incensed against his uncle. and will fight with one and the same weapon .TITLES OF KORANIC CHAPTERS. 229 So many Mohammedans are Masons. and he himself shall perish . He shall go down into the flaming fire of hell. In the presence of the priests. and putting their hands upon their sacred book (the Koran). except one. His wife also shall go there. they say : " We swear by God (Allah) that we are brothers . etc. it shall be with the same sword :' *All the 114 chapters of the Koran. The titles of some of the chapters of the Koran afford a hint of their contents. The Breath of the Winds (51). The Gloomy Veil (88). commence with the passage. and the seed of Masonry has proved so congenial to the soil of Mohammedan lands.

as the chief benefactor of the Syrian University. VERY American Mason must feel a national as well as religious interest in whatever proposes to elevate the Oriental races. THE AMERICAN MISSIONARIES. Going out through the narrow. And this is but one of the many fruits of missionary labors here .CHAPTER XV. exhibiting in all their actions those best and truest signs of Christian spirit. and conducted by American learning and intelligence. we may proudly point to the Syrian University. E. M. then. 1871. than that of any' other living man ! I associated with the different families of the missionaries a good deal.000 souls. and the promise of thrice the number. F . and to leave words worthy to be preserved in cedar? For I felt that I would rather have filled his place that day. C . and my personal views of them as a class are admirably expressed by another writer. B. built by American money. through winding ways of the magnificent amphitheatre of gardens . benevolent . Dodge. through the pines which cast their thin shadows over the surrounding flats of sand . through the vast grove of olives which silver the shallow valley at the base of Lebanon . gloomy. Nothing has conduced so much to this as the labors of the Protestant missions of the A . noisome streets . in conversation. a sincere and cheerful friendship among them- .. delivered here December. innocent and cheerful . Wm. et cedro digna locutus linquere ?- Is there any one who does not wish to deserve popular applause. devout in the offices of religion . I could not help inquiring with the poet : An erit qui vellit recuset os populi meruisse. operating in this country for about half a century. as the only institution of the class in the East . with a present population of 75. looking back over this thriving city. sober. and paves the way for the lifting up of this long down-trodden land. noisy. As I read the corner-stone speech of Mr . who says : " They are pious.

bow the subtle and exclusive Jesuit. Of Dr. heat without light. His language is always simple and unaffected . at Beyrout . to celebrate the sacrament. and finally here . especially in the Department of Ophthalmy. Another has given my idea in almost the same words : "What they chiefly have to contend with is not so much the heathenism that surrounds them. and so are many of us. It is the part of these men to contend with the bigotry. and wordly-mindedness of the Latin and Greek priests.000 per annum for five years to establish a Christian press at Malta . such as Presbyterians. as the pompous and imposing ceremonies in which the remains of Oriental Christianity are enveloped. at Antioch. They recognize no denominational names. and the timid Abyssinian . the poor Copt. here and elsewhere. loaded down with specimens and note-books. Bliss. he has much grace and ease. as the disciples just above here. 231 selves. and increase the harmony of the Christian body at home. who oppose schools." This witness is true ." Since Father Jonas King (who deceased 1870) brought his own bread and wine here from Paris. and a generous charity to all . printing. his salutation. . Van Dyke. They are of opinion. gentle and sportive humor. and an industrious man . and everything not under their own control Among them I enjoyed the excellence and amiableness of the Lord's house . first called themselves Christians . but call themselves missionaries. Congregationalists. hinting at possibilities . in Jerusalem. has been to kindle the religious fire in the churches. Of Dr . I have written . the austere and zealous Armenian. "Well. At first Smyrna and Malta were made their centres of labor. unreasonableness. have you discovered Jachin and Boaz yet?" was the first that greeted my ear.PROTESTANT MISSIONARIES. and certain persons in Boston. and the like. Then it was moved to Smyrna. sound without sense. more than half a century since. whose professional labors. At the same shrines of idolatrous superstition. Whenever I returned to Beyrout. that one great result of the awakening in missionary effort. form without power. He is a hard student. books. Doctor. nearly two generations have participated in the mystic repast with these missionaries. agreed to give $3. their worship in all essential features similar . intolerance. Massachusetts. I noted he has an air of engaging frankness. have been something unprecedented in extent. the body without the soul. with a sub-flavor of . the pompous Greek.

until quite recently. the first matrices were cut by the elder Mr.ti32 THE EYE-INFIRMARY . Some tourists have foolishly exaggerated the comforts they enjoy. is one of these . printing books. Their manner of living is simple and economical. from a degraded and vicious level. their history of times when a man's heel could have stamped out the little spark they had kindled . The sight of educated. The story of Assad-esh-Shidiak. as told in the Missionary Herald of Feb. They are making gradual but sure progress towaras raising. and they lean heavily and faithfully on the Divine arm . their labors have been abundant. with Cicero. In the way of establishing schools. Dei plena sent oninia-all things are full of Deity. establishing schools for teaching Christianity to the young. and add greatly to their domestic expenses . of whose name I am making such frequent use in the present volume. They have their romances. who have buried themselves beyond the reach of congenial society. 1833.. these things suggest nothing to my mind but self-sacrifice. Both these errors. Mr. delicate ladies. and sold to them by the natives! Several steam-presses are now kept busy by this printing-house at Beyrout. which Dr. including. For this. Hallock. They find. and the electrotype plates made by his son. The number of their printed publications is large. these people of the East. thoroughly instructed to adorn any profession in life. their episodes of terrible interest. Van Dyke makes a specialty. Their hospital and infirmary at Beyrout have a reputation that extends even to Bagdad and Egypt . a complete copy of the Holy Scriptures in Arabic. thankless charge . or that of earnest Christian gentlemen. But fidelity and heroic resistance have thus far overcome all obstacles . " spring from thoughtlessness alone . The principal work of the mission has been. like those whom I saw gracing the Protestant missions at Beyrout and Sidon. Samuel Hallock. in addition to hymn-books and theological works. there is perhaps no institution in . but giving their whole lives to a most arduous. For diseases of the eye. He told me that the lead of which the first typemetal here was made was sheet-lead torn from the old Roman coffins. the only deviation being the necessary care of strangers who claim their hospitality. and depreciated the effect of their labors upon the uninstructed masses around them. just as the nations of Europe were raised from a similar plane by missionaries from the East. sometimes in inconvenient numbers. and healing institutions for the sick . it is charity to believe.

and the boys running before to secure a good view . For this veteran missionary. on my first Sabbath here. My note of Dr.150 copies of religious matter. they were objects of curiosity. and the Christians each have a different day called Sabbath. or the success of operations and treatment . Reminds me of old Zach . A society was established in . many natives following them to the house. December 23. and Greco-Turkish . printed the amount of 287. must bring a gush of devotion which memory will retain forever and forever . Sitting in their house of worship at Beyrout. Taylor. was removed to Smyrna. Armeno-Turkish. with whom I once travelled on the Mississippi river. Van Dyke treated largely over one thousand ophthalmic cases! I shall refer to this subject again . 1834. all at the same time . all given to the promulgation of sectarian error . the mild and mellow light of these Mediterranean shores flowing through the cypresses. as I did twoscore years ago. to hearken to the sound of the trumpet (Jeremiah vi . recalling the unpleasant fact that the Moslems.D. When the first of them landed here. in the midst. The American Protestant press. to their profit . to stand by the grave of Pliny Fisk. in Italian. I used to see a regular string of applicants waiting their turn at his door. 233 the world that excels his in the number of cases treated. Amongst other works. they have published The Pilgrim's Progress. this press . at which time there were eight presses in the Holy Land. and was informed that during the spring I was there (1868) Dr. 17) blown by the Turkish troops in the garrison. now they are as much a landmark of Beyrout and its history as the very pine-groves in the suburbs . W M . Thomson is this : Something over seventy. Paces his parlor in his red-painted Damascus slippers. 1854. first established A .TRANSLATIONS OF BOOKS . It has been the very fulcrum of Archimedes to move the world of Oriental ignorance . Heman Hallock and Daniel Temple being the printers . and equally. it was startling. 1823. portly but vigorous. November 17. smokes and talks. the Jews. and Oriental readers are now enjoying acquaintance with Worldly Wiseman and other characters of good old John Bunyan. preferring to insert them in this chaotic state than to omit them altogether : At the mission-press they are completing a thorough concordance to the Holy Scriptures. 1822 in Malta. in the Arabic language . courteous expression . modern Greek. I throw a few notes together here. florid face. I hope. It arrived here May 8.

These are well supplied with funds. It has a fine campus of twenty acres. in their purity. returning to his field in Turkey. But even now it proves insufficient for the pupils who apply. and Syrian population assembled on the site of the new College building . . and fair collections in geology and mineralogy . designed to extend Christian blessings to heathen women. of stone. entitled Women's Union Missionary Society of America for Heathen Lands. They reckon every Jew converted in Palestine as worth. At the laying of the corner-stone of their new building. a good telescope. 7. and a portion of the city . The warm Syrian sun beamed down with cloudless brightness. of $200 for one year . valuable philosophical. when it goes forth it will accomplish that whereunto it is sent . and a medical department . to Christianity. commanding an unobstructed view of the sea. they received four Copt students. 1871. the Lebanon range. etc. English. John Brown. The Syrian University was incorporated a few years since. His theory of labor was to bring back to the East the same Bible and Gospels. applied to a boy who carries "Ishmael" on his every feature. German. It has a literary course of four years. devoted to Bible distribution. died in the Oriental field December 16.. 1871. The exercises were opened by an introductory address by the Rev. and it is not uncommon to hear such names as Peter Jones. The building is a very handsome one. from a town 500 miles up the Nile. a mile west of the city. It stands perched high on the northern bluff of the Bosphorus. the language of instruction is Arabic. 1861. under the laws of New York. and throngs of the American. and promise great usefulness on their return home . In February. The missionaries teach that the Word of God is fire and the hammer . This site is a noble. 1856 . In 1835 the editor of the Missionary Herald wrote pathetically that the managers of this mission had sought in vain for a pious and competent physician . Its first class graduated July. even at the rate. just above the old fortress of Europe . the weather was charming. and medical apparatus. 1870 . N. Righter. a respectable library.800 years ago . The wonder is that the Turks should ever have surrendered so choice a spot for such a use. In educating orphan children. A missionary. writes to one of our papers of the joy and pride with which he looked upon the new American College at Constantinople. a thousand converted anywhere else. chemical. an herbarium of 6. elevated promontory on the north side of Cape Beirut. The site is the finest in the whole length of that classic strait . the teachers often give them the names of their benefactors in America who assume the payment for proteges. Dec . C . for tuition and board.234 SYRIAN UNIVERSITY. with Mansard roof .000 Oriental plants. whence we received them 1.

offering young men of all classes the opportunity of securing a thorough classical and medical education . yet it is the intention of its Faculty that no young man shall enter its halls and complete his studies without a thorough knowledge of the Christian system and of the way of salvation in Jesus Christ . fitting them to fill with honor the highest positions. as instructors. most important results . in Arabic . trying by their schools and seminaries to awaken a desire for education . schools. and throughout the greater part of Syria. we cannot doubt. who stood on a platform of six narrow joists of Cilician pine (from the Taurus range. and especially the religious element in its course of instruction . but he cannot leave without seeing and knowing what it is to be a Christian . President of the Board of Trustees in New York. Robertson of the Kirk of Scotland. but there is connected with its future. to be presided over by men of superior education and experience. which had been laid across the stone heaps near the foundation wall. 235 Dr. For more than forty years the American and other missionaries have been patiently laboring to promote the best interests of the people of Syria. The following are extracts : "We are assembled this afternoon to lay the corner-stone of the Syrian Protestant College . physicians. which has now assumed such importance that we find in this city. He may enter as a heathen. which. as well as the various civil and political positions under the government . but all will learn that there is one. and one only. Jas. Dr. and. equal in all respects to such as is furnished in Europe and America. Inspired Volume of Divine Revelation. in English. Dodge. President of the College. and one Saviour for lost and ruined man . An address was then delivered by the Hon . Bliss. and they have been encouraged by a growth from year to year. ministers. and the Scriptures were read by the Rev . "For several years the institution has been in partial operation. This fact has led the friends of the American and English missions to feel that the time had arrived for establishing a classical institution of a high grade. and by the Rev . Wm . we doubt not. Thomson then offered prayer. E. more or less extensive. Professor Wortabel. for training boys and girls. These halls will be open to Christian and Pagan.PLANTING THE CORNER-STONE . its scope. lawyers. It may seem to some a very small matter of itself . above Tarsus). are destined to great enlargement within a few years. The Rev. in fact. He urged that although direct proselytizing is not aimed at in the institution. where young men from the various preparatory schools of the country could have an opportunity of obtaining a thorough classical education. Druse and Nusairy . . Moslem and Jew. who made a brief statement of the design of the Syrian Protestant College .

and. we trust it will be a centre of light and influence. so full of Bible and historic interest. and the rules and regulations . and mingle my congratulations with yours. DODGE'S ADDRESS. this University shall still go on increasing in usefulness. Directors. through the liberality of friends in America and England. Grace. But more than that. And now may the blessing of God ever rest on the building whose foundation has now 'been laid ! And to His name be all the praise . imbedded in the foundation. May the blessing of God attend the effort. and act as a stimulus to other schools . is accordance with plans designed by an eminent American architect . shall give moral life and beauty to the hills and valleys of Syria. and like a city set on a hill. and those engaged in it have made great sacrifices. and the friends of the College have been so much encouraged by the success of the beginning. crying. or as the lighthouse at the entrance of your harbor. I proceed to lay the corner-stone of the ' Syrian. which. if possible. sufficient funds have been obtained to warrant a commencement . like streams in the desert. and prosper all engaged in the work of erection. and be able to convey to the friends in America the good news that the College building is fairly under way . and thousands of young men go forth from its halls to aid in redeeming and blessing this land. Here it will rise in commanding proportions. Protestant College . a copy of the College charter . grace. It has been conceived in the spirit of Christian philanthropy. " Let me invoke the prayers and influence of all present in its behalf. as from year to year there shall go forth the young men graduated with honor.' and as years shall go by. unto it . also copies of the local papers of the latest dates. and having secured this beautiful situation. Appreciate their motives. an annual catalogue. in accordance with the custom in America and England. I am gratified in being able to say that. have left home and friends to secure to this people the inestimable blessings of a thorough classical education. the Board of Trustees have decided at once to commence the erection of the buildings for the classical and medical departments. this must be an occasion of interest. that they resolved to secure a site. for the erection of this building will increase the desire for higher attainments. containing the names of the Faculty. it will be one of the first objects which will meet the eye of the stranger entering your port .236 MR . "To those connected with the education of youth in Syria." . And now. and give them every encouragement . and filled with a desire to communicate to others the knowledge they have acquired . and those of us who have been permitted to aid in its erection shall have passed away. and we are here to-day formally to lay the corner-stone of the first building. giving wisdom to carry out successfully the plans till ' the top-stone shall be laid with rejoicing. the necessary funds to erect suitable buildings . I am very happy to be with you at this interesting time. This is not a money-making enterprise . Trustees. and students.' having placed in a leaden case.

which the emotions of my heart impel me to offer. who has . 237 This address was then translated into Arabic by Dr . "Who. astronomy and geometry. Van Dyke. taught us algebra and arithmetic. E. will most clearly discover that the laying of this stone is the positive assurance for the beginning of a return of science and knowledge to this our native land . let us drink deep draughts from her milk . and medical science ? To what shall I liken thee. and making them worthy to be numbered i n the ranks of civilized nations . bestow upon this high-minded and excellent man. asked permission to say a few words . environ her by Thy angels. sirs. before her. expresses a type of two things that ought not to escape the notice of the sons of our native land . " This stone. laid before us as the corner-stone of this structure that is destined to rise in noble proportions. to establish and jealously guard our beloved Alma Mater.DR . H . 0 Thou our God ! cast Thine eye in favor upon the upbuilding of this noble College. . and return upon them in disappointment . our God. natural history. and after the laying of the stone. then. to gardens in which resound the songs of science. that they may shield her from all evil. Jessup. . Dr. May the plots of her envious opponents be baffled by her immovable foundations. before the foundation of this College. FRAY'S ADDRESS . To the lifegiving fountains ? for thou hast changed the wild desert wastes of mind. It is not only an earnest for the upbuilding of this noble College which has diffused. Come. the Hon . our Alma Mater. nourishing them by thy life-sustaining milk. taught botany. 0. a Greek Catholic. 0 God. and from every evil eye . but also it should be held in veneration as an earnest of the return of science and civilization from the West to our land. He spoke in Arabic as follows "I must ask your pardon. ye sons of fatherland! hasten with rapid steps to the arms of this tender mother. polishing their minds and understandings. . and the other mathematical sciences? Who. and a member of the first graduated medical class. in whose courts the raven of ignorance and folly is ever croaking. Selim Fray. in the sons of our land. 0 noble College? To the Star of the East ? in that thou art scattering by thy rays the mists of the gross darkness of ignorance which has enveloped our native land . mineralogy. bestow an abundance of blessing upon those benefactors who are giving their aid in the erection of this College . prayer was offered in Arabic by Rev . when a young native physician. chemistry and natural philosophy. regretting the impotence of my tongue to do justice to such an occasion . Dr . as a sweet fragrance. science and virtue throughout all our borders. H. Come. To a tender mother? because thou dost bear in thy bosom youth from whatsoever sect or faith. Dodge. and every one who does not darken his vision by the veil of envy or partiality. Let us entreat the high and holy One. 0 God. Wm. in giving utterance to these few words. for it will give life to our barren minds . which teem with the flowers and fruits of knowledge. Yes.

Van Dyke. Rev. Mrs . . are connected with this great mission. for many years devoted to establishing Christian schools for girls. Multiply their benevolent aims. that they may perfect this good and glorious work . Thomson. which may God in power and mercy greatly bless . Grant them long life. Rev . Rev. M. Jessup. richly impart Thy blessing to the President of this College. are Rev. and prepare for each one of the Board of Trustees and Managers. Restore him. H." At Beyrout. and their wives. for he is chief among hex benefactors . are Rev. i THE TWO SIDES OF THE RING OF PHARAOH THOTHME$ .23 8 CATALOGUE OF MISSIONARIES . and two native assistants. S . V . Bowen Thompson. and Sophia B . W . Bird. to his native land in peace and safety . Dennis. and Henry H . and five native assistants. Calhoun and Wm . Loring. with their wives. Eddy and wife. for which I have not space here. so honored our country. One pious lady. At Sidon. are also at work throughout these mountains of old King Hiram. our God. are Dr. and three assistants . in 1872. Misses Eliza D. . assisted by one native teacher and two native helpers. . and to her distinguished instructors. overflowing with blessings and good fortune . fifty miles up the coast. 0 Lord. 1869. with his family. James S. A. and of her benefactors. At Abeih. and happy days. Everett. Samuel Jessup and wife. a glorious portion in Thy heavenly kingdom . with three single ladies. Bliss. W. Ellen Jackson. and each of the teachers of this College. Thirty-one `outlying stations. . Grant them Thy helping hand. 0 Thou. had succeeded in organizing nearly one hundred of this class when. a supporting band . a few miles southeast of Beyrout. At Tripoli. she was summoned to her reward . W. November 14th. C . Other missions. all within sixty miles of Beyrout.

so every person of the least note or consequence possessed one . 1868. therefore. it was de • posited with its owner in his tomb . of all colors and compositions . From its stony caskets (sarcophagi) I had procured hundreds of seals. and beads. I undertook this part of my pilgrimage. of the town of Gebal. all were busy . table poorly supplied. George on the Austrian steamer-I forget the name. from the shores where they made up their "flotes" in the Masonic Bay to the place of debarkation in the port of Joppa . a miserable affair. and from thence by land to Jerusalem. like the spear and pipe of the American Indian.CHAPTER XVI. and other hard and precious stones. signets. and. through old Bishop Gobat's field-glass. cornelian. Moving out of the Bay of St. FOLLOWING THE RAFTSMEN . even as every Arab sheikh does now. and nothing on earth can be grander to the voyager than the passage down this historical coast . composed of opal. My notes here are of course sketchy and desultory . Herodotus. jasper. pencil. The timbers were all felled and prepared in the forests of Lebanon. Ledvard. mind. who found numbers of them among the . the signet was used to ratify such social and religious transactions as called for a sacred pledge. declares that every man possessed one. Eye. says the old writer. The day of my passage was fair. speaking in his day of the Assyrians. Voila ! here it is . officers as incommunicable as the Royal Arch Word-I had a good view. T was strictly in accordance with my original pledge to the generous Masons who furnished me the "sinews of war" for these explorations. agate. chalcedony. about twelve miles in the north . conveyed by sea in °flotes" (sic) to Joppa. that I should follow the ancient raftsmen of Hiram. and if my readers can enjoy a dish of hash. As in olden times. On the last day of April.

May God bless that house! Bishop Gobat talks with me about Freemasonry. Past Sidon. ruins of Nineveh. The old man was long a missionary to Abyssinia. By steamer it takes only fourteen hours. were anciently used by inserting them in a metal axis. and the same in diameter. such as the artist has displayed on the rafts in my Masonic map. On coins. and swore. to appreciate how narrow a shelf of land that kingdom was . they disentegrated sufficiently to compose the scanty soil we see . But at present they are made fiat. I reply that much illustrating the doctrine and history of ancient Masonry is yet to come to light. So exquisitely are some of these objects engraved. He preached last Sunday against the Abyssinian war in which England is now engaged. in . 150 miles. on broken statuary. which I had enjoyed so recently . and applied by one firm pressure of the hand to the wax. the gales are always auspicious between Beyrout and Joppa . was hard on the group of British officials in the congregation . in process of ages. says they . each perfectly drawn. He inserted his signet in the hilt of his sword. etc . 1 can almost select their house from the mass of flat-roofed buildings facing the sea . and applying them like the garden rollingstone. cannot be answered until we are told at what seasons of the year the work of "logging" was done . 1° What I sign with the hilt I will maintain with the point!" The question as to whether the raftsmen of Hiram encountered dangerous winds along this coast. has five human figures upon it. was rapidly and pleasantly accomplished . and with a moderate spread of sail. with accessory matters. The story of stout old Charlemagne sounds well in this connection .2 40 PASSING SIDON.. to be remembered for the hospitality of the missionaries. as I saw Mohammed Raschid Pasha and Noureddin Effendi apply theirs . A cylinder one halfinch high. If in the summer. He asks me now what is there _n Syria and Palestine for Freemasons to do . Past the mouth of the Damour River. One must withdraw from the Phoenician coast about ten miles. that we must conclude their artists understood the use of the microscope. the distance. although history is silent upon the subject . on fragments of pottery. I could imagine that once the sea ran close under the mountain's massive rocks. and the way he denounced the British government for this unprovoked and zncalled-for invasion of an innocent people. but that. with its great grove of mulberry trees .

This is remarkable for its clearness and lack of color. ceiling. What Pliny says of the origin of glass manufactures. though no doubt allusions to it may be found . there are two ancient gems. 2). Ky." It comes from a Hebrew word. lie among the ruins. as " crystal. xlv. both counterfeits.C. and floor. some of the most beautiful glassware in use is made at Sandwich and East Cambridge. ground it by lathes. glass is found of the period B . I carry home a very considerable quantity of these for . refers to the glass of Tyre . Mass . 7. . The word only occurs once. shaped it by blowing. In the Beni Hassan tombs of Egypt. applies strictly to this section of the country . Among my most curious specimens gathered at Tyre. Past Tyre. that when we get about opposite Khan Younas (where Jonah was vomited on shore) I give up the unsavory mess to the sea. to confound the skeptic. and gag the mouths of those with in our own affiliation who are trying to break down our traditional claims . may we not hope from Masonic researches now. and now in my office at La Grange. but perfectly well executed. Am reminded that all along this coast large pieces of glass. evidently of the very earliest period of the manufacture. The skill of the ancients in the manufacture of glass was such that they not only made it of a crystalline purity. What. .. in Job xxviii . in the latter half of the nineteenth century. but by its use imitated every known marble and every sort of precious stone. every inch of it. at any hour. one a chrysolite. Either the cooking or the motion of the sea so disagrees with my stomach. the other an emerald. Josephus. the greatest and most important evidences of Masonic antiquity may spring forth to view. specimens . After eight centuries of researches. But here we are interrupted by a call to as poor a steamship dinner as I ever sat down to . signifying "to be pure. is a glass bottle. There is nothing directly said in the Scriptures of glass. 2000 to 3500. in his Wars (IX . confirm the wavering. then. and much of it is exported to Europe . In the Museum Virtorium. anywhere. 241 the recesses of caves. walls. and resume my pencil . the world of Bible-believers and Christian-believers have brought more genuine evidence to light during the past ten years than in all previous ages . without a moment's warning. and carved it like silver. at Rome. At the present time. and the dross and slag of glass furnaces." and refers to a species of glass formerly held in high esteem . perfectly 6 . but just begun? The great Barclay quarry under Jerusalem should be explored. . according to different chronologies.PASSING TYKE . gladden the faithful.

Jean d'Acre of the Crusaders . bearing now not far from due east. The mixture used by ancient glass-makers. or Light-house (Ifulaat-esh-Sliema) . While in the minaret of the great mosque in Damascus. A military road was opened across this point. according to Pliny. which. and both externally and internally free from the smallest blemish . Here. So much on the vitreous theme. was held in such repute for its purity and cleanliness. almost all that sets us above the savage. A small hill near it. and the Belus-sand. tipped with snow.242 PASSING THE LADDER of TYRE. that great quantities were exported to Europe and elsewhere for this manufacture . reflecting the genial influences of the grand mountainsire above. to which the great name. the St. etc . Glass was formerly used for wainscotting churches and dwellings. . the Arabs call it). Its isolated cone. the mountains close into the sea much as they do at the mouth of Dog River. and there is a town in ruins near by. many are of glass . At the top of this pass is a tower called Candle-tower. As old Samuel Johnson says. and the Roman. have come to us from these shores . at Promontoriunz Album. figures of deities. this White Cape (Ras-el-Abyad. What a landmark this white cape must have been to the raftsmen whose course I am pursuing. the Persian. the Father of Dew. because the clouds seem to cling with peculiar fondness round its wooded top. drinking-vessels._ the Greek. also for coffins. borrowing some of its peculiar claims. on these shores were the four great empires of the world -the Assyrian. Past Scala Tyrorum. as pronounced here) is applied . At Pompeii glass windows were found.f Alexander (Scanderoon. personal ornaments. almost all our arts. where the inscriptions are . is styled Abu Nedy. and some forty miles distant . Among the lessens of mosaic pavements which I brought home to America. Passing the Plain of Acre. which are beautiful . the Ladder of Tyre . just below Tyre. . a noble appearance. presents. . I have just looked through a copy of the . The pass is styled Ras-en-Nakoorah. mosaic work )n walls and pavements. was three parts nitrum to one part sand . ascending in zigzags. I purchased quite a handful of these. All our religion. near Acre. and how useful to them in dark nights the Candle-tower on the top ! In full sight of Mount Hermon. The Egyptians had learned to permeate the materials with designs of ancient colors . old Accho of the Bible. almost all our law. is named the Ladder of Tyre . transparent and colored throughout.

in 1869. against the French army. 2) as decreeing unrighteous decrees. The union jack. writing grievousness. Napoleon Bonaparte. all responsibility to mortal power being taken away. and can only repeat now what I said then.801 . blue." It was started in 1788. This historical Plain of Acre is connected yonder with the big prairie-land of Esdraelon by a narrow pass. 3). But the Governor of Acre. one of those whom the prophet Isaiah describes (x . we cannot but rejoice that there is such a thing as death to break the staff of the . who. The sight of the British flag. so dear to every Englishman's breast. with the banner of Scotland. April 12. denoting the British vessels here. Sidney Smith. The Turkish system of government opens the broadest way for injustice. city of glorious associations ! I will devote some pages to its history in my chapter on Knights Templars. under that other gallant Masonic brother. through which the Kishon. the whispers of love which made the bond of the Christian crusades . making widows their prey. as I have a hundred times before. every voice of these waters. and probably got enough vis inertia at that time to keep it running these eighty years . and have tried. with a white diagonal cross. eastward to south. in 1799. Every movement of these billows recalls the throb of friendship's heart . in 1859. would have been justly named Mayor-missabib. after paying an exorbitant bill of subscription : " It is the dullest newspaper I ever came across. always a pleasant one to me. "that ancient river." Djezzar Pasha. George. swampy and full of rushes and alder. which lies on the cabin-table. with a red cross. in such hands . But Acre. certainly the motivepower is not inside of it. taking away the right of the poor of the people." flows. and sweep a semicircle from north. and at present only note the current thoughts that arise .PASSING ACR 243 London Times. you include the whole plain . recalls the wonderful defence of Acre made by our gallant brother Mason. to interest myself in it I took it for six months. This was joined. professes to have found a crocodile! The map shows that if you set a compass at the gate of Acre. with whom our good brother Sidney Smith so genially hobnobbed while warding off the assaults of the French army . 1 . turning aside the needy from judgment. 1. Before that it was a union of the old banner of St. It was no other than "the Butcher-Ruler. was adopted in their naval service January. white. and there a genial English writer. and robbing the fatherless . 1606. in the old Hebrew allegory. "fear round about" (Jeremiah xx .

having rather the appearance of art than nature. on " Domestic Life in the Holy Land . sitting on a floating piece of wreck. upon the amount of skill and daring necessary to float the cedar-rafts from Beyrout to Joppa. E. Djezzar seems to have taken for his model the Governor Felix of Paul's time. I fall to reckoning how many pounds of fish are necessary for the daily rations of these voracious fowl . has yonder city witnessed .244 OFF THE NOSE OF CARMEL. and he well illustrates the dog-like rage and arrogant folly of idiots advanced to be governors. how many mutilations. . Off "the nose" of Carmel is a group of pelicans solemnly fishing. with bulls' hides. wrote her best of books. he takes the thing as a necessary incident of the sport. T. 5) . I will refer to it again . wicked. or he breaks his fishpole." And here is Mount Carmel. Counting three hundred and sixty-one of them in the gang. If he gets a hook in his fingers. shaped like a sugar-loaf. in 1836. or a sculpin steals his bait. in which I am the happy possessor of a "lot. Past Caifa . called The Castle of the Pilgrims. This fact has its bearing. for that forlorn one yonder. no loud laughter . what untold floods of human misery. That best of Oriental Masons. is Pelicanus onocrotalus . The name. too. No chatting. Here Mr. D . as I have before hinted. was British Consul here for many years. and the sceptre of the rulers (Isaiah xiv . Stewart says in summer this promontory is undisturbed by storms . Lynch referred to this view when he was here in 1848. the tyrant capable of every crime . a very appropriate title. He reminds me for all the world of the Grand Treasurer of the Grand Lodge of in his pensive attitude. Just below are those mountains of masonry that even now afford an inexhaustible supply of material for the masons of Beyrout.' Miss Rogers. built during the crusades . like the shields of Homer . in a pensive attitude. Rogers. and here his intelligent sister. if my natural history is not all afloat. A traveller describes the gates of Caifa covered." bought in 1871 . I have had so much trouble with noisy companions while out fishing on Saturdays. if ever I saw pensiveness. the man who ruled Judea with the power of a king but the soul of a slave. Hardegg has his German colony. G. when the Grand Lodge is voting away all its funds in spite of his protests. How many cases of poisoning. greatly admired for the regularity of its form. that I shall ever respect the pelican as a model fishist . I always admire the piscatorial gravity which a pelican puts on when he goes a-fishing . and tries again .

He was born at Samos. the members being bound together by peculiar rites and observances . He left no written instructions. but it is certain he believed in the transmigration of souls . and Xenophanes of Colophon . MOUNT CARMEL. and some of his pupils taught that numbers were the basis and essence of all things . 540) he opened his school at Crotona. Anaximander. receiving knowledge successively from Thales. and some of his contemporaries believed him to be a god . He was emphatically a born student. Everything done and taught was kept profoundly secret from the world without . in which the mind and morals were severely tested . and a period of proba tion. Pythagoras. This wonderful man founded the third school of philosophy. Various degrees were established among them. of whom I spoke in the fourth chapter. following that of Thales of Miletus. At the age of forty (B .C. He was emphatically a religious teacher. 580 . The Pythagoreans had Masonic signs by which they recognized each . His knowledge of geometry and arithmetic was pre-eminent. but strictly followed the Masonic idea of oral communications . and other Greek philosophers .c . and met with wonderful success.PYTHAGORAS AT CARMEL. He formed a religious brotherhood. 245 Mount Carmel is intimately connected with the life of the great Masonic Ritualist. B.

150 . that departed souls were enshrined in the centre of beans. and comes from that spot to this. M . the human soul wanders about. refers. John P . Georgia. and J . January. Massachusetts. This need not astonish us too much . and takes possession of any limbs it may . viz . J. That is to say. John D . and from this to that. a considerable resemblance being found between this and the Jesuit Society founded by Loyola. viz . No . John M . W. Don't eat beans. three hundred of whom formed the Grand Council of the Society . Numerous American lodges are named from this memorable mountain. C. and from us into beasts . These were bound to Pythagoras and each other by a special vow. 48. did seven centuries later.$46 PASSING CROCODILE RIVER . where nobody would think of looking for them . 303 . Charles Roome. just as Vespasian. close by . to one of his doctrines of metempsychosis. Brown (of Constantinople). Ohio. Inque feras noster. other. etc . Spiritus : eque feras humana in corpora transit. New York. The members at Crotona were usually of the noble and wealthy class. and the other three cardinal virtues insisted upon .. 86 . Among those to whom the name of Pythagoras and his school at Crotona are given. the Roman general. Bramwell. Mississippi. Caldwell. . Dr. and in 1869 (the year after my visit to the country) an English tourist avers that he saw one in the Kishon. which has puzzled commentators so long. No . To connect the place still more intimately with our American brotherhood. Abstineto a fabis. In his eastern travels he is known to have visited the oracle then established in Mount Carmel.. John Ransom. Batchelor. etc . Thomson suggested twenty years ago that crocodiles might still be found there. Prof. His peculiar views on that subject are well expressed in the following lines : Errat et illinc Huc visit hinc illuc et quoslibet occupat artus. Georgia. In the American Journal of Science. 1870. 339 . I write here the names of ten genial and enlightened craftsmen. The adage of Pythagoras. Thomas Byrde Harris. Temperance was strictly observed. 144. no doubt. Henry Clark. Passed the mouth of Crocodile River . I cite Kentucky. Brennan. it both passes from the beast into human bodies. 41 . Edward Jewell. Wyman describes a crocodile killed recently in Florida. F.

Antares. I come on deck . The view is sublime. Did Jonah. " an embassador in bonds . The great constellation Scorpio. all colors. without hypocrisy . sparkling with a brilliancy that is surprising . and "Still in the heavens her captive form remains. for two years chained. concord and humility. and this glorious midnight hour . the houses in Caesarea are now level with the floor. mapping out the heavens among the twelve tribes of Israel. and the situation abandoned. Arabs. Here at Caesarea preached the great missionary apostle Paul. fraternity." . joy. and blue . both white and black. the town. love of neighbors. a Greek woman. apportioned the constellation of Scorpio to Dan. A passenger describes a pilgrim caravan that landed at Joppa a few weeks since. a blessing upon persecutors. Her adventures with Perseus and the sea-monster occurred here at Joppa. seems exactly in the range of the expanded tuft of a palm-tree that crowns the hill in the centre of the town. weeping with the weeper. rejoicing with the rejoicing. patience. Its principal star. these seventeen Christian principles : Charity. politeness and civility. the tribe to which yonder town of Joppa belonged . Armenians. when he fled from this port towards Tarshish.his figurative imagination. hope. Turks. eagerness for the wants of the saints. officers. pardon of enemies. gold. amiability. 2 47 Passed Owsarea as the sun was setting quietly under its canopy of crimson. in. else history is at fault . And on her wrists still hang the galling chains . soldiers. Greeks. hadjis. hangs directly over the city. see that crimson star. In these sunsets. the eye of insulted Deity I Yonder too is Andromeda." His seventeen links taught. It is a strange coincidence that the Jewish astrologers. " a moderate hill. sprawling all over a round hill. baptized Jews. I shall never look at that starry group again without associating it with the tree. as a small vessel loaded with seventy-two passengers." the stars shining so brightly that I can almost count the houses in it. in the constellation of Taurus . and a missionary. of which I never weary. fervor. overcoming evil with good. At midnight our anchor drops. with its forty-four stars. bond and free . What lessons have these fifty generations learned through that Roman chain ! Sandys says. there is a splendor peculiar to these Oriental climes . the haven is lost.IN SIGHT OF JOPPA. always exhibiting a remarkably blood-red appearance. rounded off at the summit. yonder two miles south is Joppa. Antares? It must have appeared to him an avenging meteor.

Let me in like manner praise the Lord. How the raftsmen of Hiram must have revelled at the end of one of their arduous tasks . such as American skies never present. oh my soul : and forget not all his benefits Who forgiveth all thine iniquities . and all that is within me. gain needed strength for to-morrow's work . WITH THE AMMODi HORN. who crowneth thee with loving-kindness and tender mercies . and bursting into songs of praise to the powers that had brought them safely to the close of their journey . . Bless the Lord. bless his holy name. Bless the Lord. COM OF LYSIMACHUS : HEAD OF ALEXANDER.248 LAIIS DEO. so that thy youth is renewed like the eagle's . oh my soul . who healeth all thy diseases . Who redeemeth thy life from destruction . I imagine them gazing from this bay upon that concave of celestial imagery.(Ps. ciii) . who has thus far led me on my appointed way. Who satisfieth thy mouth with good things . and then retiring to rest.

s JOPPA . FROM THE NORTH . .

" the surprising eloquence of heaven " to the Freemason's soul . the atoms of nations long destroyed. at marked and important points. or charity. Freemasonry.-where each hill and valley has its tale of horror and mortal woe. wherein they teach threatenings or praises. Jerusalem. In this sense I have incorporated them into my book.-land of Judaism. I trust. land whose very dust on which travellers' tread was once sentient. Things apparently carnal and trifling are made. in the Holy Writings. hope. to locate. warmth. faith. brotherly love. as an old Scotch writer calls them. Thus I have given to the genus loci of each site one or more worthy compaz ions. Hiram the King. encouragement or discouragement. Land of antiquity and tradition.r DIVISION SIXTH . and dctted the Masonic Map of Palestine here and there with Illustrious moderns . the salutations.-JOPPA. truth such as forms the light. and Hiram the Architect. and Mohammedanism I I have considered Bible emblems as Masonic property .-land where customs are landmarks-where the dress. so I have felt at liberty. being the first Masonic traveller and author in this field. the nomenclature. forty or fifty centuries since. relief. or truth. All emblems of divine origin are Masonic property . and so.. the food. are associated with and have made illustrious their respective cities. to foreshadow the wisest purposes of God . given a new direction to Masonic study . Gebal. penalties or rewards.-they are. or justice. As the first three Masons. and salt of the Masonic rituals. Christianity. fortitude. prudence. in the very beginning of human history. Almost every object in nature is an illustrator of inspired truth. the marriage rites and the burial rites-all that make one people different from anotherare continued as they originated. Solomon. the highways. the names of many persons known to me as eminent in the theory or practice of Freemasonry. temperance. Tyre.

at which ancient and far-famed port I arrived May 1st.m. HE fifth of the Seven Grand Masonic Localities visited and identified during my researches in the Holy Land. the most important city in the possession of the Jews . is a port of little importance in modern times. Joppa. the place of transit for the immense accumulations of wood and metal collected in various parts of the world for the construction of King Solomon's Temple . To secure a bountiful supply of relics and specimens from Joppa. now termed Jaffa. THE PORT OF JOPPA. It lies in latitude 32° 3' north. a few minutes after midnight.30 P. is Joppa. B . under Zerubbabel.C . 533-515. next to Jerusalem. Formerly it was.CHAPTER XVII. at La Grange. Kentucky . but when Herod constructed the third Temple. and most of all in those of the Mark Master. occurring in the lectures of the Entered Apprentice. it being then about 4 . longitude 34 ° 44' east of Greenwich . this city bore the same relationship to the work of the architect as in the first . and he had given uninterrupted attention to the locality for several weeks. It was to Joppa that Jonah fled from the presence of the Lord and embarked for Tarshish . Joppa was. Joppa is reckoned one of the oldest cities in the world.000 souls. of course. In the building of the Second Temple. still more prominently in those of the Master Mason. save as being the landing-place of pilgrims to Jerusalem . Steamships and war-vessels cannot approach within two miles of it. he made some use of the port of Ca. There being no other harbor on all this coast. In the Masonic system the port of Joppa holds a conspicuous place. nearly one-half of them Christians. I had sent my assistant there. a few miles further north.sarea. The population is about 7. and this rendered Joppa a place of only second-rate importance . Tradition .

The city is surrounded by a wall and ditch. so much so. Having a letter to the Governor (Kaimakam) of Joppa. I find that Joppa is built upon a dome-shaped hill. This gentleman is a Mason of some fifteen or twenty years' standing. which I readily accepted . seedless. initiated. and these they ever afterwards wore as symbols of pilgrimage and testimonials of their hav. rather steep. Agreeably to the lectures of the Mark Master.THE PORT OF JOPPA. equally famous for size and flavor. as his diploma shows. from Brother E . I found so general a desire. and associates it with mythological narratives of the very earliest periods . 1099-1187. is very poor. however. much to the disappointment of passengers. and as they are. in which this beach largely abounds . so that I cannot collect their seeds for my patrons. T. unfortunately. Noureddin Effendi. 253 ascribes its establishment as antediluvian. An instance of this sort occurred during my first week in Beyrout . pious pilgrims departing from Joppa went out upon the sea-shore and selected shells. among my patrons at home. like all other Masons I have encountered here. but never used. but. in the form of a commission some ten or twelve years old. and presenting a fine appearance from the sea.D. Rogers. its western base washed by the Mediterranean Sea.i ing performed it . that in stormy weather the regular steamers of this coast are compelled to pass by. I found him anxious for the extension of the Masonic craft in Syria and Palestine . A . I put up and secured a supply of their leaves for my cabinets . France . and a bachelor. scientifically constructed and well fortified. In the best days of the crusades. to secure specimens of the pilgrims' shell. The present harbor. Master of Lebanon Lodge. in a French lodge on the Island of Corfu. as I desired. I made haste to call upon that official. Paris. and even dangerous . but now a member of Lodge Amitie Clemente. They are of the family and species Ostraa pecten and others. he has in his possession the amplest authority from the Grand Orient of France. He is about forty-five years of age. that I brought away several thousands of them for distribution . at Beyrout. to establish . and the same with regard to the lemons of Joppa. and was at once honored with his fraternal confidence. In fact. he is but poorly posted as to the ways and means of Masonic dissemination. He favored me with an invitation to dine with him. At present it is chiefly celebrated for its orange groves and gardens of Oriental produce. who are carried on to Beyrout or Alexandria. The oranges are the finest in the world .

The results. lodges. I found to be members of the Masonic order. W. as the Romans were the best road-builders in the world. 0. Augustus Rowe. E. H. which gave the city. The name of the country itself. Hubbard. I selected an appropriate spot at the southwestern angle of the city. etc. such as No . William Manby. G . Ii. England. 223. Toombs. Beside these five gentlemen I found no Freemasons in Joppa . confer degrees. and it was one of my privileges tc instruct the good brother how to proceed in its use . North Carolina . and. Andres Cassard. 250. 167. who is the Bishop and projector of the colony. Lieutenant Lynch. 201. etc. Adams. Georgia . on the verge of which the city stands. Edward Brewer. William B. etc . 97. Wisconsin . and Brothers George W . viz . J. of which so much has been said in the papers the past two years. the best protected harbor on the coast . Palestine. it is most likely that . on which I am now entering -for thus far my explorations have been in Syria. Texas . Four of the colonists who were there on my arrival in May.254 MASONIC USE OP JOPPA. Numerous lodges are named from this locality. This is much to be desired. The American colony near Joppa. Wisconsin . 116. in Solomonic times. Texas . I trust. who was here about twenty years ago. Storey. 208. of which Palestine is the southern extremity-has been still more frequently used in this way. E . was sanguine as to the feasibility of reopening this roadstead. Iowa . will some day be visible in the establishment of lodges either here or elsewhere. 158. Texas . I dedicated it to the following group of good Masons. Shafner. Arkansas. . New York . Carr. is entirely broken up. 204. Traces of an ancient harbor are detected on the north and east sides of Joppa. 65. J. etc. Iowa . Brother G . In accordance with my custom elsewhere. 136. and giving a splendid revival to the old city. In doing so. 120. Canada . 114. Pennsylvania. 152. The Plain of Sharon. New York .. Traces of the ancient Roman road from Joppa to Jerusalem are plainly identified . now choked with sand. viz. P. and chiseled the Square and Compass as a token of the Masonic identification of Joppa . The future visitor to this ancient port will find his stay made the more agreeable the more the spirit of our fraternity pervades it . and Joshua Walker . as in Lodge No. Missouri . 109. Rolla Floyd. Melody. Kentucky . 95. 31. 143. W. W. Ellis. and Tal .. is also perpetuated in lodge nomenclature by Lodge No . Ohio . This rendered my acquaintance with them highly agreeable.

early on the morning of May 1 . and brought the products of the whole earth to the foot of this hill . connecting the two cities . as the result of all my observations. A sketch of my first day in Joppa is given from my note-book .600 feet above Joppa. is about twenty-five miles. It was difficult to recall the former glories of Joppa under the reigns of David and Solomon. it mounts to a hilly region. not more so. adapted only to camels. to conceive that this harbor. this. when the commercial alliance with Tyre filled this bay with vessels. that in no town in Palestine have I seen so many and such ingenious combinations of arches as in Joppa. Yet the place is a sightly one for all that. The hill being steep. now called Jaffa (sometimes Yaffa). so restricted now in its marine accommodations. having only a few fishing vessels or small craft engaged in the orange-trade. and the native horses. and gratified my curiosity quite as much as I bad reason to anticipate . who. indeed. on a straight line. I am satisfied. could climb a ladder if required . the houses are built one above the other. ran over the same ground . I landed at the ancient port of Joppa. It was hard. who seem to be restricted to a few simple forms of arches. It is truly a charming day The sea is only slightly agitated. however. yet it struck me with some force. but as the road runs. The builders in our country. might take lessons from these Arab builders . thirty-five miles . "tried our hands" at assisting each other to climb it . with myself. I believe. for the transportation of the almost incalculable supply of materials required for the Temple. as will be seen by recalling the fact that Jerusalem stands 2. The distance between the two cities. was once the great port of the Jewish kingdom-their only harbor . 255 the original causeway made by Hiram's men.THE STEEP HILL AT JOPPA. Nazif Pasha. leaving a small bay upon each side. and in the suburbs of Joppa . was more for speculative purposes than practical ones . than I am at the thought of at last treading the shores so renowned . I copied in my note-book quite a number of them that particularly attracted my eye. It is perhaps only an accidental circumstance. and the narrow streets rise from the shore by broad stone steps. The Pasha of Jerusalem. I remarked before that the hill at Joppa is quite steep . A friend. has opened a turn pike-way recently. After running about twelve miles. donkeys. While this cannot yet be proven. . The town covers the sea-end of a promontory that juts out for half a mile into the water. indeed. that such was the fact . A few palm-trees grow here and there among the buildings.

Had I been sufficiently acquainted with Arabic to understand their loud and boisterous arguments. But oh. and turn contemptuously away from all protestations ." but I couldn't help that . One broad-backed fellow turned his shoulders to me." As I reached the shore a host of arms were extended to steady me. or catch me in case I should fall. Some are perpetually ignorant of the denomination of current coins . not recognizing any Freemasons among them. doubtless. and loudly invited me to ride ashore on nature's own saddle . At this point of my entrance a difference arose between the chief boatman and myself as to the rate of compensation for bringing one person from the ship . taking my overcoat on one arm. Many fail to provide themselves with small change." I have long since learned that your only way. seventy cents . and give a dollar when they mean a shilling . and slinging my little wallet around my neck. of Jonah. those of Solomon's time. etc . Never having earned their own support. stony ledge. I fear that my indifference left a bad impression upon those "sea-faring men. and not until they have spent a good many dollars in backsheesh do they discover that plenty of halfpiastre pieces (two cents) will go just as far and be as thankfully received in this way as francs (twenty cents) or shillings (twentyfive cents) . Some become excited by the loud clamor of the demand. how the Joppanese bleed the general traveller! Some tourists are so flush of money that they don't seem to care what they give. used now for fastening the small craft of the port.. As the boatmen forced their way through the reef of rocks that runs parallel to the shore. and . As it was. being prominent . I handed them twelve cents. they corrupt the whole body of the people with their lavishness. and so become a plague to all "who come this way after them. an Arab will never refuse to take your money. turning a deaf ear to their clamor. a part of the architectural glories of ancient Joppa . But. it is possible that I should have paid their price. Approaching the shore. but once. and being totally indifferent as to expenditures. There is a class of tourists here whose extravagant and reckless profusion in money matters should be universally reprobated . is to give what you think is right. I took a position on the bow of the boat. I called to mind all the Masonic and Scriptural references/ to Joppa. in this country. or be a bit the less civil when he meets you again . "Where ignorance is bliss 'tis folly to be wise . viz .. One thing you may be sure of. I observed a granite pillar upright upon a rude.256 THE HOWADJI LANDING .

.

and beggars. Bro. and idlers of Joppa. filling their goat-skins from the fountains hear the shore . In official parlance. Geo. at his Serai. on the north side . yelling. lives in military style. The Bishop. to my associate . though lying in his bed extremely ill. and his official title is that of Xaimakam. and so on to the Locanda. was most gentlemanly. as he had done. Those ten little smacks are only used to skim the coast. past a miserably deformed beggar. but was able to converse with me. surrounded by a crowd of litigants . deene. about half a mile from the wall of the town. his family consisting of his staff and male servants only. which is all you get here till noon. or Governor . small. the hospitalities of his house. my heavier baggage being brought by an attendant. The manner of Bro . sitting by the roadside. I found his Excellency to be a most gentlemanly and agreeable person. Besides the official . Noureddin. As soon as I had taken refreshments. sprang ashore. and went out to the American colony. both in his own person and through his excellent wife. Floyd. had been lying quite low with Syrian fever. formerly of Illinois. and full of Masonic fire . I force my way up. or court of justice. the proper establishment for the Royal Arch . or Knight of the Sun. as his predecessors in all ages have done here. and soldiers. as the last wave receded. and hotel-runners. consisting of coffee and bread. No ships here bound for Ethiopia. was likewise extremely kind to me. he has advanced to the twenty-ninth degree. or hotel already named. is pronounced with full stress upon the last syllable. I procured a guide. Bro . kept by Messrs . past a row of water-carriers. Adams. friendly. active. Toombs. W . Noureddin being a bachelor. and so landed at the port of Joppa. watching my opportunity. under the bewildering succession of arches which make Joppa. who offered me. with keen eye and sharp features. and follow my guide to the English hotel . Chevalier do Soleil. several weeks before. voice loud and quick.258 THE GOVERNOR 01 JOPPA. In the Scotch Rite (Ancient and Accepted). Blatner. blaspheming boatmen. and asking and getting alms. Toombs. and labored to make my stay at Juppa agreeable . he is addressed as his Excellency the Efendi. His name. and thieves. past a row of kneeling camels . Those five large vessels yonder are British war-ships. more than any town I have visited. and accommodating . So through the crowd of screaming. I was much impressed with the honesty and sincerity of Bro. There are no Mark Masters ready to assist me up the hill. Next I called on the Governor. Landed at Joppa.

in this conference. It was gratifying. and those of the best quality. on the ground that the. I took my leave. I may say here. to see that the object I had in view. on behalf of the seven brethren whose names I had given. having been invited to dine with his Excellency at seven o'clock. I wrote a letter as coming only from myself. however. he speaks French fluently. setting forth the following facts.11 NEED OF A LODGE . I knew there was some difference between the forms of procedure in the Grand Orient of France and the various Grand Lodges with which I am acquainted. too. Finally I suggested. I labored under the difficulty of not possessing sufficient familiarity with the Constitution and Rules of Order of that body . empowered to work at either place at its own convenience . and a little French. So I ventured on an original plan of my own. was forwarded to the Grand Secretary at Paris. or Provincial Grand Master of Syria. and I enjoyed this meeting with the Governor exceedingly. believing that many initiates would promptly be secured. that his Excellency Noureddin Effendi be nominated Deputy. kindly doing the duties of interpreter for me. although the number of Freemasons resident in various towns is large . thus advancing the general interest of Freemasonry and the cause of universal benevolence and morality . I have had so much experience in this country. talking to the people of all nationalities. M. under the Constitution of the Grand Orient of France. viz . with the amplest powers that such a patent embraces. Serapion Murad. and promising to have the petition for the establishment of a lodge ready at that hour .. I was able to communicate with him only through an interpreter. which is Turkish. that the awkwardness of such intercourse has been mainly overcome. 259 language. This paper being carefully copied. was one that had already occupied his Excellency's attention. that there is only one lodge in this country (the one at Beyrout working under the Grand Lodge of Scotland). The four American brethren of the colony are also warmly in favor of this project. and the Arabic. Chancellor of the P'russian Consulate at Joppa. the establishment of a lodge at this place. with special authority to establish the Lodge Jerusalem and Ja fa. through interpreters. that the proposal was declined. In drafting the petition to the Grand Orient of France. that at this place (Joppa) there are five resident Masons-I specified their names-and testified that these brethren are ardently desirous of establishing a lodge here. which I mustered up for the occasion .. petitioners (except his Excellency) were not French Masons I . an answer being expected within a month .

two of the fish from this harbor. they were well accustomed to the fruit before they came to Joppa . so they did to the swarthy Phoenicians who were drawing the heavy cedar-trees up this hill. for a whole piastre. and I attribute my escape from starvation only to the sustenance afforded by the Joppa oranges . but here at Joppa. just as the boys and other orange-venders here hand you the tempting fruit all day. They axe of course very cheap . ripe fruit. and in every direction through the country. They are admittedly the largest and the best in the world. the quantity carried by a donkey being simply. sweet and delicious specimens of the finny tribe whose forefathers did so much to strengthen our Masonic forefathers. a stewed . First. Usually they are seedless. No one who has observed the peculiar baskets used for transporting the Joppa orange will forget them. and to the top of those heights that loom up so grandly in the eastward . preposterous. buds. as many as you can carry away. a hundred and fifty miles above here . 1 can scarcely tell . immature fruit. and urge you to purchase and eat. particularly the giants . are only second in size and value to these at Joppa . you can eat oranges. and rested their limbs at night under the dense foliage of the orangeorchards. They constitute a very large part of the trade of this port. How I have continued thus far to avoid a horrible death by starvation. If so. and to imagine that. Strange that the orange is not once named in the Bible. while the sight of the large yellow fruit sets off with equal grace the bright green of the leaves and the pure white of the blossoms . as they came floating down this way on rafts from the Masonic Bay. the tree itself is a model of beauty . and across yonder sandy plain. blossoms.260 ORANGE ORCHARDS In this country you don't get breakfast till high 12 . being sent as far as Constantinople. for half a piastre (two cents) you can get as many as you can eat . if the donkey only knew it. some of the picked specimens more resembling pumpkins than fruit. all growing good-naturedly together upon the same tree and same bough. I ate them both . At this season the orange-gardens or orchards are at their prettiest. Is it not most probable that by the term « apple" in Scripture the orange is meant ? I like to believe it. for which this vicinity is so famous. for I believe the oranges that I saw near Sidon. breakfast at high 12 is an attempt upon the life of a human being. and leaves. green fruit. The flowers exhale the most delicious perfume . Next. two weeks ago. and that those faithful craftsmen had their thirst assuaged by oranges. As I said. When at last the breakfast has come-but let me describe it.

I ate it also . There is a considerable number of palm-trees in this vicinity. I ate it all . well flavored and toothsome. King Solomon used while inducting the Queen of Sheba into the art of using tobacco . Brother Adams joined us in the party. Monsieur Serapion Murad is one of a thousand in making his friends happy. 47. This is my breakfast.NOUREDDIN EFFENDI . The only drawback connected with its use is tke vast expenditure of muscular energy requisite in drawing smoke . my favorite tree of all the trees in the world. rather stringy and hard . I showed his Excellency my diploma of the thirty-second grade. Upon his own part. between whom and myself Freemasonry has already established an equality which no other society can accomplish . but by judicious use of sweet olive-oil in place of butter. I mount my glasses now to give it a name. the Kaimakam showed me written evidence of his membership in various lodges. together with half a dozen clerks and secretaries of the Governor . and a cup of coffee . My eyes being indifferent. 261 chicken. I sallied forth at the proper hour to fill my appointment with his Excellency Brother Noureddin Efl'endi. I ate it all . Then a plate of cold mutton. Two hours passed by before dinner was announced. Cigarettes and narghilehs were offered abundantly. La Grange. His Excellency is one of the best of companions. I looked out at that fine palm-tree yonder. which time was spent in conversation of a varied and pleasing character . however. They tell me the palm bears its fruit (the date) abundantly in the southern section of Palestine. and we passed esoterical evidences satisfactory to both . cut in slices . Having spent the afternoon in a manner suitable to my mission. while I found myself both in the mood conversational and musical. Now comes a plate of oranges. Next some fried mutton.. The latter is the celebrated water-pipe. already named. while the pomegranate. and my firman from the Sultan . as is the custom of the country . Ky. and easily recognizing it. so famous in Masonic symbology. and Brother Adams has the art agreable in perfection . according to tradition. Picking my teeth. Scottish Rite. and there were present Monsieur Serapion Murad. Fortitude No . stewed to rags. through which. you can't tell that you are smoking anything. is even more so . a woman's thimble is gigantic in size compared with it. It is this which. which is more than it does about Beyrout . I had also my diploma from my lodge. prepared expressly for this journey. when the fumes of this mild Turkish tobacco have passed. I secured ample specimens of the wood of both these trees.

2. preaching. I have desired to see the real escalop (scalop. 7. 9. We sleep in the house-rooms . particularly in attendance on holy wars . viz. especially the escalop. Here they are in millions . A maxim is found among them like this : "Never walk when you can ride . We push the saw from us in sawing . through it. We stand at reaping. who is always drawn in the guise of a pilgrim . they use it only in fumigation . and present an alarming appearance . This shell. To wear them around the hat. My mind is exercised at Joppa in observing the queer points of contrast between the people of the East and the West. they from right to left. We shave the face but not the head . The first time you attempt to use one you become black in the face from the tremendous effort.262 ORIENTAL ODDITIES. We draw the razor towards us . We drink alcoholic liquors . 11 . never stand when you can sit . 10. implied that the wearer had made a long voyage by sea. Of these I note eleven. 4 . We chew and snuff tobacco as well as smoke . they are strictly sedentary . they push the razor from them . eschalop) shell of the Crusaders. for I always imagine it is raining torrents outside when I hear it . they cover the head and bare the feet . already named. and it is largely seen in the churches dedicated to him. . they sit at all such labors . they shave the head but not the face. Ever since I was made a Knight Templar. never sit when you can lie!" A seashore ramble of several hours was a charming episode in my visit to Joppa . We uncover the head at worship. We distinguish carefully the clothing of the two sexes. We write and read from left to right . as Scott described the Templar in Ivanhoe. 3. We rejoice in active life . The regular "pilgrim's shell" now in my hand is Pectin Jacobuus . I dislike the roar of water which it makes. was the emblem of St. 8. and the law (and the Bible) forbid similarity . for some reason. 5. 1. 6 . they on the house-tops. and keep our feet covered . etc. the brother of Jesus. This shell is of the family Ostr eadce. they religiously abstain from such . another name for Pectinidw. they draw the saw towards them. they make little or no distinction. in 1850. But I digress. The beach is lined with shells. James.

000 of which are of submarine cable . I am reminded of the piece of naval etiquette. this was tho forbidden fruit of Adam and Eve. But for the dreadful expense (nearly $100). Of the thousands who fell here. James. Sometimes it grows four or five inches broad. it may be said there is Not a time-wasted cross. But what are these objects slowly approaching me. I would send a message of twenty words to the dear one who keeps the household lamp trimmed and burning. According to Mohammed's theory. and first the surge Uplifts itself. peculiarly shaped leaves were those of which our first parents constructed their aprons . I visited the site of Bonaparte's daring and successful assault upon the city.000 miles per annum . and the large. Afterwards I found them in Egypt much larger. never ceases to attract my attention . give me a homesick throb or two . along which I have wandered already so often. The lines are extending at the rate of 100. not a mouldering stone To mark the lone scene of their shame or their pride . Not a grass-covered mound tells the traveller lone Where thousands lay down in their anguish and died . In the groves and orchards surrounding the city I noted the broad flagging leaf of the plantain. dressed in the habiliments of the grave.-Iliad. but they are rarely much over one inch . the first I had ever seen . and round the headland peak Tosses on high and spouts its foam afar.000 miles in use throughout the world. awaiting my return. wave on wave. only so mLeh better As when the ocean-billows. there were 684. that the ship answering returns fewer guns than the one that gives the hailing sign .TELEGRAPH POLES . extending in a receding line southward as far as the eye can reach. and then against the land Dashes and roars. and recalling ghostly images of youthful terror? The women of Joppa. enveloped in the white sheet. Observing an exchange of salutes between two war-ships. Homer describes it just as I should to-day. The steady movement of the tides upon this beach. 30. Who knows? They are big enough to cover the whole body . returning from their daily visit to the cemetery. In the bazaars of Joppa the women do most of the "truck" busi- . Are pushed along to the resounding shore Before the westward wind. The fruit is shaped like cucumbers in clusters . 263 or that of St. The telegraph poles. Of telegraph lines in 1871.

In the morning the women bring their truck in baskets borne on heads and shoulders. and 'having his head shaved . kneeling and devoutly praying before the altar. and smokes . in a chronic state of starvation. selling charcoal. but the sleeves hang to the ground. It is strictly for religious (traditional) purposes . It is always made hard. the child's head is decorated with gold and silver coins which the law of debt may not impound or the law of usage sell . flowing. as distinguished from Bedouin or wandering Arabs . snails. they use ashes. Laughing. referring to the method adopted by the Crusaders for carrying water through the desert . as I see it here. gall-nuts. and. with two leather water-pouches depending upon ii. when prepared for shipment. in a church here. his eyes sunk deep in his head . his skin was withered. to their credit. lime. with her child. An English Baron somebody or other has also trois bouts d'eau in his heraldic device. fruits. parsley. is particularly the device of the family De Ros. is perpetuated in heraldry. These are women of the Fellahin Arabs-the village Arabs. she has glass rings. The vast olive product of this country affords considerable commerce in soap .-"gales. open at the breast. etc . which the Turkish women never do . sewed in sacks. the people of Joppa make a great deal and make it good (no auction-soap here). like a Sioux Indian's scalp-lock . equal to Mother Rebecca herself. SOUNDS. on bread and water. three water-budgets argent" as it is technically termed. eggs. The mother's dress is a blue cotton gown. bracelets. through the open door of a barber's shop. The enormous heaps of bleached ashes near Joppa and Jerusalem have attracted the eyes of travellers for centuries . A Moslem only nourishes a lock of hair on the crown of his head. and she has the Oriental girdle round her waist . of which. and white as that of old Brother Stillman Blanchard. cast in blocks. at the sight of a man bending over a basin in an attitude of sea-sickness. while the man rides his donkey pleasantly. AND SMELLS. and strings of beads in killing abundance. of England. I saw an old man. When she moves you know it by the tinkling of that lot of glass trumpery which hangs around her . They go unveiled. milk. The Oriental method of carrying water. In the manufacture of soap. Living in a mud-hut. . and salt . His beard was long. The yoke. only of cheaper material . vegetables. Poor as Job's turkey though such a woman may be. too. olive-oil. of happy memory . ness.264 SIGHTS. His countenance was pale and meagre. So.

They were indeed wild and ferocious in appearance as so many beasts . Some writers think this the syrup referred to in many passages of Holy Scripture. But it is not at all the tree Cowper describes when he says : . Hebron wine is a bright wine. They are numerous here. Talking to one another. capricious in attire. resembling the amber Muscat . and is said to be a remedy in bilious complaints . yet the flavor is good . whom I saw for the first time in Joppa. The large yellow snails sold in the bazaars form a favorite article of diet through a considerable part of France as well as Palestine . 265 I studied a party of desert Bedouins here. and. The dibs. I will speak under another head. just up from beyond Gaza on some business with the government. In Christ's day wine abounded in Palestine. and the seeds are larger . Their eyes rolled over me like those of wild beasts in a cage . or syrup made from the raisins. 1868). they sent out volleys of Arabic gutturals rattling like hailstones . is equal to the finest sugar-house syrups of our country . often from the carob-pods. About the time I started for the Holy Land (February. The one who answered my questions bad a voice like that of a bird of evil omen . and ate heartily of its raisins and olives . ere autumn yet Have changed the woods. is quite a conspicuous object around Joppa . Their visages were dark red-almost copper-colored . in which the term honey is employed. They are said to be very palatable. I did not try them . and by a third sense equally urgent . The raisins are not so large and thin-skinned as the Malaga boxraisins. and appeal to your charity both by the eye and ear-yes. Of the lepers. whose setting-out in 1866 and misfortunes in 1867 filled the papers of this country. as it is now in Europe . in scarlet honor brought . It has a slightly astringent taste. It will be expected that I say something more in' detail of the American Colony. and drove many of us to our pockets deeper than we could well afford . They were evidently unaccustomed to civilized scenes. The sycamore-tree. at dinner to-day. a glass of the wine of Hebron. I took. the dailies were publishing this morceau of n ews : . so called in Scripture. and was the drink of the people. now tawdry." In memory of the vine-traditions of the hills of Judah.WINE OF HEBRON. "The sycamore. Now green.

I prayed : Oh Lord God of Israel. and made myself inquisitive in regard to the history of the singular economico-religious movement which led to its establishment . that I wrote to Adams. in the presence of the hosts who surround us. Adams. Mr. and possessing quite a histrionic genius . in consequence of the departure of their leader. on which I had built an altar of twelve stones for the whole house of Israel. Rev . he should have a fair showing as a fellow-countryman and a Masonic brother . we pour this oil upon this altar of twelve stones. In thy presence. G. God of Abraham. I went out to the Adams Colony near that ancient city. Rolla Floyd. a preacher of the Primitive Gospel .. assuring him that when I came to Joppa. God of the Prophets . J. about ten minutes' walk. of which the following is the substance On both my visits to Joppa (in May and June. thou great Jehovah . long publisher and editor of religious papers in New England . There. that of August 23 from Bethel . thou great I AM." On my return home I summed up all I knew of him and his operations in an article. Adams. In the latter he made these characteristic explanations : " One hour before sunset I began the ascent of the Hill of Hope (!) at Bethel. so far. to be a witness forever that we have done as thou directed us . His letter of August 10 of that year was written from Joppa. versatile in gifts. and Isaac. a singularly erratic man. (the founder and Bishop)." that of August 20 from Jerusalem. in the presence of angels. Adams :' At Beyrout and vicinity. and Jacob . Have mercy upon these thy servants who have come this long journey to prepare this work. G. The Joppa Colony was founded under the sole auspices of the eccentric Rev. with the Lord's host above me. Walker. that of August 14 from the "Land of Ephraim. Adams visited Palestine on a prospecting expedition in 1865 . Mr. and I doubt not your readers will think so. Toombs. and this naturally created a reaction in my own mind. and are in a state of bliss. Indeed. and forgive our sins and purify our hearts . ~~ The Maine Colony in Joppa has again been heard from . the stories told about Adams and his people were incredibly harsh . fond of pleasure. and Mr. They now number twenty-five. As four of the colonists to whom I was introduced are members of the Masonic fraternity. I then filled a bottle of water from a well from which the prophets and patriarchs had refreshed themselves.266 AMERICAN COLONY AT JOPPA . viz . Mr . J. at least. it is averred . G. during March and April. social to a degree. 1868). J. there is a propriety in ventilating the subject with considerable detail in a Masonic journal.

Furniture had been provided. moral.868. Noureddin Effendi. the land was productive. Food for several months and clothing for an indefinite period were not forgotten . etc . and returned to New England full of confidence in the feasibility of the scheme . or to the banks of Skunk River. but a mile from the city he told me this himself . Fortified with these he made a preliminary visit to that country about the year 1865 . It was the California fever of 1850 over again . These people from the rocks. Why then did it fail ? For several reasons. By the favor of Noureddin Effendi. for he went amongst the educated. and secured their pledges (and their money too) to unite in the establishment of a colony in Palestine under his presidency . The colonists persisted in working through the heat of the day. Iowa . the climate was salubrious . Adams must have possessed a good deal of eloquence as a preacher. men and women. particularly so) . however. 267 that he was formerly a play-actor.. eating big Maine dinners. Second. I endeavored in vain to detect the secret of his strength . and doing things generally exactly * It was this : the Custom-House of Joppa is not under Noureddin's control. No one can be acclimated in Syria without it any more than he can in Mississippi or Louisiana. hard-fisted people of Maine. went to Bethel (where he set up an altar of stone. and resin-trees of Maine all got the chills and fever in Palestine. and could be had upon the longest leases at a nominal price . They brought with them to Joppa all the outfit for domestic life and for agricultural operations . fortunes could be made in a few years.PRELIMINARY SURVEY . Nearly tzoo hundred persons. for Adams had correctly told them there was no timber in Palestine. just as they would have got it had they removed to Newark. but I did not ask him about that.* The government afforded the colonists every favor they desired . Lumber from the hills of Maine was brought in abundance. I remember. at Joppa . the custom-duties were all remitted by a device of his own. and performed various mystical evolutions in connection with it). etc . peculiarly Turkish . 1 . for he had informed them that the Moslems used neither chair nor table . had I stayed on that coast two weeks longer . fore he gave them a permit to land their effects on the beach. . embarked for Palestine upon the basis of his statements alone . I should have had an attack myself. there. that the day I left Joppa for Jerusalem he was announced to play Hamlet and some other part upon the stage which he had erected in the church edifice connected with his colony. etc. wearing black hats. The enterprise began under the most favorable auspices . three crops a year could be made .. went to Jerusalem . The climate . New Jersey . and he told me that day that he had $800 worth of theatrical costumes in his wardrobe. Mr . The Turkish government was favorable to it (the Governor of Joppa. First. what a man to establish such confidence! As I talked with him in May. cold climate.

where I was stopping. I must say that I never saw a man less fitted to rule than G . the rest returned as they could to the United States . and an inveterate warrior (socially) . October 22. that "the natives are anxious to hire us. Adams is in England (1868). through the orange bazaars. He intimated to me that he expected to secure a new body of colonists in the west of England ! This. He quarreled with everybody . All our mechanics and laborers have steady work and good pay . and. like Abraham. Securing a guide from the proprietor of The English Hotel. I went out by the east gate of the city. ignorant of every principle of political economy. Our wagons and carriages are engaged by the Pasha in building a fine macadamized road from Joppa to Jerusalem. but what he is doing there. Adams wrote. in May. Without charging him with any positive crime. then heaped to overflowing with the ripe and lusmous fruit. and absurd. and the foreign Consuls . however. Poverty and disappointment. quarreled with those whose bread he was eating . a most estimable couple.. viz. because he has alienated his title to the lands in the colony. the local officers. yet does not seem to have got anything for his money. in gold . Our teams are all engaged. nowhere it all the world so large and good as at Joppa . 1867. He was extravagant. yet as a colony we stand free from every government on earth. when I was there in June there were only two. and never since we landed have we been so happy and contented as we are now .268 FLATTERING EXPECTATIONS ." The colony experienced the fate of similar undertakings . and they sought relief from citizens of the United States that they might return home . three thousand men are employed upon it. the opposite of the customs of the natives. who were willing to stretch every principle of law to favor him . So the colony crumbled and went to pieces . or how he expects to be supported. I do not know . who have found out in four thousand years how to live healthfully and happily on the Plain of Sharon. Rolla Floyd. there were seven or eight left . by whose favor alone he was kept from Oriental jails . quarreled with the Turkish authorities. is impossible. disheartened many. conceited. Adams. with a man for Pope (Adams) who could not "rule his own spirit . When I went there. The government. and all had mistaken views as to a speedy realization of their hopes. of the ecclesiastical form. . quarreled with the American Consuls. We are at peace with all the natives. quarreled with his own appointed Elders of his own appointed church . one hundred feet wide . His theology was contradictory. are strangers upon earth . A few died . We number now forty-five. a very poor business man. execrable. More money was spent in getting them back than would have saved the success of the colony. Brother and Mrs . and could not get further favors from any one . Third. Our carpenters have employment at wages that allow each to save $5 per week. Some who went out were not fitted for the toils and privations of a pioneer effort. J. intemperate. His sermons were vulgar and abusive . joined to mismanagement." He was vain.

whose variety of Oriental types would of itself repay a person for coming all the way to Joppa from America. in all the realms of King Solomon). about fifty-five years of age . but at this rate I should never reach the colony. over which I walked at first gingerly. Mr. Adams raised the American flag in our honor. and we all walked to Mr . Noureddin Effendi and Mr. The colony consisted of a dozen or twenty wooden houses. and yellow with a third. a heavy. many of whose stems were ten and twelve inches in diameter . self-conceited man. who had come up on the same steamer with me the night before. and so on for a ten minutes' walk. be it observed. and had been dangerously low. Charles Hale). bending under loads of fruit. not untinged with contempt at my simpleness in observing objects so common-place. through groves of pomegranates and orange-trees and lemon-trees. and hyena. and so thought my staid dragoman. built of the lumber brought from Maine . and during several hours that we sat together at that hospitable board he fully confirmed the impression l had previously formed of him. to convey them to unknown distances eastward and southward over the deserts . Adams joined me here . I said ten minutes . called. to load a British vessel with the bones that for unnumbered centuries had whitened and resisted the tooth of dog. good-natured. through caravans of kneeling camels. and this afforded me the opportunity of observing from his house-tops that he had one of the finest views of sea and country that the place afforded . Mr. that of all -men living he was one of the last to undertake to manage a colony upon the Syrian coast . I conclude my article by saying that at the dinner given in my honor that evening by the Kaimakam or Governor. and blue with another floral type. I found that good man preparing. with his wagon and team (the only wagon and team. 269 through the Mohammedan graveyards (nowhere in all the world are graveyards such dismal places as in Turkish countries). While I was sitting there the American Consul-General of Egypt (Mr . . shambling. Adams were present . jackal. The first I approached was Brother Floyd's . through groves of prickly-pear trees. Adams' house together. but in good truth it took me an hour. on the plains of Joppa . Adams and her little son made up the family . who looked back upon me occasionally with a smile of pity. loquacious. patiently waiting for their loads of oranges.THE COLONY IN 1868. Toombs was lying ill with Syrian fever. The banks under the broad cactus were red with the flowers of the anemone. as disliking to crush these beautiful forms. Mr. Mrs . or fragrant and beautiful with flowers red and white . Strange birds wooed me to pause and observe them . The sandy path was loaded with shells. Waiting at the house. once the emblem of pilgrimage (see Byron's "sandal-shoon and scalop-shell ") .

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was less than five minutes. The fellow bawled manfully. and squeal of horses . the snort. but unable to pass the alcoholic vender or dram-seller of arrack-a detestable compound made of dates." who bore the heavy beams of cedar and other ponderous materials up the precipitous cliffs to Jerusalem. answer. A Judge (Kadi) was holding court in the gateway. Quick and condign the trial and judgment . and this included indictment. all in the same key .CHAPTER XVIIL GOING UP TO JERUSALEM. It was rich. well laid on his bare soles . etc . to go by way of Ramleh and Kolonieh. 1868. FTER completing my examinations of the city of Joppa. tramp. Passing through the Jerusalem Gate. to follow "the Burden-Bearers. the cry of the muezzin high in the minaret . . and flogging. the swearing of a party of British sailors. I think of the incident even now with satisfaction. and had just ordered a fellow flogged for stealing a sailor's knife . and likely to use up all their "leave" right here at Joppa . I really f It good over it. "on leave" for Jerusalem. the awful Plutonian bray of the nine donkeys. and. and the jingle of their bells . the shrieks of the camels protesting against their loads. Fiat justitia. the wild. lacerated and bleeding. but we all laughed.-thirteen strokes. the "poll-parrotings" of the natives-inveterate gabblers they are . from the moment the Kadi began to question him to the moment he was kicked out of the gate. I left Joppa at 3 P . I note a few of the noises that struck my ear : they are the snarls and yelps of crowds of dogs . summing-up. I started. finally. My nine donkeys fairly roared with . May 2.oy (in minors) at the transaction . sweet notes of birds . the only gate on the landside.M. on the new turnpike-road. the laugh and frolic of mobs of boys idling away the hours of youth under the orange-trees .

A large tree with thick blue blossoms is called by the English-speaking residents here the lilac-tree. bursting it open and injuring it . The fences were of the immense cactus. with that muleteer's defacement stamped upon it . pear. I think if fences of these were set up among the "amazing trials" to be en . pomegranate. fig. It only needs good companionship to make it perfectly delicious . but rode a wretched horse . Interspersed with the orange-trees are the lemon. He swore (in Arabic) all the way to Ramleh . The first hour was chiefly under orangegroves. ." Two elegant fountains stand by the roadside. whose trunks are often twelve inches in diameter. He is assisted by a muleteer of the lowest and most sinister class conceivable ." and he wouldn't be comforted. countered in a Masonic lodge. and others. That they are miserable is plain to see. But oh. Built into them are fragments of large and splen- ." and "backsheesh. he was an infamous specimen of a muleteer-and. I have it yet. yellow with heavy fruit. for death alone can terminate their anguish. who pierce my ears with wailings. The ride in this weather and at this season is delightful . 1872) . the women and children bearing them away in baskets for fuel . of whose very names I am innocent. by the way. cherry. but few candidates would get through! At this season the owners are trimming off the dead leaves. he had no mule either. disgusting from physical mutilations. alas! is a negro cavalier (as the gentleman is styled in the grandiloquent dragoman-language). or pricklypear. Once he threw my carpet-bag on the ground. They intermingle with the thoughts of that dead boy of whose decease I have just heard (February 2. but my companion. showing by their inscriptions that they were placed here under promptings of philanthropy alone. that delightful ride over the plain of Sharon ! How the memory thereof stirs me to grateful tears as I write . and leaves eighteen inches in length--large as elephants' ears-and thorns keen as cambric needles make good barriers.272 ACROSS THE PLAIN OF SHARON. nor would he keep up with me on the road. wherever used . His "allahs" were curiously intermingled with CQmejeedy"and "howadjee. The only drawbacks to the scene are the lepers and other beggars. There was a grievance of some kind that possessed that muleteer's mind from the start. and I do not try to resist the impulse to "give them an alms . In them happy songsters made melody for the American howadjee as he rode along. carob. despite all that my cavalier and myself could do to instigate him. the largest and sweetest in the world . Altogether.

b. who gave me the most graceful of salaams . Each party consists of a single family only. mouth. and my daughters wearing it . different from anything that had previously met my eye. which is about the value of the quadrin or mite of olden time. goad. etc. I fear he was not sufficiently thankful for the boon . yoke. magnificently accoutred. A Fellah (a very low feller indeed) plowing with a cow and an ass yoked together-a palpable violation of the law of Moses . and there is money in it at $1 apiece . and chin are hidden .PLOWS AND PICNICS. This cloth is ornamented with embroidery and jewels. like that which I saw three weeks ago outside of the old gate of Tyre. e. the party seat themselves. from which the original tenant had long since been expelled with ignominy and contempt . They never come nearer than a hundred paces of me. in such a manner that the nose. when these fellows are polite. The patent plow with which he was turning up the soil (loose with seashells) is the one lettered a in my cut. I observed here an object. plow. is a splendidly carved marble sarcophagus or stone-coffin. viz . The coin is but little used at present. and is altogether the most ridiculous ornament ever imposed by fashion upon the fair sex. I pass on . The variety of characters met upon this road is endless . Sharon. then stop. f. Such a plow weighs about eight pounds. worn by the females. I imagine Madame Demorest enforcing it. points . that speak loudly of Egypt . but I had purchased a lot to carry home with me. It is pleasant to watch the numerous picnic parties coming out of Joppa to spend the afterf noon on this flowery carpet of a. I gave him a para. and rather unwillingly spared him one. pipes are lit. coffee is made and handed round in a minute. the slaves and pipe-bearers spread rugs and mats on the ground.. 273 did columns of marble and granite. I must say. they outvie Monsieur Le himself. Laughing at the conceit. and the water-trough of one of them. Amongst them is an Arab mounted on a beautiful horse. a black cloth tied over the face just below the eyes. worth one-tenth of a cent . and the enioyment begins 18 . He left his strangely assorted team to ask a backsheesh.

Sloth is their greatest curse . heavy prayer of Dr . The myrtle is certainly here . at one view. the lavender. Women borne along upon the backs of these different animals." As a fair specimen of the class of travellers met here. These ains or fountains were formerly much used for oratories or praying-houses. jasper and verdantique . and their poor little heifers to drag them . the hillsides are mantled with groves of olives . horses. They suddenly raise their voices from the lowest monotone to the highest pitch. then turn it into a real war-whoop by clapping the hand upon the mouth . A picnic party enjoyed themselves upon the soft grass . their sharp. the variety of travellers and the pastoral and farming scenes identified with this ancient country from its earliest history . kn . yet I could plainly enough hear their phantageia. I append a cut . keef) is their idea of enjoyment . balanced with some skill . sago. Others rode astride. Passed the Fountain of Abraham (Ain Ibraheem) . and it would be convenient to sit here by this cool water-pool if 1 had to listen again to the long. like the" sterner" sex . as they call it. presenting. On every side the plowmen were at their labors with their miserable plows. The winding valley rolls in waves of wheat and barley. and camels . My eye is familiar with a very great variety of wild-flowers. which they love with a Frenchman's admiration. mules. An experienced writer says : " No country in the world is blessed with a more beautiful and varied flora than the United States. hyssop. when he opened the Grand Lodge of . Great birds (storks) stood upright around the marshy places. Upon this road were footmen. and wild thyme abundantly . irrigated and made gentle by rotation of crops . How beautiful the Plain of Sharon must have been in the days when it was cultivated by Hebrew skill and assiduity. from Florida to Minnesota. in contrivances resembling large boxes. Although I would not violate their laws of etiquette by approaching them. The little hills laugh with plenty .2 74 WILD FLOWERS OF SHARON . patiently waiting for frogs. The whole landscape bears marks of gladness . quavering notes of joy . I cannot name a tithe of the wild-flowers that delight me as I ride along. but on the Plain of Sharon I entered upon a new experience of botanical wealth and glory . At twenty minutes to four the Plain of Sharon opens before me in all its flowery luxuriance. quiet (or. and there are few portions of its flowery soil I have not trodden. rue. It is a vast mosaic of green and brown. donkeys. broom.in my hearing.

The largest of the poppies. a small. Joppa is hidden behind me by the intervening groves. The natural features of Sharon resemble in almost every particular the prairies of the West.MOUNTAINS OF DAN. appearing quite pretty in the distance. and with good bridges where needful. exhibited at their prettiest . Far on the right. who call them at intervals. BEDOUIN. according to the Scriptural allusion . though the varieties are more numerous . Soon I overtake a line of camels laden with dragomans' goods. are led (not driven) by their shepherds. It is well engineered. like the dandelion. interminable sand ridges. usually without fence or protection . It has not such a matting of flowers as our Western prairies. Great fields of wheat and barley nearly ripe encroached upon the road. The mountains of Dan rise gloriously before me. Here are the ordinary " white weed" of our country. while the mellow evening sun and the delightful sea-breeze upon my back give the last grace to my journey that nature is capable of. Such are my first impressions of the Plain of Sharon. May I be as ready to follow my Divine Leader to "green pastures" as these poor creatures are to follow theirs. presenting the vivid contrast of black with white. grows about two miles from Tyre. The long trains of sheep and goats feeding over the prairie. crowned with telegraph poles. ditched at the sides. near a fountain. a conspicuous object here. Upon a hill far ahead is an Arab village. 275 hand . . and many others. This road is the one upon which at least one thousand workmen are engaged making a highway to connect Joppa with Jerusalem . and opposite to it a wely or Mohammedan tomb . show where the coast-line tends southward towards Egypt . yellow flower.

beds. proves to be a mere collection of mud-huts. the only object of the sort. and vermin of the liveliest quality herd indiscriminately together. Another hour brings me to the town itself much larger and better built than I bad expected to see it. intended for some party of travellers coming on behind me. And now there opens out upon my eyes a large olive orchard. A little further.. in a grove of trees. etc . bedsteads. green prairie-grass. . which seemed so romantic in the distance. sheep. and enjoy their first night of "Tent-Life in the Holy Land. ARIMATHEA . and there I was welcomed by a universal cry of " baeksheesh. etc. RAMLEH . always an attractive object to me .276 TOWER AT RAMLES. A grove of palm-trees next appears. points to the manner in which the precious fluid is brought to the surface from the wells of this plain . and touching his back . howadjee. I believe. human beings. I pass on . and bowing courteously in response. backsheesh.. by many degrees the most beautiful tree in the world . tents." which I had heard before . Before night they will pitch those tents upon the soft. the tall tower of Ramleh comes in eight. I always take these words to imply the warmest sentiments of respect. Under the trees is a blind man following his conductor. working materials." as Prime jauntily Terms it. where cattle. by holding out the end of a cane. in Palestine . A large water-shed. In two hours from Joppa. and the village.

it was striking to mark the quick transition from the gabble of the town to the stillness of the country . from the English ships at Joppa. to the circumstance of 600 men leaving here. and the fellow actually howled around the entrance to that Locanda all night ." and pursued our journey in peace and harmony . All the rocky passes had been opened. hills were ascended by serpentine ways. being in a town or village . Around the town of Ramleh the olive-trees grow by thousands .). without exception. took my carpetbag upon his own saddle. on arrival. I shall never know . May 3d (as early as five o'clock).m. The steeper. I refused. but whatever it was. Early on Sunday morning. and noisy. A party of thirteen sailors. every dwelling. deserve the term. canted his Senior Deacon's rod. A neat fragment of arches remains to show what was formerly a grand structure . and butchering everybody in it. as merry as a ten days' leave and a bottle of arrack apiece could make them. assaulting an unarmed town. and at the rate of progress thus going on. I feel that the penance was ample. An immense wheat-field was on my right. only soft with fleas and only musical with mosquitoes. five francs. and drove the scamp back to Joppa. if miserable fare. A road was being rapidly completed by the Pasha of Jerusalem . As I had paid his employer everything in advance. instead of the convent. were ahead of me. I started for a ramble to Jerusalem. In the morning my cavalier gave him a thrashing. . The land is rich and black in excess. and broke a chandelier over my head one night. The streams were substantially bridged. G. He out-screamed the hyenas and jackals who made the noise in the graveyards out of town . gave his horse nothing. My fancies on this lively mattress kept pace with the skipping of the fleas . and a hard bed. where I trust he lives to repent of his sins. drunken guests. from the way Brother 0 . on a certain occasion (Judges xviii . 277 What particular sin I had been guilty of. I thought of everything. There is no such thing as country life here in Palestine. and going a hundred miles north. and arrived at 1 P. S. He ate nothing. but simply swore and yelled until daybreak . plundering and insulting the people as they went. for which the penaltyy was to be sent to the Locanda or hotel of Ramleh. there would be a carriage-way from Joppa to Jerusalem within a few weeks . My muleteer demanded.A HARD NIGHT OF IT. Riding out of Ramleh. with the ripening grain rank and luxuriant upon it . Whereupon we "looked to the east.

even that Plutonian bray (in the minorest of keys) sounds tuneful . Advancing eastward. Yet for all that. through which the turnpike passes .M . The wind makes mournful refrain through the insulators on the telegraph-poles. "going up to Jerusalem . Mihi quoque spem dedisti. I have now an ascent to make of nearly 2. -per it is. the mountains of Dan present their graceful outlines quite distinctly . as their long necks reach hither and thither in search of food ." The soil is about eighteen inches deep. I reach Latroon. Thus far I have never seen a dwelling-place in all Palestine. The swallows dart swiftly under my horse's feet. expressive eyes. My cavalier looms up grandly this morning . I reach the town of Kabob. resting upon a foundation of gravel . with a heavy stone resting on it.30 A. The plants and flowers are as yesterday. with the totality of one shirt to the three.600 feet.278 THE PLUTONIAN BRAY. Mellowed by the distance. and another one of the same class a little further on . keen. recalls many Scriptural allusions.45 A. than half a dozen of him . outside of a town or village. Here now is a patch of tobacco. thus "Et Latronum ex audisti. to catch the insects as we start them up . but of a fine type. At 7.M. and a miserable interl. These native cavaliers are considered arrant cowards at best. he looks the very picture of an armed guard . except that the common American " dog fennel " which I learned to hate so bitterly in Mississippi (1841 '50). At 6 . sits erect upon his saddle. on the left. the traditional home of the penitent thief. The camels browsing on the plains look like immense ostriches. The solemn roar of the donkey is heard from the villages on the hillsides. The fig-trees are uncommonly large and luxuriant. begins to abound. wherever found." . referred to in Dies Ircs. and looking dwarfish to the eye of a Kentuckian . He is a negro. and that a dilapidated one . A well of water. the plants being six or eight inches high. An elegant chapiter from some costly marble column lies on the ground. strong as they look to the unsophisticated howadjee. his carbine lying before him and short-sword at his side . I would rather depend on myself in a difficulty. Directly before me is a clift in the heights. His splended stallion curvetting under him. only a cluster of dirty mud-huts. Three little backsheesh-seekers are standing by the roadside. small head. just as it does along our wires at home.

From the boughs of an ancient carob-tree he laid poles across to his wall. I would remark. from the word arraga. or eye. Their only money is half-sovereigns. and behold Khan Caroob complete-as complete as the St. What a paradise this Vale of Avoca would make under American cultivation 1 At its eastern extremity is a large and welcome spring of water. the miserable sensations produced by arrack. excelling anything I have seen in the country . at the distance perhaps of several miles. As I sat on the cushions of Khan Caroob." It is the whiskey of the Holy Land-well named sweat-whiskey ! I can testify to perspiration following the drinking of the glass-full . are boiled harder than I thought hens'-eggs capable of . and the whole nine of them can't muster half an Arabic word . His eggs. the sorrowful cry of the females in some funeral ceremony . his head on . 279 -As thou didst listen to the thief on the cross. however. stopped for refreshments at a native khan . in its way. I could hear. They keep the breath at the top of the voice as long as they can stand it without suffocation. I fear. Here. so also give me nope . instruct them graciously in the secrets of Turkish currency. The chap who keeps this hotel (I call it Khan Caroob) found a natural cave to begin with . "to sweat. for I only paid him three piastres (twelve cents) for several cups of coffee. At right-angles with that he built of the abundant native stone a room twelve feet square . It makes me sweat now to recall . So I lend them a lot of small change to buy coffee with. on a lee-shore. high and dry. This Arabic style of " eating-house " is simple but effective. Here all day he retails coffee. to passers-by . Two days afterwards I met them in the streets of Jerusalem. His terms are more liberal than at the first-class American hotels . The vile drink which turns pale (white) when you pour water into it. well-watered and. and they paid me back my loan with thanks and British honor . called in this country an ain. These brave mariners are stranded here. and an assortment of sundries " for self and cavalier. too. At 9 A . is called arrack.M. Nicholas itself." Here I overtake nine British sailors.. hardboiled eggs. that the thieves who live hereabouts so numerously at the present day are anything but " penitent. and pass on . I saw a native asleep. and arrack. a romantic valley opens before me .KHAN CA$OOB . who started yesterday to walk from Joppa to Jerusalem. and then end the shriek with a low sob. Rising the hill east of Latroon. covered them with bushes.

of whose Masonic qualities I shall speak in another chapter .M. he struck more than a gold-mine in "sitting at the receipt of custom. the only one I have seen. attached to the British ship Lord Clyde.M. At 12. at my Kentucky home). who made levies upon all persons passing by his Grape-town. now at Joppa. and shortly afterwards sight "the Holy City . they hold up their own boughs and foliage. a pillow made by heaping up small stones and laying his arba ove2 them. flat roofs. with their whitewashed walls and white. an intelligent lady asked me. A stillness like that of the grave pervades the land. without the exchange of a syllable. in the hearing of a congregation.30.M . and enter the gate of the city with a sensation of awe. It is impossible for a person of feeling to look over the desolate hills that surround Jerusalem without sorrowful emotions. He was a sort of king in Syria. presenting the far-famed HebraicoPheenician bevel." I have always had a high appreciation of his character . For four hours I ride along the really good way which the Pasha is macadamizing. How does a person feel upon the first view 11 . You meet and pass the wayfarer. like Jacob at Bethel . (it being about 5 A . formerly a celebrated robber upon these hills. where the trunks of vines are so large that. and a member of Phcenix Lodge. Afterwards we frequently consorted together under the mystical level . a charming valley. At 1. And now the road begins in good earnest to ascend the hills of Dan ." At Khan Caroob I fell in with Captain Edward Gladstone. until the crest is reached.05 A . He was the Great Sheikh of the children of Beni Hassan. I observe here a structure of massive stones.10 P. Portsmouth. At 11.35 a large vineyard. the numerous little villages on the low swells of ground. like trees. look like a parcel of ivory dice scattered here and there over the country. as though you were about to visit a restingplace of the dead. His companionship over these weary hills of Dan and Benjamin made the way agreeable. and they owned no other lord . England. After my return home.280 MEETING A BROTHER. I reach the crest of the hill. near Jerusalem. so attractive to a Freemason's eye . native and foreigner. In these still and sterile mountains. Passing into the hill-country. At 11 . Every other sentiment merges into pity and sympathy as the traveller approaches the Holy City . I am opposite the romantic and well-known town of Abou Ghosh. a custom-house extortioner of the " general order" system. old Kirjath-Jearim .

his guide informed him the city was in sight. and gave them their glass to look. but the remembrance of that . the shepherds said to one another. to calm themselves ere they surmount the last tumulus that hides from them the long-desired view. Others.FIRST VIEW OF JERUSALEM. gallop up that eminence. but it was mingled with a strange sentiment of doubt and mistrust as to whether I should really set foot within the courts of the city . Afterwards I spent an hour among my books. I was so near the goal of my search . I was privileged to stand. Besides this.-all the time drawing nearer. Certainly I felt a solemn impression. the excitement increases. Crossing the broad Atlantic. yes. I had been already more than' two months in Palestine and Syria." Ah. " Let us now show them the gates of the Celestial City. It was past noon of May 3. A sentiment almost feverish is aroused in the minds of some in anticipation of this .-dashing over the iron-way (chemin de fer. as if anxious to have it over. and so hasten the fulfillment of their joy . if they have skill to look through our perspective-glass!" The pilgrims lovingly accepted the invitation . I was extremely weary with my ride from Ramleh. My first view was more prosaic . gives the keynote to these sentiments . At this. on approaching a place above all others famed in the records of history-human and divine . So "they led them to a hill called Clear. six miles northwest of Zion. The reader will not fail to recall the story of the much-overrated Richard of England. Excessive fatigue is a sad destroyer of romance. 281 of Jerusalem?" Others may propound the same inquiry . and the keen edge of novelty was blunted . on that auspicious day.-climbing the hills of Benjamin. While his pilgrims were yet upon the Delectable Mountains. gathering in the records of those travellers who have more feelingly described their sentiments as they stood where. to pause. after forty years of earnest desire. the iron-road).plowing the blue waters of the Mediterranean. and strong men. Lord God. as the French style the railroad. and I have known women. Then they essayed to look. the king covered his face with his mailed hands and cried out in French. in his inimitable parable. When he had left his camp at Ajalon and reached Mizpeh. and I copy some for my readers . Enough will be found to show the character of the impressions made upon susceptible minds. 1868. Bunyan.-a gratitude to God that. let me never see Jerusalem unless I am also to enter it!" I may as well remark here that he never did enter it. an extremely sultry day.

" Is not this exceedingly good reading? Suppose Bunyan had really visited Jerusalem and the Jordan. entering into the country . imbued with the pilgrim spirit. as she sits aloft begirt with battlements. It is an era in our lives never to be forgotten . apparently but a few rods off. at least. let my right hand forget her cunning! "-Tristam. surmounted by a dome which stood out against the sky. "The guides pointed out a succession of bluish-gray hills."-Herbert. But the rods are miles."--Train. contemplation quickens the reverential awe with which I gaze upon the birthplace of our Saviour and of his religion . silent. "A sudden view of swelling domes and towering minarets rising dimly in the distance.of Beulah. low line of wall. solitary.282 DIVERSITY OF VIEWS . As I near the gate of Solomon. The country around was arid. The first view is sublime. because it was on the borders of Heaven ! " But to quote from some of our more literal travellers "Jerusalem. In face of Calvary.'-Miss Barclay . Enshrined in the depths of a Christian's affections. last thing the shepherds had showed them (that is. "for in this land the Shining Ones commonly walked. and also some of the glory of the place . Behold Jerusalem! Instinctively every one drew his bridle-rein and paused . CQ 11 Our muleteer called out with a loud voice. by means of which impediment they could not look steadily through the glass . there met them here some of the inhabitants thereof . for the moment.-what descriptions he could have given us! And again : When the pilgrims were got over the Enchanted Ground. and we can only pity the man who is not. Jerusa- . ' Jerusalem. nature itself stood still. and does not feel the sight to be one of the privileges of his life . and. the central palatial city. and a long. In the first sight of Jerusalem there is a thrill of interest that is scarce weakened by repetition. Yet they thought they saw something like the Gate. if I forget thee. linked with every feeling of faith and hope. causes us to check our horses and raise our hearts and voices gratefully to God . 0 Jerusalem. While we gaze upon Jerusalem. some of the party fall in the dust silently breathinf their fullness of joy . the By-way to Hell) made their hands shake. were within sight of the city they were aspiring to. and your memory is taxed with peopling it again . yet beautiful to the Christian heart must Jerusalem ever be. bursts out from the mountains that encircle it. A few moments brought us to the west of the hill Scopus . Mournful.

"A glimpse of a hill whose slopes are dotted with olive-tries."-Miss Rogers."-John Wilson . with a few domes and minarets rising above it. I knew I was looking upon Jerusalem. yet there is something in the sight strangely affecting . I dismounted. ' I am strangely disappointed. low line of battlemented wall. quickened my pace."-Browne . we could neither understand them nor give them expression . And higher yet the glorious Temple reared ."-Phelps . crowning the table-land. Though I have seen Jerusalem under more beautiful aspects and from more. spurring his horse forward .' said my companion. We halted for some time and gazed upon the memorable city. read portions of the Psalms and the New Testament that refer so beautifully. and gloriously to the city of Mount Zion and of God.". Our feelings were so overpowering that . "I forgot my fatigue. " From the mountain-pass above the plain beyond Bireh we rode out on a wide waste of whitish rocks. blessed memorial day that our eyes actually rested upon Jerusalem ! What wonderful associations are awakened ! what powerful and tearful emotions thrilled my heart ! Such a moment ! such soul-thoughts and feelings cannot be described . said Mahmoud. "Jerusalem was before our view . builded as a city. topped with golden spires. and then the massive walls and gates of the city. We stood still in solemn silence . we saw domes and minarets. "El Ehuds. moment never to be forgotten ! oh. again stood still and gazed . tenderly.' ~~ So excited were we with the gaze that it was long before we were sufficiently composed to resume our journey . These lines oocurred to memory 'The Holy City lifted high her towers. favorable points of view. again went forward. and was soon on the hill-top. and seating myself on an old wall. dim in the shades of the coming night. the first sight had its particular charm . Oh. The pile far off appearing like a mount Of alabaster. advancing. and the mountains round about her. I required no guide to point out the long. Gerusa- . and beheld in the distance a walled city.Ward. A moment after. with the sacred objects before me. 283 lem I' This was repeated by each of us with great joy . Pausing to look round me. sacred hour! oh. whose summit is crowned with a cluster of buildings . ' The Mniznt of Olives!' we exclaimed.DIVERSITY OF VIEWS.-a hill which stood in the midst of hills . and so it was .

"-El Mukattem . distorted rocky wastes beneath. the pale. For my own part I simply sung three or four Jerusalem songs. past. solemnity. and it was the sudden uprising of these in one glorious cloud that so fixed the eye and absorbed the mind . The sweetest memories hovered. What a thrill went through the heart! And have we seen Jerusalem at last! We ceased to speak. If there was any romance in my own associations with Jerusalem. and heartily praised God . rise as beacons to the wearied soul. Jerusalem has a thousand objects of interest. swelling into a volume. Wonder. This to us here. it was connected with the solemn moment when. Men in every tongue babbled some favorite scrap. like fairest angels. Moriah. had any scene so riveted our gaze . N. Nationality seemed for a moment lost in something greater than itself. as one in a dream. smitten dumb -by a feeling of which I had never experienced the like. read a dozen Jerusalem chapters. lemma. The city seemed to possess magnetic power . his children's home . might be made . Not in the wild forests of the western world. "That place ! it is Jerusalem . We felt drawn toward it. beneath the brilliant and uncLeokered sunshine. and before I followed on. eager to stand within its gates. folding his hands in prayer. and all are bathed in the radiance of the Cross . I took my farewell view of its battlements and towers. not among the huge works of E gyptian art. over the towers of Salem . The scene was unspeakably grand . as a beloved song that dying men request to hear at their bedsides in the last supreme moments of life . Heaven threw its shekinah upon the scene. sadness. Begiol roolis. his father's resting-place. this was as natural as prayer . I placed a stone upon the mounds to mark the hour when first my eyes gazed on the city of our Lord . murmured an old Italian. as the sun began to descend down the passes of Bethhoron. Leech . I gazed upon the bright city. Yet above these. rose up affection : affection as tender and profound as that with which one regards the city of his birth. two . all were mingled together . that sprung like magic from the bosom of the hills.z84 DIVERSITY OF VIEWS . present. nor ever expect to know again . treasured up for years to be sung or spoken. the Holy City lay fair and peaceful before our enraptured eyes. and future all concentrated in the oracle of God . Zion. Scores of such extracts. said a lusty Greek beggar by my side."-Bonar. or at least with these. " The point gained. joy."-N. not on the snow-clad peaks of romantic Switzerland. looking back from Mount Scopus. the bald and desolate plain in front. Our overflowing hearts sent forth their swollen streams of feeling in vocal rejoicing . Olivet. As for me. in sight of Olivet and Zion. and clothed the hill of Zion with a robe of glory.

And God bath given to the place thy name. There flows the river and there grows the treeWater of life and endless fruits for me .-all thy sacred hills. thou Mount beloved . But never thee. thy sun shall gladden me no more! Farewell.THE MUSE ON MOUNT SCOPUS . by loving fancy's aid.--thy sun bends low. Never on flowery Sharon's westward plain His sunset-visage greet my eyes again . Farewell. NEW JERUSALEM 1 . And warns me with his parting beams to go One more fond look . Inscribed in images that cannot fade Memory may forfeit many a precious gem. without. Thy winding valleys. Though other suns may lighten up my shore. thou best Jerusalem . in due time. Thy fragrant gardens 'neath Siloam's side. blest city . With me I bear. The Holy City. ran out into verse. There gates and walls with precious jewels dressed And streets of gold allure the happy guest . 285 weeks afterwards. That the fierce fire of vengeance long withheld Kindled at last . His loving heart was steeled Then up those hills there surged such floods of flama They left thee but "a by-word and a name ." Farewell ! above the skies eternal wait Glories transcending far thy best estate . These thoughts. within. Thy sepulchres that pierce the mountain's side. Jerusalem. can it be The gracious KING in wrath abandoned thee ? There was no remedy : such clouds of sin Polluted all thy courts. Zion. as follows Farewell. thy historic rills.-never again to me On Moab's summit shall his rising be .

.THE CLAY GROUND 7IPTWPVN SUCCOTH AND ZARTHAN .

The vow of restitution. The deep confession which to heaven He sent. Oppressed with grief and chastened by the rod. In vision bright before His inner eye A glorious vista opens in the skyTroops of angelic forms now fill the air. peradventure the LORD will come to meet me : and whatsoeym He sheweth me I will tell thee.DIVISION SEVENTH . humbly given. Descending gently and ascending. "I will go . . The space is crowded by angelic bands . And from the farthest point of that long line Jehovah's face in rays benignant shine . THE CLAY-GROUND. Howe'er unworthy and how much forlorn. Abandoned. Rank above rank the glorious forms are seen. Each face now lit by heaven's resplendent sheen . And he went' -IVUmoers xxiii . They bend from heaven to earth in grace divinely fair Between two distant worlds a medium stands. 3 That hour of deep abasement and of shame To Him the brightest of His life became The tears of penitence His heart had spent. From home an alien and from comforts shorn. of hope and God. Brought to His soul a rich reward from heavenNot to approve the fraud His hand did trace. they Bear messages of peace until the break of day. as he feared. But to exalt the gift of goodness and of grace .

"From Seikoot. about forty-five miles northeast of Jerusalem. Where was the" clay-ground" of Hiram's foundries? It is the best matrix-clay existing within reach of Hiram Abif. It was not in my power to visit the locality now under description. is. use a particular species of brown. in a direct line. though brief . the want even of a horse-track to that unfrequented quarter of Palestine. they reply. and it is found only in . about two days' journey northeast of Jerusalem. The extreme heat of the Jordan valley in the middle of May. etc . in the clay-ground between Succoth and Zeredathah" (2 Chronicles iv. now termed Seikoot. But I iourneyed that way as far as any passable road was found opened." as described . the fearful thickets of thorns that covered the whole valley. the following is the text : " In the plain of Jordan did the king cast them. is the Clay-Ground between Succoth and Zarthan (or Zeredathah) . and." Here then is a satisfactory reply to the question. in the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan" (1 Kings vii . u party to clear the way. HE sixth of the seven Grand Masonic Localities recognized in the present volume. 17) . as a Mississippi canebrake-these formed a body of reasons for my failure in this direction . arenaceous clay in making moulds for casting small pieces in brass. The site of Succoth.CHAPTER XIX. 46). and "in the plain of Jordan. "In the plain of Jordan did the king cast them. withou. He discovered that the jewellers of that city. The allusions to these in the Masonic lectures are positive. A singular fact came to light under the investigations of my assistant at Jerusalem. and the present chapter shall give an account of what lies along the path. Inquiring whence this clay comes. BJrrwLkN SUCCOTH AND ZARTHAN . In describing the brazen pillars and sacred vessels of the Temple. above all. which made it almost as impassable to a horseman. at the present day.

and the traveller who consumes his precious morning hours or evenings in social conference. one red-legged Zouave was holding . lingering twenty steps behind me. and another was unstrapping my pack of blankets. made a Mason in 1828).. but rode with a light heart down the Via Dolorosa (so called. and my landlord of the Prussian Hotel. and extremely inconvenient as was the locality. so important did that master-workman deem it. 1868. be established his furnaces there. and by the time I got back to his rescue. and up the Tyropcean or Damascus street to the old Damascus gate. is casting away. lightly. for I had come to Jerusalem . while a third was abusing the terrified Arab in the foulest 19 . Johnson. "and considerable as was the distance. to greet Solomon face to face . as the Biblical record informs us. to exchange grips with Zerubbabel and Nehemiah . viz . what thousands of the pious and zealous of his countrymen would give largely to enjoy . and in addition caused 500 cigarette-holders to be made of it for further distribution . So I went out into the open country. after exchanging valedictories with my acquaintances there . I left the city of Jerusalem by the Damascus gate.with a far different purpose from that of forming the acquaintance of men and women.LAST IMPRESSIONS . I secured two hundred weight of this clay of Seikoot for my patrons. and after shaking hands with the good old Brother Peterman (Prussian Consul. to walk with Titus and Josephus around the Roman lines of circumvallation . that. These were but a few.. to secure a sharp and perfect mould for his castings. My last impreseions of Jerusalem were like my first. I had few others to say "good-bye" to. was incontinently seized by the Turkish soldiers who guard the gate. So I had made but few acquaintances in Jerusalem. in short. to bow reverently under the words of Jesus. 289 "the clay-ground between Succoth and Zeredathah . 'My desire was to shake hands with David . R . that the city is horribly misgoverned.M. for my servant Hassan. his horse by the bridle.. to identify myself as much as possible with the past. in whose quaint "winding stairs" I had a few days before cut the Square and Compass so deeply that the city may be captured another seventeen times before it fades out. but no more the Via Dolorosa of Christ's day than the top of a tree is its root). to share in the last great assault of Godfrey and Tancred . and Brother Charles Warren. at 2 P . May 14. the American Vice-Consul (a most estimable young gentleman). Men and women in Jerusalem are no better than men and women in Pumpkinville .E . and Mr.

Titus. It is by all odds the best view . These are mnemonics of Jerusalem.290 VIEW FROM SCOIUS. I had ridden around this hill." and from the hill-top caught their first or last view of Jerusalem . those little piles of pebbles-three. five. On the hill of Scopus I pause to catch the last and best view of Jerusalem . it was also my last as I left Jerusalem for Bethel. past the hill on the right. wherein is excavated the wonderful " Tomb of the Kings. as my knowledge of the Arabic tongue does not extend to its profanity. At my approach they released him. vernacular. like me. No. on every protuberance of rock. under the great olives that tell their Masonic story of " the oil of joy" there. of Nebuchadnezzar. Taking the lead. I look down upon that Jerusa- . of any devastator of Jerusalem. memorials of gratitude to God in view of the accomplishment of a pious design . as I did in all pilgrimage through the Holy Land. Pompey. while I handed one of the soldiers a backsheesh or fee. See. I rode briskly after my'party. and at my orders he rode on. seven. nine. They are like the altar which Jacob built at Bethel. who. The only drawback to the pleasure afforded in my parting glance. David. and I had no call to give the rascals anything at all. the enormous quarries which have turned one-half the hill Beset ha into building materials . of Titus. From this. Shishak. One more long. and called the Russian Convent. but. A day or two before. I passed through the piles of rubbish that barricade the northern side of Jerusalem . not the last. from generation to generation . had come from distant lands to view "the City of the Great King. I could not help wishing. It was such a small sum (about half a piastre. to earn immortal praise by blowing that miserable structure to the winds ! " This was my first thought as I approached Jerusalem from Joppa . or two cents)." and so through the suburbs of Jerusalem . and scanned the modern city from the best points . while my horse stamps. past the old building with an architectural ornament in the south wall (which ornament I intend some day to procure for my own museum) . all around me. " Oh. had gazed on the devoted city. is the vile congeries of buildings stuck up on the rising ground northwest of the city. and so shook the dust of Jerusalem from my feet . impatient to pursue his way. or more-built up by the hands of pilgrims. eleven. that I presume the whole party united in cursing me by Allah for my meanness . for one hour of Omar. comprehensive gaze from the heights of Scopus . the Crusaders. Standing among them.

that meet my aged eyes. St. by Hermon. En-rogel. clear as crystal . of Mizpeh. and the noted places.THE NEW JERUSALEM. could not have made a greater distinction in his Masonic lectures between operative and speculative Masonry. John. and her light was like unto a stone most precious. Siloam. and which is but a continuation of Scopus). " Having the glory of God . the hypothetical Church of the Holy Sepulchre . 24 !em which I may never see again . the mountains of Moab in the extreme southeast. the encircling hills of Olivet. also the Armenian Convent and the Tomb of David beyond . Gethsemane. 0 Jerusalem. Envy me. the Damascus Gate. or possibly Olivet. nestling at their feet ." and recalled his memories of Jerusalem . an exile upon the Island of Patmos. with its classical Dome of the Rock and other edifices . relatively to the city below. banished forever from his loved Galilee and Jerusalem."-Revelation xxi . New Jerusalem coming down from God out of heaven. and showed me that great city. with the sea of Sodom gleaming at their base . which. but they were enshrined with a halo of glory! I shall read them : " I. the Tower of Eippicus on Mount Sion. of Evil Counsel. Oh. than he has done in his apocalyptic book between Jerusalem real. the plain of Rephaim in the south . pleasant or painful. will this vision of Jerusalem ever fade away? Eighteen centuries ago there was a man of nearly fivescore years. prepared as a bride adorned for her husband . let my tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth ! " In after-years. of Corruption. descending out of heaven from God.. who sat " in the spirit on the Lord's day. the privilege of perusing this sublime and inspired description of Jerusalem while I pause upon the hill of Scopus. for the Lord God Almighty and the Lamb are the temple of it . John. more to the left. saw the Holy City. let my right hand forget her cunning . the long range of Gilead and Bashan terminated. Our ancient Grand Master. "And I saw no temple therein . "And he (one of the seven angels which had the seven vials full of the seven last plagues) carried me away in the spirit to agr eat and high mountain (it might have been this hill of Scopus. amid the views. is both great and high . noblest of sacred hills-is there in all the world such a historical tout ensemble as this? "If I forget thee. one of the few architectural remains of the time of Solomon . I know (although I cannot see it from here). if I do not remember thee. dear reader. Moriah. even like a jasper stone. It is all there . etc. the Holy Jerusalem. and Jerusalem figurative . . half a mile south of this.

an exile in the land of his fathers ." • A feeling of old-time friendship prompts me to record that my first acquaintance with that true man and Mason. Cook. Forward again . between Sidon and Tyre. Elisha D . Here are memorials of the world's "road-builders. For ward to Bethel. the 155 of the Sidonian Rite . and Nazareth. and gather thy scattered flock ! Oh Thou. was made through this degree. like myself." the Romans. and the various other congeries of "ancient and adopted. He bringeth down and raiseth up . return to thy city . and Lebanon. laid down with squared stones so firmly that. they lie as firmly in their beds as when the subjugated peoples laid them here under the edge of the Roman steel. the 299 of the Children of Hatipha . Oh Lord. near Gebal ." and the magnificence of thought that caused all the highways of earth to concentrate in the seven-hilled city of Romulus. my bounding steed. and seek with me "fresh fields and pastures new . much attention was given to the degree of Secret Monitor. to the erected city ! Oh. He woundeth and He healeth. their solid masonry has spoken of "the eternity of Rome. Push on. and Shechem. thus to command!" It would be indeed a hard heart that could refuse to whisper Amen : So mote it be. 19. who renewest the months. . Perhaps the reason is. at the Nahr-el-Kelb . And here I must be very near "the Stone Ezel. I have learned to distinguish these Roman roads.* It is easy to prove that side degrees of that nature were more highly valued then than they are now ." "ancient and primitive." But who is this sad specimen of humanity that. in this long stretch of ground. killeth and restoreth to life . and Tiberias. may this month be renewed for good! and may it please God. although the drift of sixteen centuries has worn their surfaces into ridges. the 96 of the Memphis Rite ." (the 33 of the Scotch Rite . or David and Jonathan . Is it fancy. and-home. who is mighty in works. and elsewhere. " Oh may our Father in his infinite mercy compassionate his orphans and gather his dispersed to the pure land I For He is high and exalted . the North Star for my guide for twelve days . collect the saints. and embodied in the degree of Secret Monitor. build up thine holy oracle . Among the good brothers and fellows of the last generation. between Beyrout and Sidon . dwell in thine house. a Sephardine Jew. Around the Bay of Junia. our old brethren were not so rich in "regular degrees .292 THE WORLD'S ROAD-BUILDERS . Forward now. or do I hear him murmuring in the liturgy of his sect. both men and women." so named in 1 Samuel xx. is taking his last view of Jerusalem on Mount Scopus? It is a Hebrew.

At the same distance northwest the tower representing " Geba of Benjamin" is visible. the place of Jonathan's greatest exploit (1 Samuel xiv ." as the writer of 1 Samuel xi . It calls up memories of two of the heroes of the first kingdom of Israel. to declare war and peace. Gibeah is now called in the native parlance "the Hill of Beans" ( Tell-el-Ful) . but I can only refer the reader to the proper portions of Scripture for a full explication . Jonathan first appears on the scene of action some time after his father's accession to the throne. although I turned too much to the right to see them . and to choose their king . I have listened to its lectures as they fell from the venerable patriarchs of the craft. the locality of "the Stone Ezel. He was then about thirty years of age. may still be traced out in this pass." and -antique and desirable" systems)-I say they were not so rich in these as we of this blessed generation . where the tribes met to worship. and we will turn our attention chiefly to that . and when it was conferred with dignity. east of the Jordan. Like his fathor. 293 3 "ancient and honorable. near which is the pass of Michmash. sound. the impressions made by its communication were novel. and was regarded as the heir to the kingdom . the birthplace of lugubrious Jeremiah. For a long period Mizpeh was the national rendezvous. It must not be confused with the Mizpah in Mount Gilead. The rocks Bozez and Seneh. and should find it difficult to suggest anything better in the rituals of the Masonic institution . eloquence. Mizpeh. And the Secret Monitor is really worthy the praise formerly awarded it. cone-shaped. and Masonic zeal.) . so memorable in the history of Jephthah . marking one of the oldest watch-towers in Palestine . Before the Odd-Fellows borrowed it ("the wise call it convoy "). . it is thought. Passing northward from Jerusalem to Bethel. Jonathan and David. now called Neby Samuel. Our Rock Ezel stands at the foot of the hill between Gibeah and Jerusalem. comes under my observation . 4. It is a beautiful rise. and good . and not more than five miles north of Jerusalem . on which I' stand while contemplating the Masonic and Biblical account of the Secret Monitor. terms it. Few places fill so large a space in Bible history as this Gibeah. towers in the west some six hundred feet above the surrounding plain. Shall I describe the locality and its surroundings? It is a short distance south of " Gibeah of Saul." which is connected with the history of the Secret Monitor. or Hill of Beans. and commands a most interesting view . Three miles to the southeast is Anathoth (Anata).THE STONE EZEL.

was twice in great peril through the insane hatred of Saul. Saul now commanded his attendance at court. so famous." David first appears upon the scene of action when Samuel visited Bethlehem under the divine impulse. whom God had rejected .). and the attachment between father and son was close. who had spoken to Jonathan and to all his servants that they should kill David . short of stature. and David loved him as his own soul . his girdle. and his constant companion and confidant. well made. and the first time with success . gave David as a pledge his royal mantle. archery and slinging . This friendship was confirmed. when his armor-bearer says to him in fraternal words : "Behold I am with thee : as thy heart is my heart . He was fair of sight. viz . But the character of Jonathan was peculiarly amiable and susceptible of warm friendship. goodly. as remarked above. 4) . this time as the destroyer of the giant Goliath . the heir to the Jewish kingdom. particularly. his sword. In his genius for music and poetry he was never excelled by Jew or Gentile. was never laid aside. in their adoption of this friendship between David and Jonathan as the finest Biblical type of Masonic attachment? "The soul of Jonathan was knit with the soul of David. In swiftness and activity he was like a wild gazelle.. In the battle of the valley of Elah. and his famous bow (1 Samuel xviii . Were not our Masonic brethren of the last generation justified." These sentiments have never been surpassed in pathos by the best works of fiction . to anoint one of the sons of Jesse as king in the place of Saul. after the manner of the time. David's life. such as the ties of Freemasonry inculcate . often repeated. and of immense strength and agility. As his father's heir he was always present at the royal meals." "Jonathan delighted much in David . It is the first Biblical instance of a romantic friendship such as was afterwards common in Greece and has been since in Christendom . his bow. comely. Jonathan." On the first occasion 11 . This is seen in the fight at Michmash (1 Samuel xiv . and his arms were strong enough to break a bow of steel. he was a man of great strength and activity-" strong as a lion and swift as an eagle"-and excelled in those war-like arts which made his tribe. He twice interceded with the king for David's life. During the king's frenzy he was usually pacified by Jonathan's voice. by a solemn compact. then. a romantic friendship which bound the two youths to the end of their lives . and the acquaintance between him and Jonathan began .294 DAVID AND JONATHAN . David again appears. the Benjamites.

about six miles eastward . This was some time afterwards. and to hide himself. Saul strove against the flood of evils that came over him in his latter days. there is but a step between me and death . tidings of this severe reverse were brought to Davi(1 . "Truly as the Lord liveth." This was "the whispering good counsel in the ear of a brother. and as thy soul liveth. "As the Lord liveth.THE DEATH OF JONATHAN . 295 David was advised by his friend "to take heed to himself until the morning . Jonathan's plea of David's innocence and military services was effectual. when Saul was hunting David in the fardistant forest of Ziph . then at Ziklag. among the Philistines . who uttered the Threnody. thou wast slain in thine high places. and all Israel was smitten. At last a national crisis occurred . Saul gathered all Israel together. The Philistines came and pitched in the plains around Shunem. Saul. The next day the battle was joined on the slopes of Israel. They met no more. saying." of which the Masonic lectures speak . the death of Samuel. and for the third time renewed their covenant . and commune with him there as to his intentions concerning David . very pleasant . being personally pursued by the king. and all was well again . where I passed the night of May 16 ." committed suicide ." whereupon David returned to court. The third day afterwards. emboldened by the exile of David . the loss of the divine favor. Let the reader look up the inspired narrative in I Samuel xx . being "sore wounded of the archers. and pitched in Mount Gilboa. This conference terminated favorably . "I am distressed for thee. and the king swore. Jonathan and two of his brothers were slain . Upon the second occasion Saul endeavored to kill David with a javelin. With passionate embraces and tears they parted . whereupon he fled to Samuel at Naioth. Furthermore. and the growing power of the Philistines. he again sought the protection of Jonathan. Jonathan proffered to go with his father to the field south of Gibeah." At this point the circumstances forming the degree of Secret Monitor more particularly come in . David shall not be slain. to abide in a secret place . David went into exile with his family and friends. The two friends met again. and from thence. unsurpassed in herein he says : "How are the mighty fallen in the midst of the battle! Oh Jonathan. my brother Jonathan . in which "the stone Ezel " lay.

about twenty miles. Come up to us quickly. Thus the brotherly covenant was maintained. Forward again . In the hurry of flight he was dropped by his nurse and lamed in his feet . "How are the mighty fallen and the weapons of war perished!" The story of the Secret Monitor will not be complete if we omit that of Mephibosheth. as the road runs. is "the Stone Ezel.Efore sunrise." and here the degree of Secret Monitor belongs. only son of Jonathan. and a panic is ." It was probably at the hour a. sent for him in pursuance of his early covenant with Jonathan. thy love to me was wonderful. 175. Around these green slopes. is seen on the Alabama register. I conferred this degree upon two occasions on the craft at Jerusalem. and afterwards in Beyrout. King Saul. No . and settled upon him all the property of his grandfather. This. was their encampment.' That was down yonder on my right. made him a daily guest at the royal table. the right going northward . bast thou been unto me . He was carried into the mountains of Gilead. the left hand going by Gibeon through the passes of Beth-horon. and went up from Gilgal all night . where he grew tip to manhood. whose people were the allies of Joshua. King David. down toward Joppa . and other allusions to it are found in our lodge nomenclature . passing the love of woman. and all the mighty men of valor. "So Joshua ascended from Gilgal. The message was "Slack not thy hands from thy servants . and save us and help us . The degree is so highly valued in America that Ezel Lodge. and the sentiments of gratitude and honor firmly established . and this was about the season of the year . each time with marked effect. he was an infant of five years. By special request. where the ripening barley shows so yellow this afternoon. At the time of the death of his father and grandfather on Mount Gilboa. and had threatened their total destruction . He came up suddenly. that hour when deep sleep is deepest. he and all the people of war with him. then." For the king of Jerusalem had joined forces with four other kings. and had besieged Gibeon. and here is the fork of the way. being by this time firmly settled upon the throne. Yonder is the site of ancient Gibeon Let me at this point read the inspired story from the tenth chapter of Joshua "And the men of Gibeon sent unto Joshua to the camp at Gilgal .29 6 THE MEN OF GIBEON.

an attempt to engraft the Byzantine on . The way is paved with sacred memories. and they sought him among their kinsfolk and acquaintance. that the "sons of the Lion" came suddenly up this hollow to the right (this FVady Suweinat. and so into the plains of Philistia . The history of the wanderer who sought a night's shelter at Gibeah (Judges xix . according to a rational tradition. And as they . northward and westward by the upper pass of Beth-horon . their headlong flight was precipitated down the terrible steeps of Lower Beth-horon. with its cupola roof." I reached the village of Beeroth in three hours .ran "the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them . The road runs along the flat water-shed of the country. or Bireh. they turned back again to Jerusalem. and the architecture exhibits a curious transition from the Norman to the Early Pointed. and fell. David and Jonathan. Followed by the shouting and invincible Israelites. "And it came to pass. with a great shout. "And when they found him not. perhaps. with houses built of the fragments of former massive edifices. 44-4fi) . and the Plains of Sharon on the west ." At Beeroth I took a cool draught out of my gum-elastic cup. Let me read from a record more reliable than tradition "Supposing him to have been in the company. Though merely an Arab village. whose property the whole village was . at which. with the rest of their comrades. and the sword hangs heavily in man's hand. John. has the ruins of a once noble church of St . as the natives term it.THE DIVINE CHILD. is quite perfect. from the time-honored fountain. What a discomfiture ! The soldiers of Adonizedec were cut off from returning to Jerusalem. and there were more which died with hailstones than they whom the children of Israel slew with the sword . 291 the most contagious. seeking him . they went a day's journey . yet Beeroth. that after three days they found him in the temple. which opens out near Jericho at Gilgal). as the natives term it. with the north and south walls of enormous thickness. The eastern apsis. the valleys descending from it toward the Jordan on the east. upon the allied kings and their hosts . the parents of Jesus first missed their little boy .) embodies much of the geography of this region . sitting in the midst of the doctors. or rather. in the rock forever . Samuel and Saul. and driven. have stamped their names upon these great stones as with an "iron pen and lead. both hearing them and asking them questions" (Luke ii .

a village upon its summit. the partition walls ornamented with pilasters. and my party follow me . like the great wall around Moriah. I recognize the Orphah. The apses are crowned with beautiful domed roofs. to which Jesus returned after raising Lazarus (John xi . Tristam these facts. and advises. The finish of the architecture is exquisite . And here an altercation arises between my servant Hassan and a native . The material is native limestone. now filthy with all manner of abominations-pleasantly mingle with the incidents . where the Latins have a convent in which strangers are comfortably provided for. returning from their annual visit to Safed and Tiberias to Jerusalem. once. and rich fountains furnished with sculptured drinking troughs. and to Bayteen I shall go . that I go to Ram Allah. I endeavor to unite in one train of thought all the incidents of that adorable life that came between. The side walls are divided into sections by pilasters. and big slippers. with their dirty shirts. and herds of sheep and goats being led to their evening repose. bare legs. I point to the northeast and declare that Bayteen (as the word Bethel is pronounced here) is the place of my destination that night. and the apsis are yet standing. and that the capitals of each pilaster are distinct in their mouldings. On a peaked hill to the right. brown faces. I did n)t explore particularly this relic. but deri`e from Mr. keen eyes. Beeroth and Ephraim. 54). Mr. the capitals of which are well preserved . The walls. and decorated with a rich cornice . who have descended the hill-paths to see if the Howadjee has any backsheesh for them! But this Howadjee has no backsheesh for such as they. How poorly these Fellahin or Arab villagers compare with the Bible picture-these miserable descendants of a noble race. doubtless. the sacristy. about a quarter of an hour to the west. and is well-dressed. with all the gesticulation of a pantomimist. costly and elaborate tombs. A pleasant hour is now spent. To cut short debate. Newman describes it more elaborately as a beautiful ruin. no two being alike . and inclose an area one hundred feet by sixty-three . This being interpreted to me. and as I couple the two places together. and so he turns to the left and leads his party again to the rising ground . white teeth. or Ephraim. and crypts in the hillsides. I start for Bayteen by the only path I can discover trending in that direction.298 PUSHING NORTHWARD. The latter is certain I can find no place for the night's lodging at Bethel. in which crowds of Jews. the latter . reminding him of the ruined abbeys of Southern Scotland .

an occasional glimpse of Neby Samuel on the left. A long day's flight that erring man had! From Beersheba. And so I approach Bethel . and the pleasing uncertainty of where I am to sleep to-night. barley. and the God of Isaac . the angels of God ascending and descending on it. and there endeavor to recall the dream of weary Jacob. of human handiwork . past Bethlehem. was a summer-day's journey of fifty-three miles . "And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth. and to the east. rounded stones has attracted my attention . gathering . came flying down this same pathway-for here pathways are never changed in their locality. and therefore irremovable-flying as for his life." huge limestone blocks. and beans.629 years since the fugitive Jacob. it is now 3. Let me read it "And he dreamed.JACOB AND THE LADDER. that I can see. unbroken range of Moab and Gilead on the east. and behold. because the sun was set . the petted son of Isaac and Rebekah. Between two of these I lie clown. nevertheless. "And he lighted upon a certain place and tarried there all night. 299 of great fields of wheat. If the chronologers are not at fault. and he took of the stones of that place and put them for his pillows. 10. Yet the "heir of the divine promise" accomplished it. let me read the inspired record : "And Jacob went out from Beersheba. and leaving no traces. 11 .some of the smaller stones for my pillow. and to thy seed . I am the Lord God of Abraham thy father. and went toward liaran . the land whereon thou liest. and said. bleached white by the suns and rains of centuries. as miserable as the place is. and to the north. they are landmarks. They were truly "stones of confusion and emptiness. past 'Iiebron. and behold. "And behold. and the top of it reached to heaven . All this is in my mind . and to . and the vast. if " the man of blood " be after him thirsting for his life . the Lord stood above it. and as I ride into this miserable village which represents ancient Bethel. and thou shalt spread abroad to the west. An active Arab can make the distance to-day. where the sight of some extremely large. past Jerusalem. the other one at present being at Jerusalem). and now to Bethel. I walk out to a rugged hill on the north side of the town. with one of the village sheikhs (Bayteen has two."Genesis xxviii. and lay down in that place to sleep . it is a long way over hills like these . a ladder setup on the earth. to thee will I give it. so as soon as arrangements have been made for my accommodation.

upon which he poured his elements of consecration as a Freemason should. In the distant West. and in the morning raised an altar of unhewn stone (I tried to find it). for their substance was great. G . but. and inspected many a heap of stones that had been removed from the track of the plowshare. when. I review the record here : °° The land was not able to bear them (Abraham and Lot). he stood with his nephew. so that they could not dwell together. that strange and eccentric mortal. I pray' thee. and in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed . 12-15 . And Abraham said unto Lot. Let there be no strife. it was the head in Brother Adams that erred rather than the heart. and will help thee. and I am now looking upon the place of that memorable vision afforded to Jacob which has been realized by the union of earth and heaven. 11 . " And there was a strife between the herdsmen of Abraham's cattle and the herdsmen of Lot's cattle. too. to the east. but I cannot forget that here. Beyond me. on his first visit of exploration in the Holy Land. It needs not that I should excuse all the subsequent follies of the President of the American Colony at Jaffa. I am with thee. Here he devoutly passed a watch-night. however. How strange! the seed of Jacob has covered the earth . is the mountain where Abraham pitched his tent and built an altar to the Lord . Perhaps. and will bring thee again into this land . I walked around the high grounds to the eastward of Bethel. to my disappointment. man and angels. and there. J. came. to pay this tribute of admiration to his self-consecration at Bethel . found not a chisel-mark upon any. "And behold. after all the abuse that has been heaped upon him. in all places whither thou goest. many of whom are directly interested in my errand here . in the person of the Son of Man and the Son of God! It is a great contrast with the subject . and not more than a mile or two distant. three years later. and afforded to sacred history that evidence of magnanimity and brotherly kindness which make him the model of Masonic nobility to the present day . that they might dwell together . the south . a number equal to one of the original tribes of Israel is citizenized. Having one hour of daylight. lie stood on the site of Jacob's Bethel. for I will not leave thee until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of:"-Genesis xxviii. Adams (a brother of the Masonic tie). from whence I come. Lot.300 ALTAR OF ADAMS.

301 between me and thee. the walls. Crossing the valley. My portion of the room was. holds out her disengaged hand and solicits backsheesh . At a place where four paths met. a group of villagers were sitting. stops. about twenty by twelve feet. 6-9. for we be brethren. They climbed the stone-heaps. and stepping as easily under their burdens as a Broadway belle does under her microscopic bonnet . The condition of the village that evening was at its worst . and I turned to find my quarters . It is 317 feet by 214 in area. then I will go to the right. The house which had been apportioned to my party consisted of a single apartment. And now it was getting dark. This was no easy matter . festered in filth and garbage . a veritable hag. bearing them upon their heads. and the low cabins reeked with humanity and insects . out of the fragments of some more classical edifice. and its south wall is entire. '° Is not the whole land before thee ? Separate thyself. none of them more than six feet broad. in which beasts were stalled . I . of which the sculptured capitals and cornices occasionally peep out . apparently in council. I pray thee. and threw down their maledictions upon me as I passed . Repulsive in their gauntness and sores. and around a plenteous spring."-Genesis xiii. a shelf -directly over the stable . and visit the remains of a church built. One of these. But. apparently. then I will go to the left. surly and repulsive as their very dogs. The narrow lanes. old and ragged and poor. at the foot of Mount Sion . I am sorry I did not give her some money. in fact. or if thou depart to the right hand. a cellar being excavated under the floor at one end. the very housetops. and while Hassan attended to feeding his three horses. The night was very warm. The women of Bethel are bringing from that fountain their evening supplies of water in great jars. only keeping beyond the sweep of my stick. All the dogs in Bethel clamored to confuse me in my quest. from me „ if thou wilt take the left hand. and between my herdsmen and thy herdsmen. Below these ruins. This is the only instance I can recall in Palestine in which a woman addressed a word to me . these curs of low degree flocked around me.DOGS OF BL11fEL . the Bethelites scarcely answered my greetings. not one of them rising to his feet or expressing the least sign of welcome or interest . are the remains of an enormous cistern that remind me of the Lower Pool of Gihon. I re-enter the dirty Arab village that represents ancient Bethel. There my blankets and traps were placed.

bore no analogy to the one Jacob had ? So far from it. I had discovered before bed-time. I told Hassan to inquire if any of the people had antiques for sale. the truth of history compels me to say. engraved gems. burning in a little niche above my head . and these. he let me know. tortured by the insects. Supper being over.302 NIGHT AT BETHEL. the donkeys of the proprietor munching their grain vigorously in their stalls below . he did not get . consisting of two Americans. viz . : First a cloth of camels' hair was made to cover the entire shelf on which I was to sleep . and English crackers . with a row of curiously-constructed vessels for wheat and barley at my feet . I was impressed with the apprehension that my little party might be made . the oliveoil lamp. when 2 o'clock came. over all these came my three pairs of blankets. Stretching myself on these. and so passing into the open country . consisting of coffee. etc . whatever they were. were tramping through the narrow lanes northward. finally. While eating I could see. that indigestible supper pressing upon my conscience like a mountain. The only thing in the way of edibles furnished by my host was milk to accompany the coffee . a crying child and its mother in the furthest corner . over that was spread a dirty mattress. sardines. and. choked with the stench. I resolved to leave Bethel forthwith . by indisputable tokens. Nothing was produced. which never goes out at night in an Arab hut. with a good quantity of the stone from the old church. is it strange that my dreams. Expressing the wish to retire. which I had been provident enough to bring with me. that. carpet-bags doing service as pillows . that he considered himself underpaid . and prepared my frugal supper. my bed was made up in the following manner. lighted some candles.. which. When I had paid my host the customary five-franc piece at parting. pieces of carving. through the open door. the whole population of Bethel watching my proceedings . and parched with the heat. and by the time I was fairly out of the village. however. suggestive of fleas and other insects . Never was proposition more heartily met . and one handsome petrified star-fish. are all the specimens of old Bethel that I brought away. except a few bronze coins of the Roman period. three Arab servants. that the character of these villagers of Bayteen was particularly bad. and one of the villagers to show me the way. meaning coins. which in the Orient pass under that generic term. and in half an hour my party. through my servant Hassan. The fellow who accompanied me out of town claimed also a backsheesh. funeral lamps.

Stevenson. Hyatt Smith. Wm . 20. exclaiming." and were deep in the glens of Ephraim . 303 the subject of an attack by some of those scamps . Massachu. Pennsylvania . Yet here occurred the incident in the life of Abraham. one hour later. thirteen miles north of Jerusalem. viz. having Bethel on the west and Hai on the east" (Genesis xii . among others. Wheeler. Texas . nor ever slackened rein until the dawn. and awoke. and the Name of God high advanced in its East . And nothing could be more appropriate . 311. Reeves. A. and it cannot be opened until the Favor of God has been supplicated . K . and J. etc. Tennessee . New Hampshire . for a Masonic lodge is so far the House of God as to have the Word of God wide open upon its altar. This showed me the way between the great white rocks where Jacob dreamed of the Invisible. Thomas M . cheered me likewise by the remembrance of many a gracious promise . John Dove. arranging my little cavalcade in the best manner for defence in case of attack. Wood. 194. nor can a man take the first step in it until he has openly declared his faith in God ! So the following lodges. showed me that we had passed Ain-el-Hamareeyeh. setts. and called upon the name of the LORD . I pushed my horse forward.THE SYMBOLICAL DREAM. and builded an altar unto the LORD. This name of Bethel. strewn with minute fragments of rubbish.. are proud to be called Bethel Lodge. Reed. M. 62. which is held memoria in csterna-in perpetual memory. H . Rush Campbell. Tracy Gould. My cut of Bethel conveys an excellent idea of its general appearance. " the fountain of robbers. Oregon ." and locate them at Bethel. 24. already referred to. I write here the names of the ten following " servants of God. Ira Berry. To establish the holy identity still more closely. So.D . signifying the House of God (Beth-El!) is embodied in the nomenclature of American lodges to a very large extent. J. I visited the site of the old town formerly lying on the east of Bethel. Wm. A. viz . B . Rev. 134. where Abram "pitched his tent. No. 8). as if literally ground to powder . As I remarked above. Seeing at Bethel a man fearfully emaciated with a disease hopelessly fastened in his vitals. viewed from the southwest . the words of Job came forcibly to my mind : . S . "How dreadful is this place!" He who had calmed the troubled spirit of the sleeper by the promise of protection. J. Luckily the moon had risen and was about one hour high ." but the place now is barren and dry .. His bone cleaveth to °C .

304 FAT VALLEYS. the whole village seemed gathered before the door. and fig-tree give their welcome shelter in the noonday. My night's stay at Bethel will ever be associated with memo . The cool waters gush from many fountains in the vicinity. Sitting at my meal. The little children pursued me with clamor. of. The vine. to watch me and count the morsels I ate. famous even in the days of Abraham . in the lectures of the Entered Apprentice. The ladder which Jacob in his vision saw at this place. As an emblem. his bone and to his flesh" (gig . The clear sky of Palestine still gives an insight into the starry system that wheels over the hills surrounding Bethel. FROM THE NORTH . a population at the most of an hundred woe-begone. is made use BETHEL. it has a prominent place on all our tracing-boards. and admits of only one interpretation . The finest tracts of pasturage I have seen in this country lie east of Bethel. olive. and begged . such as can be had in no other country I have ever visited . A few mud-huts shelter the people of Bethel. and supply the simple wants of the inhabitants . ascending from earth to heaven. poverty-stricken creatures . but all the works of man lie in ruins . 20) . to inculcate one of the most hopeful lessons that the Masonic system affords .

and while the stars yet hung their matchless lamps from the azure of the Syrian sky. moral and physical degradation. 27) . and made me wish that I had my old tin box this morning. I had left my filthy abode at Bethel. At top whereof. sword. lxviii . They recall the lines of Keble 20 . recalls a vivid description I have seen in some writer. pistols. With firm grasp he held his cocked musket at arm's length horizontally. yellow ranunculus. blue pimpernel. magnificent. and so on in the direction of Cynosure. The stairs were such as whereon Jacob saw Angels ascending and descending ." Meeting an armed courier galloping over the hills to Jerusalem. afford a rich field for the collector. scarlet cloak. he discerns. who was got up. but far more rich. a structure high. My readers will doubtless recall the beautiful references made by Milton to Jacob's ladder at Bethel . instead of being here on horseback. The scarlet anemone. pointed at both ends with steel . although these lengthening days are almost too' much for their delicate organs . at the head of a party bent upon reaching Nablous before night. squalor. cyclamen. 305 ries of filthiness. Up to the wall of heaven. and other gems of God's own setting. appeared The work as of a king by palace gate . 1868 . insects. He wore a red silk gown. he flew over the ground like an eagle hastening to the prey . I should say he is the best red man I ever saw in Canaan ! It is here near Bethel that I first enter the territories of "little Benjamin " (Ps . regardless of expense . and a holiday to fill it.ABOUNDING PASTURAGE. whose well-remembered light pointed my way northward. undimmed by the approach of Phoebus. really. Ascending by degrees. Daylight revealed the most highly-cultivated and abounding valleys I had yet seen in Palestine . and dashing his heavy stirrup-irons into the bleeding sides of his swift Arabian. "Far distant. of one of these men. long red boots and sash. who was riding express from Es-Salt to Jerusalem : "He sat erect and firm as a statue on its pedestal . veronica. I had conducted my little company through the great white rocks north of the village. and wretchedness . spear with handle which seemed more than twenty feet long. pink lychnis." I also met here a sheikh on horseback. The flowers were yet abundant. every muscle and joint screwed tightly down . And now comes the morning of May 15th. his countenance was fixed and steady. red tarboush with silk shawl tied round it.

806 SANCTUARY OF SHILOH. This place for hundreds of years was the central rallying point of all Israel. the older the olive the more abundant and delicious the fruit . with a few broken Corinthian columns. have each their village perched on the highest peak. and dismou4t my company to prepare coffee and breakfast. Good water is not far off. from about B . never restored to Shiloh. As pure. The thorns for firewood are abundant . the ancient Sanctuary of Shiloh . as an English brother (Tristam) informs me. as a better security against invaders . near Gebal. lies. The hill-tops. What more than magic in you lies To fill the heart's fond -view? Relics ye are of Eden's bowers . Very old indeed it must be if it is useless . close to a cool and cheerful spring. the relics of previous gra ndeur . the deep valley begins to open into a plain . About sunrise. 1450 until they were captured by the Philistines. and. He uses a primitive weapon. Here once stood the ancient Lebonah . and accessible from" beyond the Jordan . In the facts of their long holiness and present utter abandonment. I compared the history of Shiloh with that of the Sanctuary of Adonis. probably a mediaeval fortresschurch. It is on the edge of a luxuriant field of barley. although regained. I know. An old Arab is cutting down an old and useless olive. is now in ruins hard by. com- . In the next chapter I will refer to Shiloh more at length. and as fair As. as I can plainly see. just beyond that rude cliff of limestone. An old khan. I find a congenial place to gratify a crying appetite.C . There is one square ruin. as a general thing. It is but a mass of shapeless ruins. for. once marked with highways from every quarter. which I had examined a few weeks before ." Here the Ark with its holy furniture was deposited. as fragrant. there is great analogy. with large hewn stones occasionally marking the site of ancient walls . A melancholy owl cries lamentably upon a rock hard by . and thought of the many generations who celebrated their feasts and fasts here in the spirit of the Sinaitic Code. Passing a mile or two further. scarcely distinguishable from the rugged rocks around them. Sweet nurslings of the vernal skies. that for many generations has sheltered wearied travellers. equidistant from north to south to the tribes. On the right hand. As I looked up these barren hillsides. when ye crowned the sunshine hours Of happy wanderers there. Bathed in soft airs and fed with dew.

flocks and herds. Although the plowing is but child's-play compared tt ours. with his broad. My breakfast is not a gluttonous repast . that I might turn my back upon the Great Luminary. passing down a hill terrifically steep. crackers. What a lovely valley this of Mokhna is ! No wonder Abraham settled here on his first coming to Canaan . from Padan-aram . and they are going south. 307 pounded of hoe and axe . near Nablous. No wonder. sardines. barley. vegetables in variety . They have just been making their annual visits to the sacred cities of Tiberias and Safed. However. of which Joseph's Well. returning my salutations politely. being a mere scratc. they look jaded. I am too much of a traveller to let him stare me in the face. more like has . I am told that they do this every year . No wonder Jacob settled here when he came down with his wives and children. beans. It was to avoid this that 1 sent my horses down from Beyrout to Jerusalem. From the moderation of his strokes. and seeming pleased with my respectful manner of greeting . and if the soldi& ~s and robbers of the country will give him three months to work and wait. where another ruined khan and village attract the eye . Certainly I never saw finer sl cimens of the Allium than that gardener is raising . by draining a number of small trenches and passing the lifegiving fluid from one row of onions to another . Remounting and passing northward. etc. compared with ours. and to the holy places.PROCESSIONS OF JEWS . especially the women and children . single and in companies. and wholesome and delicious. he will be operating at the root of that aged olive more than this day . as I go thus meandering through the heart of the land . but to-day their numbers are greatly increased . he will have enough to supply at least one Arab village with an edible of which above all others these people are fond . Yesterday afternoon I met quite a number of Jews. The Syrian onion is mild-flavored. I enter the broad and fertile valley of Mokhna. and the extremely andante movement of his arms. Indian corn. Although the ground has been cultivated for nearly forty centuries without manure. etc . is one . men-servants and maid-servants. three or four inches deep. The sun is threatening already one of his fiercest days. it yields all the products for which this country was ever famous. Here a native has taken advantage of the abundance of water to irrigate his onionbeds.. and strong coffee make up the bill of fare . They are very civil to me. hot face to stare them in their faces until his going down . wheat.

while the latter has his northern slopes lying in the shade during the most heated period of the day. are abundant. and visit the Well of Jacob and the Tomb of Joseph . No. the place of benedictions. I must not forget to note that Mount Gerizim is adopted in Masonic nomenclature by Gerizim Lodge. in the fact that the southern sun has a full face at the former. is not sustained by anything that I could detect. I could not detect it. This. By noon I turn from this broad and beautiful valley. The popular notion that Ebal is a barren mountain. yet that barley yonder would not discredit the prairies of the West. is on my left. and toward night. and . 54. Louisiana . In the hospitable mansion of Rev . is Nablous . was he thinking of the great scene where all the beatitudes and cursings of the Mosaic dispensation were read aloud in the hearing of the people? What a locality! I read the appropriate passages as I walked slowly along. The earth is red or reddish brown. the place of cursings. although. I find the needed repose. a mile or two in advance. satisfied myself that in this clear atmosphere. while Gerizim is fruitful. Mount Gerizim. square to the left hand. as it may be supposed they most naturally would . fig. who is here in charge of a school of native children. Falshire. Mount Ebal. and I can only escape a threatened attack of fever by hurrying to cover. with the trained voices of men accustomed to the vocation of shepherds. which is pierced with caves and moist with springs . But now my want of sleep and rest the preceding night tell too hard upon me. while yonder town. on my right. the slope of Ebal is more gradual. rowing than plowing. and looking up a narrower vale. pomegranate. and estimating the distance between these parallel ranges. and it therefore bears more olive and fig-trees than the bold cliff of Gerizim. as said before. the olive. Not a tree nor hedge appears in the valley . Certainly. I know that I am passing ancient Sychar. but a little way up the hillsides. Still more readily if the respective spokesmen took their positions lower down. Yet there may be something in it. having had a few hours' sleep and a good dinner. a German missionary. might make a distinction. As we pass down the valley for that purpose. Mr . and very friable. When Jesus chose a hill near the Sea of Galilee for a mount of Beatitudes. scorching his vegetation with the intolerable summer heat. etc . every sentence could have been distinctly heard from one summit to the other . in process of ages. Jacob's Well and Joseph's Tomb. I am able to accept the kind offer of that gentleman..308 JACOB'S WELL.

I do not recollect that there was water in it at the time of my visit . as no other water-source can ever have . and because the Divine Law was promulgated here. M. and. Having suffered the pangs of the Cross. half a mile apart. and was originally cut one hundred feet or more in depth through the limestone . Lamberton. Joseph D . J. as Tristam estimates it. Anthon. I was conducted to a low mound. demands considerable agility in the explorer . Gilbert . Robert A. Bartlett. vaulted chamber point to the old "Well-house . 34) . and join to it the good names of John H . as I do now . Thou didst redeem me . on the spot to which they allude.MOUNTS EBAL AND GERIZIM . W . It would be a rich experience for two of these men to visit here together. surmounted by a broken wall inclosing granite columns. Paige. the blessings and cursings." To climb through this.Tbomas Haywood. to "read all the words of the law. according to all that is written in the book of the law " (Joshua viii . The sun was going down as I visited the Tomb of Joseph. Georgia. Samuel Johnson. and at the southeastern . as a piece of human labor. The upper portion of the casing is composed of stones squared and neatly dressed . W. erect and prostrate . The Well of Jacob. Cobb. It is nine feet in diameter.Amos E . Thou didst sit down (by this well-side). is interesting in itself. standing upon opposite slopes. How would they have impressed him to have read them here. Clinton F. the Arabs having thrown in much stone and earth . irrespective of historical associations . I adopt it among the Masonic localities. that such sacrifice may not be in vain!" It is said the good moralist. a hundred yards or so northwest of the Well. the remains of a square. Oh. At the eastern end of this. No. Sitting by the opening. formed of ruins. is seventy-five feet. Its present depth. 309 Mount Ebal by Mount Ebal Lodge. J. To find this well. D . with a solemnity scarcely inferior to its first delivery on Sinai. I read from the fourth chapter of John the memorable incidents which have given to this Well such a reputation in history. Evans.Bates. 169. down to the opening of the Well. In view of this. Tantus labor non sit casus" Wearied in search of me. never could read those affecting words without tears . George W. Thomson. And here only can the full force of those touching lines be appreciated Querens me sedisti lassus Redemisti crucem passus .

its white-washed walls are covered with pencil-marks. doubtless the names. and Mrs . corner. It is a room about twelve feet square. as the map will show. and forces its way into the open window . this is largely due to the efforts of the missionaries. It was from Mr . here. Falshire that I learned of the recent publication. a few years since. It is easy. The Catholic priests. In many of the larger towns. The route from Nablous to Zarthan. I enjoyed several hours of the conversation of Mr . In this place. have fulminated in this distant land the same tremendous threats against the institution. but was disappointed to find he was absent from the city .310 A MISSIONARY'S WELCOME . My cut gives an excellent view of the two mountains. so to speak. of a tract against Freemasonry . finding that the spread of the order was enlarging the spirit of freedom and inquiry among this people in Syria. to conjecture the contents. Christians were openly stoned and maltreated. and so. both boys and girls. Their success in the Master's service runs chiefly in the direction of education . near Jacob's Well. Falshire. in Arabic. whose pious self-devotion alone keeps them here . Nablous. but they are glad to have their children educated. Mr. or chapel. and . "thrice-cursed of the Pope. Pasha of Nablous. however. as seen from the entrance of the . and hearing of my visit. every generation removes more and more the barriers separating Christians and Mohammedans . whose skill and philanthropy give them deserved eminence among the mercenary quacks who arrogate the title of Hakeems. and Mrs . is well preserved beneath a roof . I secured one of its leaves for my collection : Returned back to my kind missionary. of the visitors. or doctors. Falshire. everywhere the opponents of our system. where. A luxuriant grapevine covers one of the walls. I endeavored to procure a copy of this tract. This is the experience of all the missionaries that I meet . in Hebrew. who had been vouched for to me as a brother Mason . is north- . Ebal (on the fright) and Gerizim (on the left). a much milder spirit now prevails." that we are accustomed to hear and despise in our free lands of the West. and forming one of the sacred shrines of the Jews. The natives do not care much to hear them preach or exhort . I had anticipated a pleasant hour with this distinguished gentleman . there are good physicians connected with the missions. said to hold the bones of Joseph . In the evening I called on Mohammed Said. looking west. containing a tomb three feet high. but in vain. of Mount Ebal .alley. The room.

that such is the case. and basins. probably. why was this place selected ? Forty-five miles. in a direct line. The places are about twenty miles apart . Shiloh . shovels. some may say. Seeing that Succoth is not only at so considerable a distance from Jerusalem. It was always a prob- lem in my mind. it would have been easier. being 3. as every one will testify who has traveled the road from Jerusalem to Jericho. the lavers. and demanding the construction of a road through terrific defiles and along giddy acclivitiesseeing. from the surface of Mount Moriah.500 feet. . for Hiram Abif EBAL AND GERIZIM . why the astute Solomon should have sent the practical-minded Hiram a distance of forty-five miles from the site of the Temple. pots. I say. perpendicular height. but that it stands in an almost inaccessible district.500 feet. a heavy descent of nearly 3. to do the hard and heavy work of casting the molten sea. is equivalent to sixty in a broken country like this . the oxen. so minutely described in 1 Kings vii. must be lifted by manual efforts alone. The best point to leave the Jerusalem road is. up which the Temple furniture and the enormous shafts I . 311 east. and B . and the difference in levels between Succoth and Jerusalem.THE PLACE OF THE FURNACFS .

Such were my queries and imaginings when I began the investigation of this question . and the arenaceous clay necessary for the architectural moulds . the scarcity of wood. furnishing its life-giving fluid. or to cast them at Jerusalem itself. The smooth road made it practicable to transport the ores of copper and tin and the machinery of the furnaces. at his own city of Tyre. traces of foundations and the refuse slag will yet be discovered by diligent explorers). both to the workmen to drink and as a power to drive the great blasts necessary for smelting such enormous amounts of metal as were required here . near Succoth. and foundrymen . therefore easily reached by the laborers . viz . then. of which great quantities were needed. in lifting beams of cedar and fir. Before I concluded them. : " The thistles actually overtop tl e head of a person riding on horseback . and the want of the needed clay. too. the necessity of lifting the finished carvings up those precipitous ranges to Jerusalem . abounded the fuel (wood).. the abode of the wild beasts of the Jordan valley. Hiram naturally chose the former On "the clay-ground in the plain of Jordan" he erected his fur . Here. past Shiloh and Bethel. moulders. etc. For here. The only drawback was the one already named. But this was only of a piece with the labor going on at the same time on the other side of those precipitous ranges. and at so great a distance from Jerusalem. by way of Joppa. furnishing the most exquisite drawings for his own stylus. granite and porphyry. this passage. at the foot of precipitous spurs of the mountains of Judea. grown up as it is with thistles and thorns. and marble columns and other ponderous masses. A friend gives me. These he often visited in person. owing to the scarcity of water. which must necessarily have been made through the gorges of these stupendous hills.312 CLAY-GROUND IN PLAIN OF JORDAN. and correcting their work as it progressed . the explanation was clear . than to open foundries in this desolate plain between Succoth and Zarthan. On the other hand. is an abounding water-course (the Jordan). Even the paved way. Between the various plans. and established a colony of skilled draughtsmen. and transport thcui to Jerusalem. This place was accessible by a level country to the city of Achor (Acre). from hi a private journal. He supplied the mechanical skill for forwarding the mighty shafts up the ranges. up the heights between Joppa and Jerusalem . naces (of which. to have established the foundries immediately at Jerusalem was practically an impossibility. was engineered under his practised eye . to cast the pillars. doubtless. to Jerusalem . which was only twenty-five miles by sea from Tyre .

One of the worst blunders in the Blue Lodge rituals of Massachusetts is connected with this vicinity (Succoth). The river was running close under it." There never were quarries at Zeredathah . but from the different passages in the Bible where the word occurs.. The district is rich and well watered. From this the founders of Hiram must often have refreshed themselves . Robinson. Another blunder of some manual-maker is to represent sleeping Jacob at Bethel. it may be located not far above Succoth. He observed no very marked features. The clay-ground was. is applied to the district as well as to a small tell (hill). Mount Hermon is visible from Seikoot. Near the foot of a low bluff. The region below is full of grass. considering the difficulty of removing heavy ashlars thence to Jerusalem. The River Jordan being unfordable at the time. in Biblical Researches. in charge at that time of the researches of the London Palestine Fund. with bushes of the Spina Christi. and a few long shots across the stream. in which only some four or five men had been killed. The water of the river was not in sight. 1866. such as would answer to the expression. near the old city of Bethshean . about a mile distant from us . there breaks out a beautiful fountain of pure and sparkling water. in the allusion to "the quarries of Zeredathah . and if there had been. then at war with the Adwars . three thousand years ago. it was the last place in Palestine to open them. in a letter of March 17. the fighting was confined to an exchange of Arab abuse. No such place as Zarthan or Zeredathah can now be recognized . east of the village. wild oats. . but we afterwards saw it from a point a little further north . describes a visit to SSukkoot. because of the bushes and trees. apparently nearly a hundred and fifty or two hundred feet high . a few foundations of unhewn stones . The eastern bank of the lower Jordan valley opposite to us was precipitous. reposing by a water-course. This incident illustrates the story of the tremendous slaughter which occurred here. 4hereas Bethel . under the shade of a thicket of fig-trees. in the Book of Psalms . When he visited Succoth. of course. and so are Little Hermon and Mount Tabor . The name." Dr. and thistles. valley of Succoth. he thinks. situated between the two . under Jephthah. it was occupied by over two hundred tents of the Sukhr Bedouins. describes the village of Seikoot thus : " Here is seen merely the ruin of a common village. 31E through the valley by Seikoot .VILLAGE OF SUCCOTH. on which are some inconsiderable ruins ." Captain Wilson.

and master-builders shall lay the foundations for furnaces. on yonder hill. He resided at Mizpah. the nearest water-course . The Ephraimites. Let me go over . and it was so. then said they unto him : Say now Shibboleth ! and he said Sibboleth. and marked thus It was probably not far from 1 ° the clay-ground" that the celebrated "passages " (or fords) of Jordan were situated . Dr. If. and Jordan again be made to drive the blasts of furnaces. and there fell at that time of the Ephraimites forty and two thousand" (Judges xii. for after all. Let us examine the Biblical account of Jephthah in this connection. on either side of the Jordan. as he did the Ammonites before them. 5. he would be tempted to destroy the entire Ishmaelitish'population . and drove them back in disgrace . who can pronounce the word shibboleth in any other manner than as the Ephraimites did .Jephthah were to take his stand by this ford to-day. and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtletree" (Isaiah Iv . It is a curious commentary -upon these paragraphs. When Palestine founders shall come hither again to look for the best earth for mouldings. " the children of Ammon. that when those Ephraimites. therefore. and twenty from the River Jordan. had conceived a bitter STONE MARKS." and had crossed the river to put him to death. " instead of the thorn shall come up the fir-tree. dressed to a face. I derive the following fact . as in the days of Hiram . 1848).who occupied the territory immediately west. which were escaped. Then they took him and slew him at the passages of Jordan . east of the Jordan . At the close of the fifth day after leaving the Sea of Galilee (April 14. said. that the men of Gilead said unto him : Art thou an Ephraimite ? If he said Nay . A . then. From Lynch's exploration (1848).314 MARK MASTER'S MARK . he says the surface of the hill behind him was thickly covered with boulders of quartz and conglomerate . "And the Gileadites took the passages of Jordan before the Ephraimites . 13) . and one large stone. is thirty miles in a direct course from the sea. jealousy against him for his great success over the common enemy. Jephthah defeated them. the ghost of old. that there is not an Arab now living upon those hills. traffic is king . 6) . Anderson found the remains of walls at the summit. for he could not frame to pronounce it right .

then. is rich in historical and topographical details. maintaining a constant strife with the Ammonites. the name so intimately associated with this fearful slaughter of "forty and two thousand Ephraimites . and summoning all the people of Gilead and Manasseh. to Nod. the Water-ford." The account given in the Dictionary of Freemasonry is so succinct and yet clear. and overthrew them with immense loss. should have a map of Palestine before him. gathering around him a company of lawless men. In the first place. Among the Judges of Israel. dwadys) are . the traditional enemies of his people. bodily strength. he advanced against the Ammonites with irresistible resolution. a place on the frontiers. and the tribe of Ephraim in relation to its central city. He should observe. the land of his birth. . with some repetition. There. To do the amplest justice to the subject. At a serious invasion of the country by the Ammonites. To this he consented . also. and lead them against the threatening foe . and deep piety. east of Gilead . he became known as a mighty man of valor. a little more in detail. Jephthah flourished about B. and familiarize himself especially with the situation of Mizpah. were necessarily made along those valleys. let us see who and what was Jephthah.JEPHTHAH'S HISTORY . because they resided east of the Jordan. Jephthah was called upon by the popular voice to be their captain. as highways from the hills where the towns were. He retook twenty cities from their hands. in the interior of the country. I give this incident. gathered a great accumulation of spoils. In his youth.C . as associated with those important emblems. because all military movements to and from the Joran. the reader. 1183-1187 . which took the only direction that a THE FORDS OF THE JORDAN. those tribes that particularly acknowledged his authority. he had been driven by his half-brothers from Gilead. He brought his own tried band . and acquiring fame and wealth thereby . and still are situated. the Ear of Corn. and the word Shibboleth. 315 From an essay upon this subject that I wrote for one of our Masonic journals. and inflicted upon them such a defeat that several generations passed away before the Ammonites could again make head against Israel. that it might be transferred here with a little compression . both on the east and west sides. This was the first act in the Biblical drama of Jephthah's life. the fords of the Jordan nearest to that place. and provel him a man possessing force of mind for great undertakings. The whole story of the destruction of the Ephraimites. where the principal valleys Shechem.

in a similar country. the Jordan is about eighty feet wide. to the tactics of flanking. At either place. man in his age and with his training could conceive . in his mountain style of warfare. the same description will apply . Short time had he to mourn . only intent upon enjoying a draught from the cool stream. by ways well known to him. so far as we can understand the record. challenging his right to go to war without their co-operation. But this was far from Jephthah's intention . and opposite Mizpah . the fords thirty miles higher up are those referred to. as some think. Accustomed. though it left him childless and broken-hearted . west of the river. not a man. At these fords. by returning in peace from the children of Ammon. 3. each fought bravely. from the one near . Then occurred one of the most horrible scenes of slaughter recorded in the annals of civil warfare . and with them was the victory. around the flanks of the Ephraimites. which make it difficult even to approach the margin of the stream . he sent his reserves. the water is not more than three or four feet deep. as General Sherman practised it. having been spared ! The exact locality of these fords (or "passages. crossed the Jordan at its "passages. at a number of fords. threatened "to burn his house upon him with fire. casting away sword and buckler in their panic . thorn-bushes." The bold mountaineer accepted the challenge. "vowing avow unto the Lord . in summer-time. and possessed himself of all the crossing-places ("passages ") before his enemy could reach them . at Stages of low water. the bottom being composed of a hard limestone rock . but most likely they were those nearly due east of Seikoot. Each party was embittered to desperation . The powerful tribe of Ephraim. willows. he submitted like a brave man to the penalty. and other low vegetation of the shrubby and thorny sorts." and advancing up the defiles towards Mizpah. If." Having accomplished his earnest desire. The Arabs cross -the river at the present day. The defeated Ephraimites hurried down the valleys to the river in a total rout. and placing it as a defence in their rear . cane. its banks encumbered by a dense growth of tamarisks.000 years afterwards. But the Gileadites were in a country with which they were familiar. Forty-two thousand men were deliberately put to death by the Gileaditeg. and a terrible conflict ensued between those alienated sons of Jacob . for he began his labors for Israel by a solemn dedication.316 THE UNFRATERNAL STRIFE ." as the Bible terms them) cannot now be designated.

the reason for adopting this being that it meant food. Jephthah certainly would not have selected it . and strongly illustrates the variety of dialects which had already risen in Israel . and that the test of the Ephraimite was to point to that and ask him what it was. of course. they sought to distinguish the foe through their known inability to utter the aspirated sound sh . The reply. primarily implies a flood or stream . Almost every portion of this celebrated river of antiquity. so intimately associated with the fords of the Jordan . however. as I passed along towards Shechem (Nablous) . we accompany the Father of the Faithful in his chivai- . The fugitives. there is not on either side of the Jordan a person who pronounces the word as Jephthah did! All would say Sibboleth. The word Sibboleth also means an ear of corn. It was a curious subject of reflection that occurred to me.SHIBBOLETH : SIBBOLETH . Any other word commencing with sh. six miles above the Dead Sea . If what is here mentioned as the characteristic would not have been sufficiently discriminating as a test. not far from these fords. is associated with some one or more of the Masonic legends . wherefore they were slain without mercy. In the Order of High-Priests. led to the tribal detection. and (symbolically) plenty . It was. having established themselves in the rear of the enemy. that among all the tribes of the natives who inhabit the country now. commencing at Sodom. on the southern verge of the Jordan valley.. gave the unaspirated sound s. If the different tribes had in reality acquired such differences in dialect in only three hundred years from the days of Moses and Joshua. instead of sh. it illustrates what the traveller will see every day in that country. and one tradition has it that an object of that sort was suspended from a branch near the river. A word here in relation to Shibboleth. down to the Pilgrims' Ford. we have a narration which connects the head of the stream with its mouth . in Hebrew. and security all in one. the Jordan. or rather Sibboleen. would have served the same purpose. just as they say Bayteen instead of Bethel. This word. naturally suggested to the followers of Jephthah. when. The certainty which the Gileadites felt that the Ephraimites could not give that sound correctly is very remarkable. 31"7 the point where the Jordan leaves the Sea of Galilee. drink. and Seiloon instead of Shiloh . viz . by a pleasing coincidence. that the Jews now speak as many languages as there are countries in which they are spread abroad . hence. those three things for which the panting fugitives were striving at the close of that awful battle-day . In its rituals.

it needs but a stanza to prove " Sweet fields. As I rode down from Jerusalem to the Jordan. So." The whole passage is equally affecting . The baptism of Jesus occurred there . They then addressed themselves to the water. The degree of Fellow-Craft leads us to `° the clay-ground between Succoth and Zarthan . nor death's dark flood. therefore. At the sight. beyond the swelling flood. therefore. Some of his most striking miracles were performed near by its banks . And view the landscape o'er. one of the earliest emblems in the Entered Apprentice's degree suggests the crossing of the Jordan by Joshua and his host. according to the theory of Dr . hard by the fountain-head of the stream . the pilgrims were much stunned. that in all Christian systems the Jordan plays a prominent part. Some . Should fright us from the shore!" I cannot resist the temptation to give place here to John Bunyan. In his mission of mercy and divine favor he frequently crossed this river . Stand." also to the fords. You must go through or you cannot come at the gate . old Canaan stood. It would be impossible. and then I will conclude. but the men that went with them said. The river was very deep . but there was no bridge to go over . that separates our barren and desolate Moab from the fruitful and cheerful Canaan which we seek . one hot morning in May. It is useless to add. meaning the Place of Watering. Was ever symbol so clothed with verity? "Now I further saw that betwixt them and the gate was a river. While Jordan rolled between!" Or this one more verse. and thus the whole river is comprised within Masonic geography . dressed in living green . How gloriously good old Isaac Watts of our youth has done this. of this river. to the Jews. to separate this remarkable stream from our ideas of Christ.318 THE RIVER JORDAN. Subsequent degrees refer to other portions of the streams. In fact. roux essay to the town of Dan. even though the hymnologists of the Christian system had not so often used it as their most fitting emblem of the Stream of Death. at which the slaughter of the cruel and presumptuous Ephraimites was accomplished . Oliver. from another author '~ Could we but stand where Moses stood. He replied Esh-Shereeyah. near the mouth of the river . I asked my servant by what name the stream is known to the natives. Not Jordan's stream. 1868.

Goodall. .. Philip C . H.. Sylvester Stevens. And for the locality of the a passages. Raymond. Jr . I write upon the place of the foundries ten Masonic names. Massachusetts . M. New York . No . Sanford. J ." or fords of the Ephraimites. Bradford Prince. Tucker. Clapp. Greene. Olney. E . L . B . etc. viz . B. Alfred Creigh. William R . 386. PTOLEMY PHILADELPHUS : ARSINOE-BERENICB . Cannon. Charles D . G. Henry R .. P . New York. Cooley.MASONIC NOMENCLATURE. 184. No. The place of the clay-ground is marked in Masonic nomenclature by Zeredathah Lodge. 319 of the Arabs add the word Great (El-Kebir) to that. Georgia . B . Charles Eginton. No . Charles Griswold. England. To establish the identity even more closely. North Carolina . G . Preble. John Thompson. Reeves E . 83.D . No. etc. viz . Robert Morris. 47. The name of the river is given in Jordan Lodge. to denote its relative importance in the scale of streams . I give the ten following. 237.. William C. A . No. 483. Hamilton. J. S . George H. No. Bradwell. Selmes.

JURISDICTION . . for instance. HILOH is a place memorable on the rolls of American lodges. Bayteen . and all the details organized . Shunem. was so curious that I devote a chapter to the subject. OR. about B ." Shiloh assumes a prominent place . It was at Shiloh that Eli died and Samuel prophesied through his whole life . Seikoot Tiberias. Tsur. Usdom . or David. Succoth. for here. The principal change in the words is that of pronunciation only. Solan . is the fact that here the subject of jurisdiction. Nazareth. Here. or Jacob . etc. The names of places in the Holy Land have been wonderfully preserved. Bethlehem. No . Tyre. Reha . some of them for four thousand years . Sidon. 131. No. pointing to a place and asking its name. and not at Jerusalem. and others. Thus. as witness. I was often startled when. its laws laid down. with the High-Priest at their head . 1550. But that which most practically unites Shiloh with the Masonic history. No 202.C . Batelame . was the Tabernacle set up. Shiloh Lodge. and the Ark of the Covenant placed. THE DIVISION OF THE TRIBES. and not at Jerusalem. they call Bethel. which is no greater than may be noticed when a foreigner endeavors to pronounce the name of a place in a strange country . its construction and various 11 resting-places. 105. in fact. was. Jericho. and here. In that portion of Masonic history which relates to the Ark of Moses. Tiberceyah . and the Sacred Garments preserved . Tennessee . Alabama. was established the Colony of Priests. my guide would answer in the same word that Paul might have used. which plays so important a part in the American system of jurisprudence. for several centuries. Joppa. Saida . Jaffa . Seiloon . was established. The manner of doing this.CHAPTER XX. and dividing out the land of Canaan among the tribes. Louisiana . Nazaret Shiloh. the centre of the Jewish worship . Sodom.

barely supporting a few flocks that lie down. M y cut gives a positive idea of its present appearance. 321 On the other hand. if but in fancy. let us recall what people. and afterwards conquered it at the edge of the sword . the grand and famous lottery of the early ages. But this once great and armed city is now but a dry pasture. there are many names pronounced exactly as we have them in our English Bible.THE DRAWING OF THE i. and witness the great land-distribution. While camping upon those bleak hills. such as Carmel. they divided it.ur. Hebron. 21 . inquire for And now. Nain. Viewing this transaction by modern light. Seiloon. you must THE RUINS OF ANCIENT GERASA . and none to make them afraid. To look for Shiloh. let us together visit Shiloh. when God had presented the land to his befell the people of Jehovah on that day when they put to the lot the important question of a division of the land among the twelve tribes . then. Gaza. and the like . it seems almost blaspha . Kana. where. .

were put into an urn. SHILOH. the lot decided priority in attack. It was used by them as an appeal to God. the wisest of the heathen considered it. or gold. mous .. as here. Among the Jews. free from passion and selfishness . etc . when they cast lots to fill the vacancy made by the terebinth-tree and the cord . In the combat. The appointment of magistrates and jurymen was settled in the same way. but the Rabbinical writings profess to describe it thus : Two inscribed tablets of boxwood. as now among duelists. So. position. which was shaken. The very word used for lot (sors) implies an oracular response . too.. etc . and the lots drawn out The affecting account of . Not so the happy apostles on their return from Olivet and the Ascension. The use of lots among the Hebrews was general . Also the division of conquered land. the method of casting lots is not given in the Scriptures . But not so did the chosen of the Almighty view it .322 MANNER OF THE DRAWING . IN THE TIME OF SAMUEL.

no country in the world would have presented fewer obscurities in topographical details . collection of huts deserves the name of village . much like Jerusalem itself. and here it was set up.19 locates it. and close by here is a ruined edifice. and. it probably looks much as it did when the hosts of Israel first clambered up these steep wadys (valleys). If the sacred geographer had located all Hebrew towns with the same precision. A noble oak overshadows a Mohammedan church." All three of those places are now perfectly identified. and awaited the decision of Jehovah as to their future allotments . here to this little hill the Tabernacle was brought from Gil . The Tabernacle once occupied the crown of this modest eminence . and on the south of Lebonah. if indeed. Upon the surrounding eminennes. and there. Here it is. doubtless. its elaborate furniture in place. when the great contest at thu waters of Merom had placed all Canaan in the possession of the con • queror. either a church that has served as a fort. is the modern village. or a fort that has served as a church-it is difficult to say which . where there is a narrow valley . by other small hills. It stands just where the writer in Judges xxi. to-day. surrounded. Reuben had received his share already . Sitting under this fine oak. is a copious fountain. near Jericho. Rude and ruinous as it now is. the various tribes pitched their tents. Shiloh . whose waters are collected into a large reservoir. on the east side of the highway that goeth up from Bethel to Shechem. In the long pilgrimage through the desert his place had been on the south side of the Tabernacle. eastward. A small hill rises from an uneven plain. watering flocks and herds . The hills overhanging the fountain are pierced with sepulchres. so small a. let us examine and sketch the place itself. which traditioia has attributed to Eli and his priestly sons . exactly as we should expect after reading the book of Judges . 823 the discovery of Achan will occur to the reader. let us spread out our map of Palestine upon this carved fragment of marble. as given in Joshua. And now for our Famous Lottery at Shiloh.96 THE GRAND SCENE. gal. except on the south. seventh chapter. and contemplate the strange event . too. its curtains drawn around . had been set up in the :noun . and took possession of it in the strength of God . the Deer. When the land was subjugated. His tribal standard. About a mile from this. once a portion of a Corinthian capital. consequently. "on the north side of Bethel. about six miles northeast of Bethel. First.

tains of Moab. in a book. the aged Caleb made himself useful in counselling these " prospectors " in their forty days' work . and described it by cities into seven parts." Gad had likewise chosen his own possession east of the river. also. even in those mountains. the general imparted to these surveyors his own recollections of forty-five years previous." Doubtless. as the great caravan passed through. while the numbers one to seven. and described it by cities into seven parts. . as the Lord commanded by the hand of Moses . And" the men went and passed through the land. Probably the names of these seven tribes were inscribed upon tessera and placed in an urn .S24 SURVEYING THE TERRITORY ." These parts were for Benjamin. were placed in another urn . Their coast was from Aroer that is on the bank of the River Arnon . when he. " three for each tribe. and together they had settled in the rich pasturage of the Mishor. and Dan . Marching with Ephraim and Benjamin in the west of the great procession. too. where " the whole congregation of the children of Israel had assembled together. in a book. too. Simeon. to the hosts at Shiloh ." Joshua first sent out a practical committee of surveyors. In the great wilderness-march he had gone side by side with Reuben. as one of the committee of twelve. Issachar. and here in this long. Zebulun. ." And" the men went and passed through the land. spiral range of mountains. Asher. Seven of the tribes were yet to receive an inheritance . loh . we see the prizes for which the Great Lottery was opened at Shiloh : "By lot was their inheritance. From this place. with Manasseh . Then Joshua himself. he had become fascinated with conquest. Judah. extending from Dan to Beersheba. and "because he was a man of war " he concluded to retain the " sixty great cities " east of the Sea of Galilee. So. inscribed in the same manner." In the fifteenth to the seventeenth chapters of Joshua the momentous work is recorded ." with the charge. Shiloh." So. Naphtali. narrow. had been awarded a possession west of the Dead Sea. and when the moment for entering the Promised Land arrived. This was done . " Go and walk through the land and describe it. was sent by Moses " to spy out the land of Canaan . to the hosts at Shi . captured by his sons . and came again to Joshua. . this tribe had asked that possession should be given to it. and where they had sojourned . " The border of the children of Reuben was Jordan . and came again to Joshua. and Ephraim in the central parts of Canaan. as the immediate representa- . and come again to me that I may here cast lots for you before the Lord in Shiloh .

in the sight of all Israel. 261 years before . incense. 1.500 years afterwards." "The wilderness of Beth-horon. the son of Reuben. the whole business seems plain . and "Elishama the son of Ammihud.. that lies immediately north of Judah. These two tribes. having already secured their portions. was compensated by the excellence of the land. and Beth-horon. turned to the second urn and drew forth the name of-Benjamin. "Jordan was the border of it on the east side. one of these bands may have been gazing with despairing hearts upon their great enemy. were less interested . hidden in caves and among the thick oak forests." "The stone of Bohan." Thus Benja . as Josephus affirmed. the son of Chislon. however. To whom is this lot? Silently the majestic warrior who had lifted up his spear over Ai. drew them out one by one. To Elidad. The well of waters of Nephtoah. engaged in the very act of confiscating houses. and graveyards . It. It is easy to conceive that high religious solemnities accompanied the act-prayers. The chiefs of the nine tribes. and called the names. lay with bleaching bones upon the hillsides and plains of the land which they had seized when Jacob and his family followed Joseph into Egypt. Small detachments of their armies. "The well En-Rogel. 325 Live of the nation. Its situation was highly favorable . thirty miles eastward. still wandered in deserts and inaccessible places . a few of the stronger fortresses." who was over the host of Ephraim . As we sit here earnestly poring over the map (Rawson's is the best for our purpose). cities. we know. stood near. It is very probable that upon the mountain-sides. were marks along its boundaries. detachments. the matter was in trusted ." was one of the landmarks on the line of it next to Judah . Bethel. comes forth t1 e first lot. named to Moses by the Lord Jehovah himself as one of those who should " divide the land. at Gibeon. fields. Possibly from yonder eminence of Rimmon. and again. as guardians of the personal interests of their respective divisions. twelve miles in the southeast. Baal . a parallelogram of twelve by twenty six miles." who was over the host of Judah. witnessed the scene that day. The smallness of the territory. And now. for he was the chosen one of Benjamin. were still held by them ." and other noted places. is that small but beautiful tract. and embracing Jerusalem. plains. and cursed the hosts of Jehovah in the name of their God.DRAWING THE LOT OF BENJAMIN. The six heathen nations. sacrifices . with their thirty-one kings. all but " Nahshon the son of Aminadab. amidst the blast of trumpets.

a Ship. To his representative. and Nazareth within its limits . yonder conic hill. Megiddo. and the mountainous country inclosing it. and contained some of the richest soil in Palestine . There his tribal standard. the son of Parnach. It is the extreme north of ancient Canaan. Endor. son of Ammihud. called "the seed-plot of God. with a soil. all that line of summits to the south formed a portion of the first lot. on the Mediterranean shore. the second lot was given. It embraced Tabor. was established in Canaan. with their villages. As we sit here. Now. It embraced the fertile plain of Esdraelon. which fell to Benjamin . It fell to Issachar . the S2vord. It was the last place inhabited by Israel. The sixth lot fell to Naphtali. this region was to become the most famous in Jewish history. It lay northwest of Zebulun and Issachar. and then Joshua prepared for the next . It was the ancestral seat." together with Beth-shean. Here Abraham lived nearly a century . ETC. next south of Ephraim . and there wage a steady warfare with Philistines. and Jacob . spread around the venerable well of Beersheba . whose place in the wilderness had been on the west of the Tabernacle with Ephraim and Manasseh. The fifth lot fell to Asher. It is a district on the southwest of Judah. Shemuel. and proceeded with the great drawing . . In the desert-pilgrimage he had encamped with Reuben and Gad on the south of the sacred tent . Now his tribal standard. During the journey from Egypt to Canaan. It fell to Zebulun . stretching from Mount Carmel on the west. This is what was afterwards known as the far-famed Land of Galilee. Here Isaac was born. was set up . far separated from them. Next to Jerusalem. was his. including the splendid valley of Ccelesyria.926 SIMEON : ZEBULUN : ISSACHAE. at the very apex of the country. the home of Jesus. rich and productive. in the extreme southwest of Canaan. Tiberias. was to be fixed in the far north . Cana. the blast of trumpets announces the bringing forth of the second lot. Amalekites. Yonder eminence of Mizpah was his . The third lot . to the Sea of Galilee on the east . The fourth lot comprised the territory immediately south of the last. min. he was to set up his tribal banner. before going down to Egypt. Rimmon. To whom is this lot? Simeon. as Josephus wrote. Joshua gave the matter into the hands of Elizaphan. And lo. he had camped with Judah and Issachar on the east of the Tabernacle . containing at the time about twenty cities. and all the uneasy sons of the desert. the Wolf. and many others .

suggested the jurisdiction of the several tribes. No roses grow on thorns. are attributed to them . Theft. just as the lines of circumvallation established by the Grand Lodge. and these people have none of the best reputation . each with a right band extended. and walked the eternal hills '~ Look up. 327 The seventh lot fell to Dan . my soul . it was one of the most fertile allotments found in the urn. suggest the jurisdiction. nor honey wears a sting :' -Advance Herald. That Canaan knows no noxious thing. * * * * But the shades of evening are falling. but feeling that "more are they who are fir us than against us. It was the smallest of the twelve. Those heavens are fairer than they seem . No member of a tribe could hold land outside of his own jurisdiction. No grief disturbs the stream . here upon the very spot." we will recall lines written by one who many a year since attained to the heavenly Canaan. and the lines upon our map have become indistinct. And as we lie down to rest. but possessed eminent natural advantages . allot the territory. and Benjamin on the east. not so much in token of unity. No cursed soil. where the tribal banners served for rallying points to the children of Jacob.TRIBAL JURISDICTION. in the establishment of a subordinate lodge. Our tents and company are a mile or more east. There not a dreg of guilt defiles . and limit the work of each subordinate. or marry a wife except of his own tribe. happy at the privilege we have enjoyed of contemplating. the Great Lottery at Shiloh . surrounded by this wild population. But the tribal laws were far more rigid than the Masonic. as in urgent demand for backsheesh. So we will fold up our map . we will hasten down the incline eastward. and the rich plain of Sharon for his corn-land. then. as is forcibly shown in the . The boundaries. and taking a last look at the little eminence on which the Tabernacle stood and the surrounding hills. pant toward the eternal hills. wounds. still less of hospitality. even murder. the city of Joppa as a seaport. All the villagers of modern Shiloh are gathered around us. for many centuries. There pleasures all sincere glide on in crystal rills. no tainted spring . or acquire any legal rights except those of a stranger . With Ephraini on the north. Women were restricted in marriage to men of their own tribe.

a most faithful man. Moses had ordained : '° Let them marry to whom they tbi Al best. It appears from the sacred record (Numbers xxvii . therefore. So shall not the inheritance of .) that Zelophehad. approached Moses." in the tribe of Manasseh. After the conquest (Joshua xvii . case of "the daughters of Zelophehad. only to the family of the tribe of their father (Zelonhe- aaa of Manasseh) shall they marry . east of the Jordan . and the record so made up ." described in the lectures of the adoptive degree of that name. Qis five daughters. The request was granted.328 DAUGHTERS OF ZELOPHEHAD. and asked that in the distribution of conquered territory they might have their father's share. 1-6) Joshua "gave them an inheritance among the brethren of their father. In answer to the query concerning the marriage of these women. had died in the wilderness before the great caravan reached Canaan . BANNERS OF THE TRIBES.

) It is a fitting close to this chapter to present at one view the tribal badges worn upon the standards of Israel through the deserts. Tirzah. 975. so did the daughters of Zelophehad . EVERGETES. Neither shall the inheritance remove from one tribe to another tribe . that the children of Israel may enjoy every man the inheritance of his fathers . in the forty years' wanderings. and in the national career for nearly five centuries. and their inheritance remained in the tribe of the family of their father .. the daughters of Zelophehad. for Mahlah. 329 the children of Israel remove from tribe to tribe .BANNERS OF THE TRIBES. in the campaigns that resulted in the conquest of Canaan. PTOTEMY III . shall be wife unto one of the family of the tribe of her father. but every one of the tribes of the children of Israel shall keep himself to his own inheritance. were married unto their father's brothers' sons . And every daughter that possesseth an inheritance in any tribe of the children of Israel. and they were married into the families of the sons of Manasseh the son of Joseph. and Hoglah. Even as the Lord commanded Moses." (Numbers xxxvi.C. or until the division. for every one of the children of Israel shall keep himself to the inheritance of the tribe of his fathers. . and Milcah. B . and Noah.

THE ROUGH ANT) RUGGED WAY TO JERICTIO . .

or eat at the same time. No . I have never seen any two men. He has a good thing of it. together with a guard. There is always a dyspeptic preacher with each half dozen travellers here. Soon the arch of the Ecce Honzo is before me. I left my boarding-house at Jerusalem. I passed the valley of Tyropeeon.. and with two servants and their horses. the Prussian House of St . and every thing gives way to his whims. and began to ascend towards St . On the . Sheikh of Bethphage. At each of these. N Friday. our horses' iron shoes making an unholy rattling upon the stones of the sacred street. or do the same thing generally. Had there been a party of us. Catholic devotees pause and worship . the expense would have been about five francs each . 1868. farms from the Pasha of Jerusalem the privilege of conducting and guarding travellers to the valley of Jordan and the Dead Sea. on the side of which our hotel is situated. observing the various "Sacred Stations. I will sooner travel "on foot and alone" than "to make one" in a party to the Dead Sea . Stephen's Gate. took my way to the Dead Sea This . Going down the Via Doloro<sa. I paid him a Napoleon ($4 .00).M. out of the thousands who annually make this pilgrimage. or stop at the same hours of the day. in such a combination. His prices vary with the purse and in experience of travellers. at 8} A." so called. furnished me for the consideration of twenty francs by the Sheikh of Bethphage. of the most solemn incident that this world affords . but in name only. May 8.CHAPTER XXL JORDAN AND ITS SEA. But I cheerfully admit that my social qualities are not expansive enough to endure a travelling party in the Holy Land . along the way. Mustapha by name. John. who wanted to go the same way. through which Damascus street runs. because I went alone. suggestive. and accumulates much wealth .

Next is the opening to the Governor's palace. left of the arch I see a cluster of the scarlet poppy. in the degree of Royal Arch . for a great part of the way. whose grave-stones show. Now I pass out at St. Out of this building comes every afternoon. Passing across the brook Kedron. in front. On the right from St . Their cheerful laugh and chatter remind me of many a scene in my own country.500 feet long. I know very well that 'twere as much as my life were worth to enter without an order from Nazif Pasha. which supports the Temple area on the east . it sounds well enough . At the further corner. a good deal less drum and a good deal more time would be acceptable to me . is the little inclosure of a half acre. and crowded this Friday morning with Moslem company. vocal with shouts . The immense stones of which the lower strata are composed. But the blasphemy of inclosing that sacred spot in a high. which seems green and inviting in this morning light . and making a man pay a dollar to go in. that a different race await& . growing upon a house-top . or Sacred Inclosure (as the Mohammedans term it).832 OUT AT ST. 1. so far in the West that it is only 1 o'clock in the morning there now. a quarter of a century since. who look shiny. and contented enough in this bright sunshine. suggestive of that humility so forcibly taught me. passing forward. Stephen's Gate is the vast wall. Little children are playing there in great numbers. or great platform of Mount Moriah. the steps lined with red-legged Zouaves. the wild Saracenic music so dear to Oriental ears. women. On my left hand. in language and form. STEPHEN'S GATE . filled with whitewashed monuments. at the nearest. the Mount of Olives rising in its gray and solemn majesty before me . the Governor . I meet a large company of negroes. So. Under the wall. about fifty . on the right the various entrances to the Temple area. show most significantly in this morning sunliglit. But. Here is another cemetery. men. closely wrapped in ghostly-white vestments. In the distance. I rise the first slope of the Mount of Olives. is a cemetery for Moslems. Women. prominent now chiefly for its grove of eight aged olive-trees that peer over the high stone wall surrounding it. over a little bridge. I pass close by the low entrance. this wall is eighty feet high . whitewashed wall. just before sunset. and children. walk leisurely to and fro . destroys its best associations . tempting as the place appears through these open gates. and making the Haram. but suggesting to mine only the Plutonian bray of a cavoyard of donkeys . Stephen's Gate. but at short quarters. Gethsemane.

Scanning the appearance of the guard. that she is the only really industrious woman of her race I have met for a week . stockingless . 333 the resurrection under them . or howl. suggesting better thoughts . by midnight . I shall never return to Jerusalem again . with a hood . as nearly as I can speak it. His mode of locomotion was really peculiar. Judging from the marks he made. which the Arabs ignorantly conceive to be music. The two races. driving a donkey before her. I gave him an orange. My guard bursts forth here in a long.000. xv. I will say for her. If I knew her name I would embalm it here . Beyond the Garden of Gethsemane. his legs bare to the knees. turned up at the toes. his feet enshrouded in large red gaiters. If my life is to rest upon his pluck. when submitting his sorrows to God (2 Sam . tied on with a rope . and it seemed to do him good . 30) . Sixth Regiment. but this poor chap is literally making tracks by lying down and measuring his length in the road! He looks for all the world like a huge measuring-worm. loaded with stone . unfriendly to the last. travelling to Bethany in the fulfilment of a vow . at present rate. in " Company B. I should say he was about five feet eight inches. worse than the Fellow-Crafts Song as I used to hear Brother Y sing it. she herself at the same time carrying a heavy load on her back. wearing a sheep-skin dress. Music ! It is worse than a hand-organ . He has the usual Arab cloak. of a wet night. I passed successively a fanatic. and with naked feet and covered head. monotonous song. is the path up which King David walked. is Hhhmdbh . while the valley of the Kedron stands placidly between. I hope not loaded. and would reach Bethany. and the Equitable Life Assurance may as well get ready to pay my widow that $4. They are Jews . weeping. lie face to face in death. I have heard a great deal of this Arab music." and carries before him a double-barreled shot-gun. however. Great luck to him. His name. always inimical to each other . and knitting a stocking as she walks . This path runs up a series of little terraces abundantly productive in olives and figs . so befuddled with drink as to use both sides of a road at the same time . Many of the stones are of great antiquity . but it is always unpleasant. I find his head covered with a cotton handkerchief. at home. . Home Guards. The next person I encounter is a woman. but were I to speak to her the fellahs around would mob me . is girded with a sword like that which "the corpora of the guard" used to wear.A FANATIC . and a little way on my left hand. I have seen men.

in his Salathiel. eliciting the hypocrisy of Judas. transcendently glorious . it is a wonder that no one describes him as fastening his cruel tormentors on the stoop. past the long files of native women. in the days of its prosperity. often ludicrous stories told here of Jesus. Jesus received the costly offering which a generous woman made him in anointing his body for burial. I give here an accurate view of Bethany in its present degraded state.. his condemning word fell upon the fruitless tree. towers. the eye ranges over the buildings and around the walls of Jerusalem. Going over the path that Jesus so . the Dead Sea. which then to the very root withered away . and each having pendent upon the neck one or more heavy silver coins. two days before his crucifixion. Perhaps Croly had this point in view when. fifty by nine miles in extent. Lucky. of the splendid panorama of the City of the Great King. memorable as the locality where Lazarus was raised to a second mortality by an enlivening voice (John xi . Amongst the absurd.). Pushing on. recall the many instances of stoning to death practised in this vicinity . too. breaks before my eyes. that is Mount Scopas. Bethany. the old man in the fable was not so hasty in their use. tattooed hideously with blue upon the lower lip and chin. over my left shoul der. as they bowed over to pick up stones for their hateful employment! Perhaps there may be some such story.334 BETHANY AND ITS GUEST. Rising to the crest of Olivet. his covetous defence of the poor. The loose stones on this hillside. on the Wednesday of the Passion Week. and here. from this summit. though I never heard of it . he describes the Temple of Herod in words of great power . and the overwhelming rebuke of the Master ." (Vide Noah Webster's old Spelling Book) . and where. I wind through the miserable huts of . however. rattling under my horse's feet. past the beggar as naked as the law allows . I now round the last point. and regal buildings. with their breasts indecently exposed. on his way to the home of Martha and Mary. And now the noble expanse of water. on which I never weary with gazing. It looks from here like a silver sea. I take a survey. about a mile north of Mount Olivet. must have appeared. From Mount Olivet. as leisurely and accurately as though studying a model of the city upon a table Its bulwarks. which I am to-day to visit.often trod. and see the village before me. fifteen miles distant. Here the brightness of his divinity shone forth. There is but one better locality for seeing Jerusalem than this . How those old Jews did believe in « the virtue of stones .

humility without meanness . out at the farther end. dignity without arrogance . On a hill. and affection without weakness . But probably. 33b Bethany." We are now half an hour's ride from Bethany. looking wistfully upon the house and garden in which. elegantly described as "one who displayed courage without rashness . howadj i. running the gauntlet of its entire population. and very convenient fox . BETHANY. who stand oy the roadside crying " backsheesh. perseverance without obstinacy. inclosed in a stone framework designed to collect the water for travellers' use. Lazarus and his sisters lived . It is 1lose by the roadside. Here the road from the northern side of Mount Olivet joins my own . is the town of Bethphage." in this. LOOKING WESTWARD. "tis distance lends enchantment to the view. Upon a sultry day like this the traveller will prefer to pass around this village. at a gushing fountain." and so on .BETIPHAGE . tradition says. where my sheikh lives. as in many other instances . as intimated above . rather than encounter the filth and vermin of Bethany . the way David is said to have come when he fled from before his rebellious son. Down this valley must often have walked the MAN. It looks much prettier and larger than its sister town of Bethany . half a mile on the right.

I wonder if Bahr Loot (the Sea of Lot. It is quite likely . the figures will be found on the next page . and the season is two weeks advanced from what it was on the hills about Jerusalem . and so does the dark leaden mist that hangs over the Dead Sea yonder. dull sickle. so frequent in Egyptian hieroglyphics . As nearly as I can draw them. A flock of goats and sheep follow immediately behind the reapers. I am sure . Men sit on their haunches. The road now rapidly descends. for it was this time of year. After the reaper has cut all within reach. The flies bred in this hot valley begin to distress our poor brutes . while I ride on. In Holy Land travel a man should lean on his coffee-bottle . which I am approaching . for whose death they are anxiously waiting. and I feel relieved when. Here are considerable ruins of what was once a large place . In the distance. two hours further. They cut it with a poor. blows up the valley . upon another a handsome moulding made upon its three sides . and looked over this way with such a longing gaze. my Arab servants drink their fill here. and near it I see a curious . hitches a step forward. the road brings me upon open ground . in spite of that. As my guard informs me that we shall find no more water for several hours.336 LAZY REAPING . Here the natives are gathering their crop of beans (lentils. secure in a quart-bottle full of good coffee stowed away in my wallet. The deep blue haze from the mountains of Moab. the barley is tied up and taken away by the women and children . Upon one of the squared stones I trace an emblem similar to the crux ansata. probably a wounded goat. and squats again . As fast as cut. Bleached land-shells abound . fortunately. and I begin to realize that from Jerusalem to the Dead Sea I have a descent to make of nearly four thousand feet. and glean all. and cutting down their harvest of barley . but. held in the right hand . Half an hour further. a flight of vultures are hovering over some object. The air. as the natives call it) presented this appearance to Moses wheh he stood on that tall peak yonder. wayfarers. Somewhere on my left here must have stood Bahurim. that rise up before me. and Joshua led the people across the Jordan at the place I am to visit before night . that Moses died. the heat already begins to be oppressive . he rises up. the pottage-bean of Jacob and Esau). only four or five weeks earlier. and reach out with the left hand to grasp the barley . no very abundant leavings. connected with various incidents in Holy Writ . suggests a fearfully hot day. about as big as a case-knife. what there is of it. that is left for them .

John the Baptist. Now I approach a Mohammedan mosque connected with a large but deserted khan . composed countenance. I would examine more minutely. A livid color hangs upon the rocks and clays . It is literally a "terrible. A well of water. But everything around me now is as desolation . this consummation of forty years' desire. 337 specimen of curved stratification. upon the difficulty experienced in following the account in Joshua of the boundary lines. calm. The guide says this is Neby Mousa. I am conscious of a gloomy superstition oppressing my soul. the tomb of Moses. In such scenes as these dwelt the stern. high-minded teacher. Now there passes me a sheikh.AWFUL BARRENNESS." In four hours' ride from Jerusalem I catch a glimpse . It is useless to endeavor to portray my feelings at STONE \I :1 RK ::~. had I the time to spare. I know he looks just as Abraham did when he was here . the contorted strata and general want of geological and topographical order that pervades the twelve miles of country I was passing over. perhaps. Up to this moment I had always felt that to gaze upon the Dead Sea must be the highest privilege of a traveller . and enter . grave and patriarchal in appearance. The barrenness of the hills approaching the sea is awful beyond description . The scanty vegetation seems as stiff and dead as coral. A long descent to a valley gives some variety to the scene. and shuts the horrible vision from my eyes . and long white beard . which. The confused character of these hills. not an insect is visible near the surface of the earth . as if warning me to proceed no further. throws some light. which ran somewhere here between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin . and already can almost behold phantoms in the air . invites me to alight from my horse . uninhabited wilderness . and here was the place of the temptation of Jesus. but warm and sulphurous.of the northwestern bay of (Bahr Loot) the Dead Sea . and that at certain seasons of the year it is much visited by the 22 . with stately figure. The great precipices in the mountains beyond the sea actually seem to frown above me. Not a bird.

reminding us of the scape-goat of the Levitical worship. . upon which are tied innumerable rags of cotton. The structure over the grave (whose grave cannot now be ascertained) is covered with elegant carpeting and painted calico. and a canopy hung over that . I am told. shaped somewhat like a bell." nor. scarred with fissures and gaps. where the old hermits used to dwell in the cliffs of the valleys. "is lie much wronged by being forgotten. that some years men and women in great numbers come to Neby Mousa. in the fulfilment of some vow . not a shrub or blade of grass being visible on the naked sides of the hills. since so mean a building can give no fame to the founder. extending on all sides to the ground . having a live goat in company. which was led into these hills by an appointed servant of the Temple. The well or cistern is about ten feet deep . This canopy is adorned with many long strings of wooden beads hung around it. chased in Saracenic ornamentation. natives foi purposes of worship . and in the rocks. and contains many stables for brutes. inclosing a star . and apartments for men . all the way from Damascus and other places. are seen. two . to worship . An old traveller says "the name of its founder is unknown . 6) . which they were about to sacrifice. The surroundings of Neby Mousa are extremely desolate . as an author remarks. Within I can see a tomb covered with a ragged cloth. and here turned loose to the jackal and wolf of the wilderness . among the bushes (Jon xxx .338 NEBY MOUSA . in the curves of the earth. The windows of the mosque are strongly protected by iron bars. by a chain ingeniously hung in front. Inside of the inclosing wall of the whole. once richly embroidered with Arabic inscriptions worked in silver. placed about two feet from the ground . and woolen. The door is covered. on Mount Hor. the tokens of Moslem devotion. the Moslems disavow. but this. at intervals of ten feet. The dome of the mosque is surmounted by the usual crescent. large stone rings for fastening horses. The khan or tavern is very large. An elegant silver dish. like one that I saw in Gebal a few weeks since. stands on the window ledge. silk." The Greek Christians affirm that this building was simply erected by a Christian saint named Moses . not barricaded." Another one describes a procession he met on the way to this place. of course. If I could only look south from this scene of barrenness and desolation to the little white dome that covers Neby Haroun (the tomb of Aaron). One writer informs us : "This tomb is held in great veneration by all native Mohammedans . in Jerusalem.

and read the appropriate passages . from the mouth of every visitor . pushing last year's stubble over the plain . It is now high noon. then descending by a long and unpleasant way to the "plains of Jordan . another hour brings me to the cane-brakes that skirt the sea . and it devoured the briers and thorns. of which I preserved a few specimens in my vest pocket. in the West. all the imagery of Scripture are here . this barren fig-tree . I should attribute this. when set on fire. in the hot and tremulous haze of the Oriental noon . passing through an apparently impassable gorge in whose depths the company of camels looked no larger than the head of the Senior Warden's gavel. the terrible monotony of the scene . burn like pine-shingles. put a brand to such a thicket. the water abounds in a small black shellfish. Sand clouds are flying along the distant reaches of the valley." Passing the cane-brake. at times. from which he and the Arab servants greedily drink.DOWN IN THE VALLEY. but one mouthful suffices me. kindled in the thickets of the forest. Even the sight of the printed paper was lost. this impetuous eagle. I believe. climbing the last range of hills that separate me from the object of my visit . not so much to the allusion in Genesis as to the incessant puffing of cigarettes that goes on here." About a mile below Neby Mousa. It was hard to read. I look across the valley to detect. Brother H. desolate scenery is a fitting accompaniment of the mysterious sea which rolls its waves -)ver the guilty cities . These cane-brakes. Moving forward. At one place I caught sight of the road leading from Mar Saba to Jericho. Before descending lower. the most sultry hour of a fearfully hot day. barren. my guide points out a small pool of water. only a short interval separates me now . If true. 18) . 339 hundred miles distant! But the resting-place of the first High-Priest 3f Israel is too distant for my eve . Strange to say. I again go forward. The proper name is. Flights of pigeons relieve. if it may be. This wild. (Chateaubriand) elegantly testifies to Scripture images thus : "This burning sun. and harder to gaze . the last encampment of Israel ere entering the Promised Land.-all the poetry. at Ain Jidy. In one of these small cane-brakes. in a slight degree. the Abel-shitting. twenty-five miles south of here. Resting at the khan of Neby Mousa. A traveller fancies that the bark of these shrubs has the scent and taste of smoke. Tristam. relania . and mounted up like the lifting up of smoke (Isaiah ix . B. It is mawkish and sulphurous stuff. The same writer. is the best spot for viewing the sea.

almost in a moment. although I seized the shot-gun from my guide and ran towards them. that a man cannot sink in its waters . as I discovered afterwards that the gun was not loaded. I could have floated in this way to the other end of the sea . It served me that . then tested. My head and ears were stiff with the bitter mixture. hot as the day was. This brief run. suggesting thoughts of a duck-supper . and it got into his head. clean sand and pebbles . THE DEAD SEA! How sweetly and placidly it rippled that day at my feet. by the way. and the fatigue of the ride. from the seashore . for I had only to draw my feet under me from the bottom. taking care to keep them perpendicular. I was covered. however. It took. A few drops of the Dead Sea water falling upon my clothes instantly evaporated. I waded into the sea until the water was up to my chin . to take a bath in it. Carefully holding my umbrella over me. One old fellow heard a dismal sound proceed from its waters. like the stifled clamors of the wretched Sodomites engulfed in its waters ! He had probably taken a dose of arrack in this hot place. leaving the salt. The pain is like that produced by getting diluted vitriol under your eyelids. hastened to disencumber myself of clothing. I sat down upon the drifts of petrified wood that line the shore. along its smooth. Inadvertently wetting my head. from which I suffered severely for half an hour afterwards. what has been so often affirmed of this singular sea. I could not resist the temptation. or capable of it. drank my strong coffee. they were too fast for me. in fact. The torrid heat reflected from the sand. several days to bring my eyes to their normal state . conspired to give me a vertigo which was own cousin to a sunstroke . ate h artily of my lunch. However. a favorite experiment with boys . and dangerous as the experiment was. a flock of large and elegant ducks were floating calmly near the water's edge. and in half an hour felt revived . To my astonishment. which kept me licking my chops for an hour . like a graceful merman . Coming out. by an inflorescence of salt and sulphur . under the dreadful sun. how cool its waters to my hands and feet . The only difficulty in the case is to prevent your feet from rising to the surface . I got some water in my eyes. the fact of my having fasted since early breakfast. and scattered off to the further side of the sea.$40 THE DEAD SEA . came near ending my mortal career then and there . It would take pages to collect all the absurd accounts on record concerning this basin of chemicals. it makes the less difference. which remained there until I washed it out a week afterwards . and I floated upright under my umbrella. But.

as Lieut . Nothing but a dog ever had so many hard names as the Dead Sea . Lynch did in 1848. so inhospitable to botanist and bee . Poets have written "The Dead Sea fruits that tempt the eye. so heavy it broke down the camels that "toted" the pieces from Joppa . its barrenness. but feathers would sink! Some have called it the Lake of Asafoetida . and starts occasionally into view to suggest the horrors in its bed . Josephus. for exploration . would have changed his mind had he seen how quickly my thirteen-bladed knife went under. wherever." and many other words to that effect . The queer composition reminds me that it has every ingredient. But instead of getting bright copper-boats. accuracy of detail. I suppose. Its rugged and pathless rocks . a standing pillar of salt. some the Stream of Hell . to get rid of it. In 1322 a traveller declared that iron would float in this water. put together and launched . except. a monument of unbelievers' souls (Wisdom ix . the black fetid limestone which underlies it. Some day a Yankee chemist may become a millionaire out of this waterl . But turn to ashes on the lips. this genius brought an iron one. with his usual gross in . the waste land that smoketh . Nobody could navigate it. for making the celebrated bengal lights. Then the heat in this awful hollow collapsed the sides and made it leak . perhaps. and bolted away with 'em . they may be.BOOTLESS BOATING . and now lies. Finally it was got to the Dead Sea. But the fellow who wrote that metal would not sink here. But I have not told the hundredth part of the stories I heard about the Dead Sea . avers that " no one was ever drowned in the Dead Sea!" Lucky for the great historian. its plants hearing fruits that never come to ripeness . antimony. a few years since. the French Consul gave it to the Turkish Pasha of Jerusalem . The Arabs naturally stole the bolts and loose rigging. 341 way. not far from the ruins of Sodom and Gomorrah. with immense labor and expense. and finally it was sunk at the bottom. So the Frenchman gave it to the French Consul ." " The Dead Sea air. and the Pasha of Jerusalem gave it (profanely) to the devil . 7)-all these have been described time and again in books. And nothing lives that enters there . the native dignity of its scenery . The desolate but magnificent features of the locality have reminded some fervid fancies of the celestial dream embodied in Paradise Lost. this test was not tried on him ! A story is told down here about a Frenchman who brought a ship to the Dead Sea. and how rapidly I snatched it out again .

It takes a hundred times longer to write it than to think it out .97.) Seeing a flock of wild ducks swimming in these waters. This scene of indescribable barrenness and desolation. the Senior Deacon. dose. Some writers have averred with innocence that no bird ever alights in this water! Recalling David's image of hell. fire. 1836. 10) . E . Recalling somebody's account of the groans of demons issuing from the Dead Sea. Standing on the shore. four to eight grains daily . it is associated with chlorine and iodine . as in Genesis xix . In ordinary sea-water and sea-weeds. the Valley of Salt. Josephus says of the bituminous rock that floats from the bottom. 47.342 ACCOUNTS OF THE DEAD SEA. Jesus declared (in Mark vi . Its specific gravity is 2 . I must throw in a page or two solid : The people have traditions of cities whose walls and houses are built of slabs of native salt . Stevens." The ingredient bromide. I. 11 God set this stone on fire by a thunderbolt" (Ant . I looked over the sea and shuddered . a nice shelter for a rainy season! "A land of brimstone and salt. that is not sown. And mournful solitude and death reside . "Where now the Dead Sea rolls its sluggish tide. ` I wish somebody would republish it in this country . nor doth any grass grow thereon . and a horrible storm " (Psalm xi . the tribe around Jericho evidently do not use it for their disease .) . so pleasant and so good to its recipient. nor beareth . when he was here." is the medium of lodge hospitality.. It blackens vegetable colors. as it is here. is finely described in Bonar's work. 6). dissolved in potash. Kentucky. March 31. both internally and externally . much heavier than water. yet here is the chain of thought : Lot was a model of hospitality (see Genesis xix . xi. I will acknowledge that in my own dizziness I seemed to hear deep sighs come from the water . and reading with solemn awe the narrative of the destruction of the guilty cities of the plain. and many other passages. " this is from the Apocrypha . and brimstone. that a man who spends a noontime at Bahr Loot will see . " Raining a burning tempest. of horrid drearinesss and marshy despair. also in some brine springs belonging to rock-salt deposits. makes bromide of potassium and bromate of potash . I recall the fact that the American traveller. fervent heat. in this seething. 11) that the punishment of inhospitality to his apostles should be greater than that inflicted on the Sodomites. like mine) floating quietly on the surface. This exhausts my chemical knowledge. in his admitted duty of "welcoming and accommodating visiting brethren.. They have a saying down here. This bromide of potassium is used medicinally. a strange connection runs through my mind between the office of Senior Deacon in Fortitude Lodge. chiefly in scrofulosis. page 326 . saw a flock of gulls (probably mallard-ducks. D . (Q . and the history of Sodom . But my "literature of the Dead Sea" is so exuberant. No .

by Moore and Beck. and it will smell like a box of Richardson's Detroit matches . for instance. A thought suggested tome when I spread forth my hands in the midst of the Dead Sea. salt mountains. the burning sun and the heated air . the salt of these deposits requires only to be shoveled into sacks and transported to the place of use. to read every Biblical passage I could find in which the sea or its surroundings are named . This may not be the case with all deposits of this character within the State. cover eggs in the hot sand at your feet. boil three ounces of the water dry in a tin cup. the barren. it is not quite equal to Eastern salt . The stinted. who lies buried at Jerusalem. as he that swimmeth spreadeth forth his hands to swim (Isaiah xxv . the terrible convulsions of nature . Previously to that. Costigan. are some of the finest salt springs in the world. and spend several hours in experiments. and great plains. There would be no difficulty in this matter. however. One gallon of water will evaporate three pounds of the best quality of salt . a drop in your left and you will howl . and why should I repeat facts published in a hundred volumes ? A light boat was conveyed across here from Joppa. and not more than one mile from the railroad. build a fire of the dry brambles your servant can gather at the base of the hills. Visitors should come earlier in the day than I did. which would have to be removed by re-evaporation. have all been described by hundreds of travellers . 11) . saltcrusted terrene. and burst at that . In this relation we have an abundance of analogies in the United States . drop a fresh egg in the sea and it will float one-third out . he will make one of himself. For instance. Molyneaux came in 1847. The coldest water in which a person can swim easily is 44° Fahrenheit . which had been broken from the great salt-mountain (Jebel . The deep parts of the great Swedish fresh-water lakes are still salt. and taking a piece of salt in my hand. done. and in thirty minutes they will be roasted. I found it profitable. the numerous aspects of desolation . 343 ghosts! If he doesn't look out. is capable of supplying the world with salt. Within fifty miles of Reno. in 1837. if people would only come here at the right season. to render it marketable for domestic use . where the evaporation of ages has left deposits of salt almost illimitable in extent. All the phenomena that excite so much amazement in the traveller result from the superabundance of salt in the water. It abounds in salt springs. It contains a slight per cent. say December or January. or some refining process. had performed the exploit of navigating the Dead Sea. put a drop of the water in your right eye and you will weep . stunted shrubs . and Lynch in 1848 . of impurity. For mining purposes. Nevada. and the sediment will weigh one ounce . and lay bits of bitumen on it. For table and dairy purposes. hurried as I was.THE WHITE UMBRELLA . salt marshes. owing to the weight of that mineral . while sitting here under my white umbrella. but applies to such of them as have been worked. and the tremendous heat of the sun .

for the Lord will destroy this city. I started for the Jordan.) . and read . I saw when 'the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven . At the Pilgrim's Ford. When. empowering him to select nine other genial spirits like himself. ' Up. and that which grew upon the ground' (Genesis xix . desiring to visit the traditional place of our Saviour's baptism . Now. under the brotherly kindness of his uncle. and overthrew those cities. I recall with fidelity the days when all this region. from the southwest corner of the sea yonder." 11 Shall we Gather at the River?" and others. "I saw the coming of righteous Lot into this circle (ciccar) of the Jordan. for I rode fast.' and productive of all things fit for the use of man . get you out of this place. three hundred and eighteen.344 PRESIDENT BLANCHARD. 25) . I witnessed his return to Sodom. Usdum). even as the garden of the Lord. and are caving in rapidly. his wife tarrying to be transformed into a pillar of salt . saying.' Lot was rescued." President Blanchard. xix." I saw the aged patriarch. " On Jordan's Stormy Banks. and. and captured Lot and his household . though somewhat muddy. by the activity and prowess of Abraham and his ' trained servants. born in his own house. I concluded to dedicate it to that hearty opponent of " all secret societies. I saw when 'there came two angels to Sodom at even . and all the inhabitants of the cities. At the first point of striking the river-banks. they stand about twelve feet above the stream. hasten from Sodom and enter into Zoar. I am made to relate my Story of the Lump of Salt!" As I could not find it in my heart to locate here the names of Freemasons. Finally. I was present when Chedorlaomer invaded these regions from the east. broken from my native mountains. in a great battle. This took me only forty-five minutes. and overthrew the kings of these cities. as it is called. I spent three hours taking a bath to wash the Dead Sea impurities from me . to write this STORY OF THE LUMP OF SALT. with his two daughters. and Lot sat in the gate of Sodom. and the plain. The water was cool and pleasant to the palate. nearly forty centuries afterwards. and occupy the whole territory Much good may it do them! Two hours in this tormented place sufficed me . and the ground was level . the patriarch Abraham . Here I sung the hymns. having dressed and eaten a few oranges. and when they warned him. and made them a feast' (Genesis. now a howling wilderness. was ' well watered everywhere.

Poles. and hinting occasion . at the water's edge they draw the line . gentlemanly. Armenians. I stood. A writer says : "This flowing. with the thought. in haste. is so interwoven in all our hymns and sacred poetry as the border of the promised land. where this event occurred . sweeping humanity away in its current. wondering why the howadji abode there so long. A party of British naval officers was just leaving the place. ally.BAPTIZING SCENE. My Arab servants sat just above me. and threw themselves into the stream . watching my movements. whose presence blest its wave. as a friend suggests. from Europe. and. "nothing stuck up about them. ready to respond to a friendly salutation." I can appreciate the faith with which these . glittering type of swift death. " There is yet six miles to ride before we reach Jericho . as well-pleased. Men. This is probably the very spot. from all parts of Asia. and in every variety of costume. or at least very near it. that I wonder no poet has yet kindled. 345 accounts of our Saviour's baptism. the heavenly inheritance. cheered. with whom I exchanged a few words of greeting. talking. I find this class of men always social. cool and good . on they came." I cannot record a tithe of the solemn reflections that moved me during my memorable hours under the shady banks of the Jordan . Health and refreshing coolness gave . standing here. Copts and Russians. and Syrians." Lieutenant Lynch describes the baptizing scene at the Jordan thus : "In all the wild haste of a disorderly route. A theological writer says " all orthodox Christians walk fondly together until they come to the bank of the Jordan . from Africa." I thought of Jesus in the rush Of Jordan's waters. Greeks. and from far-distant America. women. So Christ. given in the four Evangelists . disrobed with precipitation." A kingfisher perched on the opposite side of the stream enlinked the historical Jordan with the streams and swims of my youth. of every age and hue. rushed down the bank. shouting in almost every known language under the sun . Then. How cheering was its noontide draught 1 Never such healthful cup I'd quaffed . screaming. This voice from Jordan's wave I heard :The stream is holy to our baptized Lord!" The Jordan weaves itself into happy memories . and children. They dismounted eagerly.

I found a scrap of some work on the Elements of Geometry. The Arabian prophet Mohammed was accustomed to have a tame dove sit at his ear. as if leaving every sin behind them .D . the point D and the perpendicular DC are given." (But I couldn't C this!) But now appropriate it must THE DOTE. only a few sticks and straws thrown together to prevent the eggs from rolling out. singularly out of place among these willow trees : " Therefore CD is equal to PQ. I examined a nest of this bird near the baptizing place . All sin and evil from him flings In Jordan's wave . He who loves war's noble game . A. he pardon wins ." As I read the affecting passage "the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape upon him" (Luke iii . strangely out of place. 1110. and. have sounded to the doves and nightingales to hear me sing "Shall we Gather at the . But PQ is given : therefore. And with this fragment of the leaden Times. consequently. ignorant people wash here. I can hardly conceive that the bird selected it for educational purposes . Perhaps he borrowed the idea from the passage I have cited .346 LITERARY BIRD'S-NEST. It was the same that inspired Sigurd the Crusader. for all his sins. I found a scrap of an English newspaper in it. whose visit to the Jordan is told in these lines "To Jerusalem he came. Probably some party of tourists dropped it . which contained the following information. the point C is given. claiming that the bird communicated divine precepts to him. It was shallow and mean. 22)-I found it pleasant to listen to the cooings of the numerous birds of that class that inhabit the shrubbery on each side of the river . Which all must praise.

"'Twas like the notes. referring to this loC. No wonder Moses was afraid of the hornet. I was once stung by a hornet on my neck. . therefore. nearly to death . the agniis castus willow. half pain. enchanting notes. When. and used it (in Deuteronomy vii .r7 sing more than elsewhere . and with hei song rends the thin vests of the rosebuds and the rose . half ecslacy. 4) . called by Hassan sassaf (the Hebrew was tsaphtsapha. these . in their fantastic way. vanquished by some minstrel's purer art. The bulbul utters ere her soul depart. The familiar leaf of the willow caught my eye at once as an old friend. much the same). captains of the host : one of the !east was over an hundred. busily engaged in collecting the fuzz. of the bulbul. or nightingale : "She warbles her BULBUL. in the same spirit. and cause the king-birds yonder to fly and scream at the unusual sound ? But that terrific insect the hornet is here before me. OR NIGHTINGALE. " Why have my Loved Ones Gone?" On the preceding page is an excellent cut of the Syrian dove .D.~~ cality. Old Sandys (A . and the greatest over a thousand . as we boys used to call it. How many a whistle I have made of willow-twigs in boyhood! Can I do less here than to carve a whistle from a willow-bush. I was . my feet laving in the swift current reading "These were the sons of Gad." A modern poet has said. I had never seen or heard a nightingale While sitting here. had sung." Up to this time. 1610) had said : " Here the nightingales . 347 River?" and that favorite song of my dear Lottie. for his paper-manufactory . and Isaiah's "willows by the watercourses" (xliv .MY FIRST NIGHTINGALE. She dies upon the lute whose sweetness broke her heart . 20) as an object of divine threatenings against sin ." The Arab poets. fully prepared to find nightingales 0~ here. But I must relate my experience with a nightingale . however.

esteemed precious beyond all other tears wept by balmy trees . Here once grew. abounds here. but my own loved girls. but with a stone instrument. where. When I stirred the bush. to which I shall give a larger space in a subsequent chapter. Ruth. the Balsam of Jericho. is the Christ's Thorn (Itanznus Spina Christi). and Ella. The acacia. every . I wonder we have had none entitled The Knight of the Sacred Thorn . 14).. As tb the River Jordan itself. the comrades of David in his time of trouble . not a strange thing in this country. do not touch my ears more delightfully with their innocent songs and gayety than did the bulbul on the Jordan . the cut giving a most life-like idea of it . were they that went over the Jordan in the first month (about this time of year). Here. with wood as hard as poplar ." Among the numerous orders more or less directly connected with Holy Land. etc from the Sea of Galilee. out flew the bird . the very blackberry has a woody stock. is made long and troublesome by the steep descents and labyrinthine windings. "From Moab's hills the stranger comes. sixty miles above. Its way." my ears were attracted by a bird-song of a note and quality altogether novel and startling. and singing one of my own old verses commencing. Incisions in the bark were made. with elaborate care . Voila! here he is ! Not to say a handsome bird . Sarah. also. and thinking of those valiant Gaddites. What an array of emblems and traditions could be made to surround this affecting object ! Here also is the castor-oil plant. Following it up. not with steel. I found it to emanate from a large bunch of the pink blossoms of the oleander . The Ohio river at Louisville falls twenty-two feet in two . ACACIA. not no to be identified. a persistent shrub. I think. Bible Dictionary gives dimensions. called by an old writer " spring grass . falling more than 700 feet in sixty miles of latitude (200 miles as the channel goes) . when it had overflown all his banks" (1 Chronicles xii .348 THE CROWN OF THORNS. as in Florida. although.

independent of a cluster of mud-hovels. the enterprising contractor who supplies guards to travellers visiting this valley . He made coffee . See the large two-story stone tower. Look at Rawson's drawing of it . upon which to spread my blankets. It was a gallop across the plain of the Jordan to Riha. rickety table. but it does not equal the Jordan . The Tigris is called by a name denoting the Arrow. Mustapha. This swiftness of current was reckoned one of the greatest obstacles in building the noble railway bridge erected there in 1870 . VILLAGE OF JERICHO. whose owner. on account of its swiftness. 34C miles. sheikh of the village. The Sheikh Mustapha is a man of courtesy and considerable dignity . eleven feet per mile-quite a difference . The once populous city of Jericho has now but one house. and there I lay with the stars of Palestine looking down upon me all night. This is the cicca or circle of rich country which that extravagant gallant Marc Antony presented Cleopatra . unworthy the name of human habitations . the relics of old Jericho. is brother to the sheikh at Bethphage.GALLOP TO JERICHO. On the house-top of that tower I was accommodated with a high.

So I meditate. my style of coffeedrinking. on the north. for their scribes write from right to left. and other personal peculiarities. A few miles below me is the Dead Sea . for me and served me with his own hands . two things I would never do .300 feet below the sea-level. connects the source of the Jordan with its mouth . A little west is the Mount of Temptation . Near by.) . a crowd of thoughts occupied my mind . I read and write. Above me. teeth-picking. They smoke and make themselves comfortable . while my blood. he went out and cut it for me with his own sword. that is only what custom requires him to do. and I think none the worse of him for it .350 VISIONS ON THE HOUSETOP. 100 miles in that direction. a cleft in the earths surface. and if he grumbled a little at the five-franc piece I paid him. and make my stay profitable . The naval officers are gone to Jerusalem. The site of Mount Hermon. My manner of pecking open eggs at the large end meets their hearty approbation . Mustapha preserved his self-respect . But when I sing a verse or two of the "Level and the Square." the . 1. and was buried. whose history I had so often recounted in the degree of Heroine of Jericho (Joshua ii . far above the fleas and lice of the dwelling. The next morning (May 9) I take a seat by the fountain. in that round hill to the southwest which I saw this morning from the top of Mount Olivet . was the house of Itahab. the choruses of the Jericho women sounding in my ears as they sing and dance in their lascivious sports for the entertainment of the naval officers." which now has not a palm-tree in it. cools slowly down . and at last. When I expressed a wish to collect a sackful of the Spina Christi the next morning. Jesus restored the blind to sight . winking my eyes. his foul light going out in great horror and agony. and all Jericho gather round me . So does my way of peeling oranges. I sink to sleep. The people watch with breathless interest my motions. in the " City of Palm-trees. In the tremendous row between him and his neighbors. which is a part of the Arab entertainment at every place I visit. are the fords of Jordan that witnessed the extermination of the Ephraimites. Just here. and I am the only howadji left it all Jericho. with undeserved ceremonials. My writing puzzles them . heated by the day's journey. At the gates of Jericho. Joshua met the captain of the Lord's host. really displaying a wish to make my stay at Jericho agreeable . The monster Herod died here. who fill the half-dozen tents pitched below the castle walls . I am lying here in a chasm. holding the paper in the left hand. Lying awake upon my blankets. as the morning is breaking in the east. said I.

" as in the days of Rahab. But the noon-time has come . and lingeringly depart . " under his . or Moslem good-bye. which forms the principal shrubbery here. I take another look at the stone-tower. fill their vessels with water. and the women of the house were sitting. with water-skins . 1872) the whole scene is indelibly inscribed upon my memory as I recall it . Women were gleaning among the fields of barley just reaped. answered by the plaintive cries of kids and lambs . where I watched the glittering processions of stars all last night . strong battlements raised around the edge. or stay here until to-morrow . formed by trailing grape-vines over poles. 8-24) . and I must be off. It is high 12 . about a mile out of my way . I mount my Arab steed and move to the great fountain (Ain Sultan). and securely housing them in the folds fenced by impenetrable piles of Spina C7tristi (Christ's Thorn). Oh. The ground underneath sparkles with salt. as " the thorns under a pot" are said to do in the Bible . like that mentioned in Elijah's visit to Sarepta (1 Kings xvii . It has no "flax under the roof. leading their flocks of sheep and goats. 351 Jerichoites express universal admiration of Ossian E . I observe a thick umbrageous arbor. From every direction the shepherd boys and girls were coming in. rise in the south . In approaching the village last evening I had been struck with the pastoral character of the scene. a yellowish berry about as large as a hazelnut. from the Sheikh Mustapha. like the hawberry . These remind me of the Scriptural expression. according to the requirements of the Mosaic code. On the way. Yet there was a good pile of barley-sheaves upon it . Voices from all directions were calling to the cattle and to one another. take a bold stare at the howadji (these Riha females are said to be shamefully immodest. and I more than half believe it) . naming them doom. The sun is hot over the sea of Sodom. and claiming backsheesh. if Dodge was here to do it ! The people are easily pleased. and gives them to me. One of the wives of my landlord brought upon her head a "bundle of sticks" for fuel. The women come to the fountain a dozen at a time. My guide picks some fruit from the Spina Christi. protected in large masses by the sane kind of fences . a pair of them "grinding at the mill. needful for cooking. were glaring up fiercely. Even now (March. They taste dry and ibsipid. Receiving a malt sallaharm." as in Scriptural days. The ruins of that ancient landmark. The scanty fires. Dodge's music to the same .MORNING IN JERICHO. Bethhoglah. and I could discover no "scarlet cord" tied in the window.

and I am sure I don't) . copious and beautiful if not so large . under this magnificent fig-tree. but it was " sparkling and bright in : its liquid light. elegantly twisted up in short knots . About ten yards below it is a grand old fig-tree worthy the spot. Water never is cool in this country as in the springs of America . It was not what we would call cool .) He wore a large. and I could have lingered there contentedly all the day.352 AIN SULTAN. or Mustaplia will follow you all the way back to Jerusalem. his beard was very scanty. A hard lot of women approached me there. "Capital ! go it. and here. hat I mean is. Finally. a striped handkerchief around his head (that needed washing . is another. I should dislike to use that in conferring the Eastern Star Degree). to write up some notes made last night by the light of my candles. old fellow ! " I was welcomed at Jericho by the sheikh. emitting nauseating flavors. and abundant remains exist to prove that once a fine edifice covered the spring. and drove me away in disgust . as if to say. and." Looking back. You need not pay him anything. (I have never seen a king on his throne. and haunt you in the Holy City until you do .ty. near its mouth. If they seem desultory. instead of depending for their water-supply upon a filthy pool fourteen by six feet. unless you want to . His legs were bare (and barely decent at that) . loose frock. whose surface is covered with sticks and straws.. He had sandals on his feet (if I know what sandals are. on the house-top of Mustapha. sisters to the groups that perambulate Broadway at 10 P. The largest fountain in the Holy Land is the one at the head of this River Jordan . I shall pay him five francs in the morning.3r. like my own. It was a good time. given up now to a few families of the vilest refuse of the earth . I am struck with admiration at the beauty of the situation occupied by this ancient :: . what else could you expect of a man turning over every five minutes to make a pencil memorandum. The Great Fountain (Ain Sultan) is truly a magnificent outburst of the life-giving fluid. own vine and fig-tree . into which the waste waters drip. he never charges anything for his accommodations. and that its waters were conducted off in various directions by regular aqueducts for irrigation and human use. The Ain Sultan might supply waters for a city. It is strange that the villagers of Riha do not move their miserable shanties up to this place. But you had better want to. and I know he will curse me (in Arabic) the balance of this . and having stables all around it. with a grace that a king on his throne could not excel." and truly delicious . every star in the heavens (metaphorically) cocking down its eye at him .

in common respect for bravery. and so set the grand ceremonials of the Passover in motion . Paul sailed in from Malta (Acts xviii . 23 .21. every sin of ancient Sodom. in his brilliancy. not so in English Poor creature ! How she jumps when the ungallant Mustapha talks to her . fastened by one foot to a basket. etc. I never address a dog so roughly . and the locks of young ladies' hair. suggested many of the finest figures of the prophets. young ladies. and rams. (That word hag. and vile. Argens : " The torments of Tantalus. pronouncing g soft. as another conqueror wrote. being perpetrated here . is a term for holy. out in its turn . let me lie. faded. for thirty . haggard. might have written. August . And how he does scold. brazen. Jupiter. bright and beautiful. in Arabic. by the way. pre. and even of the Divine Teacher himself . the doom of Sisyphus. if thirty. 11) . bulls.PAGES FROM MY DIARY. long slumber). the lady of the castle. That's the way they do . crowded with fantastic signs. etc . Here. or hospitality. cool water in this dry. face upwards (as some day I shall be laid under acacia-sprigs for a long. the word hag is the only name that suits her. who. of any other virtue that I know anything about . the eager glances he casts at the mountains above! I ought. in his extreme death-pang. it is said. is my disconsolate companion on this house-top . here. Here come Castor and Pollux in their turn.) The value of sweet. and view these Oriental heavens. Ragged. to buy him and release him . the pains of Prometheus. I will tomorrow morning The quick survey of his fellows as they screamed over him at sundown. Blear-eyed. The purity of the atmosphere brings every star .. would be the pride. (If I gave him ten. that exhausts the powers of perspiration and cause& great suffering from thirst. Oh. to his friend Dr.. is simply the household drudge. recalling the figure-head of the ship St. A fine star is just now coming up over them. On that page overhead are the figures of the arithmetic in which Abram was to compute the number of l ii. is shining just above the summit of the Mount of Temptation . alas ! the women of Jericho have nothing in common with heroism. and the despair that followed as he tugged in vain at his shackles ! He doesn't sleep a wink to-night. charm. crabs and fishes. by which the first observer of the new moon on Moab communicated the news by torches to the priests on Moriah. and ornament of domestic life. on my house-top. hot atmosphere. The elder wife of my landlord. but pulls and pulls at his fetters . But. maturely old. Herod. Yonder are the telegraphic stations. were nothing to the torments I suffer . the figures of the women more resemble the horrid phantoms of a nightmare than the pleasant romance of Raliab . 1759. 3 53 Saturday because I don't give him ten . haggard. scorpions. suggests new comments upon the astral images of Holy Writ. in my own land. the sky is clear and cloudless . if twenty. A hawk. Jupiter. Amongst the females of this mud-made village I have endeavored to recognize a descendant of the good and heroic Rahab . he would curse me for twenty . The town is notorious for being the most immoral place in all Palestine." Herod and Frederick were akin at more than one point .

Looking upon Mount Nebo. and make Jericho a place of pilgrimage . and pass on : in Persia it is used for lamp-oil . The noble display of the castor-oil tree that I saw to-day is in itself a moving spectacle. the force of historical associations is sufficient to triumph over it all. only fifteen or twenty miles in the southeast. so shall thy seed be. hearing me sing. and companions to owls . he would have kept the possession forever . accompanied by regular . climbed up on the roof to ask me if I was sick ! So poor an appreciation have these Arabs of genuine music." said God to Abram. Satan knew he had conquered the world when he deluded Eve . There goes a brilliant meteor sailing across to the southward." The frowning cliffs above me. even the stars of God. the stars. and of the Dead Sea bitumen." Mohammed. I hum to myself the lines Yhave so often sung at home. And view the landscape o'er. barbarous. "Could we but climb where Moses stood. I could contentedly stay a week here. look cheerful and habitable now . 5) . enlightening my sepulchre (Isaiah xiv. My host is a respectable fellow enough. which in the evening sun had worn such s savage and forbidding aspect. in a few brief years. "Look now toward heaven. Here are the Triones of Ursa Major. Their skin is black upon them. posterity (Genesis xv . in search of the opo-balsamum of Jericho. Vile as this place and its people and their history may be. I hasten to remember all I know about the bean. Every star in that chime Made a melody sublime. its luminous tail being visible for several seconds . He was of opinion that "the watery wine of Palestine is good to cure fevers . Not Jordan's stream. in the reign of the Antonines. the heavens will be a light over my grave. plowing their patient way round the north pole. if thou be able to number them . as now around my path.354 PAGES FROM MY DIARY. in Africa the virgins dress their hair with it . in America. as oxen make their circuit in treading out corn . Even Galen travelled through Syria. 29) . amidst the dear group of wife. Should fright us from that shore . naughty boys take it from a spoon . How the twinkling host rejoices . but his friends and companions are so filthy and black that they might be " brothers to dragons. and their bones burned with heat" (Job xxx ." I am canopied by all the gorgeous splendor of this Oriental sky . The Arab song goes on below me. "and tell the stars. unearthly monotone. sons and daughters. " In the bright even-time." How affecting to me the thought that. and endeavors to make my stay comfortable . I am honored by being the reporter to this brilliant panorama moving over my head . 13) . full fifty degrees high . nor death's dark flood. a wild. Had he overcome Jesus on the Mount of Temptation yonder. Ere the birds tuned their voices .

and No. His arm was swollen to enormous dimensions. and the Fountain of Elisha. No. has illuminated this wild region with a genial touch of geology. of Indiana. and No. No . North Carolina. Ae our distinguished Brother Richard Owen. sending the lions of that ruined site to their repose . the Fellabin ladies ha'ving got their backsheesh and gone to rest. I will remark here that. bad as such a. He vomited and hiccoughed. greatly coveted this little plain of Jericho. I place his name . and off into dreamland I embark . God has made of this city an heap . But now the seven clear stars of Arthur's Round Table are becoming dim. 4) . of this defenced city a ruin . and a commander of the people (Isaiah Iv. In that hot atmosphere it was an alarming sight . beyond the Jordan . and took in exchange the little donkey the poor fellow had ridden. Virginia. for all the world like an Indian dance. nothing interrupts the lonely solitude but the chirping of crickets and the cry of frogs . 2) . it is time I began . Other names of lodges are suggested by this locality . I was accosted by a poor fellow who had been bitten the night before by a snake . That vile woman. there was but one step between him and death .lapping of hands. as soon as I got him into the cooler atmosphere of Jerusalem he began to mend. I write the names of ten worthy Masons . The wound was in the junction of the fore and middle fingers of the right hand . 76. and motions of the body. Cleopatra. Indiana. Those naval officers must have vast powers of endurance. Iowa.THE SNAKE-BITTEN . New York . the locality just east of Jericho. 176. Mount Nebo Lodge. debasing herself even into hell. 257. The God of day is rising on Babylon. so rich and abounding. out go my candles. So with a puff. the village a few miles west . Jericho. the summit twenty miles in the southeast. and so we all pushed forward to Jerusalem . and in a few days was quite recovered. No. wound must be in the Jordan Valley.. In the nomenclature of our lodges I find Bezer Lodge. including the Pilgrim's Ford. who justified the tremendous words of Isaiah (lvii . 32. Pisgah Lodge. One of my servants mounted him upon his own horse. 355 . The grateful creature then haunted me for backsheesh all the week. In fact. " The withered moon's Smote by the fresh beam of the reddening east ." Now. of this palace of strangers no city (Isaiah xxv . 9). the northern end of the Dead Sea. Turning away from the Fountain of Elisha. 200. Bethany Lodge. Here the great Joshua was made a witness to the people. At so noted a historical place as the Circle of the Jordan. He was pale. 155. The reddening 'of the rosy light betokens a clear morning of pure air . and if I expect to get any of the strength that cometh from sleep. Illinois. No .

Palmer. viz ." Far down in that valley. and Hatches. Masonic nutriment. employment . where the anchorites of the early centuries of our era scooped out prison homes in the rocky ramparts of these awful ravines . Rev. Rk v.356 WORTHLESS RACE OF 'W K first at this locality. 27). whose feet plunge into delightful water. to which this territory for so many centuries belonged . and Fred. What nowadays we get at Willard's on the half-shell. of the Beauseant. in the morning he shall devour the prey. A . The sight of a wolf here brings to mind the tribal badge of Benjamin. Webbers. has given a good idea of one of these men. those old Simons. Nutt . Holy Land is afflicted. then by Robert Ramsay. Looking back from the acclivity. Browns." If ever I wanted power it was to drive all the idle. in the Talisman. a man of sin. An old pilgrim described the water as "bitter to drink and productive of sterility until Elisha salted it and blessed it. C . and her little boy shook his fist pleasantly towards me. in the tenth century. and a heavier child mounted on her shoulder . they sucked from the end of a sugar-cane. Warfield. Robert Rushing. Joseph Trimble . and Fellows.. making her three miles an hour . who in his old age repented and "past into the silent life of prayer. George B. Walter Scott." Just below it was a garden which. the consolation of the traveller . where Elijah hid. even now. to some usefu ." It was well said of these fellows that they "Left human wrongs to right themselves. They had a sweet tooth. was styled the Garden of Abra- . Edwards. 0. F . And cared but to pass into the silent life. The sugarcane stalk served those old pilgrims both for a staff and as a store of provision in emergencies. As soon as I passed out of the valley I began to see the caves in the cliffs of Wady Belt. I see the trees I have just left. I observe the ruins of the old sugar-mills built here 800 years ago by the crusaders. and at night he shall divide the spoil. suggesting the cruel blow he would inflict upon my face were his muscles as strong as his will . Ewer. The dying father declared (Genesis xlix . Yet she stepped off jauntily. Henry L . worthless race of monks. E. whereupon it became sweet . "Benjamin shall raven as a wolf . 600 years ago. and R» N . Met a woman with a heavy water-skin on her head. following it with that of his coaOjuter. Coloveloni. with which.

and now I am old . filtering through several hundred feet of rocks and gravel." If any Royal Arch Chapter will perform its work here. The poor fledgelings were lying in their nest." in various Sunday-schools. but no signs of that exist at present . John the Baptist. The little creatures could not get out to feed themselves . Those that I heard were making the cry of hunger . what food and clothing and other things we need. They had bad. "the rough and broken ground. The next few pages are only to be read by those who have children and love children's stories . and where the ravens fed him from day today. and even if they had they did not know what to eat. and I knew that it was a nest of young ravens. I have told the incident. insert it here as my contribution to the Sunday-school literature of the day. The day was hot. no breakfast . Helena Island is famed for its purity. even better than we do. ham. In one of the Psalms. always with "immense applause. . I suppose. I was very forcibly reminded of the fact that God feeds all his creatures with what they need . He knows what we want. This country indeed is what the Hebrews styled Shebarim. or wherewithal we shall be clothed. It was noon. and . nor where to find food suitable for them . When Jesus Christ tells us not to think of what we shall eat. and He knows." I can say the same thing. and you know how loud and harsh a noise a nest of young crows will make . their cry is the same. was sequestered from the abodes of men. In these crags our June-Saint. In coming up one day from Jericho to Jerusalem. The place was lonely . David says : "I have been young. "the rough and rugged way" is already laid out for their use. So long as we trust in Him we may be sure He will abundantly supply us . and how much we want. and preserved him from starving . it is the place where Elijah was concealed when King Ahab sought his life. THE NEST OF YOUNG RAVENS . and when we want it . and if so.NEST OF YOUNG RAVENS. or what we shall drink. and find the heat caused by the sun's rays to be very oppressive. 357 As the water of St. He made us. As I got about half way up the hill I heard some loud screams far down in the ravine below me. Now I pass through valleys shut in by rocks and desolate mountains. the old birds having gone away . nor his seed begging bread. Ravens are nearly the same as crows . yet have I never seen the righteous forsaken. the same I believe that is called in the Bible The Brook Cherith. I was climbing the steep hill by the side of Wady Kelt. He means that He will think of these things for us. so with this. I will tell you the whole story . and fed on such wild nourishment as these uninhabited places afforded him .

and loving hearts. and willows. "as the crow flies . and determined to wait if . where he might lie and pant until dark." everything that He has made. went down the hillside about a hundred steps . I looked. and oleanders. The noise of their hungry children ceased. "God heareth the young ravens when they cry. and down by the river-side. and wings. Even the sneaking wolf that I had seen an hour before was only hurrying to some old. for they were carrying large pieces of some kind of food in their mouths. The little birds had discovered them before I did. and over the thickets of thorn-bushes. or until those little creatures had had their breakfast. Still those loud. As I thought of this I felt sad . straight as an arrow . for I knew that nobody else would care for the little birds. A party of English sailors were there this morning." And as I looked down into that screaming nest of crows. and I knew their little mouths were filled. God had . surrounded by fifty lazy Arabs . found the shadow of a great rock . The old ones flew slowly . A few minutes passed in silence . proving that God is the great provider." the "young lions. a shadow passed before my eyes . They were God's messengers. and soon down to the Jordan. The black. vacant tomb on the hillside. I got off my horse . hot. where John baptized Christ . took out my pocket-Bible. flying over Elisha's fountain and over ruined Jericho. popping their guns at everything they could see . disagreeable place as to hear cries of hunger from a nest of young birds? It was • even so ." Did God really hear those poor little screaming birds i Could it be that God was so near to that lonely. five hundred feet below me. harsh cries were kept up .358 WILL GOD FEED THEM? As I stopped and looked down into their nest. and they would starve to death . And there I read verse after verse. but that somebody might have shot them down by the river. Never a mouth but what there is food to put in it-" and shall He not much more feed you ?"-Just as I got to that passage.need be an hour longer. writing my notes by a cistern of water. The sun was so hot that all other birds had concealed themselves in shadowy places . God had taught them . God had sent their father and mother clear across the valley of the Jordan. But straight to the nest they flew. Would father and mother never come? It was time . God's providers. and strong bills. I began to be afraid. They went in haste. then I heard the old one give a hoot of satisfied work. clamorous crows . God's stewards for that nest of hungry. I knew what the little creatures did not know-that their Heavenly Parent was giving to their earthly parents wisdom. I thought of the Bible passage. lay down in it . Five hours before. and canebrakes . and the weather was very hot. to procure food for them . where I was sitting at that very time. to supply their necessities . not that the parent ravens had forgotten their duty. and were crying louder than ever. wise creatures knew where to go to find it. and here were the old ravens coming with food for their little birds. and all was still . He feeds the "fowls of the air. It is a journey of eight miles.

tasting. and the symbolical application of the same . therefore. John C. 479.KHAN OF THE G. while his "vile head and his hand. touching. Rob . the ancient " Inn" of the good Samaritan. Henry Tucker. viz . A raven lives." as certain incorrect rituals have it? Here they are. 359 "heard the young ravens as they cry. No . suggested by this poor blind fellow. come out. His appeals I soon stopped by a bit of money and the balance of my oranges . by a blind beggar. Good Samaritan Lodge. Burns." and had sent them plenty of food. and lay down to sleep . No . Morris. in 2 Maccabees xv . then ." were hun up before Jerusalem . it is said. His tongue. I wonder whether the great grandmothers of those noisy crows brought pieces of the tongue of the haughty Nicanor to feed their young ones . who has so long "wandered in darkness. five hundred years. I occupied the time in investigating the uses made in Scripture history of clefts and caves. Near the ruins of this khan there is a ghudeer. Here a party was attacked and plundered. Climbing up the hill again. In a future chapter the subject shall be renewed. as for instance. Secondly. thinking to make backsheesh out of me. was given y pieces unto the fowls. or pool of rain water.. roll . waiting for me to come back. ever since yesterday morning. Alabama . J. of course. warm. as they called it. to recognize and extend the sacred association by locating ten Masonic names here. While I waited upon my young crows. Morris. This was his tabernacle of a shadow in the day-time of the heat (Isaiah iv . pursy note-book . as in Luke x. my guard rode on ahead to a place I had resolved to visit. in 1820. Not far from the old khan of the good Samaritan stood the stone Bohan ben-Reuben. and Nicanor was killed only about two thousand years ago. 6. Shall I ever have a better time to summon d up inspired memories. I suppose. Thomas L . and he is even good enough to go away out of my seeing. 6) . Passing on to Jerusalem. Ossian E . It was on the boundary of the tribes of Judah and Benjamin . 104. Kentucky . It accords with the plan of the present volume. George P. as in Joshua vi . Seated for an hour at this Fountain o{ the Apostles. etc. Dodge. and so impregnated with the salts that abound in this soil as to be almost unpalatable. No . by a lot of harvesters. England. Webster. S. David Vinton. as every book on Holy Land since written has said. Resting for an hour in this little cave hard by. an° smelling. which with proud brags he had stretched out against the temple. Baker. who left their work and came across the valley. Percival. I believe. I drew rein not again until I reached the water-fount below Bethany . 174. invade First. the khan or inn of the good Samaritan. D . is found in the names of many American and English lodges. 33. Power-names associated with the poetry and music of Masonic literature . who has been sitting here. or at least the man who immortalized it. The name of this place. hearing. my privacy was.

And seeds of gold in Ophir's mountains glow . Walk in thy light. and more. B. and God's eternal day be thine . I miss a conjecture . No more the rising sun shall gild the morn. The seas shall fail. dissolved in thy superior rays. For thee.) And here we are : "The blind man of Palestine walks in obscurity and darkness" (Isaiah xxix . And break upon thee in a flood of day . one unclouded blaze. Note-taking and checker-playing with me are vanities . and then retire early to rest. Borne on an ass. But fixed His word. and in thy temple bend . Nor evening Cynthia fill her silver horn ." I hasten away and arrive at my hotel at about 4 o'clock . the sky in smoke decay. But here I am interrupted by the English sailors just up from Joppa .360 IMPERIAL SALEM. crowned with light. on every side. And heaped with products of Sabsean springs . groping. His promise still remains. (N. Demanding life. Rocks fall to dust and mountains melt away . thine own MESSIAH reigns. thankful that my trip to the Dead Sea and the Jordan has terminated so well. the cork of that receptacle has been out ever since yesterday morning. 27) . See barbarous nations at thy gates attend. See a new race thy spacious courts adorn. One tide of glory. They need all this space. Refusing to drink with them on the (false) plea that "I had some of my own. See heaven its sparkling portals wide display. 18). deprived of the pleasurable thrill and excitement which are the lot of others . See future sons and daughters yet unborn. and the poor fellows look it . rise . knowing that he is stuck for an hour here. Pope's splendid couplets occurred to memory. and goes incontinently to sleep . Idume's spicy forests grow. imperial Salem. Thy realm forever lasts. If they don't need the ship's surgeon for a week or two. arise. . and with them I close the chapter . and lift thine eyes . See thy bright altars thronged with prostrate kings. impatient for the skies . facile pencil ! Hassan throws up his hands in anguish. forth. Have a difficulty with my guard upon the question of backsheesh. He follows the traveller. Rise. Exalt thy towering head. But lost. Coming in sight of the city. . as once they followed Jesus at the base of this hill (Matthew ix . to swig the last quart in their demijohn . . from the lofty summit of Olivet. In thronging ranks. Pervades thy courts : the LIGHT himself shall shine Revealed.

LOOKING WEST FRO)i OLItiET . .JERUSALEM.

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That shining bitter water that engulfs the guilty cities of the plain. if the intensities of hope and fear Attract us still. the mind. and seated in the midst of the nations. D . 4 To A. C . 6. delights. at last Jerusalem is removed from the region of fancy to that of fact. and surrounding hills as tangible objects . B . houses. Why left a widow 1 oh. like a diadem crowning the head of the mountains the place of mysteries and miracles .-JERUSALEM. The city. to take in walls. bewildered with the mighty revolutions and desolations which the history of Jerusalem has revealed. elected by God for his seat. Yes . at last. the way before us lies Distinct with signs. churches. what scars disgrace Thy looks I who thus hath hacked thy sacred face? MITE OF HEROD ARCHELAUS. .DIVISION EIGHTH . once sacred and glorious. and passionate exercise Of lofty thought.

D. 70. HE literature of Palestine is in want of a good work on the various sieges and assaults to which Jerusalem was subjected. to that last and awful night of the assault. A.C . 5) . OR[ TAL ARTIST . . 1455. THE SURROUNDINGS OF JERUSALEM . from its capture by Joshua. Such a work should include the several captures to the present time . which recalls the prophetic words written eight centuries before : "Confused noise. Written in the light of military experience.CHAPTER XXII. and garments rolled in blood" (Isaiah ix. so graphically described by Josephus. this volume would give a better idea of the sur- ALBERT L RAWSON. B .

As my whole volume. is the City of Jerusalem. My assistant had been detailed to this point of labor several weeks earlier. upon which sacred place my longing eyes were first directed. in the days of its gold and glory. after my arrival. to give almost undivided attention to sightseeing and note-taking in the city and vicinity. yet the writer must use simple language if he would make the proper impression on the reader's mind . The season of the year was highly favorable. designed for the cabinets of the zealous craft at home . the American mis. J. because chiefly describing the materials (and the localities whence derived and through which transferred). no American should forget how much we are all indebted to Dr . nights cool . 18). I hope to leave nothing that is important in darkness . both pleasant. Rawson. The seventh and last of the grand Masonic localities that these articles are designed to identify and describe. I had ordered my horses through to this place by land. to which I am indebted for many of my facts . Altogether. But. In 1840. although Sion is a plowed field. This enabled me. as 1 have already written. while acknowledging this. Even now. and had busied himself in collecting a large quantity of relics and specimens. I must now give large space and ample illustrations of the sacred metropolis itself. though the holiest of holy ground is Jerusalem. and by the aid of engravings. and the foxes (jackals) walk upon it (Lamentations v. than . has been only prefatory. L. who block up the narrow streets during the months of April and May. so that I was not embarrassed for the means of locomotion. to the present division. But. as I said in my preface. there is enough to awaken all latent enthusiasm in the Masonic traveller . of the Temple once erected at Jerusalem. all people brought their treasures on the bunches of camels. and the Lord of Hosts came down to fight for Mount Sion.THE SEVENTH MASONIC LOCALirY. 36b all the "memorandums" of tourists . my stay in Jerusalem and its surroundings was one of unmingled enjoyment and profit . Barclay. T . The throngs of pilgrims. whose portrait heads this chapter. the weather being a happy medium between cold and heat . to which I devote the present chapter. when the English and French were having their own will in Palestine. on Sunday. roundings of Jerusalem. the English engineers came up from Joppa. 1868. from the faithful hand of Professor A . and xxxi) . and for the hill thereof (Isaiah xxx. thus far. and made an' accurate and most valuable plan of this city. had departed . May 3. towards which. flays' warm. so to speak.

" . to which a number of writers. and the work of Barclay. so the Lord is round about his people . conceiving it to be the spot where "The Lord of all things made himself Naked of glory . being circumscribed on three sides by hills higher than the place itself-a fact to which David makes a fine allusion in Psalm cxxv . His close observations of facts. in his long and patient labors in exploring the city. massive structures. for convenience sake. It is a pity the work has been allowed to go out of print. convent. and conscien tious adherence to truth. Robinson's Biblical Researches. The City of the Great -King. all that can be desired on the subject. from Mount Scopus ." I commence this survey." to walk around" Jerusalem. 2 : "As the mountains are round about Jerusalem. Few places are so well situated for a reconnoissance as this. sionary at Jerusalem. In giving the surroundings of this city. the Russian THE DAMASCUS GATE OF JERUSALEM . Captain Warren told me that the three best works in his possession. that I may "tell it" to those who come after me . relative to Jerusalem and.. viz. in his volume. Directly before us is the knob. give us. Thomson's Land and Book.the Holy Land. Here that vile collection of homely. just referred to . or swelling ground. have applied the name of Calvary. I have regard to the injunction of the Psalmist. conceals the view on the right. or Golgotha. are American. with good judgment.366 THE DAMASCUS GATE. on the north side.

Still further east is Herod's Gate. the vacant places grown up with immense hedges of the prickly pear . All around are small piles of me- t DOOR OF A TOJ1B . setup by pilgrims as mnemonics to recall their first or last view of the Holy City . from whence Burns derived his lamentable screed. which conducts us to the great quarry." A little to the left of this. and a little nearer the city . of which I give a drawing . imorial stones (three. to be described in a future chapter. and for the establishment of his military camp. The gate next to us is the Damascus Gate (Bab-es-Shems). nine. and endeavor to imagine the reconnoissanoe made by Titus. Beyond the wall rises the lofty dome of the Mosque of Omar (improperly so called). We will erect our monument likewise. now permanently closed . eleven or more). On the left (east of this gate) there is an opening under the wall. 11 Man was made to mourn. 36 Immediately below Golgotha is the traditional cave of Jeremiah. five. though some writers set the camp a quarter of a mile further west.TOMB OF THE KINGS. This point of view is probably the one taken by Titus for his first observation of Jerusalem. where. seven. it is fabled. so graphically described by Josephus . he wrote his Lamentations. the northeast corner of the city appears like a rambling agricultural village. the modern representative of Solomon's Temple .

a few years since. stormy night. " Zion. It must. in the suburbs of Jerusalem. and there is no better proof than the number and character of these antiquities. troubled ocean . before De Saulcy cleared away the debris. 4. and discover to our longing eyes the port of endless rest. and hanging down PLAN OF ANCIENT TOMB. All around us here are the ruins of the country-houses and happy . in speaking of Josephus in the presence of yonder group of Israelites. In this vicinity lies that celebrated relic. It is considered to be the finest specimen of sculp Tombs o f the Kings. 2. flourishing. II . (Wars. of the former existence of rmer a wealthy. Even now the malaria compels foreigners to reside outside the city through the summer months . and v . It represents large clusters of grapes between garlands of flowers. have enjoyed an overflowing population. The INTERIOR OF A TOMB. 3) . we will do it " with bated breath. whose entrance." for every Jew considers Josephus the Benedict Arnold of the Roman war. along the sides . . whose residences extended great distances around the central city . until the sun of righteousness shall arise. in the pathless. had an appearance as in the cut . interspersed with Corinthian capitals and other decorations. is very beautiful . indeed.36 8 TOMBS AND THEIR TENANTS . homes of the ancient people. below which is a tracery of flowers and fruits extending quite across the portal. But. The sculpture over the entrance of this tomb. although now exceedingly mutilated. xix." So expatiates one of the most eloquent . and powerful people here . bright star in the midst of a gloomy. All the expressions of enthusiastic writers in the olden time confirm this belief. ornament of a ruined world .

In the walls recesses are laboriously cut out for the reception of sarcophagi .THE SIDONIAN SARCOPHAGUS . and restore them to former uses? The following is an engraving. SARCOPHAGUS AT SIDON. 24 . viii . and to pray before the Lord (Zeph . 369 ture around Jerusalem. taken by De Saulcy from the tomb.1 "11%/1. Paris. but will postpone the description to a future chapter. 1 1. of a sarcophagus now in the Louvre. I append a drawing of the interior of an ancient tomb. now also among the antiquities of the Louvre . ti . from a photograph. near Sidon. When many people and strong nations shall come to seek the Lord of Hosts in Jerusalem. The manner in which the heavy 'stone-doors of these tombs were made to turn. SARCOPHAGUS. found about twenty years since. 22) may we not expect that the Jews will clear out and reconstruct these sacred houses of the dead. I place it in contact with a celebrated sarcophagus. will be seen in this cut of ancient stone-hinges .

This is admittedly the best point of view from which to study Jerusalem . had placed him among the very first of living artists. a few weeks before I was here. etc. whose enormous roots stand high above the ground . the ordinary furniture of a Latin chapel. and we imagine the soldiers of the Roman Tenth Legion (a kind of crack New York Seventh Regiment). wrapped in a clean linen cloth. in their old age. That inclosure of about one and a half acres. used now.i70 THE TENTH LEGION. in visiting what are considered as the Jewish tombs at Jerusalem. with its whitewashed walls. which I saw in such numbers along the cliffs at Gebal. I have been careful to bear in mind the radical differences between the funeral rites of the two peoples . whose paintings of Californian and Alpine views. and the Falls of Niagara. took his sketch of Jerusalem. Church. and take our stand near the (improperly called) Church of Ascension. ten feet high. by a family of foreigners . pus with Mount Olivet. and watched with admiration the works of his life-giving pencil . opposite Sidon. We pass now along the neck of the ridge connecting Mount Sco . Here Mr.. where it was laid without any ceremonial or form of prayer .000 picture. which has since developed into a $32. I met this modest and STONE HINGES. The point of Absalom's Tomb peers slightly over the last ridge next the valley of Jehoshaphat. Near it is the opening of the (apocryphal) Tomb of the Holy Virgin. And here I would remark that. who were encamped here for a number of months during the memorable siege. recounting to hearers. pictures. I`his severe simplicity was carried into the preparation of their . Our view from this point comprehends a very large range of vision westward and northward .. is the Garden of Gethsemane! It contains eight vast olive-trees. and borne without any funeral pomp to the grave. diligent painter at Beyrout. Tyre. all the objects that met the eye from this observatory. The body was washed and anointed. flowers. etc. adorned with lamps. Behw us is an old square tower. I believe.. Those of the Jews were marked with the same simplicity that characterized all their religious observances . in summer-life. as distinguished from the Phoenician sepulchres.

of the earth. In the olive-trees. and capable of being closed and sealed at the mouth . or a little below the level. The Plieenicians seemed invariably to use the sarcophagus or stone coffin. a heavy lid must . which were always deep. In the cypress-trees is the goldfinch (Carduelis elegans) . in a tomb. and occasioned the removal of most of the internal parts of the body. There are. "take away the stone . Tristam's Land of Israel. B. forgetting that such things as birds exist in the Holy City at all.BIRDS OF JERUSALEM. tender. being in itself hermetically sealed and containing an embalmed body. and was certainly capable of throwing . But his notes under this head are full and charming . or even elevated. the beautiful little palm turtle-dove dwells (Turtur Senegalensis). instead of yonder jingle of instruments on the steps of the Governor's serai (palace) . could be laid in a shallow cavity (called loculus). Studying here the history of the siege and assault by Titus. which occupied many days. from this national difference of the deep loculus (or grave) . Here lie had the field all to himself. And much more to the same effect . and in the side and the dome of Kubbet es-Sakhrah. Among the most pleasing accounts I have read of the city. the rest of us. 371 sepulchres. II." Had Lazarus been laid in a Phoenician tomb. perhaps. the stone at the entrance of the loculus being removed. the kestrel (Tinnunculus alaudarius). and remains here all winter. from this point of view. it is thought. the white wagtail . and elegant music of Beethoven's oratorio of "Mount Olivet" pla y ed here upon this historical summit. upon the very top of a sepulchral monument.000 of these rock-cut tombs around Jerusalem . he says. on the level. would have changed the entire nature of the miracle . like the tomb of King Ilirani. All purely Jewish rock-cut tombs may be recognized. not to say that the ceremony of embalming. 1. also the great titmouse (Parus major) . without danger of giving out offensive odors . in the contemplation of stones and ruins. which. exposed the entire body to the eye of the observer. where he describes the birds of Jerusalem . In the corner of a wall I marked the blue thrush (Pelrocincla Cyanea) . and the little owl (Alhene mneridionalis) . It was invented 450 years before. To this is referred the passage in John xi . have been removed to reach his body . 39. I cannot help wondering why for this he did not use the catapult . But lying in the condition in which he died. and running along the pavement. far above the Surface of the ground. How I should like to hear the agreeable. I reckon that in Bro .

now sunk fifty feet under loose earth. In chapter xlvii . that every thing that liveth. And it shall come to pass. Moriah was a long. and. which he had selected as the site of his projected temple On one occasion I sought that spot. narrow . for they shall be healed . although there is no water here now to suggest them. Kidron . I never could pass this brook Kidron without recalling the words which Ezekiel wrote concerning it. to the effect that. the brook the British Museum. introduced (improperly) into Blue Lodge rituals . which moveth. Kidron. and there shall be a very great multitude of fish. which being brought forth into the sea. shall live . into the heart of yonder city .c . we have the deep gorge of the valley of Jehoshaphat. the waters shall be healed. the fortified city . and showed him the range entitled Moriah. and everything shall live. because these waters shall come thither . Extending our vision westward. It was discovered by Layard. 710. There is an elegant myth connected with the literature of Masonry. and go into the sea . These waters issue out toward the cast country. One of the most remarkable pieces of ptcture-writing in the world is that given in the cut of the siege of Jerusalem by the King of Nineveh. other characters . whithersoever the river shall come. whither the river cometh . about B . He makes it the connecting link between Jerusalem the Holy and the Dead Sea the Lnpure. Mount Olivet with a castle on the summit. that chokes the ancient channel .372 MASONIC MYTH . and endeavored to paint the scene in its natural colors. huge stones much further than the distance from where we are standing. Through this valley ran the brook SIEGE OF JERUSALEM. and go down into the desert. and is now in In it we see the olive-trees . upon the arrival of Hiram Abif at Jerusalem." The two existing bridges here serve at least to keep us in mind of the prophecy. King Solomon conducted him to a point near the junction of the mountains now termed Olivet and Offence. we read "Then said he unto me.

to place the Masonic mar/c of the Square and Compass conspicuously upon some one of the huge ashlars that make up the ST. by the fate of Hiram himself No spot in all the vicinity of Jerusalem is associated with matters of deeper Masonic interest than this . the sides to be raised by immense walls. Such were the preliminary steps requisite to form even a platform for the temple . the top of the range rising nearly 400 feet above the bed of the valley of Jehoshaphat on the east. Stephen's Gate. . wall of the old Temple area on its eastern side . the king had ordained the construction of his temple . STEPHEN'S GATE . of which I give a drawing Nearly all the wall to the left (south) of this is the grand substructure of the Noble Inclosure. the top to be cut off. all this must be done before a stone of the building itself could be laid down. and thus the two great men were drawn together by fraternal ties. or Lady Mary Gate (Bab es-Sitti Miriam). and the interstices filled in with stone. In point of fact. nearly 200 feet high. divided primarily into three peaks by cross valleys. Long before reaching this city.THE ST . marked out to us with distinctness by the great dome that we saw from Mount Scopus. nor altogether safe . in the centre of which is St . I had resolved. was strangely paralleled. a few years afterwards. or Mount Moriah. which forms the esotery of that system. Our story goes on to say that it was in that conference that Hiram initiated King Solomon into the mysteries of Adonis. Upon that most illy-fitted hill. at all hazards. 373 ridge. deeply furrowed by ravines. STEPHEN'S GATE. and that of Tyropoeon on the west. The task was by no means a pleasant one. only severed by death . as practised for so many centuries in Phoenicia. The fate of Adonis. And next we will take notice of the eastern wall of Jerusalem.

with instructions to keep a vigilant lookout. so that I was liable to interruption at any moment-and the reader will appreciate the difficulties of the task. at the point of the sword. would have been justifiable in them . after all. took it by assault. I was not easily deterred . according to the usages of that sanctuary. when the first builders of Jerusalem. and placing an assistant in the road below. counting from the southeast corner of the old Temple-wall to the north . and when Jacob fled northward on his way to a divine vision. "I lay darkly and silently in the quarries under Mount Moriah. it was like them to pitch a donick or two over the wall. Across the valley of Jehoshaphat. I marked out my figure. who would scarcely permit a Christian to walk so near their cherished tombs. forty-two years later. and when he returned. as future travellers will not fail to see . and began . in the search of his brethren . is the village of Silwan (Siloam). the ancient Jebusites. Perhaps the real danger of this attempt. I slumbered there at the time of the pious meeting between Abraham and Melchizedek . Add to this. To a fragment of this vast wall which I brought home to America. and when Joseph passed here. whose inhabitants are among the most fanatical people in the vicinity. I heard the shock of the onset when Joshua took Jerusalem. and when the patriarch brought his son Isaac here. It is cut in the fifth stone of the second tier of blocks. I have attached this STORY OF THE STONE. However. and this. one of the principal roads around the city runs within thirty steps of the ashlar I had selected for my operations. lay in the military lookouts upon the works one hundred feet above my head . and made it the seat of his king- . though not the largest in that part of the structure . on the north. at Bethel . The block is a large one. to an interrupted sacrifice upon the crown of the hill of Moriah . two hundred and seventy-eight years later. at the head of all Israel. gathered their materials. ten years later.374 STORY OF THE STONE . twenty years later. But I made my mark deep and bold. and burnt it with fire . and the shock of the onset when King David. four hundred and four years later. or even to fire their pieces down upon me . Had they witnessed my operations. Close by. much less commit the profanity of cutting into the Temple-wall with a chisel . is a large Moslem graveyard. with his dying Rachel . in plain view. and erected their walls of defence upon Mount Zion . often crowded with Mohammedan women.

In n . and the Temple burned . I note the plant of Solomonic fame. Three hundred and seventy-one years later. two thousand eight hundred and eighty years from my first establishment in this wall. heard his battle cry . by this time. of the wall.1009 I was shaken in my place by the onset of the crusaders. saw the irresistible assault of his armies . and final despair. when the people of Jerusalem shouted' Hosanna to the Son of David . ' Crucify h inz . . and laid up here in the cast wall. until the blood flowed over our wall like the drenchings of a great rain-storm . Thirty-seven years later. one hundred feet from its base. from the quarries. hewed and squared. I witnessed the armies of Titus fortifying the hill east of me. facing the rising sun . and drawing their lines around the doomed city . the city ruined. I saw the little company under Zerubbabel return from Babylon and begin the pious task of rebuilding. with which. shouted. fresh and green. resistance. until now. Fifty-one years later. I saw a second re-edification of the Temple by the monster Iierod .D . I heard the shout of the assembled millions who bowed their faces to the pavement and cried. as he passed over the great bridge connecting Mount Olivet with Mount Moriah.000 men to the sword upon the platform just above me.THE HYSSOP. One hundred and forty-seven years later. I witnessed the coming of the great Chaldean. and felt a trembling of the solid earth. 1872) . I saw the greater Maccabveus perform the same pious undertaking . a great stone. Fifty-two years afterwards. four hundred and sixteen years later . such as Jerusalem rarely experiences . I have witnessed great events. 375 dom . I have a specimen of it to-day (February 29. "the hyssop that springeth out. seven and one-half years after its corner-stone was laid . Then I saw the heavens darkened at mid-day. I saw the dedication of the Temple.' A few days afterwards. Again and again I was an eye-witness of such scenes. These savage sights and sounds were often renewed afterwards . I beheld the triumphant procession of the Son of Man.' The gleam of the fire from heaven and the shadow of the miraculous smoke alike passed over my polished face. Here I have remained for two thousand eight hundred and ei ghty years . for His mercy endureth forever ." and give a out of it . then heard those sounds of assault. ' For He is good . I was taken. I had become so familiar . who put 7. which I plucked nearly four years ago from Iliram's Tomb . I give tQ an inquiring Freemason from distant lands my strange story of the stone . thirty-seven years afterwards. the same people." As an appropriate botanical emblem here. fickle and untrustworthy.

choice warriors of Israel. praised God according to His excellent greatness (Psalm cl. (1 Chron . 2) . It is mild and gentle. vowed proudly that he would come to Jerusalem and make it a common burying-place of the Jews" (2 Mace. with soft variations of light and shade. on yonder platform . ix. and when the early American missionary. and when the impotent man took up his bed and walked from the margin of Bethesda yonder (John ii . 7) . to storm it . " breathing out threatenings and slaughter against the disciples of the Lord" (Acts 11 ." Raised two hundred and ninety-five feet above Mount Moriah. all the imagery of the Levitical worship was best seen . the sketcher sees the city as a continuous hill. and came back seeing (John ix . and Nebuchadnezzar. which is the nearest part of Jerusalem. From this commanding spot.). Here David stood. and when the great Antiochus. who. standing out singly from the surrounding mountains . on Neginoth. One elegant writer calls the view" a solace of holy reminiscences pure and native . Pliny Fisk. xii . swelling with anger. when the man born blind was led down to Siloam yonder. in 1823. Observers also stood here HYSSOP. and Titus. All intelligent visitors to Jerusalem have united in praising the scenery from Mount Olivet . 4) . From here. and when the chief musician. with his Tenth Legion. for from this point the defences could best be viewed. with stringed . perhaps. and here the captain of Nebuchadnezzar studied it day by day during the eighteen months that he strove to capture Jerusalem . made this his principal point of observation during the long months of the siege. and arrangements made for the attack . and preparing with his two hundred and eighty thousand men. Josephus pointed out the various localities to Titus. instruments and high-sounding cymbals. and all the conquerors of Jerusalem .$76 THOUGHTS ON OLIVET. while contemplating with a soldier's eye the strong fortress of Jebus on the opposite cliffs.) Shishak stood here. entered the Damascus Gate yonder. to " go about his Master's business " at Jerusalem . and when Saul.

had given up the ghost. Observers stood here when the Jews " stoned Stephen" on yonder hillside. on that dark. "calling upon God and saying. and when Jesus "beheld the city. first enduring the pangs of the cross. occurred within sight of spectators upon this memorable slope of Olivet where I sit . that doleful afternoon. and came back several years afterwards the humblest of the followers of the meek and lowly Jesus.) . All those scenes. and over branches of trees. 59) . but my sentence can never be completed . when "the earth did quake and the rocks rent. We pass now down the valley of Jeboshaphat. and a multitude of others. finally. receive my spirit " (Acts vii . just as he had wept over the sorrows of the disconsolate family at Bethany but a few days before (John xi . yonder. and went across the stupendous bridge. Hosanna. scarcely a mile from this spot. embracing incidents in the life of every Scriptural character from Abraham to Paul. the Tombs of Absalom ." and " darkness was over the whole land until the uinth hour. went out of hat same gate to the persecution.) . on yonder ridge. and through the portals of the Golden Gate. .).VALLEY OF JEHOSHAPHAT. 41). blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord" (Mark xi . leaving successively on our left the old Hebrew burying-ground. now destroyed. and "wept over it" (Luke xix ." probably at this very spot. and when the great procession passed westward along this very pathway by whose side I am sitting-passed over garments spread in the way. Lord Jesus. while "they that went before and they that followed said. 377 ix." because Christ.

A vivid fancy has drawn a parallel between this " bringing to light" of the blind man here and the symbolic representation familiar to every Mason . and then the pool of Siloam. My cut shows these monuments with distinctness .. below the pool of Siloam. where the people live in the dark. ete. damp tombs . VIRGIN'S FOUNT. and brought the beautiful and cheering scenes of nature to his knowledge! How the heart of Judas must have clashed with his covetous nature every' step of the way along this gloomy dale. or Virgin's Fount . Zechariah. as displayed in the productions of the . the extraor .d7$ BRINGING TO LIGHT . We cannot fail to observe. My cut is of the upper spring. What a glorious sunlight kindled up his long sightless eyeballs. and reach first the Virgin's Fount. 3inary fertility of the soil. as he went to the palace of the ugh-Priest to receive the wages of his treason ! On the left of us is the village of Siloam (Silwau).

at Aceldama (the Potter's Field of Judas). These are the King's Gardens of Solomon's time . and the dome of Omar on the left . This engraving exhibits the valley of Jehoshaphat in its best fea . tures . also the 'village of Siloam. and gave him bread and wine in the name of the Most High God (Genesis xiv. VIEW NORTH FROM ACELDAMA. 379 gardens here. where the prince Melchizedek met the patriarch Abraham reclining as these lazy natives are reclining to-day. This is the valley of Shaveh. taken from a point further south. the church on the summit of Olivet on the right.VALLEY OF SHAVEII . shows us this extraordinary development. always apparent in this country when there is water enough for irrigation . My cut. . 18) .

and beneath which. in which the Lord's Supper was instituted. in this time. decimated by cholera. outside. Dear the southwestern corner of the city. and others . and for several months lie was unable to return. Between us and the tomb are the various Protestant cemeteries. in which is the apartment traditionally styled Cmnaczvhcna (supper-room). When W. to open a missionary station. The city. and some fifteen of their royal successors. and went back to Joppa for his furniture and clothing deposited there . Climbing again in a southwesterly direction. English. so called. Thomson came here in 1834. DAVID'S TOMB. is the Tomb of David. Here is a cut of the edifice so famed . with far more reason. M . MOUNT SION. In the meantime a rebellion broke out. . we place the bodies of David and Solomon. Included in the ten thousand tragedies surrounding this city. there is one that particularly touches an American heart . was cannonaded. The heavy. honeycombed beneath with ancient tombs. square edifice directly before us. American. we find ourselves on the Hill of Evil Counsel.880 TOMB OF DAVID. he left his wife in the city.

and rendered my dear little babe motherless in a strange land : That child is now Prof. laid my earthly hopes in the dust. in the apprehension caused by seeing his house knocked to pieces by artillery . of the fright and exposure. set up the image of a hog. His wife died a few weeks afterward. II . read his melancholy history. Thomson. Asa Dodge. 11. Near the honored grave of Mrs. and. This completes our circuit of the city. but a most horrible insult to the nation that built Jerusalem .TOWER OF DAVID. Here. ficiently far to secure a good view of the city from this quarter. and the afflicted man wrote.D. THE DAVID TOWER . about A. his first view of Jerusalem caused horror and faintness to seize him. "The Lord bath put out the light in my dwelling. a zealous American missionary. who died here January 28. leaving the vast " Lower Pool of Gihon" on the left. and striking out westward suf. 120. Thomson lies Dr . so that. The visitor to this cemetery should also look up the grave of poor Costigan. Passing around the southwest angle of the city. when at last he was enabled to return. 235) records it with much feeling. Stevens (Travels. our attention is first attracted to the massive Tower of David (so called) by the Joppa Gate . not an uncommon emblem on the Roman coins. 381 and terribly shaken by earthquakes . before going down to the Dead Sea. W. the Emperor Hadrian. comprising a ride of about . 1835 . I place two cuts in juxtaposition . of New York. at the Joppa Gate.

in some far-distant day. giving special attention to the period 1099 to 1187. The view of the stupendous ruins of Jerusalem one calm Sabbath morning called to my mind the beautiful Masonic allegory of "working in silence.THE JOPPA GATE. OR GATE ON THE WEST SIDE OF JERUSALEM distant land may. a tourist from some far- THE JOPPA GATE . where the signs of old buildings have quite disappeared.326 yards. the once magnificent metropolis extended ! Like Mount Sion. and wondering how far in this direction." founded as it is upon the following passages "And the house. I am glad to add that a history of Jerusalem from Herod to the present time will be published this year (1872) from the pens of Walter Besaut and E. that. was built of stone made . Palmer. though the actual circuit of the walls themselves is but 4. II . six miles. circumambulate the then desolate city of New York. and human bones. As I set out in this chapter regretting that we have no proper account of the sieges and captures. from the ruined stone piers at Castle Garden. in like manner. assaults and defences of Jerusalem. or two and a half miles . so interesting to Knights Templars . ancient coins. Manhattan then may yield to the excavator its wealth of carved marbles. when it was in building. It is a curious subject of contemplation. domestic objects. stopping inquiringly at the corner of Fultonstreet and Broadway.

LABORERS WITH GOD .

3S3

ready before it was brought thither ; so that there was neither hammer nor axe, nor any tool of iron heard in the house, while it was in building." (1 Kings vi . 7 .) This suggests ode of the grandest purposes of the Masonic institution, viz., 'the promotion of peace and harmony. Mr. Beecher, in one of his inimitable prayers, has said, to the same effect : " Thy work, 0 Lord ! in the structure of the human soul, and thy government that is established beyond and out of our sight, are wrought out here . here thou artbringin fortli the stones for thy building ; here is the sound of the hammer and the chisel ; here is all confusion, and here are all waste and noisome things ; but here is but the ground where thou art shaping. Yonder is where thou art building, and there they that stand around .thee behold the perfectness of all thy work, which thou past had in hand since the beginning of the world!" These are grand, good words, and will touch a chord in every Masonic heart ; for it is a Masonic precept, that "we are laborers together with God ; we are God's husbar 'iry . we are God's building ." That great man who, eighteen cect3 .-ies ago, preached along these hills, teaching men everywhere to lxlieve, repent, and be saved, was proud to make the claim "Accords .g to the grace of God, which is given unto me, as a wise master-builMer, I have laid the foundation ." " (1 Cor. iii. 10.)

"IOLEMY L SOTER .

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CHAPTER XXIII.
JERUSALEM IN

1868 .

HE incident of my sending a telegram, in186,fromBeyt rout to a friend in Jerusalem, fitly illustrates the changes that have come over this ancient city since the days when, isolated by its vast precipices, wretched roads, and swarming enemies, the crusaders who held it in the eleventh century yearned for months and years to receive news from their distant homes, but yearned in vain. The recent setting-up of a steam-

REV. H . PETERMANN, D .D ., LL.D ., Resident, 1868, at Jerusalem ; a Mason of 40 years' standing .

eng4ne in Jerusalem .-for grinding grain is another illustration in the

386

THE PRUSSIAN HOTEL.

same direction ; how had King Solomon's 183,300 workmen been diminished to the number of 10,000, could his architects have employed the power of steam instead of human labor, to saw, cut, remove, and lift in place the mighty ashlars now visible in the in closing walls of Mount Moriah . The population is at present about 25,000, of whom nearly one half (10,000) are Jews . The city has two good hotels, and various boarding-houses, in one of which, the Prussian (louse, under the patronage of the Prussian Knights of St. John, I made my abode . Missionaries of almost every Christian nation except America, are engaged here in the education and conversion of the natives . Some of their establishments, such as the English Episcopal, the Roman Catholic, the Armenian, and the Greek churches, are imposing in magnitude. The American Vice-Consul at Jerusalem, Mr. L . M . Johnson (in 1872 a citizen of New Haven, Connecticut), is a gentleman of fine qualifications, and treated me with much courtesy and attention. The present incumbent of the office is Hon . R. Beardsley, a very ardent Mason, formerly of Elkhart, Indiana. At the Prussian House, where I boarded, all are welcome, up to the limits of the house ; and only those who are able are expected to pay. My bill was only five francs ($1) per day, while the fare is abundant and good. The place is snug and comfortable ; well described by a gentleman who was here some years since as " a singularly constructed concern . A high wall or foundation looks on the street, and on that the house is built . You climb from the street by a narrow wooden stairway, and enter a court about forty feet square, round which the rooms are huddled . From this court rises a second stairway, which leads to a row of rooms ; another stairway takes you to another batch of chambers, and so you reach the housetop, flat, like all houses in this country ." This affords, at a coup d'tsil, a glimpse of Scopus, Olivet, the village of Siloam, Mosque of Omar, Sion, and many noted points besides . In the furniture of my boardinghouse, scrupulously clean as it was, evidences could be seen of what I had observed more plainly in the English Hotel at Joppa, viz., the ravages of the moth (Tinea tapetzella), referred to in Bible passages, and which is very destructive in this climate. The general idea of my house-top, with its battlements, etc ., will be gathered from the cut on the next page. The streets of Jerusalem, like those of Oriental cities, towns, and villages generally, are extremely narrow . There are two reasons for this : first, that the population may be crowded, for defensive pur

NASTINESS OF THE STREET&

387

poses, into as little space as possible-most towns being upon hilltops, where space is restricted ; second, because the people believe they can keep cooler in this y. In the hot season, they spread mattings

across from roof to roof, which throw the streets into a dense shade that certainly is cooler than our broad streets exposed to the full blaze of the sun . The streets of Jerusalem likewise are filthy . The reader will hardly conceive that so much carrion, so much manure, so much old vegetables, and the debris of humanity, can be packed into one alley six to ten feet wide . But they do it, and do it neatly . In regard to this nastiness, I am reminded that in the eighth century, annually, on the 15th September, immense processions used to traverse Jerusalem, and render them extremely offensive with dung ; but they had no sooner left the city than heavy rains would fall, completely purifying it. It is not so now. One could wish that the builder of the Cloaca Maxima (B . c .588) at Rome had an imitator in Jerusalem, to drain off the foul matters which have no outlet but the streets and a few shallow and restricted sewers . Is the view from these contracted streets an agreeable one? Not much . This passage from somebody's note-book describes it : "Bare stone walls ; prison-like houses ; very few latticed windows ; the whole view

VIEW OF A HOUSETOP.

388

SILLY EXPECTATIONS .

wretchedly unsatisfactory to a civilized eye ." The proud and stately Moslem, fingering his beads in abstracted mood, threads the bazaar with step as proud and stately as a Pharisee ; and yet, if you look at his feet, you see a combination of every sort of excrement ; and if you open your nostrils, you gather in, from the same, a variety of effluvias to which the celebrated 11 three-and-forty stinks of Cologne" were nothing. Verburn sat sap. In coming to Jerusalem I had certain well-defined objects of research, and confined myself mainly to them . This is prudent. To come simply "to see what is to be seen," as a traveller told me he did, is to see nothing coolly and deliberately. On the other hand, the visitor may waste his days seeking unattainable objects . A student once showed me a list of the things he intended to look up, should he ever visit Jerusalem. Among them were the mark of the Ass's feet that bore Jesus from Bethany over Mount Olivet, and into the Temple (Matthew xxi .) Sir John Maundeville said they were here when he came, A.D . 1322, visible at three places on the steps of the Golden Gate, which are of very hard stone . Also the pillar that Absalom in his lifetime had reared up in the king's dale, as in 2 Samuel xviii. He had been told that everybody throws stones at it, as a mark of scorn at that cruel son, and he was determined to do it too. Likewise the pool of Siloam . The tradition is that the water of it will heal sore and inflamed eyes . He bad resolved to carry a bottleful of it home and experiment upon it . Also a palm-tree standing on the side of Mount Olivet, from which the branches were taken to honor Christ . He assured me he would gather some of the leaves . (Matt. xxi.) And, finally, the stone col umn to which our Lord was bound when he was scourged. (Matt. xxvii. 26 .) Long afterwards, the marks of blood were to be seen on it, if the monks tell the truth, and I'm sure they don't . I need not say that the traveller seeking for such things only wastes his time . In reading accounts of such a monument of antiquity as Jerusalem, we want to see it .just as it is, in its every-day, working dress. We would behold its dazzle and its dirt ; its numerous classes of inhabitants grouped and herded together within the walls ; the manners and customs of its motley populace ; the character of the priests and monks ; the remains of ancient civilization, and the prospects and possibilities of improvement . Such was my aim. To get rid of a subject which is in everybody's mind, I commence with a sketch of the so-called Holy Sepulchre .

THE HOLY SEPULCHRE.

389

In my observations on this subject, I but express the feeling of all Protestants of my acquaintance who have weighed the arguments by

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which Papal and Greek writers endeavor to palm this place upon the Christian world as the veritable Calvary and Cemetery of Christ . For my part, I find no passage that so well expresses my views of these false traditions and unholy mummeries as one written by Brother Rev. Pliny Fisk, the missionary, who visited here in 1823, the same referred to in Chapter Thirteenth . After seeing the poor theatricals made up here of the crucifixion scene, he wrote : "I felt as though Jerusalem were a place accursed of God, and given over to iniquity and sin. The Jews hate the name of Christ, and gnash their teeth when it is spoken ; the Turks exalt their false prophet above Christ's most glorious name, and are distinguished for their hypocrisy, tyranny, and deception ; the Greeks and Armenians profane the Temple of the Lord, having little of the essential nature of Christianity ."

390

OFFENSIVE SUPERSTITIONS .

Passing along by the so-called Holy Sepulchre, one morning, I looked in for a few minutes to witness some of its processions. The workmen had just completed the new dome, and were taking down the timbers . I had read all that can be said for and against accept.Dg this place as the locality of our Saviour's death and burial, and would not allow the gorgeousness of the scene to influence my mind. I believe it is all a fiction, got up by tradition-forgers for gain . The whole structure, every stone, arch, pillar, altar, statue, image, picture, and lamp, is a falsehood, a gorgeous imposture, an ecclesiastical hoax . The more the local traditions of Jerusalem are examined, the more I distrust them . Old writers tell us nothing else ; modern writers must be fanatics if they venture to say anything about them except to deride them . They coin legends and frame an ecclesiastical topography without history or research . The business of travellers now is to collect facts one by one that will illustrate God's history, and these must explode the legends. But even though this building should contain all the relics it claims, and ten thousand more, this would not countenance in the slightest degree the abominable idolatries practised here . There is no idolatry on earth more offensive ; no more unseemly and indecent behavior practised in any heathen temple, than here, where the hopes and affections of the Eastern Church tend ; where tens and hundreds of thousands come up to obtain pardon for their sins, and lull at the cross or the tomb their guilty consciences to sleep, never to be awakened until it is too late . The Holy Sepulchre is the Mecca of the corrupt Christianity of the East . From two minarets close by, the cry of " God is God ; Mohammed is the prophet of God," floats over this broad roof, and announces to the four winds of heaven that the Moslem dominates the cradle of the Christian faith . In this building, by a monstrous stretch of faith, to which my boyhood's belief in Gulliver's Travels was mathematical accuracy, they have crowded severity distinct sacred localities "undQr one roof, and provided seventeen semi and demisemi sects of Christians to swear to their identity . The New Jersey brother who is said to believe in the "legends" of the Scotch Rite, is Solomon himself compared with this. The Wisconsin man who indorses the Rite of Jlleinphis, is Sir Isaac Newton personified compared with these . And after all, the building can scarcely be called a church, being more like a large depot-building, covering twoscore offices. Worthier than this, and really a larger church, because a single edifice, is the Armenian Chinch
11

BENEATH THE GREEN SPRIGS.

391

of St James, on Mt. Sion . This, too, is unequalled in sacred vest, ments and rich decorations. Amongst its curiosities is the chair that St. James used to sit on. I forgot to ask for this, and cannot describe the pattern to my chair-making correspondents . The number of ostrich-eggs hanging from the roof of this church, however, suggests the prolific lays of that stately bird . The cry of an old pilgrim visiting the Holy Sepulchre, was, 11 Oh, who can behold without sorrow, without indignation, the enemies of Christ acting as the lords of his sepulchre!" HOW analogous is this fine character to our memories of him who, not far from this same spot, was found "Buried beneath the green sprigs, Sleeping under the sod ." I thought of this when I found a large acacia-tree growing in an Englishman's garden, a short distance south of this spot. I give four cuts of the ancient seals of Jerusalem . Having now said all that I have space for concerning this "thesaurus of lies," the Holy Sepulchre, I go on to record such thoughts as are naturally suggested by a walk through Jerusalem . The tenements seem to be sinking into the earth. One story seems already sunk, and the others arc so rapidly following, that in another generation the observer can lean from the street on to the flat roof. SEAL OF The Jews here, although living in Amortum 1. 1162-1137. idleness and poverty, two things abnorrent to their nature, emulate the blessing pronounced in Nehemiah xi . 2, "upon all the men that willingly offered themselves to dwell atJerusalem." For they came to Jerusalem strictly for religious purposes, that living, they may pave the way for the future return of their nation to these holy hills, and dying, they may be buried in that ancient cemetery JERUSALEM . across Jehoshaphat, where the slope Kniilits of St . John .
TIM RING OF JERUSALEX. RGSFITALIS

392

HEBREW EPITAPHS .

of Olivet is already paved with their tombstones . How affectingly those memorial stones speak of the sleepers beneath, is seen in the two following epitaphs (translated from the He brew) from that place. There is a peculiar accent of touching grace in them ; a humility ; a certain hope of universal kindness ; a sense of the happiness of reposing with the just ; purity of morals and sweetness of family life ; a mild acceptation of death, considered as repose, which have not had the attention of travellers they deserve . These two are the epitaphs of a lady and her husband :

Baldwin IV. 1174-1185 A .D

TURRIS DAVID .

HOLY SEPULCHRE,

1150.

EPITAPH OF A WOMAN.

Great in degree, and glorious ; the heart of her husband trusted safely in her ; praised as a woman that feareth the Lord . She was the king's daughter, all glorious within, who rose above all elevation, and was perfect in beauty, glory, and righteousness . She opened her mouth with wisdom, and in her tongue was the law of kindness ; a stem of high descent and elevation . Was she not the Rabbiness (Mrs. Rabbi), the pleasant roe, and the widow of our master and teacher, the holy Rabbi, the holy, pious Chaim, the son of Ater, of blessed memory ? She was daughter of the mighty and wise, the high prince, our honored teacher, Rabbi Moses, the son of Ater, of blessed memory."
EPITAPH OF A MAN.

"Here is a head of gold. Was be not beloved of the Almighty? A precious stone ; to discourse of him, is easy . The Almighty meant it for good when he enlightened him from his glory, as they lighten the seven lamps ; his shaft, and his branch, it kindled his people . And he called him by the name Hephzibah . He was a bringer to light of all that is kind ; he was glory, he was brightness . Was lie not the wonderful and honored Rabbi, the perfect theologian (cabalist) of the Almighty, the holy, the pious, our honored teacher and Lord Rabbi, C11aim, son of Ater? Ile grew old, seeking in the Upper Gesbibah (place of study) ; on the fifteenth day of the month of Tha .

CAT-AND-DOG NEIGHBORS .

393

nntz, in the year 5550 (i.e., the year A . D. 1790), gaining the splendor of the Sheeinah. He is the author of the book ' The Lord the King (Ilammelech Hashene), and the book 'Taar' (Form), and the book ' Or Ha-haiiom' (Light of the Living), and the book' Rishon le Zion' (Is . xli. 27), (First to Zion) ." So great is the change in favor of the modern Jews, that, according to the New York Independent of June 1, 1871, the Sultan is inducing Jews to immigrate into Palestine, offering to sell them even the Mosque of Omar (but this is incredible) . The same authority states that some of the hills around Jerusalem are already Jewish property. The Armenians here are very strong in numbers, and wealthy . They have an immensely large convent (an enormous edifice) in the cool and quiet street that runs southward on Mount Sion, and I greatly enjoyed my visit to their library and printing-press . I found the manager of the press a noble specimen of an Armenian gentleman, dressed in fur-robes, black hair and eyes, intelligent and affable . The librarian had an olive complexion, a face solid as marble, a calm, intelligent eye, and looked, as old Dr . Caswell used to, as if he knew what was inside of his books. My guide, Mr. Serapion Murad, is a fine young Syrian of striking appearance, set off by an elegant native dress . I had considerable intercourse with him both in Joppa and Jerusalem. The Armenian Patriarch is a gentleman of polished manners and sensible speech, quite well posted in American history and manners . The spirit that moves these Latins, Armenians, and Greeks in their dealings with each other is quite Celtic, and of the Donnybrook Fair type. One side is perpetually dropping "the tail of me coat" on the ground, and the other side delights to tread on it . Once a year the Pope of Rome officially excommunicates the Greek Patriarch of Jerusalem for some of his shindies ; and in one of the churches in Rnme a nail is driven into the ground with a hammer, as a mark of malediction . And still the Patriarch eats his allowance, and still it does him good. He is the handsomest man that I know of, and one of the best-tempered ; and I can't help thinking, if Pius X. (or is it XX. ?) had been with me the morning I called on him, and taken a spoonful of those preserves and a cup of that coffee, and shared in that genial chat, he would put his ten pennies hereafter to a better purpose . But what's the use of talking in that way ?

S94

NAZEEF PASHA.

The chapel near 11 Ecce Homo " Arch (as it is most improperly styled) is full of gaudy and ridiculous paintings and ornaments,, as suggestive of devotion to an educated Christian's mind as the Hindoo idol that adorns my parlor at La Grange, Kentucky, is to an educated believer in Confucius ; and this is the general impression made on a Protestant's mind in visiting these Oriental churches . They show the skull of one of their old monks, and boast that, although lie lived here twenty years, he never visited the Dead Sea . I am told the skull is a very INTERIOR JERUSALEM HOUSE. thick one, and readily believe it . It is close by the traditional spot at which the Wandering Jew mocked Jesus, and received the sentence that drove him forth upon a ceaseless pilgrimage, and gave us such entertaining books as Salatlaiel, Le Juif Errant, etc. Close by this is a stone trough, out of which, they say, the beggar Lazarus took his stinted rations . I asked one of the monks if he knew that Josephus was born here A .D . 37? He replied that lie had never heard of Josephus before. I believe him . I found the Governor of Jerusalem, Nazeef Pasha, to be a short, stout man, handsomely dressed, a square-built, sailor-looking fellow . He was not over-courteous to me, not being a Freemason . In fact, he has the reputation of being an anti-Mason . They call him a religious fanatic, one who goes through his five series of prayers daily, and keeps all the feasts and fasts of the Mohammedan Church punctually, and hates Christians worse than anything else except Jews . One good thing stands to his credit, although lie has been removed from the government since I was there ; that is, he constructed the turnpike from Joppa to Jerusalem, to the delectation of all modern tourists . As to his ear for music, however, I cannot say so much, if the noises made by the buss band on his doorsteps, every evening about sunset, is done by his order. The location of Jerusalem relatively to other places is thus tabu . lated Latitude, 31° 46' north . Longitude, 35° 18' east of Greenwich.

393 From Joppa. • " Golden Gate • • St. 5 miles . • Gaza. 13 miles . the first from the sea-level. I give two classes of heights . Stephen's Gate 96 . 160 miles.HEIGHTS AND DISTANCES. Russian Convent Mount Olivet . 75 miles.537 2. 155 miles. 19 miles. " Samaria. Beyrout. • • Nazareth. 1S miles .281 614 728 433 441 118 285 CIRCUIT OF THE CITY. 468 " 195 " 295 " 244 " 415 " 353 " 230 " . ley of Jehoshaphat . 13 miles . 82 miles. 35 miles . • Damascus. . Mosque of Omar David's Tomb Pool of Siloam . • the Jordan. 132 miles.429 2. the second from the well En-rogel (Beer Eyub). Hebron. 157 miles.114 2. • Sidon. 2. Bethel. • Acre. 48 miles. 300 steps .610 2. • " Capernaum. " " bend in south wall • " Mograbbin Gate • " southeast corner . 36 miles. • • Bethlehem. 165 miles. Bridge over Kedron commencing at the northwest corner . Sion Gate . 45 miles .724 2. Jericho. . at the outlet of the val . Baalbec. Tyre. Palmyra. 110 miles. . To the Joppa Gate • southwest corner . • TABLE OF RELATIVE HEIGHTS.

Tyre. the south. In ancient times the bare rock must have shown itself in many places. and the natural difficulties of the ground were artificially increased in ancient times by the scarping of the rock-surface . or Well of Joab. Jerusalem is a mountain-city . Both ravines commence as a mere depression of the ground. has a course nearly north and south . Jericho. and their sides. It was pre-eminently so to the Jew . the valley of Jehoshaphat or of the Kedron. encumbered as they are now with the accumulated debris of centuries. for. " Damascus Gate " northwest corner Total . and the west. The easternmost of these ravines. not far from the Beer Eyub. and I will not repeat at much length merely second-hand knowledge. broken here and there by deep narrow gullies . Gaza. the other great cities within his ken. joins the valley of Kedron. forming the southern limit to the tongue of land above mentioned. the east. the strata nearly horizontal. about 21 miles .89G TOPOGRAPHY OF JERUSALEM. the landscape showing generally a succession of plateaux and flat-topped hills. 359 " 250 " 150 660 " CQ 4. after running a short distance to the southward. TOPOGRAPHY OF JERUSALEM . the valley of Hinnom. the westernmost. a tongue of land is inclosed between two of these ravines. L'o the northeast corner " Herod's Gate " the bend . those of Egypt and Mesopotamia. and. with the exception of Samaria and Ilebron. Damascus. were emphatically cities of the plain . city.279 steps. we find Jerusalem to have been at all times. At the point where the city stands. and on this the modern. On three sides. looked upon as a fortress of b g reat strength . • • • • 360 steps. Jezreel. The Bible teems with allusions to this local peculiarity of its site as a mountain-city. before the invention of gunpowder. like the ancient. makes a bold sweep to the east. The plateau on which the city stands is of tertiary limestone . So many works have been issued on this subject within ten years that almost every reader has the information at hand. are still steep and difficult of access . . is built. the encircling ravines formed an impregnable obstacle to an assailant . but their floors sink rapidly. Hence. and the ruins of buildings thrown down by successive invaders or domestic factions.

Phasaelus. . . that the western ridge is the most elevated and most important . of Bezetha. and the Upper City of Josephus. could only be directed against the northern face of the city. and its ancient course was to the eastward of its present course. captured by King David. either coincide with or occupy some portion of the Haram itself . All again are agreed in fixing Ophel on the end of the tongue of land called Moriah. and the Acra of the book of Maccabees . the Tyrian merchants. at the time of the famous siege by Titus. fifty feet. supplied by three distinct lines of wall. This depression has generally been identified in its whole course with the Tyropceon valley of Josephus. the fourth quarter and last added suburb of the city . In ancient times this valley was much deeper than at present. it may be observed. and of the castle of Antonia. and all are agreed in identifying the lower portion. and thence to the Kedron. A marked depression of the ground runs from north to south through the midst of the modern city. To determine the actual course of these walls is. the position of the Towers Hippicus. There are differences of opinion whether we should fix the Mount Zion of the Bible and the Mount Zion of the writers of Christian times on the same or on opposite hills . and in making the site of the Temples of Solomon. It is filled up with debris thirty feet. Zerubbabel. This is the Tyropoeon valley. Besides these two principal ravines. But here all agreement may be said to stop . At one part of its course it forms the western boundary of Mount Moriah .ZION AND MORIAH . the absence of natural defences was. and even eighty-five feet in depth . whether the name is to be identified with the eastern or the western ridge. the attack. therefore. 39 1 . as we are informed by Josephus. or. and Herod. where. The city being thus split in the midst into two ridges by this valley. the valley of cheesemakers. forming in its course the boundary between the Mohammedan. somewhat north of its junction with the valley of Hinnom. one of the most difficult problems before us . a third ravine of less importance splits the tongue of land into two unequal portions. notwithstanding the detailed description of them in Josephus. and the Christian and Jewish quarters of the modern city. with the Tyropoeou . which runs under the west wall of the Haram. by a reference to the map of Jerusalem. from the Damascus gate to a point in the Kedron valley. as some would have it. Most authorities are agreed in placing on some portion of this ridge the original city of Jebus. The exact position of the Temple is matter of controversy . the site of the Acra of Josephus.

are matters of keen dispute. The history of this perfect model of a just and generous man is contained in the interesting book which bears his name : that he was "the son of Hachaliah" and apparently of the tribe of Judah . 536 (ninety-one years prior to the period of which we are writing) Zerubbabel had led a caravan of his people back from Babylonia to Jerusalem . viz . a near kinsman of his. the people bad largely abandoned the religion of their fathers. and the whole nation was in a state of abject affliction and reproach . if determined. . the philanthropic Peabody of his day. murder and robbery were rife even within the streets of Jerusalem . residing during the winter season at Shushan. This was the intelligence which had reached the ears of Nehemiah through his kinsman Hanani. 445. brought him intelligence from Jerusalem that affected him deeply . feeling his responsibility to the Grand Architect of the Universe for the manner in which he spends his days . which.. But the united efforts of these bands and their posterity had done but little to restore Israel to its former glory. or December. years after that Ezra led a second caravan back to Jerusalem. and of the Tower Pheshinus. me . In the twentieth year of that king's reign. the exact extent of the city in the time of our Saviour . would go far to settle the disputed question of the course of the second and third walls of Josephus . whose large wealth was profusely expended in the strengthening of Jerusalem and the care of its poor.c ." to follow Nehemiah understandingly in his remarkable nocturnal survey of Jerusalem. at the opening of his biography. These had rebuilt the temple and portions of the city . he was "the cup-bearer" of King Artaxerxes Longimanus. Seventy-nine. and that. one Hanani. 500. and especially in the days of that vilified order. It will be remembered that in the year B.398 NEHEMIAH THE WALL-BUILDER . Such a comparison is just in all its parts . the renowned wall-builder of the Jewish restoration. that he was born during the Babylonish captivity. jealous of his honor. are the principal data from which we must set out. Marauders made property and life insecure . which can only be settled by patient and systematic burrowing into the dlesbris produced by many successive demolitions of the city at those points where the absence of inhabited houses renders it possible to excavate at It was always a matter of interest to me. "the Conservators. about B . to a Freemason. the Tirshatha of the Jews. zealous in his work. It is quite a proper thing to compare Nehemiah. and Mariamme.c. in the month of Chisleu.

This nocturnal reconnoissance has been until recently a blind track to Bible-readers. A late writer says : " It is impossible to overestimate the importance to the future political and ecclesiastical prosperity of the Jewish nation " of the coming of this patriotic governor. at length set up so many of the fallen " metes and bounds " as to enable me to nearly follow the steps of the great Tirshatha around its area. for many years a missionary at Jerusalem. Arising "in the night. The labors of Dr. Barclay's solution of this zigzag problem is contained in the parentheses . styling God "the great and terrible God that keepeth covenant and mercy. and a most diligent explorer of the ancient city. he laid before the king the . T . Then (having gone round the point of Mount Zion to the south) I went on to the gate of the fountain (by the pool of Siloam)." This being done. A pious man. statutes. 399 A prudent man. even before the dragon well (the pool in the valley on the west). the most important work (that of building the city walls) . and then began. he offered the prayer which his own pen had recorded. J. and so he set forth. telling no man "what his God had put in his heart to do at Jerusalem. letters to the governors of the intervening districts were given him by the king ." he and "some few men" with him. Barclay.NOCTURNAL RECONNAISSANCE . with the power of life and death . nor judgments. amply furnished and indorsed . doleful case of Israel ." confessing that his people "had not kept his commandments. with a view to the speedy rebuilding of the walls. and. special orders were issued that he should be supplied with timber from the king's forests . and viewed the walls of Jerusalem on the west side. company-all save himself being on foot-made the circumambulation of the ruins of Jerusalem. upon the monarch's asking him." and asking that God would prosper his purposes in behalf of Jerusalem. and "give him mercy in the sight of the king . and (turning to the left) to the dung port (500 yards south). a mounted guard was furnished him . for he was bound by promise to return to the king at a set time . he gave himself until the following April to consider sider bow best he could heal the wounds of his people . Nehemiah says : "I went out by the gate of the valley (the Joppa Gate). He spent but three days in preparations. . Nehemiah was made the governor of Judah. His worst anticipations as to the condition of Jerusalem and the Jewish nation were realized upon his arrival ." The favor was granted in the largest measure . Dr. but at first secretly. "For what dost thou make request ? " plead that "he might be sent to Judah to rebuild it ." the little.

and said. let us build up the wall of Jerusalem. perhaps a third. the Tekoite nobles "put not their necks to the work of the Lord . estimated the amount of labor necessary to be done. that we be no more a reproach ." and set themselves with decision to the work. and turned back and entered (again) by the gate of the valley (the Joppa Gate). and so wrought upon them by his appeals that they cried out. and the rulers. and viewed the wall (on the east side of the city). that in a wonderfully short time the walls emerged from the heaps of rubbish and encircled the city as in days of old. and retraced his journey to the Joppa Gate . turned to the left. This festival occasion is minutely described in the Book of Nehemiah . Nehemiah then returned to Babylon. and rescued the pror Jews from spoliation and 11 . and so in fifty-two days the work was accomplished . Having. all the rest had a mind to the work. observe that the zealous governor went out at the Joppa Gate.400 ENTHUSIASTIC RESPONSE. He paid a second visit to Jerusalem." He told them of God's answer to his prayer in the distant land of exile. he now called together "the priests. and of the kindness and liberality of the king . He firmly repressed the exactions of the nobles and the rich. and so returned . "let us rise up and build. at one of which he performed the splendid and triumphant ceremonial of dedicating the walls. like a skillful engineer. the nobles. we indorse the views of a late writer. He then turned back. Jerusalem waste." and in nervous language exhorted them to duty . Dividing the wall into ten parts. but there was no place for the beast that was under me to pass (owing to the accumulation of water and rubbish there) . Only one exception is noted in the popular response . In summing up the character of this man. then round the point of Ophel to the valley east of the Temple . the reader has only to take a map of Jerusalem. Then I went up in the night by the brook (Kedron)." With such energy did the people labor." To sum up this reconnoissance. For pure and disinterested patriotism he stands unrivalled . that we are unable to find a single fault to counterbalance his many and great virtues . Agreeably to his promise to the king. He reminded them of the prevalent distress. Come. and her gates burned with fire. corresponding with the quarters of the city nearest which they dwelt respectively. circumambulated Mount Zion to Siloam. the princes and leaders vied with each other in self-sacrifice and industry. and (turning round the point of Mount Ophel to the south and east) to the King's Pool (the Fount of the Virgin) .

D. five days preceding the first anniversary of his government. Godfrey was elected by the army. those of caring for the sick and warring against Mohammedanism . His spurs are preserved here . which had been established at Jerusalem in 1048 (fiftyone years before). in which act he was followed by the other princes . accepting only the title of Defender of the Tonib of Christ . and obedience. 401 slavery. in consideration of their poverty. was watered not alone by the tears of friends. 1099. This. during the whole twelve years that lie was in office. so mote it be ! It has been said of the inimitable Godfrey. chastity. at which any who returned from captivity were welcome . He was alike distinguished for political courage and for personal bravery . John's Hospital. but when in arms he was a hero . His lofty mind was capable of the grandest enterprises . he clove in twain a gigantic Saracen . the amiableness of virtue to its commanding gravity . that in him the gentlest manners were united to the firmest spirit . and pressed as he was by the voice of all the chiefs of the Crusade. and humanity combined in one noble soul.GODFREY THE GOOD. fervent. answer. I know of nothing to excite the interest of a Freemason in this building so much as the thought that here repose the ashes of knighthood's noblest exponent. generosity. Amen. but kept at his own charge a table for 150 Jews. Amen. A . John of Jerusalem. in fact. Godfrey died the following year. His deportment was moral His piety was . on the bridge of Antioch. virtue. qui totam istani terrain acquisivit cultui Christiano : cujus anima reynet cum Christo . but honored by the commendations of many of the Moslems. Let all who . A. 1098. also that formidable sword with which. And his martial zeal in the cause of heaven was always directed by prudence and tempered by philanthropy . He regretted the stern necessity that drew him from the immediate service of God . by which I stood. His tomb. Godfrey de Boulion. first king of the Latin monarchy of Jerusalem. originated the order of St . He refused to receive his lawful allowance as governor from the people.D. which expresses a volume : Ilic jacet inclytus Dux can admire dignity. whose affections his natural virtues had conciliated. but declined. adding to the usual vows of poverty. he nevertheless refused to wear a diadem in the city where his Saviour had worn a crown of thorns . Faithful to his first simple wish of becoming the defender and advocate of the Holy Sepulchre. with which many of the Crusader knights became affiliated. Here I read his inscription. He granted a donation to the St . Godefridus de Bulion.

notes from my diary as made . Crowned in Christ's glory And reigning in bliss ! ft wenld be easy to fill this book with the notes and memorandumq made relative to the street-scenes of Jerusalem . and copy th. that Tasso closes his immortal poem of Jerusalem Delivered by describing his passage. live grandly here! Ashes of Godfrey. where he "Hung up his arms. . If I am not mistaken. Fitter by far. such things constitute a class of facts perused with avidity by all. Not where the Saviour bore Thorns on his brow . must be looked for in this direction . to the Temple. Godfrey shall ever be Ilomaged and crowned. and whatever real originality a man can throw around so worn and trite a theme as Jerusalem. "Warder of Tomb Divine. Not where the Prince of Life Sorrowed and groaned. Therefore I will be somewhat diffuse upon this subject.(02 THE CHOICE OF GODFREY . Good Sword of Jesus. Mine be the humbler name. his bannered spoils displayed. Christ's Chevalier. Not where my king upon Cross-tree did bow . So transcendent were the virtues of Godfrey. armed as he was and in his sanguine vest. there's No place like this. Christ's Sepulchre I " Mine at its portal In armor to lie! Mine in death's ministry When I shall die . And at the Sacred Tomb his vowed devotion paid!" Dly own lines upon the immortal Godfrey are here given : THE CHOICE OF GODFREY. Qh. Knight of Christ's Sepulchre.

I gave them some boiled eggs .STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM . grinds her teeth. She saw that. young things whose eyes are not yet opened . another little girl about twelve. for she doesn't like the style of my clothes . clasps hands over her forehead. STREET-SCENES IN JERUSALEM. spits and shrieks. The man is covered with hens . This is the way they do here. They boil them over night. But. Nobody ever saw eggs boiled so hard as they boil them in Jerusalem . she wags her tail. Their clothes are made of blue cotton of the thinnest. The sidewalk is only twenty inches wide. An enormous pair of wings flaps over his shoulders. The big girl screams and gets up awkwardly. and bread that looks like such black sawdust as mahogany-wood makes . or curdled milk. . kicks her in the side and makes a noise as cameliers do . All the dress the two girls have on wouldn't cover a candle-stand decently . Their only victuals are libbarn. while I am writing up her family. ful expression . eating their breakfast. in a small wooden dish. They went off without even asking me for backcheesh. She kneels down as camels do. what a merry game of camel they do play 1 A chicken-peddler with strings of poultry swung all over him . Then the little one climbs her back. turns her head back. and she will bring them up there . playing camel. and the big girl is the camel . laughing just as such a merry pair of sisters ought to . A rooster's head is sticking out where his head oil-lit to be. cheapest. Each one put his right hand under my right hand so as just to touch it. as a camel does. Probably they forgot it . then away they both go. Never was a lot of boiled eggs swallowed so fast before . after all. And now. and raised it up to his lips and kissed it . suckles her four pups. and turns her one motherly eye upon me with a grat. lying under the window. They must keep them on hand ready boiled. At first she snarled at me. Three laboring men sitting on the sidewalk near me. and raggedest character. Thousands of people pass along this sidewalk every hour. she changed her mind. Yet the creature gave birth to them there. but after I bought her a string of kabobs and some bread. A dog. 403 A little girl about six years old. Then the grateful fellows came up to thank me . reminding me of the ridiculous old angel that I saw painted in a Greek church yesterday . these outlandish clothes may cover a human heart . for nobody will disturb her oil that narrow sidewalk . oh.

I am afraid he was drunk . the mother lay perfectly unconcerned. and then burn them alive . Get out of the way . He loomed up like Vesuvius. living on Mount Lebanon. The quantity of sugar-cane that is sold in the bazaars of Jerusalem surprises me . I enjoyed the joke of an English sailor measuring the width of the streets by lying clown across them. And everybody did get out of the way. It reminds me how surprised the Crusaders were when they found at Tripoli. most as large as a bushel-basket. nearly carries me off my feet. his monstrous under-jaw swinging round the upper one like a barn-door on its hinges. hands. his rider roared Ruak.. The Turks hardly ever laugh. lie told me of a family of four brothers. On each side of him great sacks-full bulged out . in tracks like a mammoth's . and liked so much that they could not be satisfied . was coming down the narrow street . honeyed reeds. tongues. to cut their feet and hands off . The musses made sometimes in these narrow streets make the very Turks laugh . as he came stalking along. his head level. you wouldn't think there was so much gallantry in them. So he tried it in a dozen places. and had made a bet with another sailor that he was as long . Anything like humanity seems foolishness to these people. sweet. in Louisiana. that is. his wide. to look at them. which they sucked. though. The custom is almost as common among the children here. All the time this dog-fight was going on. I watched a muss . Hassan says he would love to treat his enemies that way . Hassan. who was carrying a bread-tray on her head. at last a donkey tipped a load of oak roots on him . for his head touched one side and his feet the other. A furious dog-fight surging down the street. and eyes were destroyed by a cruel tyrant more than thirty years ago . tear out their tongues by the roots. were heaped mountain high. spongy feet flattening out on the stone pavement. dove down . suckling her little dogs. called zookra. all day long. as the street is 2vide . They used to sew up their prisoners in asses' skins. on his hump. at least. Piles of cauliflowers that grew around here. As he came along. whose feet. who was smoking outside a cafe near me. chewing sugar-cane. and went in for them. The heroes of the two factions bad agreed that she. He had been to Jerusalem before. burnout their eyes with hot irons . A camel. One woman. shouldn't be meddled with . I used to notice the little negroes. loaded with vegetables. and I believe him.404 STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. ruak. came up with his koorbash. and won the bet every time.

for the donkeys could not turn round for their lives. The cane flew into slivers like glass . that look more like wolf than dog. The people here won't even talk ' about dogs. 405 below the camel's stomach.soldier poked the camel's legs with his bayonet to make him bite . A . and carried them backwards into the side streets. when there are more than five thousand strangers here . I don't know. by striking it over the back of a monstrous brute that would not get out of the way when I hallooed to him . and the . who bad each of his horns tied up with a wisp of hay. The don. The merchant was fumbling over his rosary and praying. he met a procession of six donkeys. Never was such an uproar. The camel screamed . Get out of the way . So they lived for many centuries under the Roman rule . in the business parts of the city. Such scenes must be common here. The rest of the crowd jumped into the stores right and left as I had done . I jumped into one of the little shops where they sell cakes . as their roots just filled up the width of the streets. and so let the camel pass . that is. The Jews bate dogs as bad as the Mohammedans . They won't answer questions about dogs . it pleases the dogs . all loaded down with oak-roots. Instead of driving a mangy cur out of the way. The donkey-drivers swore. Puak. The camel-driver yelled. At last. seeming to hate newfashioned dresses . Right behind this camel walked a ferocious bull. The camel could not turn round without pulling down the buildings on both sides of him . I used up a beautiful olive-wood cane to-day.STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. yet they lived in Egypt more than two hundred years. How the people of this country do detest and despise dogs ! They seem afraid to touch them . and so got out . If they say anything in reply to such questions it is Mar arrif. recalling the Latin maxim. keys raised their tails and brayed . roots 'and all. to lie right across the sidewalk and block it up. I suppose if I would wear the native dress they would not bark at me. But he stopped praying and tried to sell me some eggs-a piastre a dozen . lest their clothes should touch him . ruak. fcenum in cornu kabet-he has hay on his horns. they actually walk around him. the men shouldered the donkeys. I wondered how the thing would be settled. and the Egyptians loved the dog enough to make an idol of him . They suffer the poor. especially at this time. the drivers on top . Maybe that is the reason the people wear tha same fashions that Abraham did . that I had just bought. cowardly wretches. Here was a muss. But just as the camel had passed me. They bark at me incessantly.

No dog shall move out of a man's way. I was surprised to see all the houses of Jerusalem numbered on the doors. Of coursf they use the Arabic figures . but none the less enforced . surly. Rule 5. Rule 2 . Miyah thalata aasher. The dogs here seem to have a regular constitution and set of bylaws. nor the slight-built greyhound . who need cleaning themselves worse than the streets . for. half-starved curs. IIassan says they tax people here not according to the number of persons in the family. the stronger dog shall take his place . And such a breed! You never see here the bluff. Then. first. is 84. when dried. these are all gaunt. The City of Jerusalem is divided into ten dog-districts . Fomsns honored and respected the dog. sturdy. courageous bulldog . Rule 3 . Rule 6 . But this makes no difference with them Jews never learn anything from other nations . Jerusalem dogs are all of one breed. deep-voiced bloodhound . not written out or printed. The ground in that direction is full of oak-roots. AIf sittah. means 113 Thamarneen arbaah. Instead of that. nor the silent. The strongest dog in his district shall be the dog-sheikh in that district until some stronger dog whips him. While sitting one day in a cool cavern. burn first-rate . intelligent mastiff . but not much good of that collar will he get .4U6 DOG LAWS . all the dogs in his district shall bark too. how they will tax that poor farmer before he gets home to-night! His load of roots is worth in Jerusalem about a dollar. Penalty. although only a stray oak here and there has been seen up that way for hundreds of years. but according to the number of houses! So the governor has had them all numbered . is 1006 . they don't know isn't worth knowing. street-cleaners. When the dog-sheikh barks. No dog shall ever go outside of the district in which he is born . nor the noble Newfoundland. Rule 4. When the dogs in one district bark. the soldiers of Joppa Gate . These oak-roots. I jotted down what I suppose to be their regulations Rule 1 . death . and the people cf Jerusalem buy them for fuel . shrewd terrier . nor the sharp. all the dogs in all the other districts shall bark too . What . nor the tawny. I watched a poor fellah-that is what they call a farmer-coming in through the Joppa Gate with a load of oak-roots from near IIebrou. mere scavengers of garbage.

Charleerah. I think I have met a hundred this week . At the bazaars. with only thirty houses. And finally. 8 : 11 They went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber and out of the middle into the third. lie thinks that this is the same kind of stairway named in 1 Kings vi . I see a great deal of this sort of figuring on the houses at Joppa and Jerusalem. on all other articles eight per . "For the transgressions of a . Good-bye. One of them was a jolly red-nosed fellow . Where do you come from? I told him the United States of America and State of Kentucky.. . has two . Au old Jewish tower and stairway are perfectly preserved there . I spend a good deal of time to-day at the Damascus Gate . Bethel. that will be paid to-day to this extortionate. or one-half the value of his property." I copied from this gate some ornaments of the modern style . when lie gets home to-night. Barclay thinks was called in the Bible The Old Gale. Every village has at least one sheikh . 407 will charge him eight cents for permission to pass the custom-house with a load of fuel . from five to ten miles around.THE VILLAGE TYRANTS. and loaf here . of which there are many here at Jerusalem. They call it here Bab-es-S/. They seem unhappy and unhealthy. Most all of them want backskeesh .) Very considerable and interesting remains of the ancient structure are yet to be seen in the towers on each side of this gate . is stamped on every piece of money ! It is little they read what is stamped on money . Jfin aine ja yee. cent. the sheikh of his village will make him pay at least ten cents more for his share of stealage. This reminds me of the passage. The gate-duties on tobacco and silk are forty cents a pound . Then when he goes back through the gate they will charge him ten cents more for duties on the tobacco and cloth lie has bought. hanging round Jerusalem! They come in every day. What a lot of village sheikhs there are. iniquitous government. So there is fifty per cent. That means. Abd-el-Asiz. If I ask them an y q uestions. Then lie said. And yet his name. Do you know the name of the Sultan of Turkey? Only about one in five can tell me.am . (Nehemiah iii . These priests looked like rows of convicts squinting through grated windows. 6 . It looks very pretty when well cut . that is. the first one is. they will charge him ten cents mare for market-duties and permission to sell his fuel . Ile said to me. As I passed a convent. This is the one that Dr . and of course they are. a lot of priests peeped out through the grated windows at me.

He reminds me of the saying here : Buy a pipe and give a napoleon for it . a blacksmith-shop . I asked Hassan what the song was about . on this side of the street . The singing was bad enough. . To keep him from biting. I tried it . If it had been wider. many are the princes thereof. the other collecting backsheesh. something like a clothespin. long silver-headed staff. another coppersmith . A man was watering the streets from large skin bags under his arms . in their small. I saw a nian drinking water out of a little earthen cruse . and a strut equal to the drum-major of the Forty-third New York . A consular dragoman or cawass went by with solemn mien and silver stick. all within one hundred steps. the full moon rises from her breast-and a good deal more that he wouldn't tell me . three bakers' shops . Such law-abiding dogs as they are 1 There is a donkey-stand here . and thus he need not stoop to his work. They will not cross the line . and singing like a good-fellow . It didn't strangle him a bit . xxviii. The blacksmith-shop measures seven by nine feet . 2 . two coppersmiths. I don't think I could have stood it at all . and are cautious . the seven stars shine from her mouth . they fasten a hook-em-snivey in the upper lip." (Prov.408 STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM land. and choked myself with the rest . He held it six inches over his month and poured the water down his throat . But they know the penalty too well. I tried them with a piece of bread . just fits them : "The poor man that oppresseth the poor. I was quite satisfied with that specimen . The blacksmith has a hole dug in the middle of his floor. so they have to shoe the horse out in the street . making a terrific din . one playing a sort of one-stringed fiddle. so he can have the anvil on the level of his arm. is like a sweeping rain that leaveth no food :' I met a couple of musicians. but the one-stringed fiddle was fearful . and doesn't waste a great deal of water . and said it was a love-song. and the passage in Proverbs xxviii . a long curved sword.) These sheikhs are said to be very tyrannical. another donkey-stand . He has the nack of it. 3. poured most of the water down my bosom. He hesitated. mean way. let your dragoman buy it and give two. splendid uniform. At a corner is a place where three dog-districts meet-you can see delegates from all three of them . and a confectioner's." They are great cheats . The string was an inch wide . They are shoeing a horse close by. and meant that the sun beams from a lady's eyes .

crowded streets of Jerusalem . they walk as awkwardly as sailors . too. all of them on foot . whatever he wanted to eat . . and pipe-handles. and of lying down. Then came a flock of sheep that a man was leading through the noisy. I saw a crazy man . He says they are muldoon. Nobody interrupted him . 45 . which he is very fond of doing. a cook-shop. Yet he sold them fast. Then a stately old man with cloak trimmed wi. He stopped politely and talked with me .h fur. a tin-shop. and everybody seemed to like them. and counted a cookshop. and then frosted over with sugar . and where he led they followed. He had three medals hanging to his coat-lapel . If there is any passage of Scripture they remind me of it is that one in which the Israelites are said tq have "piped with pipes. This one was nearly naked. except me . and very dirty. a cook-shop. Then a camel loaded with green grass . their principal business is making.) Going back to camp. without baking. A man with Joppa oranges. In all that variety of sounds. I couldn't help thinking if he was in New York the star-police would have him locked up in ten minutes . the saddles having an immense cushion in front to keep the rider from flying over his head when the donkey stumbles. mending. with the wool inside . But I might write all day and not finish this paragraph . a blacksmith-shop. I took another stand about two squares off. 409 A man with a board on his head. very crazy. In this country a common man's rank and position may be known by his dress just as much as an officer's . He went around among the shops taking bread and fruit. Among the Mohammedans crazy men are worshiped . Muldoon is a humbug. all wearing tarboushes. and ornamenting pipes. I bought some. covered with cakes . wouldn't let his soldiers ask me for backsheesh. Then a party of men and women astride donkeys without stirrups .STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. Then some pilgrims from Russia. pipe-holders. Then a group of soldiers. right in the road . and a fine-looking negro for an officer. tied on with a black rope made of camel's hair. full of life were those dresses . The shopkeepers rather seemed to like it . Went into a number of carpenters' shops . the poor things only listened for the voice of their own shepherd. dried. wearing sheepskin dresses. Then some Desert Arabs with large yellow handkerchiefs on their heads in place of the tarboush. Every donkey has a boy to run behind and poke him up with a sharp stick ." (1 Kings i . and they are nothing but cornmeal cakes. and a tin-shop all in a row .

When a boy. that is about a cent apiece. A sea-captain rolling along. I notice that nobody I have talked to iu this country knows the real name of our country. the fruit or the fellow ." said he. I wish our New Yorker. English. etc . D. Backslaeesh. Americans. They are not swept at all .I knew that the oranges cost him in Joppa about ten for a cent. and said. French. To-day I have found musquitoes in Jerusalem quite troublesome . patient. call us Yankees . I saw Arabic words on the wall . "They never refuse backslaeesh! " He let me go with a laugh that could be heard to the top of Mount Olivet. I can . The United States. curse them in that dreadful Arab slang. I told him that was a thousand percent . however. The drivers shout at the poor. Nobody sweeps these streets. could be pasha here for twelve months." She is mistaken . A big Arab was sitting by a pile of oranges . were not the fine large ones that I admired so at Joppa. full of arrack and sin. so cruelly! The streets of Jerusalem to-day are full of pilgrims dressed in all sorts of costumes. German. however. His oranges. but a much inferior stock . There is one class of people here. Mr . . The lizards were gliding in and out of the walls there as if they cared nothing for the mortar of Suleyman ." Said I. Bergh. everybody sweeps the pavement in front of his own house . Humanity to brutes is a virtue unknown in the Holy Land . caught hold of my arm and stopped me. and that ended the argument . As . It is said they mean that the present walls of Jerusalem were built by order of the Sultan Suleyman in 948 . and said I was right. in our way of counting. strike them over the head and face. I don't know which was the dirtiest." "Well then. and that is the Jews. and they don't know any other name for us. They twist their tails. willing mules . and throw stones at them. "Can you tell me anything about the people of this country?" Says I. " Yes. that never ask for backsheesh. As they know we come from America they call us Americans. He answered. however. oh. that is. The city doesn't look as though it ever had been swept. They were five for a piastre. I asked an Italian gentleman how he would like to be called a European? He didn't understand me . The British. and travellers who are not pilgrims. A strange mistake for mother to .410 STREET SCENES IN JERUSALEM. profit. 1542 . mother has checked me in fault-finding by saying that "the way that Jerusalem is kept clean is. At the Joppa Gate of this great stone patchwork. overload them.' tell it. I priced some of them here at Jerusalem . A.

Near him were his lieutenant-generals. A rampart (vallum) was composed of the earth which had been dug from the ditch . Abdellatti. About half the natives have Mohammed to their names. Majnoon. The camp was divided into two parts . about fifty miles southeast of heze. next the enemy. Tristam says : "There is one of the Roman camps still standing near Masada. until yonder proud and doomed city should come once more under the Roman yoke . Awad. Haroun. Guzzaway. for the standards were never to be raised from their sockets. pointing outward from every side . Ferhard. took my note-book and politely wrote his name in it. It was surrounded by a ditch (fossa) some nine feet deep. Karder. etc . Mr. It was a Standing Camp (canzpa slativa). and twelve feet broad . Kosroo. Dayood. or words to that effect. In form. one on each side . and the other half have Hassan. Yezid. Nasser. from the walls of Jerusalem. are but the dust of 1800 years . Yebrood. Mosedden. contained the tents of Titus and his retinue. Mustarfer. ditch. I undertook to reconstruct in imagination the Camp of Titus built on that summit . Noureddeen. After visiting Mount Scopus. Mnedh-dhin. the arms that built it. The one in the rear was the porla decumana . Its lines. praefects of the allies. Essedeen. Nisamee. angles. Ibraheem. They are a queer lot of words to call people by. every evening. Sajeeb. In this rampart. A Russian gentleman who saw what I was doing. on Mount Scopus. Solyman. As far as I can write the names he gave me. Akeel. at the southwest corner of the Dead Sea. p. etc . Kratisnaayoslaajewsky. I got a friend to give me the names of such persons as he should get acquainted with to-day. And yet the hen l that planned it. Meslem. and rampart are as plainly sketched there as in the pages of a classical dictionary . The upper portion. or Hosine. and the qufestor those of the tribunes. those on the east and west.. Abdallah. Ilulakoo. or Hosseen. B. port a principalis dextra and p. The camp had four gates. Goorundel. II . sinistra .THE CAMP OF TITUS. when . it was square (quadrala) . 411 make ! I never saw a town that has so many disgusting sights and smells as this . Jussoof. Narmer. That which was so long presented to the frowning eyes that watched it morning and evening. Ilaymoor. also the prfetorium cohort . so that I could write them down in my diary. was the porta prwtoria. Marlek. and the war-like spirits that defended it. Sooty. Nomarn. they are : Yahyah. Ilowarrer. Sayid. sharp stakes bristled." Here in this camp of Titus.

was to deposit with Messrs . after giving them his commands and distributing the watchword of the night upon tessei v. Flowing over the range of Olivet. fifteen cents per one-quarter of an ounce . The post-rest ante. from Beyrout and Constantinople on the 4th. on the 2d. and 22d of each month . about thirty-five miles . Letters from Europe and Beyrout are only prepaid as far as Joppa .-all the trumpets of the legion were sounded : Tuba mirum spargens sonum. they were heard by the Christian refugees at Pella. The manner in which I arranged my money matters Gbr our journey. 18th. and then the hills around Jerusalem echoed with the sonorous wind-instruments used at that period . drawn off upon thin French paper. sixty cents per ounce . This scornful challenge to the enemy was promptly taken up by Jewish soldiers. Brothers & Co . weighed ten ounces. and still harder to get the postmaster to understand your wishes .. and 24th. these war-signals were recognized as tokens that the enemy was not yet in possession of Jerusalem. Letters are dispatched by the French post from Jerusalem for England. At Hebron. if you want your letter to lie in the post-office. Therefore. and 28th . far across the Jordan in the northeast. or post-office at Jerusalem. Rate of postage. 20th. and great was the joy they inspired . Brown. Letters arrive from England on the 10th. It is a hard place to find. They have been very useful in missionary operations in Jerusalem and vicinity . 14th. at Bethel. the general had dismissed his chief officers and friends. the bold and thrilling peals were heard by the Jewish refugees along the Plain of Sharon .. I visited the counting-room of Messrs. The custom in this country is to deliver all postal matter. . as our carriers do in New York. and 30th . that is. who also do a general dry-goods and miscellaneous business . Eight cents extra is charged for each letter from Joppa to Jerusalem. These gentlemen are highly respected both by natives and foreigners . The package containing our diaries for the past week." But the best way is to have all correspondence directed to the care of the American Consulate .412 THE ROMAN TRUMPET. reached to an amazing distance on all sides . is a queer affair . Flowing over the range of Mizpah. It is only open once or twice a week. Bergheim & Co. Those martial sounds. at Masada. through the clear evening air. 12th. bankers here. for Beyrout and Constantinople on the 8tb. you must mark it "post-restante. The prepaid postage on it was six dollars.

now empty. the amount necessary for the journey. elate with an event that promised so much for Israel. Perhaps a miniature fleet may once have been moored here. its leaf delicate and soft . 413 Wall-street. The city itself. B . and its bed green with barley. My pleasantest association with that immense reservoir. the priest. shooting forth among its prickly neighbors. For this they gave me letters of credit. Sadness inexpressible broods here . that the coronation of Solomon was performed. I was surprised to find a first-class photographic gallery here . so that .C. it sparkles. And all the peop_e piped with pipes. No place more fitting could be desired. At the Lower Pool of Gihon. while the royal minstrels made the echoes of the hills resound with their music . took a horn of oil out of the tabernacle and anointed Solomon . King Solomon.LOWER POOL OF GIHON. that "broken cistern that holds no water. were then crowded with the ten thousands of Jerusalem . and rejoiced with great joy. walled all around. New York. I was struck with the immense preparations of that wonderful monarch. Massive magnificence is the grand characteristic in all the remains of Solomon's work extant . nor minstrel's nor shepherd's pipe nor plowman's song moves these echoes . now so bald and covered as to their shoulders in sackcloth. for the watersupply of his royal city . These hills. Stillness and sluggishness reign in joint dominion over Jerusalem . Here. presenti rig many large and handsome specimens . And Zadok. Doubtless the Wise King himself often promenaded along its margin at the base of his own Mount Zion. Its circle was brilliant." is with a blooming patch of cyclamen. overlooking the scene-palaces whose tesselated pavements lie now in disjointed tesseraa through these heaps of rubbish-were thronged with women and children. was a miniature lake in itself. And they blew the trumpet. It was in the mighty amphitheatre formed by this valley of Gihon. 1015. inclosed in deep valleys and marked out as the site of a stronghold. God save King Solomon . in this dry bed of King Solomon's Croton Lake. upon which I can raise money in any part of the world where there is a banking-house . I read the sacred story upon the very spot : " They caused Solomon to ride on King David's mule . a company of tiny vessels for the recreation of the young princes of David's house. was spectator of that memorable coronation . The royal palaces upon Mount Zion. upon its throne of rock. But now. This reservoir. ana all the people said. between the Upper and Lower Pools. and his brilliant reign of forty years began .

Go. to the Pool of Siloam . Air . and lessen the number of the world's insects. the story of the man born blind. and came seeing" Even to the present day there is belief here that the water of Siloam will heal sore and inflamed eyes . If it does. all heedless of the distraction of humanity . the cool water flowing just under my feet. This was a little world within a world. and washed. the earth rent with the sound of them" (1 Kings i .29) . in the southwest corner. Truly "the sparrow bath found a place. Without. In view of this daily assemblage of birds here.' writes that he "laved his eyes in . and twittering to each other in their happiest strains . where they have increased so fast as to be familiar to every one who visits Union Park . for the people had unanimously accepted the choice of Solomon. the bustling city of many nations. sight-seeing-within. These sparrows are the same species that were introduced a few years since from England into New York. drinking. to which Josephus attached that name . No wonder the band of conspirators that had assembled on the other side of the hill.) . by the Mograbbins Gate. He went his way. by the well En-Rogel. that while upon the housetop. Prime. intent upon cares of business. Seated upon one of its rude steps. adjacent to IIezekiah's Pool. the merry family of birds congregated at their gathering-place. therefore." "and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your Father.414 IIEZEKIAII'S POOL. ceremonials of religion. At Ilezekiah's Pool I was delighted to see many hundreds of the Jerusalem sparrows. Mr. Large handbills printed in Hebrew were posted up on the walls . their long ringlets hanging down over their ears . and for the rejected prince there was but one escape . Nor do I think it trifling to write here. wash in the Pool of Siloam. north of the Tower of Antonio. composed of streets closed in by hovels abounding in disgusting sights and pestilential smells . rocking and singing to her doll. with an intensity of interest and absorption of thought deeply affecting to me. I observed a little Jerusalem girl of five or six. this Pool better deserves the name of Struthion (sparrow) Pool than the one now dry. in his "Tent-life. it will increase the world's cheerfulness. who came here to receive his sight . The Jews were idly sauntering about. bathing. I read from John ix . Next. Beecher thinks their pleasant chirp is destined to go with the English language around the world . From there I went through the Jews' quarter. "Jesus said unto him." said He who knew all the intensity of the Father's love (Luke x . stood aghast at the danger they had incurred.

with bread and wine . "King of Salem and Priest of the Most High. possessor of heaven and earth" (Genesis xiv . and followed it under the lofty hill. also the hyssop "that springeth out of the wall" (1 Kings iv. bathed my eyes here. as I did so. and others. in which occurred the affecting scene wherein participated Melchizedek.THE POOL OF SILOAM 415 Siloam. Oil the last and great day of the Feast of Tabernacles. standing in the Temple on yonder eminence. to fill it with Siloam's water. and. sometimes creeping. fillrig the air alike with clamorous demands for backshcesh and an . sometimes kneeling. and I could scarcely tear myself away from the contemplation of it. It is the greenest and loveliest nook around the whole city. The King's Gardens. (Rubra saxa. in association with events so pathetic . 33). But of course all this is as nothing to the stupendous gift by which the MASTER. to the Beer Eyub.) Our enthusiastic countrymen. Around the Pool of Siloam I observed the beautiful maiden's-hair fern that grows profusely here . "Blessed be Abram of the Most high God. grows in green tufts in every ancient wall in this country . From the Virgin's Fountain I went through the King's Gardens. in the olden time. to be poured over the sacrifice in commemoration of the miraculous water-supply at Rephidim. too. whose waters go softly. Robinson. I find. the soft and gentle stream perfectly justified my conception of Siloam. and even so late as the fifth century after Christ the stones here were fabled to be red with his blood . were probably the ancient Walley of Shaveh or the King's Dale. through a crooked and narrow rock-hewn passage. entered the channel of the pool. or "royal Paradise. Smith. let him come unto me and drink . came the Levite. sometimes walking." Josephns often remarks that these waters are sweet and abundant . and Barclay." and Abraham. sometimes stooping. "If any man thirst." as a writer terms them. The hyssop. communicated to it the miraculous energy of imparting light to one born blind . 35). or Well En-Rogel . Here lie saluted the victorious hero. I. although the women and children from the neighboring village of Sylwan (Siloam) had crowded around me. too." From yonder rocky eminence of Zion on the west came the venerable Shem. And here. anciently so called. To this golden pitcher the Lord pointed.). when lie cried in the Temple. Recently. about one thousand seven hundred feet to the Virgin's Fountain. or Melchizedek. at the upper entrance ." It is at Siloam that tradition locates the death of Zacharias (Matthew xxiii. "the Father of the Faithful . Lieutenant Warren performed the same feat . with his golden pitcher.

the garden stood. aroma not at all derived from the sweet gardens covering the King's Dale. supply Jerusalem with its vegetables . It lies just below the Akeldama. flow here. which fertilizes and beautifies all the region through which it passes . new Bethlehem. as well as our own. no doubt. Such noble and venerable trees! Rough in their trunks. piled horizontally one upon another to the depth of six or eight courses. and flowers. It is quite likely that this is the very spot. termed by the Roman Catholics the Garden of Gethsemane. Such a traitor! Such a treason! As I sat for an hour in the shade of the buildings surrounding Beer Eyub. The inclosure. beehives. I am forgetting a pleasant fact connected with the Pool of Siloam . is of special interest in an historical point of view . that the honey of Canaan possesses a finer flavor than any we have at home . olives. that gloomy investment of a traitor's ill-gotten gain . and that through a low gate. the same style of beehives observed all the way from Joppa . The Well En-Rogel. It is neatly kept." " The waters of Shiloah that go softly. "all must bow who enter here. The olive-trees are eight in number. and vines by means of this tiny rill. and make the valley the greenest spot in the vicinity. I must not neglect to write. each boarded up and protected from the pilfering propensities of visitors. As the janitor justly said." as the prophet Isaiah describes them. I had noticed on the west side of the city a collection of. surrounded by a high stone wall. These gardens. or Beer Eyub.416 GETHSEMANE. and stocked with olives. too. and somewhere in it. upon the roof a small out-house. Each has three. offering to supply us with the delectable food so often named in the sacred narrative . or Potter's Field. pomegranates. memory was faithful to recall the story of that dreadful "Field of Blood" that covers the slope of the rocky hill just above. with those of Etham. or five stems springing from a single . are the kitchen-gardens which. Here. four." This hollow in the hills. is termed Jesmoniya by the natives. are watered by "cool Siloam's shady rill . that is. cypresses. long earthenware jars. It is the experience of all travellers. reclaimed from sterility into an oasis of fig-trees. having but one entrance. but fruitful as only such patriarchal trees can be. so aged that their cavities are built up with stone for strength. and several honey peddlers already have visited our tents. is a plot of ground a little more than half an acre in area. a half-mile of garden-ground. the great number of bees I observed watering there.

It recalled the long trains of Irish Catholics that I have observed on snowy winter mornings on their knees. DAMASCUS. 41 7 root. She was making the circuit of Gethsemane upon her knees. turned aside. each patiently waiting his turn to enter .-her hands wildly thrown above her head . FOUNTAIN. the tears.-her costly garments already soiled and ragged by her morning's work. My mind.A DEVOTEE. was chiefly occupied in the thought that the resurrection of Christ is the guarantee of the resurrection of all mankind.-sobs and tears shaking her whole frame. knelt. and tnese roots the same. while here. outside one of their churches. and agonized his soul even unto death ." though whether this was religion or fanaticism must be left to the (Treat Searcher of Hearts to say . prayed. doubtless. that supported the trees under whose shade Jesus walked. The thought is overwhelming. and the sweat . A young lady went past me as I sat and read of the agony. I had never seen such a sight before. It recalled the poet's words : "With knees of adoration wore the stone A holy maid . 27 .

Natural History and Manners and . of a society for the accurate and systematic investigation of the Archeology. Topography. and lecture-stand of the work of exhuming the Sacred City. pulpit. 0 much notice has been taken through the press. U . that my readers will expect to see a summary of the results accomplished by the London Palestine Fund. Geology and Physical Geography. which has bad the lead in the investigation . Consul at Jerusalem. scholars at the formation. BEARDSLEY. 1872. THE EXPLORATIONS OF JERUSALEM . S . There were thousands of Masons who shared in the satisfaction felt by English R. six years since.CHAPTER XXIV.

. Oxford. I wrote it just before leaving Jerusalem. etc . and worthy of the warmest and most liberal support. may be observed in the preparation of this article. and will combine my notes into one article . Ely and Ripon . The undying interest of the land explored. and the voice of this modest but thoroughly educated and indefatigable man ringing in my ears . for biblical illustration . and such names as the Dukes of Argyle and Devonshire. to constitute the committee . while the dust of my last visit to the excavations made by Captain Warren was still clinging to me. H . plebeian. and many others of the very first class of explorers in the field of Oriental investigation . Plumptre.. was ever formed before in behalf of an enterprise purely historical . Therefore it was deemed a good and happy thing to secure the Queen of England as 11 Patron of the Palestine Exploration Fund . Barclay. A. commend this great work to the general sympathy of all . Cyril C. of which the well-known biblical expositor. the Bishops of London. Sir Henry Rawlinson. Russell. One of the stanchest English societies reporting on the subject. of our own country. can do nothing except under the shadow of the throne and in the path of the nobility . and Shaftesbury . Some degree of haste. therefore. the sound and scientific basis upon which the explorations are conducted . Norman McLeod. It is reasonable to expect that such men set forth upon a good work in a proper manner. John Murray. and the still greater value of the discoveries which are on the eve of being made. Tristam." This was the keynote of every public expression referring to this subject . I need only instance Dr . that John Bull. the vast importance of the results obtained. Derby. The rather inexpressive name of this association is The Palestine Exploration Fund. H. and Captain Charles Warren. Zetland (the latter the then Grand Master of Masons). is Secretary. seventy-eight in all. Rev . 41 9 Customs of the Holy Land. B . to look into the management of this society. H . Layard. historical and scientific. said : "We believe this work to be one of the greatest pith and moment. last in charge of the surveys and explorations at Jerusalem. T.THE LONDON PALESTINE FUND . the Deans of St . It is superfluous to say to a newspaper reader in the United States. Paul's. E . I had some opportunities. and a host of minor functionaries. Rev. but I will vouch for the accuracy of the statements. Westminster. Christ's Church and Canterbury. through the eminent Dr . William Smith. the Earls of Carnarvon. I think no such combination of great lights. Rev . writer of so many first-class articles in Smith's Dictionary of the Bible. George Grove. J. Graham.

Latterly. is not sufficient altogether to account for it. as it first comes from the quarry. and hopeful o_ great results. a quarter of a mile deep. produces pulverized earth. exploring. This stone. under which is the Jerusalem of the Bible . and exfoliates rapidly . but if any one is surprised to find the city of Jerusalem standing upon a pile of disintegrated limestone. the earth which has buried fifty. and laying out a programme for a thorough topographical survey of Palestine . he has only to explore that enormous quarry. it hardens upon exposure. as it were. thus converting its splendid edifices into piles of dust and ruins . And this singular position is not attributable merely to the fact that ancient Jerusalem was seventeen times captured. and even a hundred feet deep.42 0 DUST AND ASHES . although it goes very far to explain the phenomena. the Jerusalem of our Saviour's period. and other places . settling disputed questions of latitude and longitude. is very friable. fifty feet thick." taken from the immense quarry (the Cotton Megara) which underlies so much of the northeastern quarter of the city. and more than once leveled to the ground. Over the latter city. upon a heap of dust and rubbish. This explanation will enable the reader to understand what is meant by exploring Jerusalem . is so soft that it may almost be crushed between the fingers . and let in the light upon streets and foundations upon which it shone two thousand years ago. and photographing Capernaum. is the fact that it stands. so rapidly that a few centuries are sufficient to reduce a square block to a shapeless mass . It is rather the fact that the stone of which the houses and walks of Jerusalem are built. . of levels and distances. of course. and which has been excavated during the last three thousand years expressly for building materials . the superincnm . however. Damascus. they restricted their operations to Jerusalem . Outside of Palestine all was expectation. It is but little firmer than a well-crystallized loaf of sugar. I have upon the table before me as I write a piece of the so-called "Jerusalem marble. and in time becomes a fair material for building purposes . seventy-five. This. It is simply to go to the bottom of that enormous mound of dust and ashes. This society gave its exertions for the first two years to surveying. as it surely does. True. Nablous. In this respect there is a most exact analogy between the exploration of Jerusalem and of Pompeii. This. One peculiarity concerning the present city of Jerusalem. to discover where the rubbish originally came from.

THE GREAT CAUSEWAY .

X27

bent mass is scoriae, lava, and volcanic ashes ; in the former, the accumulations are of pulverized limestone, added of course to the garbage of the city, shreds of pottery, bones, etc ., etc ., the accumulations of that extended period. It is no romance to say that the present Jerusalem overlies many Jerusalems that have gone to dust, in the centuries since the Jebusites established their citadel upon Mount Zion, before the time of Abraham ; and that the explorer's spade must pass these graves of cities one by one, to find the remnants which he seeks. These remarks are likewise applicable to the old sites of Tyre, Sidon, Gebal, etc . With these explanatory remarks we can see what Captain Warren, in charge of the works undertaken by the Palestine Exploration Fund, undertook. The historians of the Temple of Herod (the only temple with which the Christian or Jew is particularly interested) go much into detail relative to "the Courts of the Temple," "the Beautiful Gate," "the vast Causeway" connecting Mount Moriah with Mount Zion, and many other things . In describing the walls built up by Solomon, and renewed by Herod, to enlarge the area upon which the Temple was built, Josephus speaks of their height as bewildering, and the blocks that entered into their construction as enormously great. Now to verify such details as these was the aim of Captain Warren's party, and their labors were productive of much that corroborates the testimony of Josephus, and of Scriptural writers. He found the great Causeway, or Stone Bridge, that once connected the Mount Moriah with Zion, lying where it was cast, probably, at the destruction of Jerusalem by Titus, but lying under fifty feet of earth . Each of the stone blocks that composed it bears a proper relation to adjacent rocks, to show that they once formed a whole that was the admiration of all beholders. He found the whole area representing Mount Moriah to be banked in with mounds of earth, to the enormous depth, at one corner, of one hundred feet ; the great wall extending to that enormous depth before its foundation, the native rock, is exposed to view . He found near the southeast corner of this great Temple area (Mount Moriah) a series of arches and abutments supporting the solid structures on which the pavement of the area at that corner rests. He found evidences of immense works built far beneath the present surface, for the supply of ancient Jerusalem with water . And yet these discoveries are but just begun . While no one will venture to name the result that may be achieved by explorers, surely no one can place any bounds to them .

422

SANITARY CONDITION.

There is one thought that grows out of this subject, that may be of use to those who are just beginning to study the topography of Jerusalem. It is, that all those so-called traditional places connected with the Via Dolorosa must necessarily be fabulous, because the Via Dolorosa of our Saviour's time-that is, the road or street along which he passed, in his sad journey from Pilate's house to Golgotha-lies many score feet (part of it fifty or seventy-five feet) below the present surface . The ground upon which Christ trod lies so far beneath the present ground, that to go to the bottom of the excavation made to show the former pathway, makes even a clear head swim . The person walking along Water-street, New York, cannot say that he iR walking where the fish once swam ; lie is walking fifty or one hundred feet above their former haunts. And so it is with the Via
Dolorosa.

Among the subjects that will, in due time, demand the attention of explorers in the vicinity of Jerusalem, is the search for ancient tombs among the surrounding hills . No sensible person can for a moment suppose that the few rock tombs already opened (amongst which "the tomb of Kings,"" the tomb of Prophets," and "the tomb of the Virgin Mary" are the chief ), represent more than a small part of the tombs with which those hills were formerly honeycombed . Great discoveries in that direction await the zealous excavator ; discoveries more important perhaps in a historical point of view, if not so brilliant, as those which Egyptian soil has yielded . Too much cannot be projected concerning this" city of hallowed memories and entrancing recollections. Its very name is music and magic ; the theatre of the most memorable and stupendous events ; a place of hallowed associations, endearing reminiscences, and glorious contemplations ." So much under this head was written just as I was leaving Jerusalem, May, 1868. I continue the subject, aided by much subsequent correspondence with Oriental friends, and the publication of works by other writers upon the subject . The following is a succinct history of the society that has pursued these explorations . Early in the year 1864, the sanitary state of Jerusalem attracted considerable attention ; that city-which the Psalmist had described as beautiful for situation, the joy of the whole earth-had become one of the most unhealthy places in the world ; and the chief reasons assigned for this melancholy change were the inferior quality of the water, and the presence of an enormous mass of rubbish which had been accumulating for centuries . With the rubbish it was hardly

THE " MANNER OF STONES."

423

possible to deal, but the water-supply seemed an easier matter, and several schemes were proposed for improving it, either by repairing the ancient system, or by making new pools, cisterns, and aqueducts . Before, however, any scheme could be carried out, it was necessary to obtain an accurate plan of the city ; and with this view, Miss Burdett Coutts, a lady ever ready to promote good works, placed a sum of £500 in the hands of a committee of gentlemen interested in Jerusalem . The committee requested Lord de Grey, then Secretary of State for War, to allow a survey to be made by a party of Royal Engineers from the Ordnance Survey, under the direction of Sir Henry James, and obtained a favorable answer . Captain Wilson, R . E., was in command of this party, and performed with thoroughness and skill the particular task assigned to him . The opposition of the Turkish authorities frustrated his plan for improving the water-supply of Jerusalem ; but the discoveries of ancient ruins which be incidentally made while tracing out the aqueducts and cisterns of the times of Solomon and Hezekiah, awakened new zeal for the exploration of the old city, with a view to the settlement of disputed points of topography . Accordingly a society was formed in England, under the name of "The Palestine Exploration Fund, for the accurate and systematic investigation of the Archaeology, Topography, Geology and Physical Geography, Natural History, Manners, and Customs of the Holy Land, for Biblical Illustration." In 1.867, a party was sent out, under command of Captain Warren, R. E., which remained in Palestine for three years, chiefly occupied in and around Jerusalem. The reports and journals of Captain Warren, and other matters relating to the expedition, were published in a series of Quarterly Statements, which are of great interest and value ; and the general results of the three years have been embodied in an illustrated volume, called " The Recovery of Jerusalem ." How far progress has been made, and what is yet contemplated, may be gathered from the following accounts " Master, see ! what manner of stones and what buildings are here!" Surely it is not unworthy of Christian study to find out, if it be still possible, what those stones and buildings were . We are able to do it to a greater degree than has been supposed, as the discoveries of the "Palestine Exploration Fund" show . These discoveries have been made at great cost of money and labor, and no little danger, by sinking shafts a hundred feet deep, and running galleries at right

424

MORIAH AS IT WAS.

angles to these shafts, the explorers feeling their way under ground, burning magnesian wire, and so throwing light upon stones and pavements which have been buried 2,000 and 3,000 years from human sight. The results have been invaluable, because the least information upon such subjects is precious . Of these results we will mention some of the more prominent. Let it be borne in mind at the outset that no city in the world has presented so difficult a problem as Jerusalem. The reason is, no city has been so often and so thoroughly destroyed . It has been captured, burned, overthrown, more than twenty times . Names and memories have perished, so that scarcely a feature of the natural landscape has been recognized beyond dispute. Mount Moriah within the walls, and the Mount of Olives outside, we are sure of. We thought we had certain knowledge of Mount Zion also, but the most recent and successful explorers have cast doubt even on this, and deny that the modern " Zion" corresponds with the ancient. Mount Moriah has been found to be originally a sharp crag or ridge, with so little space on the top as scarcely to afford room for a temple of small dimensions . On all sides it fell off rapidly and very steeply, except from northwest to southeast, the direction in which the ridge ran . The area on the summit was enlarged by walls built along the declivities, the outside wall deep down the valleys, from 100 to 150 feet below the area on which the Temple buildings stood . One hundred feet again below this lay the original bed of the brook gedron . The foundations of the Temple, therefore, were 250 feet above the deep defiles around . This area, originally built by Solomon and enlarged by Herod, still exists, running on the south along the valley of Hinnom 1,000 feet, and along the Kedron 1,500 . This inclosure was originally covered with splendid edifices . First were the porticoes, or covered walks, built along the outer walls, and overlooking the Kedron and Hinnom. They were magnificent structures, resembling the nave and aisles of Gothic cathedrals . The middle walk, or nave, was 45 feet broad, and the two aisles 30 feet . The aisles were 50 feet high, and the nave, rising like a clear-story between the two, was more than 100 feet high . Add now terrace-walls to the height of the porticoes, and we have a solid and continuous wall of masonry 250 feet high . But these were only the outer buildings of the Temple area . The porticoes opened inwardly upon a court paved with marble, and open to the sky . Steps led up to a second court. Beyond this, again, through beautiful gateways,

THE TRIPLE TEMPLE .

425

was a third, and rising above them all was a fourth, in which stood the Temple proper, ascending story above story, and said to have been 100 or even 150 feet high . These horizontal measurements have been verified . Of course, we cannot vouch for the correctness of the reputed height of these immense structures . We have the less reason, however, to doubt the last, as we have established the first . If one looked upon Mount Moriah from the Mount of Olives opposite, coming round the brow of Olivet on the way from Bethany, as our Lord did when beholding the city, it must have been a sight which, for architectural beauty and grandeur, perhaps, has never been equalled, certainly not surpassed. It was an artificial mountain from the deep ravines below, wall, column, roof, pinnacle, culminating in the Temple within and above all, and probably measuring between 500 and 600 feet . The palace of Solomon, too, added to the impressiveness of the sight. It is settled by recent discoveries that this pile of buildings was on the southeast corner of the area, joining on the House of the Lord above, and extending below to the King's Gardens, where the two valleys met and " the waters of Siloah go softly ." James Fergusson, Esq ., the distinguished architect, writes : "The triple Temple of Jerusalem, the lower court standing on its magnificent terraces, the inner court raised on its platform in the centre, and the temple itself rising out of the group and crowning the whole, must have formed, when combined with the beauty of the situation, one of the most splendid architectural combinations of the ancient world ." Josephus wrote : "If anyone looked down from the top of the battlements he would be giddy, while his sight could not reach to such an immense depth ." This passed for foolish exaggeration till recent explorations vindicated the statement . All these buildings, porticoes, columns, pinnacles, altar, and Temple have perished . " Not one stone remains upon another which has not been thrown down ." The area alone remains, and the massive substructures that for 3,000 years have been sleeping in their courses. The preservation has been due to the ruin . Buildings so vast have been toppled down the slopes of the Moriah, that the original defiles and valleys have been almost obliterated . What has been regarded as the original surface has been found to be debris from 70 to 90 feet deep . With pickaxe and' shovel British explorers have been down to the

426

ACCUMULATED DEBRIS.

original foundations. Fallen columns have been met with, and avoided, or a way blasted through them. The cinders of burnt Jerusalem have been cut through, and turned up to the light-rich moulds deposited by the treasures of Jewish pride . The seal of Haggai, in ancient Hebrew characters, was picked up out of the siftings of this deposit. The first courses of stones deposited by Phoenician builders have been reached, lying on the living rock . Quarrymarks, put on in vermilion, have been copied-known to be quarrymarks by the trickling drops of paint, still visible-only they are above the letters, showing that when they were written the stones lay with the underside uppermost . In the southwest corner of the area, debris has accumulated to a depth of not less than 125 feet-the accumulation of ages, made up of the ruins of successive Jerusalems ; and here some of the most interesting discoveries have been made . Here is the famous Arch of Robinson, shown now to be an arch, as he conjectured, by the discovery of the pier upon which the first span rested . It is the remains of a bridge which crossed the valley on arches, and connected Mount Moriah with the mountain opposite-the modern Zion . It is the skewback, or abutment that slopes to receive the end of the arch . Three courses remain . The stones are 5 or 6 feet thick, and 20 or 25 feet long. The valley here is 350 feet wide, and this must have been the length of the bridge, connecting the Temple with the Royal Palace on the other side . At a depth of 30 feet a worn pavement was found, worn by feet that passed over it in our Lord's time . Lying on this pavement were the voussoirs, or wedge-like stones, belonging to the arch . Breaking through this pavement, and through 24 feet of debris beneath, they found a still more ancient roadway, and resting upon this, the keystones of a still more ancient bridge. The explanation is probably reached : Robinson's Arch is the remains of the bridge that was standing at the siege of Jerusalem, upon which, at the eastern end of it, stood the Roman General Titus, holding a parley with the Jews, occupying the other end of the bridge . The older bridge, the remains of which were found beneath the pavement, belonged to the palmy days of Solomon ; may have been standing at the time of the Queen of Sheba's visit ; and possibly was part of the "° ascent " by which Solomon went up into the House of the Lord, which when the queen saw, there was " no more spirit left in her ." The whole of Mount Moriah has been found to be fairly honey-

DR. ROBINSON .

427

combed with cisterns and passages . One of tho cisterns, known as the Great Sea, would contain two millions of gallons, and all together not less than ten millions . The wall of Ophel has been exposedat the present time 70 feet high-though buried in debris ; and the remains of towers and houses have been lighted upon, belonging to the age of the kings of Judah . The Pool of Bethesda has been, in all probability, identified ; an intermitting fountain, which explains the popular legend of the troubling of the water by an angel . The first impulse toward the exploration of Palestine, in recent times, was given by Dr . Edward Robinson in 1838, who went through not as a mere traveller making notes of passing observations, but as a student of Biblical History and Antiquities making researches upon a well-defined method, with the scientific motive of preparing a work on Biblical Geography . He had fitted himself for the journey by the special studies of fifteen years, had mastered the whole literature of his subject, and had mapped out distinctly the points of inquiry which previous travellers had left undetermined . But he had also qualifications for his task such as are seldom combined in any on6 man-a discriminating judgment, a retentive memory, comprehensive and well-digested knowledge, accurate powers of observation, the habit of patient and cautious investigation, and a rare faculty of common sense in sifting facts and weighing evidence . The most eminent geographers of Europe at once recognized the great value of Dr. Robinson's researches in a geographical point of view ; but controversy was awakened by his opinion touching the Church of the Holy Sepulchre and other places of reputed sanctity, and by that all ecclesiastical tradihis broad canon of historical research tion respecting the sacred places in and around Jerusalem and throughout Palestine is of no value, except so far as it is supported by circumstances known to us from the Scriptures, or from other contemporary history ." Next to the testimony of the Scriptures and of Josephus, Dr . Robinson gave importance to the preservation of the ancient names of places among the common people . In this branch of inquiry he had the invaluable aid of Dr. Eli Smith, a master of the language and the character of the Arabs, and an acute and careful observer. But Dr. Robinson was not equipped for a thoroughly scientific exploration of the Holy Land. He went at his own charges, having but a single companion, with few instruments, and no trained assistants for a proper survey . He opened the way to a scientific exploration,

428

THE WORK ALREADY DONE.

provided sound instructions and positive data for others ; but he himself reported that " there yet remained much land to be possessed." In 1848, Lieutenant Lynch and his party made a scientific examination of the Dead Sea, so careful, thorough, and complete, that the official report of the United States Expedition under his command has become the standard authority upon that anomalous feature of Palestine . The publication of " The Land and the Book," by Dr . W. M . Thomson, in 1859, while it added much to our knowledge of biblical localities in Palestine, popularized the illustration of the Bible from the natural scenery and history of the Holy Land, and from the manners and customs of its inhabitants. Dr. Barclay's " City of the Great King," published in 1858, made some substantial additions to our knowledge of the topography of Jerusalem ; Mr. Osborn's "Palestine, Past and Present," 1859, was a contribution to the natural history and the cartography of the Holy Land ; Professor Hackett's "Illustrations of Scripture," published in 1860, gave a life-like tone to many passages of the word of God from the natural phenomena and the social customs of Palestine ; and other Americans, travellers and missionaries, have enriched our literature with journals, reports, and monographs, upon the same fruitful theme . Of photographs, the society has published 349, many of them being of places never before taken . They include views of the ruins of Tel Hum (Capernaum), Kerazeh (Chorazin), Jerash (Gerasa) . Kedes (Kedesh), and Sebastiyeh (Samaria) ; many points in and around Jerusalem, Hebron, Damascus, etc . ; the district of Nablus, Gennesareth, etc . ; and the cities east of Jordan . From the various reports made to the Home Office, and addresses delivered at the London meetings in encouragement of the movement, I make extracts at the risk of some repetition. Dr. Porter, author of " Giant Cities of Bashan," and other works, said of the enormous substructure of the Temple, that it is doubtless to these substructions the sacred writer refers, when he says, "And the foundations were of costly stones, even of great stones, stones of ten cubits, and stones of eight cubits ." On the southwest and southeast the foundations of colossal walls were laid nearly at the bottom of the Tyropcean and Kedron . Josephus' account of it is almost startling . They surrounded Moriah, from the base, with a triple wall, and accomplished a work which surpassed all conception . The sustain.

THE SOUTHEAST CORNER.

429

ing wall of the lower court was built up from a depth of 300 cubits (450 feet), and in some places more . There were stones used in this building which measured forty cubits . Perhaps some may be inclined to smile incredulously on hearing such measurements as these : if so, just wait a little till I describe the wonderful discoveries made by recent excavations . We go first to the southeast angle. Here is a magnificent fragment of the Temple, and one of the finest specimens of mural architecture in the world . The stones are colossal, ranging from ten feet tc thirty feet in length, by five feet in height-all noble "cornerstones," polished after the similitude of a palace . The elevation of the wall above the present surface is seventy-three feet. The Royal Engineers sank a shaft to the foundation, which they discovered at the depth of sixty feet. This angle must, when perfect, have been 140 feet high . And this is not all. It stands on the rocky side of Moriah, which sinks, almost perpendicularly, 200 feet to the bottom of the Kedron . And, besides, on the top of the wall stood the royal porch, 100 feet in height . Consequently the summit of the porch was 240 feet above the foundation of the wall, and 440 feet above the gedron ! This was that 1' Pinnacle of the Temple " which was the scene of one part of our Lord's Temptation . We now go over to inspect the still more extraordinary discoveries at the southwest angle . We pass on , our way two ancient gates, which opened from the low suburb of Ophel, where the priests dwelt, two long subterranean avenues leading up to the Temple . The masonry of the southwest angle is even finer than that of the southeast . At present the angle rises ninety feet above the ground . Captain Warren, with great labor and at no little risk, sank a shaft, and discovered the foundation laid upon the rock, at the enormous depth of 100 feet . The grandeur of this angle almost surpasses conception. The cornerstones are colossal, measuring from twenty to forty feet' in length, by about six feet in height . One stone, which I myself measured, and which is placed 110 feet above the foundation, is thirty-four feet long, and weighs about 100 tons ! I believe that I may say to raise a stone of such dimensions to such a position would try the skill of modern engineers . It was near this angle the bridge stood which spanned the Tyropoeon, connecting the Temple with the palace . The remains have been discovered . The following measurements will give some idea of its stupendous size and grandeur : The spring-stones of one of its arches are twenty .

43 0

HIDDEN FOR CENTURIES.

four feet long by six feet thick . The breadth of the roadway was fifty feet, corresponding exactly to the central avenue of the Royal Porch . The span of each arch was forty-six feet . The height above the bottom of the Tyropoeon was 225 feet . This stupendous bridge would bear favorable comparison with some of the noblest works of the present century. Can we wonder that, when the Queen of Sheba saw it, "there was no more spirit left in her" At a meeting held under the presidency of the Archbishop of York in support of the Palestine Exploration Fund, which has for its purpose the accurate and systematic investigation of the archaeology, topography, geology, and physical geography of the Holy Land, the Secretary stated that the committee had confined their attention mainly to explorations in or near the city of Jerusalem . In spite of many difficulties, Lieut. and Bro. Warren had succeeded in carrying on extensive excavations, with little interruption, and had made discoveries of the utmost importance, which not only tended to throw new light upon the original features of the Temple Hill, but led to the hope that before long sufficient data would be obtained for forming a tolerably accurate opinion upon the various sites in the Holy City which had been so long matters of dispute . For the first time, the actual streets of the ancient city have been reached, underground passages which have been hidden for centuries by the mass of superincumbent ruins have been brought to light, and by degrees a complicated network of drains and reservoirs is being laid bare, which, when fully explored, will no doubt aid very considerably in settling many difficult points connected with the level of different portions of Jerusalem. In the valleys of the Kedron and Tyropceon, by a succession of shafts, many of them sunk to enormous depths, discoveries of intense interest have been made, with regard to the original course and character of those valleys. The limits of the hill and position of the wall of Ophel have been in a great measure ascertained, and shafts sunk on the south of the wall of the Haram area have shown that the account given by Josephus, of the giddy height of the battlements of the ancient city at this point, is not, after all, the gross exaggeration that up to this time it has always been believed to have been. The report went on to speak of the difficulties to be met with in carrying out such an exploration as this among a population like that of Jerusalem, difficulties which had been increased by the treacherous character of the soil and the imperfect nature of the apparatus which had to be employed. The zeal and perseverance

t

BROTHER WARRENS REPORT.

431

of Lieut . Warren in overcoming these difficulties, were warmly commended ; through his ability the field for excavation at Jerusalem had never appeared so open, while, at the same time, the discoveries of last year gave the surest promise of future excavations being attended with still more interesting results ; and if, as Lieut. Warren hoped, we should be able to dig in the Haram area itself, it was impossible to overrate the interest of the discoveries that were in store. The researches of Jerusalem had caused other operations to be suspended, but several surveying expeditions had been made, and Lieut . Warren had thoroughly surveyed the Philistine Plain as far north as Gaza, together with a large tract of country to the southwest of Jerusalem . He bad also surveyed portions of the Jordan and its valleys. The report, after stating other general facts as to the operations carried on by Lieut . Warren, went on to say that the work had been supported by subscriptions from many classes, and, among others, by the large and influential body of Freemasons, who had encouraged the attempts being made to search out the sites of the works erected by the famous operative craftsmen of that ancient order . Lieut . Warren was then called upon to speak, and on rising to do so, he was cordially cheered. He proceeded to read a very interesting report of considerable length, and he explained the works being carried out by means of a small map of Jerusalem, of which every visitor had a copy. He said there were at present engaged on the works, two corporals of engineers, and about seventy Mussulmans of different races, and though the latter required great supervision, yet, what with the jealousies of race and religion, the dragonean being Greek, and the overseers Jews, anything going wrong soon "cropped out." Very few articles found in the works had come to hand, and what had been found consisted mostly of pottery, bronze nails, and glass (the former of many different dates, and the glass of the third and fourth centuries of the Christian era) ; but a few Hebrew coins had been turned up . Among the findings was a seal with characters showing it to be that of " Haggai, the son of Shebaniah," and it was supposed in Jerusalem to be of the time of Ezra . However, the main object of the work was with regard to nether Jerusalem in its topography, and it was desired particularly to find out where the Temple stood . In studying the Holy Land it was most disappointing to find a dearth of evidence as to sites of places, and the more the matter was looked into, the more difficult it became

43 2

THE INEXHAUSTIBLE TANK .

There. were points which were known beyond contradiction, such as Jaffa, Jerusalem, and others ; but when details were sought, there was the most conflicting evidence . All parties agree that the Temple stood somewhere in a rectangular spot, called by the names of Haram and Moriah, and that the Mount of Olives was on the whole or part of a hill indicated on the map . It was probable, too, that the valley of the Kedron could be traced ; but about all other points there were controversies ; and if he made use of Biblical names in speaking of places, he did so because they were generally received names, and not because they were established as such . The explorers must be content, he feared, to be baffled and perplexed for a long time to come before they could bring out Jerusalem as it was ; for, startling as it might appear, they had not yet a single fixed point from which to commence . For instance, though the Temple was known to be on a particular space (the Moriah area), yet there was space therefor three such sites ; and Mount Sion was put to the north of Moriah by some, and to the west by others of authority . It was only by patient investigation that hopes could be entertained of a satisfactory conclusion. He then proceeded to describe the Haram area, in which he said there was no doubt a mine of information. The Moriah area was scooped out into large tanks, and one would hold one million gallons of water ; another was found capable of holding seven hundred thousand ; and altogether about five million gallons could be stowed away . Near here was a place called the Well of the Leaf, of which the legend was told that a man wandered down it, and coming to a door, opened it . He-found himself in a beautiful garden, and plucking a leaf he returned . On telling his tale he was greeted as of little sense for leaving a garden which his listeners believed to be Paradise, which he would never have another chance of seeing again . The gallant officer continued at some length, and explained that the stables of Solomon had been discovered, as well as streams of water which led to the opinion that the source of King Hezekiah's hidden spring of water would be discovered. He concluded, amid warm cheers, by expressing the interest taken in the works by those who are called the Anglo-Saxon race, from both Britain and America . Mr. Layard, M .P., said that few persons could understand how arduous wera the labors Lieutenant Warren had carried out, not only as respected the heat and the other influences, but from the fact that the exploration party were working amid a hostile people, who saw

My engraving is the large one prepared for Scribner's Monthly. the land of Moab . which is now in the hands of the Confederate Consul. the Louvre at Paris. 433 places given over to strangers which they regarded as sacred . which had been brought from Yeman. found in the vicinity. who is residing for a time at Berlin . Oscar Meyer. THB MOABITE STONE. for religious reasons. Among the specimens recently brought to Jerusalem. In connection with these explorations of Jerusalem. Doubtless. In 1418. and a Hunyaritish inscription two lines in length. of this relic grew out of the excitement awakened by the London Palestine Fund in its varied labors . succeeded in obtaining an impression. The inscription is said to contain the name of Athtar (Astarte) ." to whose courtesy I am greatly indebted for the use of this and several other engravings used in the present volume. I call attention here to the discovery of the Moabite Stone. are' a number of stone balls. These may have been used by the Crusaders possibly earlier . Peterman resigned.I THE MOABITE STONE. Every member of the Executive Committee of this (American) has visited the Holy Land. Dr.. because the search and the finding . is a stone bearing the figure of a god sitting on a throne. viz . the Chancellor of the North German Confederate Consulate since Dr.000 stone balls made for such a purpose in the quarries at Maidstone." he reminded those present that he warned them they were not to expect any monuments like those found at Nineveh. and there are many cannon-balls of stone. The territory selected by this young and vigorous society is that in which this stone was found. and has therefore. Dr. with priests on both sides. and for another-they had no material. He spoke about monuments in . a personal enthusiasm in the work . and the wishes of all true Masons must go with them in their labors. As to the "findings. and my description that of the (American) "Palestine Exploration Society. Jerusalem will become a great center now for the distribution of Oriental antiquities. 28 . at one time stated to be Jewish. lying on the banks of the river near Constantinople . missiles of war. and was offered for sale . enormously large. Blau. and threw grave doubts upon the character of those monuments . for the Jews did not make such things. and taken to England. Among the loose objects found here by the English explorers. the English had 7.

3. of a stone in a perfect state of preservation.ting incident of recent explorations in Palestine was the discovery among the ruins of the ancient Dibon. and that the pious horror of the Tetragrammaton did not exist nine centuries before Christ . Klein. 2. 3 feet 8J inches high. That Pliny's and Aristotle's views that only sixteen or eighteen totters were brought by Cadmus from the East into Greece. chap . The letters A.D. 34). 7 . N. king of Israel . That the plural in N is not a late form . That punctuation was carefully observed in old writings. F . dating about the year B. Under David and Solomon we know it was subject to Israel . August 19th. 8. containing an inscription of thirty-four lines by Mesha. II. K. LL. That the name of Jehovah was openly spoken and known by nations around as the name of Israel's God. D. with the exception of about one-seventh . 2 feet 31 inches wide. That the Semitic alphabet was the Phoenician. 5 . It shows us1 . T. and the inscription seriously impaired . and inscribed with thirty-four straight lines of alphabetic writing. are almost identical with the Roman and Greek characters .. M. 1868. It was found by Rev . against the Israelitish yoke (see 2 Kings. east of the Dead Sea.C. 0. L. and 1 foot 1 3W inch thick. iii . Ginsburg. The Moabite Stone was a neatly-cut block of black basalt. at the en trance of the ruined Moabitish town of Dibon. 4. This inscription is the oldest alphabetic inscription extant. U. and two-thirds of the stone itself is now in the possession of M . 890. a king of Moab. 4). its inscription has been preserved. That Moab was called by the Moabites. The translation given is that of Christian D . That Dibon was its capital . rounded at both ends. king of Moab. xxxii . R. A. The most exe. Num. a little after the time of Omri. 6 . it was broken into fragments. Ganneau and the Palestine Exploration Society . and that . Mab or Meab . so far as to separate by marks both words and sentences .434 THE MOABITE STONE . and records the successful rebellion of Mesha. once a capital city of Moab (although built by the children of Gad. according to his text . That Moab must have been independent between Solomon's reign and that of Omri . In a quarrel of the Arabs over the possession of the stone. Although broken to pieces through Arabic jealousy. after a forty years' oppression by the house of Omri . which is our alphabet in its earlier forms .

And Chemosh said to me Go take Nebo against Israel. but I did not kill the women 17 and maidens. and I placed therein the men of Siran and the me[n of Zereth] 14 Shachar. are false. and I assaulted the wall and captured it. Now Omri took the land 8 Medeba and occupied it [lie and his son and his son's] son. the whole twenty-two being here found . [And I] 15 went in the night. 5 and Om[r] i. for he saved me from all despoilers and let me see my desire upon all my enemies. the 2 Dibonite. for Chemosh was angry with his 6 [la]nd . and I built Baal Meon. and I took 16 it and slew in all seven thousand [men. and I fought against it from the break of (lawn till noon. Hence the 119th Psalm. TRANSLATION OF THE INSCRIPTION ON THE MOABITE STONE . for the well-pleasing of Chemosh and Moab . and the other alphabetic Psalms. and the K [ing of I] srael fortified 11 A[t]aroth. 1 I Mesha am son of Chemoshgad King of Moab. and made therein the ditch and I [built] 10 Kirjathaim. and I took from it . and the Book of Lamentations (having an alphabetic division). King of Israel. and killed all the wa[rriors of] 12 the wall. are not to be deemed modern. and [of13 fered] it before Chemosh in Kirjath . and Israel said. and he also said. His son succeeded him. 431 the Greeks invented the rest. as some would have them to be for this reason .] for [I] devoted [them] to Ashtar-Chemosh . I shall destroy it for ever . My father reigned over Moab thirty years. I will oppress Moab . And I erected this Stone to Chemosh at Karcha [a Stone of] 4 [Sa] lvatiou.THE MOABITE STONE . who oppressed Moab many days. In my days he said. [Let us go] 7 and I will see my desire on him and his house. and I reigned 3 after my father. For the men of Gad dwelled in the land [Ataro]th from of old. forty years . and I removed from it all the spoil. And Chemosh [had mercy] 9 on it in my days .

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make war against 32 Horonaim. and I bui[lt] 30 [Beth-Gamul]. Mr. and Beth-Baal-Moon. and I built the gates thereof. . And I dug the ditch for Karcha with the [chosen] men of 26 [I]srael. I give an engraving and description of some interesting and important inscriptions found by Mr. and I built the towers thereof. I built Aroer and I made the road across the Arnon . for all Dibon was now loyal . and Chemosh drove him out before [me and] 20 I took from Moab two hundred men. for it was cult down] 28 by the fifty m[en] of Dibon. and I 23 built the palace. 21 in addition to Dibon. . . 34 In immediate connection with this great discovery. And Horonaim . 437 18 [the ves]sels of Jehovah and cast them down before Chemosh .' was . For this engraving I am indebted to the society already named . showing what a great field awaits exploration in the valleys and plains of Northern Syria . Aug. . dwelt therein . for it was destroyed . . I built Kareha. with [in the] 24 wall . and the wall 22 of the city. and occupied it. and I sav[ed] 29 [from my enemies] Bikran. . Make for yourselves 25 every man a cistern in his house . Go down. and. and I placed there the Mo[abites] 31 [to take possession of] the land . Johnson's account of this discovery is as follows "Ilamath. .UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS . all chiefs. Chemosh in my days 33 year and I . . . I said to all the people. . . I built Bezer. on the northern border of the Promised Land. 27 I built Beth-Bamoth. J. And the King of Israel fortif[ied] 19 Jahaz. And there was no cistern within the wall in Karcha. when he made war against me' . and fought against Jahaz and took it. and Beth-Diblathaim. the wall of the forest. United States Consul-General in Syria (now a resident of New York). and I made the prisons for the men of . And Chemosh said to me. which I added to my land. . and ta[ke it] . Johnson.

4). . Hamath.C. of which Palmyra was one . and is frequently mentioned as the extreme limit of the Holy Land towards the north . of Damascus. 9) . Tyre. as it is now called. and in the ancient bridge which spans the Orontes. We did not succeed in getting squeeze-impressions. But we find nothing of the Palmyrene on these stones . he says : ' In this time I took the environs of Mount Lebanon . They humbled themselves before me. its king. I went towards the great sea of Phoenicia . it was called "great" by Amos (vi . in relating his exploits 915 B . Deformed persons were willing to pay for the privilege of lying upon it in the hope of a speedy cure. and we were obliged to be content with such copies of this and other inscriptions subsequently found on stones over and near the city gate. I reeeived the tributes of Tyre. . . "We should naturally expect to find in this vicinity some trace of the Assyrian and Egyptian conquerors who have ravaged the valley ')f the Orontes. says : 'In my twenty-first campaign I crossed the Euphrates for the twenty-first time . and the income derived from it . . as could be obtained by the aid of a native painter. Bambino. While looking through the bazaar of this old town. and was spoken of by an Assyrian monarch as among the most celebrated of his conquests (2 Kings xviii . of the Syria Mission. Salmanazar V. who built stone cities in Hamath (2 Chron.. I received tributes from . and by Mr . 18). 870-8 B.C. as it was believed to be efficacious in spinal diseases .' Until the interpretation of these mysterious characters shall be 11 11 . and of their struggles with the Hittites on this ancient battle-field. in 1870. Jessup.000 inhabitants . but failed to obtain it because of the tradition connected with. . Mr. Sidon. . viii . etc. Toi. and Gebal . of the French Consulate. F. I marched towards the cities of Hazael. Sidon. In this we were greatly aided by Mr . .. with Rev.' And a little later. yielded allegiance to King David (2 Sam . who pronounced the copies to be accurate. The arrow-headed characters are suggestive of Assournasirpal . and of Solomon.438 UNEXPLAINED FTONE-MARKS. Jessup. S. has at present a population of about 30. the capital of a kingdom at the Exodus . 34) . x . for fanatical Moslems crowded upon us when we began to work upon the stone. It was originally the residence of Canaanites (Gen . . viii. Jessup endeavored to purebase a blue stone containing two lines of these strange characters. preserved in the British Museum. In the inscription on the monolith of Nimroud. 2). we came upon a stone in the corner of a house which contained an inscription in unknown characters .

cographic or symbolic forms to represent words . however. the old form of their writing was derived from the Phoenician. for there is not enough of -ihher to furnish a clue to the rest . according to Gesenius. To suppose them to be bi-lingual or tri-lingual only increases tb4 difficulty of interpretation in this case. and therefore possibly borrowed by the latter. remarks on this theory. recently deciphered by Dr. for ghimel (a camel) . for beth (a house) . G. B. We have in these inscriptions of Hemath a melange of a1 three. and not that the cuniform was the parent of the Phoenician . of the British Museum . akhem . it comes near to the Phoenician.C . moulag. etc. -'The `Carpentras Stone' contains an analogous inscription . Some of the attempts at picture-writing on these IIamath stones suggest the Egyptian system. that the occurrence of these characters only proves the intercourse between the two people. a cursive character was also employed identical with the Phoenician. in the same manner as the Egyptians represented A. by an eagle.r of figures to express letters or syllables. as. Other characters represent Phoenician letters and numerals not unlike the Phoenician viriting on the foundation-stones of the Temple at Jerusalem. " Some scholars have designated Babylonia as the true mother of the characters employed in very ancient times in Syria and Mesopotamia. That the Hebrews borrowed the use of writing from Mesopotamia or Phoenicia has been universally admitted . and are supposed to represent a language in a state of transition . And it appears that besides the cuniform writing found on Assyrian and Babylonian monuments. "In framing their alphabet the Phoenicians adopted the same process previously employed in the Egyptian phonetic system.. which consists of a certain numnbr. "Now may it not be that in these Hamath inscriptions we have . A. but the germs of the alphabetic system were found in the hieroglyphic and hieratic writing of the Egyptians. and. and perhaps a connecting link between the earliest systems. Kenrick. upwards of 2000 B. by taking the first letter of the name of the object chosen to represent each sound . This and the Palmyrene writing form the links between the coin characters and the square characters. M. and a vast number of if. for aleph (a bull) . and has been thought to present the most ancient specimen of the Aramean series . Deutsch.UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS.C . and retained by the Samaritans after the Jews had adopted another character of Aramaic origin . Alphabetic writing was in use 1500 B. by an owl. 439 given. a wide field is open to conjecture.

. Aiff' .n1FecsD kV Yzc u F am ao ® 00~ J A ~ o ~ O a~ O O n~xec$D. ALI' INSCRIPTION DISCOVERED AT HAMATH IN NORTHERN SYRIA .

H . and possibly of the same period. The ' Rosetta Stone' dates back to 193 B. Drake. ' Champollion's Key to the Hieroglyphics' will be of aid. and before the regular and simple Phoenician alphabet had been perfected : °' The ' Carpeutras Stone' has been considered by Gesenius to have been executed by a Syrian of the Seleucidian period . near the source of the Orontes. to the most learned Orientalists . Professor of Egyptology at the University of Heidelberg. that the clue may be found that shall unlock their meaning. The characters on these stones have much in common with those of Hamath . and the bas-reliefs on the monument called Kamna Hurmfil. when the Phoenicians. 441 fallen upon a transition period. perhaps. were using the elements of writing then in existence. They are said to be imperfect ." . that he induced the British Society to send a learned Orientalist. It is to be hoped. of the British Syrian Exploration Fund. Eisenlohr. however. are an enigma. now that attention is again called to the subject. Palmer. other copies of these Hamath inscriptions. it is stated that Mr . He was so persuaded of their archaeological importance. while on his way from an exploring tour in the Desert of Tih. But we shall be surprised if the inscriptions of Hamath do not prove to be older and of greater interest than any recent discovery of Egypto-Aramean or hieroglyphic characters. to Syria. His report will be looked for with great interest . or their predecessors in the land. E. to obtain squeeze-impressions and photographs of all these and any other similar inscriptions . Dr.UNEXPLAINED STONE-MARKS. "Mr. In the last number of the Journal of the American Oriental Society. lying in the University of Cambridge. and that Northern Syria will be no longer overlooked by the explorer . Palmer has already found in a Syrian MS . in solving the present mystery .c. We do not learn. in Ccelo Syria. as yet. that the Syrian MS . says : 'Though I believe we are at present not able to give a translation of these inscriptions. has been translated. saw our copies at Beyrout.' "These inscriptions. I am still persuaded they will be of the highest interest for the scientific world. or that any theory of interpretation has been advanced . because they are a specimen of the first manner of writing of the people of that country. however. in a letter asking permission to publish these inscriptions in Germany. Mr.

.SEARCHING FOR THE FOUNDATIONS OF MOUNT MORTAR.

.11I PLAN OF THE GREAT QUARRY UNDER JERUSALEM.1111 nu ~IIIIi~ll~ll~illiil~~ ihllilll dIIllllll~ 1111111 IG m I ~ SID Ih 11 14111111111.1 1111 111111411111 U11 11 . l ll~~ ~) IIIIb~1111~111~lilll 11 ' 1IIIN IIII411.

P '% G CHBRo 0 Gfl OF 1 BAT DOM OF 6 . V ® V MOMY GAIT MOSS R OI AOV TI A n EL SA r OMAR %% Vot PLAN OF MOUNT MORIAH ." only mislead the reader. MOUNT MORIAH.CHAPTER N. leaving nothing but the heavy work partly in and partly out of the ground .V. D r r ® Nt Cy A~N SITE OF SOLOMON'S TEMPLE 601 FT. where stood in cedar and gold and marble that grandest expression of national power and magnificence the world has ever seen.X. The ordinary newspaper notices concerning "the foundation of the Temple. N my lectures since 1868. as he conceives nothing but ANCIENT °° POOL 111 got A 0 SASI CONS IRON GATE ∎.11 ROC Jh y I- I G. . SQ. I have found no subject connected with the Holy Land so difficult to elucidate as the platform or foundation walls on which the Temple of Solomon was built. the ordinary appearance presented when a building has been destroyed by fire or violence.

but the platform. The hill. 445 It is difficult for the superficial reader to comprehend that although the Temple of Solomon is absolutely gone-effaced from the earth. fill up solid the whole area of thirty-six and a half acres to that great height of one hundred and fifty feet ! This being done. not a crumb or fragment can be recognizedBy this term is not meant the yet its foundation remains.000. and show what was the foundation that has so well withstood the changes of twenty-nine centuries. was a problem of stupendous magnitude . upon which to build the Temple . eight. and in no proper sense fit to be used as the basis of a great temple .. THE FOUNDATION OF THE TEMPLE . by nature. build a wall around it of great stones. and more recently erected to serve as a basis for the sublime structure . viz . for there was a central core to the platform. as great a one. and in the masonwork many large vaults and subterranean chambers were left .IRE NARROW. crooked ridge (of " hog's back "). But the figure is sufficiently exact for an ordinary lecture .600 feet by 1. and even forty feet long. styled in the Old Testament Moriab. a narrow. than would have been that of making a platform entirely artificial . In my illustration of this subject in my public lectures. With radical reconstruction to transform this unsightly and circumscribed ridge into a solid. and durable platform. the mound artificially per understanding of Solomon's Temple. the original Mount Moriah . walls upon which the Temple was built (comparing it with an ordinary edifice). was. twenty. high. equal to thirty-six and a half acres . and in the same manner fasten them into the native rock that lies below . the hill. The figure is not absolutely correct . KNOBBY RIDGE. measure off an oblong square 1. honeycombed with caves. deeply channeled by the class familiarly known as ravines and gulleys. so that . raise that wall to an average height of one hundred and fifty feet of solid masonwork . and of proportionate breadth and thickness . ten. In the present chapter I commence by clearing up this matter. broad. you will have such a platform as was erected by Solomon's craftsmen. . so essential to a pro- Mount Moriah. bind the foundation-stones of this wall firmly together with clamps of iron and lead. I have sometimes used the following figure as conveying a partial idea of the task that devolved upon Hiram and his builders : Go out upon a level plain . perhaps even greater. knobby.

about fifteen miles southeast of Tyre . for about three miles. The elevation on the north of the city had everything of beauty and magnitude to recommend it. It is mythically related that when the architect Hiram was brought to Jerusalem. still more when he considers that all this elevation before him. when we describe the foundations of King Solomon's Temple as still remaining. inclosed in thirty-six acres and a half. like Mount Moriah. from which he was shown the general contour of the hill of Moriah. nor will any volcanic force affect them. down a ravine called Ain Hor. we allude to this stupendous base. the broad and beautiful elevation less than a mile to the north of the city. and so firmly morticed at their interior edges. and covered with bushes and briers . the sides being almost perpendicular. directly opposite the castle. constructed in so substantial a manner that neither time nor the devastations of barbarian force. and reach. and at their points of junction with the native rock. which lies under mighty cliffs full of caverns .446 AN INTERESTING RUIN. that it is safe to say that no power that human hands can apply will ever remove them. the Wady el Kurn. while all that could be alleged in favor of Moriah was the historical facts connected with the offering of Isaac by Abraham. the ridge upon which the castle of Kurein stands was. and enter Wady Benna near the village of the same name. To reach it you go from Alma in a southerly direction. and the Destroying Angel who stood there in the days of David . Such an idea will occur to the observer even at the present day . Now. and conducted by King Solomon to the summit of Mount Olivet. Here the wady is 600 feet deep. So large are the stones of which the outer walls are built. Now. nor the mighty bruit of earthquakes. and containing so many buildings. Even now it is only'a . less than that which would elevate the bed of the sea and sink the mountains into the depths . there is a platform or artificial basis analogous to this foundation of Solomon's Temple near a place called Alma. that skilled artist pointed to Scopus. through a woody and almost trackless region. Fortunately for my subject. so artistically are they laid together in relation to each other. and suggested that as a much more appropriate basis for the Temple . you turn up a branch wady to the southeast. the platform of thirty-six and a half acres. is of artificial construction. originally extremely narrow . has bad power to break it up . and originally presented nothing but a rugged. Passing down this wady (or valley) a little way. unsightly succession of knobs .

and the hill had grown up in foresttrees. a column for each face of the pedestal . it probably supported an image or statue . each lower than the one above. cloisters. This basement-work is very solid. is an embankment of loose earth from fifty to one hundred feet deep. and yet so separated that each would have to be taken by itself . The second from the top has in it a beautiful octagonal pedestal of finely polished stone about eight feet high. whose ranks ascend shade above shade. with a cornice. at the base. will still convey an imperfect idea. This earth represents all the debris of rubbish. relics of domestic vessels. 447 few feet wide (from south to north) at the point beyond the castle. amid which the great Temple and its surrounding courts. The lull of Castle Kurein is inexpressibly beautiful and imposing . Above all spread a lofty canopy of clustered arches. There are three other towers or departments. etc . which make it difficult to explore the ruins . and underneath is a tangled network of briers and bushes. to enlarge the platform of the Temple. The sketch I have given of the great platform. like those in the building at the river. with the gray old tower peering out here and there . On this platform stood a noble tower of extremely well-cut and very large stones.HANDMARK OF HIRAM'S BUILDERS . and has ragged cliffs descending on each side to a great depth . and exhibits very fine specimens of the old Jewish or Phoenician bevel . It must have been quite impregnable before the invention of cannon. and over it stood eight demi-columns. terebinth bay. Solomon's Temple itself (reserving the woody portions that were burnt.. about 165 B . The top of this ridge was widened by walls built up from below. and of various lengths up to ten feet . a swelling pyramid of green hung up in mid-heaven. This must present much the appearance that Mount Moriab did in the days of the Maccabees. but not beveled.c . as was done by Solomon on Mount Moriah. and the . The entire castle and its hill are now clothed with magnificent forests of oak. stately and imposing . The Temple-worship had ceased several years before. in a direction nearly west. and the disintegrated stone used in the buildings above and around it for 1800 years . rose up as a series of ruins. and the lowest of all incloses a considerable area . and other trees. The ridge falls down rapidly toward the river. They are all three feet thick. united inwardly. unless the reader recalls the fact that around it. and also wider. having the sides almost perpendicular . for the hill bulges out as it descends. These various departments were so connected as to form one castle. relics of architecture.

000 tons. This fact is the more noteworthy because we have persistently been assured that the Pyramid of Cheops is the largest artificial structure in the world . to hearken unto the prayer which thy servant prayeth toward this place . metallic portions that were carried away) lies in that huge bank of earth ! I found there. with its one hundred and fifty thousand builders. The seven successive objects that have occupied this sacred ridge.000. Egyptian black marble. it took one hundred years to complete it. in relation to the platform. it is not extravagant to say that a mass of remnants would be collected of Parian marble. According to historians." (2 Chronicles vi .666. in a few minutes' search. are1. my God. which would come near to representing the bulk of the Temple and its subsidiary buildings . reaching to more than half the material used here. 19. Syenite. Verd-antique. we see that in the Plymouth (England) Breakwater. and from a quarry so much higher. specimens of various kinds of building materials that may once have shone in the rays which were reflected back on the day of the great dedication. as to afford an inclined plane of just the convenient descent for their purpose. to hearken unto the cry and the prayer which thy servant prayeth before thee. begun in 1812. 0 Lord. Estimating other great accumulations of materials by this. The Altar of Abraham. upon the place whereof thou bast said that thou wouldst put thy name there. and its contents observed and preserved. at a cost of about $7. while the Temple-platform. 11 . the latter had the immense advantage of procuring their stone within half a mile of the spot on which it was to be laid.) Were that great dust-heap around Mount Moriah sifted.000. and other valuable building materials. Porphyry. although no less than one hundred thousand workmen were engaged upon it . to which a Mason's attention is directed. when Solomon prayed : Have respect to the prayer of thy servant. and it is still three-tenths in excess of the pyramid .448 CONTENTS OF THE GREAT PLATFORM . Admitting that one-half of the Temple-platform is comprised in the native hill (Mount Moriah). the amount of granite blocks used was 3. and Gray Granites. was less than eight years in course of erection True. which is about three and a half million cubic yards . The cubic contents of the great platform exceed ten million cubic yards ! The magnitude of the structure (supposing it all artificial) is three times that of the great Pyramid of Cheops. that thine eyes may be open upon this house day and night. and to his supplications.

At that time it was said no such foul. in common with all Masonic visitors. The Temple of Herod . covered with lead. for the desolations visible nowhere more than here. 3. living on barley-bread and dates. 29 . and paved with marble. Why it was left here when all the rest of the combing of the ridge was cut away. and 1. explored the subterranean passages so far as allowable . $49 2 . The Threshing-floor of Oman . The Temple of Zerubbabel .000 in breadth. 4. only sparsely covered with trees and buildings. preaching in a ragged cloak.THE RUDE STONE . The Mosque of Omar. 7. and mourned. This Omar was an ascetic. believed to be the work of the Knights Templars. INTERIOR OF THE DOME OF THE ROCK . I visited the place on which the Temple of King Solomon stood . 5. that beyond doubt represents the original surface of the mountain . lofty and circular. making a vaunt of poverty and humility. is a question upon which antiquarians have long been at war . a rude stone nearly sixty feet long. mostly of modern structure. The Temple of Solomon . 6. well paved with white marble . impure men as Christians and Jews were allowed in such holy places .500 feet in length from north to south. The Altar of David. about 1. inspected the present buildings. It is a broad court. In the fourteenth century his building was described as a very fair house. presenting the immense block (or rough ashlar) over which the Mosque of Omar is built.

the great Pyramid of Cheops. those alabaster porticoes sud colonnades in which the chiefs and sages of Jerusalem sat teaching . The great stone stands inside the railing. from which the primeval standard of measurement was deduced ." In stepping around and over this "Noble Enclosure. and above them. with that wonder of Egypt . my thoughts take their flight to the mighty structure near Cairo. and therefore the more natural situation for the Temple was north and south . the year of its destruction. The importance that King Solomon gave to this idea of having his Temple due east and west may be . The unit of the Pyramid was the one five-hundred-millionth part of the earth's axis of rotation. that the range of the hill on which it stands is almost exactly with the meridian.seen in this. The round protuberances seen on the largest ashlars. made undoubtedly for the same purpose. in raising the heavy ashlars to their respective places. It would be broken into a thousand pieces .D. glittering like a succession of diadems. In contrast with its present ruined and desolate condition. compare the magnificent word-painting of Croley (in Salathiel). were. a fortress of the purest marble. and twenty-five of these units formed the sacred cubit by which all this ground and the splendid erections thereon were measured. its kingly entrance. occupied yonder hill of Sion." and reckoning up the measurements. 1 think. worthy of the fame of Solomon . as those of Cheops did. A. who. its innumerable and stately buildings for the priests and officers of the Temple. That great and wonderful rock the Sakhrah. Had Solomon's builders been able to procure syenite. under the name of Melchizedek. describing the mountain and its glorious occupant.45(1 CROLY'S ELEGANT DESCRIPTION. 70 : "I see the Court of the Gentiles circling the whole. left for the convenience of fastening the grappling-hooks. In the great Pyramid Cheops holes are found in the sides of the larger stones. One of the love-songs of the Arab poets has the name of this celebrated rock as a figure of comparison " Great is my love : if my love were in the Sakhrah. with its wall rising six hundred feet from the valley . we should have seen these walls made of granite slabs finished off with the skill and polish of a jeweller. The progress of antiquarian research may yet connect the Patriarch Shem.

the court of the priests . a mountain of snow studded with jewels . This specimen I still . the trumpet. and gazing on the grandeur of a landscape which swept the whole amphitheatre of the mountains ." But where are those alabaster columns. escaped not the unsparing ravages of barbarous force . five miles south of this place . 45] the people. at Bethlehem. covered with plates of gold. the crowning splendor of all the central Temple. if tradition speaks truly. so spacious and magnificent. some of them. Four thousand singers and minstrels. trophies of the Temple of Solomon . as they carried away so many other things. I feed a soldier to lift it with his bayo . a' thousand at a time . of which these authors speak ? Who can tell? Many of them. its roof planted with lofty spear . separated by its porphyry pillars and richly-sculptured wall . some of them. what it had been so often described by its bards and people. till Mount Moriah stood forth to the eye of the stranger approaching Jerusalem. the convexity on that side remaining perfect . the place of the Sanctuary. the court of the Jewish women. and whose climate and landscape led men instinctively to delight in the charm of sound. and constructed by so many celebrated artists.-heads of gold. those porphyry pilasters. and highest. rising above this stupendous boundary. with the harp. chanted the inspired songs of our Warrior-King." "The grandeur of the worship was worthy of this glory of architecture.A FRAGMENT OF MARBLE." What a fine comment upon Croley's beautiful thought is this passage from the Fellow-Craft's lecture : "Even the Temple of Solomon. perhaps. in the ancient Church of the Nativity. doubtless. Nebuchadnezzar compelled his captives to carry away with them into Babylon. the separated court of the men . It proved to be a fragment sawed from the side of a pillar. and filled up the pauses of prayer with harmonies that transported the spirit beyond the cares and passions of a troubled world. and of the Holy of Holies. or walked. still higher. Four thousand more performed the lower offices . breathing the air. above this. and all the richest instruments of a land whose native genius was music. Four-and-twenty thousand Levites ministered by turns. net. the most precious marbles and metals everywhere flashing back the day. surrounding the mountain a hundred feet thick . lying in fragments in this stupendous mass of debris of earth and stones. Seeing a piece of fine marble loose in the pavement as I walked along by the old Temple site. I see.

made of Jerusalem marble. These are truly cyclopean. however weather-stained and weather-worn. and computed the amount of material necessary to bring up the Platform seventy-seven feet to its present level. of the genius of Hiram himself. have at my house in 1872 . and if his head does not become giddy -as Josephus says it will-he may note the great size of the blocks of which i is constructed. To one who enjoys the privilege of personal inspection of that thrice-sacred area in which the Temple of Solomon once stood. sharp-backed ridge. but is a feature in the grand old physiognomy upon which we love to dwell . The same class of interest. in the lower room of which is an irregularly shaped trough. though in less degree. Looking over the battlement of the wall. Sueborda. quarried in the great excavation on the northern side of the city. As he stood upon yonder spur of Mount Olivet. *Not a block of the original foundation-wall. a quarter-mile east. The splendid Mosque of Omar. the Sir Christopher Wren of his day. is felt by all Freemasons when contemplating the local peculiarities of the sacred work ." describes similar instances of beautiful columns being sawed up into slabs for gravestones. there is nothing that particularly attracts the observer's attention in the southeast corner. Near him. and looked across the valley to Moriah. called by the Moslems Sidna Issa (P0 of our Lord Jesus"). nearly a quarter of a mile to the northwest. Let me describe the southeast corner . would most probably fill his eye and occupy his thoughts for the brief period that he is permitted to remain in this part of the sacred inclosure. tablets. he would see that he is seventy-seven feet from its base. he might well ask himself from whence should come the supply of earth and stone? The country around presents. etc. and . pavements.t52 THE SUBSTRUCTURES. range upon range. every portion of the Great Platform is full of interest. in magnitude and the architectural skill necessary for their construction. sixteen courses high of the original ashlars. and stand. to which we shall call attention in a future chapter . Above-ground. It illustrates the shocking destruction of the finest works of art that has been going on here for many centuries. each stone beveled clear around the exposed surface. in his "Seven Churches of Asia. he will observe a small building covered with a dome. But it is below-ground that the chief interest of the Masonic explorer of this immense Platform will extend . Here are substructures worthy. and immediately in the corner of the inclosure. then a narrow.

has been consulted here . As we moved slowly down the slope of the hill. for the supporting pillars cannot be more than nine or ten feet high . There appeared to be no small stones in any part . Bonar (Land of Promise) says it forms the foundation for the platform of the Temple area . we seemed to be wandering through the rock-cut crypt of some vast Egyptian temple . The length of these rock galleries. The level platform which they produced above forms a large addition to the ancient hill. and felt the arches increasing in height and massiveness as we advanced. being made up of arches . The arches are singularly massive and strong . from the wall on the south. This was done by the substitution of arches for solid filling . as it stood originally. measuring northward. a rocky surface hard to loosen and break up . All this southeast corner inside of the foundation walls is hollow. it was found more advantageous to bring it to a general level by erecting vaults upon lofty columns than by filling up either with solid masonry or by earth. but as you move down the long slope. and found them to average fifteen by eight feet . is 319 feet . Wherever we looked we saw the same massiveness in wall. must have been narrow and quite unsuited for any building beyond that of a tomb. but it is its solidity that impresses the mind from first to last . and the engineering skill which they indicate is much beyond what modern ideas are inclined to allow to ancient science . Barclay writes : " They are doubtless those alluded to by Josephus in his description of the construction of the Temple-wall . T. The declination of the hill at the southeast corner being greater than at any other part. you think you might touch the roof with your hand. Concerning these great works. not beauty or grace. than that these cells had been built upon the hill . strength alone. 453 ever did present. the different measurea . you seem to be receding from the roof till at the extremity you find that it must be about thirty feet above you . Not that there is anything out of taste in that interminable vista of arches. Dr.ROCK-CUT CRYPTS . as in the case of the narrow ravines. measured westward from the wall on the east. We measured some of the stones. or pillar. The cost and labor must have been great. whose summit. J . As you first enter by a kind of trap-door from the platform above and go southward. There is nowhere anything like it . and it were a design worthy of the prince of architects to devise a method to save earth and stones where earth was so scarce. these would have been inadmissible in such a structure . Of this great under-ground work. It looked more as if the hill had been excavated into these cells. or arch.

then. is seen in the illustration of the Royal Sea. as has been shown before . and which otherwise must have been filled up by solid masonry or earth. the space occupied by these substructures. Considerable resemblance can be traced it the style of work done on these crypts of Mount Moriah and the I ancient Roman aqueduct made to supply the city of Smyrna with water . E . the one from the Triple Gate (277 feet from the east wall) being 247 feet in length . CORNER OF THE impression of it. WATER-SUPPLY vary considerably .feet in length . To show the steepness of this . To sum up. The stones in the wall near the southeast corner. an immense cistern that is found about 500 feet south of the old Temple site. The dimensions are given on another page . Thomas a Becket. slope from Mount Moriah to the valley of Jehoshaphat. is represented by a mass 319 X 247 X 30 feet-less the space occupied by the rough spurs or projections of the ancient hill . I found the opening to this great reservoir as I was looking for the place where lie the assassins of that tempestuous firebrand of Rome. Its water-supply was derived from Solomon's Pools. the third row from the eastern wall and the seven next rows to the west of it are each 1881. TEMPLE-PLATFORM.454 . The cut conveys a good PIERS UNDER S.. can do justice to these subterranean vaults without an engraving. I rolled a good-sized stone from near the . though not quite so large as those in the northeast and southwest respectively. eight miles southwest. are yet cyclopean in magnitude. No description. who were buried here. and for the beverage of the armies of priests and multitudes of visitors. the line of aqueduct being distinctly marked all the way . The importance of a full supply of water for the ceremonial observances always going on in and about the Temple.

Vyse were twelve feet long. but the strong internal iron bands of which Josephus . The two marble casing-stones discovered by ~. These were worked with such exquisite skill that the edges were not thicker. than silver-paper . CISTERN ON MOUNT MORIAH. breaking many of the large blocks. sand and broken stones at the base of the Great Pyramid. four feet three inches high. he said. eight feet three inches broad. removing it all. and bringing the foundation-stones of the Eternal Monument to the clear light of day! May not the great Mason-fraternity yet be induced to undertake it ? In comparing the size of the tremendous blocks in these walls with those of the Great Pyramids.EARTHQUAKES. 455 base of the wall. and it continued its flight without a pause until it reached the original bed of the brook Kedron . In a future chapter I will give measurements of many pyramidstones . Oh. that a nation would do for these masses of debris what the French Army in Egypt did in 1799 to the greater accumulations of ROMAN AQUEDUCT AT SMYRNA . and in places destroying notably the alignment of the wall . Earthquakes have affected this great eastern wall. it will be seen how far Hiram's builders excelled those of Cheops in this respect.

wrote have held block to block as the ligaments hold the bones. 1 . The construction-marks of the Phoenician masons who built the Temple are unquestionably of great antiquity. xxvii. Those in the Pyramid as well as in this wall are sometimes upside down. It was quite a pleasant coincidence. and similar expressions. and I nearly got a fall on a glassy bit of Parian marble remaining in situ.. who knew him well." says the historian. " the place was shaken where they were assembled." while the disciples were praying together (Acts iv . about the size of my hand . they contract to build the Temple. "the earth did quake and the rocks rent." and was stabbed to death and his throat cut by the Jews. and secure the placing of each stone in its proper place . in recalling one of David's expressions in the Psalms. All these phenomena affected this great wall to a considerable extent. standing here at the base of the wall. They are quite as distinct as those to be seen on the marble stones of which the public buildings at Washington are now being constructed." at the Crucifixion (Matt . describes him .456 A REMINISCENCE . but the construction thus far has defied the utmost efforts of internal fires to overthrow it. or man who does the call from the top of the mina- . It is worth one's while. 2) . as I stood on the wall south of the Golden Gate. The muezzin. " there was a great earthquake" at the Resurrection (Matt . that came from Bithynia. a man of great reputation.) " Pursued by fate. I think. to see. etc . a nest of the sparrow (passer cisalpina) in a nook of one of the grand ashlars far below me . I." as Josephus. of penalties. who thronged around him with spears and swords . a centurion. if necessary. and fits in to my little tumble very neatly . to read the words. the actual memorandums of the stone-squarers of Gebal who took Solomon's However rude these were. 51) . and the whole to the stony core on which it rests . were sufficient to check the workmen-to place responsibility in its proper quarter-to make the correct tally of wages. "having his shoes all filled with thick and sharp nails. " the hills did tremble " (Isaiah v. 25) . "the year of the earthquake " Am. . It was a pleasant coincidence that near the same spot slipped and fell in Titus' time "one Julian. 1-8. he fell backwards on this smooth pavement. and. (Wars. 21) . xxviii. While I was observing the remains of this gabbatha (pavement) my foot slipped. breaking the huge stones. which it was not possible he should escape. and. vi. The whole incident is vividly described by Josephus.

Jolley. So frequently does Jerusalem and its particular mountains and fountains appear in the nomenclature of American lodges. Samuel Catherwood. Lyndon A . 175. necessarily so. The poor fellow cannot even " go a single eye on them. Del . Zerubbabel is recognized in No. At the southeast corner of the Great Wall : Christopher G.. Ky. Charles Craig. and numerous others . and many others .. Geo . Ct. Rev. is a blind man. H . etc . Barlow. inspecting the green and red satin canopy over the sacred rock (Es-sakhara). which is the gift of the Sultan . Y . Capt. Jerusalem Lodge No. J. 106. 99. and " The magic powers Of him. A . John Beach. Rambling through the extensive and beautiful grounds . Zabud is honored in No . and Mohammedan poets . 29. 199. and very many others . N. etc . Solomon Lodge No. Md . Maine . Ky. . . 201. Siloam Lodge No. and a host of like names . Ala. finally. C . and some fifty more . Ky. that have room for only a small part : Mount Moriah Lodge No. Y. who in the twinkling of a star.. 147. Ralph Applewhite. 1Nox. 5. 329. . Bethesda Lodge (referring to the Pool here of that name) No . Geo. As at other places. Thomas J . recalling the Mohammedan traditions of the builders of the first Temple here. 68.. who would otherwise pass under his observation . Va. Mount Calvary Lodge No. Lemaitre. Georgia. Ky. Geo. 72. Ky. . 9.. . Colley A. with a long list of others . Ky. Iowa . etc . 95. Sing David is used for No . . 60 and 150. . 66. . 62. Foster.. Mount Sion Lodge No. Built those high-pillared halls. W. 139. the city itself. .. N . and others . to prevent him from seeing the faces of the women. N. Mount Olivet Lodge No. Tenn . 335. 75. 9.MASONIC IDENTIFICATIONS . Other places connected with this locality areused in like manner in our rather jejune lodgenaming. Temple Lodge No. At the site of the ancient Temple : ." I felt that the true poet of Masonry might derive from this hallowed locality all the store of images and inspiration that it has given for thirty centuries to Jewish. etc. 457 ret near by the Mosque of Omar. Widow's Son Lodge is No. ." as the story says .. I make the Masonic identifications complete. 15. . Smith.. by writing here the names of zealous and worthy Masons whose labors in their sphere "keep light and warm" the lodges in which they work. Blakesley. Christian.

Michel Pinner. Drummond. At St. H . Robert Dott. F. Stephen H . of casting the brazen (bronze?) columns for the use of the Temple on Mount Moriah. M. Williams. to make up my judgment as to the spot where those ponderous shafts were set up. Walter. Lewis I.. M . the sight of those mighty and mysterious pillars must have absorbed the attention of the traveller beyond anything else that the Temple of Solomon presented. S. I referred to the immense work performed there. John Christie. Whitehead. Peter Thatcher. W . M . that such was the cane with J .W . Wm . E. I am very much of that opinion. Hawley. Hubbard. C. Albert P.W . Fogg. A. connected with a celebrated temple ii . and suggests that some of those monuments which we have been in the habit of supposing merely solitary pieces. Turning the southwestern point of Mount Olivet. he yet reprehends the erection of isolated columns like that of Pompey's Pillar.. Lewis S. In my account of the Clay-ground in a preceding chapter. W. Howsley. J. C. It is the opinion of some of the best writers on Solomon's Temple." Speaking generally of this greatest of all architectural features. M.. E . Samuel Wilson. I did not fail. Israel Baldwin. and particularly from the east . K. Richardson. 0. while walking over this area. Hiram W . W .468 OBSERVATIONS ON COLUMNS . H. Thomas J. Ross. J . Black. I fell in by good luck with some articles from the skilled and elegant pen of Prof. of New York. Sr. etc . A . H . Hurlbut. M . 0 .. Luckey . W. some fifty or sixty feet high. P. 1872). Tyng. English. Berry. His description of a wrought-iron column of great antiquity. Munger. and that in fact they were not disengaged columns at all. Wm . T. too . Stoekton. Pickett. Woodruff.. D. While writing up this paragraph (Feb. H. Austin. "the incomparable excellence of their designs and proportions has defied the scrutiny of generations to detect a fault or add an embellishment" Making no special reference to the brazen columns of Solomon. Moriarty. Austin. M . Allen. W.D. Stephen's Gate : James M. Joseph Robbins . Peck. and to kindle the imagination with the splendid view they must have presented to the traveller from any direction.. M . Christian Fetta. Tucker.D . E . Vincent L . where the view is the finest. he says of certain ancient columns. James P . T. Rev. in "The Industrial Monthly. Jr. did in fact support entablatures . Herbert Bright. Coombs.. and B . Basler. Coulter.D . Waggoner. At the Damascus Gate : E. Ferd . Wm. S. At the Joppa Gate : James A." entitled "Observations on Columns .

the following Arabic sentences : Allah hoo achbar . I entered one about ten minutes before noon. and was much interested in their manner of worship . harsh tones that could be heard to a very great distance. denoted by the kiblah in the southern wall of the mosque . And bear testimony to one God . God is greater. noon. middle of afternoon. 469 India. . And testify that Mohammed is the Prophet of God . in straight lines. Adam Clarke describes as being "beyond the ability of any workmen of the present day to equal. This cry is made five times a day." The Mohammedan Mosques on Mount Moriah being considered by those religionists the most holy of their churches. at daybreak. but every day in the week will answer. This in plain English is : God is greater . Allah hoo achbar . in long. In the daybreak call these words are added Es salat ophdel min en-noom . all facing toward the south. like the Catholic churches in our large cities. in the steeple (minaret) high above us. at sunset. These lines were about five feet apart. they took their places side by side. they are always open to worshippers. which is the direction of Mecca. I had been careful to remove my shoes. Es sullah koom wa kheddin es salat . Oo inne Mohammed el Resool Allah . Perfect silence and decorum were observed . to leave a convenient space for prostration during the prayers . except the ones at Mecca. according to the native custom . and slipped them . I occupied an obscure corner near the door. and took my seat cross-legged. is a commentary upon Hiram's work. which is the Mohammedan Sabbath.. As the company came in.. I introduce here a brief account of their mosque-worship . which old Dr . unperceived into my coat-pocket . The best time to observe the ceremonies is on Friday. and at bedtime . Oo ishod la illah it Allah . To avoid giving offence.MOSQUE CEREMONIALS . The muezzin or crier was all the time calling out. viz . Oo ishod la illah it Allah . for. And bear testimony to one God . which I wore for the purpose.

evidently stiff and agonized with rheumatism. on the other hand. with the absence of pictures. the fact that not a female was present. and place his forehead on the floor between his hands. When they all fell on their knees in unison. images. contrasted unfavorably even with the worst forms of corrupt Christianity. An aged man near me. No one seemed to pay any attention to my presence .460 MOSQUE CEREMONIAL& Prayer is better than sleep . confusion. and absorbed devotion of these people. kneeling. about six inches apart. or priests. and auxiliaries of worship that fill the corrupt Christian churches here . . crosses. decorum. who were in the gallery. The voices of the Imaums were affected and unnatural. which were spread open and lying flat on the floor. and idols. and the performance commenced. When the exercises were finished. still kept up with the rest. walking around his little balcony near the top of the minaret for that purpose. The services occupied about an hour. the same words being repeated and the same evolutions performed without the least change . all rising. But the veteran had accomplished his task. every one began to move his lips . but their command over the worshippers in producing uniformity of ceremony was equal to that of a general over the most thoroughly disciplined troops. The silence. though the sweat stood in great beads on his forehead. made a pleasing contrast with the scenes of noise. then to bow and kneel. and an occasional groan of anguish escaped from him. the Imaums. As the muezzin stopped. apparently his sons . bowing. The evolutions were performed with military precision and promptness. But. As the worshippers came in. he had to be lifted to his feet and led off by two men. and while the muezzin was still making his circuit and invitations. or would have been allowed to be present. relics. and prostrating with the system of the far-famed New York Forty-third Regiment on a fieldday. and he left the place smiling . Rise up and offer prayers . In making these calls he goes to the four cardinal points. the great stone building was jarred with the shock . emblems. gave the word of command.

M . E .CHAPTER XX VI. T .. HILE in Jerusalem. 1888 . .E. of Palestine Lodge 415. as named before . also the venerable Brother Petermann. near the Damascus Gate. Prussian Consul. at Beyrout. W. who is in charge of the explorations. ROGERS. R. and Captain Charles Warren. FREEMASONRY IN JERUSALEM. I held two Masonic meetings in a room at the Mediterranean Hotel. in which assemblies several officers of the British war-ships lying at Joppa were present .

Nothing can exceed the zeal of our English brethren upon such occasions .. by Dr . These conferences were delightful to me . At that time. England . has. and the opening of a Moot Lodge there : this event occurred on the afternoon of Wednesday. parts of a traveller's business in Jerusalem . A city that has been seventeen times captured. Auburn Lodge 954. and we exchanged genial sentiments and formed and cemented friendships which I think will be permanent . of course. are on the north side. Eastern Archipelago. One of the most agreeable episodes in my visit here was an assemblage of Freemasons in the vast quarries that underlie the northeastern quarter of the city of Jerusalem. Rev. J. Henry Petermann. The entrance is under the city walls on the north. it was made easier. and the reader will understand that somewhere in the vicinity great quarries must exist . Malta. initiated in 1826. S.N. to which I have more than once referred. May 13. In fact. the entrance was extremely difficult of access . and under the northeast quartei of the city . drawn immensely upon the building material of the vicinity. Zetland Lodge 515. Prussia. Singapore . P. The names of these brethren are here given Lindesay Goodrich. and' dissolves rapidly in the open air. J. Portsmouth. traversing the entire quarries is now one of the lighest and pleasantest . All the above were connected with H . M . . Davenport. Phoenix Lodge. These. England. Outside of the walls a space of several hundred feet in width and a . Fidelity Lodge 1042. a short distance east of the Damascus Gate . A description of these enormous caverns seems necessary as a preface to the subject. when the Prince of Wales was here. Member of the Fourth Degree (Ober Meister) . etc. now lying in the port of Joppa. This opening was first discovered about ten years ago. Add to this the fact that the native stone around Jerusalem is friable. Charles Warren. Grand Chaplain. T . also Zetland Lodge 515. Barclay. Past Master of Lodge of Friendship 278. author of the celebrated work The City of the Great King. and often partially (and several times totally) destroyed. P . John Oxland. Edward Gladstone. as I said. Lord Clyde. St. . England .462 DISCOVERY OF THE QUARRY . R. the matter of entering and . Royal York of Berlin. Every. braltar . a few years since. (ii . but .

about eighteen feet square . and would proceed to open a Moot Lodge. under the title of Reclamation Lodge of Jerusalem .'a member of Royal York Lodge at Berlin. served us for an Altar . which led. in a systematic manner. Prussian Consul at Jerusalem. and the other ceremonies proceeded. a Freemason of many years' experience . convenient shelves had been left by the original workmen. very feeling and appropriate. to the effect that never. by the venerable Henry Petermann. and in the awful depths of that quarry. Remarks were offered. of equal extent . how impressive is a place which none but the All-seeing Eye can penetrate . which answered for seats . and the trowel. a few opening remarks were made by myself. as we never had before. He is a gentleman of great learning and the highest . the mother-country of its birth . desired to seal our friendship by the associations peculiar to a Masonic lodge . brethren. We were perfectly tyled by silence. It was a pit in the ancient cuttings. we had now assembled. A prayer was offered. that a few of us. square. and found a chamber happily adapted to a Masonic purpose . Brother Peterman is the deputy of his Grand Lodge to the lodges of Palestine . so far as I knew. This is termed by the natives the Cotton hfegara. etc . providentially thrown together. On the east and west. we pushed southward as far into the quarry as we could penetrate. three burning candles throwing their lustre upon it. This we now proceeded to do. 4613 quarter of a mile in horizontal depth has been quarried to t . Laying my pocket Bible open on the central stone. echoing strangely from that stony rock that had heard no such sounds for centuries. for aught I know. An upright stone in the centre.. nearly a quarter of a mile from its opening. and darkness. About ten feet above the master's station there was an immense opening in the wall. and it is here that we opened our Moot Lodge . that an effort was now making to introduce Freemasonry into this. to the original site of the Temple of Solomon . while adjoining those excavations on the south. by us the great Jerusalem Quarry.hG depth of twenty-five to fifty feet . resting near by. long used by guides to set their candles upon. and immediately under the city.OPENING THE MOOT LODGE . we felt. and to break the long stillness of these ancient quarries by Masonic utterances. secrecy. there is a cavern. that for this purpose. as already intimated. had a Freemasons' lodge been formed in Jerusalem since the departure of the Crusading hosts more than seven hundred years ago . Entering with a good supply of candles.

BROWN. I had received a communication from him the day before. Freemasonry in the Turkish Empire has no Eli8ha worthy to wear the mantle of this Elisha.E. April 28. . 1872. was summoned u by the God who gave it . and was preparing a reply when. the learned and zealous officer who has charge of the excavations gong JOHN P. 278. at Constantinople. that the times were propitious for reinstating the Masonic institutions in the Holy Land ." He died of heart-disease. ]4e expressed his opinion.. at Gibraltar.464 OPENING THE MOOT LODGE . social standing. the spirit of their genial and wise Brother Brown. Sunday. 1872. without warning. in the plainest terms. the afflicting intelligence reached me . speaking eight languages with fluency . M. R. District Grand Master at Constantinople. Brother Petermann was followed by Brother Captain Charles Warren. by telegraph. the chariot of Israel and the horsemen thereof 1 " R . to whom I allude on page 599. Suddenly. . " Alas. a member of Friendship Lodge No .

Then. called together under such singular circumstances. and showed how much of the misery to which this country has been subjected might have been spared. others. Abdel Kader. Further notes relative to researches in this great quarry will be interesting to the general reader . had Freemasonry existed here during the different crises of its history. and was equally impressed with the importance of introducing Freemasonry. Associating the names of worthy Masons with this truly Masonic locality. However. as cut by our hand . E . when we deemed ourselves lost and booked for a long night in the Great Quarry. we groped for the wall like the blind . Nazif Mesharka.. Every. just now. who excelled himself in clear and forcible expressions of the importance of Freemasonry. and the next visitor will see amongst them the Square and Compass. in a land of jarring nationalities and religions such as this is . remain. Edward Gladstone. Storer. J. Hebrew characters. The vast quarry thus consecrated by Masonic forms. shows at every point the marks of the chisel as well defined as the day the workmen left it. the next day . in some extremely happy observations. we groped as if we had no eyes . He Was followed by my assistant. whose dimen . the devious and interminable passages of that enormous cavern. sions I gave in a preceding chapter. we stumbled (Isaiah lix . and endeavoring to return to the entrance through . My engraving presents a correct view of the interior of these excavations.SAYINGS UNDER GROUND . Samuel Hallock. into the Holy Land . partly cut out of the wall stand where a few more blows would detach them . comes in appropriately here. and came nigh being compelled to remain there until our friends would search for us. 465 on here under patronage of the Palestine Exploration Fund . lost our way. Slabs of stone partially dressed are lying upon the floor . 30 . We separated . John Oxland. by good fortune. Lindesay Goodrich. this evil was spared us. and we reached the City Gate before it was closed at sunset. though cautiously and judiciously. The following drawing of the Great Stone at Baalbec. I unite Henry Petermann. Noureddin Effendi . He professed a willingness to do any part in the introduction and reestablishment of the society here. expressed his pleasure at this meeting. Many emblems of crosses. This gentleman. having been mislaid at the proper time. Rev. etc. G. 10) .

quite an opening was made for the accom modation of an English party. A few years ago. about the year 1855 . the light portions show where the stone has been removed. he found his conjectures verified. this white limestone is so soft before it has been exposed to the air and light. Barclay discovered a human skeleton-some poor wretch. In my drawing of it. and now it is an every-day matter for visitors to enter and inspect the quarry. Barclay to imagine that there might 'be a quarry or cave worth exploring there . that large pieces are constantly falling from the roof and accumulating in great heaps upon the floor . the city wall. as marked upon the map. the dark portions where it was left in great natural columns to support the roof. This led Dr. By enlarging the opening with a spade. This enormous excavation.I66 WANDERING IN DARKNESS. who became bewildered in the windings of the . Barclay. no doubt. His dog was scenting in a hole under GREAT STONE AT BAALBEC . Here is the deep circular pit in which Dr . In entering the quarry we first went east one hundred and thirteen feet. was accidently discovered by Dr . T. then directly south four hundred feet. then southeast one hundred and ninety-six feet. after lying for many ages sealed from the' knowledge of man. and suddenly disappeared . J . But in spite of these large and frequent supports.

~ ITr STONE-MARKS AT JERUSALEM. .INTERIOR OF THE GREAT QUARRY .

however. as Brother Warren had done. With an abundant supply of candles. and a few Hebrew and Arabic inscriptions. The history of Dr. Petermann is full of interest. but from a place upon the continuation of the same mountain . both from the general appearance of it and from the marks of the chisel on every side. prove the use to which the great cavern has been turned. . may be seen. had been here . Numerous crosses are traced upon the wall. about five feet in diameter. where the excavation seemed to end abruptly. were formed in this manner. It proves. indicating that Christians. but the water is bitter and disagreeable to the taste . brought in here probably by jackals. probably Crusaders. how much stone was used in the various structures connected with Solomon's architecture. from its vast capacity. and these were then burst off by long levers or some other mechanical contrivances. The floor is piled deep with clippings made by working implements. and not a natural cave. I found the good old man very complimentary in his appreciation of America and its literature . Bones of various kinds. which in places is forty feet high . and fell in unawares. He assured me. It proves that the great blocks seen in the walls of Mount Moriah were not brought from the very great distance formerly supposed. in Asia Minor. some of which were unusually large. too. anciently collected for the use of the workmen . We found it full and running over . Stewart (in the " Tent and Khan") considers this quarry one of the most interesting discoveries yet made in Jerusalem . Dr. That this great cavity is a quarry. Magnificent halls. in Egypt. He has been in the Prussian diplomatic service for more than twoscore years at Bagdad. Along the sides of the quarry. and two and a half feet deep.t68 HENRY PFTERMANN. it was easy to roll the heavy stones down the inclined plane to their places. while innumerable chambers and recesses stretch away to the right and left. showing that the rock was worked wherever it was found best in quality . too much effaced to be readable. deep. and other quarters of the globe . W. is plain enough. B . Near the circular pit is a small basin chiselled in the rock. narrow grooves were cut lengthwise between the blocks. Great numbers of bats were clinging to the roof of the quarry. great cave. This quarry being higher than the top of the platform on which the Temple stood. into which the water was. and went two hundred and seventy feet. we turned northward around the pit.

near Naumburg. and in 1857 was nominated Doctor in Divinity by the Theological Faculty of Greiswalde . Saxony. About the year 1840 he was advanced to the fourth Degree. and that of Master Mason the following year. As a Freemason. to spend the remainder of his days in quiet. 468 that American authorities on Holy Land explorations (Robinson's. and in the "Innermost Orient" he was made Substitute Chief Master. in the year 1801 . what is styled in that system the Degree of Knowledge. In this age of Masonic skepticism it is refreshing to have t?~is tes- . In 1815 he went to the gymnasium of Schulpforte. Cyprus. remaining for a considerable period in Damascus. to our Past . then Chief Master of the Lodge. Barclay's. In his own Lodge he held the offices first of "Surveyor. studying the Armenian tongue. Nablous. In 1868 he received his appointment at Jerusalem. Thomson'g. in the Lodge Frederick William. then four months in Persia. probably. In 1825 he went to Berlin.) are reckoned the best on the catalogue. is only temporary. Bagdad . The object of his stay in Jerusalem was that he might study the Armenian manuscripts belonging to the monastery of the Armenian Patriachate there.Master. Here he studied theology four years . called also that of St . which. and said that Motley's History of the Netherlands is highly popular in Holland and Germany . received the degree of Fellow Craft the same year.THE GERMAN MASON. Brother Petermann was initiated in 1825. In 1830 he entered upon the vocation of an academical instructor . he was appointed Surveyor. a collection of rare interest and value. This venerable Mason and Aristian gentleman was born in Glauchan. and engaged in the study of philosophy (especially Oriental languages) for four years . Jerusalem. In 1852-3 he travelled in the East. belonging to the Royal York Grand Lodge of Friendship . and in 1821 to the University of Leipsic. however. and a short period in Egypt . In 1833 he received the grade of Professor Extraordinary in the Philosophical Faculty . In his mother Grand Lodge he is Representative of the Grand Lodge of Germany to the Orient . During the years 1832-3 he was in Venice. In 1849 he became a member of the Academy of Science in Berlin. similar. Andrew. In 1829 he took the degree of Doctor in philosophy. In the Fourth Degree (Knowledge)." finally of Honorary Master. as he shortly returns to Berlin.

I think we are obliges to consider it as a mission for promoting true Christianity.ordinary Masonic pictures. and built in the body of the structure. and." situated in the southern wing of the Temple porch (1 Kings vi . found near the Damascus Gate in Jerusalem . Dr . Upon my arrival here I made two visits to this singular structure. they were ." In the course of a social evening passed with that learned and experienced Jerusalem Missionary. failed. and out of the middle into the third. masonically. so minutely wrought out in the lectures of the Fellow Craft. prior to leaving the United States. and no matter how numerous the petitioners or how respectable the petitions we prepared and forwarded. This is a true pattern of the Winding Stairs. must be a true and genuine Christian . All attempts made by me to increase the number of Lodges in Palestine and Syria. Among the Jews. "they went up with winding stairs into the middle chamber. he advised me to give special attention to an object of rare Masonic interest. so well worthy of study as this . each step being about seven feet long and three broad. It is not contained in a circular tube.t 7o THE WINDING STAIRS. from Damascus and elsewhere. 8). After passing through it. "is connected with the best specimens of ancient Jewish mural structures that the battering-ram and tooth of time have spared to us . but I can assure him I saw but few remains of ancient architecture about Jerusalem. Barclay says. we are obliged to prepare the work for the Missionaries. Upon a plain surface near the top I chiselled the Square and Compass . know any Mason not enrolled upon her own Grand Lodge Register . but is square-shaped. under English authority. Barclay." This winding stairway commences on the left and leads to the top of the tower . timony over the signature of so venerable and learned a man as Dr Petermann " If you will have a confession of my opinion upon the scope of Masonry. T. in my opinion. It is situated on the right-hand or eastern room of the Damascus Gate. because the true and genuine Mason. J . Mohammedans. as Dr . Without drawings it is difficult to make this ingenious device clear to the reader . The Grand Lodge of England does not. Among our Christian brethren we must promote the inner mission in order to make true Christians . as the inspired historian says. Barclay that this was the kind of ascent by which. and Heathens. as in modern buildings and the . I am quite of the opinion expressed by Dr . and examined it minutely. or anywhere else.

Our Consul at Jerusalem. Asia Minor . a measure is on foot. I conclude the chapter with a letter written shortly after my return from the East. 471 thrown out in London "for want of jurisdiction . Chapter in Smyrna. 150 miles. Scotland. because the nearest Lodges are at Beyrout. and that. The points presented to the Masonic authorities of America and Europe. as to standing and proficiency . A . to organize The Solomon's Lodge at Jerusalem under American auspices . Brother R. If you can possibly procure a copy of Barclay's . The rituals to be worked are the '1 Webb Rituals. was the only result of my labors in this direction . The guide-books with which I have already advised you to provide yourself are so full and explicit in relation to "Jerusalem the Golden. No Lodge will be asked for a recommendation. is neutral ground to prove this we show that the Grand Lodges of England. The petitioners will be personally vouched for by a resident Mason in Kentucky. in the city of its origin . United States Consul in Jerusalem. if the technicality is insisted on ." The Grand Orient of France issued a warrant for a second Lodge at Beyrout. Some repetition of facts already introduced will nQt be considered a blemish in the epistolary style . with the best prospects of success. 18 72). M . to accomplish an end desirable in itself and particularly so at the present time-the establishment of the Masonic Order. But we can get the recommendation of American Lodge. and so will be at least one other petitioner .SOLOMON'S LODGE OF JERUSALEM. They wish to work the American Constitution and Rituals. and the two Lodges there. however (April. are inert . is at work. is an American. with great energy. At the issuance of the present volume.. Indiana. on a legal and permanent basis." that it would be surplusage for me to offer to pilot you around the city ." translated into Arabic . John's R . and a member of the Order at Elkhart. up to 1872. are these The Turkish Empire. France. backed up by a strong feeling here and in America. and while my mind was warm with Oriental life and reflections. who will be the W . in justification of this movement. Beardsley. As a pleasant summary of Jerusalem notes. at the present time. have exercised the right to establish Lodges there. and Italy (perhaps others). masonically considered. The General Grand Chapter of the United States have entered that field in establishing St.

The priests encourage them in this.. "City of