A

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Table of Contents
Using Fluency Intervention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi

Fluency Routines Section 1
Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4 Lesson 5 Lesson 6 Lesson 7 Lesson 8 Lesson 9 Lesson 10 What is Fluency? . . . . . . . . . . . . Choral Reading Routine . . . . . . . . Partner Reading Routine . . . . . . . Repeated Reading Routine . . . . . . Timed Reading Routine . . . . . . . . Readers Theater Routine . . . . . . . Echo Reading Routine . . . . . . . . . Oral Reading Modeling Routine. . . Round-Robin Reading Alternatives. Audiobooks Routine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

2
. 2 . 4 . 6 . 8 10 .12 .14 .16 .18 .19

Letter-Sound Connections Section 2
Lesson 11 Lesson 12 Lesson 13 Lesson 14 Lesson 15 Lesson 16 Lesson 17 Letter-Sound Connection Mm, Aa, Ss, Pp . . Letter Sound Connection Tt, Ii, Nn, Cc . . . . Letter-Sound Connection Oo, Ff, Hh, Dd, Rr . Letter-Sound Connection Ee, Bb, Ll, Kk, Uu . Letter-Sound Connection Gg, Ww, Xx, Vv . . Letter-Sound Connection Jj, Qq, Yy, Zz. . . . Section 2 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

20
. . . . . . . 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

High-Frequency Words Section 3
Lesson 18 Lesson 19 Lesson 20 Lesson 21 Lesson 22 Lesson 23 Lesson 24 Lesson 25 Lesson 26 Lesson 27 Lesson 28 Lesson 29 Lesson 30 Lesson 31 Lesson 32 Lesson 33 Lesson 34 Introduce Routines: Speed Drills . . . . Teach High-Frequency Words 21–40. . Teach High-Frequency Words 41–60. . Teach High-Frequency Words 61–80. . Teach High-Frequency Words 81–100 . Teach High-Frequency Words 101–120 Teach High-Frequency Words 121–140 Teach High-Frequency Words 141–160 Teach High-Frequency Words 161–180 Teach High-Frequency Words 181–200 Teach High-Frequency Words 201–220 Teach High-Frequency Words 221–247 High-Frequency Phrase Drill . . . . . . . High-Frequency Phrase Drill . . . . . . . High-Frequency Phrase Drill . . . . . . . High-Frequency Phrase Drill . . . . . . . Section 3 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Speed and Accuracy Section 4
Lesson 35 Lesson 36 Lesson 37 Lesson 38 Lesson 39 Lesson 40 Lesson 41 Lesson 42 Lesson 43 Lesson 44 Speed Drill: Short a Words . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Short i Words. . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Short o Words . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Short e Words . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Short u Words . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Initial Blends Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Final Blends . Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Digraphs . . . Speed Drill: Plurals -s, -es . . . . . . . . . . . . . Section 4 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

68
. . . . . . . . . . 68 70 72 .74 76 78 80 82 84 86

Section 5
Lesson 45 Lesson 46 Lesson 47 Lesson 48 Lesson 49 Lesson 50 Lesson 51 Lesson 52 Lesson 53 Lesson 54 Lesson 55 Speed Drill: Final e Words . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ed . Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ing Speed Drill: Contractions . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Long a Words . . . . . . Speed Drill: Long e Words . . . . . . Speed Drill: Long o Words . . . . . . Speed Drill: Long i Words . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Long u Words . . . . . . Speed Drill: Endings -er, -est . . . . . Section 5 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

88
. 88 . 90 . 92 . 94 . 96 . 98 .100 . 102 .104 .106 .108

Section 6
Lesson 56 Lesson 57 Lesson 58 Lesson 59 Lesson 60 Lesson 61 Lesson 62 Lesson 63 Lesson 64 Lesson 65 Lesson 66 Speed Drill: Compound Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Abbreviations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Irregular Plurals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels er, ir, ur. . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels ar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels or . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Diphthongs ou, ow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Diphthongs oi, oy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Variant Vowels oo, oo. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Variant Vowel /ô/ spelled aw, au, and a . . . . . . Section 6 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ......... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

110
. . . . 110 . . . . 112 . . . . 114 . . . . 116 . . . . 118 . . . . 120 . . . . 122 . . . . 124 . . . . 126 . . . . 128 . . . . 130

Section 7
Lesson 67 Lesson 68 Lesson 69 Lesson 70 Lesson 71 Lesson 72 Lesson 73 Lesson 74 Lesson 75 Speed Drill: Prefixes un- and re- . . . . Speed Drill: Suffixes -er, -or, and -ly . . Speed Drill: Closed Syllables . . . . . . Speed Drill: Open Syllables . . . . . . . Speed Drill: Consonant + le Syllables. Speed Drill: Vowel Team Syllables . . Speed Drill: Final e Syllables . . . . . . Speed Drill: r-Controlled Syllables . . Section 7 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . 132 . 134 . 136 . 138 .140 . 142 .144 .146 . 148

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Section 8
Lesson 76 Lesson 77 Lesson 78 Lesson 79 Lesson 80 Lesson 81 Lesson 82 Lesson 83 Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Speed Drill: Word Families Section 8 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

150
. . . . . . . . . 150 . 152 . 154 . 156 . 158 .160 . 162 .164

Prosody: Intonation, Expression, and Pacing Section 9
Lesson 84 Lesson 85 Lesson 86 Lesson 87 Lesson 88 Lesson 89 Lesson 90 Lesson 91 Lesson 92 Lesson 93 Lesson 94 Reading Different Sentence Types Reading Different Sentence Types Pronunciation . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reading Emphasized Words . . . . Reading Emphasized Words . . . . Reading Dialogue. . . . . . . . . . . Reading Dialogue. . . . . . . . . . . Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs . Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs . Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs . Section 9 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

166
. . . . . . . . . . . .166 .168 . 170 . 172 . 174 . 176 . 178 . 180 . 182 .184 . 186

Section 10
Lesson 95 Pausing at the End of Sentences . . . . Lesson 96 Pausing at Commas . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 97 When to Slow Reading Down . . . . . . Lesson 98 When to Speed Reading Up . . . . . . . Lesson 99 Reading at Grade Level Expectations . Lesson 100 Chunking Text . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 101 Phrasing: Subjects and Predicates . . . Lesson 102 Phrasing: Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 103 Phrasing: Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 104 Phrasing: Prepositions . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson 105 Section 10 Review . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data (Hasbrouck & Tindal). Progress Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sound-Spelling Cards Chart. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . English Learners: Phonics Transfer Issues . . . . . . . . . Reading Big Words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Six Basic Syllable Spelling Patterns Chart . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

188
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Using Fluency Intervention
Purpose and Use
Treasures provides a set of strategic intervention materials, one set for each of the key technical skill domains of beginning reading (phonemic awareness and phonological awareness, phonics and decoding, oral reading fluency, vocabulary, and reading comprehension skills) plus writing and grammar. Each set of materials contains over ninety 15-minute lessons. These lessons

• focus on children in Kindergarten through Grade 2 who need reteaching and • • • • •
practice in one or more of the technical skill domains (e.g., fluency); provide explicit, sequential, and systematic needs-based instruction of standards taught in the target grade or previous grade that have not been mastered by children; are connected to the basic program and consistent with the key instructional routines used; are designed for efficient and effective use in tutorial or small-group instructional settings; can be administered by a teacher or teacher’s aide but are also great for after-school programs and one-on-one tutoring sessions; contain a periodic progress-monitoring review for determining attainment of skills taught after approximately every ten lessons.

Contents and Resources
Fluency Intervention organizes instruction and practice on two-page spreads (except the Speed Drills) for ease of use. A short, 15-minute lesson provides targeted instruction in a discrete skill. A Practice Reproducible provides targeted practice for that skill.
LESSON

7

Name

Date

Fluency

Practice Reproducible FL7

Echo Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce In the Echo Reading routine, you read a phrase or a sentence and children read back, or “echo,” what you have read. Write the sentences below.
Is my bathtub in the street? No, it is not. My bathtub sits inside my bathroom.

Practice Echo Reading
The Bathtub at the Traffic Light
6 14 22 29 35 43 50 60 68 78 86

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

No person sat and washed inside. No bar of soap sat on its side. It was just empty, which seemed strange. I asked, “Is it waiting for the light to change?” The light turned green. The tub stayed still! It blocked the cars at the top of a hill! “That bathtub has no water,” said my father. “But don’t you think it needs a driver?” 94

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL7. Then follow the routine to echo-read “The Bathtub at the Traffic Light.” You may want to echo read the poem more than once. Provide corrective feedback.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension Where was the bathtub? Where does it really belong? What have you seen in a funny place where it did not belong?

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine to read the poem again, but now have children lead while you respond. Individual children can take turns leading. Tell children to point out how they read each phrase or sentence before you read it back to them. Prompt them with questions such as these: Where did you pause? Where did you change your voice? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
14
Fluency Intervention: Section 1

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Comprehension Have partners discuss answers to the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

Practice Reproducible

15

Sample Lesson
RI11_A_K2_ITEFLU_S01.indd 14

6/1/10 11:50 AM

RI11_A_K2_ITEFLU_S01.indd 15

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Review the steps of the routine. Then follow the routine to read the sentences. 1. First, the teacher reads aloud. Say: I will model fluent reading by reading only a phrase or a sentence. (See Fluent Reading Checklist.) 2. Children follow along. Say: You will whisper-read every word as I read it aloud. It is very important that you listen to how I read the phrase or sentence. 3. Then children read aloud. Say: Then you will read the same phrase or sentence back to me. You will try to read it the same way I read it. 4. Repeat. Say: Then we will do the same thing again until we finish reading.

Driving with my dad one night, We saw a bathtub at a traffic light. A truck had dropped it in the street. It stood alone on four clawed feet.

Additional materials used with the instruction in Fluency Intervention include the following reproducibles, located in the back of the guide:

Progress Chart
Beginning Date: Ending Date: Book:

• 2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data (Hasbrouk • • • •
& Tindal) Progress Chart Sound-Spelling Cards Chart Reading Big Words Six Basic Syllable Patterns Chart

Number of Words Correctly Read in One Minute:

200 190 180 170 160 Words Correct Per Minute
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Trials

2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data/Progress Chart 211

Progress Chart
RI11_A_K2_ITEFLU_BM.indd 211

5/25/10 9:55 PM

Assessment
Placement To assess which children need fluency intervention, use the Oral Reading Fluency Assessment in the Diagnostic Assessment. This test determines children’s reading score by measuring words correct per minute. These scores are then compared to national norms, developed by program author Jan Hasbrouck, to determine whether children are below level and, if Weekly so, how far. These scores reveal which and Unit Assessment children are ready to access grade-level texts and are highly correlated to standardized reading comprehension scores. Children can be placed within the sequence of lessons based on the fluency skills that will have the greatest impact on their reading growth (e.g., mastering high-frequency words or specific phonics skills through speed drills). Children can be placed into the sequence of lessons based on a lack of mastery of specific fluency tasks and assessments in the Treasures program.

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Each section in Fluency Intervention focuses on a small set of fluency skills. You can place children in one of the following ways:

• You can teach a discrete lesson or a discrete group of lessons as a prescription •
for specific skills that children have not yet mastered. You can provide sequential and systematic instruction over a longer period of time, perhaps as a regular part of additional instruction that you might be providing a group of struggling readers. For example, you might use formal or informal reviews to determine a starting point (such as the speed drill skill children have not mastered) and then teach the following lessons sequentially.

Progress Monitoring To determine children’s mastery of skills taught, use the progress-monitoring review provided at the end of each section in the guide.

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL44

Decoding Review
Real Words at pin top leg sun drop soft path maps sat hill job set luck plan rust much steps map zip mom men hum press end wish foxes bad did fox bed puff clip lift cloth fan miss sock egg bug snug band when

• These reviews appear after about every ten •
lessons. Use the results to determine which children are ready to move on and which need to repeat the sequence of lessons.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

lunches wishes

Nonsense Words gat fas lum truff sab lig sost nilt kib som blus shob zek vep gade moxes hom sim sleck whess

Practice Reproducible

87

Sample Review
RI11_A_K2_ITEFLU_S04.indd 87

5/21/10 1:15 PM

Instructional Routines
The instructional routines used in Fluency Intervention are consistent with those used in the Treasures core program. See the Instructional Routine Handbook for details on the following routines:

• Fluency (general) • Fluency Strategies

Instructional Routine Handbook

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Instructional Modifications
Many struggling readers lack the prerequisite skills needed to decode gradelevel text or are unable to keep up with the core program’s pace of instruction. These children need more time and practice to master these essential building blocks of reading.

• Children who are below level in fluency are often below level due to •
weaknesses in other prerequisite skills, such as phonics and mastery of basic sight words. Therefore, in addition to using the lessons in Fluency Intervention, assess each child’s phonics, letter recognition, high-frequency word, and phonemic awareness skills. Intervention in conjunction with those provided here.

• Use the lessons in Phonics/Word Study Intervention and Phonemic Awareness
Research and Guiding Principles
Research on fluency has shown the following:

• Fluency is the ability to read a text accurately, quickly, effortlessly, and with •
proper expression. Fluency is important because it provides a bridge between word recognition and comprehension. Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding the words, they can focus their attention on what the text means. This is especially critical as children move through the grades and texts contain more complex vocabulary and concepts. To read with expression, children must be able to divide text into meaningful chunks. Readers must also know how to pause appropriately within and at the ends of sentences and must know when to change emphasis or tone. It is important to model fluent reading for children. Fluency develops as a result of many opportunities to practice reading with a high degree of success. Repeated and monitored oral reading improves reading fluency and overall reading achievement. Effective repeated reading techniques include choral reading, echo reading, tape-assisted reading, partner reading, and Readers Theater. Monitoring student progress in reading fluency is useful in evaluating instruction and setting instructional goals. It can also be motivating to children.

• • • •
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

• •

Using Fluency Intervention

ix

Skills Correlations
This chart will help you identify practice pages for skills taught in this book. Skill
Alphabet Recognition Appropriate Phrasing Build fluency: Sound/Spellings Build fluency: Word Automaticity Expression High-Frequency Phrases High-Frequency Words Intonation Letter-Sound Connection Pronunciation Read for Fluency Speed Drill: Abbreviations Speed Drill: Closed Syllables Speed Drill: Compound Words Speed Drill: Consonant + le Syllables Speed Drill: Contractions Speed Drill: Diphthongs ou, ow, oi, oy Speed Drill: Endings -er, -est Speed Drill: Final e Syllables Speed Drill: Final e Words Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ing Speed Drill: Irregular Plurals Speed Drill: Long a Words Speed Drill: Long e Words Speed Drill: Long i Words Speed Drill: Long o Words Speed Drill: Long u Words Speed Drill: Open Syllables Speed Drill: Plurals -s, -es Speed Drill: Prefixes un-, reSpeed Drill: r-Controlled Syllables Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels er, ir, ur, ar, or

Pages where skill is taught
20–33 2–19, 188–193 20–33 34–131 2–19, 166–169, 172–185, 192–207 58–67 34–57, 66–67 166–169, 172–175 20–33 2–165, 170–171, 196–197 182–185, 192–195 112, 113, 130 136, 137, 148 110, 111, 130 140, 141, 148 94, 95, 108 122–125, 130 106, 107, 108 144, 145, 148 88, 89, 108 90, 91, 108 114, 115, 130 96, 97, 108 98, 99, 108 102, 103, 108 100, 101, 108 104, 105, 108 138, 139, 148 84, 85, 86 132, 133, 148 146, 147, 148 116–119, 130

*

PWS PWS PWS, V PWS PWS PWS PWS, V PWS PWS PWS, V PWS, V PWS PWS PWS PWS PWS PWS PWS, V PWS, V PWS PWS

* Practice for these skills can also be
found in the Teacher’s Edition for: C = Comprehension Intervention F = Fluency Intervention PWS = Phonics/Word Study Intervention V = Vocabulary Intervention

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Fluency Intervention

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Skills Correlations (continued)
Skill
Speed Drill: Short a Words Speed Drill: Short e Words Speed Drill: Short i Words Speed Drill: Short o Words Speed Drill: Short u Words Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Digraphs Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Final Blends Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Initial Blends Speed Drill: Suffixes -er, -or, -ly Speed Drill: Variant Vowels /ô/ Spelled aw, au, and a Speed Drill: Variant Vowels oo, oo Speed Drill: Vowel Team Syllables Speed Drill: Word Families -ail, -ain, -ay, -eat, -ight Speed Drill: Word Families -an, -ap, -in, -ug Speed Drill: Word Families -ice, -ide, -oke, -ore Speed Drill: Word Families -ill, -ell, -ing, -ock, -uck, -ump, -unk Speed Drill: Word Families -ine, -ake, -ale, -ame, -ate Speed Drill: Word Families -ink, -ack, -ank, -ash, -est, -ick Speed Drill: Word Families -ip, -op, -aw, -ir, -ir

Pages where skill is taught
68, 69, 86 74, 75, 86 70, 71, 86 72, 73, 86 76, 77, 86 82, 83, 86 80, 81, 86 78, 79, 86 134, 135, 148 128, 129, 130 126, 127, 130 142, 143, 148 162, 163, 164 150, 151, 164 160, 161, 164 156, 157, 164 158, 159, 164 154, 155, 164 152, 153, 164

PWS PWS PWS PWS PWS PWS P:WS PWS PWS, V PWS PWS PWS

*

PWS, V PWS, V PWS, V PWS, V PWS, V PWS, V PWS, V

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Fluency Intervention

xi

LESSON

1

Fluency

What Is Fluency?
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Fluency Tell children that good readers are fluent readers. Explain that this book will help them improve their fluency and become better readers. • They will learn routines that will help improve their fluency. These routines are for working with the whole group, with a partner, or on their own. • They will increase their speed and accuracy when reading. They will use speed drills to do this. Speed drills are word lists they practice reading many times. • They will learn to read aloud, changing their voice to show feeling and help make meaning clear. They will read passages to practice these skills. • They will emphasize that comprehension is an important part of fluency. Whenever they read a passage, children will also talk about what it means. Introduce Fluency Routines Children will learn these routines: choral reading, partner reading, timed reading, readers theater, echo reading, oral recitation. Introduce Features of Fluent Reading Review the Fluent Reading Checklist.

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL1. Say: I will model fluent reading by reading an entire passage. You will listen to the way I read each phrase or sentence. Read the poem “School Days.” Then have children partnerread the passage more than once. Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss answers to the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading “School Days” aloud to each other. Then ask individual children to read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL1

What Is Fluency?
School Days
8 13 22 28 35 40 49 56 62 68 77

Monday, Monday, it’s the week has begun day. I drag myself to school. Tuesday, Tuesday, it’s I can’t find my shoes day. I think I’m breaking a rule. Wednesday, Wednesday, it’s make new friends day. We sit together at noon. Thursday, Thursday, it’s my head kind of hurts day. My homework is due much too soon. Friday, Friday, it’s say good-bye day. The weekend is here at last. Saturday, Sunday, it’s I miss all the fun days. I can’t wait to go back to class! 85

Comprehension How are your Mondays like the Monday in the poem? How are they different? What is your favorite day of the week?
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

3

LESSON

2

Fluency

Choral Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that in the Choral Reading routine, you read a passage along with children. Write the sentences below on the board. Can a shark and a crab be friends? Maybe they can help each other. Explain that you will use the Choral Reading routine to read these sentences. Review the steps of the routine. Follow the routine to read each sentence. 1. Teacher and children read together. Say: I will read, and you will read at the same time. (See Fluent Reading Checklist.) 2. Children keep up with the teacher. Say: I will read slowly. Be sure to keep your voice with mine. 3. Teacher and children keep reading. Say: We don’t stop. We keep reading until we are done with a part or a section.

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL2. Then follow the steps of the routine to chorally read “The Tiny Crab and the Great White Shark.” Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Choral Reading Use the Choral Reading routine to read the play again, but now have half the children read Shark’s part and half read Crab’s part. Then have them switch parts. Ask: What did you do with your voice to show the difference between Shark and Crab? Where did you pause? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL2

Practice Choral Reading
The Tiny Crab and the Great White Shark
9 15 24 30 38 45 54 63

Shark: Who woke me from my nap? Was it you, Crab? You’ll make a tasty snack! Crab: Please don’t eat me! If you let me go, I promise to help you someday. Shark: Why would a great white shark like me ever need a tiny crab like you? Crab: You’ll never know if you don’t let me go. Shark: Ha! You’re so funny that I’ll let you go. Crab: Thank you! You won’t be sorry. Shark: Someone help me! I’m in this net. Crab: Here I am! Remember me? Shark: Oh, it’s only you, Crab. Could you go find someone bigger, like Swordfish? Crab: But I can help you. I will cut this net with my claws. There! You’re free! Shark: Thank you, Crab. I was wrong about you. Crab: Little friends can be great friends after all.

69 76 81 89 94 105 110 118
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126

Comprehension Why does Shark think Crab can’t help him? How does Crab help Shark? Can you think of other unlikely friends?

Practice Reproducible

5

LESSON

3

Fluency

Partner Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that in the Partner Reading routine, children take turns reading with a partner. Write the sentences below on the board. What do you like to do in nice weather? How can the weather change your plans? Review the steps of the routine. Choose a child to be your partner. Follow the routine to read each of the sentences you wrote. 1. The first partner reads. Say: Don’t read loudly. Lean toward your partner and whisper. 2. The second partner listens. Say: Look at your partner. Lean toward your partner so he or she can whisper. 3. Then the second partner reads and the first partner listens. Say: Remember to lean toward your partner and whisper. 4. Partners keep taking turns. Say: Keep taking turns until you have finished. Ranking and Pairing Plan carefully which readers to make partners. Step A List your children and rank them by order of their reading proficiency. Don’t just consider oral reading ability. Consider also children’s overall comprehension of what they read, as well as their speaking, listening, and reading vocabularies. Number the children in your list. Step B Divide your list in half. Make two columns. Put your highest readers in one column and your lowest readers in the other column, still numbered. Step C Pair the top reader in the first column with the top reader in the second column. Then pair the readers listed second in both columns. Continue until all the children have partners.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL3. Then follow the steps of the routine to partner-read “Everyday Rain.” Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Partner Reading Use the routine to read the passage again, but now have partners read different parts. Have children point out how they read each phrase or sentence. Ask: What did you do with your voice to show that the action was exciting? What did you do when you came to a difficult word? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Fluency Intervention: Section 1

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL3

Practice Partner Reading
Everyday Rain
8 16 26 36 41 50 58 67 74 80 89 98 107 114 121 129
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Some days Mario loved the rain. It made big, splashy puddles on the sidewalk outside his house. He liked to sit inside and watch the drops run down the window. He liked to hear the rain pour down on the roof. Today, Mario did not want the rain. He looked outside at the dark, angry clouds. Small raindrops fell on the hot sidewalk. Mario made a face. “Do not rain,” Mario thought. “Not today!” Today was Mario’s 7th birthday. His parents were taking him to his favorite place in the whole world, FunLand. He could not wait to ride the roller coaster and go down the giant slide. He liked the train ride best! The summer rain began to fall harder. Mario watched sadly. He knew there would be no rides today. 132

Comprehension What does Mario like about rain? What do you think might happen next in the story?

Practice Reproducible

7

LESSON

4

Fluency

Repeated Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that in the Repeated Reading routine, children practice reading a single passage and record their progress. Review the routine. 1. Choose a passage at the child’s instructional reading level. Say: You will read aloud a passage that is just a little bit hard for you. I will listen. 2. Time the reading. Say: I will stop you after one minute. I will tell you how many words you read correctly in that time. 3. Provide constructive feedback. Say: We will talk about any words that gave you trouble. I will help you read them correctly. 4. Record progress. Say: Then we will record on a chart the number of words you read correctly in one minute. (See Progress Chart on page 211.) 5. Have children practice reading. Say: Then you will practice reading this same passage, either on your own or with a partner. You will read it many times. 6. Time the reading again. Say: Then I will time you reading again. You’ll be surprised how much better you do! Motivating Children to Read Repeatedly Charting their progress can be highly motivating for many struggling readers. After children have read the passage once, help them set a words-per-minute goal that is a stretch but still realistic. Here are some other techniques to motivate them: • Have children read to a child in a lower grade. • Have children read to a friend or family member. They can even read to a pet. • Help children record their reading or prepare a Readers Theater version. Note: This routine is not recommended for children already reading fluently.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL4. Follow the routine for repeated readings of “The Biggest Bite.” Have children set a new goal for words correct per minute with each reading. Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Repeated Reading Use the Repeated Reading routine to read the passage again. Have children point out how they read each phrase or sentence. Ask: Were there words that were difficult to pronounce? What did you do with your voice to pronounce them more clearly? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL4

Practice Repeated Readings
The Biggest Bite
9 17 27 36 45 46 53 61 71 82 92 101 107 114 123 132 140
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

How big is your bite? If you were an alligator, you could bite into your food with about 80 teeth! Do not worry if you lose or break one, because a new tooth will grow back. Then you could eat more fish, insects, frogs and snakes! Alligators can hold their breath and stay under water for many hours. They move their tails back and forth to swim. They can see very well at night, just like owls. They can live to be 40 years old. An alligator’s tail is about half the size of its whole body. One alligator found in Florida was over 17 feet long! Baby alligators are just eight inches long when they are one day old. They have bright, yellow stripes to help them hide in the plants from their enemies. Soon, they learn to catch snails and insects for food. What a great breakfast! 149

148

Comprehension What did you learn about the alligator’s tail? If you had a big bite like an alligator, what food would you like to eat most?

Practice Reproducible

9

LESSON

5

Fluency

Timed Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that teachers measure how many words children read correctly in a minute to make sure children are becoming better readers. They do this by timing children as they read aloud and counting the words read correctly. Review the steps of the routine. 1. Choose a passage at the child’s independent reading level. As the child’s reading ability improves, choose passages that are at least 200 words long. Say: You will read aloud a passage you have never seen before. It will not be a hard passage; it will have the kinds of words you are used to reading. 2. Make two copies of the passage. Say: We will both have a copy of the same passage. I will mark on my copy any words that you don’t read correctly. 3. Time the reading. Say: I will stop you after one minute. 4. Mark the last word read. Say: I will count how many words you read correctly. Counting Words Read Correctly Words read correctly are words that children read with the correct pronunciation for the context.

• If children correct themselves in less than three seconds, count the word as
read correctly. If children struggle for more than three seconds, read the word for them and count it as an error.

• Count mispronunciations and substitutions as incorrect. Mispronunciations are
words that are misread: bet for bit. Substitutions are words that are substituted in place of other words.

• Count omissions as incorrect. Omissions are words not read. If a child skips an
entire line, each word is counted as an error.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL5. Have children read “Four Corners” alone or with a partner more than once. Then follow the routine to do a timed reading of the passage. Have them set a new goal for words correct per minute with each reading. Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Timed Reading Use the Timed Reading routine to read the passage again. Have children point out how they read each phrase or sentence. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL5

Practice Timed Readings
Four Corners
7 17 18 26 35 44 54 56 65 71 81 92 100 110 113 122 130
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Have you ever been to another state? Did you know you can visit four states at one time? There is one place in the United States where four states touch one another at the same point. It is called Four Corners. You can visit this special place and stand in four states at the same time! At Four Corners, you are in the states of Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. People come to visit this park all year round. It was first put up in 1912. The park is on Native American land. You can see some special shows inside the park. You can also buy food and art near the park. If you visit this part of the country, you can see many beautiful rocks and land shapes. You can see parts of old homes from long ago. Take a trip to see these great states! 148

140

Comprehension What states are found at Four Corners? Why is this place so special? What would you like to see if you visit this part of the country?

Practice Reproducible

11

LESSON

6

Fluency

Readers Theater Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Readers Theater is one way for children to learn and practice fluent reading. In this routine, the teacher and the children take turns reading dialogue. Write the sentences below on the board.
One Fish: Hello, my old friend! Two Fish: Hi. I’m going for a swim. How about you?

Review the steps of the routine. Choose a child to be your partner. Then follow the routine to read each of the sentences you wrote. 1. Readers take turns. Say: I will read one character’s line and you will read the next character’s line. Be sure to read only your lines. (See Fluent Reading Checklist.) 2. Readers read the way a character might speak. Say: We will read slowly and read dialogue the way a character might speak. 3. Readers keep reading. Say: We don’t stop. We keep reading until we are done with a part or a section.

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL6. Then follow the steps of the routine to read “A Fish Tale from India.” You may want to have children read the play more than once. Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Readers Theater Use the routine to read the play again, but have children switch parts. Ask: How are the voices of the characters different? What did you do with your voice to read each character’s lines? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Fluency Intervention: Section 1

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL6

Practice Readers Theater
A Fish Tale from India
6 14 22 30 37 39 48 55 62 66 73 82 90 97 103 108 118 127
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Narrator: Once there were three fish named Think Ahead, Think Fast, and Think Later. One morning they found out that a fisherman was going fishing in their lake the next day. Think Ahead: I’m getting out of here! I’ll swim downriver tonight. Think Fast: I like it here. I’m sure I can think of a plan when the time comes. Think Later: I’m too lazy to swim away. I’ll think about it tomorrow. Narrator: The next day the fisherman cast his net into the lake. Think Ahead had gone away, but Think Fast and Think Later got caught. Think Fast: I know! I’ll pretend to be dead. Think Later: I’m too tired. I’ll think later. Narrator: The fisherman thought Think Fast was already dead, so he threw the fish back. But he took Think Later home for supper that night.

Comprehension What are the names of the three fish? What happens to Think Later? In what ways are you like Think Fast? In what ways are you like Think Later?

Practice Reproducible

13

LESSON

7

Fluency

Echo Reading Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce In the Echo Reading routine, you read a phrase or a sentence and children read back, or “echo,” what you have read. Write the sentences below.
Is my bathtub in the street? No, it is not. My bathtub sits inside my bathroom.

Review the steps of the routine. Then follow the routine to read the sentences. 1. First, the teacher reads aloud. Say: I will model fluent reading by reading only a phrase or a sentence. (See Fluent Reading Checklist.) 2. Children follow along. Say: You will whisper-read every word as I read it aloud. It is very important that you listen to how I read the phrase or sentence. 3. Then children read aloud. Say: Then you will read the same phrase or sentence back to me. You will try to read it the same way I read it. 4. Repeat. Say: Then we will do the same thing again until we finish reading.

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL7. Then follow the routine to echo-read “The Bathtub at the Traffic Light.” You may want to echo read the poem more than once. Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss answers to the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine to read the poem again, but now have children lead while you respond. Individual children can take turns leading. Tell children to point out how they read each phrase or sentence before you read it back to them. Prompt them with questions such as these: Where did you pause? Where did you change your voice? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Fluency Intervention: Section 1

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL7

Practice Echo Reading
The Bathtub at the Traffic Light
6 14 22 29 35 43 50 60 68 78 86

Driving with my dad one night, We saw a bathtub at a traffic light. A truck had dropped it in the street. It stood alone on four clawed feet. No person sat and washed inside. No bar of soap sat on its side. It was just empty, which seemed strange. I asked, “Is it waiting for the light to change?” The light turned green. The tub stayed still! It blocked the cars at the top of a hill! “That bathtub has no water,” said my father. “But don’t you think it needs a driver?” 94

Comprehension Where was the bathtub? Where does it really belong? What have you seen in a funny place where it did not belong?

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

15

LESSON

8

Fluency

Oral Reading Modeling Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that Oral Reading Modeling, also called Oral Recitation, is another effective way for children to learn and then practice fluent reading. In this routine, you combine the modeling and practicing of fluent reading with more in-depth discussion of comprehension. Review the steps. 1. The teacher reads the entire passage. Say: I will model fluent reading by reading an entire passage. You will listen carefully to the way I read each phrase or sentence. (See Fluent Reading Checklist.) 2. Discuss the passage. Say: We will work together to understand the passage. We will create a class summary of the passage. We may also answer questions about it. 3. Connect comprehension and fluency. Say: Then we will discuss how our understanding of the passage changes how we read the passage. Note any connections between the passage and the elements on the Fluent Reading Checklist. 4. Children practice reading the passage. Say: Then you will keep practicing reading the passage the way we discussed.

Fluent Reading Checklist
√ √ √ √ √ √ √

Read smoothly and pronounce words correctly. Read sentences in chunks or phrases. Emphasize important words. Pause at commas or periods. Change your voice to show a question. Change your voice to show strong feeling at an exclamation point. Read dialogue the way someone might speak it.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL8. Follow the steps of the routine to read and discuss “The Turtle Who Talked Too Much.” Provide corrective feedback. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the routine to reread the passage, but have children lead while you respond. Prompt children to point out how they read each phrase or sentence before you read it back to them. Ask: What problem does Turtle face? How does he try to solve it? Where did you change your voice to show what Turtle thinks? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Fluency Intervention: Section 1

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL8

Practice Oral Recitation
The Turtle Who Talked Too Much
9 17 26 27 37 46 55 62 70 79 81 88 96 104 113 121 129 136
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Long ago there lived a clever turtle who talked too much. One day he heard hunters making plans to catch turtles. “What can I do?” Turtle wondered. He had an idea. He asked two cranes to help. “Hold this stick between you in your beaks,” he explained. “When I close my mouth on the stick, you can fly me away to safety.” The cranes warned, “While you’re in the air, you’ll have to keep your mouth shut. No talking at all.” “Of course! I know that!” Turtle snapped. The cranes did as Turtle asked. The hunters saw the cranes flying with Turtle between them and said, “Look at those clever birds. They have figured out how to keep that turtle safe!” Turtle heard them. “It was MY idea,” he shouted. Now, what do you suppose happened to Turtle next? 139

Comprehension Why did Turtle want to get away? What happened to him at the end of the story? Can you think of a different ending to the story?

Practice Reproducible

17

LESSON

9

Fluency

Round-Robin Reading Alternatives
TEACH/MODEL
Limitations Round-robin reading is not an effective way to improve fluency. Children need to read an entire selection from start to finish, but in round-robin reading they tend not to follow along as other children read. As a result, they also spend too much time “off task,” waiting for their turn. Alternatives You can use these alternatives to round-robin reading. • Silent reading with discussion Allow children to read on their own. Say: You will read a few pages of your story silently. Then I will ask you some questions, and we’ll have a discussion about what you read. Focus on comprehension. • Listen to individual children Circulate and listen as children whisper-read to themselves. Provide corrective feedback. Focus on accuracy, but ask questions about the content of what they are reading. • Rotate group reading When reading as a group, call on children frequently and unpredictably. You can even call on children at the end of a sentence that is in the middle of a paragraph. If you do use round-robin reading, make sure children read the entire selection afterward. Have children read the entire selection either independently or with a partner after the group reading.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Alternatives to Round-Robin Reading Use a passage at the child’s reading level, or use a Practice Reproducible in this book. Try one of the alternatives to round-robin reading: silent reading with discussion, listening to individual children, or rotating group reading.

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Fluency Intervention: Section 1

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LESSON

10

Fluency

Audiobooks Routine
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that listening to how a good reader reads aloud will help children improve their own reading. Review the steps of the routine. 1. Choose an audiobook at the child’s reading level. You can use audiobooks in your school or classroom. You can also use the Audio CD for each Main Selection in the Student Book. These books are recorded at two speeds: a slower practice speed and a fluent speed. 2. Have children follow along in a book. Say: You will listen to the audiobook but follow along by reading the words from the same book. 3. Have children stop and reread. Say: When the narrator is finished with a page, you should stop the audiobook and then reread the page on your own. Provide corrective feedback. Help children to read with the same pace, phrasing, and expression as the narrator. 4. Repeat. Say: You should finish reading the book in this way, listening to a page being read and then reading it yourself. Have children do this as many times as they need until they are ready to read the entire book aloud on their own. 5. Have children record their own reading. Say: When you are ready, we can make a recording of you reading this book. You might place the recording in a center so other children can listen to it.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Audiobooks Routine Choose an audiobook or an Audio CD. Have children follow the Audiobook Routine until they are ready to record their own reading. Ask children to listen to each other’s recordings.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Fluency Intervention

19

LESSON

11

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Mm, Aa, Ss, Pp
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the M and m Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter M. Say: This is the uppercase letter M. When you say the name of this letter, you say M. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter m and say: This is lowercase letter m. When you say the name of this letter you say m. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for A, a, S, s, P, and p. Letter Sounds Display the map Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter M. Say: This is the map Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: M. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /m/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter m. Say: You know the name for this letter: m. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /m/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for A and a using the apple Sound-Spelling Card, for S and s using the sun Sound-Spelling Card, and for P and p using the piano Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL11. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

20

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL11

Letter-Sound Connection Mm, Aa, Ss, Pp
Read aloud the name of each letter. M m P M A a m s S s A p P p S a

Read aloud the sound for each letter. M m P M A a m s S s A p P p S a

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

21

LESSON

12

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Tt, Ii, Nn, Cc
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the T and t Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter T. Say: This is the uppercase letter T. When you say the name of this letter, you say T. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter t and say: This is lowercase letter t. When you say the name of this letter you say t. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for I, i, N, n, C, and c. Letter Sounds Display the turtle Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter T. Say: This is the turtle Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: T. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /t/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter t. Say: You know the name for this letter: t. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /t/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for I and i using the insect Sound-Spelling Card, for N and n using the nest Sound-Spelling Card, and for C and c using the camel Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL12. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

22

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL12

Letter-Sound Connection Tt, Ii, Nn, Cc
Read aloud the name of each letter. T t C N I i n t N n I c C c T i

Read aloud the sound for each letter. T t C N I i n t N n I c C c T i

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

23

LESSON

13

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Oo, Ff, Hh, Dd, Rr
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the O and o Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter O. Say: This is the uppercase letter O. When you say the name of this letter, you say O. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter o and say: This is lowercase letter o. When you say the name of this letter you say o. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for F, f, H, h, D, d, R, and r. Letter Sounds Display the octopus Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter O. Say: This is the octopus Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: O. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /o/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter o. Say: You know the name for this letter: o. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /o/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for F and f using the fire Sound-Spelling Card, for H and h using the hippo Sound-Spelling Card, for D and d using the dolphin Sound-Spelling Card, and for R and r using the rose Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL13. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

24

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL13

Letter-Sound Connection Oo, Ff, Hh, Dd, Rr
Read aloud the name of each letter. O R D H F f o r d h H F O R D d h f o r

Read aloud the sound for each letter. O R D H F f o r d h H F O R D d h f o r

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

25

LESSON

14

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Ee, Bb, Ll, Kk, Uu
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the B and b Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter B. Say: This is the uppercase letter B. When you say the name of this letter, you say B. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter b and say: This is lowercase letter b. When you say the name of this letter you say b. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for E, e, L, l, K, k, U, and u. Letter Sounds Display the bat Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter B. Say: This is the bat Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: B. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /b/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter b. Say: You know the name for this letter: b. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /b/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for E and e using the egg Sound-Spelling Card, for L and l using the lemon Sound-Spelling Card, for K and k using the koala Sound-Spelling Card, and for U and u using the umbrella Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL14. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

26

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL14

Letter-Sound Connection Ee, Bb, Ll, Kk, Uu
Read aloud the name of each letter. E U K L B b e u k l L B E U K k l b e u

Read aloud the sound for each letter. E U K L B b e u k l L B E U K k l b e u

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

27

LESSON

15

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Gg, Ww, Xx, Vv
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the G and g Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter G. Say: This is the uppercase letter G. When you say the name of this letter, you say G. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter g and say: This is lowercase letter g. When you say the name of this letter you say g. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for W, w, X, x, V, and v. Letter Sounds Display the guitar Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter G. Say: This is the guitar Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: G. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /g/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter g. Say: You know the name for this letter: g. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /g/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for W and w using the window Sound-Spelling Card, for X and x using the box Sound-Spelling Card, and for V and v using the volcano Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL15. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

28

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL15

Letter-Sound Connection Gg, Ww, Xx, Vv
Read aloud the name of each letter. G g W X w W x w X x V G v V g v

Read aloud the sound for each letter. G g W X w W x w X x V G v V g v

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

29

LESSON

16

Fluency

Letter-Sound Connection Jj, Qq, Yy, Zz
TEACH/MODEL
Letter Names Display the J and j Word Building Cards. Remind children that all letters have an uppercase, or capital, and a lowercase, or small form. Point to the uppercase letter J. Say: This is the uppercase letter J. When you say the name of this letter, you say J. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter j and say: This is lowercase letter j. When you say the name of this letter you say j. What is the name of this letter? [Wait for choral response.] Explain to children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters have the same name. Repeat identifying letter names using the Word Building Cards for Q, q, Y, y, Z, and z. Letter Sounds Display the jump Sound-Spelling Card. Point to the uppercase letter J. Say: This is the jump Sound-Spelling Card. You know the name for this letter: J. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /j/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Point to the lowercase letter j. Say: You know the name for this letter: j. Now let’s say the sound. The sound is /j/. What is the sound? [Wait for choral response.] Remind children that even though they look different, uppercase and lowercase letters make the same sound. Repeat identifying letter sounds for Q and q using the queen Sound-Spelling Card, for Y and y using the yo-yo Sound-Spelling Card, and for Z and Z using the zipper Sound-Spelling Card.

PRACTICE/APPLY
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL16. Have children read aloud the first section, saying the name of each letter. Then have children read aloud the second section, saying the sound for each letter. Note any letter names or sounds with which children have difficulty and provide additional practice as needed.

30

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL16

Letter-Sound Connection Jj, Qq, Yy, Zz
Read aloud the name of each letter. J j q Y q Q z J Y y y Q z Z j Z

Read aloud the sound for each letter. J j q Y q Q z J Y y y Q z Z j Z

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

31

LESSON

17

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make two copies of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of each review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • Use the first copy and explain to the child that he or she is to read each letter,
and say the letter name. You will circle all the letters read correctly. • Use the second copy and explain to the child that he or she is to read each letter, and say the sound the letter makes. You will circle all the letter sounds read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• Total the number of letters read correctly for either letter names or letter
sounds. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get at least 80 percent correct on each reading. • Analyze each child’s errors. • Reteach the letter names or letter sounds for each uppercase or lowercase letter which the child misses.

Percentage Table
49–52 correct 45–48 correct 41–44 correct 37–40 correct 33–36 correct 29–32 correct 93%–100% 86%–92% 78%–85% 70%–77% 63%–69% 55%–62% 25–28 21–24 17–20 13–16 9–12 5–8 0–4 correct correct correct correct correct correct correct 47%–54% 39%–46% 32%–38% 24%–31% 16%–23% 9%–15% 0%–8%

32

Fluency Intervention: Section 2

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL17

Letter-Sound Connection Review
B k P c Z Q r C i J s W n e I d D q R b X O h A l L f U j u G F g T a Y M v p N w S m t E H z V y o K x

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

33

LESSON

18

Fluency

Introduce Routines: Speed Drills
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that the Speed Drill routine is an effective way for children to improve their speed and accuracy. In this routine, children practice reading a page of words or phrases. Then the teacher times them for one minute and counts the number of words read correctly. Children use this information to set new fluency goals as they practice with the Speed Drill. Review the steps of the routine. 1. The teacher distributes copies of a Speed Drill page. Say: I will pass out a page that has words for you to practice reading. This page might have HighFrequency Words, or it might have words with a certain syllable or spelling pattern. Sometimes this page will have phrases, or groups of words. 2. Children practice reading the Speed Drill. Say: You will practice reading all the words on the Speed Drill page. If the page has words with a certain syllable or spelling pattern, you will mark the pattern before you start practicing. If you need help, I will help you. 3. The teacher times children reading. Say: When you are ready to be timed, I will time you for one minute. I will count the number of words you read correctly in one minute. 4. Children chart their progress. Say: You will read and I will time you more than once. This way we can see the progress you are making. We may record your progress on a chart. (See the Progress Chart on page 211.) Recording Progress It is motivating for children to keep a record of their progress. Show children a copy of the Progress Chart on page 211. Model recording results on this chart. Say: Suppose I read 30 words in a minute the first time the teacher timed me. Then I would put a dot next to 30 on the chart. Suppose I read 40 words the second time and 50 words the third time. I would put a dot next to 40 and 50. Then I would connect all the dots in a line and see how much I am improving.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL18. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on the Progress Chart.

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Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL18

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 1–20
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. a ask ate am ask about ate also
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

am any all back as around back again ask about

and are a and about any all are ate all

an also away after and another after away another away

as at always at again an again always also around

back another

Practice Reproducible

35

LESSON

19

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 21–40
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/Spell/ Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 21–40.

High-Frequency Word Cards 21–40
be because been before best better big black blue both bring brown but buy by call called came can carry

Display High-Frequency Word Card 21: be. • Read Point to and say the word be. Say: This is the word be. Put the word in context: My friend will be here soon. • Spell The word be is spelled b-e. Spell it with me: b-e. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word be as you say each letter. Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 21–40. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL19. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

36

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL19

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 21–40
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. big came better can both carry came buy
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

call be before black brown better blue but better called

been buy called bring but both been by blue carry

bring best brown by call can been be came brown

blue carry because big because best before bring both best

because black

Practice Reproducible

37

LESSON

20

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 41–60
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them be better readers. Then use the Read/Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 41–60. Display High-Frequency Word Card 41: clean. • Read Point to and say the word clean. Say: This is the word clean. Put the word in context: You clean your hands with soap and water.

High-Frequency Word Cards 41–60
clean cold come could cut day did different do does done don’t down draw drink each eat eight even every

• Spell The word clean is spelled c-l-e-a-n. Spell it with me: c-l-e-a-n. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word clean as you say each letter. Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 41–60. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL20. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

38

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL20

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 41–60
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. don’t cold eight clean come eat did eight
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

day every does clean even draw do could eat cold

cold eight draw did down every done each different day

don’t could down different each every draw cut drink do

do drink cut day does done does every even could

down done

Practice Reproducible

39

LESSON

21

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 61–80
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/Spell/ Write routine to teach High-Frequency words 61–80. Display High-Frequency Word Card 61: fall. • Read Point to and say the word fall. Say: This is the word fall. Put the word in context: In autumn, the leaves fall from the trees. • Spell The word fall is spelled f-a-l-l. Spell it with me: f-a-l-l. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word fall as you say each letter.

High-Frequency Word Cards 61–80
fall far fast find first five fly for found four from full funny gave get give go goes going good

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 61–80. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL21. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

40

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL21

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 61–80
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. four from gave funny found far good get
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

funny fall from full go first fly give five going

for found find good five going goes fast for first

first full get fast for fall go gave funny goes

give fly far goes find four found find good four

from full

Practice Reproducible

41

LESSON

22

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 81–100
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 81–100. Display High-Frequency Word Card 81: got. • Read Point to and say the word got. Say: This is the word got. Put the word in context: I got a new book from the library. • Spell The word got is spelled g-o-t. Spell it with me: g-o-t. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word got as you say each letter.

High-Frequency Word Cards 81–100
got green grow had has have he help her here him his hold hot how hurt I if in into

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 81–100. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL22. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

42

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL22

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 81–100
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. had help here how grow into his hold
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

I got him his I has hold got how into

green has grow if help how have him has her

he her hold had here got if into green if

have hot hurt in he her have hurt here had

grow hot

Practice Reproducible

43

LESSON

23

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 101–120
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/Spell/ Write routine to teach high-frequency words 101–120.

High-Frequency Word Cards 101–120
is it its jump just keep kind know laugh let light like little live long look made make man many

Display High-Frequency Word Card 101: is. • Read Point to and say the word is. Say: This is the word is. Put the word in context: Soccer is my favorite sport. • Spell The word is is spelled i-s. Spell it with me: i-s. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word is as you say each letter. Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 101–120. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL23. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

44

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL23

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 101–120
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. let light jump look man made long just
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

just light laugh make its live keep its know many

kind it like many is look laugh light let keep

is know long keep jump make laugh long know kind

live made man little like kind it man many just

little look

Practice Reproducible

45

LESSON

24

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 121–140
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 121–140. Display High-Frequency Word Card 121: may. • Read Point to and say the word may. Say: This is the word may. Put the word in context: May I have a turn on the swings? • Spell The word may is spelled m-a-y. Spell it with me: m-a-y. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word may as you say each letter.

High-Frequency Word Cards 121–140
may me more most much must my myself never new no not now number of off old on once one

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 121–140. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL24. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

46

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL24

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 121–140
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. me no one much one never may myself
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

off old myself of must no now once never now

never more not now number my me once not number

may my must once on more off new may off

on new number most of new old much on most

one more

Practice Reproducible

47

LESSON

25

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 141–160
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 141–160. Display High-Frequency Word Card 141: only. • Read Point to and say the word only. Say: This is the word only. Put the word in context: There was only one person on the bus. • Spell The word only is spelled o-n-l-y. Spell it with me: o-n-l-y. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word only as you say each letter.

High-Frequency Word Cards 141–160
only open or other our out over own part people pick place play please pretty pull put ran read red

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 141–160. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL25. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

48

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL25

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 141–160
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. or ran part read out over other pull
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

part open place read or please open red pick pull

other pick our pull part pick people pretty only ran

only out please own red play read place please out

play over people pretty only put part other out open

own people

Practice Reproducible

49

LESSON

26

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 161–180
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 161–180.

High-Frequency Word Cards 161–180
ride right round run said same saw say see seven shall she show sing sit six sleep small so some

Display High-Frequency Word Card 161: ride. • Read Point to and say the word ride. Say: This is the word ride. Put the word in context: My sister and I like to ride our bikes. • Spell The word ride is spelled r-i-d-e. Spell it with me: r-i-d-e. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word ride as you say each letter.

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 161–180. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL26. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

50

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL26

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 161–180
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. run saw sing shall so said some small
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

said show so round saw said seven round six saw

right seven same six show round sing say right see

see small ride say small same ride shall some run

sleep sit some she sit sleep see ride show sleep

right seven

Practice Reproducible

51

LESSON

27

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 181–200
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 181–200.

High-Frequency Word Cards 181–200
soon start stop such take tell ten than thank that the their them then there these they things think this

Display High-Frequency Word Card 181: soon. • Read Point to and say the word soon. Say: This is the word soon. Put the word in context: Will we watch the movie soon soon? • Spell The word soon is spelled s-o-o-n. Spell it with me: s-o-o-n. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word soon as you say each letter.

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 181–200. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL27. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

52

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL27

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 181–200
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. than them start take the such there such
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

such thank then start than tell soon them this these

the this think tell these thank take think thank soon

stop their ten soon that start then ten their things

things they that these their they things tell such there

stop them

Practice Reproducible

53

LESSON

28

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 201–220
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/ Spell/Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 201–220.

High-Frequency Word Cards 201–220
those three through time to today together too try two under up upon us use used very walk want warm

Display High-Frequency Word Card 201: those. • Read Point to and say the word those. Say: This is the word those. Put the word in context: Those turtles are sitting on a rock. • Spell The word those is spelled t-h-o-s-e. Spell it with me: t-h-o-s-e. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in the word. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word those as you say each letter.

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 201–220. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL28. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

54

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL28

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 201–220
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. time to today too two three those want
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

walk through walk try use to under through too walk

under very those us three those try very upon those

warm through up together used time warm up want two

three us very upon walk today to together time used

today use

Practice Reproducible

55

LESSON

29

Fluency

Teach High-Frequency Words 221–247
TEACH/MODEL
High-Frequency Word Cards Remind children that there are certain words that they will see a lot when reading. Explain that knowing these words will help them become better readers. Then use the Read/Spell/ Write routine to teach High-Frequency Words 221–247. Display High-Frequency Word Card 221: was. • Read Point to and say the word was. Say: This is the word was. Put the word in context: The gardener was planting seeds in the soil. • Spell The word was is spelled w-a-s. Spell it with me: w-a-s. [Review how to decode familiar letter-sounds in new words. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.] • Write Write the word was as you say each letter.

High-Frequency Word Cards 221–247
was wash water way we well went were what when where which white who why will wish with word work would write years yellow yes you your

Follow the same steps to review each of the other words on High-Frequency Word Cards 221–247. Note any sound-spellings that have already been taught.

GUIDED PRACTICE
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible Distribute copies of Practice Reproducible FL29. Have children practice reading the words until they are ready to be timed.

APPLY
Speed Drills Once children are ready to be timed, have them read the words aloud to you. Record words read correctly. As an incentive, have children record their progress on a chart. (See Progress Chart on page 211.)

56

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL29

High-Frequency Word Drill: Words 221–247
Practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. way yellow were water word would when why
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

went we was when who would work word which when

yes years you white your with who yellow write white

which wash well will wish where your went well work

what why were where write was with will wish yes

way you

Practice Reproducible

57

LESSON

30a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 1–10
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. the people by the water the people What will they do? What did they say? you and I He called me. Write it down. When would you go? Who will make it? Write it down. Who will make it? you and I He called me. by the water What did they say? When would you go? We had their dog. What will they do? We had their dog.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

58

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

LESSON

Name

Date

30b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 11–20
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. one or two Come and get it. a number of people no way Come and get it. more than the other part of the time This is a good day.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

part of the time no way How long are they? This is a good day. How many words? one or two Can you see? a number of people How many words? How long are they?

more than the other Can you see?

Practice Reproducible

59

LESSON

31a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 21–30
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. now and then Sit down. I like him. now and then Look for some people. but not me not now Go find her. out of the water So there you are. Go find her. not now Sit down. but not me So there you are. out of the water a long time I like him. Look for some people. a long time
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

60

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

LESSON

Name

Date

31b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 31–40
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. one more time all day long Have you seen it? We were here. Could you go? into the water all day long up in the air
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Have you seen it? We were here. It’s about time. We like to write. one more time the other people We like to write. It’s about time. Could you go? up in the air

into the water the other people

Practice Reproducible

61

LESSON

32a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 41–50
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. each of us He has it. She said to go. each of us It’s no use. There was an old man. It may fall down. if we were older with his mom What are these? She said to go. Which way? What are these? if we were older He has it. Which way? with his mom It’s no use. It may fall down. There was an old man.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

62

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

LESSON

Name

Date

32b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 51–60
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. at your house an angry cat Then we will go. an angry cat Write your name. from my room May I go first? Give them to me.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Then we will go. from my room Give them to me. May I go first? Now is the time. Will you be good? It’s been a long time. at your house Write your name. Now is the time.

Will you be good? It’s been a long time.

Practice Reproducible

63

LESSON

33a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 61–70
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. That dog is big. This is my cat. Did you see it? When will we go? Get on the bus. see the water the first word This is my cat. see the water but not for me two of us Get on the bus. That dog is big. as big as the first two of us Did you see it? but not for me When will we go? as big as the first the first word
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

64

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

LESSON

Name

Date

33b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

High-Frequency Phrase Drill: Phrases 71–81
Practice reading the phrases. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. from here to there Look up. Did you like it? for some of your people all or some Go down. When did they go? from here to there
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

more people all or some a long way to go number two How did they get it? Did you like it? for some of your people more people How did they get it? When did they go?

a long way to go Look up.

Practice Reproducible

65

LESSON

34

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • Explain to the child that he or she is to read each word. You will circle all the
words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• Total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the review represents a different group of high-frequency words. Reteach those word groupings in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
54–60 correct 48–53 correct 42–47 correct 36–41 correct 30–35 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 24–29 18–23 12–17 6–11 0–5 correct correct correct correct correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%

66

Fluency Intervention: Section 3

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL34

High-Frequency Word Review
Real Words are because come good have know new people said there walk where any before every first grow many much only saw these too would about buy different found here little once please right soon through which also better don’t goes into light of read same their two were again bring each find hurt laugh off other round thank want when

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

67

LESSON

35a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short a Words
Single Consonant Sounds Underline the short a in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. am at mad mat an fan tap man cab ran cap bad sat map had mat mad cap bad tap man an tap bad map had sat fan ran at map cab cap sat am cab an mad am had fan man ran at cap had cab bad tap mat

68

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

35b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short a Words
Blends and Digraphs Underline the short a in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. flat crash fast that snap blank clam flap clap glad slam trap than black plan track last grab snack quack flap track flat blank quack clap quack trap clam last that grab last snack slam fast track snap black clap clam black plan crash than grab fast glad blank snack

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

69

LESSON

36a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short i Words
Single Consonant Sounds Underline the short i in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. pin zip hill lip dig did lid big rib win fill kick dip miss pick pin big fill dig zip dig win rib did zip dip did hill big kick zip big lid fill lip miss kick lid pin pick pick lip kick win rib pick him six dip dig

70

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

36b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short i Words
Blends and Digraphs Underline the short i in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. stick twist flip slip drink drip fling blink crisp twin sink brick mint gift grill click still slick trick skill twist flip gift fling twin skill crisp slip click drink blink click grill crisp flip stick blink still mint trick drink skill sink drip fling brick grill gift slick twist

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

71

LESSON

37a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short o Words
Single Consonant Sounds Underline the short o in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. ox lock top hot sock pop ox mom on rob dog job fog fox not lock box sock top fog sock top dog pop on rob job not hot lock job fox box mom dog fog on lock not dog hot pop sock rob fog mom fox job box ox

72

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

37b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short o Words
Blends and Digraphs Underline the short o in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. chop clock smog cloth spot chomp clog flock stop shock flop block pond frog blob drop soft plot shop stomp shock plot shop flock stop frog smog flop chomp chop blob cloth stop clock smog shock stomp soft cloth pond drop shop block chop stomp blob pond spot clock clog

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

73

LESSON

38a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short e Words
Single Consonant Sounds Underline the short e in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. bed let bet egg well led leg hen beg well men pen set met pet red beg egg well bet let set led bed leg well bed met pen pet egg met hen men pet red let set leg pen bet men leg pet beg led bed red hen egg

74

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

38b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short e Words
Blends and Digraphs Underline the short e in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. lend tent next nest send bend end desk pest shed send best rest test pest stretch fetch dress dress smell tent stretch end shed next rest bend lend best desk spend next test lend fetch send nest stretch left spend fetch smell desk dress rest tent left nest shed bend

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

75

LESSON

39a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short u Words
Single Consonant Sounds Underline the short u in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. luck fun hum gull puff nut cup duck bug sun pup sum hug dull dug fun dug sun gull puff puff sun dug cup bug sum gull pup luck hum dull duck fun gull sun hug sum bug cup nut luck nut puff cup hum dull hug sum pup duck

76

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

39b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short u Words
Blends and Digraphs Underline the short u in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. crumb much truck plug skull stuff slump clump such brush club snug gruff skunk hush shut stuck junk duck chunk duck stuck crumb snug skunk slump skull skunk stuff gruff shut chunk hush much brush stuck duck truck plug slump junk club truck stuff clump such brush skull chunk much

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

77

LESSON

40a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Initial Blends
Two-Letter Blends Underline the initial blend in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. grab drop plan trim clip fluff sled snug cluck spot trap crop step stop press cluck clip drop press plan spot sled trim plan fluff step brick stop trap trip snug plan grab press step clip grab plot spat clip fluff cluck drop sled snug stop trick
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

trim crop snug

78

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

LESSON

Name

Date

40b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Initial Blends
Two- and Three-Letter Blends Underline the initial blend in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. scrap strap spend strand spring script flop
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

splash stress strong split strut stock struck stretch stop strum

spring flop script stress string split strong flop struck stock

spend strum stock splash strap stress stretch scrub script scrap

swell strand strut stop scrub struck strut split splash strong

string scrub swell

Practice Reproducible

79

LESSON

41a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Final Blends
Final Blends Underline the final blend in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. ask raft lost end dent rust help tilt soft band honk hint best pump lift soft band hint ask end dent rust tilt lost hint help lift dent tilt ask best end ask lost help raft pump best dent honk band pump soft lift honk best rust
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

lift raft hint

80

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

LESSON

Name

Date

41b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Final Blends
Initial and Final Blends Underline the final blend in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. slump plant blink quest skunk scalp grunt
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

stamp scent blank plunk drink sprint stomp blond blotch slept

plump spent scalp slump quilt stamp blank skunk plunk stomp

slept blond skunk blink scent slump spent sprint stamp quest

quilt sprint blotch plant quest scent plunk grunt blink drink

quilt spent plump

Practice Reproducible

81

LESSON

42a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Digraphs
One-Syllable Words Underline the digraph in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. path much shut wish chop when ship chat shop check rush shed which think moth thud Beth chick whisk cloth whisk think wish moth which shop shed ship shut rush cloth shut much Beth when cloth wish much think shop shed chop rush chick path chat check
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

thud chick whisk

82

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

LESSON

Name

Date

42b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Short Vowels with Digraphs
One- and Two-Syllable Words Underline the digraph in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. finish thump broth chicken whether children shipment
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

batch kitchen itch polish chunk dolphin shopper shelf sandwich dishes

polish chapter chicken thump patch shelf whether children dolphin chunk

itch punish batch dolphin punish polish children shopper dishes shipment

broth batch chunk finish thump kitchen itch sandwich punish broth

chapter patch finish

Practice Reproducible

83

LESSON

43a

Fluency

Name

Date

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Plurals -s, -es
One-Syllable Base Words Underline the plural endings. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. lunch eggs pass hills bus lunches wish buses step hills lunches bus passes step buses sock wishes fox steps sock map buses wish steps egg socks map foxes wish socks maps hill wishes fox eggs pass maps egg wishes lunch egg hills hill foxes lunch passes bus eggs hill lunches

84

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

43b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Plurals -s, -es
Two-Syllable Base Words Underline the plural endings. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. trumpet picnics kitchen presents daisy trumpets daisy kitchens puppy babies trumpets daisy kitchens lemon daisies present daisies picnic puppies pocket baby daisies pocket lemons planet presents contest picnics planet pockets babies puppy pockets contest planets baby contests lemon planets trumpet picnic puppies present contests trumpet babies kitchen lemons baby trumpets

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

85

LESSON

44

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • For the Real Words section, explain to the child that he or she is to read each •
word. You will circle all the words read correctly. For the Nonsense Words section, explain to the child that these words are made-up words, not real words. The child will sound out each silly word. You will circle all the words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the Real Words portion of the review represents a different phonics skill. Reteach those skills in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
59–65 correct 52–58 correct 46–51 correct 39–45 correct 33–38 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 26–32 correct 20–25 correct 13–19 correct 7–12 correct 0–6 correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

86

Fluency Intervention: Section 4

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL44

Decoding Review
Real Words at pin top leg sun drop soft path maps sat hill job set luck plan rust much steps map zip mom men hum press end wish foxes bad did fox bed puff clip lift cloth fan miss sock egg bug snug band when

lunches wishes

Nonsense Words gat fas
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

sab lig sost nilt

kib som blus shob

zek vep gade moxes

hom sim sleck whess

lum truff

Practice Reproducible

87

LESSON

45a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Final e Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the final e spelling in each word with a long vowel sound. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. mad kite bit cape plan note slid hide not paste tap robe not cape slid kite hop fine rob hide made pin bite hop plane fin slide pin note dim tape hat note scrap slide cut hope cap robe scrap slid pine mad hope tap fine hop pine kit dime cut hate plan scrape hat cute past cape dim scrape slide rob made pin tape cut hope hat kite plan cute bit plane not hate bit paste tap dime plan kit robe cap pine not cute hid hate past plane rob bite cap note kit bite fin tape hid plane

88

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

LESSON

Name

Date

45b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Final e Words
Two-Syllable Words Underline the final e syllable in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
erase escape notebook mistake alone inside classmate daytime outside alike campfire baseball homework rattlesnake
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

campfire baseball homework toothpaste rattlesnake alone mistake erase escape notebook sidewalk crosswise awake inside classmate daytime outside alike

inside classmate daytime outside alike scarecrow sidewalk crosswise handmade awake toothpaste baseball campfire erase escape notebook mistake alone

scarecrow sidewalk crosswise handmade awake erase escape notebook mistake alone inside classmate daytime outside alike campfire baseball homework toothpaste rattlesnake

mistake alone inside classmate daytime outside alike scarecrow sidewalk crosswise handmade awake campfire baseball homework toothpaste rattlesnake erase escape notebook

scarecrow rattlesnake

toothpaste handmade homework scarecrow sidewalk crosswise handmade awake

Practice Reproducible

89

LESSON

46a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ed
Words Without Spelling Changes Underline the -ed ending in each word in which it appears. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. spell crashed trust ended jump missed pass pressed thank stomped blink chomped thank yelled kick hunted ask trusted pluck thanked spelled lock trusted dash jumped blink passed pluck thanked ask blinked press thanked stomp kicked end asked yell plucked stomp pluck plucked locked toss kick kicked dashed press hunt hunted blinked toss chomp chomped plucked spell end ended asked jump thank thanked pressed miss lock locked stomped jump dash dashed ended crash spell spelled yelled pass lock locked stomped hunt crash tossed end pressed miss tossed press spelled stomp jumped chomp missed yell jumped hunt crashed trust passed thank hunted

90

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

46b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ed
Words with Spelling Changes Underline the -ed ending in each word in which it appears. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. tag tagged like smiled trade traded hope hoped name clapped tag tagged step stepped slice joked plug plugged rob robbed hop petted race raced hope hoped name skipped beg begged use used like drummed step stepped plug plugged slice drummed joked drum like liked pet drummed hoped drum step stepped bug hopped tag tagged smile smiled hope used race raced liked race named smile sliced trade hopped use named trade liked bug sliced rob petted skip bugged beg hoped pet smile raced clap smiled joke traded pet used skip traded drum bugged joke robbed hope skipped hop begged use petted

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Practice Reproducible

91

LESSON

47a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ing
Words Without Spelling Changes Underline the -ing ending in each word in which it appears. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. stack spelling send knocking chomp pumping send filling spell camping wash flossing chomp pumping thump flossing fuss stinging stand stacking stacking rest sending fuss chomping drink sending box spelling chomp washing rest chomping stand thumping box fussing rest standing thump camp resting wink fussing floss drinking wink boxing stack chomping sting resting duck standing drink boxing knock resting lend thumping camping stand winking spell flossing lend winking duck stacking sting stinging fill ducking send drinking wash knocking camp lending wink spell standing knock spelling pump lending fill ducking camp stinging floss filling pump sending floss washing sting camping stack winking

92

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

47b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Inflectional Ending -ing
Words with Spelling Changes Underline the -ing ending in each word in which it appears. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. hope liking skip stepping shake skipping write voting slide petting zip shaking cut baking joke zipping hope closing save cutting hoping beg skipping beg shaking bake writing write sliding skip zipping vote cutting slide joking cut hoping pet saving zip save begging like begging hope baking close writing trade skipping beg voting trade sliding write cutting stop petting bat zipping saving bat liking trade hoping bat closing slide trading stop begging run trading save writing step stopping trade batting run like batting step trading skip batting vote sliding pet stopping shake running bake saving zip stepping close trading cut running

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Practice Reproducible

93

LESSON

48a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Contractions
Contractions with not Underline the letters in each contraction that form the contraction. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
do not didn’t were not wasn’t would not can’t would not isn’t should not wasn’t has not aren’t cannot isn’t did not wouldn’t was not haven’t are not haven’t don’t cannot weren’t did not wouldn’t did not wouldn’t are not shouldn’t could not hasn’t were not can’t was not didn’t do not wasn’t were not aren’t did not is not can’t are not didn’t have not didn’t could not aren’t have not couldn’t had not weren’t do not wasn’t has not don’t could not weren’t should not didn’t isn’t is not aren’t has not haven’t should not couldn’t had not haven’t do not hadn’t is not don’t were not hasn’t had not couldn’t cannot shouldn’t is not did not isn’t was not hasn’t cannot shouldn’t is not hadn’t was not don’t are not isn’t is not weren’t hadn’t have not can’t have not isn’t
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would not

94

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

LESSON

Name

Date

48b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Contractions
Contractions with Forms of be, will, and would Underline the letter or letters in each word pair that are removed to form a contraction. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
I am I’ll she will you’re we will he’d you will he’s they will we’d you will they’re she will I’m you will we’d she would I’d it is he’ll I’m it is it’s he is he’s she is she’ll we are we’re it is it’s I will we’ll I would I’d we are we’re they are you’ll he will he’ll she would she’d they would they’ll we will we’ll she is she’s I am you’ll it is it’s he will he’ll you are she’ll they would they’d he would he’d they will you’ll you would you’d we are we’re she is she’d he is he’s you would you’d they will it’s she would she’d you are you’re I will I will she’s you are I’ll he would they’re he is they’d we would I’m they are you’re I am they’ll we would she’s I would they’ll he will I’ll

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Practice Reproducible

95

LESSON

49a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long a Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the long a spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. pay wait stay tray train gray clay Spain may paint day hay paid way braid trail snail bait faint play stay snail day trail paint hay paid gray wait clay tray braid may bait play pay clay train way Spain faint pay braid paid bait way wait hay Spain may stay gray braid train paint snail play tray clay trail snail play paint tray gray Spain may paid train wait hay pay clay faint way day wait trail bait stay play bait faint day trail tray paint clay way pay braid snail hay paid may stay Spain gray train day

96

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

49b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long a Words
Two-Syllable Words Underline the long a spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
away aiming Sunday birthday trailer mailbox maybe paying painter sprayer tailor aided today braided subway
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

fainted paying railway aided today mayor Thursday brainstorm Sunday painter birthday away mailbox aiming sprayer trailer subway tailor maybe braided

subway trailer Thursday brainstorm tailor braided away birthday railway today aided sprayer paying fainted maybe Sunday mailbox aiming painter mayor

today aided aiming maybe Sunday sprayer mailbox subway brainstorm tailor mayor aided fainted paying braided railway painter Thursday birthday trailer

mailbox mayor painter fainted railway paying today sprayer away braided trailer Thursday tailor birthday brainstorm Sunday aiming aided subway maybe

Thursday mayor brainstorm fainted railway

Practice Reproducible

97

LESSON

50a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long e Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the long e spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. feet be seal bee real meet reach sea beet flea feed she tree he see seed pea peach need beach be bee meet reach beet feet real tree pea see peach he need seed beach reach flea she seal feed sea feed feet real see he seal she seed beach flea bee peach beet be meet need pea tree reach real beet sea meet bee peach reach feed see be pea tree seed need she feet real he flea seal need she peach beach pea flea feed meet he seal tree sea feet beet real reach bee seed see be

98

Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

50b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long e Words
Two-Syllable Words Underline the long e spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. before feeling streamer feasted weekend heated leader seeming streamer sleeping seedling leaping being cheaper seasick feeling beeper feasted sleeping peeking being heated eastern before seeming teacher peeking cheaper leader being eastern seedling seasick dreamer heated beeper weekend reader teacher before seasick feasted heated seedling leaping leaping cheaper dreamer seeming eastern leader eastern sleeping being dreamer reader seeming leaping weekend teacher dreamer sleeping feeling reader beeper weekend before teacher peeking cheaper feasted dreamer seedling beeper reader seeming seasick peeking feeling streamer cheaper being leader heated feasted sleeping streamer beeper leaping feeling peeking reader before seasick leader streamer teacher weekend eastern seedling

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible

99

LESSON

51a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long o Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the long o spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. no go so cold grow loan hold low bowl goat gold no coat colt loaf slow soap mow oak boat snow loaf slow colt oak coat mow grow hold low boat so soap goat go cold bowl snow loan gold hold soap snow goat low loaf gold colt oak coat bowl grow loan no mow so boat slow go cold goat loan go slow boat cold snow so grow soap low colt hold bowl gold oak coat no loaf mow low gold loaf soap bowl goat go boat cold mow coat oak snow slow no grow hold so colt loan

100 Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

51b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long o Words
Two-Syllable Words Underline the long o spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. yellow roasted croaking floating window loading shallow jolted roadway toasting oatmeal shadow loading pillow shallow croaking oldest floating window oatmeal soapsuds oatmeal yellow oldest folded pillow soapsuds going shadow roadway jolted toasting sparrow oatmeal rowboat oldest croaking roasted jolted going profile loading rowboat toasting sparrow rowboat jolted profile shallow oldest roasted roadway pillow folded floating sparrow yellow window croaking profile toasting floating shadow roasted soapsuds window going oatmeal rowboat yellow roadway folded oldest loading jolted shadow pillow shallow going croaking going sparrow folded yellow shadow folded rowboat soapsuds sparrow pillow shallow window roadway profile loading floating profile toasting soapsuds roasted

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Practice Reproducible 101

LESSON

52a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long i Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the long i spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. by try child night shy mind mild why by dry spy climb high sly my sky find cry wild fly sky shy fly dry high by my climb sky try night mild mind cry why kind sly find spy wild why find night mild kind spy try sly mind sky my dry child climb by high shy wild fly cry kind wild mild by fly child find spy shy climb kind cry why high night sly my try dry mind mind child sly cry mild climb shy high wild find why my sky try kind fly child dry kind night

102 Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

52b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long i Words
Two-Syllable Words Underline the long i spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. winding grinder typing tiger lightning highway minding blinders frighten kindest drying myself brightest twilight fighter binder trying tighten sighting frying lightning tiger kindest highway typing frighten grinder brightest minding winding twilight trying tighten myself sighting blinders drying frying fighter binder typing minding fighter frying blinders twilight trying myself binder tighten sighting lightning kindest tiger grinder highway brightest winding drying frighten blinders binder sighting grinder drying tighten kindest tiger frying brightest highway frighten winding minding twilight typing lightning myself fighter trying highway myself frighten trying winding frying sighting twilight lightning fighter typing tighten binder drying kindest minding tiger blinders grinder brightest

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Practice Reproducible 103

LESSON

53a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long u Words
One-Syllable Words Underline the long u spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. cube mule cure cute huge cute huge cute used cue few cute use fume cue fuel fuse cured mute fumes cure fumes few huge mute use mule use cue huge used mule cue fuse fumes cured fume fuel cute mute mule cue fumes cute mute fuse use huge cube fume fuel use cured used mute cute use cure few cured cute cube cube mule huge used use fuse cute few huge cure fuse mule fume cured mute cue fumes fuel cure cute cue fumes fume mule fuse mute use fuel mule fuse cube cured mule use cube huge used few

104 Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

53b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Long u Words
Two- and Three-Syllable Words Underline the long u spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
future useful volume amuse universe computer confuse refuse united unite fueling amuse cucumber computer review useful uniform unicorn argue refusing cutest computer unite future confuse unicorn music perfume review refuse united review universe fueling argue uniform fueling argue confuse future universe united refusing volume useful music refuse cutest perfume amuse argue future amuse cucumber united review unite confuse useful volume amuse unicorn music uniform perfume confuse perfume computer universe cucumber refuse argue review cutest music unite volume useful refusing unicorn refusing cucumber fueling refuse computer perfume universe united unicorn uniform cucumber cutest future unite fueling volume refusing uniform music cutest

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Practice Reproducible 105

LESSON

54a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Endings -er, -est
Base Words and Endings Underline the -er and -est endings. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. cold colder taller cold long longer coldest bright high higher neater tight long longest kinder high strong stronger neatest cheap plain plainest tighter old strong strongest cheapest tight long longer brightest high fast fastest cheaper quick bright brightest kindest tight slow coldest slow brighter tall tighter fast highest fast cheaper quick older neat tightest tall higher old quickest strong tightest slower old slowest plain tallest quick faster old fastest slow quickest kind neater cold taller slow oldest plain stronger long tall older cold plainer neat quicker kind oldest neat slower tight kindest cheap colder bright slowest cheap plainest kind longest

106 Fluency Intervention: Section 5

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LESSON

Name

Date

54b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Endings -er, -est
Endings -er and -est with Spelling Changes Underline the -er and -est endings. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. fluffy messier fluffy flatter thin happiest fluffy madder cute sillier brave paler nice funniest mad sillier mad flattest thin slimier fluffier hot fluffiest slimy thinner lazy fluffiest brave cutest slimy bravest silly nicer lazy maddest brave maddest nice thinnest happy pale hotter happy slimier cute lazier nice braver flat slimiest happy silliest thin lazier hot braver fluffy nicest funny happiest paler pale happier flat cuter hot nicer funny flatter lazy happier messy thinnest cute hotter messy fluffier pale funnier hot messy palest flat flattest happy hottest mad funnier silly laziest pale messiest funny cuter silly messiest flat palest slimy hottest

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Practice Reproducible 107

LESSON

55

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • For the Real Words section, explain to the child that he or she is to read each •
word. You will circle all the words read correctly. For the Nonsense Words section, explain to the child that these words are made-up words, not real words. The child will sound out each silly word. You will circle all the words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the Real Words portion of the review represents a different phonics skill. Reteach those skills in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
51–56 correct 45–50 correct 40–44 correct 34–39 correct 28–33 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 23–27 17–22 12–16 6–11 0–5 correct correct correct correct correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%
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108 Fluency Intervention: Section 5

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL55

Decoding Review
Real Words made locked resting don’t way be go cry few taller pine crashed camping can’t wait flea bowl find cube longest cute ended stinging haven’t clay meet hold sly used colder paste trusted boxing wasn’t braid real soap kind cure quickest

Nonsense Words kane
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

pute wabed gew srute

mo basn’t brigh steen

smait dutting sny blasser

mipped slea gowl

Practice Reproducible 109

LESSON

56a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Compound Words
Two-Syllable Words Put a slash ( / ) between the two words that make up each compound word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
sunrise bathtub firefly hilltop rainbow backpack mailbox beanbag goldfish pinecone tugboat peanut handshake drumstick flagpole cupcake sunshine seaweed beehive backseat hilltop pinecone rainbow goldfish sunrise peanut cupcake firefly handshake backseat seaweed mailbox bathtub sunshine beehive tugboat drumstick backpack beanbag flagpole firefly mailbox peanut bathtub beanbag drumstick sunshine flagpole backpack sunrise backseat cupcake hilltop pinecone goldfish rainbow beehive handshake seaweed tugboat drumstick seaweed backpack cupcake hilltop backseat rainbow tugboat sunshine handshake beanbag beehive goldfish flagpole bathtub peanut pinecone firefly mailbox sunrise peanut sunshine flagpole handshake backseat seaweed drumstick beehive bathtub cupcake firefly pinecone backpack tugboat mailbox beanbag goldfish hilltop rainbow
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sunrise

110 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

LESSON

Name

Date

56b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Compound Words
Three-Syllable Words Put a slash ( / ) between the two words that make up each compound word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
grasshopper dragonfly summertime jellyfish pillowcase newspaper stepladder sunflower grandfather wallpaper overnight fingerprint shopkeeper tablespoon handwriting
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

overnight pillowcase sunflower stepladder grandfather shopkeeper grasshopper fingerprint newspaper summertime grandmother dragonfly underpass wallpaper jellyfish fingernail

summertime newspaper dragonfly underpass tablespoon wintertime handwriting grandmother fingernail fingerprint jellyfish shopkeeper overnight sunflower thunderstorm grandfather pillowcase wallpaper stepladder grasshopper

grandfather shopkeeper grandmother grasshopper thunderstorm wallpaper sunflower tablespoon stepladder overnight underpass pillowcase wintertime summertime newspaper dragonfly

jellyfish wallpaper stepladder handwriting fingerprint fingernail pillowcase underpass wintertime grasshopper newspaper grandmother thunderstorm grandfather shopkeeper overnight

wintertime

grandmother thunderstorm underpass thunderstorm fingernail tablespoon wintertime handwriting

handwriting summertime fingernail jellyfish fingerprint dragonfly tablespoon sunflower

Practice Reproducible

111

LESSON

57a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Abbreviations
Titles, Days of the Week, Months of the Year Underline the abbreviation for each complete word. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
Mr. Monday Feb. Mister Tues. November Sat. Friday Apr. March Mr. October Jan. Sunday Apr. Thursday Dec. Monday Tues. November Mister Dr. February Thurs. Tuesday Dec. Saturday Wed. April Fri. Mister Fri. January Aug. April Mr. December Sat. Tuesday Thurs. Dr. Doctor Nov. Thursday Sun. December Aug. Wednesday Dec. Friday Tues. Friday Sept. August Oct. Mister Mar. Saturday Dr. Thursday Doctor Sat. November Jan. Sunday Dr. August Mon. December Sept. Tuesday Mar. September Wed. October Feb. March Jan. Doctor Oct. Mon. Saturday Mr. January Nov. Doctor Fri. Monday Mar. September Oct. March Sun. Wednesday February Mon. January Nov. October
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Thurs.

112 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

LESSON

Name

Date

57b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Abbreviations
States and Measurements Underline each abbreviation. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
CA Kansas ME mile in. Texas ft. Ohio MT yard VA mile CA Kansas MT
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

California in. Maine TX inch tbsp. foot ft. Montana tbsp. Virginia tsp. California ME Montana TX yard CA mile tbsp.

NY inch yd. Texas CA tablespoon VA foot pt. tablespoon NY teaspoon ft. Maine in. Texas NY California in. tablespoon

New York pt. yard tsp. California KS Virginia ME pint OH New York mi. foot tsp. inch pt. New York pt. inch ft.

KS pint mi. teaspoon TX Kansas OH Maine yd. Ohio mi. mile KS teaspoon tbsp. pint VA pint OH foot

tablespoon yd. Virginia mi. Ohio

Practice Reproducible 113

LESSON

58a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Irregular Plurals
Words Ending in f, fe Underline the plural endings. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
loaf wives half halves wife thieves loaf shelves elf knives thief wives shelf wolves elf halves calf knives calf halves loaves thief halves shelf wives life loaves thief elves loaf thieves life shelves calf elves life calves elf calves leaf shelf thieves leaf shelves calf lives wolf thieves wolf loaves elf lives life calves knife lives wife elves thief leaves shelves leaf leaves life calves calf wolves half wolves wolf elves shelf lives leaf knives loaf wives leaf thieves knife wife leaves half lives thief calves shelf halves knife wolves wife shelves wolf leaves half loaves knife leaves half knives
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114 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

LESSON

Name

Date

58b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Irregular Plurals
Other Irregular Plurals Underline the plural endings or spelling changes in the words in which they appear. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. ox children tooth oxen foot mice man mice deer men goose mice man feet goose deer mouse feet tooth deer oxen man teeth tooth feet ox men sheep deer tooth geese goose men sheep geese child mice tooth teeth mouse man men child teeth goose oxen goose sheep woman teeth sheep geese woman sheep woman children sheep teeth child mice men goose children woman geese child geese foot women ox sheep deer women ox women ox sheep woman children ox child geese ox women mouse children mouse feet man oxen mouse deer foot oxen deer oxen foot women deer oxen

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Practice Reproducible 115

LESSON

59a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels er, ir, ur
One-Syllable Words Underline the vowel + r spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. fir fur her bird turn herd dirt fir term burn fern girl sir curl birth verb first hurt germ clerk bird dirt birth curb fern fur term verb her girl herd fir turn first clerk hurt burn sir curl germ her curb girl herd germ verb birth burn sir dirt curl curb fern fur term bird turn clerk hurt first birth curl turn dirt term clerk fur sir curb bird her burn verb herd first girl fir germ fern hurt dirt clerk herd sir burn germ fern first fir term turn hurt birth verb her curl fur bird girl curb

116 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

59b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowels er, ir, ur
Two-Syllable Words Underline the vowel + r spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
purple Thursday circle thirsty sunburn salesclerk lurking gurgle turtle birthday circus after person under over winter perfect suburb twirling ever circle turtle lurking birthday gurgle after sunburn Thursday circus purple person over winter thirsty perfect under twirling ever suburb salesclerk birthday over sunburn winter purple perfect thirsty under person salesclerk gurgle ever Thursday turtle circle suburb after lurking circus twirling person winter twirling gurgle salesclerk Thursday circle suburb ever lurking turtle circus suburb after over under lurking perfect after twirling winter thirsty circus purple under ever sunburn person birthday salesclerk gurgle over thirsty turtle purple sunburn perfect circle Thursday birthday

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Practice Reproducible 117

LESSON

60a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowel ar
One-Syllable Words Underline the ar spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
far start cart barn farm park card bark sharp dark jar shark dart mark hard far start star yarn arm yard dart yard park jar bark cart farm shark art hard barn start arm sharp card yarn mark dark star art hard yarn art star barn sharp dark card park dart farm far bark mark cart shark jar arm yard dart far cart card hard dark star shark mark jar bark start yarn park farm yard arm barn sharp art start arm yard park jar yarn art farm hard barn far mark dark sharp star dart card shark cart bark

118 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

60b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowel ar
Two-Syllable Words Underline the ar spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
artist garden farmer marching market parting sharpen barnyard skylark charter cartwheel guarding smarter
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

cartwheel apartment guarding smarter started artist garden farmer marching market barber harbor larger parted parting sharpen barnyard skylark charter

parting sharpen barnyard skylark charter barber cardboard harbor larger parted smarter guarding apartment cartwheel artist started garden farmer marching market

barber cardboard harbor larger parted market marching garden artist farmer parting sharpen barnyard skylark charter cartwheel apartment guarding smarter started

marching market cartwheel apartment guarding smarter started barber cardboard harbor larger parted parting sharpen barnyard skylark charter artist garden farmer

apartment cardboard

started barber cardboard harbor larger parted

Practice Reproducible 119

LESSON

61a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowel or
One-Syllable Words Underline the or spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. born porch stork pork sport torch short horn form storm corn fork port north snort snort worn cork fort cord horn pork corn stork form porch north sword worn snort cord born cork torch storm sport sword fort port fork torch fort storm born pork horn fork sport short porch port cord stork snort short form corn worn short north sport cord porch fort port cork worn pork north form sword torch storm corn born fork horn snort stork sword form storm torch horn fork cord sword stork fort worn short north pork cork sport porch port born corn cork

120 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

61b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Vowel or
Two-Syllable Words Underline the or spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. forget thorny fortune support afford story popcorn forest corncob format afford corner story northern fortress thorny support forget corner horror fortress story stormy sorting morning corner fortune report reform stormy morning glory corncob format story support afford fortress horror glory fortune forget reform stormy report popcorn northern support report fortune glory forest morning afford thorny northern fortress glory popcorn corncob forest report corner story sorting corncob reform thorny morning northern stormy sorting horror fortune reform report corncob format forget support reform morning popcorn fortress corner sorting format afford forest popcorn horror stormy sorting glory forget format horror northern thorny forest

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible 121

LESSON

62a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Diphthongs ou, ow
One-Syllable Words Underline the ou or ow spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. town sound brown found south pound count cloud ouch loud round scout cow crowd clown growl down how owl now brown ouch pound sound count loud crowd town south scout cloud down clown how now owl round found growl cow how scout crowd cloud town down clown cow found ouch growl loud brown south round sound owl now pound count clown loud down round now how cloud scout south sound count found crowd owl pound town ouch cow brown growl found now town crowd cow owl brown how round down pound growl ouch sound loud count south scout cloud clown

122 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

62b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Diphthongs ou, ow
Two-Syllable Words Underline the ou or ow spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
flower about countdown counter outside power shouting downtown proudest amount crowned however playground thousand uptown
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

power shouting downtown proudest amount flower about countdown counter outside allowed crowded mountain pounded sundown crowned however playground thousand uptown

crowned however playground thousand uptown crowded pounded mountain sundown flower about countdown counter outside power shouting downtown proudest amount allowed

crowded pounded allowed crowned however playground thousand uptown power shouting downtown proudest amount flower about countdown counter outside sundown mountain

allowed mountain sundown power shouting downtown proudest amount crowned however playground thousand uptown crowded pounded flower about countdown counter outside

allowed crowded mountain pounded sundown

Practice Reproducible 123

LESSON

63a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Diphthongs oi, oy
One-Syllable Words Underline the oi or oy spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. joy foil toy coin coil Roy hoist spoil boy choice soil oil voice noise joint point broil moist join boil coil spoil voice Roy noise join joy joint broil foil point coin soil toy moist boy hoist boil oil choice join joint foil oil joy soil broil moist boil toy hoist boy spoil choice coil voice noise Roy coin point toy point boy hoist coin voice coil soil Roy joy choice joint foil noise moist oil spoil join boil broil soil choice noise moist oil spoil broil boil point voice Roy join boy hoist coin foil toy coil joy joint

124 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

63b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Diphthongs oi, oy
Two-Syllable Words Underline the oi or oy spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. appoint enjoy pointer uncoil enjoy cowboy poison loyal oyster destroy pointer uncoil employ annoy oily enjoy loyal oyster poison annoy avoid joyful decoy voyage appoint poison cowboy annoy pointing moisture loyal oily avoid joyful voyage decoy pointer tinfoil soybean oyster joyful soybean voyage enjoy cowboy pointing decoy uncoil appoint poison oily avoid cowboy moisture tinfoil soybean moisture pointing employ avoid uncoil oyster destroy decoy pointer destroy pointing joyful oily uncoil tinfoil appoint moisture loyal employ moisture voyage enjoy avoid soybean employ annoy poison tinfoil joyful oyster destroy soybean pointer decoy voyage tinfoil appoint destroy pointing annoy employ oily cowboy loyal

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Practice Reproducible 125

LESSON

64a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Variant Vowels oo, oo
One-Syllable Words Underline the oo spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. wood hood good hook book cook brook look shook foot boot hoot root scoot zoo too tooth moon noon spoon cook brook hood shook hoot look zoo wood good boot scoot hook moon tooth root book spoon noon foot too boot book moon wood zoo noon foot brook root too spoon good shook hook scoot cook hood hoot look tooth shook spoon tooth noon good look hook too scoot moon zoo cook hood book brook foot root wood boot hoot good foot look spoon too root hoot boot zoo tooth book scoot noon cook moon wood hood shook hook brook

126 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

64b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Variant Vowels oo, oo
Two- and Three-Syllable Words Underline the oo spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
sooner cookbook crooked footstep goodness noontime spoonful foolish schoolroom cartoon broomstick soothing mushroom gloomy grooming bedroom woodwork drooping moonlight outlook goodness gloomy drooping schoolroom sooner cartoon soothing broomstick spoonful outlook bedroom foolish noontime woodwork cookbook mushroom moonlight footstep grooming crooked drooping bedroom mushroom noontime gloomy crooked cookbook outlook woodwork moonlight cartoon goodness grooming soothing schoolroom footstep sooner foolish broomstick spoonful outlook soothing moonlight cookbook foolish bedroom woodwork grooming drooping mushroom schoolroom sooner broomstick crooked spoonful cartoon goodness gloomy noontime footstep crooked mushroom bedroom soothing footstep drooping broomstick sooner noontime goodness moonlight gloomy foolish cartoon woodwork outlook grooming spoonful cookbook schoolroom

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Practice Reproducible 127

LESSON

65a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Variant Vowel /ô/ Spelled aw, au, and a
One-Syllable Words Underline the aw, au, or a spelling in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
fall ball small malt halt hall salt talk all mall pause launch cause walk jaw law crawl fault draw chalk pause law launch pause draw fault ball malt chalk halt small walk salt all hall mall talk fall jaw crawl salt chalk halt ball law launch pause hall walk cause fall talk jaw draw crawl small fault mall malt all cause launch crawl hall fall cause law all small salt malt mall halt launch ball draw chalk walk talk jaw fault fall chalk talk draw walk halt mall jaw crawl ball law pause fault all salt hall small malt cause

128 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

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LESSON

Name

Date

65b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Variant Vowel /ô/ Spelled aw, au, and a
Two-Syllable Words Underline the aw, au, or a spelling in each word. Then practice reading all the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
author football because autumn August yawning laundry haunted drawer lawful sawdust balding ballgame hallway
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

because August lawful yawning author hallway balding walker autumn football faucet waterfall chalkboard drawer ballgame beanstalk sawdust haunted awful because

drawer autumn chalkboard walker awful faucet because hallway sawdust beanstalk haunted laundry football yawning lawful August waterfall balding author ballgame

lawful ballgame sawdust football drawer laundry August haunted author chalkboard because hallway awful faucet balding walker autumn beanstalk waterfall yawning

laundry yawning haunted hallway waterfall ballgame sawdust awful faucet balding walker drawer beanstalk August author chalkboard laundry lawful autumn football

walker faucet awful waterfall beanstalk chalkboard

Practice Reproducible 129

LESSON

66

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • For the Real Words section, explain to the child that he or she is to read each •
word. You will circle all the words read correctly. For the Nonsense Words section, explain to the child that these words are made-up words, not real words. The child will sound out each silly word. You will circle all the words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the Real Words portion of the review represents a different phonics skill. Reteach those skills in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
63–70 correct 56–62 correct 49–55 correct 42–48 correct 35–41 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 28–34 correct 21–27 correct 14–20 correct 7–13 correct 0–6 correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%
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130 Fluency Intervention: Section 6

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL66

Decoding Review
Real Words sunrise Mr. wives fur jar fort loud joy too jaw backpack pinecone hilltop Sat. leaves germ dart worn cloud soil cook draw Dec. elves bird yard porch growl joint spoon small Dr. goldfish Tues.

shelves thieves chirp farm storm south broil shook chalk surf sharp sword found choice tooth fault

Nonsense Words flunmack
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

sibbest Ped. florm stort

Sk. blirp mowb stook

ster seaves blaw touth

nelves sharn snoy monot

glarn roop unlof

Practice Reproducible 131

LESSON

67a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Prefixes un- and reTwo-Syllable Words Underline the prefix un- or re- at the beginning of each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
unsafe return reclaim untie relive undo unlock replay unplug redo replace unfold unwind reform unkind unclear refresh unfair unpack retell unlock retell undo reform return replace redo relive unsafe untie unwind unplug refresh unfold reclaim unpack unfair unclear replay unkind replace refresh untie unsafe unpack unfair reclaim unclear unwind reform replay undo return unkind unlock relive unplug redo retell unfold reclaim unfair reform unclear refresh unwind unplug redo return unfold relive unkind replay replace retell untie unpack unsafe undo unlock unclear relive unpack redo untie retell return unkind undo reform unlock refresh unfair unsafe unwind replace reclaim unfold replay
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unplug

132 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

LESSON

Name

Date

67b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Prefixes un- and reThree-Syllable Words Underline the prefix un- or re- at the beginning of each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
untidy unhappy reliving unsettled regaining recounted untangle unwilling recapture rebuilding undoing recopy unselfish repainting unequal retelling uncover returning reconnect unfasten returning retelling unselfish recapture unwilling undoing reliving recopy untangle unsettled repainting unhappy regaining uncover rebuilding reconnect untidy unequal unfasten recounted unwilling undoing unhappy returning rebuilding regaining unequal retelling untidy unselfish recapture recounted reliving repainting unfasten unsettled reconnect recopy untangle uncover reconnect regaining unfasten unselfish untidy unsettled uncover repainting returning recopy unequal unwilling undoing unhappy untangle recounted recapture retelling rebuilding reliving recopy unsettled uncover untangle reconnect returning unselfish unequal recounted regaining reliving rebuilding retelling recapture undoing unwilling unfasten unhappy untidy repainting

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Practice Reproducible 133

LESSON

68a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Suffixes -er, -or, and -ly
Two-Syllable Words Underline the suffix -er, -or, or -ly at the end of each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. slowly buyer sailor singer dryer kindly washer trailer mainly boxer actor waiter firmly quickly player painter reader safely teacher sadly singer player dryer boxer actor sailor mainly quickly kindly reader slowly painter buyer safely washer sadly trailer teacher firmly waiter boxer kindly quickly slowly mainly trailer player sadly buyer singer firmly washer teacher waiter reader sailor painter actor dryer safely sailor teacher actor painter reader singer firmly mainly safely quickly player boxer dryer trailer slowly waiter washer sadly buyer kindly teacher sadly player firmly quickly safely painter slowly sailor waiter reader buyer mainly kindly boxer dryer singer washer trailer actor

134 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

68b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Suffixes -er, -or, and -ly
Multi-Syllable Words Underline the suffix -er, -or, or -ly at the end of each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
supporter projector cleverly inspector protector foolishly defender honestly suddenly bookkeeper properly commander
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

suddenly honestly protector traveler supporter properly projector inspector foolishly instructor inventor cleverly beekeeper defender politely performer

instructor foolishly properly projector honestly cleverly traveler inspector inventor supporter politely performer suddenly conductor protector daydreamer traveler

cleverly defender instructor politely commander suddenly inventor performer properly conductor protector honestly beekeeper traveler foolishly projector inspector supporter

traveler daydreamer inventor foolishly inspector politely bookkeeper cleverly conductor projector performer defender supporter properly suddenly honestly beekeeper protector commander

beekeeper daydreamer instructor

daydreamer conductor

conductor commander

instructor daydreamer bookkeeper politely performer defender inventor beekeeper

bookkeeper commander bookkeeper

Practice Reproducible 135

LESSON

69a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Closed Syllables
Two-Syllable Words Underline the first syllable in each word. This is a closed syllable, which ends in a consonant and has the short vowel sound. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
rabbit dentist basket snapshot wedding pumpkin sunset dollar dentist bucket pencil snapshot bucket finish football dentist tunnel tractor airplane sunset basket rabbit pencil finger pumpkin sunset finish football basket finger dollar airplane pumpkin pencil classroom snapshot finger airplane tunnel riddle bucket classroom market tractor candle tunnel pencil riddle football snapshot finish basket snapshot wedding tunnel tractor bucket dentist candle finish airplane market sunset riddle pencil football pumpkin classroom dollar market finger riddle candle classroom tractor classroom candle wedding bucket basket market wedding finger rabbit dollar riddle football rabbit sunset airplane candle tractor finish market dentist wedding dollar tunnel pumpkin rabbit

136 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

69b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Closed Syllables
Multi-Syllable Words Draw lines to divide each word into syllables. Then practice reading the words. Remember that closed syllables have short vowel sounds. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
border surprise grandmother hidden popcorn mitten September raindrop breakfast rectangle gobble fourteen problem friendship daydream
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

grasshopper popcorn fourteen breakfast surprise friendship grandmother afternoon mitten hidden dinner hammer manner problem gobble September raindrop rectangle daydream border

grandmother mitten September border hammer fourteen problem surprise popcorn manner grasshopper dinner breakfast hidden afternoon raindrop gobble daydream friendship rectangle

gobble breakfast hammer afternoon friendship grasshopper problem daydream dinner border manner raindrop surprise September fourteen rectangle hidden popcorn mitten grandmother

hidden rectangle surprise friendship raindrop afternoon breakfast fourteen grandmother daydream mitten popcorn hammer border dinner problem grasshopper September manner gobble

manner afternoon dinner hammer grasshopper

Practice Reproducible 137

LESSON

70a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Open Syllables
Two-Syllable Words Underline the open syllable in each word. The open syllable ends in a vowel and has the long vowel sound. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. tiger dryer flying paper total music equal basic donut spider lazy minus labor metal water even navy nature spoken magic music equal basic donut spider lazy tiger dryer flying paper total navy nature spoken magic minus labor metal water even basic donut spider minus labor metal water even navy nature spoken magic lazy tiger dryer flying paper total music equal spoken magic tiger dryer flying paper total lazy equal basic donut spider music minus labor metal water even navy nature minus labor metal water even navy nature spoken magic lazy music equal basic donut spider dryer flying paper total tiger

138 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

70b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Open Syllables
Multi-Syllable Words Draw lines to divide each word into syllables. Then practice reading the words. Remember that open syllables have a long vowel sound. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
remember secret maybe ocean apron lady zebra because secret crazy station maybe triangle recycle baby apron because tomato remember secret crazy triangle recycle lady zebra baby over potato station maybe secret remember tiny apron because zebra lady item crazy triangle maybe station hero baby tomato because apron notice tomato tiny triangle crazy over zebra item tiny baby ocean maybe hero item ocean remember because notice hero tomato lady triangle over notice recycle station potato ocean over potato apron tiny recycle ocean tiny crazy item potato secret item baby hero remember recycle hero secret notice lady potato notice zebra over station

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Practice Reproducible 139

LESSON

71a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Consonant + le Syllables
Two-Syllable Words Underline the consonant + le syllable in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. bubble cable candle eagle handle horrible jingle maple middle noodle paddle pickle rattle riddle simple struggle table terrible trouble turtle jingle maple middle noodle paddle pickle bubble cable candle eagle handle horrible struggle table terrible trouble turtle rattle riddle simple middle noodle paddle pickle rattle riddle simple struggle table terrible trouble turtle bubble cable candle eagle handle horrible jingle maple candle eagle handle horrible jingle maple middle noodle paddle pickle rattle riddle simple struggle table terrible trouble turtle bubble cable rattle riddle simple struggle table terrible trouble turtle bubble cable candle eagle handle horrible jingle maple middle noodle paddle pickle

140 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

71b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Consonant + le Syllables
Multi-Syllable Words Underline the consonant + le syllable in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. apple example circle rectangle recycle beetle battle example recycle gobble bicycle little battle gobble tickle bottle nuzzle little tickle triangle cackle purple nuzzle apple uncle chuckle rattle purple beetle vegetable circle rectangle rattle bicycle purple example apple rectangle bottle rattle battle beetle recycle cackle rectangle little bicycle gobble chuckle apple nuzzle bottle tickle circle beetle purple cackle triangle example bicycle rattle chuckle uncle battle bottle rectangle circle vegetable little cackle recycle vegetable apple uncle chuckle gobble uncle beetle triangle circle tickle triangle bicycle vegetable example triangle tickle bottle nuzzle battle uncle gobble cackle purple little vegetable recycle chuckle rattle nuzzle

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Practice Reproducible 141

LESSON

72a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Vowel Team Syllables
One Vowel-Team Syllable Draw a line to divide each word into syllables. Next, underline the vowel team in each word. The vowel team appears in the same syllable. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. Note: Some vowel teams contain a consonant acting as a vowel (for example, ow as in how or ay as in way).
money drawing around waited spoonful speaker monkey troublemaker spoonful waited waited floating touching dairy around spoonful between remain foolish troublemaker dairy fearful rooster squirrel touching foolish outside keyboard roadbed remain drawing money drawing rooster drawing monkey speaker monkey keyboard monkey floating waited floating around floating between spoonful between troublemaker between fearful dairy fearful touching fearful outside foolish outside remain outside around squirrel money drawing squirrel troublemaker roadbed speaker monkey roadbed touching rooster waited floating rooster remain keyboard spoonful between keyboard squirrel around dairy fearful squirrel roadbed troublemaker foolish outside roadbed rooster touching squirrel money speaker keyboard remain roadbed speaker money

142 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

72b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Vowel Team Syllables
Two Vowel-Team Syllables Draw a line to divide each word into syllables. Next, underline the vowel teams in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. Note: Some vowel teams contain a consonant acting as a vowel (for example, ow as in how or ay as in way).
seesaw mailbox playground seashell handout footstool seashell breakfast mailbox cookbook downstairs schoolwork eighteen rainbow outdoors bowtie rainbow peacock schoolwork moonbeam downtown seesaw rainbow downstairs rainbow seaweed footstool moonbeam bowtie schoolwork oatmeal downstairs downtown moonlight seashell moonlight bowtie seaweed oatmeal mailbox playground moonbeam seesaw outdoors peacock breakfast outdoors footstool moonbeam eighteen eighteen cookbook downstairs handout breakfast peacock handout bowtie cookbook playground mailbox downtown oatmeal seesaw moonlight seashell seaweed moonlight footstool oatmeal schoolwork oatmeal outdoors downstairs seaweed rainbow moonlight cookbook bowtie downtown moonbeam playground downstairs seaweed bowtie outdoors breakfast bowtie oatmeal downstairs cookbook eighteen oatmeal moonlight footstool handout peacock moonlight playground seesaw

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Practice Reproducible 143

LESSON

73a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Final e Syllables
Two-Syllable Words Underline the syllable with final e in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
airplane baseball useful teammate hopeful bookcase alike sidewalk alone statement spacesuit tasteful rattlesnake pipeline homework inside driveway fireplace lifeboat seaside teammate hopeful bookcase airplane baseball useful spacesuit tasteful rattlesnake pipeline homework inside driveway fireplace lifeboat seaside alike sidewalk alone statement spacesuit teammate hopeful bookcase tasteful airplane baseball useful alike sidewalk alone statement driveway fireplace lifeboat seaside pipeline homework inside pipeline alike sidewalk alone statement teammate hopeful bookcase airplane baseball useful inside spacesuit tasteful driveway fireplace lifeboat seaside rattlesnake alone statement pipeline homework inside rattlesnake driveway fireplace lifeboat seaside tasteful spacesuit airplane baseball useful hopeful bookcase alike sidewalk
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

rattlesnake homework

teammate

144 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

LESSON

Name

Date

73b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Final e Syllables
Multi-Syllable Words Underline the syllable with final e in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. sunrise timetable firefighter cupcake anytime fireworks campfire suitcase sunshine scarecrow surprise exercise escape decide beside umpire notebook homesick backbone playmate anytime fireworks campfire suitcase sunrise timetable firefighter cupcake exercise escape decide beside notebook homesick backbone playmate sunshine scarecrow surprise exercise notebook homesick backbone playmate sunshine scarecrow surprise exercise sunrise timetable firefighter cupcake anytime fireworks campfire suitcase escape decide beside umpire escape decide beside sunshine scarecrow surprise exercise notebook homesick backbone playmate umpire sunrise timetable firefighter cupcake anytime fireworks campfire suitcase backbone playmate anytime fireworks campfire suitcase notebook homesick sunshine scarecrow surprise exercise umpire beside decide escape sunrise timetable firefighter cupcake

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Practice Reproducible 145

LESSON

74a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Syllables
One r-Controlled Vowel Syllable Underline the vowel + r syllable in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. purple farmer paper mother number never winter tractor spider turkey person birdbath honor danger desert forest circus worker measure manner number never winter tractor purple farmer paper mother honor danger desert forest circus worker measure manner spider turkey person birdbath spider turkey person birdbath honor danger desert forest purple farmer paper mother number never winter tractor circus worker measure manner honor danger desert spider turkey person birdbath circus worker measure manner forest purple farmer paper mother number never winter tractor forest circus worker measure manner number never winter tractor spider turkey person birdbath honor danger desert purple farmer paper mother

146 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

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LESSON

Name

Date

74b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: r-Controlled Syllables
More Than One r-Controlled Vowel Syllable Underline the vowel + r syllables in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
burglar shorter corner partner murmur harbor recorder supermarket farther overturn order sparkler carpenter firmer hurler
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

murmur harbor recorder supermarket burglar shorter corner partner starter sharper harder turner burner hurler firmer carpenter farther overturn order sparkler

starter sharper harder turner farther overturn order sparkler burglar shorter corner partner murmur harbor recorder supermarket burner hurler firmer carpenter

harder turner murmur harbor recorder supermarket starter sharper farther overturn order sparkler burglar shorter corner partner carpenter firmer hurler burner

farther overturn order sparkler carpenter firmer hurler murmur harbor recorder supermarket burner turner harder sharper starter burglar shorter corner partner

burner starter sharper harder turner

Practice Reproducible 147

LESSON

75

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • For the Real Words section, explain to the child that he or she is to read each •
word. You will circle all the words read correctly. For the Nonsense Words section, explain to the child that these words are made-up words, not real words. The child will sound out each silly word. You will circle all the words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the Real Words portion of the review represents a different phonics skill. Reteach those skills in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
54–60 correct 48–53 correct 42–47 correct 36–41 correct 30–35 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 24–29 18–23 12–17 6–11 0–5 correct correct correct correct correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%
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148 Fluency Intervention: Section 7

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL75

Decoding Review
Real Words retell slowly sunset tiger maple unclear actor pencil spider bubble undo waiter polish music riddle grouchy escape person return firmly candle basic turtle easy beside turkey unwind player distant equal pickle drawing sunrise cornstalk

between floating alone farmer cupcake paper

Nonsense Words droil cabnib bleem
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

redok malk blick birker

rabel sunly thaist

sofler mascle flawk

tonlid soble choop flurdar

troan

scorpore chight

Practice Reproducible 149

LESSON

76a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -an, -ap, -at, -in, -ug Underline an, ap, at, in, or ug in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
fan lap hat hug bin map thin flat plan snug bin bug bin sat snap bug tap snug man fan pan tap sat bug tin tap tin bat pan slug chin hug thin bat tap snug lap hug map than man map flat slug thin lap bin sat man bug thin man tin chat scrap flat tin hat scrap plan plan scrap bat snug spin scrap chin hat than hug flat pan plan slug shrug chat chin flat bin map than snap chat shrug chin snap spin chat fan shrug sat plan than hug sat spin plan thin snap
© M acmillan/McGraw-Hill Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

bug

150 Fluency Intervention: Section 8

LESSON

Name

Date

76b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -an, -ap, -at, -in, -ug Underline an, ap, at, in, or ug in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
banner clapping batter unplug cabin roadmap chatting robin Japan juggle unwrap doormat earplug batter
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

pancake unwrap doormat juggle napkin unwrap doormat dolphin scanner luggage clapping acrobat unplug grinning pancake napkin doormat juggle banner batter

Japan snapping happy struggle robin snapping batter napkin banner unplug mousetrap banner struggle unwrap struggle pumpkin chatting unplug planning chatting

planning roadmap grinning earplug dolphin mousetrap grinning pumpkin planning struggle pumpkin Japan robin snapping luggage planning snapping robin roadmap struggle

scanner mousetrap chatting luggage pumpkin clapping happy cabin pancake earplug napkin scanner cabin roadmap earplug Japan unwrap cabin mousetrap earplug

scanner dolphin happy luggage pancake grinning

Practice Reproducible 151

LESSON

77a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ip, -op, -aw, -or, -ir Underline ip, op, aw, or, or ir in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. hip mop law or fir chop corn saw sir trip chop for drop fork slip whir saw hip law stir dip top paw for sir mop for law birch ship drop or mop orca dip sir straw trip draw sir slip chop saw fork stir drop or straw stir hip whir fork top for ship fir paw top for whir trip shop draw corn whir top orca draw fir slip birch saw hip stir law chop or shop fork slip ship drop straw orca birch shop fork paw whir dip fir straw trip birch draw drop corn mop or ship

152 Fluency Intervention: Section 8

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LESSON

Name

Date

77b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ip, -op, -aw, -or, -ir Underline ip, op, aw, or, or ir in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. shipment gallop coleslaw armor circle clippers blacktop drawing color stirrup chopstick thirsty chipmunk blacktop favor hopscotch awful blacktop color jigsaw chipmunk popcorn awful author squirrel lipstick gallop jigsaw armor quirky popcorn circle gossip gallop armor chopstick crawfish hopscotch favor awful clippers blacktop jigsaw doctor stirrup shipment hopscotch crawfish doctor squirrel hopscotch doctor shipment jigsaw circle popcorn squirrel gallop author squirrel gossip chopstick drawing color thirsty chipmunk chopstick coleslaw favor circle awful author quirky coleslaw stirrup lipstick thirsty drawing shipment thirsty lipstick hopscotch crawfish favor quirky gossip popcorn awful author thirsty drawing color squirrel crawfish thirsty gossip circle coleslaw chipmunk stirrup

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible 153

LESSON

78a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ink, -ack, -ank, -ash, -est, -ick Underline ink, ack, ank, ash, est, or ick in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
wink tack sank dash best kick black smash sink test tank stick drink crack click test kick drank stick smash link pack rank trash west pick back flash link nest drank sick think tack stick best sick thank click trash sink back tank flash test sick tack dash think west sank click sink black wink west pick tank wink dash think black thank crash nest stick crack crash drink chest thank kick chest dash think pack flash nest think rank drink crack drank smash chest click pack trash wink best rank pick nest crash back dash chest sink sank
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link

154 Fluency Intervention: Section 8

LESSON

Name

Date

78b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ink, -ack, -ank, -ash, -est, -ick Underline ink, ack, ank, ash, est, or ick in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
blinker cracker ankle splashes resting nickel jacket cranky arrest crashing sinking chicken splashes wrinkle
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

wrinkle jacket banker eyelash contest cricket attack banker contest splashes wrinkle drumstick eyelash blinker jacket chicken flashlight rethink ankle wrinkle

sinking backseat cranky crashing arrest chicken haystack blanket nesting bashful sprinkle nickel bashful cranky cracker nickel arrest sinking cranky bashful

sprinkle attack blanket bashful nesting flicker backseat thankful testing flashlight rethink flicker blanket ankle nesting thankful resting backseat drumstick eyelash

rethink haystack thankful flashlight testing drumstick cracker ankle resting eyelash blinker cricket banker blanket contest banker testing haystack flicker splashes

attack cricket crashing sprinkle blanket blinker

Practice Reproducible 155

LESSON

79a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ill, -ell, -ing, -ock, -uck, -ump, -unk Underline ill, ell, ing, ock, uck, ump, or unk in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. will bell ring lock luck lump dunk still smell wing block truck dump sunk fill smell trunk luck bell ring fill well sing rock duck jump sunk will bell ring clock tuck grump dunk spill well sunk truck spell thing chill fell wing block tuck dump skunk spill well bring rock luck stump chunk chill lump skunk stock fell wing still spell bring stock truck stump trunk fill spell thing lock stuck jump skunk block grump sing clock still stuck spill smell thing clock stuck grump chunk chill fell sing stock duck lump trunk rock dump bring lock will tuck

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LESSON

Name

Date

79b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ill, -ell, -ing, -ock, -uck, -ump, -unk Underline ill, ell, ing, ock, uck, ump, or unk in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
uphill jelly singer rocket lucky bumpy chunky chilly seashell earring jockey buckle pumpkin shrunken
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

chilly yellow stinger jockey bucket grumpy sunken thrilling jelly singer peacock woodchuck bumpy sunken lucky pillow earring chunky bumpy seashell

pillow cellar tingle stocking buckle crumple shrunken pillow cellar tingle pocket lucky trumpet junkyard knuckle yellow stinger chipmunk pumpkin chilly

thrilling seashell jingle peacock knuckle trumpet junkyard silly doorbell stinger stocking bucket grumpy chunky grumpy jelly jockey buckle singer silly

silly doorbell earring pocket woodchuck pumpkin chipmunk uphill yellow jingle rocket knuckle crumple chipmunk trumpet doorbell pocket woodchuck jingle uphill

bucket thrilling tingle sunken crumple cellar

Practice Reproducible 157

LESSON

80a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ine, -ake, -ale, -ame, -ate Underline ine, ake, ale, ame, or ate in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. line make pale game gate mine cake whale same crate line state fame late flame bake mine crate scale fame fine bake tale same late spine bake pale flame gate fine gate same crate game shake shine late sale game mine cake sale fame plate fine flake tale fame state mine bake blame plate sale cake line state tale flame spine shake scale flame crate shine shake scale blame late scale shake shine flake pale state whale blame fine make shine flake whale blame state line make sale game plate whale make spine cake tale gate pale same spine flake

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LESSON

Name

Date

80b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ine, -ake, -ale, -ame, -ate Underline ine, ake, ale, ame, or ate in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed.
define awake female became debate headline mistake resale blameless locate define folktale donate blameless
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

airline mistake resale ballgame lately airline pancake female ballgame debate airline female lately nametag exhale handshake nickname lately mistake folktale

nineteen baker inhale blameless locate sunshine awake folktale nametag migrate sunshine nametag locate awake resale mistake ballgame donate nineteen exhale

headline pancake exhale nametag donate define baker exhale nickname lately mistake ballgame nineteen handshake debate define folktale nametag airline migrate

sunshine handshake folktale nickname migrate nineteen handshake inhale became donate pancake nickname headline baker migrate sunshine female blameless headline debate

inhale pancake became locate awake resale

Practice Reproducible 159

LESSON

81a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ice, -ide, -oke, -ore Underline ice, ide, oke, or ore in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. ice tide joke wore rice slide spoke shore rice joke slide spoke price sore joke core tide smoke rice side nice wide poke core nice wide joke sore price broke bride smoke rice shore poke store bride broke slice tide rice side spoke sore slice bride smoke wore slice sore side poke bride wore smoke spoke wide joke price store price slide broke store ice tide broke store tide wore ice store wide slice slide broke ice wide spoke core slice bride smoke shore price side poke core wide shore nice core tide price side poke nice slide broke shore

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LESSON

Name

Date

81b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ice, -ide, -oke, -ore Underline ice, ide, oke, or ore in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. advice inside awoke adore nicely hayride spoken ignore spices token device spoken decide awoke device sideways spices provoke sideways advice device divide provoke before iceberg inside provoke before iceberg awoke advice provoke hayride spoken iceberg inside nicely broken hayride iceberg nicely decide token ignore advice sideways broken seashore nicely before decide broken sideways before advice seashore device explore inside spices spices hayride spoken explore spices decide awoke adore sideways explore divide seashore nicely adore token before awoke adore broken decide iceberg sideways broken seashore device divide token explore inside adore hayride ignore spices explore broken ignore spoken before token divide

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Practice Reproducible 161

LESSON

82a

Name

Date

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Phonograms -ail, -ain, -ay, -eat, -ight Underline ail, ain, ay, eat, or ight in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. mail gain way seat fight rail brain way meat night trail play night beat wheat trail stay rain rail cheat pail rain bay beat night snail gain pay wheat right pail bay bright cheat cheat pail play gain snail wheat rail train pay meat tight mail rain stay seat bright mail beat right stay meat mail bright train way meat trail brain play cheat right trail chain play beat tight gain wheat snail pay fight brain right beat bay tight snail chain stay wheat bright pail train bay cheat fight rain seat rail bay tight chain night seat pay fight

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LESSON

Name

Date

82b

Fluency

PRACTICE REPRODUCIBLE

Speed Drill: Word Families
Two-Syllable Words Containing the Phonograms -ail, -ain, -ay, -eat, -ight Underline ail, ain, ay, eat, or ight in each word. Then practice reading the words. Tell your teacher when you are ready to be timed. sailor rainy away repeat mighty trailer contain delay cheating tonight painful meatball sailor upright seatbelt contain delay sailor lightning trailer tailor trailer mailbox railroad painful contain remain unchain maybe delay repay crayon heated cheating meatball seatbelt upright tonight tightly lightning mailbox sailor railroad tailor unchain rainy painful remain crayon maybe repay away heated repeat seatbelt meatball lightning tightly mighty upright remain rainy crayon maybe cheating mighty lightning tightly railroad tailor contain unchain tonight maybe repay crayon repeat heated mailbox trailer remain painful tightly mighty repay crayon unchain rainy railroad cheating meatball seatbelt upright tonight delay away mailbox tailor mighty tightly

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Practice Reproducible 163

LESSON

83

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. • For the Real Words section, explain to the child that he or she is to read each •
word. You will circle all the words read correctly. For the Nonsense Words section, explain to the child that these words are made-up words, not real words. The child will sound out each silly word. You will circle all the words read correctly.

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of words read correctly. • Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get • •
at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Each line of the Real Words portion of the review represents a different phonics skill. Reteach those skills in which the child misses more than one word per line.

Percentage Table
50–55 correct 44–49 correct 39–43 correct 33–38 correct 28–32 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 22–27 17–21 11–16 6–10 0–5 correct correct correct correct correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%
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Practice Reproducible FL83

Decoding Review
Real Words snap for dash lock spine nice trail flat trip test bring bake price gain shrug draw wink grump whale bride sway thin drop thank skunk flame broke wheat than whir crack chill state wore right

Nonsense Words lat nash stug adnipe
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zin mest devete contruse

yan fank frink pabeness

shir lor

thop vill

lurster gank wice ronetake

Practice Reproducible 165

LESSON

84

Fluency

Reading Different Sentence Types
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers change their voices to show what sentences mean. Tell children that they should read different types of sentences differently. Tell them to listen as you say the following sentences differently: Frogs can fly. Frogs can fly? Frogs can fly! Write the three sentences below. One is a statement, one is a question, and one is an exclamation. Read them in a robot-like monotone, so there is no difference between the way you read them. Then model reading each type of sentence differently: This story is about a bird. What does the bird do? It talks! Explain how you decided to read each sentence differently. • Circle the period. Say: A period ends a statement that gives information. It tells me to read the sentence in a steady way. Reread the first sentence without raising your voice. • Circle the question mark. Say: A question mark ends a question. It tells me to raise my voice at the end. Reread the question, emphasizing raising your voice at the end. • Circle the exclamation point. Say: An exclamation point ends a sentence that shows strong feeling. It tells me to use a voice that shows strong feeling. Reread the exclamation, emphasizing excitement.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL84. Have partners circle and name the punctuation mark at the end of each sentence. Remind them to circle periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Echo Reading Read one sentence at a time and have children echo-read it. Point out the end punctuation mark and make sure children read each type of sentence differently. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.
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APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading the sentences aloud to each other. Remind them to use their voices to show the type of sentence they are reading. Then ask individual children to read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

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Practice Reproducible FL84

Reading Different Sentence Types
Read aloud each sentence below. Change your voice for each type of sentence. 1. Do I have a pet?
5 10 15 19 26 29 34 40 45

2. I do have a pet! 3. My pet’s name is Sam. 4. Sam is a bird. 5. Why is Sam such a great pet? 6. Sam can talk! 7. He can say his name. 8. He knows five other words, too. 9. His voice sounds so funny! 10. Would you like to meet Sam?
51

Comprehension What words do you think Sam can say? How do you think he sounds when he says them?
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Practice Reproducible 167

LESSON

85

Fluency

Reading Different Sentence Types
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers change their voices to show what sentences mean. Tell children that they should read different types of sentences differently. Tell them to listen as you say the following sentences differently: Frogs can talk. Frogs can talk? Frogs can talk! Write the sentences below. One is a statement, one is a question, and one is an exclamation. Read them in a robot-like monotone. Model reading each one differently: This pie tastes good. Did you make it? You are a great cook! Explain how you decided to read each sentence differently. • Circle the period. Say: A period ends a statement that gives information. It tells me to read the sentence in a steady way. Reread the first sentence without raising your voice. • Circle the question mark. Say: A question mark ends a question. It tells me to raise my voice at the end. Reread the question, emphasizing raising your voice at the end. • Circle the exclamation point. Say: An exclamation point ends a sentence that shows strong feeling. It tells me to use a voice that shows strong feeling. Reread the exclamation, emphasizing excitement.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL85. Have partners read “A Fine Pie.” Tell them to circle periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Discuss how each sentence should be read. Provide corrective feedback. Oral Reading Modeling Model reading “A Fine Pie,” and create a group summary. Point out how hearing the different types of sentences helps readers understand what Grampa and Elsa do together. Read the passage again. Have children practice reading it aloud to a partner.
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Comprehension Have partners discuss answers to the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine to read “A Fine Pie” again, but now have children lead while you respond. Have children say how they read each phrase or sentence before you repeat it. Prompt them with this question each time it is your turn: How should I change my voice when I read this sentence? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Reading Different Sentence Types
A Fine Pie
8 18 26 34 47 56 57 67 77 87 94 103 107 115 122

Elsa and Grampa go to Matson Farm. They pick apples right off the trees! They fill a basket. What will they do with all those apples? At home, Elsa helps Grampa peel the apples. It is a lot of work! At last, a bowl full of peeled apples sits on the table. Grampa cuts them into pieces. What is the next job? Grampa sets out a fat ball of dough. Elsa uses a rolling pin to make flat piecrusts. She rolls and rolls. This job is fun! Then Grampa mixes the apples with sugar and spices. He places everything in a pan. Into the oven it goes! What is that wonderful smell? Apple pie is baking in the oven. Mmmmm, Grampa’s apple pie is the best treat in the world! 130

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Comprehension What do Grampa and Elsa do together? How would you help if you were with them?

Practice Reproducible 169

LESSON

86

Fluency

Pronunciation
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that when reading aloud, good readers pronounce each word clearly and correctly so their listeners will not be confused. • Tell children to listen for a mistake as you say this sentence: A swan is a bird with a (mumble mumble). Say: The way I read this sentence was confusing because you couldn’t hear all the words. • Tell children to listen for a mistake as you say this sentence: A swan has white feethers. Say: The way I read this sentence was confusing because I didn’t pronounce all the words correctly. I should have pronounced that word /FETH ers/, not /FEETH ers/. Then you would have understood me. Write the sentence below and model reading it two or three times, each time with clearer and more correct pronunciation of the words beautiful and bathing. Then have children read the sentence, pronouncing each word clearly and correctly. A beautiful swan was bathing in a pond.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL86. Read aloud the title. Tell children that a swan and a swallow are both kinds of birds. Ask them to tell anything they know about these birds. Oral Reading Model reading “The Swan and the Swallow” aloud. Point out how you are reading every word clearly and correctly. Read the passage again to children, and have them practice reading it aloud to a partner. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
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Echo Reading Read “The Swan and the Swallow” aloud. Read one sentence at a time and have children echo-read it. Remind them to pronounce words clearly and correctly. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

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Pronunciation
The Swan and the Swallow
10 19 27 36 44 52 55 63 72 80 86 94 104 111 119 130 133
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A little brown bird lived by a pond. Her name was Swallow. She flew back and forth over the water. As she flew, she quickly caught insects. A big bird with white feathers swam slowly in the pond. Her name was Swan. Little Swallow thought that Swan was the most beautiful bird in the world! Swallow felt so small and plain when she looked at Swan. She wished that her neck were long and graceful like Swan’s. She wished that she could swim smoothly like Swan. One day, Swallow spoke to Swan. “I just wanted to say that I really admire you!” she said. Swan looked surprised. “But I have always admired YOU,” said Swan. “You fly with such speed! You look so graceful! It must be fun to be you,” said Swan. Swallow thought. “Yes, it IS fun,” she said. 141

Comprehension Why does Swallow admire Swan? Why does Swan admire Swallow?

Practice Reproducible 171

LESSON

87

Fluency

Reading Emphasized Words
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Remind children to read each word clearly and correctly. Explain that good readers read important words more loudly and clearly. Tell children to listen as you say the following sentence, emphasizing the underlined word. I want pizza for lunch, not pasta. Point out that you said the word pizza more loudly and clearly than you said the others. Explain that saying a word more loudly and clearly is called emphasizing the word. Good readers emphasize important words to make the meaning clear. Write these two sentences on the board. Read the question with a rising voice, and then read the answer, emphasizing the underlined word. Is Anna’s shirt blue? No, her shirt is purple. Point out that you emphasized the word purple, saying it more loudly and clearly than the others. Good readers emphasize important words to make the meaning clear. Then write this sentence on the board: I LOVE my bike. Tell children that sometimes a writer will put an important word in all uppercase letters to help readers know that the word should be emphasized. Model reading the sentence, emphasizing LOVE. Explain that writers don’t do this often.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL87. Point out the first sentence is a question and the second is the answer. Have partners say the word question or answer as they point to each end mark. Echo Reading Read one question and one answer at a time, emphasizing the most important word in the answer. Have children echo-read each question and answer. Have them repeat the word in the answer that is said louder and clearer.
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Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the answers as a group.

APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners take turns reading each question and answer. Remind them to decide which words to say especially loudly and clearly. Then ask individual children to read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

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Reading Emphasized Words
Read aloud each sentence below. Emphasize an important word in each sentence. 1. Did you take a yellow crayon? 2. I took a green crayon. 3. Did you draw a green house? 4. No, what I drew was a green car. 5. Is that green water? 6. No, it’s green grass. 7. Will you draw a blue sky? 8. I’ll make a green sky. 9. Do you like the color green? 10. I LOVE the color green! 55

6 11 17 25 29 33 39 44 50

Comprehension What colors are the children using to draw? What is one color you would pick to draw a picture? Why?

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Practice Reproducible 173

LESSON

88

Fluency

Reading Emphasized Words
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Remind children that good readers read each word clearly and correctly. Explain that good readers read important words more loudly and clearly. Tell children to listen as you say the following sentence, emphasizing the underlined word. I like reading about dogs, not horses. Point out that you said the word dogs more loudly and clearly than you said the others. Tell children that saying a word more loudly and clearly is called emphasizing the word. Good readers emphasize important words to make the meaning clear. Write these two sentences on the board. Read the question with a rising voice, and then read the answer, emphasizing the underlined word. Does Meg have a cat named Snowball? No, she has a dog named Snowball. Point out that you emphasized the word dog by reading it more loudly and clearly than you read the other words. Explain that emphasizing this word shows it is important and helps make clear what the sentence means. Then write this sentence on the board: I LOVE my pet mouse. Tell children that sometimes a writer will put an important word in all uppercase letters to help readers know that the word should be emphasized. Model reading the sentence, emphasizing LOVE. Explain that writers don’t do this often. Readers need to think about the meaning to decide which word is important and needs to be emphasized.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL88. Have children read the title together. Ask them to predict how the dogs might be different. Explain that the important words in this passage will be words that tell how these two dogs are different. Choral Reading Read “Two Different Dogs” aloud with children. Remind children to keep their voices with yours. Read with natural stresses within sentences. Point out that the words you emphasize are the important ones in the sentence. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Repeated Reading You might use “Two Different Dogs” to help children improve their reading rate. Time children on their first reading. Then have them practice reading to a partner. Time them again. Use the Progress Chart on page 211 to record their progress. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL88

Reading Emphasized Words
Two Different Dogs
9 18 29 39 49 56 65 76 86 97 107 111 120

Two dogs live at Ben’s house. One dog is named Tiny. That is a funny name. Why? Tiny is HUGE! He is strong, too. Tiny can pull a wagon filled with kids! Tiny may be big and strong, but he is very gentle. He never jumps on people. If he did, he would knock them down! Ben’s other dog is named Lion. That is another funny name. A real lion is big, but Lion is little. How little? Ben can hold Lion in one hand! But Lion acts as fierce as a real lion. Lion barks at Tiny. His barks sound like YIP, YIP, YIP. Maybe he thinks he is roaring! What does Tiny do when he hears Lion roar? Tiny just gets up and moves away! 127

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Comprehension What are the most important differences between Tiny and Lion? Can you think of other names that might fit the dogs better?

Practice Reproducible 175

LESSON

89

Fluency

Reading Dialogue
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Tell children that a conversation that is written down is called dialogue. When they read dialogue aloud, good readers use their voices to sound like the speakers. They express the same emotion as the character. Tell children to listen and watch as you pretend to be talking on the telephone: “What time should I be there? . . . OK, I’ll see you at six. . . . Me, too!” Explain that if the words you said were written down, they would be called dialogue. Tell children that there are special ways of writing dialogue so readers know who said which part of the conversation and how they sounded when they said those words. Write the sentences below. Model reading each aloud: “Are you coming to my party?” Eddie asked Ruben. “Yes,” Ruben answered excitedly. “I plan to be there. It’ll be fun!” • Circle all the quotation marks. Say: Quotation marks show where someone’s exact words begin and end. Reread just the spoken words. • Underline the words that are not enclosed in quotation marks. Say: These words show who is speaking. They may also tell how the speaker says the words. Point out that Ruben is excited when he answers Eddie. • Circle the question mark, comma, period, and exclamation point inside quotations. Say: These marks help you know whether to ask a question, make a statement, or show strong feeling. Reread the spoken words, emphasizing how your voice changes with each kind of sentence.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL89. Have partners circle the exact words that are spoken and underline words that tell the speaker. Echo Reading Read one line of dialogue at a time and have children echo-read it. Point out the quotation marks and end marks, and have children say the spoken parts using different voices for each speaker. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Partner Reading Have one partner read aloud the spoken words while the other reads words that tell about the speaker. Have them switch. Remind them to use voices to sound like the speakers. Have individuals read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL89

Reading Dialogue
Read aloud each sentence below. Change your voice for each speaker. 1. “How was the street fair?” Mom asked Matt.
8 15 24 32 38 44 50 53 60

2. “It was SO much fun!” said Matt. 3. Mom said, “I see two stars on your cheek.” 4. “We all had our faces painted,” said Matt. 5. He added, “We watched two jugglers.” 6. “What did they juggle?” asked Mom. 7. “Balls, plates, and hotdogs,” answered Matt. 8. Mom asked, “Hotdogs?” 9. “They ate the hotdogs while juggling them,” said Matt. “I wish I had seen that!” said Mom.
70

62 10.

Comprehension What did Matt do at the street fair? What might you see or do at a street fair?
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Practice Reproducible 177

LESSON

90

Fluency

Reading Dialogue
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Tell children that a conversation that is written down is called dialogue. When they read dialogue aloud, good readers use their voices to sound like the speakers. Tell children that there are special ways of writing dialogue so readers know who said which part of the conversation and how they sounded when they said those words. Write the sentences below. Model reading each aloud: “It’s Mom’s birthday,” Dad said to Casey. “Shall we take her to breakfast?” “Great idea!” Casey shouted happily. “Mom loves the Pancake Palace.” • Circle all the quotation marks. Say: Quotation marks show where someone’s exact words begin and end. Reread just the spoken words. • Underline the words that are not enclosed in quotation marks. Say: These words show who is speaking. They may also tell how the speaker says the words. Point out that Casey is happy when Dad suggests taking Mom out to breakfast. • Circle the question mark, comma, period, and exclamation point inside quotations. Say: These marks help you know whether to ask a question, make a statement, or show strong feeling. Reread the spoken words, emphasizing how your voice changes with each kind of sentence.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL90. Have partners circle the exact words that are spoken and underline words that tell the speaker. Choral Reading Read “A Birthday Breakfast” aloud with children. Remind them to keep their voices with yours. Model how the three characters sound when they speak, without any unnatural deepening or raising of the voice. Draw attention to the punctuation marks that help you identify the spoken words and decide how the characters’ voices will sound.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension Have partners discuss answers to the comprehension questions. Then discuss their answers as a group.

APPLY
Readers Theater Use the Echo Reading routine to read the poem again, but have children lead while you respond. Children can take turns leading. Have the child point out how he/she reads each phrase before you read it back. Prompt with questions such as: Where did you pause? Where did you change your voice? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Reading Dialogue
A Birthday Breakfast
10 16 20 27 34 43 52 55 62 63 71 80 88 95 103 111
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Mom, Dad, and Casey sat in a booth at the Pancake Palace. “Happy birthday!” Casey and Dad said to Mom. “Thank you,” Mom replied. She looked over the menu. “Hmmm, what will I choose?” “I’m going to have a peach muffin,” said Casey. “That sounds good,” said Dad. “I think I’ll have ham and eggs.” “I’d like pancakes,” said Mom. “With fresh blueberries.” Dad whispered something to the waiter. A while later, the waiter brought the food to the table. “Look!” said Mom as she clapped. A birthday candle sat on top of the pancakes. Dad and Casey sang the Happy Birthday song. The waiter and the other customers joined in. Then Mom blew out her candle. “Thank you for a wonderful birthday breakfast,” Mom said happily. 127

121 126

Comprehension Why did the family go to Pancake Palace? What would you order if you were eating a birthday breakfast?

Practice Reproducible 179

LESSON

91

Fluency

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
TEACH/MODEL
Review Remind children that a conversation that is written down is called dialogue. Write a pair of quotation marks (“ ”). Review that quotation marks surround the words spoken by characters. Explain that when readers see quotation marks, they think about how the character sounds as well as what the character says. When they read dialogue aloud, good readers use their voices to sound like the speakers. Introduce Tell children that dialogue is often written in a paragraph. Write the dialogue below. Be careful to show the indents clearly. Then model reading it aloud: “What game should we play?” Dave asked, but Kim did not answer him. “I like any game with a ball!” said Dave. “Let’s play catch.” “All right,” answered Kim shyly. • Point out quotation marks. Say: These show a character’s spoken words. • Point to the indents. Remind children that a paragraph begins with an indent. Say: Every time a speaker changes, a new paragraph begins. Point out how everything that Dave said before Kim answered him is written in one paragraph. • Circle each punctuation mark, pointing out these help them decide how to read each sentence. Say: A question mark shows that a character’s voice goes up. An exclamation point shows that a character is speaking with excitement. A comma or a period shows that a character is making a statement.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL91. Have partners circle the exact words that are spoken and underline words that tell the speaker. Echo Reading Read “A Game of Catch.” Read one sentence at a time and have children echo-read it. Point out how your voice changes when you read each speaker’s words. Identify the punctuation marks that help you decide how to sound.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine again, this time having children read first while you respond. Encourage children to point out how they knew how to change their voices. Ask: What marks helped you decide how to sound? How did you know that a different character was speaking? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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Practice Reproducible FL91

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
A Game of Catch
8 15 23 33 40 48 57 67 75

“Throw the ball here!” Dave called to Kim. “Throw it high! I can catch it!”
“I can throw it very high,” said Kim. Kim aimed for the sky. She let the ball go. WHOOOSH! “Is that high enough?” she called. “Yes!” said Dave. “You threw it very high.” Dave reached for the ball. It sailed over his hands. It sailed over the fence. It landed on Mrs. Miller’s lawn. “Oh, no,” said Dave. “This could be a problem.” 78

Comprehension What does Dave say at the end? Why do you think he says that?

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Practice Reproducible 181

LESSON

92

Fluency

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
TEACH/MODEL
Review Remind children that a conversation written down is called dialogue. Write a pair of quotation marks (“ ”). Review that quotation marks surround the words spoken by characters. Explain that when readers see quotation marks, they think about how the character sounds as well as what the character says. When they read dialogue aloud, they use their voices to sound like the speakers. Introduce Tell children that dialogue is often written in a paragraph. Write the dialogue below. Show the indents clearly. Then model reading it aloud:
“Wake up!” Josh yelled at Ben. “Something is tapping on the window! What is it?” “It’s just a branch,” said Ben in a sleepy voice. “It’s nothing to be scared of.”

• Point to the quotation marks. Say: Quotation marks show where a character’s • •
spoken words begin and end. Point to the indents. Remind children that a paragraph begins with an indent. Say: Every time a speaker changes, a new paragraph begins. Point out how everything that Josh said before Ben answered him is written in one paragraph. Circle each punctuation mark. Remind children that these help them decide how to read each sentence. Say: A question mark shows that a character’s voice goes up. An exclamation point shows that a character is speaking with excitement. A comma or a period shows that a character is making a statement.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL92. Have partners circle the exact words that are spoken and underline words that tell the speaker. Oral Reading Modeling Read aloud “In the Dark.” Then create a group summary of the passage. Point out how your voice changes when you read each speaker’s words. Identify the punctuation marks that help you decide how to sound. Read the passage aloud again, and have children practice reading it to a partner.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Readers Theater Have children take the parts of Josh, Ben, and the narrator. Two children may share the narrator’s part. Have the group practice reading together. Remind children to talk as Josh and Ben might talk and to use a storyteller’s voice for the other sentences. Then have them read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
182 Fluency Intervention: Section 9

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL92

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
In the Dark
8 18 28 36 45 48 56 60 71 78 89 98 107 113 119

Josh woke up suddenly. His room was dark. He could see his bed in the moonlight. Two eyes were looking at him from the end of his bed! “Help!” Josh whispered. The eyes did not blink. They seemed to glow in the moonlight. Josh yelled louder, “Help! Help!” Josh’s brother Ben was in the next bed. “What’s wrong?” Ben asked. “Look at the end of my bed,” said Josh as he pointed. “Two eyes are staring at me!” Ben got up. He walked to the end of Josh’s bed. Then he laughed. “Your feet are sticking out from under the sheet,” Ben said. “Moonlight is on them. Those two things are not eyes.” “Then what are they?” asked Josh. Ben answered, “They’re your toenails!” 124

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension How does Josh feel when he wakes up suddenly? How does he probably feel at the end?

Practice Reproducible 183

LESSON

93

Fluency

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
TEACH/MODEL
Review Remind children that a conversation written down is called dialogue. Write a pair of quotation marks (“ ”) and review that quotation marks surround the words spoken by characters. Explain that when readers read dialogue aloud, they use their voices to sound like the speakers. Introduce Tell children that dialogue is often written in a paragraph. Write the dialogue below. Be careful to show the indents clearly. Then model reading it aloud: “Here’s a riddle,” said Jay. “What do zebras have that no other animals have?” Leesha did not answer him. “Do you give up?” asked Jay. “I know,” said Leesha. “Baby zebras!” • Point to the quotation marks. Say: Quotation marks show where a character’s spoken words begin and end. • Point to the indents. Remind children that a paragraph begins with an indent. Say: Every time a speaker changes, a new paragraph begins. Point out how everything that Jay said before Leesha answered the riddle is written in one paragraph. • Circle each punctuation mark. Remind children that these help them decide how to read each sentence. Say: A question mark shows that a character’s voice goes up. An exclamation point shows that a character is speaking with excitement. A comma or a period shows that a character is making a statement.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL93. Have partners circle the exact words that are spoken. Have them underline the words that tell who is speaking. Oral Reading Modeling Model reading aloud “Silly Riddles.” Then create a group summary of the passage. Point out how your voice changes when you read each speaker’s words. Identify the punctuation marks that help you decide how to sound. Read the passage aloud again, and have children practice reading it to a partner. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Readers Repeated Reading You might want to use “Silly Riddles” to help children improve their reading rate. Time children on their first reading of the passage. Then have them practice reading to a partner. Time them again. You can use the Progress Chart on page 211 to record their progress. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
184 Fluency Intervention: Section 9

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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL93

Reading Dialogue in Paragraphs
Silly Riddles
9 17 18 26 36 44 50 59 64 72 82 90 101 109 118 127 136 139 148
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Jay was reading a book. Every now and then, he laughed out loud. “What’s so funny?” asked Leesha. Jay answered, “I’m reading silly riddles.” Then he said, “Here’s a good one. Why did the boy close his eyes when he looked in the mirror?” “I don’t know,” said Leesha. “Why?” “He wanted to see what he looked like when he was sleeping!” Jay answered. Leesha laughed. “Let me find one to read to you,” she said. Jay handed the book to Leesha. She flipped through the pages. Then she said, “A man fell off a ladder that reached a high roof. But he wasn’t hurt at all. Why not?” Jay tapped his chin as he thought. “I don’t know,” he said. “Why didn’t the man get hurt?” “He was standing on the first step of the ladder!” Leesha replied. “That’s a good one!” laughed Jay. “I’ll try to remember it.” 150

Comprehension Why are Jay and Leesha laughing? What makes you laugh?

Practice Reproducible 185

LESSON

94

Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. Explain to the child that he or she •
is to read aloud each sentence. Follow these instructions for each item. The lesson in which each fluency skill was taught is indicated in parentheses. 1. Child should read different sentence types, changing his or her voice with each. (Lessons 84–85) 2. Child should pronounce words clearly. (Lesson 86) 3. Child should read the sentence, emphasizing important words. (Lessons 87–88) 4. Child should read dialogue, using his or her voice to sound like a speaker. (Lessons 89–90) 5. Child should read dialogue in paragraphs, using his or her voice to sound like a speaker. (Lessons 91–93)

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of sentences read correctly.
Assign two points to each line. Use the rubric below. 2 points 1 point 0 points Child demonstrates full mastery of the skill. Child demonstrates some mastery of the skill. Child demonstrates no mastery of the skill.

• Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get •
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Reteach those skills which the child has not mastered.

Percentage Table
18–20 correct 16–17 correct 14–15 correct 12–13 correct 10–11 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 8–9 correct 6–7 correct 4–5 correct 2–3 correct 0–1 correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%

186 Fluency Intervention: Section 9

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL94

Prosody/Intonation Review
1. Charlie was a fox who loved music. Why did he love music? 2. He had special ears. They were HUGE! 3. Charlie liked the banjo, but he liked the piano even more. 4. One day he met a bear who played the piano. “Will you teach me to play the piano?” asked Charlie. 5. “Do you have a piano of your own?” asked the bear. “No,” said Charlie, “but I’ve seen one at school.” “I could give you lessons on that piano,” said the bear. “Could you?” said Charlie. “That would make me so happy!” The bear smiled. “And my ears would love it!” said Charlie.

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Practice Reproducible 187

LESSON

95

Fluency

Pausing at the End of Sentences
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers pause at the end of sentences as they read aloud. Remind children that good readers also change their voice at the end of different kinds of sentences. Tell them that punctuation marks can help them know when to do this.

• Write a period (.). Say: This tells readers to pause at the end of a sentence. Then
write the sentences below on the board. Model reading them aloud, pausing at the end of each sentence. Point to each period as you pause. You ate your lunch. You drank your milk.

• Write a question mark (?). Say: This tells readers to make a sentence sound like
a question and then to pause. Change the periods to question marks on the sentences you just wrote. Then model reading each sentence aloud, raising your voice and then pausing. Point to each question mark as you do so. You ate your lunch? You drank your milk?

• Write an exclamation point (!). Say: This tells readers to show a strong feeling
about a sentence and then to pause. Change the question marks to exclamation points on the sentences you wrote. Then model reading each sentence aloud, showing strong feeling and then pausing. Point to each exclamation point. You ate your lunch! You drank your milk!

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL95. Have partners circle the punctuation at the end of each sentence in “Rules About Meals.” Remind them to circle periods, question marks, and exclamation points. Echo Reading Read “Rules About Meals” aloud. Read one sentence at a time and have children echo-read it. Point out the period, question mark, or exclamation point as you change your voice and pause at the end of each sentence. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading “Rules About Meals” aloud to each other. Remind them to change their voice and pause at the end of each sentence. Then ask individual children to read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
188 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL95

Pausing at the End of Sentences
Rules About Meals
8 18 28 31 38 47 58 66 67 76 89 99 111 119 129

My mom and dad have rules about meals. No shouting is the first rule. We can talk. We can laugh. We can tell stories. But we have to use indoor voices. Hands to yourselves! That’s another rule. My brother and I cannot touch each other. Did we make a mess? Then we have to clean it up. No watching my mom while she gets the paper towels! Most important, we have to eat! That is our job at a meal in my house. We have to eat all our food, unless we really hate it. Do you hate eggs? I hate eggs, so I don’t have to eat them. My brother hates beans, so my mother makes him peas. Then we have to drink our milk. After that we can go laugh and play in another room. 137

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Comprehension What are the rules about meals in your house? Which rules are the same as the rules in this child’s house? Which rules are different?

Practice Reproducible 189

LESSON

96

Fluency

Pausing at Commas
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers pause briefly at commas when they read aloud. Pausing at commas shows with the voice that each thing is separate. Explain that the pause should be shorter than when they pause at the end of a sentence. Commas in a Sentence Remind children that commas help separate two parts of a sentence. Write this sentence on the board: My dog is black, and he also has a funny bark. Circle the comma. Model reading the sentence aloud, pausing at and pointing to the comma. Commas in a List Remind children that commas help separate things in a list. Write this sentence on the board: Pigs, hens, ducks, and dogs can live on a farm. Circle each comma. Say: This sentence has a list of animals. Between the name of each animal on the list is a comma. Point to the commas. Then model reading the sentence aloud, pausing at each comma. Point to each comma as you pause. Commas in Dialogue Remind children that commas are often used in dialogue. Write these sentences on the board: Jim said, “I like to fish in the pond.” “That fish is big,” said Nan. Circle each comma. Remind children to pause briefly at the comma before or after reading the words the character says (those in quotation marks). Model reading the sentences aloud, pausing at and pointing to each comma.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL96. Have partners circle the commas in each sentence in “The Birthday Party.” Remind them that commas appear in lists and before or after the words a character speaks. Echo Reading Read “The Birthday Party” aloud one sentence at a time. Have children echo-read it. Remind children to pause briefly when they see a comma. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.
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APPLY
Readers Theater Have children choose a narrator and three character parts (pig, cat, and dog) in “The Birthday Party” to read aloud. Have them practice reading their parts, pausing briefly at each comma. Then ask them to read aloud. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
190 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL96

Pausing at Commas
The Birthday Party
10 18 28 38 42 49 60 66 76 82 91 95 104 112 121 131

Pig, cat, and dog lived on a farm. Next week would be hen’s birthday. Hen was always kind and happy. So her friends wanted to plan a nice party to surprise her. They met in the barn one day to start planning. Pig asked, “Where will the party be?” Cat said, “It could be in the barn, by the old tree stump, or at the pond.” “Let’s have it in the barn,” dog said. “We could eat cake, ice cream, and milk.” Cat shouted, “I like that idea! What should we do at the party?” “Let’s play tag, run races, and sing,” said pig. “Everyone should bring hen a gift,” said dog. Pig, cat, and dog invited all the farm animals to the party. Each animal wanted to find just the right gift for hen. Hen was surprised! 138

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Comprehension What will hen’s party be like? What gift would you bring hen if you were invited to the party? If you had a birthday party, what would it be like?

Practice Reproducible 191

LESSON

97

Fluency

When to Slow Reading Down
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers slow down their pace of reading when the content is difficult. Tell children that it is easier to think carefully about what they are reading when they read more slowly. Point out that this is especially helpful to do when they are reading nonfiction books or articles about science or social studies. Explain that a good reader decides when to read more slowly. Write this short paragraph on the board. Read it aloud quickly. Next, model deciding to slow down your reading. Read it more slowly, thinking aloud about each sentence. Water flows through canals in the starfish’s five arms. The water goes into a tube at the end of each arm. That push of water helps the starfish move. The starfish then finds clams to eat. Think Aloud I was reading about starfish in an encyclopedia, and I was learning a lot. But then I got to this paragraph, and I didn’t understand what I was reading. So I will read the paragraph again—much more slowly. Water flows through canals in the starfish’s five arms. [Point to the sentence.] What does that mean? Canals must be like little tubes or pipes. The water goes into a tube at the end of each arm. That push of water helps the starfish move. The water must come in the tube and push through strongly, the way that water does in a hose. I know that water coming out of a hose can knock things over. Something like that must help the starfish move.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL97. Have children circle any unknown words. Discuss these words together. Oral Reading Modeling Model reading “Trees” and create a group summary. Help children see how slowing down when reading might help them remember what a tree is, the three parts of a tree, and their functions. Read the passage again to children. Have them practice reading it aloud to a partner. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.
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APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading “Trees” aloud to each other. Remind them to slow down when new facts are presented and read the rest of the passage at a more natural pace. Then ask individuals to read to the group. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

192 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL97

When to Slow Reading Down
Trees
11 21 30 40 41 50 60 70 78 88 97 107 116 119 128 137 146
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A tree is a plant that has a woody stem. It grows eight feet high or more. A tree has three main parts. These are the roots, trunk, and leaves. Each part is important to keep the tree alive and healthy. The roots hold the tree to the ground. They also help the tree get water from the soil. The trunk and branches carry the water or sap to the leaves. The leaves make food for the tree. You can tell trees apart by the kinds of leaves they have. Pine trees keep their leaves all year. The leaves of some trees change color and fall to the ground. The trees rest in winter. Leaves grow again in spring. Trees are useful. They give us shade and fruits to eat. Trees keep soil from washing away. Did you know that paper is made from trees? We need trees! 148

Comprehension What job does each part of a tree have? What kinds of trees do you see where you live?

Practice Reproducible 193

LESSON

98

Fluency

When to Speed Reading Up
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that good readers read more quickly when the passage shows exciting action. Readers may also change their voice to show how excited they are. Write the sentences below on the board. First, read the sentences slowly and with limited expression. Then read the same sentences more quickly and with emphasis or excitement. Jane’s dog runs into the street. Oh no, a car is coming! She has to catch her dog before it’s too late. Point out that the events in these sentences are exciting and even a little frightening. Ask: Which way of reading the sentences best helped you understand how frightening it was? (the second, faster way of reading) Repeat with these sentences. Ken was so excited! It was his birthday today. Mom had promised him a big surprise. What could it be?

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL98. Tell children that “The Stormy Day” is a story with action, so they should look for parts that are exciting and speed up when reading these sentences. Choral Reading Read “The Stormy Day” aloud with children. Remind them to keep the pace and expression of their voices with yours. Be sure to model and draw attention to how to speed up when reading sentences that show exciting action. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine to read “The Stormy Day” again, but now have children lead while you respond. Have children point out how they read each phrase or sentence before you read it back to them. Prompt them with questions such as these: Which parts of this story show exciting action? How will you read these sentences? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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194 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL98

When to Speed Reading Up
The Stormy Day
8 17 25 34 43 52 60 69 78 87 96 105 115 125 134

Steve and his sister Ann were playing outside in their yard. Suddenly, the sky got black. The wind began blowing. Big drops of rain started to fall. Steve and Ann ran inside their house. Mom turned on all the lamps. Steve and Ann sat down to read their books. Crash! Bang! The thunder was loud and scary! The children were afraid. Then the lights went out! It was dark inside the house. The rain beat on the windows. Mom knew just what to do. She found a flashlight and candles. She made a fire in the fireplace. She asked Steve and Ann to pretend that they lived long ago. In those days, homes were lit by candles and oil lamps. Steve and Ann liked to pretend. They were so excited that they forgot to be afraid. 136

Comprehension Why were the children afraid? What did Mom do that helped them feel better?
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Practice Reproducible 195

LESSON

99

Fluency

Reading at Grade-Level Expectations
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Say: I will measure how many words you read correctly in a minute. I will do this to make sure you are becoming better readers. I will measure by timing you as you read aloud. Then I will count the number of words you have read correctly. Grade-Level Expectations Use this chart to set goals for each child. (Note that fluency before mid-Grade 1 is assessed with sounds, letters, and words rather than connected text.) The goal for all children is to read at or above the 50th percentile.

2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data (Hasbrouck & Tindal)
Grade Percentile 90 75 1 50 25 10 90 75 50 25 10 90 75 50 25 10 106 79 51 25 11 128 99 71 44 21 Fall WCPM* Winter WCPM* 81 47 23 12 6 125 100 72 42 18 146 120 92 62 36 Spring WCPM* 111 82 53 28 15 142 117 89 61 31 162 137 107 78 48 Avg. Weekly Improvement** 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.0 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.8

2

3

* WCPM = Words Correct Per Minute

** Average words per week growth

Recording Progress Say: With practice, you can get better and reach these goals. Try reading the same story or passage many times and charting your progress. Explain how to use the Progress Chart on page 211. (See Lesson 5: Timed Reading, on pages 10–11.)

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL99. Have children practice. Time their reading for a minute. Circle words read incorrectly. Mark the last word read on your copy. Count the number of words read correctly. Record results on the graph. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
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APPLY
Repeated Reading Use “Seasons Change” to help children improve their reading rate. Have them read to a partner and time them again. Record their progress.
196 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL99

Reading at Grade-Level Expectations
Seasons Change
9 19 28 36 45 49 57 65 73 85 89 97 107 118 122 131 138
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Damon and Keisha live in the state of Maine. They like the change of seasons. In winter it is cold. Sometimes it snows. The snow stays on the ground for weeks! Keisha likes to go ice-skating on the frozen pond. Damon sleds down the big hill in the park. Spring comes in late March. Days get warmer. The trees have buds and green leaves grow. Damon and Keisha help Dad plant the garden. A bird makes a nest in a tree in their yard. Soon baby birds will hatch. Summer begins in June. School is out! Damon and Keisha have lots of time to play with friends. It is fun to swim in the lake. Their family goes camping for a week. In fall it is cooler. Leaves change color. The family goes apple-picking. Damon and Keisha love the change of seasons! 143

Comprehension How are the seasons where you live the same as where Damon and Keisha live? How are they different? What do you like to do during different seasons of the year?

Practice Reproducible 197

LESSON

100
Fluency

Chunking Text
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Explain that when good readers read aloud, they group words together in the way they would if they were speaking. A good reader “chunks” sentences into meaningful phrases and reads each phrase without pausing. • Say: You can chunk sentences into phrases that tell who or what the sentence is about. Write: The dog chased the cat. A little boy ran fast. Model reading each sentence, pointing to each underlined phrase and reading it without pausing. • Say: You can chunk sentences into phrases that tell what happens or what someone or something is or does. Then use the same routine to model reading these sentences: A little boy ran fast. That child is happy. • Say: You can use words such as and, or, or but to chunk sentences into phrases. Then use the same routine to model reading these sentences: She ran, and he biked. The cat chased a mouse, but the cat didn’t catch it. • Say: You can also chunk sentences into phrases that tell when or where something happens. Then use the same routine to model reading these sentences: Tad sat under the tree. (where) Pat had a bath in the morning. (when) Rereading a Sentence Remind children that readers sometimes have to stop at a hard word. They might have to think about what the word means. They might have to break this word into syllables and read it sound by sound. After figuring out the hard word, children should go back and reread the entire sentence again.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL100. Have children note the underlined words. Explain that they will listen to how you read these words without pausing. Echo Reading Read “From Here to There” one line at a time, and have children echo-read it. Point out that you read the underlined words without pausing.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions. Then discuss the questions as a group.

APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading the poem “From Here to There” aloud to each other. Remind them to look at the underlined words and find other words that can be grouped together or chunked. Point out that they should read these phrases without pausing. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
198 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL100

Chunking Text
From Here to There
8 15 25 34 40 47 53 61 68 73 81 89

Going from here to there is really fun! My sister crawls, but my brother runs runs. My friend rides her bike to my house to play. My mom and dad drive their cars every day. You see buses, trucks, and planes planes. Dad rides to work on two trains trains. Under the ground chugs the subway, But to ride in it, you must pay. it What else goes from place to place place? Rocket ships go into space. A ship can take you across the sea. sea. We ride in a wagon, you and me. wagon,

Do you wish you could ride in a balloon, 98 Or fly in a plane above clouds one day soon? 108 Do you wish you were big and could drive a car? car 119 Whatever you choose, from here to there is not far. far
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129

Comprehension Which have you used to get from here to there? Which way do you like best? Why?

Practice Reproducible 199

LESSON

101
Fluency

Phrasing: Subjects and Predicates
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Subjects and Predicates Tell children that sentences have two parts: a part that tells who or what the sentence is about and a part that tells what a person, animal, or thing is or does. Explain that understanding these two parts of a sentence can help children chunk a sentence into phrases. Write these sentences on the board, and model reading them aloud. The clock ticks loudly. A white pig grunts. My sister Jan is sad.

• Say: There are three sentences here. One part of each sentence is the subject. It tells
who or what the sentence is about. [Underline The clock, A white pig, My sister Jan.] Note that the subject can include describing words.

• Then say: The other word or words tell what a person, animal, or thing is or does.
[Circle ticks loudly, grunts, is sad.] These are called the predicate of the sentence. Model Using Slashes Draw a single slash and say that it marks a phrase. Draw a double slash on the board and say that it marks a sentence. Then write these sentences, and model using subjects and predicates to mark the different phrases. The fat green frog/ jumped.// The little fish/ swam away quickly.// Model reading the first sentence, pausing between the phrases. Pause again, and model reading the second sentence.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL101. Tell children that “The Park” is written twice. The top passage has slash marks to show which phrases to group together. The bottom passage has the same words without slash marks. Have them fold their paper so that one passage at a time shows. Choral Reading Read the marked version of “The Park” aloud with children. Remind them to keep their voices with yours. Model and point out that between each slash mark, good readers read the words smoothly and without pauses. Then have children practice with the unmarked version. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions.

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine to read “The Park” again, but now have children lead while you respond. Prompt children to explain how they read each phrase. Ask: Did you read each of the parts of a sentence without pausing? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.
200 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

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Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL101

Phrasing: Subjects and Predicates
Practice reading the top passage. Then read the bottom passage without the marks. The Park Tim’s family/ lives in the city.// Tim and his 9 mother/ like to go/ to the park.// The park/ has 19 trees, grass, and a pond.// Rows of flowers/ grow 28 beside the paths.// Many boys and girls/ play on 37 the playground.// Children/ swing, slide, climb, 43 and dig.// A little black dog/ chases the ducks.// 52 People/ come here/ to eat their lunch.// Mom/ sits 61 on a bench/ and reads a book.// Would you like 71 to go/ to Tim’s park?// 76 The Park Tim’s family lives in the city. Tim and his 9 mother like to go to the park. The park has trees, 20 grass, and a pond. Rows of flowers grow beside 29 the paths. Many boys and girls play on the 38 playground. Children swing, slide, climb, and dig. 45 A little black dog chases the ducks. People come 54 here to eat their lunch. Mom sits on a bench and 65 reads a book. Would you like to go to Tim’s park?
76

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Comprehension Describe Tim’s park. Why do you think he likes to go there?

Practice Reproducible 201

LESSON

102
Fluency

Phrasing: Conjunctions
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Conjunctions Explain that two sentences that tell about a similar idea can be connected by words such as and, but, or or. These connecting words are called conjunctions. Tell children that good readers pause at these words before reading the next sentence.

• Say: The word and joins things together. Write: I ate grapes, and I drank milk.
Underline and. Read the sentence aloud, pausing before the word and.

• Say: The word but signals a difference. Write: Yesterday was rainy, but today is
sunny. Underline but. Read the sentence aloud, pausing before the word but.

• Say: The word or signals a choice. Write: You can swim, or you can play with your
friends. Underline or. Read the sentence aloud, pausing before the word or. Model Using Slashes Draw a single slash on the board. Explain that children can use this to mark a phrase. Draw a double slash. Explain that they can use this to mark a sentence. Then write this sentence on the board, and model using conjunctions to chunk it. Mom cleans the bathtub,/ and Mom dusts the table.//

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL102. Tell children that “My Day Alone with Dad” is written twice. The top passage has slash marks to show readers which phrases to group together. Explain that the bottom passage has the same words but without slash marks. Have them fold their paper so that only one passage is showing at a time. Then ask them to circle the words and, but, and or. Oral Reading Model Model reading “My Day Alone with Dad.” After discussing the comprehension questions, discuss how sentences and ideas are combined using the words and, but, and or. Remind children to pause before the words and, but, and or. Then have them practice with the unmarked version. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

APPLY
Echo Reading Use the Echo Reading routine with “My Day Alone with Dad,” but now have children lead while you respond. Prompt them to explain how they read each phrase or sentence before you read it back to them. Ask: Did you pause before each and, but, and or? What kinds of words did you read together? Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

202 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL102

Phrasing: Conjunctions
Practice reading the top passage. Then read the bottom passage without the marks. My Day Alone with Dad
9 18 27 36 47 58 68

Dad works hard/ all week,/ but he spends/ time with me/ on Saturday.// We take trash/ to the dump,/ and we shop/ for food.// Then it’s time/ to do something fun.// Dad says,/ “We can go/ to the park,/ or we can go/ to the toy store.”// I choose the park,/ but first I write/ a note to Mom.// It says,/ “We are at the park,/ and we will fly/ my new kite.” 73

My Day Alone with Dad
9 19 29 39 51
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

64

Dad works hard all week, but he spends time with me on Saturday. We take trash to the dump, and we shop for food. Then it’s time to do something fun. Dad says, “We can go to the park, or we can go to the toy store.” I choose the park, but first I write a note to Mom. It says, “We are at the park, and we will fly my new kite.” 73

Comprehension What does this boy do with his dad? What do you like to do with someone in your family?

Practice Reproducible 203

LESSON

103
Fluency

Phrasing: Prepositions
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Prepositions Explain that some sentences have phrases, or groups of words, that tell more about the naming part and action part of the sentence. These phrases often tell more about where or when. The word that begins this phrase is a preposition. Explain that children can use prepositions to chunk a sentence into phrases.

• Write: Jack walked to school. Underline to. Say: Some prepositions tell more about
where. The preposition to tells where Jack walked. Repeat with Jack sat at his desk.

• Write: Jack went home after school. Underline after. Say: Some prepositions tell
more about when. The preposition after tells when Jack went home. Repeat with Jack played catch before dinner.

• Say: Some prepositions tell more about when in some sentences and more about
where in other sentences. Repeat the routine with these sentences: The milk is in the cup. I ate in the morning. Model Using Slashes Draw a single slash on the board. Explain that children can use this to mark a phrase. Draw a double slash. Explain that they can use this to mark a sentence. Then write these sentences, and model using prepositions to chunk them. I jumped/ on my bike.// Then I rode my bike/ for the first time.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL103. Tell children that “The Race” is written twice. The top passage has slash marks to show which phrases to chunk. The bottom passage has the same words but without slash marks. Have children fold their paper so only one passage at a time shows. Echo Reading Read “The Race” aloud with children. Read one sentence at a time from the marked copy and have children echo-read it. Point out that the words in phrases that tell where and when about a sentence should be read smoothly without pausing. Then have children practice with the unmarked version. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions.

APPLY
Partner Reading Have partners practice reading “The Race” aloud. First have them read the marked version. Then have them each read the entire fable twice, first with the marked version and second without pauses indicated. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

204 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL103

Phrasing: Prepositions
Practice reading the top passage. Then read the bottom passage without the marks. The Race
8 18 26 37 45 55 62 71

Turtle/ walks slowly/ to the pond.// Rabbit/ hops by.// He brags,/ “I can beat Turtle/ in any race.”// Skunk/ makes a race path.// The path goes/ beside the river.// It goes/ up a big hill The race/ hill.// starts/ at three o’clock.// “Go,” says Skunk.// Soon Rabbit is/ far ahead.// He takes a nap/ under a tree.// Turtle passes Rabbit.// Rabbit wakes up!// “It’s too late to win,” Rabbit sobs.// All shout,/ “Hooray for Turtle,/ who never gave up!” 78

The Race
9 18 27 39
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

48 56 64 73

Turtle walks slowly to the pond. Rabbit hops by. He brags, “I can beat Turtle in any race.” Skunk makes a race path. The path goes beside the river. It goes up a big hill. The race starts at three o’clock. “Go,” says Skunk. Soon Rabbit is far ahead. He takes a nap under a tree. Turtle passes Rabbit. Rabbit wakes up! “It’s too late to win,” Rabbit sobs. All shout, “Hooray for Turtle, who never gave up!” 78

Comprehension Why did Turtle win the race? What lesson could you learn from this fable?

Practice Reproducible 205

LESSON

104
Fluency

Phrasing: Prepositions
TEACH/MODEL
Introduce Prepositions Explain that some sentences have phrases, or groups of words, that tell more about the naming part and action part of the sentence. These phrases often tell more about where or when. The word that begins this phrase is a preposition. Explain that children can use prepositions to chunk a sentence into phrases.

• Write: The bird flew toward the tree. Underline toward. Say: Some prepositions tell
more about where. The preposition toward tells where the bird flew.

• Write: Birds sang during morning Underline during. Say: Some prepositions tell morning.
more about when. The preposition during tells when the birds sang.

• Then say: Sometimes more than one of these kinds of phrases may be in the same
sentence. Write these examples on the board. Underline the two prepositional phrases: My pet bird has been at our house for two months. Model Using Slashes Draw a single slash to mark a phrase. Draw a double slash to mark a sentence. Then write these sentences, and model using prepositions to chunk them: We hung a bird feeder/ on a branch/ of the oak tree. // In winter,/ many birds come/ to our bird feeder.

GUIDED PRACTICE
Practice Reproducible Distribute Practice Reproducible FL104. Tell children that “If I Were Afraid” is written twice. The top passage has slash marks to show which phrases to group together. Explain that the bottom passage has the same words but without slash marks. Have them fold their paper so that only one passage is showing at a time. Choral Reading Read the play “If I Were Afraid” aloud with children. Remind children to keep their voices with yours, especially when reading the two underlined phrases in many sentences. Pause briefly after reading the name indicating who is speaking. Then have children practice with the unmarked version. Comprehension Have partners discuss the comprehension questions.

APPLY
Readers Theater There are six character parts in “If I Were Afraid.” Have each child choose one or more parts to read aloud. Have them practice reading together. Remind them to read where and when phrases without pausing. Additional passages for different fluency levels can be found in the Fluency Assessment Book.

206 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL104

Phrasing: Prepositions
Practice reading the top passage. Then read the bottom passage without the marks. If I Were Afraid
9 16 24 32 40 49 57 66

Sun asked a question/ of some animals/ on the land/ and in the air and sea.// Sun: What do you do when you are afraid?// Cat: I run/ under the bush/ by the house.// Bee: I fly/ to my hive/ on the tree.// Ant: I crawl/ into my ant hill/ in the grass.// Fish: I hide/ behind the seaweed/ in the water.// Dog: I find/ a friend.// My friend/ tells me,/ “Don’t be afraid.”// After that,/ I’m no longer/ afraid.// 74

If I Were Afraid
9 16 24 32
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

40 49 57 66

Sun asked a question of some animals on the land and in the air and sea. Sun: What do you do when you are afraid? Cat: I run under the bush by the house. Bee: I fly to my hive on the tree. Ant: I crawl into my ant hill in the grass. Fish: I hide behind the seaweed in the water. Dog: I find a friend. My friend tells me, “Don’t be afraid.” After that, I’m no longer afraid. 74

Comprehension What did these animals do when they were afraid? Which way is the best?

Practice Reproducible 207

LESSON

105
Fluency

Review
PREPARING THE REVIEW

• Make one copy of the review for each child. • Write the child’s name and today’s date at the top of the review.
ADMINISTERING THE REVIEW

• Administer the review to one child at a time. Explain to the child that he or •
she is to read each sentence. Listen for correct phrasing, voice intonation, and fluency. Follow these instructions for each item. The lesson in which each fluency skill was taught is indicated in parentheses. 1. Child should pause at the end of the sentence. (Lesson 95) 2. Child should pause at commas. (Lesson 96) 3. Child should read phrases without pauses. (Lesson 100) 4. Child should use subjects and predicates to chunk text. (Lesson 101) 5. Child should use conjunctions to chunk text. (Lesson 102) 6–7. Child should use prepositions to chunk text. (Lessons 103–104)

SCORING THE REVIEW

• For each section of the review, total the number of sentences read correctly.
Assign two points to each line. Use the rubric below. 2 points 1 point 0 points Child demonstrates full mastery of the skill. Child demonstrates some mastery of the skill. Child demonstrates no mastery of the skill.

• Use the Percentage Table below to identify a percentage. Children should get
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

at least 80 percent correct. Analyze each child’s errors. Reteach skills which the child has not mastered.

Percentage Table
13–14 correct 12 correct 10–11 correct 9 correct 7–8 correct 90%–100% 80%–89% 70%–79% 60%–69% 50%–59% 6 5 3–4 2 0–1 correct correct correct correct correct 40%–49% 30%–39% 20%–29% 10%–19% 0%–9%

208 Fluency Intervention: Section 10

Name

Date

Practice Reproducible FL1 FL105

Prosody and Pacing Review
1. The teacher asked James a question. She asked him about his favorite animals. 2. James told her that he liked frogs, ants, and snakes. 3. James knows some facts about snakes. Snakes never close their eyes, and they can smell well. 4. A black snake shed its skin. James found the skin in the woods. 5. Most snakes live on land, but a few snakes live in water. James looks for snakes in the woods, or he finds them in the garden. 6. All snakes hatch from eggs. Some snakes lay eggs in rotting logs and stumps. 7. Some snakes sleep all winter in holes under the ground. They come out in spring to find food and a mate.

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Practice Reproducible 209

2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data (Hasbrouck & Tindal)
Grade Percentile 90 75 Fall WCPM* Winter WCPM* 81 47 23 12 6 106 79 51 25 11 128 99 71 44 21 145 119 94 68 45 166 139 110 85 61 177 153 127 98 68 125 100 72 42 18 146 120 92 62 36 166 139 112 87 61 182 156 127 99 74 195 167 140 111 82 Spring WCPM* 111 82 53 28 15 142 117 89 61 31 162 137 107 78 48 180 152 123 98 72 194 168 139 109 83 204 177 150 122 93 Avg. Weekly Improvement** 1.9 2.2 1.9 1.0 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.1 0.6 1.1 1.2 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

1

50 25 10 90 75

2

50 25 10 90 75

3

50 25 10 90 75

4

50 25 10 90 75

5

50 25 10 90 75

6

50 25 10

*WCPM = Words Correct Per Minute

**Average words per week growth

210 Fluency Intervention

Progress Chart
Beginning Date: Ending Date: Book: Number of Words Correctly Read in One Minute:

200 190 180 170 160 Words Correct Per Minute
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

150 140 130 120 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1 2 3 4 5 Number of Trials

2005 Oral Reading Fluency Data/Progress Chart 211

Sound-Spelling Cards Chart
Card Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz apple bat camel dolphin egg fire guitar hippo insect jump koala lemon map nest octopus piano queen rose sun turtle umbrella volcano window box yo-yo zipper Sound /a/ (short a) /b/ /k/ /d/ /e/ (short e) /f/ /g/ /h/ /i/ (short i) /j/ /k/ /l/ /m/ /n/ /o/ (short o) /p/ /k/ /kw/qu /r/ /s/ /t/ /u/ (short u) /v/ /w/ /ks/ /y/ /z/ a b c d e f g h_ i j k l m n o p qu_ r s t u v w_ _x y_ z _s wr_ ce_ _ed ci_
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

English Spellings

k _ed ea ph

_ck

_dge c _le

_ge _ck

gi_

kn_

gn_

212 Fluency Intervention

Card Number 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Sound /th/ (path) /TH/ (the) /sh/ /ch/ /hw/ /ng/ /ā/ (long a) /ī/ (long i) /ō/ (long o) /ū/ (long u)
also written as /yoo/

English Spellings th sh ch wh_ _ng a i o u e ar er or ou oi oo oo au air u_e aw are ear ere u _ew _ui_ ou ir oar ow oy ur ore ai_ i_e o_e u_e e_e ee a_e igh oa_ _ew ea _y _ay y _ow _ue _ey _ie ea _ie _oe ei _tch

thumb shell cheese whale sing train five boat cube tree star shirt corn cow boy book spoon straw chair

/ē/ (long e) /är/
r-controlled vowel

/ûr/
r-controlled vowel

/ôr/
r-controlled vowel

/ou/
diphthong

41 42 43 44 45

/oi/
diphthong

/u / ˙
variant vowel
also written as /oo/

/ü/
variant vowel
also written as /oo/

/ô/
variant vowel

/âr/
variant vowels

Sound-Spelling Cards Chart 213

English Learners: Phonics Transfer Issues
Sound Transfer (Phonology)
The symbol • identifies areas in which these primary language speakers may have some difficulty pronouncing and perceiving spoken English. The sound may not exist in the primary language, may exist but be pronounced somewhat differently, or may be confused with another sound. Sound production and perception issues impact phonics instruction.
E SE H CR AIT EO IA LE N SH ES NG NE AN ER KH M

SP AN I

CA NT O

NA

HM

VI

ET

/b/ as in bat /k/ as in cat and kite /d/ as in dog /f/ as in fan /g/ as in goat /h/ as in hen /j/ as in jacket /l/ as in lemon

• • • • • •

• • • • •

KO

RE

SOUND

M

O

• • • • • •

Consonants

/m/ as in money /n/ as in nail /p/ as in pig /r/ as in rabbit /s/ as in sun /t/ as in teen /v/ as in video /w/ as in wagon /y/ as in yo-yo
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • •

/z/ as in zebra /kw/ as in queen /ks/ as in X-ray short a as in hat

Short Vowels

short e as in set short i as in sit short o as in hot short u as in cup

• • •

214 Fluency Intervention

E

SE

H CR AIT EO IA LE N

SH

ES

NG

NE

AN

SP AN I

RE

CA NT O

NA

HM

VI

ET

long a as in date

Long Vowels

long e as in be long i as in ice long o as in road long u as in true

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • •

KO

• • • •

Vowel Patterns

oo as in book

aw as in saw

Diphthongs

oy as in boy

ow as in how ir as in bird

ar as in hard or as in form air as in hair ear as in hear

Consonant Digraphs

sh as in shoe ch as in chain th as in think ng as in sing bl, tr, dr, etc. (start of words) as in black, tree, dress ld, nt, rt, etc. (end of words) as in cold, tent, start

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • •

• • • • •

KH

SOUND

M

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

r-Controlled Vowels

• •

• •

Consonant Blends

English Learners: Phonics Transfer Issues 215

M

O

ER

• • • • • • •

English Learners: Phonics Transfer Issues
Sound-Symbol Transfer (Phonics)
The following chart identifies sound-symbol transfer issues for four languages that use the roman alphabet. (The remaining three do not.) The symbol • identifies symbols which do not represent the corresponding sound in the writing system of the primary language.
SOUND-SYMBOLS b as in bat c as in cat as in cent d as in dog f as in fish g as in goat as in giant h as in hen j as in jacket k as in kite SPANISH VIETNAMESE HMONG HAITIAN CREOLE

• •

• • • • •

• • •

Consonants

• •

l as in lemon m as in moon n as in nice p as in pig qu as in queen r as in rabbit s as in sun t as in teen v as in video w as in wagon x as in X-ray y as in yo-yo z as in zebra

• • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • •

Consonant Digraphs

sh as in shoe ch as in chair th as in think as in that

• •

216 Fluency Intervention

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

SOUND-SYMBOLS a as in bat aCe as in date ai as in rain ay as in day au as in author aw as in saw e as in bet ee as in seed ea as in tea ew as in few i as in sit

SPANISH

VIETNAMESE

HMONG

HAITIAN CREOLE

Vowels and Vowel Patterns

iCe as in pipe o as in hot o as in rode oo as in moon oo as in book oa as in boat ow as in row ow as in how ou as in sound oi as in boil oy as in boy u as in cup uCe as in June

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

ui as in suit ue as in blue y as in try ar as in star er as in fern ir as in bird or as in torn ur as in burn

English Learners: Phonics Transfer Issues 217

Reading Big Words
1. Look for the word parts (prefixes) at the beginning of the word. 2. Look for the word parts (suffixes) at the end of the word. 3. In the base word, look for familiar spelling patterns. Think about the six syllable-spelling patterns you have learned. 4. Sound out and blend together the word parts. 5. Say the word parts fast. Adjust your pronunciation as needed. Ask yourself: “Is it a real word?” “Does it make sense in the sentence?”

218 Fluency Intervention

© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

Six Basic Syllable Spelling Patterns Chart
(Moats, 1995)

1.

closed: These syllables end in a consonant. The vowel sound is generally short (examples: rabbit, napkin).

2.

open: These syllables end in a vowel. The vowel sound is generally long (examples: tiger, pilot).

3.

vowel-silent e (VCe): These syllables generally represent longvowel sounds (examples: compete, decide).

4.

vowel team: Many vowel sounds are spelled with vowel digraphs such as ai, ay, ea, ee, oa, ow, oo, oi, oy, ou, ie, and ei. The vowel digraphs appear in the same syllable (examples: boat, explain).

5.
© Macmillan/McGraw-Hill

r-controlled: When a vowel is followed by r, the letter r affects the sound of the vowel. The vowel and the r appear in the same syllable (examples: bird, turtle).

6.

consonant + le: Usually when le appears at the end of a word and is preceded by a consonant, the consonant + le form the final syllable (examples: table, little).

Reading Big Words/Six Basic Syllable Spelling Patterns Chart 219

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