This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Include their functions in your essay, but focus on how their chemical structure promotes a human cell and a human body to function. a. carbohydrates b. lipids c. proteins a. carbohydrates Carbohydrates are classified into three groups : 1. monosaccharide - simplest kind of carbohydrate and consists of a single sugar molecule, such as fructose of glucose. - Each simple sugar has a cyclic structure and is composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in ratios of 1:2:1 respectively. 2. Disaccharide - consists of two sugar molecules joined by a glycosidic linkage. During this link process, a water molecule is lost. -glucose + fructose = sucrose (common table sugar) - glucose + galactose = lactose (the sugar in milk) - glucose + glucose = maltose 3. Polysaccharide - consists of a series of connected monosaccharides. Thus, a polysaccharide is a polymer because it consists of repeating units of monosaccharide. - Examples of polysaccharides : 1. Starch- a polymer of alpha glucose molecules. It is the principal energy storage molecule in plant cells. 2. Glycogen- a polymer of alpha glucose. It differs from starch by its pattern of polymer branching. It is a major energy storage molecule in animal cells. 3. Cellulose a polymer of beta glucose molecules. It serves as a structural molecule in the walls of plant cells and is the major component of wood. 4. Chitin a polymer similar to cellulose, but each beta glucose molecule has a nitrogencontaining group attached to the ring. It serves as a structural molecule in the walls of fungus cells and in the exoskeletons of insects, other arthropods, and mollusks. d. nucleotides e. steroids/hormones
all digestible polysaccharides. Lipids are a class of substances that are insoluble in water but are soluble in nonpolar substances. Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids attached to a glycerol molecule. - - Lipids ( do not dissolve in water) 1.Functions of Carbohydrates Carbohydrates are a good source of energy for the body Carbohydrates store energy in the form of starch in plants or glycogen in animals and humans. Fatty acids are hydrocarbons (chains of covalently bonded carbons and hydrogens) with a carboxyl group ( -COOH) at one end of the chain. c. disaccharides. Steroids i. Saturated fatty acid has a single covalent bond between each pair of carbon atoms. Monounsaturated fatty acid has one double covalent bond and each of the two carbons in this bond has only one hydrogen atom bonded to it. There are three major groups of lipids: a. and each carbon has two hydrogens bonded to it (three hydrogens bonded to the last carbnon). This means that a phospholipid is amphipathic. and monosaccharides must eventually be converted into glucose or a metabolite of glucose by various liver enzymes. The two other fatty acid tails of the phospholipid are nonpolar and hrydrophobic bur the phosphate head is polar and hrydrophilic.Examples of triglycerides are fats. monounsaturated. Because glucose is so important for cellular function. as it helps in the proper regulation of sugar into the blood stream to ensure that each and every cell is supplied with adequate amounts of carbohydrates. and polyunsaturated 1. blood glucose levels must be kept relatively constant. Forms structural components in cells and tissues. and waxes. There a three types of fatty acids: saturated. which means that it has both polar and nonpolar regions. Triglycerides. . ii. Think of each carbon is saturated with hydrogen 2. 3. growth. i. Glucose is the only sugar used by the body for its tissues. Phospholipid looks just like a lipid except that one of the fatty acid chains is replaced by a phosphate group. and development. Carbohydrates serve as a main shield and protector to the muscles. i. b. Characterized by a backbone of four linked carbon rings. oils. Polyunsaturated fatty acid a monounsaturated fatty acid except that there are two or more double covalent bonds. This means that eventually. Carbohydrates help cell fertilization.
Proteins 1) Proteins can be grouped according to their functions. . e. ovalbumin in egg whites. Fat is obviously important for humans and animals because it insulates them from the cold. Lipids are also major components of nerve cells. and a hydrogen atom. carbohydrates create the energy but the lipids store the energy for future purposes. d. a) Structural proteins examples of a structural proteins are keratin in the hair and horns of animals.these regulate the rate of chemical reactions. Lipids form the membrane of body cells. Lipids are the molecules that make up fats and oils. and zein in corn seeds. but the structures are similar. The fourth bond of the central carbon is shown with the letter R (for radical). e) Enzymes (most important protein). This lipid layer keeps bad things from entering the cell and it is semi-permeable. hormones. is made up of a bilayer of lipids. Functions of lipids a. d) Defensive proteins examples of these proteins are antibodies that procide protection against foreign substances that enter the bodies of animals. More about the lipid bilayer membrane: it holds the cell together and keeps organelles safely inside the cell. ii) Proteins differ from another by the number and arrangement of the twenty different amino acids. which means that they consist of a chain of amino acids covalently bonded. also known as the plasma membrane. 2) There might be many functions of proteins. 3) There are four different structures of a protein. b. They serve as important energy reserves in plants and animals. a carboxyl group (-COOH). The R indicates an atom or group of atoms that varies from one kind of amino acid to another.2. Each amino acid has a central carbon atom. (1) Each amino acid consists of a central carbon bonded to an amino group (-NH2). a) The primary structure This structure describes the order of amino acids. and cell membranes. b) Secondary Structure a three-dimensional shape that results from hydrogen bonding between the amino and carboxyl groups of adjacent amino acids. c. i) The bonds between the amino acids are called peptide bonds. a) All proteins are polymers of amino acids. In other words. collagen in connective tissues. The membrane. b) Storage proteins Example: casein in milk. and the chain is a polypeptide or peptide. There are three groups of atoms bound to this carbon. This means that it can select what enter and what doesn t. and silk in spider webs. c) Transport Proteins these proteins are in the membranes of cells and they transport materials into and out of cells and as oxygen-carrying hemoglobin in red blood cells.
RNA molecules are made up of long strings of nucleotides. d) Quaternary structure describes a protein that is assembled from two or more separate peptide chains. however. 4) Functions of Proteins a) Proteins hold your skin together and help give your bones their strength. d) Proteins can be used as a source of energy. Steroids/ hormones 1) Steroids are characterized by a backbone of four linked carbon rings. and lipid hormones play a huge role in regulating metabolism. (pyrimidine) i) Pyrimidines are single ring bases and purines are double-ring bases. The nucleotides in RNA. b) Proteins in our red blood cells bind to oxygen so that our blood can transport oxygen through our bodies. 4) As a result. including testosterone and estrogen.c) Tertiary structure includes additional three-dimensional shaping and often dominates the structure of globular proteins. 4) Nucleotides in RNA a) Like DNA. b) RNA nucleotides contain a five-carbon sugar called ribose instead of the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose found in DNA. 2) Examples of steroids include cholesterol and certain hormones. 3) Functions of Nucleotides a) They make us the structural units of DNA and RNA.a single ring base (pyrimidine) b) Adenine. are different from the nucleotides in DNA. e) Most important ! Proteins control the chemical reactions in our body. 3) Hormones are a type of lipid. Nucleotides 1) Nucleotides of DNA have three parts a) Phosphate group b) A five-carbon sugar called deoxyribose c) A nitrogen-containing base 2) There are four types of nucleotides in DNA (a polymer of nucleotides) a) Thymine. c) RNa nucleotides have a nitrogen base called uracil instead of T. Hormones act as chemical messengers to the body. They also play a part in metabolism. a lack of lipids in the body would deter sexual maturation or sexual health. . c) Proteins help to fight diseases.a double-ring base (purine) c) Guanine.a double-ring base (purine) d) Cytosine a single ring base.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.