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SBI 3U1 FINAL EXAM REVIEW __________________________________________________________________ DIVERSITY OF LIVING THINGS

PROKARYOTE - Single celled organism that lacks a membrane-enclosed organelles. Cells do not contain a true nucleus or membrane-bound organelles. Example: bacteria EUKARYOTE - Organism made of one or more cells that have both a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Cells contain a true nucleus and membrane-bound organelles. Example: plants, animals, fungi AEROBIC RESPIRATION - Use of oxygen to break down food molecules and produce energy ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION - Breakdown of sugar molecules without the presence of oxygen to produce energy DIVERSITY BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE - Classification system that assigns a two-part Latin name of genus and species to an organism _____________________________________________________________________________ _ SPECIES The most specific category A group of structurally similar organisms which can interbreed under natural conditions to produce fertile offspring GENUS A group of similar species FAMILY A group of similar genera

ORDER A group of similar families CLASS A group of similar orders PHYLUM (or DIVISION *botany) A group of similar classes

KINGDOM A group of similar phyla or divisions Originally organisms were only classified into two kingdoms - Animals and Plants. Animals were divided into those of the land, the sea, and the air. Plants were divided into herbs, shrubs, and trees. With the development of the microscope, Aristotles two kingdom system has to be altered to accommodate the micro organisms and Kingdom Protista was formed. Eventually, the Plant Kingdom was divided because of the differences between the Fungi and the Plants. Then, the Protists were divided to accommodate the differences between the bacteria and other protists, and so the Kingdom Monera was formed. Finally the Kingdom Monera was divided to separate the older varieties of bacteria from the more recent forms. _____________________________________________________________________________ _

ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION: Involves a single parent or cell No combination of genetic material Offspring are identical to the parent Binary Fission - members of Bacteria, Archaea, and Protista Budding - Yeast and Hydra Fragmentation/Regeneration - Flat worms and Starfish Vegetative Propagation - a wide range of plants Sporulation - Plants (e.g. ferns), Fungi (e.g. moulds and mushrooms) SEXUAL REPRODUCTION: Involves two parents or cells Combination of genetic material Offspring are not identical to parents - variation results Specialized cells used - GAMETES Gametes join together in a process called fertilization (can be internal or external) Result of fertilization - ZYGOTE - first cell of the next generation _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Viruses are not considered living because although they reproduce at a fantastic rate and can mutate, they are acellular (have no cytoplasm or cellular organelles), they carry out no metabolism on their own (must replicate using the host cells metabolic machinery), and they possess either DNA or RNA (never both). _____________________________________________________________________________ _ DICHOTOMOUS KEY

A dichotomous key is a method for determining the identity of something by going through a series of choices that leads to the correct name of the item. Dichotomous means divided in two parts *Refer to the back of review _____________________________________________________________________________ _ When writing a scientific name, the first letter of the Genus name is always capitalized. The species name is entirely in lower case letters. e.g. Homo sapiens Homo - genus, sapiens - species _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Accepted Domains and Kingdoms *Refer to charts at the back of the review _____________________________________________________________________________ _

EVOLUTION
NATURAL SELECTION - Difference in the survival or reproduction among individuals in a population based on how well their traits suit them for their environments SPECIATION - Evolutionary formation of a species ADAPTATION - Modification of a structure or function in an individual that allows the organism to adjust to a new environment or condition HOMOLOGOUS STRUCTURES - Structures that are formed in similar ways during the embryonic development and share like arrangements but may have different forms and functions CONVERGENT EVOLUTION - Pattern of evolution in which two unrelated species gradually become increasingly similar DIVERGENT EVOLUTION - Pattern of evolution in which two closely related species gradually become increasingly dissimilar CO-EVOLUTION - Evolution in two or more interacting species in which the evolutionary changes of each species influence the evolution of the other species VESTIGIAL ORGAN - Organs that have lost their functions in the organism _____________________________________________________________________________ _ EVIDENCE FROM PALEONTOLOGY

As you proceed down through layer of rock, the number of fossils decrease and the complexity of the organisms represented by the fossils also lessens Agrees with the premise of evolution that all living organisms alive today descended from common ancestors that were less complex EVIDENCE FROM COMPARATIVE ANATOMY Persistence of a basic structure may indicate the development from a common ancestor AND that various modifications are simply adaptations of the structure to the special need of the organism The persistence of homologous structures is retained even when the structure serves no function in the organism EVIDENCE FROM EMBRYOLOGY Idea that embryonic development repeats that of their ancestors - recapitulation EVIDENCE FROM COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY Biochemical homologies or the persistence of molecules between species may indicate the development from a common ancestor EVIDENCE FROM GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION Characteristics of species on islands most closely resemble the characteristics of species on the nearest mainland rather than the characteristics of species on other islands This indicates that these species may have descended from common ancestors on the mainland EVIDENCE FROM PROTECTIVE RESEMBLANCE The changing characteristics of the pepper moth due to the onset of the industrial revolution _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Artificial selection is the selective breeding carried out by humans to alter a population. It is a procedure often used in agriculture: artificial selection has been used to alter the number of eggs laid by hens, the meat properties of bullocks, and the milk yield of cows. With artificial selection experiments, evolution can be studied in the laboratory. In a typical experiment, a new generation is formed by allowing only a selected minority of the current generation to breed. The population will usually respond: the average in the next generation will have moved in the selected direction. Artificial selection can produce dramatic change, if continued for long enough. A kind of artificial selection has generated almost all our agricultural crops and domestic pets. _____________________________________________________________________________ _

The gradualism model posits that evolutionary change occurs very slowly, and at a constant rate. If true, then one would expect to see change in lineages spread uniformly over time. However,

that isn't what is observed. In the fossil record, one often sees species remaining in stasis, or unchanged, for long periods of time, then bursts of new species quickly at irregular intervals. Paleontologists Stephen Jay Gould and Niles Eldredge noted this pattern in the fossil record, and proposed the theory of punctuated equilibria, to explain it. Species remain in stasis, they argued, because speciation required certain special conditions for isolation and change to occur, and that these conditions are usually met at the periphery of a specie's range, and not all the time. In addition, they showed, with some very finely graded fossil series, that speciation can occur very rapidly once it gets going--in some cases as quickly as 50,000 years--far faster than the fossilization process could accurately track in a gradual way. Therefore, one should expect to see long periods of stasis (equilibria) broken up (punctuated) by bursts of speciation. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ CHARLES LYELL (1797-1875) Concluded that Cuviers catastrophism theory was wrong Believed that there primarily have been slower, progressive changes Documented that the earth must be very old and has been subject to the same sort of natural processes in the past that operate today in shaping the land (such as erosion, earthquakes, glacial movements, volcanoes, and even the decomposition of animals and plants) Provided conclusive evidence for the theory of uniformitarianism

MALTHUS English economist and demographer Best known for his theory that population growth will always tend to outrun the food supply and that betterment of humankind is impossible without stern limits on reproduction Modified and then applied to the living world in general by Darwin and Wallace in evolution through natural selection GEORGE CUVIER (1769-1832) Respected expert on dinosaurs Theory of catastrophism Held that there have been violent and sudden natural catastrophes such as great floods and the rapid formations of major mountain chains Plants and animals living in those parts of the world where such events occurred were often killed off according to Cuvier New life forms moved in from other areas Result - the fossil record for a region shows abrupt changes in species

JEAN-BAPTISTE LAMARCK (1744-1829) Believed that microscopic organisms appear spontaneously from inanimate materials and then transmute, or evolve, gradually and progressively into more complex forms through a constant striving for perfection

Believed that evolution was mostly due to the inheritance of acquired characteristics as creatures adapted to their environments Evolution occurs when an organism uses a body part in such a way that it is altered during its lifetime and this change is then inherited by its offspring E.g. giraffes evolved their long necks by each generation stretching farther to get leaves in trees and that this change in body shape was then inherited Also believed that creatures could develop new organs or change the structure and function of old ones as a result of their use and disuse CHARLES DARWIN (1809-1882) Theory of evolution through natural selection Naturalist Travelled to the Galapagos Archipelago on the Beagle Struck by the differences in flora and fauna between neighbouring islands that were approximately the same age Collected samples of everything he encountered Presented the theory with Alfred Russell Wallace at a seminar in London STEPHEN JAY GOULD & NILES ELDREDGE The theory of the Punctuated Equilibrium _____________________________________________________________________________ _

Effect of environmental changes on natural selection E.g. Soay Sheep are becoming smaller, despite the evolutionary benefits of a large body _____________________________________________________________________________ _

GENETIC PROCESSES
HAPLOID - Number of chromosomes in a cell that contains a single set of chromosomes; present in gametes; one half of the diploid number DIPLOID - Number of chromosomes in a body cell of an organism; the number characteristic of a species, having two chromosomes of each type per cell GAMETE - Specialized reproductive cell that unites with another of a different sex to produce a zygote through sexual reproduction; eggs and sperm ZYGOTE - Union of gametes that produces the first cell of a new organism HETEROZYGOUS - Organism with two different alleles for a certain gene HOMOZYGOUS - Organism with two identical alleles of a certain gene

ALLELE - One of the several alternative forms of the same gene NONDISJUNCTION - The failure of i) homologues to separate during anaphase I of meiosis or ii) chromatids to separate during anaphase II of meiosis. This results in one pair of daughter cells receiving more chromosomes than they should while the other pair receives less chromosomes that they should. Therefore, this process is the cause of most of the genetic disorders resulting from an abnormal number of chromosomes SOMATIC CELL - General body cells; have the diploid number of chromosomes KARYOTYPE - The arrangement of homologous pairs of chromosomes (metaphase chromosomes) in descending order according to size (and sometimes shape) CYTOKINESIS - Cell division; division of the cytoplasm and the organelles _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Structure of DNA Double helix formed by base pairs attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone Base Pairs: Adenine+Thymine, Guanine+Cytosine _____________________________________________________________________________ _
MITOSIS NUMBER OF DIVISIONS NUMBER OF DAUGHTER CELLS HAPLOID OR DIPLOID DAUGHTER CELLS ROLE / FUNCTION 1 2 DIPLOID (2N) SOMATIC MEIOSIS 2 (I, II) 4 HAPLOID (N) GERM CELLS

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ Pros and Cons of Sexual and Asexual Reproduction: Asexual reproduction is faster and more reliable because no partner is needed. Sexual reproduction requires a partner but allows for more genetic diversity through the mixing of genes. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ MENDELS FIRST LAW - THE LAW OF SEGREGATION

When the gametes are produced, the paired alleles separate and are distributed as units to each gamete.

MENDELS SECOND LAW - THE LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT The distribution of one pair of alleles is independent of the distribution of another pair. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ PUNNET SQUARES Chart used to show all possible allelic combinations of gametes in a cross of parents with known genotypes *Refer to back of review for examples _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Colour Blindness - Recessive Allele on the X Chromosome Turners Syndrome - Alteration in chromosome number Downs Syndrome - Alteration in Chromosome Number Hemophilia - Recessive Allele on the X Chromosome _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Antigen Foreign substance that comes in contact with the body Foreign macromolecule that does not belong to the host organism and elicits and immune response Molecule which induces the formation of an antibody Antibody Bodys response to an antigen Certain defensive proteins which help to counter antigens Molecule produced by animals in response to an antigen, which has the particular property of combining specifically with the antigen which induced its formation When the correct antibody-antigen pair comes together, they clump (agglutinate). This deactivates the antigen or marks it for destruction by the immune system. Type O - Universal donor Type AB - Universal receiver _____________________________________________________________________________ _ GENE THERAPY Insertion of normal DNA directly into cells to correct a genetic defect

Treatment of disease by replacing, altering, or supplementing a gene that is absent or abnormal and whose absence or abnormality is responsible for a disease _____________________________________________________________________________ _

ANIMALS: STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION


RESPIRATION - The process of inhaling and exhaling DIGESTION - Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food into molecules that the body can absorb ABSORPTION - Uptake of nutrients through the skin, mucous membrane or cell membrane of an animal MICROVILLI - Microscopic projections of villi in the small intestine PERISTALSIS - Series of coordinated muscular contractions - Mechanism that moves food along the digestive tract DIASTOLIC - Relaxation stage of the cardiac cycle that allows blood to flow into the heart chambers SYSTOLIC - Contraction stage of the cardiac cycle that expels blood from the heart chambers _____________________________________________________________________________ _ CIRCULATORY SYSTEM The Heart Responsible for supplying pressure to the blood to push it through the arteries Four chamber - Left and right ventricles, left and right atrium

Arteries Thick-walled muscular tubes with elastic tubes in the walls that allow them to stretch and handle high pressures Pump blood out of the heart Veins Muscular tubes with thinner walls Wider than arteries (in diameter) Lead blood to the heart Venules Small vessels Come together and lead back to the heart and the larger veins

Carry blood towards the heart

Capillaries Smallest blood vessels in the body Connect to smaller arterioles and smallest venules _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Oxygen in picked up in the lungs by hemoglobin which is found in red blood cells. The hemoglobin then transports the oxygen (4 oxygens can be carried at one time by one cell) to cells that need it and when they release the oxygen, they pick up carbon dioxide. They then carry the carbon dioxide back to the lungs where most of it is exhaled. The whole process is mediated by chemical triggers in the body. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ MOUTH / ORAL CAVITY Teeth - incisors, canines, premolars, molars Lips Tongue Jaw muscles Hard palate, Soft palate Bolus - moistened ball-like mass of food

PHARYNX Muscular tube that connects the mouth to the rest of the digestive tract Connects the nasal cavity to the rest of the respiratory tube EPIGLOTTIS Small flap of connective tissue that moves between the esophagus and the trachea

ESOPHAGUS Muscular tube with a diameter of 2 cm that connects the pharynx and the stomach STOMACH J-shaped stretchable organ that is able to hold approximately 1.5 L of food The pH of the stomach is 2 Cardiac Sphincter - Ring of smooth muscle that contracts and relaxes around the opening between the esophagus and the stomach to control the passage of food Pyloric Sphincter - Ring of smooth muscle that contracts and relaxes around the opening between the stomach and the small intestine to control the passage of food SALL INTESTINE Duodenum - 1.5 m - Breakdown

Jejunum - 3 to 4 m - Absorption Ilium - 3 to 4 m - Absorption Villi - Finger-like extensions of the inner surface of the small intestine Micro-villi - Microscopic projections of villi in the small intestine

LARGE INTESTINE Consecutive sections Caecum - Chamber of the large intestine that receives chyme from the small intestine Colon - Ascending, transverse, descending, sigmoid Rectum - Last section of the large intestine Anus - Opening at the end of the rectum that expels waste from the body Appendix - Large amount of lymphoid tissue jutting out from the caecum LIVER (Accessory Digestive Organ) 1.5 Kg Bile: Bile salts, bile acids, cholesterol, phospholipids, fatty acids, water Gall Bladder - Muscular sac that stores and concentrates the bile that it receives from the liver (1L of bile daily) PANCREAS (Accessory Digestive Organ) Secretes digestive enzymes into the small intestine and hormones into the blood _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Digestion involves mixing food with digestive juices, moving it through the digestive tract, and breaking down large molecules of food into smaller molecules. Digestion begins in the mouth, when you chew and swallow, and is completed in the small intestine. Most digested molecules of food, as well as water and minerals, are absorbed through the small intestine. The mucosa of the small intestine contains many folds that are covered with tiny finger-like projections called villi. In turn, the villi are covered with microscopic projections called microvilli. These structures create a vast surface area through which nutrients can be absorbed. Specialized cells allow absorbed materials to cross the mucosa into the blood, where they are carried off in the bloodstream to other parts of the body for storage or further chemical change. This part of the process varies with different types of nutrients.

INGESTION Intake of food PHYSICAL/MECHANICAL DIGESTION (breakdown) Cutting Crushing Grinding

Dissolving

CHEMICAL DIGESTION Break food down with the use of enzymes (biological catalyst) Extract nutrients ABSORPTION Assimilates nutrients from the digestive system into the circulatory system EGESTION / ELIMINATION Removal of indigestible waste Feces _____________________________________________________________________________ _ NOSTRILS Round external openings of the nose Lined with hair, cilia, mucous-secreting cells and a network of capillaries NASAL CAVITY Chamber-like regions which are lined with cilia and mucous-secreting cells PHARYNX Short muscular tube Partially lined with cilia and mucous-secreting cells EPIGLOTTIS Small slap of connective tissue GLOTTIS Opening of the larynx LARYNX Structure made of bone and cartilage Sometimes called the voice box In males it can be visible (Adams apple) TRACHEA 25 to 30 cm Muscular tube covered with U-shaped rings of cartilage Lined with mucous-secreting goblet cells and cilia

BRONCHI Two branches of the trachea Also covered with rings of cartilage and lined with mucous-secreting goblet cells and cilia

BRONCHIOLES Numerous branches of the bronchi Become progressively smaller with each branching Lined with cilia and mucous-secreting cells ALVEOLI Tiny moist grape-like clusters of air sacs Lined with cilia and mucous-secreting cells Over 300 million alveoli per lung PULMONARY CAPILLARIES Networks of very small blood vessels LUNGS Pair of organs composed of bronchioles, alveoli, capillaries, and connective tissue (elastic) PLEURA Set of membranes separated by a lubricated fluid THORACIC CAVITY Chamber-like region of the body Sometimes called the chest cavity _____________________________________________________________________________ _ 1. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the systemic circuit (the body ) through the Vena Cava (superior and inferior). 2. Blood flows from the right atrium through the right AV valve ( right atrioventricular valve or tricuspid valve) into the right ventricle. 3. When the right ventricle contracts it pumps blood through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve to enter the pulmonary trunk which starts the pulmonary circuit. 4. Pulmonary trunk divides into left and right pulmonary arteries. Pulmonary arteries divide smaller and smaller until they deliver blood to gas exchange sites of lungs (alveoli). 5. Once blood is oxygenated it flows back to the heart through the right and left pulmonary veins. 6. Right and left pulmonary veins deliver blood to the left atrium. 7. Blood flows from the left atrium through the left AV valve (aka Mitral or Bicuspid valve) into the left ventricle. 8. Blood is pumped by the strong left ventricle through the aortic semi-lunar valve into the ascending aorta.

9.

Blood flows through the aortic arch into the descending aorta. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ The AV node is one of the major elements in the cardiac conduction system, the system that controls the heart rate. This stunningly designed system generates electrical impulses and conducts them throughout the muscle of the heart, stimulating the heart to contract and pump blood. The SA node is the heart's natural pacemaker. The SA node consists of a cluster of cells that are situated in the upper part of the wall of the right atrium (the right upper chamber of the heart). The electrical impulses are generated there. The SA node is also called the sinus node. The electrical signal generated by the SA node moves from cell to cell down through the heart until it reaches the AV node, a cluster of cells situated in the center of the heart between the atria and ventricles. The AV node serves as a gate (an "electrical relay station") that slows the electrical current before the signal is permitted to pass down through to the ventricles. This delay ensures that the atria have a chance to fully contract before the ventricles are stimulated. After passing the AV node, the electrical current travels to the ventricles along special fibers embedded in the walls of the lower part of the heart. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME - Additional volume of air that the lungs take in during a deep breath TIDAL VOLUME - Volume of air that passes into and out of the lungs in one breath EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME - Volume of air that can be exhaled from the lungs after tidal expiration RESIDUAL VOLUME - Amount of air that the lungs retain after maximal expiration VITAL CAPACITY - Maximum amount of air that the respiratory system can expel without impairing lung function TOTAL LUNG VOLUME - Maximum amount of air that the lungs can hold _____________________________________________________________________________ _

INHALATION The intercostal muscles of the chest will raise and separate the rib cage This diaphragm contracts and is pulled down This causes the volume of the thoracic cavity to increase With this increase in volume, the pressure inside the thoracic cavity decreases (as compared to the atmospheric pressure outside the body) Air rushes into the lungs to make the pressures inside the thoracic cavity and outside the body equal Frequently called inspiration

EXHALATION The intercostal muscles of the chest will lower and converge rib cage The diaphragm relaxes and moves back up (to its normal position) This causes the volume of the thoracic cavity to decrease With this decrease in volume, the pressure inside the thoracic cavity increases (as compared to the atmospheric pressure outside the body) Air rushes out of the lungs to make the pressures inside the thoracic cavity and outside the body equal Frequently called expiration _____________________________________________________________________________ _ Ones diet can affect their blood pressure and the nutrients carried through their blood stream. _____________________________________________________________________________ _

PLANTS: ANATOMY, GROWTH, AND FUNCTION


TRANSPIRATION - Loss of water from leaves through evaporation TRANSLOCATION - Attachment of a chromosome fragment to a non-homologous chromosome during crossing over; transport of carbohydrates in plants _____________________________________________________________________________ _ PARENCHYMA Large Thin-walled Large central vacuole Often partially separated from each other Usually stuffed with plastids E.g. Cells of the white potato PROTECTIVE Covers the surface of leaves and the living cells of roots and stems Flattened with their top and bottom surfaces parallel E.g. Upper and lower epidermis of the cell MERISTEMATIC Main function is mitosis Small Thin-walled No central vacuole No specialized features

Located in: apical meristems at the growing points of roots and stems, secondary meristems at the nodes of the stems, a ring of meristematic tissue, called the cambium, that is found within the mature stem These cells become differentiated SCLERENCHYMA Walls are very thick and built up in a uniform layer around the entire margin of the cell Often, the protoplasts die after the cell wall is fully formed Usually found associated with other cell types and give them mechanical support Found in: stems, leaf veins Makes up the hard outer covering of seeds and nuts COLLENCHYMA Thick walls, especially at their corners Provide mechanical support for the plant Most often found in areas that are growing rapidly and need to be strengthened E.g. Petiole (stalk) of leaves is usually reinforced with collenchyma XYLEM Conducts water and dissolved minerals from the roots to all the other parts of the plant In angiosperms, most of the water travels in the xylem vessels Thick-walled tubes that can extend vertically through several feet of xylem tissue May be as large as 0.7 mm Walls thickened with secondary deposits of cellulose and usually strengthened by impregnation with lignin Secondary walls of xylem vessels are deposited in spirals and rings and are usually perforated by pits Arise from individual cylindrical cells oriented end to end Dead at maturity - end walls dissolve, cytoplasmic contents die Continuous nonliving duct Also contains tracheids Individual cells tapered at each end so the tapered end of one cell overlaps that of the adjacent cell Thick, lignified walls and, at maturity, no cytoplasm Walls are perforated so that water can flow from one tracheid to the next In woody plants, the older xylem ceases to participate in water transport and simply serves to strengthen the trunk Wood is xylem Annual rings - rings of xylem PHLOEM Main components: sieve elements and companion cells Sieve-tube elements at maturity are living cells that are interconnected by perforations in their end walls formed from enlarged and modified plasmodesmata. These cells retain their plasma membrane, but have lost their nuclei and much of their cytoplasm; therefore relying on companion cells for maintenance

Companion cells have the additional function of actively transporting soluble food molecules into and out of sieve-tube elements though porous sieve areas in the wall. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ TYPES OF ROOTS: Arial roots - Roots which extend into the air. Adventitious roots - Roots which do not develop from another root. True roots - Develop from the radicle of the embryo of the seed. The first root produced by a germinating seed is called the primary root. Roots which branch from the primary root are called secondary roots. THE ROOT TIP Root Cap Cells that protect the growing tip as it pushes through the soil Loosely attached cells that tear off easily Meristem Growing point Produces all root tissue above it (mitosis)

Region of Elongation Cells increase greatly in length Region of Differentiation First permanent root tissues of the root (epidermis, cortex...)

Epidermis Outermost layer of cells Cortex Middle layers of parenchyma cells Innermost layer of the cortex forms the endodermis Vascular Cylinder Layers of xylem and phloem Endodermis Innermost layer of the cortex Single layer of thick-walled waxy cells which control the passage of water to the vascular cylinder

Pith Mass of parenchyma cells which fill in the centre of monocot roots

Pericycle Outermost layer of vascular cylinder A single layer of cells that is able to divide to produce branch roots (secondary roots) Root Hairs Extensions of epidermal cells which function in increasing the surface area for water absorption STEMS Trail Stems - Stems that grow along the ground (e.g. cucumber, strawberry) Rhizomes - Horizontal stems which grow underground (e.g. thistle) Tubers - Fleshy storage organs that grow underground (e.g. potato) THE SHOOT TIP The stem of any plant develops from the part of the embryo called the epicotyl. At germination, the epicotyl will form a structure called the shoot tip which is very similar in organization to the root tip produced by the radicle. However the shoot tip is somewhat more complex because it is also responsible for the production of leaves Meristem Composed of cells which keep on dividing to produce all the other tissues below it Epidermis, Cortex, and Vascular Tissue Primary tissues produced by the meristem These tissues have the same functions as described for the roots Zone of Elongation Cells in this region increase in length but not in number Zone of Differentiation First permanent tissues of the stem are found here (primary tissues) Leaf Buds / Leaf Primordia Leaves begin to form along the sides of the shoot tip Node The point at which a leaf attaches to a stem

Internode The length of stem between two adjacent nodes TYPES OF LEAVES Simple and Compound Leaves Leaves in which the blade is all in one piece are called simple leaves (maple, oak). If the blade is divided into several parts, the leaf is called compound. Each of the parts of a compound leaf are called leaflets. If the leaflets are attached along the sides of the midrib, then the leaf is pinnately compound If the leaves are fan shaped, with the leaflets all attached at one point, then the leaf is palmately compound

i) ii)

Deciduous and Evergreen Leaves Plants which lose their leaves every year, are called deciduous. If the plants leaves last more than a year, they are called evergreen. PARTS OF A LEAF * Not all leaves contain all of these parts Blade Thin Broad Green Makes up most of the leaf

Leaf Margin Outer edge of the blade Can be smooth, serrated, or lobed Venation The vascular bundles in a leaf are called veins These veins vary in size and arrangement Two common types of venation: branched (dicots), parallel (monocots) With branched venation, the leaf may have a large centrally located vein - midrib Petiole Short stalk at the base of most leaf blades, which attach the leaf to the stem LEAF STRUCTURE

Since the main function of the leaf is photosynthesis, is has specific types of tissue in a specific arrangement. Upper Epidermis and Cuticle Upper epidermis is located on the upper surface of the leaf, and is usually composed of a single layer of transparent thick-walled cells These cells will secrete a waxy coating to the outside - called the cuticle The function of the cuticle is to protect the underlying tissues of the leaf (from abrasion, dehydration etc) Palisade Layer Located directly underneath the upper epidermis Composed of long, thin, closely packed cells which are filled with chloroplasts Main function is to absorb the maximum amount of light for photosynthesis Spongy Mesophyll Directly below the palisade layer Loosely packed, irregularly shaped cells containing fewer chloroplasts Main function is to allow for gas exchange between the cells of the leaf Also involved in photosynthesis and the storage of the products of photosynthesis Vascular Bundles Run through the palisade layer and the spongy mesophyll Network of veins Each of these bundles is composed of xylem and phloem Function in: Supplying the cells of the leaf with water and dissolved minerals (xylem) Removing nutrients from the blades of the leaf and transporting them to the parts of the plant where they are needed (phloem) Lower Epidermis Similar structure and function to the upper epidermis except: Produces less cuticle than the upper epidermis It has openings called stomata, which allow for gas exchange between the leaf and the outside environment Each stomata is surrounded by two cells called guard cells. The guard cells regulate the gas exchange of gases with the environment _____________________________________________________________________________ _ MONOCOTS DICOTS

i) ii)

i) ii) iii)

Embryo with single cotyledon Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with single furrow or pore Pollen with three furrows or pores

MONOCOTS Flower parts in multiples of three Major leaf veins parallel Stem vascular bundles scattered Roots are adventitious Secondary growth absent

DICOTS Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vascular bundles in a ring Roots develop from radicle Secondary growth often present

_____________________________________________________________________________ _ Factors That Affect Plant Growth: Light Water Temperature Soil Oxygen, etc. _____________________________________________________________________________ _ ALTERNATION OF GENERATIONS In most plants meiosis and fertilization divide the life of the organism into two distinct phases or "generations". The gametophyte generation begins with a spore produced by meiosis. The spore is haploid, and all the cells derived from it (by mitosis) are also haploid. In due course, this multicellular structure produces gametes by mitosis and sexual reproduction then produces the diploid sporophyte generation. The sporophyte generation thus starts with a zygote. Its cells contain the diploid number of chromosomes. Eventually, though, certain cells will undergo meiosis, forming spores and starting a new gametophyte generation. ARTIFICIAL PROPAGATION Plant propagation is the process of multiplying or increasing the number of plants of the same species and at the same time perpetuating their desirable characteristics. Examples: Budding Layering

Bulbs Rhizomes Cuttings Grafting Corms Runners Division Tissue Culture Offsets Seed _____________________________________________________________________________ _ *Leaf and root diagrams at the back _____________________________________________________________________________ _

DIXON JOLI COHESION TENSION THEORY (Transpiration Pull Theory) The theory used to explain the movement of water in xylem Water is carried through the plant by a combination of transpiration and molecular attraction When water is transpired from the surface of leaves, water molecules below in the xylem are pulled up to replace those that have been removed This is how water is transported to the top of trees like the giant redwoods (over 100 m in height) MUNCH THEORY (Pressure-Flow Hypothesis) Most widely accepted explanation for source-to-sink movement in translocation 1.Sugar moves from mesophyll cells of leaf to phloem in veins and enters sieve tubes by ACTIVE TRANSPORT 2.Increase in solute concentration makes the contents of the sieve tubes HYPERTONIC to surrounding environment, and therefore, water moves in by OSMOSIS 3.Pressure in sieve tubes increases, and contents of the sieve tubes move from source to sink 4.At sink (e.g. root), sugar molecules leave sieve tubes and move into surrounding cells (by active transport). This makes sieve tubes HYPOTONIC, and therefore, water moves into sink as well. Sugar is either used in cellular respiration or stored. Water returns to xylem. _____________________________________________________________________________ _

PRIMARY GROWTH Occurs at the apical (primary) meristems Structure is elongated Result - Herbaceous stems SECONDARY GROWTH Vascular Cambium - Increase in diameter Cork Cambium - Manufactures cork as a protective outer covering Result - Woody stems _____________________________________________________________________________ _ PHLOEM Conductive cells living at maturity Sieve cells elongated; arranged end to end for conductivity Transport of organic materials up and down the plant body XYLEM Conductive cells dead at maturity Thick cell walls arranged end to end to form empty passages Transport of water and minerals from roots to leaves Support _____________________________________________________________________________ _ SEED GERMINATION Water Living things are usually 60 - 80% water Mature seeds are very dry and only 15 - 20% of their mass is water Seeds must bring their water concentrations up in order to allow the embryo to restart growth Oxygen All living things need energy to live Energy is obtained through cellular respiration Seeds need oxygen to gas to break down their stored endosperm to provide energy for the growing embryo (by cellular respiration)

Suitable Temperature Most seeds require a specific temperature range to germinate - usually between 15 and 20C This is because the chemical reactions that occur within the embryo will not take place at temperatures below 10C _____________________________________________________________________________ _

PLANT HORMONES Auxin Produced in the growing leaves and in developing seeds Promotes cell division and cell elongation Effects include: Causes root formation in stem cuttings Weed killer Causes production of seedless fruit Prevents eyes from forming on potatoes Apical dominance - Auxin produced at the top of the plant prevents other parts of the plant from growing. Therefore, the plant grows taller. Phototropism - Auxins deposit themselves on the shady side of the stem and cause only that side to grow and elongate. Therefore, the plant seems to bend towards the light.

Gibberellins Produced in the growing shoots and developing seeds Promotes cell division and cell elongation Effects include: Plant elongation Induction of seed elongation Cytokinins Produced in root and shoot tips Used in production of plants in cultures, used in scientific research with plants Ethylene (gas) Produced in ripening fruit Helps to ripen fruit which were picked early

Abscisic Acid Produced in developing seeds and leaves Stimulate stomatal closure Maintain dormancy in seeds