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CastinPlace Flat Slab Bridge Design
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2202 N. West Shore Blvd., Suite 250
Tampa, FL 33607
(813) 2822300
Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 3.03
Bent 2 Cap Design 3.02
Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 3.01
Section 3: SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Expansion Joint Design 2.05
Edge Beam Design 2.04
Edge Beam Design Loads 2.03
Flat Slab Design 2.02
Design Loads 2.01
Section 2: SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Design Parameters 1.03
General Notes 1.02
About this LRFD Flat Slab Bridge Design Example 1.01
Section 1: PROJECT INFORMATION
Cover Table of Contents
LRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE:
CASTINPLACE FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DESIGN
LRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE Table of Contents 1 of 1
Since this example is presented in a Mathcad document, a user can alter assumptions,
constants, or equations to create a customized application.
Load rating is not addressed.
Permit vehicles are not considered.
No sidewalks.
Two traffic railing barriers and one median barrier.
No phased construction.
30 degree skew
Three span continuous @ 35'0" each for a total of 105'0" bridge length
The following assumptions have been incorporated in the example:
Intermediate bent cap design
Expansion Joint design
Edge Beam design
Solid c.i.p. slab design
The example includes the following component designs:
This document provides guidance for the design of a castinplace flat slab bridge.
Description
About this Design Example
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.01 About this Design Example 1
The materials in this document are only for general information purposes. This document is not a substitute for
competent professional assistance. Anyone using this material does so at his or her own risk and assumes any
resulting liability.
Notice
The Tampa office of HDR Engineering, Inc. prepared this document for the Florida Department of
Transportation.
Acknowlegements
GPa 1 10
9
⋅ Pa ⋅ ≡ MPa 1 10
6
⋅ Pa ⋅ ≡
°F 1deg ≡ ksi
kip
in
2
≡
ksf
kip
ft
2
≡ klf
kip
ft
≡
psi
lbf
in
2
≡ pcf
lbf
ft
3
≡
psf
lbf
ft
2
≡ plf
lbf
ft
≡
kN 1000 newton ⋅ ≡ N newton ≡
Definitions for some common structural engineering units:
ton 2000 lbf ⋅ ≡ kip 1000 lbf ⋅ ≡
All calculations in this electronic book use U.S. customary units. The user can take advantage of Mathcad's unit
conversion capabilities to solve problems in MKS or CGS units. Although Mathcad has several builtin units,
some common structural engineering units must be defined. For example, a lbf is a builtin Mathcad unit, but a
kip or ton is not. Therefore, a kip and ton are globally defined as:
Defined Units
Florida Department of Transportation Structures Detailing Manual for LRFD, 1999 Edition.
Florida Department of Transportation Structures LRFD Design Guidelines, January 2003 Edition.
AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications, 2nd Edition, 2002 Interims.
Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction
(2000 edition) and applicable modifications.
The example utilizes the following design standards:
Standards
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.01 About this Design Example 2
All dimensions are in feet or inches, except as noted. Dimensions........................
Concrete cover does not include reinforcement placement or fabrication
tolerances, unless shown as "minimum cover". See FDOT Standard
Specifications for allowable reinforcement placement tolerances.
Substructure
External surfaces exposed 3"
External surfaces cast against earth 4"
Prestressed Piling 3"
Superstructure
Top deck surfaces 2" (Short bridge)
All other surfaces 2"
Concrete Cover.................
ASTM A615, Grade 60 Reinforcing Steel..............
The superstructure is classified as slightly aggressive.
The substructure is classfied as moderately aggressive.
Environment......................
Class Minimum 28day Compressive
Strength (psi) Location
II f`c = 3400 Traffic Barriers
II (Bridge Deck) f`c = 4500 CIP Flat Slab
IV f`c = 5500 CIP Substructure
V (Special) f`c = 6000 Concrete Piling
Concrete............................
Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only [SDG 2.3.1]. Earthquake........................
Design provides allowance for 15 psf Future Wearing Surface...
HL93 Truck Design Loading.................
Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) except that Prestressed Piles have
been designed for Service Load.
Design Method.................
General Notes
PROJECT INFORMATION
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.02 General Notes 3
D1. Intermediate Bent Geometry
D. Substructure 16
C5. Miscellaneous
C4. Chapter 6  Superstructure Components
C3. Chapter 4  Superstructure Concrete
C2. Chapter 2  Loads and Load Factors
C1. Chapter 1  General requirements
C. Florida Criteria 11
B3. Limit States [LRFD 1.3.2]
B2. Resistance Factors [LRFD 5.5.4.2]
B1. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2]
B. LRFD Criteria
8
A3. Concrete, Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties
A2. Number of Lanes
A1. Bridge Geometry
A. General Criteria 5
Page Contents
This section provides the design input parameters necessary for the superstructure and substructure design.
Description
Design Parameters
PROJECT INFORMATION
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 4
A. General Criteria
This section provides the general layout and input parameters for the bridge example.
In addition, the bridge is also on a skew which is defined as:
Skew Angle......................... Skew 30 − deg :·
A1. Bridge Geometry
Horizontal Profile
A slight horizontal curvature is shown in the plan view. For all component designs, the horizontal curvature will
be taken as zero.
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 5
Vertical Profile
Overall bridge length............. L
bridge
105 ft ⋅ ≡
Bridge design span length...... L
span
35 ft ⋅ :· (Note: For unsymmetric
spans, use average span
length)
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 6
E
s
29000 ksi ⋅ :·
Modulus of elasticity for
reinforcing steel...................
γ
conc
150 pcf ⋅ :· Unit weight of concrete.........
A3. Concrete, Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties
N
lanes
3 ·
N
lanes
floor
Rdwy
width
12 ft ⋅

.
`
,
:·
Number of design traffic lanes
per roadway.........................
Rdwy
width
42 ft ⋅ :· Roadway clear width............
Current lane configurations show two striped lanes per roadway with a traffic median barrier separating the
roadways. Using the roadway clear width between barriers, Rdwy
width
, the number of design traffic lanes per
roadway, N
lanes
, can be calculated as:
Design Lanes
A2. Number of Lanes
W
bridge
89.0833 ft ⋅ :· Overall bridge width.............
Typical Crosssecton
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 7
Load combinations which place restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck. It is
intended to limit crack growth under repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge.
FATIGUE LIMIT STATE
Load combinations which place restrictions on stress, deformation, and crack width under regular
service conditions.
SERVICE LIMIT STATE
Load combinations which ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood, or
when collided by a vessel, vehicle, or ice flow, possibly under scoured conditions. Extreme event limit
states are considered to be unique occurrences whose return period may be significantly greater than the
design life of the bridge.
EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES
Load combinations which ensures that strength and stability, both local and global, are provided to resist
the specified load combinations that a bridge is expected to experience in its design life. Extensive distress
and structural damage may occur under strength limit state, but overall structural integrity is expected to be
maintained.
STRENGTH LIMIT STATE
The LRFD defines a limit state as a condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the
provisions for which it was designed. There are four limit states prescribed by LRFD. These are as follows:
B3. Limit States [LRFD 1.3.2]
φ
v
0.90 :·
Shear and torsion of normal
weight concrete...................
φ 0.9 :·
Flexure and tension of
reinforced concrete..............
B2. Resistance Factors [LRFD 5.5.4.2]
IM 1
33
100
+ :·
Impact factor for all other limit
states..................................
IM
fatigue
1
15
100
+ :·
Impact factor for fatigue and
fracture limit states...............
An impact factor will be applied to the static load of the design truck or tandem, except for centrifugal and
braking forces.
B1. Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3.6.2]
The bridge components are designed in accordance with the following LRFD design criteria:
B. LRFD Criteria
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 8
Table 3.4.11  Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load
Combination
DC
DD
DW
LL
IM
CE
WA
WS
WL
FR
TU
CR
SH
TG
SE
Use One of These at a
Time
Limit State
EH
EV
ES
BR
PL
LS
EQ
IC
CT
CV
Strength I
yp
1.75
1.00


1.00
0.50/1.20
yTG
ySE




Strength II
y
p
1.35
1.00


1.00
0.50/1.20
y
TG
y
SE




Strength III
y
p

1.00
1.40

1.00
0.50/1.20
y
TG
y
SE




Strength IV
EH, EV, ES, DW,
and DC ONLY
yp
1.5

1.00


1.00
0.50/1.20






Strength V
y
p
1.35
1.00
0.40
0.40
1.00
0.50/1.20
y
TG
y
SE




Extreme Event I
y
p
y
EQ
1.00


1.00


1.00



Extreme Event II
y
p
0.50
1.00


1.00



1.00
1.00
1.00
Service I
1.00
1.00
1.00
0.30
1.00
1.00
1.00/1.20
yTG
ySE




Service II
1.00
1.30
1.00


1.00
1.00/1.20






Service III
1.00
0.80
1.00


1.00
1.00/1.20
y
TG
y
SE




Fatigue

0.75











Table 3.4.12  Load factors for permanent loads, y
p
B4. SpantoDepth Ratios in LRFD [2.5.2.6.3]
For continuous reinforced slabs with main reinforcement parallel to traffic
t
min
S 10 +
30
0.54 ft ⋅ ≥ =
Minimum slab thickness
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 9
Environmental Classifications [SDG 1.4]
Class Location
II (Bridge Deck) CIP Bridge Deck f
c.slab
4.5 ksi ⋅ :·
IV CIP Substructure f
c.sub
5.5 ksi ⋅ :·
V (Special) Concrete Piling f
c.pile
6.0 ksi ⋅ :·
Minimum 28day compressive strength of concrete components
cover
sub
3 in · cover
sub
4 in ⋅ Environment
sub
"Extremely" = if
3 in ⋅ otherwise
:·
Concrete cover for substructure not in contact with water
cover
slab
2 in · cover
slab
2 in ⋅ L
bridge
300ft < if
2.5 in ⋅ otherwise
:·
Concrete cover for the slab..
The concrete cover for the slab is based on either the environmental classification [SDG 1.4] or the type of
bridge [SDG 4.2.1].
Concrete and Environment [SDG 1.3]
This provision for deflection only is not applicable, since no pedestrian loading is applied in this bridge design
example.
Criteria for Deflection only [SDG 1.2]
Class II Concrete (Bridge Deck) will be used for all environmental classifications. •
Approach slabs are considered superstructure component. •
The design life for bridge structures is 75 years. •
General [SDG 1.1]
C1. Chapter 1  General Requirements
C. FDOT Criteria
t
slab
18 in ⋅ :· Thickness of flat slab chosen...........................................
t
min
18in · t
min
max
L
span
10 ft ⋅ +
30
0.54 ft ⋅ ,

.
`
,
:·
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 10
The traffic railing barriers and median barriers will be distributed equally over the full bridge crosssection.
Barrier / Railing Distribution for BeamSlab Bridges [SDG 2.8]
w
median.bar
486 plf ⋅ :· Weight of traffic railing median barrier..............................
w
barrier
421 plf ⋅ :· Weight of traffic railing barrier.........................................
ITEM UNIT LOAD
Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ FShape) Lb / ft 421
Traffic Railing Median Barrier, (32” F Shape) Lb / ft 486
Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 587
Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 385
Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ FShape) Lb / ft 624
Traffic Railing Barrier / Soundwall (Bridge) Lb / ft 1008
Concrete, Structural Lb / ft
3
150
Future Wearing Surface Lb / ft
2
15 *
Soil, Compacted Lb / ft
3
115
StayinPlace Metal Forms Lb / ft
2
20 **
* The Future Wearing Surface allowance applies only to minor widenings or
short bridges as defined in SDG Chapter 7.
** Unit load of metal forms and concrete required to fill the form flutes to be
applied over the projected plan area of the metal forms
Miscellaneous Loads [SDG 2.5]
Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only.
Seismic Provisions [SDG 2.3]
(Note: See Sect. C3 [SDG
4.2] for calculation of t
mill
).
ρ
mill
0 psf · ρ
mill
t
mill
γ
conc
⋅ :·
Weight of sacrificial milling surface, using t
mill
0 in ·
ρ
fws
15psf · ρ
fws
15 psf ⋅ L
bridge
300ft < if
0 psf ⋅ otherwise
:·
Weight of future wearing surface
Dead loads [SDG 2.2]
C2. Chapter 2  Loads and Load Factors
Environment
sub
"Moderately" ≡ Environmental classification for substructure.....................
Environment
super
"Slightly" ≡ Environmental classification for superstructure..................
The environment can be classified as either "Slightly", "Moderately" or "Extremely" agressive.
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 11
Concrete Deck Slabs [SDG 4.2]
Bridge length definition
BridgeType "Short" L
bridge
300ft < if
"Long" otherwise
:· BridgeType "Short" ·
Thickness of sacrificial milling surface
t
mill
0 in ⋅ L
bridge
300ft < if
0.5 in ⋅ otherwise

.
`
,
≡ t
mill
0 in ·
Slab thickness t
slab
18in ·
C4. Chapter 6  Superstructure Components
Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
Temperature
(Degrees Fahrenheit)
Structural Material
of Superstructure
Mean High Low Range
Concrete Only 70 95 45 50
Concrete Deck on Steel Girder 70 110 30 80
Steel Only 70 120 30 90
The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example.
Temperature mean.................................................... t
mean
70 °F ⋅ :·
C3. Chapter 4  Superstructure Concrete
General [SDG 4.1]
Correction factor for Florida limerock coarse aggregate φ
limerock
0.9 :·
Unit Weight of Florida limerock concrete w
c.limerock
145 pcf ⋅ :·
Yield strength of reinforcing steel f
y
60 ksi ⋅ :· Note: Epoxy coated reinforcing
not allowed on FDOT projects.
Modulus of elasticity for slab
E
c.slab
φ
limerock
1820 f
c.slab
ksi ⋅ ⋅
( )
⋅ :· E
c.slab
3475 ksi ·
Modulus of elasticity for substructure
E
c.sub
φ
limerock
1820 f
c.sub
ksi ⋅ ⋅
( )
⋅ :· E
c.sub
3841 ksi ·
Modulus of elasticity for piles
E
c.pile
φ
limerock
1820 f
c.pile
ksi ⋅ ⋅
( )
⋅ :· E
c.pile
4012 ksi ·
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 12
Minimum joint width at 70
o
F..................................... W
min
5
8
in ⋅ :·
Proposed joint width at 70
o
F..................................... W 1 in ⋅ :·
Movement [6.4.2]
For concrete structures, the movement is based on the greater of the following combinations:
Movement from the combination of temperature fall,
creep, and shrinkage................................................. ∆x
fall
∆x
temperature.fall
∆x
creep.shrinkage
+
... =
(Note: A temperature rise with creep and shrinkage
is not investigated since they have opposite effects).
Movement from factored effects of temperature.......... ∆x
rise
1.15 ∆x
temperature.rise
⋅ =
(Note: For concrete structures, the temperature rise
and fall ranges are the same.
∆x
fall
1.15 ∆x
temperature.fall
⋅ =
D. Substructure
D1. Bent 2 Geometry (Bent 3 similar)
Temperature high..................................................... t
high
95 °F ⋅ :·
Temperature low...................................................... t
low
45 °F ⋅ :·
Temperature rise
∆t
rise
t
high
t
mean
− :· ∆t
rise
25°F ·
Temperature fall
∆t
fall
t
mean
t
low
− :· ∆t
fall
25°F ·
Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD 5.4.2.2] for
normal weight concrete............................................ α
t
6 10
6 −
⋅
°F
:·
Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
For new construction, use only the joint types listed in the preceding table. A typical joint for C.I.P. flat slab
bridges is the silicone seal.
Maximum joint width................................................ W
max
2 in ⋅ :·
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 13
Depth of intermediate bent cap..... h 2.5 ft ⋅ :·
Width of intermediate bent cap..... b 3.5 ft ⋅ :·
Length of intermediate bent cap.... L 102.86 ft ⋅ :·
Pile Embedment Depth................ Pile
embed
12 in ⋅ :·
Pile Size.................................... Pile
size
18 in ⋅ :·
(N ote: For this design ex ample, only the intermediate bent will be evaluated).
Defined Units
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 14
C3. Limit State Moments and Shears
C2. Live Load Analysis
C1. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.6.2.3]
C. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2] 21
B. Dead Load Analysis 20
A. Input Variables 19
LRFD Criteria 18
Page Contents
This section provides the design loads for the flat slab superstructure
Description
Reference:G:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\103DsnPar.mcd(R)
References
Design Loads
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 17
Note:
LRFD Commentary C4.6.2.1.6 states that "past practice has been not to check shear in typical decks... It •
is not the intent to check shear in every deck." In addition, LRFD 5.14.4.1 states that for castinplace
slab superstructures designed for moment in conformance with LRFD 4.6.2.3, may be considered
satisfactory for shear.
For this design example, shear will not be investigated. From previous past experience, if the slab •
thickness is chosen according to satisfy LRFD minimum thickness requirements as per the slab to depth
ratios and designed utilizing the distribution strips, shear will not control. If special vehicles are used in the
design, shear may need to be investigated.
Fatigue 0.75 LL ⋅ =
Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a
single design truck.
FATIGUE 
Service1 1.0 DC ⋅ 1.0 DW ⋅ + 1.0 LL ⋅ + =
Creep and shrinkage is not evaluated in this design example. CR SH 0 = ,
For superstructure design, braking forces and wind on live load are not
applicable.
BR WL 0 = ,
Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
SERVICE I 
"Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example"
Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design
vehicles, evaluation permit vehicles, or both without wind.
STRENGTH II 
Strength1 1.25 DC ⋅ 1.50 DW ⋅ + 1.75 LL ⋅ + 0.50 TU CR + SH + ( ) ⋅ + =
No friction forces. FR 0 =
For superstructure design, water load and stream pressure are not
applicable.
WA 0 =
Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind. STRENGTH I 
LRFD Criteria
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 18
A. Input Variables
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
35 ft =
Thickness of superstructure slab.............. t
slab
18 in =
Milling surface thickness......................... t
mill
0 in =
Dynamic Load Allowance........................ IM 1.33 =
Bridge skew........................................... Skew 30 − deg =
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 19
B. Dead Load Analysis
There are numerous programs and charts that can be used to calculate the dead load moments on this type of
structure. For the dead load calculation, the influence line coordinates for a uniform load applied on the
structure is utilized. The influence coordinates are based on AISC's Moments, Shears and Reactions for
Continuous Highway Bridges, published 1966.
Bridge Length = 105 ft
Bridge Width = 89.0833 ft
# of Traf f ic Barriers = 2 each
# of Median Barriers = 1 each
No. of spans = 3 each
End Span Lengths = 35.000 ft
Interior Span Lengths = 35.000
Concrete Weight (DC) = 0.150 kcf
Traf f ic Railing Barrier (DC) = 0.418 klf
Median Barrier (DC) = 0.483 klf
Wearing Surf ace and/or f ws (DW) = 0.015 ksf
Barriers & Median (DC) = 0.0148 ksf = [(2 x 0.418 klf ) + (1 x 0.483 klf ) ] / 89.0833 f t = 0.0148 ksf
18 in = Thickness Bridge Slab (DC) = 0.225 ksf = 18 in. / 12) x 0.15 kcf = 0.225 ksf
Additional Misc Loads (DC) 0.000
Components & Attachments (DC) = 0.240 ksf = 0.0148 ksf + 0.225 ksf + 0 ksf = 0.24 ksf
span ratio = 1.00
Use tables 1.0 and 1.1
(From "Moments, Shears and Reactions f or Continuous Highway Bridges" published by AISC, 1966)
DC MOMENTS DW MOMENTS DC SHEARS DW SHEARS
Pt. AISC Table 1.0 1.1 (FTKIP/FT) (FTKIP/FT) (KIP/FT) (KIP/FT)
0
A 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.2
1
0.1 0.0350 0.0340 10.3 0.6 2.5 0.2
2 0.2 0.0600 0.0580 17.6 1.1 1.7 0.1
3 0.3 0.0750 0.0720 22.0 1.4 0.8 0.1
4
0.4 0.0800 0.0760 23.5 1.5 0.0 0.0
5
0.5 0.0750 0.0700 22.0 1.4 0.8 0.1
6 0.6 0.0600 0.0540 17.6 1.1 1.7 0.1
7 0.7 0.0350 0.0280 10.3 0.6 2.5 0.2
8
0.8 0.0000 0.0080 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.2
9 0.9 0.0450 0.0540 13.2 0.8 4.2 0.3
10 B 0.1000 0.1100 29.4 1.8 5.0 0.3
B 0.1000 0.1100 29.4 1.8 4.2 0.3
11
1.1 0.0550 0.0555 16.2 1.0 3.1 0.2
12 1.2 0.0200 0.0132 5.9 0.4 2.1 0.1
13 1.3 0.0050 0.0171 1.5 0.1 1.0 0.1
14
1.4 0.0200 0.0352 5.9 0.4 0.0 0.0
15
1.5 0.0250 0.0413 7.3 0.5 0.0 0.0
16 1.6 0.0200 0.0352 5.9 0.4 0.7 0.0
17 1.7 0.0050 0.0171 1.5 0.1 1.4 0.1
18
1.8 0.0200 0.0132 5.9 0.4 2.1 0.1
19 1.9 0.0550 0.0555 16.2 1.0 2.8 0.2
C 0.1000 0.1100 29.4 1.8 4.2 0.3
20
C 0.1000 0.1100 29.4 1.8 5.0 0.3
21
2.1 0.0450 0.0540 13.2 0.8 4.2 0.3
22 2.2 0.0000 0.0080 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.2
23 2.3 0.0350 0.0280 10.3 0.6 2.5 0.2
24
2.4 0.0600 0.0540 17.6 1.1 1.7 0.1
25
2.5 0.0750 0.0700 22.0 1.4 0.8 0.1
26 2.6 0.0800 0.0760 23.5 1.5 0.0 0.0
27 2.7 0.0750 0.0720 22.0 1.4 0.8 0.1
28
2.8 0.0600 0.0580 17.6 1.1 1.7 0.1
29 2.9 0.0350 0.0340 10.3 0.6 2.5 0.2
30
D 0.0000 0.0000 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.2
Influence Line Coordinates
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 20
N
L
6 =
N
L
2 N
lanes
⋅ :=
Since the bridge is crowned and the full width of the
bridge is used in the equivalent distribution width
equation, the number of design lanes should include
both roadways. Therefore, number of design lanes.....
W
1
60 ft =
W
1
min W
bridge
60.0 ft ⋅ ,
( )
:=
W
1
, modified edge to edge width of bridge taken as the
lesser of the actual width, W
bridge
, or 60 feet for
multilane loading.......................................................
L
1
35 ft =
L
1
, modified span length...........................................
where
E 84 1.44 L
1
W
1
⋅ +
12.0W
N
L
≤ =
The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with more than one lane loaded:
Two or more design lanes
E
OneLane
14.3 ft = or E
OneLane
172.0 in =
E
OneLane
10 5.0
L
1
ft
W
1
ft
+
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
in ⋅ :=
The equivalent distribution width for one lane loaded is
given as...................................................................
W
1
30 ft =
W
1
min W
bridge
30.0 ft ⋅ ,
( )
:=
W
1
, modified edge to edge width of bridge taken as
the lesser of the actual width, W
bridge
, or 30 feet for
single lane loading.....................................................
L
1
35 ft =
L
1
min L
span
60.0 ft ⋅ ,
( )
:=
L
1
, modified span length taken equal to the lesser
of the actual span or 60 feet.....................................
where
E 10 5.0 L
1
W
1
⋅ + =
The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with one lane loaded:
One design lane
The superstructure is designed on a per foot basis longitudinally. However, in order to distribute the live
loads, equivalent strips of flat slab deck widths are calculated. The moment and shear effects of a single
HL93 vehicle or multiple vehicles are divided by the appropriate equivalent strip width. The equivalent strips
account for the transverse distribution of LRFD wheel loads. This section is only applicable for spans
greater than 15 feet.
C1. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.6.2.3]
C. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2]
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 21
In order to calculate the live load moments and shears, the FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load
Generator, English, v2.1".
Determine the live load moments and shears due to one HL93 vehicle on the continuous flat slab structure.
The design live loads will consists of the HL93 vehicle moments, divided by the appropriate equivalent strip
widths. This will result in a design live load per foot width of flat slab.
C2. Live Load Analysis
(Note: For this design example, the skew modification will not be applied in order to design for more
conservative moment values)
r 0.91 =
r min 1.05 0.25 tan Skew ( ) ⋅ − 1.00 , ( ) :=
For skewed bridges, the longitudinal force effects
(moments only) may be reduced by a factor r...............
Skew modification
E 12.5 ft = or E 150.0 in =
E min E
OneLane
E
TwoLane
,
( )
:=
The design strip width to use would be the one that causes
the maximum effects. In this case, it would be the
minimum value of the two...............................................
E
TwoLane
12.5 ft = or E
TwoLane
150.0 in =
E
TwoLane
min 84 1.44
L
1
ft
W
1
ft
+
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
12.0
W
bridge
ft
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
N
L
,
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
in ⋅ :=
The equivalent distribution width for more than
one lane loaded is given as..................................
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 22
Read Live Load results from files generated by FDOT Program
The files generated by the program are as follows: "service1.txt" "fatigue.txt" ( ). These files are output files
that can be used to transfer information from one file to another via read and write commands in MathCad.
service1.t xt f at igue.t xt
The files can be view by clicking on the following icons:
To data is read from the file created by FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load Generator" program.
The values for Strength I can be obtained by multiplying by the appropriate load case factor. The values of Live
Load for the HL93 loads are as follows:
(10th points)
Pt. "X" distance +M M +M M +M M M
Range
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 220.9 23.0 386.6 40.2 92.7 5.8 98.5
2 7 369.4 46.0 646.5 80.4 156.0 11.6 167.5
3 10.5 460.8 69.0 806.4 120.7 195.5 17.3 212.8
4 14 495.0 92.1 866.3 161.1 209.2 23.1 232.3
5 17.5 482.8 115.0 844.9 201.3 198.4 28.9 227.3
6 21 433.1 137.7 757.9 241.0 171.1 34.7 205.8
7 24.5 340.6 161.5 596.1 282.6 138.0 40.5 178.5
8 28 213.3 184.5 373.3 322.9 94.9 59.1 154.0
9 31.5 88.1 232.9 154.2 407.6 39.8 117.9 157.7
10 35 76.1 383.5 133.2 671.1 27.0 186.9 213.8
11 38.5 89.5 275.7 156.7 482.5 48.7 122.2 170.8
12 42 215.3 228.7 376.8 400.2 95.6 81.2 176.8
13 45.5 322.4 196.6 564.2 344.1 124.3 67.5 191.8
14 49 386.1 165.5 675.7 289.6 136.6 54.0 190.5
15 52.5 403.4 133.9 706.0 234.3 134.4 40.5 174.9
16 56 386.1 165.5 675.7 289.6 136.6 54.0 190.5
17 59.5 322.4 196.6 564.2 344.1 124.3 67.5 191.8
18 63 215.3 228.7 376.8 400.2 95.6 81.2 176.8
19 66.5 90.1 275.7 157.6 482.5 48.7 122.2 170.8
20 70 76.1 383.0 133.2 670.3 27.0 186.9 213.8
21 73.5 87.5 232.9 153.1 407.6 39.8 117.9 157.7
22 77 213.3 184.5 373.3 322.9 94.9 59.1 154.0
23 80.5 340.6 161.5 596.1 282.6 138.0 40.5 178.5
24 84 433.1 137.7 757.9 241.0 171.1 34.7 205.8
25 87.5 482.8 115.0 844.9 201.3 198.4 28.9 227.3
26 91 495.0 92.1 866.3 161.1 209.2 23.1 232.3
27 94.5 460.8 69.0 806.4 120.7 195.5 17.3 212.8
28 98 369.4 46.0 646.5 80.4 156.0 11.6 167.5
29 101.5 220.9 23.0 386.6 40.2 92.7 5.8 98.5
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fatigue Service I Strength I
HL93 Live Load Envelopes
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 23
The design values can be obtained by dividing the moments by the distribution width, E 12.5ft = ; for fatigue,
E
OneLane
14.3ft =
E = 12.5 ft
E
fatigue
= 14.3 ft
(10th points)
Joint "X" distance +M M +M M +M M M
Range
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 17.7 1.8 30.9 3.2 6.4 0.4 6.8
2 7 29.6 3.7 51.7 6.4 10.8 0.8 11.6
3 10.5 36.9 5.5 64.5 9.7 13.6 1.2 14.8
4 14 39.6 7.4 69.3 12.9 14.5 1.6 16.1
5 17.5 38.6 9.2 67.6 16.1 13.8 2.0 15.8
6 21 34.6 11.0 60.6 19.3 11.9 2.4 14.3
7 24.5 27.2 12.9 47.7 22.6 9.6 2.8 12.4
8 28 17.1 14.8 29.9 25.8 6.6 4.1 10.7
9 31.5 7.1 18.6 12.3 32.6 2.8 8.2 10.9
10 35 6.1 30.7 10.7 53.7 1.9 13.0 14.8
11 38.5 7.2 22.1 12.5 38.6 3.4 8.5 11.8
12 42 17.2 18.3 30.1 32.0 6.6 5.6 12.3
13 45.5 25.8 15.7 45.1 27.5 8.6 4.7 13.3
14 49 30.9 13.2 54.1 23.2 9.5 3.7 13.2
15 52.5 32.3 10.7 56.5 18.7 9.3 2.8 12.1
16 56 30.9 13.2 54.1 23.2 9.5 3.7 13.2
17 59.5 25.8 15.7 45.1 27.5 8.6 4.7 13.3
18 63 17.2 18.3 30.1 32.0 6.6 5.6 12.3
19 66.5 7.2 22.1 12.6 38.6 3.4 8.5 11.8
20 70 6.1 30.6 10.7 53.6 1.9 13.0 14.8
21 73.5 7.0 18.6 12.2 32.6 2.8 8.2 10.9
22 77 17.1 14.8 29.9 25.8 6.6 4.1 10.7
23 80.5 27.2 12.9 47.7 22.6 9.6 2.8 12.4
24 84 34.6 11.0 60.6 19.3 11.9 2.4 14.3
25 87.5 38.6 9.2 67.6 16.1 13.8 2.0 15.8
26 91 39.6 7.4 69.3 12.9 14.5 1.6 16.1
27 94.5 36.9 5.5 64.5 9.7 13.6 1.2 14.8
28 98 29.6 3.7 51.7 6.4 10.8 0.8 11.6
29 101.5 17.7 1.8 30.9 3.2 6.4 0.4 6.8
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Design Live Load Envelopes
Service I Strength I Fatigue
i 0 rows X ( ) 1 − .. :=
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 24
0 21 42 63 84 105
40
20
0
20
40
Moment DC
Moment DW
Zero moment
Dead Load Moments
Distance Along Bridge, ft
M
o
m
e
n
t
,
k
i
p

f
t
0 21 42 63 84 105
100
50
0
50
100
Strength 1  Positive LL M
Strength 1  Negative LL M
Zero moment
Service I  Positive LL M
Service I  Negative LL M
Strength I & Service I Live Load Moments
Distance Along Bridge, ft
M
o
m
e
n
t
,
k
i
p

f
t
0 21 42 63 84 105
20
10
0
10
20
Fatigue  Pos M
Fatigue  Neg M
Zero moment
Range
Fatigue Envelopes
Distance Along Bridge, ft
S
h
e
a
r
s
,
k
i
p
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 25
C3. Limit State Moments and Shears
The service and strength limit states used to design the section are calculated as follows:
( 1 0 th p o i n ts )
Pt. "X" dist +M M +M M +M M M
Range
M
min
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 28.6 9.1 44.7 10.6 20.6 10.3 6.8 0.4
2 7 48.3 15.1 75.4 17.3 35.0 17.5 11.6 0.8
3 10.5 60.3 17.9 94.1 20.0 43.8 21.6 14.8 1.2
4 14 64.6 17.6 100.9 18.7 46.7 22.6 16.1 1.6
5 17.5 62.0 14.2 97.2 13.5 44.1 20.4 15.8 2.0
6 21 53.4 7.7 84.3 4.4 36.5 15.1 14.3 2.4
7 24.5 38.2 2.0 61.5 8.8 25.3 6.7 12.4 2.8
8 28 17.1 14.8 29.9 25.8 9.9 6.1 10.7 4.1
9 31.5 7.0 32.7 5.4 50.4 9.9 26.3 10.9 8.2
10 35 25.1 61.9 28.8 93.2 28.4 50.7 14.8 13.0
11 38.5 10.0 39.2 9.2 60.3 12.1 29.9 11.8 8.5
12 42 11.0 24.5 22.2 39.9 3.7 14.7 12.3 5.6
13 45.5 27.4 14.2 47.1 25.6 14.5 5.5 13.3 4.7
14 49 37.1 7.0 61.9 15.3 20.5 0.6 13.2 3.7
15 52.5 40.1 2.9 66.3 8.9 21.8 3.6 12.1 2.8
16 56 37.1 7.0 61.9 15.3 20.5 0.6 13.2 3.7
17 59.5 27.4 14.2 47.1 25.6 14.5 5.5 13.3 4.7
18 63 11.0 24.5 22.2 39.9 3.7 14.7 12.3 5.6
19 66.5 10.0 39.2 9.1 60.3 12.1 29.9 11.8 8.5
20 70 25.1 61.9 28.8 93.1 28.4 50.7 14.8 13.0
21 73.5 7.0 32.7 5.5 50.4 9.9 26.3 10.9 8.2
22 77 17.1 14.8 29.9 25.8 9.9 6.1 10.7 4.1
23 80.5 38.2 2.0 61.5 8.8 25.3 6.7 12.4 2.8
24 84 53.4 7.7 84.3 4.4 36.5 15.1 14.3 2.4
25 87.5 62.0 14.2 97.2 13.5 44.1 20.4 15.8 2.0
26 91 64.6 17.6 100.9 18.7 46.7 22.6 16.1 1.6
27 94.5 60.3 17.9 94.1 20.0 43.8 21.6 14.8 1.2
28 98 48.3 15.1 75.4 17.3 35.0 17.5 11.6 0.8
29 101.5 28.6 9.1 44.7 10.6 20.6 10.3 6.8 0.4
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
61.9 93.2 46.7 16.1 1.6
64.6 100.9 50.7 14.8 13.0
Maximum positive
Moments =
M R a n g e = 0 . 7 5 L L ;  M
m i n
= 0 . 7 5 L L
Limit State Design Loads
Fatigue Service I Strength I
1 . 0 D C + 1 . 0 D W + 1 . 5 L L 1 . 0 D C + 1 . 0 D W +
1 . 0 L L
1 . 2 5 D C + 1 . 5 0 D W +
1 . 7 5 L L
Maximum negative
Moments =
<−Maximum positive
moment and
corresponding fatigue
values
<−Maximum negative
moment and
corresponding fatigue
values
Defined Units
Superstructure Design 2.01 Design Loads 27
B8. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
B7. Fatigue Limit State
B6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5.14.4]
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
B4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B. Moment Design 29
A. Input Variables 28
Page Contents
This section provides the design for the flat slab superstructure.
Description
Reference:G:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\201DesignLds.mc
References
Flat Slab Design
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 27
M
min.neg
13 − ft kip ⋅ =
M
range.neg
14.8 ft kip ⋅ =
M
fatigue.neg
50.7 − ft kip ⋅ = M
r.neg
93.2 − ft kip ⋅ = M
neg
61.9 − ft kip ⋅ =
Fatigue Strength Service Maximum negative moment
and corresponding fatigue
values
M
min.pos
1.6 − ft kip ⋅ =
M
range.pos
16.1 ft kip ⋅ =
M
fatigue.pos
46.7 ft kip ⋅ = M
r.pos
100.9 ft kip ⋅ = M
pos
64.6 ft kip ⋅ =
Fatigue Strength Service Maximum positive moment
and corresponding fatigue
values
A. Input Variables
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 28
spacing
pos
6 in ⋅ := Proposed bar spacing........................
bar "8" := Size of bar.......................................
Initial assumption for area of steel required
b 12 in = b 1 ft ⋅ :=
t
slab
18 in =
φ 0.9 =
t
slab
h =
f
y
60 ksi =
f
c.slab
4.5ksi =
M
r.pos
100.9 ft kip ⋅ = where
M
r
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ −
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
⋅ = Using variables defined in this example.....
a
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f'
c
⋅ b ⋅
= where M
n
A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ =
Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
a
2
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ + A'
s
f'
y
⋅ d'
s
a
2
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ − 0.85 f'
c
⋅ b b
w
−
( )
⋅ β
1
⋅ h
f
⋅
a
2
h
f
2
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ + =
Nominal flexural resistance
M
r
φ M
n
⋅ = Factored resistance
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both positive and negative moment regions.
B. Moment Design
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 29
M
r.positive.prov
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.pos
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ −
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
⋅ :=
M
r.positive.prov
102.9 ft kip ⋅ =
B2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Variables: M
r.neg
93.167 ft kip ⋅ =
f
c.slab
4.5ksi =
f
y
60 ksi =
t
slab
h =
φ 0.9 =
t
slab
18 in =
b 1 ft =
b 12 in =
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar
neg
"8" :=
Proposed bar spacing....................... spacing
neg
6 in ⋅ :=
Bar area........................................... A
bar
0.790 in
2
=
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.000 in =
Area of steel provided per foot of slab....... A
s.pos
A
bar
1 ⋅ ft
spacing
pos
:=
A
s.pos
1.58 in
2
=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel..................... d
s.pos
t
slab
cover
slab
−
dia
2
− :=
d
s.pos
15.5 in =
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required
Given M
r.pos
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.pos
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ −
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
⋅ =
Reinforcing steel required........................ A
s.reqd
Find A
s.pos
( )
:=
A
s.reqd
1.55 in
2
=
The area of steel provided, A
s.pos
1.58 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
1.55 in
2
=
. If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.pos
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed
reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.
Moment capacity provided.......................
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 30
z
"moderate exposure"
"severe exposure"
"buried structures"
170
130
100
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
kip
in
⋅ = Crack width parameter............................
f
sa
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ≤ =
Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the
service limit state....................................
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
M
r.negative.prov
102.9 − ft kip ⋅ =
M
r.negative.prov
φ A
s.neg
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.neg
1
2
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ +
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
⋅ := Moment capacity provided.......................
The area of steel provided, A
s.neg
1.58 in
2
= , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
1.42 in
2
= .
If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.neg
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing
is adequate for the design moments.
A
s.reqd
1.42 in
2
=
A
s.reqd
Find A
s.neg
( )
:= Reinforcing steel required........................
M
r.neg
φ A
s.neg
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.neg
1
2
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ +
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
⋅ = Given
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required
d
s.neg
15.5 − in =
d
s.neg
t
slab
− cover
slab
+
dia
neg
2
+
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
:=
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel................
A
s.neg
1.58 in
2
=
A
s.neg
A
bar.neg
1 ⋅ ft
spacing
neg
:= Area of steel provided per foot of slab......
dia
neg
1.000 in = Bar diameter....................................
A
bar.neg
0.790 in
2
= Bar area...........................................
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 31
T
s
55.8 kip =
T
s
M
pos
d
s.pos
x
na.pos
3
−
:=
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment.......................
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 4.8in = to equal x
na.pos
4.8in = .
x
na.pos
4.8in =
x
na.pos
Find x ( ) :=
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.pos
⋅ d
s.pos
x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 4.8 in ⋅ :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi =
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
:= Service limit state stress in reinforcement..
A 30.0 in
2
=
A
b ( ) 2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:=
Effective tension area of concrete
surrounding the flexural tension
reinforcement........................................
n
bar
2 =
n
bar
b
spacing
pos
:= Number of bars per design width of slab...
d
c
2.5in =
d
c
min t
slab
d
s.pos
− 2 in ⋅
dia
2
+ ,
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
:=
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar (concrete cover need
not exceed 2 in.)....................................
Positive Moment
z 170
kip
in
⋅ :=
aggressive environment Environment
super
"Slightly" =
The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width
parameter. For this example, a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to
"moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 32
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 4.8in = to equal x
na.neg
4.8in = .
x
na.neg
4.84 in =
x
na.neg
Find x ( ) :=
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.neg
⋅ d
s.neg
− x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 4.8 in ⋅ :=
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi =
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
⎡
⎢
⎢
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎥
⎥
⎦
:= Service limit state stress in reinforcement..
A 30.0 in
2
=
A
b ( ) 2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:=
Effective tension area of concrete
surrounding the flexural tension
reinforcement........................................
n
bar
2 =
n
bar
b
spacing
neg
:= Number of bars per design width of slab..
d
c
2.5in =
d
c
min t
slab
d
s.neg
+ 2 in ⋅
dia
neg
2
+ ,
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
:=
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar (concrete cover need
not exceed 2 in.)....................................
Negative Moment
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4a
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4a
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for +M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
f
s.actual
35.3 ksi =
f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.pos
:=
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment.......................
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 33
β
1
max 0.85 0.05
f
c.slab
4000 psi ⋅ −
1000 psi ⋅
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅ − 0.65 ,
⎡
⎢
⎣
⎤
⎥
⎦
:=
β
1
0.825 =
Distance from extreme compression fiber
to the neutral axis of section...................... c
pos
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:= and c
neg
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:=
c
pos
2.5in =
c
neg
2.5in =
Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement.
d
e
A
s
f
ps
⋅ d
p
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
⋅ +
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ +
=
Simplifying for this example.............. d
e.pos
d
s.pos
:= and d
e.neg
d
s.neg
− :=
d
e.pos
15.5 in =
d
e.neg
15.5 in =
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment........................ T
s
M
neg
d
s.neg
x
na.neg
3
+
:=
T
s
53.5 kip =
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment..................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.neg
:=
f
s.actual
33.9 ksi =
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4b
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:=
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4b
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" =
B4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Maximum Reinforcement
The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.
The greater reinforcement from the positive and negative moment sections is checked.
Area of steel provided............................. A
s.pos
1.58 in
2
=
A
s.neg
1.58 in
2
=
Stress block factor.................................
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 34
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.positive.prov
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.positive.prov
102.9ft kip ⋅ = , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
33ft kip ⋅ = .
M
r.reqd
33.0 ft kip ⋅ =
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r.pos
⋅ ,
( )
:= Required flexural resistance (+M)............
M
cr
27.5 kip ft ⋅ =
M
cr
f
r
S ⋅ := Cracking moment...................................
S 648.0 in
3
=
S
b t
slab
2
⋅
6
:= Section modulus.....................................
f
r
509.1 psi =
f
r
0.24 f
c.slab
ksi ⋅ ⋅ := Modulus of Rupture................................
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Minimum Reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in M region" =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in M region"
c
neg
d
e.neg
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced in M region, see LRFD eq. C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:=
The
c
neg
d
e.neg
0.162 = ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in +M region" =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in +M region"
c
pos
d
e.pos
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced in +M region, see LRFD eq. C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:=
The
c
pos
d
e.pos
0.162 = ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 35
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
ST
≤ if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:=
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
spacing
ST
9.4in =
spacing
ST
min
b
A
ST
A
bar
3 t
slab
⋅ , 18 in ⋅ ,
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎟
⎠
:=
Maximum spacing for shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement.......................
A
ST
0.40 in
2
=
A
ST
0.11 ksi ⋅ A
g
⋅
f
y
:=
Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement.........................................
A
g
216.0 in
2
=
A
g
b t
slab
⋅ := Gross area of section..............................
dia 0.625 in = Bar diameter.....................................
A
bar
0.31 in
2
= Bar area............................................
bar
spa.st
9 in ⋅ := Bar spacing...................................................
bar
st
"5" :=
Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )....................
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" =
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" M
r.positive.prov
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:=
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.negative.prov
102.9 − ft kip ⋅ = , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
33ft kip ⋅ = .
M
r.reqd
33.0 ft kip ⋅ =
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r.neg
⋅ ,
( )
:= Required flexural resistance (M)..............
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 36
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" =
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" bar
spa.dist
MaxSpacing
DistR
≤ if
"NG, distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise
:=
The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement
MaxSpacing
DistR
13.9 in =
MaxSpacing
DistR
b
A
s.DistR
A
bar
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
:=
Maximum spacing for secondary
reinforcement........................................
A
s.DistR
0.27 in
2
=
A
s.DistR
A
s.pos
%A
steel
⋅ := Required area for secondary reinforcement
%A
steel
0.17 =
%A
steel
min
100
L
span
ft
% 50% ,
⎛
⎜
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
:=
The area for secondary reinforcement
should not exceed 50% of the area for
primary reinforcement.............................
dia 0.625 in = Bar diameter.....................................
A
bar
0.31 in
2
= Bar area............................................
bar
spa.dist
12 in ⋅ := Bar spacing.....................................
bar
dist
"5" :=
Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )....................
Distribution reinforcement provided
Transverse distribution reinforcement shall be placed in the bottom of the slab. The amount to place is based
on a percentage of the longitudinal main steel.
B6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5.14.4]
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 37
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" =
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" f
t
f
t.allow
≤ if
"NG, fatigue stress range requirements for +M region" otherwise
:=
f
t
8.813 ksi =
f
t
M
range.pos
A
s.pos
d
s.pos
x
na.pos
3
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅
:= Actual stress range.................................
f
t.allow
23.69 ksi =
f
t.allow
21 ksi ⋅ 0.33 f
min
⋅ −
( )
8 ksi ⋅ r_h ( ) ⋅ + :=
Ratio of r/h is taken as r_h 0.3 := , therefore
the allowable stress range is given by.......
f
min
0.878 − ksi =
f
min
M
min.pos
A
s.pos
d
s.pos
x
na.pos
3
−
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅
:=
Minimum stress in reinforcement due to
minimum live load...................................
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" =
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" f
fatigue.pos
f
tensile
> if
"Use Uncracked section" otherwise
:=
f
fatigue.pos
0.866 ksi =
f
fatigue.pos
M
fatigue.pos
S
:= Stress due to positive moment.................
Positive Moment Region
f
tensile
0.202 ksi =
f
tensile
0.095 f
c.slab
ksi ⋅ := Allowable tensile stress for fatigue............
The section properties for fatigue shall be based on cracked sections where the sum of stresses due to
unfactored permanent loads and 1.5 times the fatigue load is tensile and exceeds 0.095 f
c
.
B7. Fatigue Limit State [LRFD 5.5.3]
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 38
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for M region" =
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for M region" f
t
f
t.allow
≤ if
"NG, fatigue stress range requirements for M region" otherwise
:=
f
t
8.111 ksi =
f
t
M
range.neg
A
s.neg
d
s.neg
x
na.neg
3
+
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅
:= Actual stress range.................................
f
t.allow
21.06 ksi =
f
t.allow
21 ksi ⋅ 0.33 f
min
⋅ −
( )
8 ksi ⋅ r_h ( ) ⋅ + :=
Ratio of r/h is taken as 0.3, therefore the
allowable stress range is given by.............
f
min
7.09 ksi =
f
min
M
min.neg
A
s.neg
d
s.neg
x
na.neg
3
+
⎛
⎜
⎝
⎞
⎠
⋅
:=
Minimum stress in reinforcement due to
minimum live load..................................
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" =
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" f
fatigue.neg
f
tensile
> if
"Use Uncracked section" otherwise
:=
f
fatigue.neg
0.938 ksi =
f
fatigue.neg
M
fatigue.neg
S
:= Stress due to negative moment.................
Negative Moment Region
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 39
Defined Units
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" =
bar
spa.dist
12.0 in = Bottom spacing
bar
dist
"5" = Bar size
Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" =
bar
spa.st
9.0in = Bottom spacing
bar
st
"5" = Bar size
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing
spacing
pos
6.0in = Bottom spacing
bar "8" = Bottom bar size (+M)
spacing
neg
6.0in = Top spacing
bar
neg
"8" = Top bar size (M)
Main reinforcing
B8. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Superstructure Design 2.02 Flat Slab Design 40
C3. Limit State Moments and Shears
C2. Live Load Analysis
C1. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.6.2.3]
C. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2] 45
B. Dead Load Analysis 44
A. Input Variables 43
LRFD Criteria 42
Page Contents
This section provides the design loads for the flat slab edge beam superstructure.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\202FlatSlab.mcd(R)
References
Edge Beam Design Loads
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 41
Note:
LRFD Commentary C4.6.2.1.6 states that "past practice has been not to check shear in typical decks... It •
is not the intent to check shear in every deck." In addition, LRFD 5.14.4.1 states that for castinplace
slab superstructures designed for moment in conformance with LRFD 4.6.2.3, may be considered
satisfactory for shear.
For this design example, shear will not be investigated. From previous past experience, if the slab •
thickness is chosen according to satisfy LRFD minimum thickness requirements as per the slab to depth
ratios and designed utilizing the distribution strips, shear will not control. If special vehicles are used in the
design, shear may need to be investigated.
Fatigue 0.75 LL ⋅ =
Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a
single design truck.
FATIGUE 
Service1 1.0 DC ⋅ 1.0 DW ⋅ + 1.0 LL ⋅ + =
Creep and shrinkage is not evaluated in this design example. CR SH 0 = ,
For superstructure design, braking forces and wind on live load are not
applicable.
BR WL 0 = ,
Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH
wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.
SERVICE I 
"Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example"
Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design
vehicles, evaluation permit vehicles, or both without wind.
STRENGTH II 
Strength1 1.25 DC ⋅ 1.50 DW ⋅ + 1.75 LL ⋅ + 0.50 TU CR + SH + ( ) ⋅ + =
No friction forces. FR 0 =
For superstructure design, water load and stream pressure are not
applicable.
WA 0 =
Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind. STRENGTH I 
LRFD Criteria
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 42
A. Input Variables
Bridge design span length........................ L
span
35ft ·
Thickness of superstructure slab.............. t
slab
18in ·
Milling surface thickness......................... t
mill
0 in ·
Dynamic Load Allowance........................ IM 1.33 ·
Bridge skew........................................... Skew 30 − deg ·
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 43
B. Dead Load Analysis
For the dead load calculation, the influence line coordinates for a uniform load applied on the structure is
utilized. The influence coordinates are based on AISC's Moments, Shears and Reactions for Continuous
Highway Bridges, published 1966.
(10th points)
Pt. "X" distance DC DW
0 0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 10.3 0.6
2 7 17.6 1.1
3 10.5 22.0 1.4
4 14 23.5 1.5
5 17.5 22.0 1.4
6 21 17.6 1.1
7 24.5 10.3 0.6
8 28 0.0 0.0
9 31.5 13.2 0.8
10 35 29.4 1.8
11 38.5 16.2 1.0
12 42 5.9 0.4
13 45.5 1.5 0.1
14 49 5.9 0.4
15 52.5 7.3 0.5
16 56 5.9 0.4
17 59.5 1.5 0.1
18 63 5.9 0.4
19 66.5 16.2 1.0
20 70 29.4 1.8
21 73.5 13.2 0.8
22 77 0.0 0.0
23 80.5 10.3 0.6
24 84 17.6 1.1
25 87.5 22.0 1.4
26 91 23.5 1.5
27 94.5 22.0 1.4
28 98 17.6 1.1
29 101.5 10.3 0.6
30 105 0.0 0.0
Moments
Unfactored Dead Loads
(N ote: For input values, see S ection 2.01 
D esign L oads)
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 44
(N ote: For this design ex ample, the sk ew modification will not be applied in order to design for more
conservative moment values)
r 0.91 ·
r min 1.05 0.25 tan Skew ( ) ⋅ − 1.00 , ( ) :·
For skewed bridges, the longitudinal force
effects (moments only) may be reduced by
a factor r...............................................
Skew modification
E
EB
6 ft · or E
EB
72in ·
E
EB
minval E
EdgeBm
E
OneLane
, 72 in ⋅ ,
( )
:·
Applying the restraint conditions, the
equivalent distribution width is given as
E
EdgeBm
116.5 in ·
E
EdgeBm
E
OneLane
2
b
barrier
+ 12 in ⋅ + :·
The equivalent distribution width for the
edge beam is given as.......................
Edge of deck to inside face of barrier b
barrier
1.5417 ft ⋅ :·
The equivalent distribution width for one lane loaded E
OneLane
172 in ·
where
E
EB
E
OneLane
2
b
barrier
+ 12 in ⋅ + E
OneLane
≤ 72 in ⋅ ≤ =
The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with one lane loaded for the edge
beam is given as:
One design lane
The superstructure is designed on a per foot basis longitudinally. However, in order to distribute the live
loads, equivalent strips of flat slab deck widths are calculated. The moment and shear effects of a single
HL93 vehicle or multiple vehicles are divided by the appropriate equivalent strip width. The equivalent strips
account for the transverse distribution of LRFD wheel loads. This section is only applicable for spans
greater than 15 feet.
C1. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.6.2.3]
C. Approximate Methods of Analysis  Decks [LRFD 4.6.2]
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 45
C2. Live Load Analysis
Determine the live load moments and shears due to one HL93 vehicle on the continuous flat slab structure.
The design live loads will consists of the HL93 vehicle moments, divided by the appropriate equivalent strip
widths. This will result in a design live load per foot width of flat slab.
In order to calculate the live load moments and shears, the FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load
Generator, English, v2.1".
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 46
Read Live Load results from files generated by FDOT Program (N ote: For input values, see S ection
2.01  D esign L oads)
(10th points)
Pt. "X" distance +M M +M M +M M Range +M M
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 220.9 23.0 386.6 40.2 92.7 5.8 98.5 31.4 3.9
2 7 369.4 46.0 646.5 80.4 156.0 11.6 167.5 54.7 7.8
3 10.5 460.8 69.0 806.4 120.7 195.5 17.3 212.8 70.7 11.8
4 14 495.0 92.1 866.3 161.1 209.2 23.1 232.3 78.2 15.7
5 17.5 482.8 115.0 844.9 201.3 198.4 28.9 227.3 78.2 19.6
6 21 433.1 137.7 757.9 241.0 171.1 34.7 205.8 70.7 23.5
7 24.5 340.6 161.5 596.1 282.6 138.0 40.5 178.5 54.7 27.4
8 28 213.3 184.5 373.3 322.9 94.9 59.1 154.0 31.5 31.5
9 31.5 88.1 232.9 154.2 407.6 39.8 117.9 157.7 15.9 51.1
10 35 76.1 383.5 133.2 671.1 27.0 186.9 213.8 13.1 92.0
11 38.5 89.5 275.7 156.7 482.5 48.7 122.2 170.8 11.8 55.1
12 42 215.3 228.7 376.8 400.2 95.6 81.2 176.8 23.5 39.2
13 45.5 322.4 196.6 564.2 344.1 124.3 67.5 191.8 43.1 39.2
14 49 386.1 165.5 675.7 289.6 136.6 54.0 190.5 54.7 39.2
15 52.5 403.4 133.9 706.0 234.3 134.4 40.5 174.9 58.7 39.2
16 56 386.1 165.5 675.7 289.6 136.6 54.0 190.5 54.7 39.2
17 59.5 322.4 196.6 564.2 344.1 124.3 67.5 191.8 43.1 39.2
18 63 215.3 228.7 376.8 400.2 95.6 81.2 176.8 23.5 39.2
19 66.5 90.1 275.7 157.6 482.5 48.7 122.2 170.8 11.8 55.1
20 70 76.1 383.0 133.2 670.3 27.0 186.9 213.8 13.1 91.6
21 73.5 87.5 232.9 153.1 407.6 39.8 117.9 157.7 15.9 51.1
22 77 213.3 184.5 373.3 322.9 94.9 59.1 154.0 31.5 31.5
23 80.5 340.6 161.5 596.1 282.6 138.0 40.5 178.5 54.7 27.4
24 84 433.1 137.7 757.9 241.0 171.1 34.7 205.8 70.7 23.5
25 87.5 482.8 115.0 844.9 201.3 198.4 28.9 227.3 78.2 19.6
26 91 495.0 92.1 866.3 161.1 209.2 23.1 232.3 78.2 15.7
27 94.5 460.8 69.0 806.4 120.7 195.5 17.3 212.8 70.7 11.8
28 98 369.4 46.0 646.5 80.4 156.0 11.6 167.5 54.7 7.8
29 101.5 220.9 23.0 386.6 40.2 92.7 5.8 98.5 31.4 3.9
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Unfactored
Lane Load Fatigue Service I Strength I
HL93 Live Load Envelopes
As per LRFD 4.6.2.1.4a, the edge beams shall be assumed to support one line of wheels and a tributary portion
of the design lane load.
The HL93 live load moment envelopes shown in the above summary include lane loads (except for Fatigue).
The lane load and truck moments need to be separated and manipulated separately. Since the unfactored lane
load envelopes are given, the separated values for truck and lane can be can be calculated and multiplied by the
appropriate factors.
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 47
Edge beams shall be assumed to support one line of wheels, therefore multiply the truck moments by
Factor
truck
0.5 :·
Tributary portion of the design lane load is given by, Factor
lane
, since the maximum width of the edge beam is
limited by the LRFD to 72 inches.
Factor
lane
E
EB
b
barrier
−
10 ft ⋅
:· Factor
lane
0.446 ·
(10th poi nts)
Pts. distance +M M +M M +M M +M M +M M M
Range
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 94.8 9.5 14.0 1.7 165.8 16.7 24.5 3.1 92.7 5.8 98.5
2 7 157.4 19.1 24.4 3.5 275.4 33.4 42.7 6.1 156.0 11.6 167.5
3 10.5 195.1 28.6 31.5 5.3 341.4 50.0 55.1 9.2 195.5 17.3 212.8
4 14 208.4 38.2 34.9 7.0 364.7 66.8 61.0 12.2 209.2 23.1 232.3
5 17.5 202.3 47.7 34.9 8.7 354.0 83.5 61.0 15.3 198.4 28.9 227.3
6 21 181.2 57.1 31.5 10.5 317.1 99.9 55.1 18.3 171.1 34.7 205.8
7 24.5 143.0 67.0 24.4 12.2 250.2 117.3 42.7 21.4 138.0 40.5 178.5
8 28 90.9 76.5 14.0 14.0 159.1 133.9 24.6 24.6 94.9 59.1 154.0
9 31.5 36.1 90.9 7.1 22.8 63.2 159.1 12.4 39.9 39.8 117.9 157.7
10 35 31.5 145.8 5.8 41.0 55.2 255.1 10.2 71.8 27.0 186.9 213.8
11 38.5 38.9 110.3 5.3 24.6 68.0 193.0 9.2 43.0 48.7 122.2 170.8
12 42 95.9 94.8 10.5 17.5 167.8 165.8 18.3 30.6 95.6 81.2 176.8
13 45.5 139.6 78.7 19.2 17.5 244.4 137.7 33.6 30.6 124.3 67.5 191.8
14 49 165.7 63.2 24.4 17.5 290.0 110.5 42.7 30.6 136.6 54.0 190.5
15 52.5 172.4 47.4 26.2 17.5 301.6 82.9 45.8 30.6 134.4 40.5 174.9
16 56 165.7 63.2 24.4 17.5 290.0 110.5 42.7 30.6 136.6 54.0 190.5
17 59.5 139.6 78.7 19.2 17.5 244.4 137.7 33.6 30.6 124.3 67.5 191.8
18 63 95.9 94.8 10.5 17.5 167.8 165.8 18.3 30.6 95.6 81.2 176.8
19 66.5 39.1 110.3 5.3 24.6 68.5 193.0 9.2 43.0 48.7 122.2 170.8
20 70 31.5 145.7 5.8 40.8 55.2 255.0 10.2 71.4 27.0 186.9 213.8
21 73.5 35.8 90.9 7.1 22.8 62.6 159.1 12.4 39.9 39.8 117.9 157.7
22 77 90.9 76.5 14.0 14.0 159.1 133.9 24.6 24.6 94.9 59.1 154.0
23 80.5 143.0 67.0 24.4 12.2 250.2 117.3 42.7 21.4 138.0 40.5 178.5
24 84 181.2 57.1 31.5 10.5 317.1 99.9 55.1 18.3 171.1 34.7 205.8
25 87.5 202.3 47.7 34.9 8.7 354.0 83.5 61.0 15.3 198.4 28.9 227.3
26 91 208.4 38.2 34.9 7.0 364.7 66.8 61.0 12.2 209.2 23.1 232.3
27 94.5 195.1 28.6 31.5 5.3 341.4 50.0 55.1 9.2 195.5 17.3 212.8
28 98 157.4 19.1 24.4 3.5 275.4 33.4 42.7 6.1 156.0 11.6 167.5
29 101.5 94.8 9.5 14.0 1.7 165.8 16.7 24.5 3.1 92.7 5.8 98.5
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Fatigue Truck Truck
HL93 Live Load Envelopes
Service I Strength I
Lane Lane
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 48
Combine the truck and lane loads per each limit state and divide the moments by the distribution width,
E
EB
6 ft · to obtain the design values for live load.
E = 6.0 ft
(10th points)
Joint "X" distance +M M +M M +M M M
Range
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 18.1 1.9 30.0 3.1 15.5 1.0 16.4
2 7 30.3 3.8 50.0 6.1 26.0 1.9 27.9
3 10.5 37.8 5.6 62.1 9.2 32.6 2.9 35.5
4 14 40.5 7.5 66.6 12.3 34.9 3.9 38.7
5 17.5 39.5 9.4 64.8 15.4 33.1 4.8 37.9
6 21 35.5 11.3 58.1 18.4 28.5 5.8 34.3
7 24.5 27.9 13.2 45.8 21.6 23.0 6.7 29.8
8 28 17.5 15.1 28.9 24.7 15.8 9.8 25.7
9 31.5 7.2 18.9 11.7 30.3 6.6 19.7 26.3
10 35 6.2 31.1 10.2 49.3 4.5 31.2 35.6
11 38.5 7.4 22.5 12.2 36.3 8.1 20.4 28.5
12 42 17.7 18.7 29.7 30.5 15.9 13.5 29.5
13 45.5 26.5 16.0 43.9 25.9 20.7 11.2 32.0
14 49 31.7 13.4 52.4 21.3 22.8 9.0 31.8
15 52.5 33.1 10.8 54.6 16.7 22.4 6.7 29.2
16 56 31.7 13.4 52.4 21.3 22.8 9.0 31.8
17 59.5 26.5 16.0 43.9 25.9 20.7 11.2 32.0
18 63 17.7 18.7 29.7 30.5 15.9 13.5 29.5
19 66.5 7.4 22.5 12.3 36.3 8.1 20.4 28.5
20 70 6.2 31.1 10.2 49.3 4.5 31.2 35.6
21 73.5 7.1 18.9 11.6 30.3 6.6 19.7 26.3
22 77 17.5 15.1 28.9 24.7 15.8 9.8 25.7
23 80.5 27.9 13.2 45.8 21.6 23.0 6.7 29.8
24 84 35.5 11.3 58.1 18.4 28.5 5.8 34.3
25 87.5 39.5 9.4 64.8 15.4 33.1 4.8 37.9
26 91 40.5 7.5 66.6 12.3 34.9 3.9 38.7
27 94.5 37.8 5.6 62.1 9.2 32.6 2.9 35.5
28 98 30.3 3.8 50.0 6.1 26.0 1.9 27.9
29 101.5 18.1 1.9 30.0 3.1 15.5 1.0 16.4
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
Design Live Load Envelopes
Service I Strength I Fatigue
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 49
0 21 42 63 84 105
40
20
0
20
40
Moment DC
Moment DW
Zero moment
Dead Load Moments
Distance Along Bridge, ft
M
o
m
e
n
t
,
k
i
p

f
t
0 21 42 63 84 105
100
50
0
50
100
Strength 1  Positive LL M
Strength 1  Negative LL M
Zero moment
Service I  Positive LL M
Service I  Negative LL M
Strength I & Service I Live Load Moments
Distance Along Bridge, ft
M
o
m
e
n
t
,
k
i
p

f
t
0 21 42 63 84 105
40
20
0
20
40
Fatigue  Pos M
Fatigue  Neg M
Zero moment
Range
Fatigue Envelopes
Distance Along Bridge, ft
S
h
e
a
r
s
,
k
i
p
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 50
Zero moment
Range
C3. Limit State Moments and Shears
The service and strength limit states used to design the section are calculated as follows:
(10th points)
Pt. "X" dist +M M +M M +M M M
Range
M
min
0 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
1 3.5 29.0 9.0 45.5 10.5 34.1 9.5 12.3 0.7
2 7 49.0 15.0 76.7 17.1 57.7 15.8 20.9 1.4
3 10.5 61.2 17.8 95.7 19.7 72.3 19.1 26.6 2.2
4 14 65.5 17.4 102.5 18.4 77.3 19.2 29.0 2.9
5 17.5 62.9 14.0 98.8 13.1 73.0 16.2 28.4 3.6
6 21 54.2 7.5 85.7 4.0 61.5 10.0 25.7 4.3
7 24.5 38.8 2.3 62.6 9.3 45.4 0.8 22.3 5.1
8 28 17.5 15.1 30.6 26.4 23.7 14.8 19.3 7.4
9 31.5 6.8 33.0 5.2 50.9 4.1 43.5 19.7 14.7
10 35 25.0 62.3 28.6 94.0 24.5 77.9 26.7 23.4
11 38.5 9.8 39.6 8.8 61.0 5.0 47.7 21.4 15.3
12 42 11.5 24.9 23.1 40.6 17.7 26.5 22.1 10.2
13 45.5 28.0 14.5 48.3 26.1 32.6 15.3 24.0 8.4
14 49 37.9 7.2 63.3 15.6 40.4 7.3 23.8 6.7
15 52.5 40.9 3.0 67.8 9.0 41.4 2.3 21.9 5.1
16 56 37.9 7.2 63.3 15.6 40.4 7.3 23.8 6.7
17 59.5 28.0 14.5 48.3 26.1 32.6 15.3 24.0 8.4
18 63 11.5 24.9 23.1 40.6 17.7 26.5 22.1 10.2
19 66.5 9.8 39.6 8.8 61.0 5.0 47.7 21.4 15.3
20 70 25.0 62.3 28.6 93.9 24.5 77.9 26.7 23.4
21 73.5 6.9 33.0 5.3 50.9 4.1 43.5 19.7 14.7
22 77 17.5 15.1 30.6 26.4 23.7 14.8 19.3 7.4
23 80.5 38.8 2.3 62.6 9.3 45.4 0.8 22.3 5.1
24 84 54.2 7.5 85.7 4.0 61.5 10.0 25.7 4.3
25 87.5 62.9 14.0 98.8 13.1 73.0 16.2 28.4 3.6
26 91 65.5 17.4 102.5 18.4 77.3 19.2 29.0 2.9
27 94.5 61.2 17.8 95.7 19.7 72.3 19.1 26.6 2.2
28 98 49.0 15.0 76.7 17.1 57.7 15.8 20.9 1.4
29 101.5 29.0 9.0 45.5 10.5 34.1 9.5 12.3 0.7
30 105 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0
62.3 94.0 77.3 29.0 2.9
65.5 102.5 77.9 26.7 23.4
Maximum positive
Moments =
MRange = 0.75LL ; M
min
= 0.75LL
Limit State Design Loads
Fatigue Service I Strength I
1.0DC + 1.0DW + 1.5LL 1.0DC + 1.0DW +
1.0LL
1.25DC + 1.50DW +
1.75LL
Maximum negative
Moments =
<−Maximum positive
moment and
corresponding fatigue
values
<−Maximum negative
moment and
corresponding fatigue
values
Defined Units
Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 51
B8. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
B7. Fatigue Limit State
B6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5.14.4]
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
B4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B. Moment Design 54
A. Input Variables 53
Page Contents
This section provides the design for the flat slab superstructure.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\203EdgeBmDesignLds.mcd(R)
References
Flat Slab Edge Beam Design
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 52
M
min.neg
23.4 − ft kip ⋅ ·
M
range.neg
26.7 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
fatigue.neg
77.9 − ft kip ⋅ · M
r.neg
94.0 − ft kip ⋅ · M
neg
62.3 − ft kip ⋅ ·
Fatigue Strength Service Maximum negative moment
and corresponding fatigue
values
M
min.pos
2.9 − ft kip ⋅ ·
M
range.pos
29ft kip ⋅ ·
M
fatigue.pos
77.3 ft kip ⋅ · M
r.pos
102.5 ft kip ⋅ · M
pos
65.5 ft kip ⋅ ·
Fatigue Strength Service Maximum positive moment
and corresponding fatigue
values
A. Input Variables
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 53
spacing
pos
6 in ⋅ :· Proposed bar spacing.......................
bar "8" :· Size of bar.......................................
Initial assumption for area of steel required
b 12in · b 1 ft ⋅ :·
t
slab
18in ·
φ 0.9 ·
t
slab
h =
f
y
60ksi ·
f
c.slab
4.5 ksi ·
M
r.pos
102.5 ft kip ⋅ · where
M
r
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ = Using variables defined in this example.....
a
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f'
c
⋅ b ⋅
= where M
n
A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ =
Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + A'
s
f'
y
⋅ d'
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.85 f'
c
⋅ b b
w
−
( )
⋅ β
1
⋅ h
f
⋅
a
2
h
f
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + =
Nominal flexural resistance
M
r
φ M
n
⋅ = Factored resistance
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both positive and negative moment regions.
B. Moment Design
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 54
M
r.positive.prov
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.pos
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ :·
M
r.positive.prov
104.2 ft kip ⋅ ·
B2. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
Variables: M
r.neg
93.95 ft kip ⋅ ·
f
c.slab
4.5 ksi ·
f
y
60ksi ·
t
slab
h =
φ 0.9 ·
t
slab
18in ·
b 1 ft ·
b 12in ·
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Size of bar....................................... bar
neg
"8" :·
Proposed bar spacing........................ spacing
neg
6 in ⋅ :·
Bar area........................................... A
bar
0.790 in
2
·
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.000 in ·
Area of steel provided per foot of
slab....................................................... A
s.pos
A
bar
1 ⋅ ft
spacing
pos
:·
A
s.pos
1.58in
2
·
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel................. d
s.pos
t
slab
cover
slab
−
dia
2
− :·
d
s.pos
15.5 in ·
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required
Given M
r.pos
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.pos
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ =
Reinforcing steel required........................ A
s.reqd
Find A
s.pos
( )
:·
A
s.reqd
1.57 in
2
·
The area of steel provided, A
s.pos
1.58in
2
· , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
1.57in
2
·
. If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.pos
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed
reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.
Moment capacity provided......................
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 55
z
"moderate exposure"
"severe exposure"
"buried structures"
170
130
100

.
`
,
kip
in
⋅ = Crack width parameter............................
f
sa
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ≤ =
Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the
service limit state....................................
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
M
r.negative.prov
104.2 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r.negative.prov
φ A
s.neg
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.neg
1
2
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ :· Moment capacity provided......................
The area of steel provided, A
s.neg
1.58in
2
· , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
1.43in
2
· .
If not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s.neg
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the design moments.
A
s.reqd
1.43 in
2
·
A
s.reqd
Find A
s.neg
( )
:· Reinforcing steel required........................
M
r.neg
φ A
s.neg
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s.neg
1
2
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ = Given
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required
d
s.neg
15.5 in ·
d
s.neg
t
slab
cover
slab
−
dia
neg
2
− :·
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel.................
A
s.neg
1.58in
2
·
A
s.neg
A
bar.neg
1 ⋅ ft
spacing
neg
:·
Area of steel provided per foot of
slab.......................................................
dia
neg
1.000 in · Bar diameter....................................
A
bar.neg
0.790 in
2
· Bar area.............................................
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 56
T
s
56.614 kip ·
T
s
M
pos
d
s.pos
x
na
3
−
:·
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit
state moment.................................................................
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 4.8 in · to equal x
na
4.8 in · .
x
na
4.8 in ·
x
na
Find x ( ) :·
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.pos
⋅ d
s.pos
x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 4.8 in ⋅ :·
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi ·
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
]
]
]
]
]
:·
Service limit state stress in reinforcement.........................
A 30.0 in
2
·
A
b ( ) 2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:·
Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural
tension reinforcement.....................................................
n
bar
2 ·
n
bar
b
spacing
pos
:· Number of bars per design width of slab..........................
d
c
2.5 in ·
d
c
min t
slab
d
s.pos
− 2 in ⋅
dia
2
+ ,

.
`
,
:·
Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest
bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.)........................
Positive Moment
z 170
kip
in
⋅ :·
aggressive environment Environment
super
"Slightly" ·
The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width
parameter. For this example, a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to
"moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 57
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 4.8 in · to equal x
na
4.8 in · .
x
na
4.8 in ·
x
na
Find x ( ) :·
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.slab
A
s.neg
⋅ d
s.neg
x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 4.8 in ⋅ :·
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi ·
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
]
]
]
]
]
:· Service limit state stress in reinforcement..........................
A 30.0 in
2
·
A
b ( ) 2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:·
Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural
tension reinforcement.....................................................
n
bar
2 ·
n
bar
b
spacing
neg
:· Number of bars per design width of slab..........................
d
c
2.5 in ·
d
c
min t
slab
d
s.neg
− 2 in ⋅
dia
neg
2
+ ,

.
`
,
:·
Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest
bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.)........................
Negative Moment
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4a
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4a
"OK, crack control for +M is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for +M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:·
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
f
s.actual
35.8 ksi ·
f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.pos
:·
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit
state moment.................................................................
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 58
β
1
max 0.85 0.05
f
c.slab
4000 psi ⋅ −
1000 psi ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.65 ,
]
]
]
:·
β
1
0.825 ·
Distance from extreme compression fiber
to the neutral axis of section.................... c
pos
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:· and c
neg
A
s.neg
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:·
c
pos
2.5 in ·
c
neg
2.5 in ·
Effective depth from extreme compression
fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement d
e
A
s
f
ps
⋅ d
p
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
⋅ +
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ +
=
Simplifying for this example.............. d
e.pos
d
s.pos
:· and d
e.neg
d
s.neg
:·
d
e.pos
15.5 in ·
d
e.neg
15.5 in ·
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit
state moment................................................................. T
s
M
neg
d
s.neg
x
na
3
−
:·
T
s
53.872 kip ·
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit
state moment............................................................... f
s.actual
T
s
A
s.neg
:·
f
s.actual
34.1 ksi ·
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4b
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for M not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4b
"OK, crack control for M is satisfied" ·
B4. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Maximum Reinforcement
The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.
The greater reinforcement from the positive and negative moment sections is checked.
Area of steel provided............................. A
s.pos
1.58in
2
·
A
s.neg
1.58in
2
·
Stress block factor................................
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 59
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.positive.prov
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:·
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.positive.prov
104.2 ft kip ⋅ · , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
33ft kip ⋅ · .
M
r.reqd
33.0 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r.pos
⋅ ,
( )
:· Required flexural resistance (+M)............
M
cr
27.5 kip ft ⋅ ·
M
cr
f
r
S ⋅ :· Cracking moment...................................
S 648.0 in
3
·
S
b t
slab
2
⋅
6
:· Section modulus....................................
f
r
509.1 psi ·
f
r
0.24 f
c.slab
ksi ⋅ ⋅ :· Modulus of Rupture...............................
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Minimum Reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in M region" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in M region"
c
neg
d
e.neg
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced in M region, see LRFD eq. C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:·
The
c
neg
d
e.neg
0.162 · ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in +M region" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement in +M region"
c
pos
d
e.pos
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced in +M region, see LRFD eq. C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:·
The
c
pos
d
e.pos
0.162 · ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 60
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" ·
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
ST
≤ if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:·
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
spacing
ST
9.4 in ·
spacing
ST
min
b
A
ST
A
bar
3 t
slab
⋅ , 18 in ⋅ ,

.
`
,
:·
Maximum spacing for shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement.......................
A
ST
0.40in
2
·
A
ST
0.11 ksi ⋅ A
g
⋅
f
y
:·
Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature
reinforcement.........................................
A
g
216.0 in
2
·
A
g
b t
slab
⋅ :· Gross area of section..............................
dia 0.625 in · Bar diameter.....................................
A
bar
0.31in
2
· Bar area...........................................
bar
spa.st
9 in ⋅ :· Bar spacing......................................
bar
st
"5" :· Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )....................
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided
B5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" M
r.positive.prov
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:·
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.negative.prov
104.2 ft kip ⋅ · , exceeds minimum requirements,
M
r.reqd
33ft kip ⋅ · .
M
r.reqd
33.0 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r.neg
⋅ ,
( )
:· Required flexural resistance (M)..............
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 61
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" ·
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" bar
spa.dist
MaxSpacing
DistR
≤ if
"NG, distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise
:·
The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement
MaxSpacing
DistR
13.9 in ·
MaxSpacing
DistR
b
A
s.DistR
A
bar

.
`
,
:·
Maximum spacing for secondary
reinforcement.........................................
A
s.DistR
0.27in
2
·
A
s.DistR
A
s.pos
%A
steel
⋅ :· Required area for secondary reinforcement.
%A
steel
0.17 ·
%A
steel
min
100
L
span
ft
% 50% ,

.
`
,
:·
The area for secondary reinforcement should
not exceed 50% of the area for primary
reinforcement........................................
dia 0.625 in · Bar diameter.....................................
A
bar
0.31in
2
· Bar area...........................................
bar
spa.dist
12 in ⋅ :· Bar spacing......................................
bar
dist
"5" :· Size of bar "4" "5" "6" ( )....................
Distribution reinforcement provided
Transverse distribution reinforcement shall be placed in the bottom of the slab. The amount to place is based
on a percentage of the longitudinal main steel.
B6. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5.14.4]
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 62
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" ·
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" f
t
f
t.allow
≤ if
"NG, fatigue stress range requirements for +M region" otherwise
:·
f
t
15.038 ksi ·
f
t
M
range.pos
A
s.pos
d
s.pos
c
pos
3
−

.
`
,
⋅
:· Actual stress range.................................
f
t.allow
23.894 ksi ·
f
t.allow
21 ksi ⋅ 0.33 f
min
⋅ −
( )
8 ksi ⋅ r_h ( ) ⋅ + :·
Ratio of r/h is taken as r_h 0.3 :· , therefore
the allowable stress range is given by........
f
min
1.498 − ksi ·
f
min
M
min.pos
A
s.pos
d
s.pos
c
pos
3
−

.
`
,
⋅
:·
Minimum stress in reinforcement due to
minimum live load..................................
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" ·
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" f
fatigue.pos
f
tensile
> if
"Use Uncracked section" otherwise
:·
f
fatigue.pos
1.431 ksi ·
f
fatigue.pos
M
fatigue.pos
S
:· Stress due to positive moment.................
Positive Moment Region
f
tensile
0.202 ksi ·
f
tensile
0.095 f
c.slab
ksi ⋅ :· Allowable tensile stress for fatigue............
The section properties for fatigue shall be based on cracked sections where the sum of stresses due to unfactored
permanent loads and 1.5 times the fatigue load is tensile and exceeds 0.095 f
c
.
B7. Fatigue Limit State
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 63
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for M region" ·
LRFD
5.5.3.2
"OK, fatigue stress range requirement for M region" f
t
f
t.allow
≤ if
"NG, fatigue stress range requirements for M region" otherwise
:·
f
t
13.84 ksi ·
f
t
M
range.neg
A
s.neg
d
s.neg
c
neg
3
−

.
`
,
⋅
:· Actual stress range.................................
f
t.allow
27.393 ksi ·
f
t.allow
21 ksi ⋅ 0.33 f
min
⋅ −
( )
8 ksi ⋅ r_h ( ) ⋅ + :·
Ratio of r/h is taken as 0.3, therefore the
allowable stress range is given by.............
f
min
12.099 − ksi ·
f
min
M
min.neg
A
s.neg
d
s.neg
c
neg
3
−

.
`
,
⋅
:·
Minimum stress in reinforcement due to
minimum live load..................................
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" ·
Fatigue
section
"Use Cracked section" f
fatigue.neg
f
tensile
> if
"Use Uncracked section" otherwise
:·
f
fatigue.neg
1.443 ksi ·
f
fatigue.neg
M
fatigue.neg
S
:· Stress due to positive moment..................
Negative Moment Region
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 64
Defined Units
LRFD
5.14.4
"OK, distribution reinforcement requirements" ·
bar
spa.dist
12.0 in · Bottom spacing
bar
dist
"5" · Bar size
Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" ·
bar
spa.st
9.0 in · Bottom spacing
bar
st
"5" · Bar size
Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing
spacing
pos
6.0 in · Bottom spacing
bar "8" · Bottom bar size (+M)
spacing
neg
6.0 in · Top spacing
bar
neg
"8" · Top bar size (M)
Main reinforcing
B8. Summary of Reinforcement Provided
Superstructure Design 2.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 65
C. Design Summary 73
B3. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint
B2. Temperature Change only @ 115% Design (SDG 6.4.2)
B1. Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature Design (SDG 6.4.2)
B. Expansion Joint Design 71
A4. Movement [6.4.2]
A3. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
A2. Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
A1. Bridge Geometry
A. Input Variables 68
FDOT Criteria 67
LRFD Criteria 67
Page Contents
This section provides the design of the bridge expansion joints.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\204EdgeBeam.mcd(R)
References
Expansion Joint Design
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 66
LRFD Criteria
Uniform Temperature [3.12.2]
Superseded by SDG 2.7.2 and SDG 6.4.
Shrinkage and Creep [5.4.2.3]
Movement and Loads  General [14.4.1]
Bridge Joints [14.5]
FDOT Criteria
Uniform Temperature  Joints and Bearings [SDG 2.7.2]
Delete LRFD [3.12.2] and substitute in lieu thereof SDG Chapter 6.
Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 67
∆t
fall
25°F · ∆t
fall
t
mean
t
low
− :· Temperature fall.......
∆t
rise
25°F · ∆t
rise
t
high
t
mean
− :· Temperature rise......
t
low
45°F · Temperature low......
t
high
95°F · Temperature high.....
t
mean
70°F · Temperature mean....
The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example.
Temperature
(Degrees Fahrenheit)
Structural Material
of Superstructure
Mean High Low Range
Concrete Only 70 95 45 50
Concrete Deck on Steel Girder 70 110 30 80
Steel Only 70 120 30 90
A2. Temperature Movement [SDG 6.3]
L
design
52.5 ft ⋅ :· Design length for movement
Skew 30 − deg · Skew angle....................
L
span
35ft · Bridge design span length..
L
bridge
105 ft · Overall bridge length.......
A1. Bridge Geometry
A. Input Variables
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 68
For silicone seals, displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs. For this example,
these displacements are ignored.
∆x
TempF
0.05in · ∆x
TempF
α
t
∆t
fall
⋅ sin Skew ( ) L
design
⋅
( )
⋅ :· Temperature Fall........
∆x
TempR
0.05in · ∆x
TempR
α
t
∆t
rise
⋅ sin Skew ( ) ⋅ L
design
⋅ :· Temperature rise........
Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents
∆z
TempF
0.08in · ∆z
TempF
α
t
∆t
fall
⋅ cos Skew ( ) ⋅ L
design
⋅ :· Temperature Fall........
∆z
TempR
0.08in · ∆z
TempR
α
t
∆t
rise
⋅ cos Skew ( ) ⋅ L
design
⋅ :· Temperature rise.........
Displacements normal to skew at top of bents
The movement along the beam due to temperature should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or
skew.
Temperature
A4. Movement [6.4.2]
W 1 in ⋅ :· Proposed joint width at 70
o
F............
W
min
5
8
in ⋅ :· Minimum joint width at 70
o
F.............
W
max
2 in ⋅ :· Maximum joint width........................
For new construction, use only the joint types listed in the preceding table. A typical joint for most flat slab
bridges is the silicone seal.
Joint Type Maximum Joint Width *
Poured Rubber ¾”
Silicone Seal 2”
Strip Seal 3”
Modular Joint Unlimited
Finger Joint Unlimited
*Joints in sidewalks must meet all requirements of Americans with
Disabilities Act.
A3. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.4]
α
t
6 10
6 −
×
1
°F
·
Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD
5.4.2.2] for normal weight
concrete.............
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 69
For silicone seals, displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs. For this example,
these displacements are ignored.
∆x
CS
0.16in ·
∆x
CS
ε
CS
sin Skew ( ) ⋅ L
design
⋅ :·
Displacements parallel to skew at top
of bents...........................................
∆z
CS
0.27in ·
∆z
CS
ε
CS
cos Skew ( ) ⋅ L
design
⋅ :·
Displacements normal to skew at top
of bents...........................................
The movement along the beam due to creep and shrinkage should be resolved along the axis of the expansion
joint or skew.
ε
CS
0.00050 · ε
CS
ε
CR
ε
SH
+ :·
Strain due to creep and shrinkage
ε
SH
0.0005 :· Shrinkage strain.....................................
ε
CR
0. :· Creep strain...........................................
Shrinkage of the concrete for the flat slab is castinplace flat slab will be taken as per LRFD 5.4.3.2.1 •
as the total shrinkage after one year of drying.
Creep of the concrete for expansion joint design is ignored. •
The following assumptions are used in this design example:
Creep and Shrinkage
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 70
W
Tclose
0.91in ·
W
Tclose
W 1.15 ∆z
TempR
⋅ − :·
Joint width from closing caused by factored
temperature rise......................................
W
Topen
1.09in ·
W
Topen
W 1.15 ∆z
TempF
⋅ + :·
Joint width from opening caused by factored
temperature fall......................................
Using variables defined in this example,
∆z
rise.or.fall
1.15 ∆z
temperature.rise.or.fall
⋅ =
Movement from factored effects of temperature rise
B2. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
CST
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" ·
CST
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" W
CSTopen
W
max
≤ if
"NG, joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise
:·
The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.
W
CSTopen
1.35in ·
W
CSTopen
W ∆
CST
+ :·
Joint width from opening caused by creep,
shrinkage, and temperature......................
∆
CST
0.35 in ·
∆
CST
∆z
CS
∆z
TempF
+ :· Using variables defined in this example......
∆z
Temperature.Fall
∆z
temperature.fall
∆z
creep.shrinkage
+ =
Movement from the combination of
temperature fall, creep, and shrinkage.......
The combination of creep, shrinkage, and temperature fall tends to "open" the expansion joint.
B1. Movement from Creep, Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6.4.2)
Movement from factored effects of temperature •
Movement from the combination of temperature fall, creep, and shrinkage •
For conventional concrete structures, the movement is based on the greater of two cases:
B. Expansion Joint Design
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 71
The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.
Temperature
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" W
Topen
W
max
≤ if
"NG, joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise
:·
Temperature
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" ·
The joint width from closing should not be less than the minimum joint width.
Temperature
Jt_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" W
Tclose
W
min
≥ if
"NG, joint width exceeds minimum joint width" otherwise
:·
Temperature
Jt_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" ·
B3. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint
For field temperatures other than 70
o
F, a temperature adjustment is
provided. The adjustment is used during construction to obtain the desired
joint width.............................................................................................
T
Adj
∆z
TempR
∆t
rise
:·
T
Adj
0.0033
in
°F
·
B4. Design Movement/Strain
For the lateral forces into the substructure piles, the following strain due to
temperature, creep and shrinkage will be utilized...................................... ε
CST
ε
CR
ε
SH
+ α
t
∆t
fall
⋅ +
( )
:·
ε
CST
0.00065 ·
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 72
Defined Units
T
Adj
0.0033
in
°F
·
Adjustment for field temperatures other
than 70
o
................................................
W
min
0.625 in · ........ Temperature
Jt_Close
"OK, joint width is not less than minimum joint width" ·
W
Tclose
0.91in ·
Joint width from closing caused by
factored temperature..............................
W
max
2 in · ........ Temperature
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" ·
W
Topen
1.09in ·
Joint width from opening caused by
factored temperature..............................
W
max
2 in · ........ CST
Jt_Open
"OK, joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" ·
W
CSTopen
1.35in ·
Joint width from opening caused by creep,
shrinkage, and temperature......................
W 1 in · Joint width at 70
o
...................................
C. Design Summary
Superstructure Design 2.05 Expansion Joint Design 73
B4. End Bent and Pier Dead load (DC, DW) Summary
B3. Pier Dead loads
B2. End Bent Dead loads
B1. Beam Dead loads
B. Dead Loads (DC, DW) 76
A4. Pile Geometry
A3. Footing Geometry
A2. Pier Geometry
A1. End Bent Geometry
A. General Criteria 75
Page Contents
This section provides the design dead loads applied to the substructure from the superstructure. The
selfweight of the substructure is generated by the analysis program for the substructure model.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\205ExpJt.mcd(R)
Reference
Bent 2 Cap Design Loads
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 74
(N ote: For this design ex ample, only the intermediate bent will be evaluated).
Pile
size
18in · Pile Size....................................
Pile
embed
1 ft · Pile Embedment Depth................
L 102.86 ft · Length of intermediate bent cap...
b 3.5 ft · Width of intermediate bent cap.....
h 2.5 ft · Depth of intermediate bent cap....
A1. Intermediate Bent Geometry
A. General Criteria
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 75
(Note: These are the same values summarized in Sect. 2.01 Design Loads  Dead Load
Analysis utilizing
R
DW
0.6 klf · R
DW
V
DW.left
V
DW.right
+ :·
R
DC
9.2 klf · R
DC
V
DC.left
V
DC.right
+ :· the reactions at B:
V
DW.right
0.26klf · V
DW.right
0.5 w
DW
⋅ L
span
⋅ :·
V
DW.left
0.32klf · V
DW.left
0.6 w
DW
⋅ L
span
⋅ :· similarly
V
DC.right
4.2 klf · V
DC.right
0.5 w
DC
⋅ L
span
⋅ :·
V
DC.left
5.04klf · V
DC.left
0.6 w
DC
⋅ L
span
⋅ :· For a 1' design strip,
w
DW
0.015 ksf ⋅ :·
w
DC
0.240 ksf ⋅ :·
where based on previous calculations for dead loads:
R
B
V
left
V
right
+ = Reaction at B:
The dead loads of the superstructure (moment and shears) were previously computed on a per foot basis
utilizing the AISC's Moments, Shears and Reactions for Continuous Highway Bridges, published 1966. The dead
loads and shear could have been calculated utilizing the AISC's Steel Construction Manual  Beam Diagrams and
Deflections charts. Based on the following chart, the reactions at the intermediate bent (Point B) can be calculated.
Dead Loads
B1. Longitudinal Analysis
B. Loads (DC, DW, LL)
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 76
Pier cap design
The loads calculated in the longitudinal analysis can be applied transversely for (1) design of the pier cap and (2)
design of the maximum pile force.
B1. Transverse Analysis
R
LL.EB
9.2 klf ·
R
LL.EB
R
LL.EB
E
EB
:·
Live load reaction for an edge
beam strip, E
EB
6 ft · .........
(Note: Includes lane load and impact on truck;
112.9kip = truck (64.7kip)x1.33x0.5 Factor
truck
+
lane(26.88kipx0.446 Factor
lane
)).
R
LL.EB
55.0 kip ⋅ :· HL93 live load reaction at B..
Since the live load applied to the edge beam is different than an interior strip, the live load reaction for the
edge beam is computed separately,
R
LL.Interior
9 klf ·
R
LL.Interior
R
LL
E
:·
Live load reaction for an
interior strip, E 12.5 ft · ........
(Note: Includes lane load and impact on truck;
112.9kip = truck (64.7kipx1.33)+lane(26.88kip)).
R
LL
112.9 kip ⋅ :· HL93 live load reaction at B
The live load reaction at the intermediate bent can be computed utilizing computer programs or similar methods.
For purposes of this design example, the HL93 live load reaction at B is given as:
Live loads
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 77
The live loads can be positioned to maximize the loads for the design of the intermediate end bent cap. For
instance, for the maximum positive moment in the intermediate end bent cap, the influence line is shaped as
follows:
the corresponding live load loading is therefore,
For the maximum negative moment in the intermediate end bent cap, the influence line is shaped as follows:
the corresponding live load loading is therefore,
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 78
The dead load DC, DW for both superstructure and cap were evaluated, combined with the appropriate live load
utilizing LARSA 2000. Any frame analysis program could be utilized to obtain the results. In addition, the load
combinations were performed within LARSA for both the Service I and Strength I limit states. The following is
a summary of the results:
Max. +M
(ftkip)
V
(kip)
Max. M
(ftkip)
V
(kip)
Superstructure DC Moment 78.1 59.3 113.0 59.3
Superstructure DW Moment 5.1 3.9 7.4 3.9
Substructure Cap DC Moment 11.1 8.5 16.1 8.5
LL Moment 107.9 61.4 130.5 61.4
Service I Limit State 202.4 126.6 267.3 133.2
Strength I Limit State 352.5 220.5 465.9 232.1
Max. Service I Reaction 191.9  256.5 
Max. Strength I Reaction 334.1  447.0 
LARSA 2000 Analysis Results
Defined Units
Substructure Design 3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 79
E. Summary 96
D2. Transverse Reinforcement
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance
D. Shear Design [LRFD 5.8] 94
C3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
C2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
C1. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
C. Negative Moment Design 89
B5. Mass Concrete Provisions
B4. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
B2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
B. Positive Moment Design 82
A. Input Variables 81
Page Contents
This section provides the criteria for the intermediate bent cap design.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\301DsnLds.mcd(R)
References
Bent 2 Cap Design
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 80
A. Input Variables
Design Loads  Moments and Shears
Moment (M)  Service........................... M
Service1.neg
267.3 ft kip ⋅ ·
Moment (M)  Strength......................... M
Strength1.neg
465.9 ft kip ⋅ ·
Corresponding Shear (M)  Strength........ V
Strength1.neg
232.1 kip ·
Moment (+M)  Service.......................... M
Service1.pos
202.3 ft kip ⋅ ·
Moment (+M)  Strength......................... M
Strength1.pos
352.5 ft kip ⋅ ·
Corresponding Shear (+M)  Strength....... V
Strength1.pos
220.5 kip ·
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 81
b 42in ·
h 30in ·
φ 0.9 ·
f
y
60ksi ·
f
c.sub
5.5 ksi · where
M
r
φ A
s.pos
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s.pos
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.slab
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ = Using variables defined in this example......
B1. Positive Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
a
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f'
c
⋅ b ⋅
=
M
n
A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ =
For a rectangular, nonprestressed section,
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + A'
s
f'
y
⋅ d'
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.85 f'
c
⋅ b b
w
−
( )
⋅ β
1
⋅ h
f
⋅
a
2
h
f
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + =
Nominal flexural resistance
M
r
φ M
n
⋅ =
Factored resistance
M
r
352.5 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r
M
Strength1.pos
:·
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both positive and negative moment regions.
If this arrangement is not possible, give preference to maintaining the same spacing between the top and •
bottom reinforcement. Same grid pattern allows the concrete vibrator to be more effective in reaching
the full depth of the cap.
Use the same size and spacing of reinforcing for both the negative and positive moment regions. This •
prevents field errors whereas the top steel is mistakenly placed at the bottom or vice versa.
A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.
B. Positive Moment Design
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 82
Distance from extreme compressive fiber to
centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #5
stirrup).................................................. d
s
h cover
sub
−
dia
2
−
5
8
in − :·
d
s
25.9 in ·
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
φ A
s
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ =
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
:·
A
s.reqd
3.25 in
2
·
The area of steel provided, A
s
3.95in
2
· , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
3.25in
2
· . If
not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided..................... M
r.pos
φ A
s
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ :·
M
r.pos
449.2 ft kip ⋅ ·
B2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Maximum Reinforcement
The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars................................ n
bar
5 :·
Size of bar....................................... bar "8" :·
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
Bar area........................................... A
bar
0.790 in
2
·
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.000 in ·
Equivalent bar spacing....................... bar
spa
8.7 in ·
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
n
bar
A
bar
⋅ :·
A
s
3.95in
2
·
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 83
M
cr
295.5 kip ft ⋅ ·
M
cr
f
r
S ⋅ :· Cracking moment...................................
S 3.6 ft
3
·
S
b h
2
⋅
6
:· Section modulus of cap...........................
f
r
562.8 psi ·
f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi ⋅ ⋅ :· Modulus of Rupture...............................
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Minimum Reinforcement
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied"
c
d
e
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced, see LRFD equation C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:·
The
c
d
e
0.06 · ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
d
e
25.9 in ·
d
e
d
s
:· for nonprestressed sections..............
d
e
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
⋅ +
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ +
=
Effective depth from extreme compression
fiber to centroid of the tensile
reinforcement........................................
c 1.6 in ·
c
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:·
Distance from extreme compression fiber
to the neutral axis of section....................
β
1
0.775 ·
β
1
max 0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4000 psi ⋅ −
1000 psi ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.65 ,
]
]
]
:· Stress block factor.................................
A
s
3.95in
2
·
Area of steel provided.............................
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 84
A 42.0 in
2
·
A
b
( )
2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:·
Effective tension area of concrete
surrounding the flexural tension
reinforcement........................................
n
bar
5 · Number of bars per design width of slab...
d
c
2.5 in ·
d
c
min h d
s
− 2 in ⋅
dia
2
+ ,

.
`
,
:·
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar (concrete cover need
not exceed 2 in.)....................................
z 170
kip
in
⋅ :·
aggressive environment Environment
super
"Slightly" ·
The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width
parameter. For this example, a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to
"moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".
z
"moderate exposure"
"severe exposure"
"buried structures"
170
130
100

.
`
,
kip
in
⋅ = Crack width parameter............................
f
sa
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ≤ =
Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the
service limit state....................................
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the
longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.
The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service
limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.
B3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" M
r.pos
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:·
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.pos
449.2 ft kip ⋅ · , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
354.6 ft kip ⋅ · .
M
r.reqd
354.6 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r
⋅ ,
( )
:· Required flexural resistance.............
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 85
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4
"OK, crack control for positive moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4
"OK, crack control for positive moment is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for positive moment not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:·
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
f
s.actual
26.9 ksi ·
f
s.actual
T
s
A
s
:·
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment.......................
T
s
106.343 kip ·
T
s
M
Service1.pos
d
s
x
na
3
−
:·
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment. .....................
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 9.1 in · to equal x
na
9.1 in · .
x
na
9.1 in ·
x
na
Find x ( ) :·
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s
⋅ d
s
x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 9.1 in ⋅ :·
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi ·
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
]
]
]
]
]
:· Service limit state stress in reinforcement..
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 86
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" ·
LRFD
5.7.10.8
"OK, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" bar
spa.st
spacing
shrink.temp
≤ if
"NG, minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise
:·
The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
spacing
shrink.temp
12.0 in ·
spacing
shrink.temp
min
b
A
shrink.temp
A
bar
2 ⋅
12 in ⋅ ,

.
`
,
b 48in <
( )
h 48in <
( )
⋅ if
100 A
bar
⋅
min 2 d
c
⋅ dia + 3in ,
( )
otherwise
:·
Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement
A
shrink.temp
1.9 in
2
·
A
shrink.temp
0.0015 A
g
⋅ :·
Minimum area of shrinkage and
temperature reinforcement......................
A
g
1260.0 in
2
·
A
g
b h ⋅ :· Gross area of section..............................
dia 0.625 in · Bar diameter....................................
A
bar
0.31in
2
· Bar area...........................................
bar
spa.st
12 in ⋅ :· Spacing of bar.................................
bar
st
"5" ·
bar
st
"5" b 48in <
( )
h 48in <
( )
⋅ if
"6" otherwise
:· Size of bar.......................................
Initial assumption for area of steel required
B4. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.10.8.2]
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 87
B5. Mass Concrete Provisions
Surface area of pier cap.......................... Surface
cap
2 b ⋅ h ⋅ 2b 2h +
( )
L ⋅ + :·
Surface
cap
1251.8 ft
2
·
Volume of pier cap................................. Volume
cap
b h ⋅ L ⋅ :·
Volume
cap
900 ft
3
·
Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio,
Volume
cap
Surface
cap
0.719 ft · , exceeds 1 ft and any
dimension exceeds 3 feet
SDG
3.9
"Use mass concrete provisions"
Volume
cap
Surface
cap
1.0 ft ⋅ > b 3ft > h 3ft > ∨
( )
∧ if
"Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise
:·
SDG
3.9
"Use regular concrete provisions" ·
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 88
b 42in ·
h 30in ·
φ 0.9 ·
f
y
60ksi ·
f
c.sub
5.5 ksi · where
Using variables defined in this example,
C1. Negative Moment Region Design  Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3.2]
a
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f'
c
⋅ b ⋅
=
M
n
A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ =
For a rectangular, nonprestressed section,
M
n
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + A'
s
f'
y
⋅ d'
s
a
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.85 f'
c
⋅ b b
w
−
( )
⋅ β
1
⋅ h
f
⋅
a
2
h
f
2
−

.
`
,
⋅ + =
Nominal flexural resistance
M
r
φ M
n
⋅ =
Factored resistance
M
r
465.9 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r
M
Strength1.neg
:·
The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment, then
checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control, minimum reinforcement, maximum
reinforcement, shrinkage and temperature reinforcement, and distribution of reinforcement. The procedure is
the same for both positive and negative moment regions.
If this arrangement is not possible, the top and bottom reinforcement should be spaced as a multiple of each
other. This pattern places the top and bottom bars in the same grid pattern, and any additional steel is placed
between these bars.
The same size and spacing of reinforcing should be utilized for both the negative and positive moment
regions.
A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.
C. Negative Moment Design
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 89
d
s
h cover
sub
−
dia
2
−
5
8
in − :·
d
s
25.9 in ·
Solve the quadratic equation for the area of
steel required......................................... Given M
r
φ A
s
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ =
Area of steel required.............................. A
s.reqd
Find A
s
( )
:·
A
s.reqd
4.10 in
2
·
The area of steel provided, A
s
4.74in
2
· , should be greater than the area of steel required, A
s.reqd
4.10in
2
· . If
not, decrease the spacing of the reinforcement. Once A
s
is greater than A
s.reqd
, the proposed reinforcing is
adequate for the applied moments.
Moment capacity provided..................... M
r.neg
φ A
s
⋅ f
y
⋅ d
s
1
2
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ −
]
]
]
⋅ :·
M
r.neg
536.5 ft kip ⋅ ·
C2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.3]
Maximum Reinforcement
The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.
Area of steel provided.............................
A
s
4.74in
2
·
Initial assumption for area of steel required
Number of bars................................ n
bar
6 :·
Size of bar....................................... bar "8" :·
Note: if bar spacing is "1", the spacing is less than 3", and a bigger bar size should be selected.
Bar area........................................... A
bar
0.790 in
2
·
Bar diameter.................................... dia 1.000 in ·
Equivalent bar spacing...................... bar
spa
8.7 in ·
Area of steel provided............................. A
s
n
bar
A
bar
⋅ :·
A
s
4.74in
2
·
Distance from extreme compressive fiber
to centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a
#5 stirrup).............................................
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 90
The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.2 times greater than
the cracking moment.
Modulus of Rupture................................ f
r
0.24 f
c.sub
ksi ⋅ ⋅ :·
f
r
562.8 psi ·
Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to
the neutral axis of the composite section... y
h
2
:·
y 15.0 in ·
Moment of inertia for the section............. I
1
12
b ⋅ h
3
⋅ :·
I 4.6 ft
4
·
Section modulus of cap........................... S
b h
2
⋅
6
:·
S 3.6 ft
3
·
Cracking moment................................... M
cr
f
r
S ⋅ :·
M
cr
295.5 kip ft ⋅ ·
s
Stress block factor................................. β
1
max 0.85 0.05
f
c.sub
4000 psi ⋅ −
1000 psi ⋅

.
`
,
⋅ − 0.65 ,
]
]
]
:·
β
1
0.775 ·
Distance from extreme compression fiber
to the neutral axis of section.................... c
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ β
1
⋅ b ⋅
:·
c 1.9 in ·
Effective depth from extreme compression
fiber to centroid of the tensile
reinforcement........................................ d
e
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ d
p
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ d
s
⋅ +
A
ps
f
ps
⋅ A
s
f
y
⋅ +
=
for nonprestressed sections.............. d
e
d
s
:·
d
e
25.9 in ·
The
c
d
e
0.072 · ratio should be less than 0.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied"
c
d
e
0.42 ≤ if
"NG, section is overreinforced, see LRFD equation C5.7.3.3.11" otherwise
:·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.1
"OK, maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied" ·
Minimum Reinforcement
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 91
n
bar
6 ·
Number of bars per design width of slab...
d
c
2.5 in ·
d
c
min h d
s
− 2 in ⋅
dia
2
+ ,

.
`
,
:·
Distance from extreme tension fiber to
center of closest bar (concrete cover need
not exceed 2 in.)....................................
z 170
kip
in
⋅ :·
Environment
super
"Slightly" ·
The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width
parameter. For this example, a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to
"moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".
z
"moderate exposure"
"severe exposure"
"buried structures"
170
130
100

.
`
,
kip
in
⋅ = Crack width parameter...........................
f
sa
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ≤ =
Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the
service limit state....................................
Concrete is subjected to cracking. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases
the longevity of the structure. Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the
reinforcement. The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not
exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5.7.3.4). The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than
crack widths.
C3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.3.4]
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.2
"OK, minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" M
r.neg
M
r.reqd
≥ if
"NG, reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise
:·
Check that the capacity provided, M
r.neg
536.5 ft kip ⋅ · , exceeds minimum requirements, M
r.reqd
354.6 ft kip ⋅ · .
M
r.reqd
354.6 ft kip ⋅ ·
M
r.reqd
min 1.2 M
cr
⋅ 133 % ⋅ M
r
⋅ ,
( )
:· Required flexural resistance.............
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 92
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4
"OK, crack control for positive moment is satisfied" ·
LRFD
5.7.3.3.4
"OK, crack control for positive moment is satisfied" f
s.actual
f
sa
≤ if
"NG, crack control for positive moment not satisfied, provide more reinforcement" otherwise
:·
The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit
state moment.
f
s.actual
29.9 ksi ·
f
s.actual
T
s
A
s
:·
Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment.......................
T
s
141.9 kip ·
T
s
M
Service1.neg
d
s
x
na
3
−
:·
Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to
service limit state moment. .....................
Compare the calculated neutral axis x
na
with the initial assumption x . If the values are not equal, adjust
x 9.8 in · to equal x
na
9.8 in · .
x
na
9.8 in ·
x
na
Find x ( ) :·
1
2
b ⋅ x
2
⋅
E
s
E
c.sub
A
s
⋅ d
s
x −
( )
⋅ = Given
x 9.8 in ⋅ :·
The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement. This
process is iterative, so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.
f
sa
36.0 ksi ·
f
sa
min
z
d
c
A ⋅
( )
1
3
0.6 f
y
⋅ ,
]
]
]
]
]
:· Service limit state stress in reinforcement..
A 35.0 in
2
·
A
b
( )
2 d
c
⋅
( )
⋅
n
bar
:·
Effective tension area of concrete
surrounding the flexural tension
reinforcement........................................
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 93
LRFD
5.8.2.4
" Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" ·
LRFD
5.8.2.4
" Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" V
u
0.5 φ
v
⋅ V
c
V
p
+
( )
⋅ > if
" Transverse reinforcement not required, provide minimum reinforcement" otherwise
:·
Is transverse reinforcement required?
V
p
0 kip ⋅ :·
The pier cap has no prestressing.
V
u
0.5 φ
v
⋅ V
c
V
p
+
( )
⋅ >
Transverse reinforcement shall be provided in the pier cap according to LRFD 5.8.2.4.
D2. Transverse Reinforcement
V
c
156.6 kip ·
V
c
0.0316 β ⋅ f
c.sub
ksi ⋅ ⋅ b
v
⋅ d
v
⋅ :·
Nominal shear resistance of concrete
section..................................................
θ 45 deg ⋅ :·
β 2 :·
The pier cap is a nonprestressed concrete section not subjected to axial tension. It should also have the
least amount of transverse reinforcement specified in LRFD 5.8.2.5 or an overall depth of less than 16 in.
Determination of β and θ (LRFD 5.8.3.4)
d
v
25.2 in ·
d
v
max d
s
a
2
− 0.9 d
s
⋅ , 0.72 h ⋅ ,

.
`
,
:·
a 1.448 in ·
a
A
s
f
y
⋅
0.85 f
c.sub
⋅ b ⋅
:· Effective shear depth..............................
b
v
42.0 in ·
b
v
b :· Effective width of the section..................
V
u
V
Strength1.neg
:·
D1. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance
D. Shear Design [LRFD 5.8]
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 94
V
s
101.3 kip ·
Spacing of stirrups
Minimum transverse reinforcement.......... s
min
A
v
f
y
⋅
0.0316 b
v
⋅ f
c.sub
ksi ⋅ ⋅
:·
s
min
23.9 in ·
Transverse reinforcement required........... s
req
if V
s
0 ≤ s
min
,
A
v
f
y
⋅ d
v
⋅ cot θ ( ) ⋅
V
s
,

.
`
,
:·
s
req
18.5 in ·
Minimum transverse reinforcement
required................................................ s min s
min
s
req
,
( )
:·
s 18.5 in ·
Maximum transverse reinforcement
s
max
if
V
u
φ
v
V
p
⋅ −
φ
v
b
v
d
v
⋅
( )
⋅
0.125 f
c.sub
⋅ < min 0.8 d
v
⋅ 24 in ⋅ ,
( )
, min 0.4 d
v
⋅ 12 in ⋅ ,
( )
,
]
]
]
]
:·
s
max
20.121 in ·
Spacing of transverse reinforcement
cannot exceed the following spacing........ spacing if s
max
s > s , s
max
,
( )
:·
spacing 18.5 in ·
Stirrups
Size of stirrup bar "4" "5" "6" "7" ( )... bar "5" :·
Number of stirrup bars "single" "double" ( )
.............................. n
bar
"double" :·
Area of shear reinforcement.................... A
v
1.240 in
2
·
Diameter of shear reinforcement.............. dia 0.625 in ·
Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement
V
n
V
c
V
p
+ V
s
+ =
where............................................. V
n
min
V
u
φ
v
0.25 f
c.sub
⋅ b
v
⋅ d
v
⋅ V
p
+ ,

.
`
,
:·
V
n
257.9 kip ·
and................................................. V
s
V
n
V
c
− V
p
− :·
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 95
Defined Units
bar
spa.st
12in · Bar spacing.......
bar
shrink.temp
"5" · Bar size.............
Temperature and Shrinkage
n
bar
"double" · Type of stirrups.
spacing 18.5 in · Bar spacing........
bar "5" · Bar size.............
Transverse reinforcement
bar
spa.posM
8.7 in · Bar spacing........
n
bar.posM
5 · Number of bars..
bar
posM
"8" · Bar size.............
Positive moment (bottom) reinforcement
bar
spa.negM
8.7 in · Bar spacing.......
n
bar.negM
6 · Number of bars..
(Note: As a detailing alternative, 5#8 bars top and bottom
can be specified. In addition, 4#5 bars can be added in
between the #8 bars at the top over the negative moment
areas only).
bar
negM
"8" · Bar size.............
Negative moment (top) reinforcement
E. Summary of Reinforcement Provided in the Moment Region
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 96
B1. Pile Capacities as per SPT97
B. Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load 100
A. Input Variables 99
FDOT Criteria 98
Page Contents
This section provides the design of the piles for vertical loads (exclude lateral load design). For this
design example, only the maximum loaded pile is evaluated.
Description
Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\302BentCap.mcd(R)
References
Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design
SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 97
UBC
FDOT_24
450 Ton ⋅ :·
The Required Driving Resistance for
an 24" square concrete pile must not
exceed............................................
UBC
FDOT_18
300 Ton ⋅ :·
The Required Driving Resistance for
an 18" square concrete pile must not
exceed............................................
Pile Driving Resistance [SDG 3.5.11]
The minimum pile tip elevation must be the deepest of the minimum elevations that satisfy lateral
stability requirements for the three limit states. Since this bridge is not over water, scour and ship
impact are not design issues. The design criteria for minimum tip elevation are based on vertical
load requirements and lateral load analysis.
Minimum Pile Tip [SDG 3.5.7]
φ
SPT97
0.65 :·
The resistance factor utilizing SPT97
for piles under compression shall be...
Resistance Factors [SDG 3.5.5]
Minimum pile spacing centertocenter must be at least three times the least width of the deep foundation
element measured at the ground line.
Spacing, Clearances and Embedment and Size [SDG 3.5.3]
Use 18" square piling, except for extremely aggressive salt water environments.
Minimum Sizes [SDG 3.5.2]
FDOT Criteria
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 98
For purposes of the design example, pile driving vibrations are not an issue, neither is accessibility to the job site for
pile driving equipment; therefore, 24" square piles will be utilized, UBC
FDOT_24
450 Ton · .
1. Reducing the pile spacing from 11' and adding an extra pile or two
2. Utilizing 24" diameter piles.
Since the RDR value is exceeded, the consultant needs to evaluate the following costs:
UBC
FDOT_18
300 Ton ·
This value should not exceed the limit
specified by FDOT.................................
UBC 343.8 Ton ·
UBC
R
Strength1
φ
SPT97
:· Using variables defined in this example......
RDR UBC =
FactoredDesign Load Net Scour + Downdrag +
φ
= Required driving resistance (RDR)...........
R
Strength1
223 Ton · or R
Strength1
447 kip · Maximum Strength I pile reaction
A. Input Variables
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 99
B. Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load
B1. Pile Capacities as per SPT97
The Static Pile Capacity Analysis Program, SPT97 NT v1.5 dated 6/2/00, was utilized to determine the pile
capacity. Using boring data, the program can analyze concrete piles, Hpiles, pipe piles, and cylinder piles.
It is available at the following FDOT website:
http://www11.myflorida.com/structures/programs/spt97setup.exe
For this design example, the boring data is based on Example2 in the program, which is part of the install
package.
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 100
The following picture shows the boring log entries in Example2.in.
Recall that the ultimate bearing capacity,
UBC, is given by.................................... UBC
FactoredDesign Load Net Scour + Downdrag +
φ
=
In this design example, net scour and
downdrag are zero, so the UBC is............ UBC 343.8 Ton ·
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 101
The program was executed, and the output can be summarized as follows:
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 102
D. PILE CAPACITY VS. PENETRATION
==================================
TEST PILE ULTIMATE MOBILIZED ESTIMATED ALLOWABLE ULTIMATE
PILE TIP SIDE END DAVISSON PILE PILE
LENGTH ELEV FRICTION BEARING CAPACITY CAPACITY CAPACITY
(FT) (FT) (TONS) (TONS) (TONS) (TONS) (TONS)
      
32.8 24.3 131.43 197.43 328.86 164.43 723.73
36.1 27.6 157.91 212.88 370.79 185.39 796.55
A lateral load analysis may require the pile tip elevations to be driven deeper for stability purposes.
This file only evaluates the vertical load requirements based on the boring capacity curves.
Calculate the pile length
required......................
pile
length
UBC 328.96 Ton ⋅ − ( )
36.1 ft ⋅ 32.8 ft ⋅ −
370.79 Ton ⋅ 328.86 Ton ⋅ −

.
`
,
⋅
32.8 ft ⋅ +
... :·
pile
length
34ft ·
Calculate the pile tip elevation
required..............................
pile
tip
UBC 328.96 Ton ⋅ − ( )
27.6 − ft ⋅ 24.3 − ft ⋅ −
370.79 Ton ⋅ 328.86 Ton ⋅ −

.
`
,
⋅ 24.3 − ft ⋅ + :·
pile
tip
25.5 − ft ·
...based on the Estimated Davisson pile capacity curve given above, the pile lengths for vertical load will
require a specified Tip Elevation = 25.5 ft. Therefore, the pile in the ground length is 34 ft.
All piles at the Intermediate Bent will be specified the same.
Defined Units
Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 103
LRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE: CASTINPLACE FLAT SLAB BRIDGE DESIGN
Table of Contents
Cover
Section 1: PROJECT INFORMATION 1.01 1.02 1.03
About this LRFD Flat Slab Bridge Design Example General Notes Design Parameters
Section 2: SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN 2.01 2.02 2.03 2.04 2.05
Design Loads Flat Slab Design Edge Beam Design Loads Edge Beam Design Expansion Joint Design
Section 3: SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.01 3.02 3.03
Bent 2 Cap Design Loads Bent 2 Cap Design Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design
LRFD DESIGN EXAMPLE
Table of Contents
1 of 1
SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN
About this Design Example
Description
This document provides guidance for the design of a castinplace flat slab bridge.
The example includes the following component designs: Solid c.i.p. slab design Edge Beam design Expansion Joint design Intermediate bent cap design
The following assumptions have been incorporated in the example: Three span continuous @ 35'0" each for a total of 105'0" bridge length 30 degree skew No phased construction. Two traffic railing barriers and one median barrier. No sidewalks. Permit vehicles are not considered. Load rating is not addressed.
Since this example is presented in a Mathcad document, a user can alter assumptions, constants, or equations to create a customized application.
PROJECT INFORMATION
1.01 About this Design Example
1
Although Mathcad has several builtin units. 2nd Edition. January 2003 Edition. customary units.Standards The example utilizes the following design standards: Florida Department of Transportation Standard Specifications for Road and Bridge Construction (2000 edition) and applicable modifications. Defined Units All calculations in this electronic book use U. Florida Department of Transportation Structures LRFD Design Guidelines. The user can take advantage of Mathcad's unit conversion capabilities to solve problems in MKS or CGS units. 1999 Edition. some common structural engineering units must be defined. a lbf is a builtin Mathcad unit. Inc. Therefore. prepared this document for the Florida Department of Transportation. Notice The materials in this document are only for general information purposes. Florida Department of Transportation Structures Detailing Manual for LRFD. Anyone using this material does so at his or her own risk and assumes any resulting liability. a kip and ton are globally defined as: kip ≡ 1000 ⋅ lbf ton ≡ 2000 ⋅ lbf Definitions for some common structural engineering units: N ≡ newton plf ≡ pcf ≡ lbf ft lbf ft klf ≡ ksi ≡ 3 kN ≡ 1000 ⋅ newton psf ≡ psi ≡ lbf ft 2 lbf in 2 kip ft kip in 2 6 ksf ≡ kip ft 2 °F ≡ 1deg MPa ≡ 1 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Pa GPa ≡ 1 ⋅ 10 ⋅ Pa 9 Acknowlegements The Tampa office of HDR Engineering. but a kip or ton is not. For example. PROJECT INFORMATION 1. This document is not a substitute for competent professional assistance. AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications. 2002 Interims.S.01 About this Design Example 2 .
........................ Superstructure Top deck surfaces All other surfaces Substructure External surfaces exposed External surfaces cast against earth Prestressed Piling 2" (Short bridge) 2" 3" 4" 3" Concrete cover does not include reinforcement placement or fabrication tolerances.................... except as noted......... The substructure is classfied as moderately aggressive................. PROJECT INFORMATION 1. HL93 Truck Future Wearing Surface......... Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) except that Prestressed Piles have been designed for Service Load...PROJECT INFORMATION General Notes Design Method.. Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only [SDG 2.1]...... Grade 60 Concrete Cover......... Concrete.. Dimensions.. ASTM A615..... Reinforcing Steel. All dimensions are in feet or inches................. unless shown as "minimum cover".. Class II II (Bridge Deck) IV V (Special) Minimum 28day Compressive Strength (psi) Location f`c = 3400 Traffic Barriers f`c = 4500 CIP Flat Slab f`c = 5500 CIP Substructure f`c = 6000 Concrete Piling Environment...02 General Notes 3 ..........3....... Design Loading.................. The superstructure is classified as slightly aggressive... See FDOT Standard Specifications for allowable reinforcement placement tolerances..... Design provides allowance for 15 psf Earthquake....
General Criteria A1. Page 5 Contents A.2] B2. Concrete.Superstructure Concrete C4. Resistance Factors [LRFD 5. Chapter 6 . LRFD Criteria B1.General requirements C2. Substructure D1.4. Number of Lanes A3.2] B3. Chapter 1 . Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties 8 B. Intermediate Bent Geometry PROJECT INFORMATION 1.3. Limit States [LRFD 1. Chapter 2 .6. Chapter 4 . Miscellaneous 16 D.PROJECT INFORMATION Design Parameters Description This section provides the design input parameters necessary for the superstructure and substructure design.2] 11 C.Superstructure Components C5.5.Loads and Load Factors C3.03 Design Parameters 4 . Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3. Florida Criteria C1. Bridge Geometry A2.
. PROJECT INFORMATION 1. For all component designs. the bridge is also on a skew which is defined as: Skew Angle.. Skew := −30deg A1. In addition....... the horizontal curvature will be taken as zero......03 Design Parameters 5 ....... Bridge Geometry Horizontal Profile A slight horizontal curvature is shown in the plan view.....A.. General Criteria This section provides the general layout and input parameters for the bridge example.
.... use average span length) PROJECT INFORMATION 1.... Bridge design span length.......Vertical Profile Overall bridge length.. Lbridge ≡ 105⋅ ft Lspan := 35⋅ ft (Note: For unsymmetric spans..03 Design Parameters 6 ...
.......... Rdwywidth .. Using the roadway clear width between barriers..... Modulus of elasticity for reinforcing steel. N lanes = 3 Rdwywidth := 42⋅ ft N lanes := floor Rdwywidth 12⋅ ft A3..... can be calculated as: Roadway clear width........... N lanes ......Typical Crosssecton Overall bridge width..............0833 ⋅ ft A2.... Number of design traffic lanes per roadway..03 Design Parameters 7 . the number of design traffic lanes per roadway......... Reinforcing and Prestressing Steel Properties Unit weight of concrete. Number of Lanes Design Lanes Current lane configurations show two striped lanes per roadway with a traffic median barrier separating the roadways.......... Concrete. γ conc := 150⋅ pcf Es := 29000 ⋅ ksi PROJECT INFORMATION 1...... Wbridge := 89.
.. Extreme event limit states are considered to be unique occurrences whose return period may be significantly greater than the design life of the bridge.. EXTREME EVENT LIMIT STATES Load combinations which ensure the structural survival of a bridge during a major earthquake or flood.3.2] An impact factor will be applied to the static load of the design truck or tandem.... φ := 0... or ice flow.. both local and global..6... Limit States [LRFD 1... It is intended to limit crack growth under repetitive loads during the design life of the bridge. except for centrifugal and braking forces......4.... Impact factor for all other limit states...B. or when collided by a vessel....... Resistance Factors [LRFD 5.. IMfatigue := 1 + 33 100 15 100 IM := 1 + B2.5..2] The LRFD defines a limit state as a condition beyond which the bridge or component ceases to satisfy the provisions for which it was designed.... Dynamic Load Allowance [LRFD 3....9 φv := 0..... are provided to resist the specified load combinations that a bridge is expected to experience in its design life. possibly under scoured conditions..2] Flexure and tension of reinforced concrete.. PROJECT INFORMATION 1.....90 B3... FATIGUE LIMIT STATE Load combinations which place restrictions on stress range as a result of a single design truck. Impact factor for fatigue and fracture limit states.. and crack width under regular service conditions. deformation. SERVICE LIMIT STATE Load combinations which place restrictions on stress..... There are four limit states prescribed by LRFD...... Shear and torsion of normal weight concrete..... LRFD Criteria The bridge components are designed in accordance with the following LRFD design criteria: B1. vehicle...03 Design Parameters 8 ..... Extensive distress and structural damage may occur under strength limit state.. but overall structural integrity is expected to be maintained..... These are as follows: STRENGTH LIMIT STATE Load combinations which ensures that strength and stability....
Table 3.4.11  Load Combinations and Load Factors
Load Combination DC DD DW
EH EV ES yp yp yp yp 1.5 yp yp yp 1.00 1.00 1.00 
LL IM CE
BR PL LS 1.75 1.35 
WA
WS
WL
FR
TU CR SH
TG
SE
Use One of These at a Time
Limit State
EQ
IC
CT
CV
Strength I Strength II Strength III Strength IV EH, EV, ES, DW, and DC ONLY Strength V Extreme Event I Extreme Event II Service I Service II Service III Fatigue
1.00 1.00 1.00
1.40

1.00 1.00 1.00
0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20 0.50/1.20
yTG yTG yTG
ySE ySE ySE





1.00


1.00
0.50/1.20






1.35 yEQ 0.50 1.00 1.30 0.80 0.75
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
0.40 0.30 
0.40 1.00 
1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 
0.50/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 1.00/1.20 
yTG
ySE 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
1.00 
yTG yTG 
ySE ySE 
Table 3.4.12  Load factors for permanent loads, yp
B4. SpantoDepth Ratios in LRFD [2.5.2.6.3]
For continuous reinforced slabs with main reinforcement parallel to traffic
t min = S + 10 30 ≥ 0.54⋅ ft
Minimum slab thickness
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 9
t min := max
Lspan + 10⋅ ft , 0.54⋅ ft 30
t min = 18 in t slab := 18⋅ in
Thickness of flat slab chosen...........................................
C. FDOT Criteria
C1. Chapter 1  General Requirements
General [SDG 1.1] • • • The design life for bridge structures is 75 years. Approach slabs are considered superstructure component. Class II Concrete (Bridge Deck) will be used for all environmental classifications.
Criteria for Deflection only [SDG 1.2] This provision for deflection only is not applicable, since no pedestrian loading is applied in this bridge design example. Concrete and Environment [SDG 1.3] The concrete cover for the slab is based on either the environmental classification [SDG 1.4] or the type of bridge [SDG 4.2.1]. Concrete cover for the slab..
cover slab := 2 ⋅ in if Lbridge < 300ft 2.5 ⋅ in otherwise cover slab = 2 in
Concrete cover for substructure not in contact with water
cover sub := 4 ⋅ in if Environmentsub = "Extremely" 3 ⋅ in otherwise cover sub = 3 in
Minimum 28day compressive strength of concrete components Class II (Bridge Deck) CIP Bridge Deck IV V (Special) CIP Substructure Concrete Piling Location
fc.slab := 4.5 ⋅ ksi fc.sub := 5.5 ⋅ ksi fc.pile := 6.0 ⋅ ksi
Environmental Classifications [SDG 1.4]
PROJECT INFORMATION 1.03 Design Parameters 10
The environment can be classified as either "Slightly" , "Moderately" or "Extremely" agressive. Environmental classification for superstructure.................. Environmental classification for substructure.....................
Environmentsuper ≡ "Slightly" Environmentsub ≡ "Moderately"
C2. Chapter 2  Loads and Load Factors
Dead loads [SDG 2.2] Weight of future wearing surface
ρ fws := 15⋅ psf if Lbridge < 300ft 0 ⋅ psf otherwise ρ fws = 15 psf
Weight of sacrificial milling surface, using t mill = 0 in
ρ mill := t mill⋅ γ conc ρ mill = 0 psf (Note: See Sect. C3 [SDG 4.2] for calculation of t mill ).
Seismic Provisions [SDG 2.3] Seismic provisions for minimum bridge support length only.
Miscellaneous Loads [SDG 2.5]
ITEM UNIT LOAD Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ FShape) Lb / ft 421 Traffic Railing Median Barrier, (32” F Shape) Lb / ft 486 Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 587 Traffic Railing Barrier (32 “ Vertical Shape) Lb / ft 385 Traffic Railing Barrier (42 “ FShape) Lb / ft 624 Traffic Railing Barrier / Soundwall (Bridge) Lb / ft 1008 150 Concrete, Structural Lb / ft 3 15 * Future Wearing Surface Lb / ft 2 115 Soil, Compacted Lb / ft 3 20 ** StayinPlace Metal Forms Lb / ft 2 * The Future Wearing Surface allowance applies only to minor widenings or short bridges as defined in SDG Chapter 7. ** Unit load of metal forms and concrete required to fill the form flutes to be applied over the projected plan area of the metal forms
Weight of traffic railing barrier......................................... Weight of traffic railing median barrier..............................
wbarrier := 421⋅ plf wmedian.bar := 486⋅ plf
Barrier / Railing Distribution for BeamSlab Bridges [SDG 2.8] The traffic railing barriers and median barriers will be distributed equally over the full bridge crosssection.
PROJECT INFORMATION
1.03 Design Parameters
11
...... Chapter 4 .....sub = 3841 ksi Modulus of elasticity for piles Ec....sub⋅ ksi ( ) ) Ec.limerock := 145⋅ pcf fy := 60⋅ ksi Note: Epoxy coated reinforcing not allowed on FDOT projects.03 Design Parameters ..........pile := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fc.Superstructure Components Temperature Movement [SDG 6...9 wc. Temperature mean.C3.........Superstructure Concrete General [SDG 4.... Ec..5 ⋅ in otherwise t mill = 0 in Slab thickness t slab = 18 in C4.pile⋅ ksi ( Ec.1] Correction factor for Florida limerock coarse aggregate Unit Weight of Florida limerock concrete Yield strength of reinforcing steel Modulus of elasticity for slab φlimerock := 0.......slab := φlimerock⋅ 1820 ⋅ fc....slab⋅ ksi ( ) Ec.slab = 3475 ksi Modulus of elasticity for substructure Ec..3] Structural Material of Superstructure Concrete Only Concrete Deck on Steel Girder Steel Only Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit) High Low 95 45 110 30 120 30 Mean 70 70 70 Range 50 80 90 The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example.pile = 4012 ksi Concrete Deck Slabs [SDG 4... Chapter 6 . PROJECT INFORMATION t mean := 70⋅ °F 12 1..sub := φlimerock⋅ 1820⋅ fc.2] Bridge length definition BridgeType := "Short" if Lbridge < 300ft "Long" otherwise BridgeType = "Short" Thickness of sacrificial milling surface t mill ≡ 0 ⋅ in if Lbridge < 300ft 0...
........................ Substructure D1..........P.4................ (Note: A temperature rise with creep and shrinkage is not investigated since they have opposite effects)....2] for normal weight concrete......2] For concrete structures....... Proposed joint width at 70o F.... flat slab bridges is the silicone seal.........15⋅ ∆xtemperature....................... Maximum joint width.. Temperature low...........................Temperature high.............2... ∆xrise = 1...15⋅ ∆xtemperature.. Bent 2 Geometry (Bent 3 similar) PROJECT INFORMATION 1........ (Note: For concrete structures........... Wmax := 2 ⋅ in 5 Wmin := ⋅ in 8 W := 1 ⋅ in Movement [6..03 Design Parameters 13 ......... A typical joint for C.......... Temperature rise ∆t rise := thigh − tmean t high := 95⋅ °F t low := 45⋅ °F ∆t rise = 25 °F Temperature fall ∆t fall := t mean − t low ∆t fall = 25 °F −6 Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD 5............................ creep..... the movement is based on the greater of the following combinations: Movement from the combination of temperature fall............ ∆xfall = ∆xtemperature..........4........................fall D.......shrinkage Movement from factored effects of temperature.......... use only the joint types listed in the preceding table....4] For new construction..... Minimum joint width at 70o F.... α t := 6⋅ 10 °F Expansion Joints [SDG 6. and shrinkage......................rise ∆xfall = 1...... + ∆xcreep..fall ...I.................. the temperature rise and fall ranges are the same........
only the intermediate bent will be evaluated).03 Design Parameters 14 .....5 ⋅ ft b := 3...... Pile Embedment Depth.Depth of intermediate bent cap..............86⋅ ft Pileembed := 12⋅ in Pilesize := 18⋅ in (Note: For this design example........ Pile Size........... h := 2...... Width of intermediate bent cap... Defined Units PROJECT INFORMATION 1...... Length of intermediate bent cap.....5 ⋅ ft L := 102.......
2. Approximate Methods of Analysis . Dead Load Analysis C.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design loads for the flat slab superstructure Page 18 19 20 21 Contents LRFD Criteria A.01 Design Loads 17 . Input Variables B.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Design Loads References Reference:G:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\103DsnPar. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.Decks [LRFD 4.6.6. Limit State Moments and Shears Superstructure Design 2. Live Load Analysis C3.3] C2.2] C1.
evaluation permit vehicles. From previous past experience..01 Design Loads 18 . SH = 0 Creep and shrinkage is not evaluated in this design example.25⋅ DC + 1. If special vehicles are used in the design.0⋅ DC + 1." In addition. or both without wind.. • For this design example. Service1 = 1.6.4. shear will not control. CR . Superstructure Design 2.1.6.50⋅ DW + 1.2. WA = 0 FR = 0 For superstructure design. water load and stream pressure are not applicable.LRFD Criteria STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind.2.6 states that "past practice has been not to check shear in typical decks.0⋅ LL FATIGUE  Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck. LRFD 5. braking forces and wind on live load are not applicable. shear will not be investigated.75⋅ LL + 0. may be considered satisfactory for shear.0⋅ DW + 1.14. Fatigue = 0. No friction forces. "Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example" SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values. shear may need to be investigated.75⋅ LL Note: • LRFD Commentary C4.3. if the slab thickness is chosen according to satisfy LRFD minimum thickness requirements as per the slab to depth ratios and designed utilizing the distribution strips.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH ) STRENGTH II  Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design vehicles. It is not the intent to check shear in every deck. WL = 0 For superstructure design.1 states that for castinplace slab superstructures designed for moment in conformance with LRFD 4. BR . Strength1 = 1.
...................33 Skew = −30 deg Superstructure Design 2.. Input Variables Bridge design span length............ Lspan = 35 ft tslab = 18 in tmill = 0 in IM = 1......01 Design Loads 19 .... Bridge skew.A............. Dynamic Load Allowance.................................................... Thickness of superstructure slab... Milling surface thickness......................
4 0.0760 23. The influence coordinates are based on AISC's Moments.1 1.00 1.0580 17.0200 0.1100 29.0050 0.1000 0. Shears and Reactions for Continuous Highw ay Bridges" published by AISC.5 1.7 0.4 1.0280 10.0750 0.3 0.0580 17.0 2.2 0.1 1.0 3.2 0.0413 7.2 0.1 1.8 0.0 and 1.4 0.7 0.225 0.0 1.0 3.0700 22. Dead Load Analysis There are numerous programs and charts that can be used to calculate the dead load moments on this type of structure.0352 5.9 0.6 2.1 (From "Moments.6 2.9 0.1000 0.0080 0.4 0.0350 0.1 0.3 B 4.0080 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.0 2.0000 0.0200 0.5 0.4 0.2 0. 1966) Pt.2 0.0540 13.B.6 1.1 2.0000 0.8 4.0750 0.1 0.1 1.1 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.225 ksf ksf = 0.418 klf) + (1 x 0.7 0.0200 0.2 1.4 1.0132 5.0 1.2 0.0250 0.0833 2 1 3 35.5 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.240 ft ft each each each ft kcf klf klf ksf ksf = [(2 x 0.3 0.8 0.1 0. of spans = End Span Lengths = Interior Span Lengths = Concrete Weight (DC) = Traffic Railing Barrier (DC) = Median Barrier (DC) = Wearing Surface and/or fw s (DW) = Barriers & Median (DC) = 18 in = Thickness Bridge Slab (DC) = Additional Misc Loads (DC) Components & Attachments (DC) = 105 89.1 2.0340 10.6 0.0 0.8 C 4.6 2. AISC Table 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Influence Line Coordinates DC MOMENTS DW MOMENTS DC SHEARS DW SHEARS (FTKIP/FT) (FTKIP/FT) (KIP/FT) (KIP/FT) 1.3 0.0 1.5 0.0 1.1100 29.0000 0.8 0.4 0.5 0.0540 13.01 Design Loads 20 Superstructure Design .4 0.24 ksf span ratio = Use tables 1.0555 16.3 C 5.000 35.1 1.1100 29. / 12) x 0.0171 1.2 1. For the dead load calculation.1 0.150 0.5 0.3 0.0000 0.0450 0.5 0.3 0.0350 0.7 2.5 0.483 0.1 0.0200 0.3 1.5 1.9 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0280 10.2 1.15 kcf = 0.0600 0.2 A 0.8 0.4 0.6 2.2 0.2 2.7 0.2 0.0760 23. Bridge Length = Bridge Width = # of Traffic Barriers = # of Median Barriers = No.4 1.0 1.1 1.1 2.0800 0.1000 0.0540 17.7 0.8 B 3.0148 ksf + 0.000 0.0600 0.8 0.0833 ft = 0.1 0.0720 22.8 5.0700 22.4 0.0 3.5 0.1 0.2 D 2. published 1966.225 ksf+ 0 ksf = 0.3 0.1 0.0000 0.418 0.0550 0.8 4.1 0.4 0.8 0.483 klf) ] / 89.0 0.0148 0.0 0.5 0.6 1.8 0.0600 0.4 0.1000 0.0800 0.4 0.4 2.4 1.0750 0.4 1.0 0.9 0.0600 0.0000 0.2 2.0 1.0171 1.1 0.0050 0.4 1.0 0.0 1.1 0.0148 ksf ksf = 18 in.3 0.8 0.6 0.6 1.0720 22.1 0.0555 16.0132 5.1100 29.8 2. the influence line coordinates for a uniform load applied on the structure is utilized.9 0. Shears and Reactions for Continuous Highway Bridges.0 0.000 0.0450 0.015 0.0 1.0750 0.0540 17.0350 0.5 0.2 0.0350 0.0352 5.0340 10.7 1.1 0.0 3.6 1.2 2.0550 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.4 2.0 0.3 0.
modified span length...........0W NL L1 = 35 ft where L1...01 Design Loads 21 ............... 30........................ NL = 6 Superstructure Design NL := 2 ⋅ Nlanes 2..................... number of design lanes.. or 30 feet for L1 := min Lspan ....6........ However... the number of design lanes should include both roadways.................. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4.0 in or EOneLane = 14......... W1 = 30 ft W1 := min Wbridge ... equivalent strips of flat slab deck widths are calculated. This section is only applicable for spans greater than 15 feet...... EOneLane = 172.. One design lane The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with one lane loaded: E = 10 + 5....... Approximate Methods of Analysis .....Decks [LRFD 4... modified edge to edge width of bridge taken as the lesser of the actual width. W1 = 60 ft W1 := min Wbridge ....6.... modified edge to edge width of bridge taken as the lesser of the actual width..0 L1 ⋅ W1 where L1..........3 ft EOneLane := ⎜ 10 + 5................ L1 = 35 ft W1.........3] The superstructure is designed on a per foot basis longitudinally.... Wbridge ..44 L1 ⋅ W1 ≤ 12........... W1.0⋅ ft ( ) Since the bridge is crowned and the full width of the bridge is used in the equivalent distribution width equation...0 ⎛ ⎝ L1 W1 ⎞ ft ft ⎠ ⋅ in Two or more design lanes The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with more than one lane loaded: E = 84 + 1........ in order to distribute the live loads. The equivalent strips account for the transverse distribution of LRFD wheel loads....2.......... Therefore......... Wbridge ...... 60..................2] C1......... The moment and shear effects of a single HL93 vehicle or multiple vehicles are divided by the appropriate equivalent strip width..0⋅ ft ( ) single lane loading.. modified span length taken equal to the lesser of the actual span or 60 feet.... or 60 feet for multilane loading.C...........0⋅ ft ( ) The equivalent distribution width for one lane loaded is given as. 60.
.....The equivalent distribution width for more than one lane loaded is given as........ divided by the appropriate equivalent strip widths...........0⎜ L1 W1 ⎞ ⎛ ⎢ ⎝ ft ⎠ ⎥ ⋅ in ETwoLane := min ⎜ 84 + 1..1"..5 ft ⎡ ⎛ Wbridge ⎞ ⎥ ⎤ ⎢ 12.91 r := min( 1.44 ... ETwoLane = 150. the skew modification will not be applied in order to design for more conservative moment values) C2..... the FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load Generator.... it would be the minimum value of the two.......... The design live loads will consists of the HL93 vehicle moments... the longitudinal force effects (moments only) may be reduced by a factor r.. In order to calculate the live load moments and shears... Superstructure Design 2...25⋅ tan( Skew ) . In this case. ⎢⎝ ⎥ NL ft ft ⎠ ⎣ ⎦ The design strip width to use would be the one that causes the maximum effects... r = 0. E = 150...... Live Load Analysis Determine the live load moments and shears due to one HL93 vehicle on the continuous flat slab structure.05 − 0........ English... v2..5 ft E := min EOneLane .... This will result in a design live load per foot width of flat slab..0 in or ETwoLane = 12. ETwoLane ( ) Skew modification For skewed bridges..00) (Note: For this design example...... 1.....0 in or E = 12........01 Design Loads 22 .......
0 Strength I +M 0.0 40.5 212.7 80. These files are output files that can be used to transfer information from one file to another via read and write commands in MathCad.5 21 24.8 495.0 92.8 178.3 95.5 232.3 596.9 0.3 227.5 670.0 98.5 196.0 46.1 69.5 77 80.3 136.6 322.5 275.6 228.4 460.5 184.4 386.9 383.9 23.0 67.6 0.7 27.5 54.3 205.0 92.0 M 0.9 757.1 138.1 757.6 213.7 161.8 170.2 195.5 191.7 161.8 495.0 460.Read Live Load results from files generated by FDOT Program The files generated by the program are as follows: ( "service1. The files can be view by clicking on the following icons: service1.9 138.5 91 94.1 201.6 124.5 386.2 153.5 156.0 195.4 136.0 178.8 0. "X" distance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 3.4 209.1 482.2 80.7 706.6 646.9 407.0 92.4 866.5 98 101.3 212.0 40.6 5.9 117.5 213.9 184.7 196.0 675.0 201.3 844.5 81.8 227.2 0.6 322.1 198.5 137.6 48.8 176.8 176.9 122.7 115.1 289.4 40.6 234.6 17.6 344.5 154.7 376.4 646.6 433.3 154.0 M Range 0.txt fatigue.0 Fatigue M 0.8 11.5 14 17.5 7 10.9 59.0 137.0 23.7 213.9 165.5 205.0 232.0 386.0 5.5 133.txt" ).2 344.8 94.2 122.01 Design Loads 23 .5 49 52.1 340.1 28.4 171.txt" "fatigue.9 34.1 89.8 433.1 17.1 120.7 40.5 28 31.5 70 73.9 844.3 232.4 220.0 39.0 46.4 386.2 675.6 134.1 482.5 42 45.9 369.4 120.7 28.9 596.8 213.3 241.8 157.5 174.7 95.8 190.5 161.7 154.1 115.7 564.5 59.0 482.6 165.2 156.0 92.3 88.5 84 87.0 94.0 171.1 373.5 34.8 170.2 198.7 275.0 220.0 +M 0.9 282.7 156.8 564.5 167.0 M 0.7 228.0 Superstructure Design 2.1 40.8 369. The values of Live Load for the HL93 loads are as follows: HL93 Live Load Envelopes (10th points) Pt.3 806.5 105 Service I +M 0.8 157.8 167.3 161.1 400.2 67.2 133. The values for Strength I can be obtained by multiplying by the appropriate load case factor.9 186.0 48.2 482.2 186.3 90.5 400.7 0.5 35 38.8 191.5 806.5 56 59.1 373.9 190.3 407.5 63 66.txt To data is read from the file created by FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load Generator" program.0 157.1 76.0 23.0 282.6 133.8 232.6 671.3 322.3 23.1 117.2 376.1 87.3 289.0 69.3 11.1 76.8 27.5 215.1 403.0 0.9 866.4 215.1 322.5 0.5 98.7 383.6 124.5 54.6 241.2 81.5 209.9 39.3 340.
2 1.1 12.6 10.6 69.1 30.2 4.6 19.0 i := 0 .6 4.4 0.8 0.6 39.5 63 66.6 2.9 51.5 54. E = 12.0 8.1 54.0 27.5 105 Service I +M 0.1 30.7 60.8 30.8 6.6 8.6 67.6 30.9 13.9 29.3 22.0 12.2 25.8 1.1 56.0 E= E fatigue = Fatigue +M 0.6 6.7 12.8 22.8 16.1 7.8 18.3 67.7 1.4 0.6 34.4 10.0 9.8 2.3 ft M 0.0 17.2 13.3 15.7 12.5 84 87.6 14.2 15.6 32.7 5.3 13.7 23.7 30.3 9.6 25.0 Strength I +M 0.9 16.6 47.7 2.1 2.3 22.9 25.8 6.5 21 24.9 3.5 98 101.5 30.4 9.2 12.7 38.2 11.6 9.7 3.8 3.6 60.2 27.5 69.8 11.9 47.1 8.4 1.7 22.6 8.01 Design Loads 24 .0 M 0. for fatigue.5 49 52.0 2.4 3.6 17.4 10.1 45. rows( X) − 1 Superstructure Design 2.5 13.5 28 31.2 13.1 19.8 13.8 10.6 18.7 29.1 14.7 12.2 17.8 17.2 7.9 9.8 11.6 1.5 23.6 14.1 27.2 0.0 1.4 2.0 30.1 45.6 32.2 6.7 0.5 56 59.1 18.6 38.6 27.5 9.9 10.2 6.8 12.2 7.3ft Design Live Load Envelopes (10th points) Joint "X" distance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 3.6 38.3 11.8 14.5 ft 14.3 30.5 13.8 4.9 14.The design values can be obtained by dividing the moments by the distribution width.4 2.3 15.3 16.9 39.4 6.7 64.9 11.0 M 0.5 42 45.7 29.5 77 80.3 12.7 4.2 34.3 13.5 3.7 5.0 8.8 14.9 0.8 14.8 16.4 9.6 6.3 12.2 17.4 0.7 10.6 14.1 13.0 12..1 15.2 18.8 11.9 2.2 10.6 53.8 0.6 2.5 5.3 64.5 8.0 6.8 1.5 14 17.0 6. EOneLane = 14.8 12.9 9.5 51.6 53.7 12.0 38.0 1.5 70 73.9 14.0 M Range 0.8 0.7 13.1 7.3 10.7 6.1 7.2 0.6 9.2 29.4 14.5 7.9 32.6 11.4 5.0 3.0 0.8 3.5 13.1 12.6 3.8 11.5 32.6 36.5ft .7 18.6 36.9 12.5 35 38.6 6.1 6.8 32.6 10.0 17.5 91 94.6 25.5 7 10.7 13.
Dead Load Moments 40 Moment.Neg M Zero moment Range Superstructure Design 2.Pos M Fatigue .Positive LL M Strength 1 .Negative LL M Fatigue Envelopes 20 10 Shears. kipft 0 50 100 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge.Negative LL M Zero moment Service I .01 Design Loads 25 . ft 84 105 Strength 1 . kipft 20 0 20 40 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge. ft 84 105 Moment DC Moment DW Zero moment Strength I & Service I Live Load Moments 100 50 Moment.Positive LL M Service I . kip 0 10 20 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge. ft 84 105 Fatigue .
0 44.6 2.5 20.3 17.0 43.9 5.0 10.4 28.3 20.9 25.5 18.6 15.1 38.2 53.3 28.2 4.1 2.4 12.5 105 +M 0.8 11.5 14 17.1 20.2 84.01 Design Loads 27 .9 60.2 100.8 9.9 50.7 0.2 13.3 97.0 9.50DW + 1.2 7. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 "X" dist 0 3.5 84.7 14.5 28 31.0 11.1 27.0 28.3 93.0 14.9 17.5 98 101.8 8.4 10.3 11.4 94.7 5.75LL +M 0.1 15.9 94.0 25.0 20.5 10.4 15.8 M min 0.0 2.1 46.9 28.0 16.7 M 0.1 22.8 50.4 37.0 27.3 13.75LL .8 20.3 15.0 M 0.75LL +M 0.0 46.9 14.6 39.0LL Pt.5 91 94.1 7.6 21.4 62.3 36.0 1.8 2.6 14.0 8.3 50.5 7 10.8 3.7 20.8 10.0 17.1 15.6 3.4 2.2 Fatigue 1.7 6.8 1.6 60. M min = 0.0 18.6 13.9 47.3 9.1 75.5 13.8 32.5 42 45.8 14.6 62.0 53.1 7.2 7.9 9.2 1.1 3.4 8.9 66.1 0.8 11.3 60.6 22.9 10.0 10.3 61.0 7.0 64.5 63 66.9 15.0 25.8 14.4 13.0 8.2 9.2 17.8 4.3 39.6 1.9 14.1 40.9 1.7 12.0DW + 1.9 32.1 9.6 17.1 10.0 1.0 <−Maximum positive moment and corresponding fatigue values <−Maximum negative moment and corresponding fatigue values Maximum negative Moments = Maximum positive Moments = Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.6 17.7 14.2 13.9 7.1 61.0 14.5 14.3 10.4 93.7 4.1 26.5 0.6 5.4 2.6 48.3 48.3 0.0 17.5 49 52.5 5.7 14.4 9.7 29.4 25.0 93.2 0.7 29.5 25.9 97.0DC + 1.3 13.6 4.6 6.1 8.1 28.2 60.5 29.9 61.6 14.7 26.8 16.8 0.1 37.1 6.5 70 73.3 61.8 2.5 77 80.8 5.3 64.7 43.8 4.0 10.5 44.4 44.5 39.0 61.2 24.5 14.6 17.7 44.C3.0DC + 1.7 5.5 21 24.3 25.6 0.2 22.7 12.0 M 0.4 14.1 14.1 13.6 0.6 0.5 3.9 64.7 2.7 10.1 6.2 61.8 12.4 0.9 39.3 12.5LL MRange = 0.8 46.0 0.5 35 38.6 8.8 25.4 11.9 9.7 13.1 14.0DW + 1.1 50.6 20.3 6.1 17.2 17.5 14.7 2.1 36.2 24.4 0.7 61.9 25.5 4.5 84 87.1 28.8 0. Limit State Moments and Shears The service and strength limit states used to design the section are calculated as follows: Limit State Design Loads Service I Strength I (10th points) 1.3 8.2 47.9 15.6 35.4 38.5 21.7 50.0 2.2 12.4 22.7 15.7 75.1 100.0 M Range 0.7 3.6 100.0 6.5 29.8 35.3 12.5 56 59.6 0.0 20.8 11.5 21.25DC + 1.8 16.
14. Input Variables B.4] B4. Moment Design B1.4] B7.3.3.2] B3.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Flat Slab Design References Reference:G:\computer_support\StructuresSoftware\StructuresManual\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\201DesignLds.2] B2.3.2] B6. Positive Moment Region Design .Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.8. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Summary of Reinforcement Provided Superstructure Design 2.mc Description This section provides the design for the flat slab superstructure.02 Flat Slab Design 27 .3] B5.7. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.10.7. Page 28 29 Contents A.7.3. Negative Moment Region Design . Fatigue Limit State B8. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.
6 ft⋅ kip Strength M r.neg = −50.6 ft⋅ kip Maximum negative moment and corresponding fatigue values Service M neg = −61.A.pos = −1.02 Flat Slab Design 28 .pos = 16.neg = −13 ft⋅ kip Superstructure Design 2.pos = 46.8 ft⋅ kip M min.pos = 100.2 ft⋅ kip Fatigue M fatigue.neg = −93.7 ft⋅ kip M range.9 ft⋅ kip Fatigue M fatigue.neg = 14.1 ft⋅ kip M min. Input Variables Maximum positive moment and corresponding fatigue values Service M pos = 64.9 ft⋅ kip Strength M r.7 ft⋅ kip M range.
. Moment Design The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment................Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.85⋅ f'c⋅ b Using variables defined in this example.85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ h f⋅ ⎜ − ⎜ ⎜ ⎜ 2⎠ 2⎠ 2⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝2 2 ⎠ ( ) Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance a M n = As⋅ fy ⋅ ⎛ d s − ⎞ ⎜ 2⎠ ⎝ where a= As⋅ fy 0...pos = 100.. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement. The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions..7..pos⋅ fy ⋅ ⎢ d s − ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ As.slab = 4... bar := "8" spacingpos := 6 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2....... maximum reinforcement.02 Flat Slab Design 29 .9 tslab = 18 in b := 1 ⋅ ft M r = φ⋅ As....... Proposed bar spacing..slab⋅ b ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1 ⋅⎜ where tslab = h b = 12 in Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar. B1....pos⋅ fy ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ 2 0.B.........5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. M r..... and distribution of reinforcement....3..85⋅ fc... Positive Moment Region Design .. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control..9 ft⋅ kip fc....... minimum reinforcement.2] Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ M n Nominal flexural resistance ⎛ a hf ⎞ a a a M n = Aps ⋅ fps ⋅ ⎛ d p − ⎞ + As⋅ fy ⋅ ⎛ d s − ⎞ − A's⋅ f'y ⋅ ⎛ d's − ⎞ + 0.
pos − ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ As. As..pos is greater than As.reqd = 1..prov := φ⋅ As...reqd = 1.....2] Variables: M r....... bar neg := "8" spacingneg := 6 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2..... should be greater than the area of steel required.....positive...Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.pos := spacingpos Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel..... Negative Moment Region Design ....prov = 102.....58 in ..slab⋅ b ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1 ⋅⎜ B2...55 in 2 As. Proposed bar spacing.pos − 2 Moment capacity provided....... Abar = 0......9 ft⋅ kip ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ As.....pos⋅ fy ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ 2 0..pos = 1...000 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab... As.pos = 15..pos⋅ fy ⋅ ⎢ d s..slab = 4...7.55 in .5 in dia d s.......... d s..........790 in dia = 1.............167 ft⋅ kip fc.. As... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments..pos⋅ fy ⋅ ⎢ d s..................5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. If not..pos = 1... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement.reqd . M r.... Once As......neg = 93.reqd := Find As...positive. As... M r......pos ( ) 2 The area of steel provided...Bar area......pos := tslab − coverslab − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required Given M r.............pos⋅ fy ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ 2 0...............02 Flat Slab Design 30 ......58 in 2 Abar⋅ 1 ft As.......85⋅ fc.........pos = φ⋅ As..3.......85⋅ fc......slab⋅ b ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1 ⋅⎜ Reinforcing steel required.... Bar diameter.......9 tslab = 18 in b = 1 ft b = 12 in tslab = h Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar...
d s..........neg = φ⋅ As...neg ( ) 2 The area of steel provided..........neg⋅ fy ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ 2 0.prov = −102. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5....3........85⋅ fc.58 in ..neg is greater than As...... 3 ⎛ "moderate exposure" 170 ⎞ kip z = ⎜ "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ ⎜ in ⎝ "buried structures" 100 ⎠ Superstructure Design 2....4).neg ⋅ 1 ft As.reqd .......neg⋅ fy ⎞ ⎤ ⎥ 2 0..000 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab...neg = 1..slab⋅ b ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1 ⋅⎜ Reinforcing steel required.reqd = 1....6⋅ fy (dc⋅ A) Crack width parameter....reqd = 1......... M r.... As......3.. M r...9 ft⋅ kip ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ As......790 in dianeg = 1...... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.................42 in .........neg := ⎜ −tslab + coverslab + ⎛ ⎝ dianeg ⎞ 2 ⎠ Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required Given M r..negative...neg = 0....neg = 1.7.neg⋅ fy ⋅ ⎢ d s.....reqd := Find As..42 in 2 2 As. The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths..... should be greater than the area of steel required.... Once As....slab⋅ b ⎝ ⎠⎦ 1 ⋅⎜ B3. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure...negative... Abar..... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.prov := φ⋅ As...... If not........ As..........Bar area..5 in d s....7..4] Concrete is subjected to cracking....85⋅ fc.neg + ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ As.neg := spacingneg Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel.... As...... z 1 fsa = ≤ 0...............neg⋅ fy ⋅ ⎢ d s... As.02 Flat Slab Design 31 ........ decrease the spacing of the reinforcement.neg = −15....58 in 2 Abar. The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state.neg + Moment capacity provided.... Bar diameter..
......8 in. Ts = 55.)............8 in to equal x na.......... For this example. a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure" ... fsa = 36.......8 kip Ts := M pos d s...0 ksi fsa := min⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ( d ⋅ A) 3 ⎣ c ⎤ .... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made.......pos ..6⋅ fy⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement......8⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅ b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec..... If the values are not equal.0 in 2 A := ( b) ⋅ 2⋅ dc n bar ( ) z 1 Service limit state stress in reinforcement...slab ⋅ As........ n bar = 2 n bar := Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement... Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment..pos = 4.....5 in dia ⎞ d c := min⎛ tslab − d s. This process is iterative.The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter.pos⋅ d s..... adjust x = 4..pos := Find( x ) x na.... A = 30.8 in Compare the calculated neutral axis x na with the initial assumption x ... 0........pos − x na.. x := 4. d c = 2.pos 3 Superstructure Design 2..... Environmentsuper = "Slightly" aggressive environment z := 170 ⋅ kip in Positive Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in... 2 ⋅ in + ⎜ 2 ⎠ ⎝ b spacingpos Number of bars per design width of slab.02 Flat Slab Design 32 ...pos = 4..pos − x ( ) x na..
..7.. A = 30.3...neg ...... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made..... This process is iterative.0 ksi fsa := min⎡ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ( d ⋅ A) 3 ⎣ c ⎤ .3 ksi Ts fs. If the values are not equal..7.....neg := Find( x ) x na. provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD5. x := 4..Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment....... LRFD5........3. 2 ⋅ in + ⎛ ⎝ dianeg ⎞ 2 ⎠ Number of bars per design width of slab...).actual := As.neg⋅ −d s....8 in....neg − x ( ) x na.... n bar = 2 n bar := b spacingneg Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement..02 Flat Slab Design 33 ..actual ≤ fsa "NG.actual = 35.... fs....3..84 in Compare the calculated neutral axis x na with the initial assumption x ..... crack control for +M not satisfied. crack control for +M is satisfied" Negative Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in..4a = "OK..slab ⋅ As...pos The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment.. crack control for +M is satisfied" if fs..8 in to equal x na.... 0....neg = 4. fsa = 36.... Superstructure Design 2.... adjust x = 4..5 in d c := min⎜ tslab + d s..0 in 2 A := ( b) ⋅ 2⋅ dc n bar ( ) z 1 Service limit state stress in reinforcement.........6⋅ fy⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎦ The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.8⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅ b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec... d c = 2.....neg = 4.4a := "OK.3........
β 1 = 0.02 Flat Slab Design 34 ........7. As.........3....58 in 2 2 As..Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.. de = As⋅ fps ⋅ d p + As⋅ fy ⋅ d s Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy d e.5 in Superstructure Design 2..5 in d e.slab − 4000⋅ psi ⎞ ⎤ .neg + x na.. cpos = 2..........slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement....actual = 33.....pos⋅ fy 0.. LRFD5...slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b and cneg := As.... Area of steel provided.... provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD5..05⋅ ⎜ ⎡ ⎣ ⎛ fc..85⋅ fc.pos and d e..5 in cpos := As.....neg The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment...3...5 in cneg = 2. The greater reinforcement from the positive and negative moment sections is checked..... crack control for M is satisfied" if fs.3.........neg := −d s..65⎥ 1000⋅ psi ⎝ ⎠ ⎦ Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section.pos = 15.825 β 1 := max⎢0.85⋅ fc.3.. d e...58 in Stress block factor..pos := d s.... fs. crack control for M is satisfied" B4..neg = 15............7........85 − 0......3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.3...5 kip Ts := M neg d s..........9 ksi Ts fs..neg 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.7..neg = 1... crack control for M not satisfied. 0.. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5..pos = 1.neg Simplifying for this example.4b := "OK. Ts = 53..4b = "OK........actual := As..........actual ≤ fsa "NG..neg⋅ fy 0.
. section is overreinforced in +M region.3..slab⋅ ksi Section modulus.7..... maximum reinforcement in +M region" if "NG...2 := "OK.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.3. reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD5.3.....42 "OK.prov ≥ M r....162 ratio should be less than 0.....3.. Modulus of Rupture........neg ≤ 0...The cpos d e.11" otherwise LRFD5....1 = "OK........3.. exceeds minimum requirements. fr = 509. M r.2 = "OK. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" Superstructure Design 2...prov = 102....pos ( ) Check that the capacity provided....11" otherwise LRFD5.3...0 ft⋅ kip M r.2 times greater than the cracking moment..3. LRFD5.3....162 ratio should be less than 0..positive.3...7..0 in 3 S := b ⋅ tslab 6 2 Cracking moment.positive.3...... maximum reinforcement in M region" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1..3. maximum reinforcement in M region" if "NG... M r.. section is overreinforced in M region.pos ≤ 0...7..02 Flat Slab Design 35 .....neg The = 0.1 := cneg d e.3..7.pos = 0. see LRFD eq.reqd = 33ft⋅ kip . 133 ⋅ %⋅ M r.. C5. S = 648.3..1 := cpos d e.1 psi fr := 0.... M cr = 27..2⋅ M cr .24⋅ fc.7...... LRFD5.3..reqd := min 1.7......3.7..5 kip⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S Required flexural resistance (+M). C5... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if M r...7.... M r.. see LRFD eq... maximum reinforcement in +M region" cneg d e.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.1 = "OK..reqd = 33.9ft⋅ kip . LRFD5.reqd "NG....3....42 "OK...
..10. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.. 3 ⋅ tslab .....reqd = 33.. exceeds minimum requirements......... reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD5....positive.625 in Ag := b ⋅ tslab 2 Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.02 Flat Slab Design 36 ....... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD5...............................reqd = 33ft⋅ kip .........3.2] Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" )...11⋅ ksi⋅ Ag fy .. 18⋅ in⎞ Maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.......2 = "OK....10.........................7... spacingST = 9...3....7.....prov = −102............2⋅ M cr . spa.Required flexural resistance (M)......st := 9 ⋅ in bar Bar area.reqd := min 1...8.10......8 = "OK...8 := "OK..7.2 := "OK... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Superstructure Design 2.......negative... AST = 0............... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if bar spa...... 133 ⋅ %⋅ M r... M r.....31 in dia = 0......st ≤ spacingST "NG.reqd "NG...... M r....... minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" if M r....40 in 2 AST := 0.........3...0 in 2 Abar = 0..neg ( ) Check that the capacity provided...prov ≥ M r...7..... M r............... Gross area of section...... minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" B5.... Ag = 216.............9ft⋅ kip .....4 in spacingST := min⎛ ⎜ b AST Abar ⎜ ⎜ ⎝ ⎟ ⎠ The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD5....3. bar st := "5" Bar spacing.. Bar diameter.. LRFD5.0 ft⋅ kip M r.
...14..pos⋅ %Asteel Maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5... The area for secondary reinforcement should not exceed 50% of the area for primary reinforcement.27 in 2 As.......17 bar dist := "5" bar spa...4 = "OK.31 in dia = 0..DistR := As. distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise LRFD5.................................. distribution reinforcement requirements" if bar spa...........4] Transverse distribution reinforcement shall be placed in the bottom of the slab..DistR = 0.... Distribution reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" )......14.....625 in 2 %Asteel := min⎛ ⎜ 100 Lspan ft % .........................14................. %Asteel = 0........dist := 12⋅ in Abar = 0....... Bar area...... distribution reinforcement requirements" Superstructure Design 2.... MaxSpacingDistR = 13.........4 := "OK.... Bar spacing..B6.. 50%⎞ ⎜ ⎝ ⎠ Required area for secondary reinforcement As....dist ≤ MaxSpacingDistR "NG..... Bar diameter......DistR ⎞ ⎜ ⎝ Abar ⎠ The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement LRFD5.....9 in MaxSpacingDistR := b ⎛ As.....02 Flat Slab Design 37 ................. The amount to place is based on a percentage of the longitudinal main steel.....................
095 fc.866 ksi Fatiguesection := ffatigue...pos As.pos ⎞ 3 ⎠ Ratio of r/h is taken as r_h := 0.....5.....B7..pos S "Use Cracked section" if ffatigue.......pos := M fatigue.pos > ftensile "Use Uncracked section" otherwise Fatiguesection = "Use Cracked section" Minimum stress in reinforcement due to minimum live load...3.pos⋅ ⎜ d s.. ft. ftensile = 0....pos − ⎛ ⎝ x na.allow "NG.allow = 23......pos ⎞ 3 ⎠ LRFD5....2 = "OK.3] The section properties for fatigue shall be based on cracked sections where the sum of stresses due to unfactored permanent loads and 1....... fatigue stress range requirements for +M region" otherwise LRFD5. therefore the allowable stress range is given by..69 ksi ft.3.813 ksi ft := M range..878 ksi fmin := M min.... ffatigue.. ft = 8..allow := 21⋅ ksi − 0. fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" Superstructure Design 2.......5 times the fatigue load is tensile and exceeds 0........02 Flat Slab Design 38 ..... fmin = −0...33⋅ fmin + 8 ⋅ ksi⋅ ( r_h) ( ) Actual stress range..202 ksi ftensile := 0.. Fatigue Limit State [LRFD 5...pos⋅ ⎜ d s..... fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" if ft ≤ ft.....3.....2 := "OK.pos − ⎛ ⎝ x na....095 fc.slab⋅ ksi Positive Moment Region Stress due to positive moment....pos As..5..pos = 0.... Allowable tensile stress for fatigue......5.....
neg S "Use Cracked section" if ffatigue... fatigue stress range requirement for M region" if ft ≤ ft...Negative Moment Region Stress due to negative moment...33⋅ fmin + 8 ⋅ ksi⋅ ( r_h) ( ) Actual stress range...938 ksi Fatiguesection := ffatigue.......09 ksi fmin := M min. fatigue stress range requirements for M region" otherwise LRFD5.111 ksi ft := M range.....2 = "OK....neg As........neg⋅ ⎜ d s... therefore the allowable stress range is given by............... fmin = 7.3...neg = 0...neg ⎞ 3 ⎠ LRFD5.....allow = 21. fatigue stress range requirement for M region" Superstructure Design 2..allow := 21⋅ ksi − 0. ft = 8..02 Flat Slab Design 39 ........neg As..........3...neg ⎞ 3 ⎠ Ratio of r/h is taken as 0.. ft..neg⋅ ⎜ d s.allow "NG.neg > ftensile "Use Uncracked section" otherwise Fatiguesection = "Use Cracked section" Minimum stress in reinforcement due to minimum live load.. ffatigue.5....5..06 ksi ft..neg + ⎛ ⎝ x na..3.......neg := M fatigue.neg + ⎛ ⎝ x na.2 := "OK.......
0 in Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing Bar size Bottom spacing bar st = "5" bar spa.0 in LRFD5.10. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing Bar size Bottom spacing bar dist = "5" bar spa. distribution reinforcement requirements" Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.dist = 12.02 Flat Slab Design 40 .14.7.0 in Bottom bar size (+M) bar = "8" Bottom spacing spacingpos = 6.8 = "OK. Summary of Reinforcement Provided Main reinforcing Top bar size (M) Top spacing bar neg = "8" spacingneg = 6.4 = "OK.st = 9.B8.0 in LRFD5.
3] C2. Approximate Methods of Analysis .mcd(R) Description This section provides the design loads for the flat slab edge beam superstructure.6.2. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4. Live Load Analysis C3.Decks [LRFD 4. Limit State Moments and Shears Superstructure Design 2. Input Variables B. Dead Load Analysis C. Page 42 43 44 45 Contents LRFD Criteria A.2] C1.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 41 .SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Edge Beam Design Loads References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\202FlatSlab.6.
No friction forces.2.1. Service1 = 1.2. Superstructure Design 2. water load and stream pressure are not applicable. WL = 0 For superstructure design.50⋅ DW + 1.75⋅ LL Note: • LRFD Commentary C4." In addition. If special vehicles are used in the design..0 ⋅ DW + 1.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 42 .LRFD Criteria STRENGTH I Basic load combination relating to the normal vehicular use of the bridge without wind. Strength1 = 1.50⋅ ( TU + CR + SH) STRENGTH II  Load combination relating to the use of the bridge by Ownerspecified special design vehicles.4. CR . • For this design example. SH = 0 Creep and shrinkage is not evaluated in this design example. It is not the intent to check shear in every deck. shear may need to be investigated. "Permit vehicles are not evaluated in this design example" SERVICE I  Load combination relating to the normal operational use of the bridge with a 55 MPH wind and all loads taken at their nominal values.3.75⋅ LL + 0.14. BR .0 ⋅ LL FATIGUE  Fatigue load combination relating to repetitive gravitational vehicular live load under a single design truck. shear will not be investigated. WA = 0 FR = 0 For superstructure design. braking forces and wind on live load are not applicable. From previous past experience. shear will not control. Fatigue = 0. may be considered satisfactory for shear. LRFD 5.6 states that "past practice has been not to check shear in typical decks.25⋅ DC + 1.6.0 ⋅ DC + 1.. evaluation permit vehicles. or both without wind.6.1 states that for castinplace slab superstructures designed for moment in conformance with LRFD 4. if the slab thickness is chosen according to satisfy LRFD minimum thickness requirements as per the slab to depth ratios and designed utilizing the distribution strips.
................. Bridge skew...................................... Lspan = 35 ft t slab = 18 in t mill = 0 in IM = 1. Dynamic Load Allowance............33 Skew = −30 deg Superstructure Design 2............... Input Variables Bridge design span length............... Thickness of superstructure slab...03 Edge Beam Design Loads 43 ............A...... Milling surface thickness...............
1 1.5 56 59.5 49 52.4 1.5 1. Dead Load Analysis For the dead load calculation.5 63 66.5 5.0 (Note: For input values.6 1.4 1. the influence line coordinates for a uniform load applied on the structure is utilized. "X" distance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 3. The influence coordinates are based on AISC's Moments.4 0.3 17.0 0.4 1.9 1.0 23.5 21 24.4 1.0 10. Shears and Reactions for Continuous Highway Bridges.5 35 38.0 0.5 91 94.6 10.1 1.5 22.0 1.9 7.0 0.4 0.5 70 73.0 0.3 17. published 1966.8 0.1 0.B.3 0.8 1.0 17.0 13.5 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.0 10.4 1.5 14 17.1 0.5 98 101.8 0.5 42 45.8 1.4 0.2 5.6 1.5 77 80.2 29.01 Design Loads) Superstructure Design 2. see Section 2.5 28 31.6 22.9 1.0 17.3 0.6 0. Unfactored Dead Loads (10th points) Pt.5 5.1 0.9 16.0 23.2 29.5 22.5 105 Moments DC 0.4 13.3 5.6 10.5 1.5 84 87.5 7 10.4 16.0 DW 0.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 44 .6 22.
00) (Note: For this design example. One design lane The equivalent width of longitudinal strips per lane for both shear and moment with one lane loaded for the edge beam is given as: EEB = EOneLane 2 + b barrier + 12⋅ in ≤ EOneLane ≤ 72⋅ in where EOneLane = 172 in b barrier := 1...........25⋅ tan( Skew ) ... r = 0..5 in EEdgeBm := EOneLane 2 + b barrier + 12⋅ in Applying the restraint conditions..C.........6.... the equivalent distribution width is given as EEB = 72 in or EEB = 6 ft EEB := minval EEdgeBm ..Decks [LRFD 4. The moment and shear effects of a single HL93 vehicle or multiple vehicles are divided by the appropriate equivalent strip width.5417 ⋅ ft The equivalent distribution width for one lane loaded Edge of deck to inside face of barrier The equivalent distribution width for the edge beam is given as... 72⋅ in ( ) Skew modification For skewed bridges... equivalent strips of flat slab deck widths are calculated....... This section is only applicable for spans greater than 15 feet. Equivalent Strip Widths for Slabtype Bridges [LRFD 4. in order to distribute the live loads. the longitudinal force effects (moments only) may be reduced by a factor r..... However.....2] C1.. EEdgeBm = 116.....6....2. 1.91 r := min( 1.... the skew modification will not be applied in order to design for more conservative moment values) Superstructure Design 2.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 45 ..........05 − 0. Approximate Methods of Analysis .3] The superstructure is designed on a per foot basis longitudinally.. EOneLane .. The equivalent strips account for the transverse distribution of LRFD wheel loads...
This will result in a design live load per foot width of flat slab. divided by the appropriate equivalent strip widths.C2. v2. English. The design live loads will consists of the HL93 vehicle moments. the FDOT MathCad program "LRFD Live Load Generator.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 46 . Live Load Analysis Determine the live load moments and shears due to one HL93 vehicle on the continuous flat slab structure.1". In order to calculate the live load moments and shears. Superstructure Design 2.
2 39.8 11.5 184.4a.1 373.Read Live Load results from files generated by FDOT Program (Note: For input values.7 0.0 40. "X" distance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 3.5 70 73.2 198.2 39.7 161.0 201.3 806.6 344.1 117.3 161.3 340.8 0.5 275.5 43.3 88.5 98 101.0 92.1 138.6 124.5 27.6 0.6 23.7 54.3 407.2 39.8 7.7 154.1 373.8 11.5 19.8 176.4 31.1 39.0 Fatigue M Range 0.5 84 87.8 167.4 0.9 31.7 376.3 136.5 167.5 209.5 35 38.3 90.1 289.5 156.0 220.5 806. The HL93 live load moment envelopes shown in the above summary include lane loads (except for Fatigue).2 153.6 671.1 340.7 383.1 17.8 176.5 51.0 Unfactored Lane Load +M 0.2 39.4 120.5 34.9 596.0 69.5 98.5 49 52.1 400.1 11.9 866.7 19.8 157.6 124.2 133.0 M 0.0 92.0 94.6 433.1 201.1.9 59.5 191.5 81.8 13.0 92.5 386.8 190.6 48.1 322.4 40.9 0.7 28.2 675.3 232.7 40.7 27.1 482.5 213.7 58.7 80.8 232.8 178.5 161.7 78.7 564.7 196.5 670.9 13.0 178.7 706.2 67.2 122.9 190.1 15.5 154.0 195.2 55.3 212.5 137.8 3.8 15.3 227.6.1 54.1 91.9 844.4 209.1 198.0 46.8 227.7 156.7 213.2 70.5 91 94.5 63 66.0 157.0 460.3 289.6 322.1 69.4 386.2 78.7 228.0 3.0 M 0.7 115.7 54.2 70.2 39.0 48. the separated values for truck and lane can be can be calculated and multiplied by the appropriate factors.6 322.7 31.1 92.0 482.1 28.3 11.1 76.4 54.2 344.5 105 Service I +M 0.7 31.1 87.6 15.6 17.5 400.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 47 .0 0.7 54.3 95.9 117.0 40.2 80.6 133.9 757.1 31.6 234.7 78.7 275.6 646.5 205.0 232.3 596.2 482.9 165.4 866.Design Loads) HL93 Live Load Envelopes (10th points) Pt.0 39.5 54.7 43.5 0.9 184.1 40.1 23.3 205.0 23.0 55.0 92.1 115.4 220.9 39.2 78.0 M 0.6 241.1 482.2 39.6 5.0 31.5 42 45.9 186. Superstructure Design 2.7 70.6 51.0 0.4 215.01 .5 14 17.0 675.8 27.2 195.6 213.8 94.5 174.5 133.8 495.9 122. The lane load and truck moments need to be separated and manipulated separately.9 407.2 156.9 23.8 495.5 59.5 77 80.4 460.2 81.9 34.5 15.5 54.3 154.0 46.5 215.0 386.5 28 31.1 757.8 170.0 As per LRFD 4.5 21 24.1 89.3 23.1 76.0 5.0 137.4 136.5 54. see Section 2.0 171.1 403.7 11.6 165.4 646.5 56 59.7 70.8 170.9 282.0 282.6 134.5 196.9 7.5 212.3 844.9 369.8 191.9 383.7 161.2 376.2.1 120.0 +M 0.8 433.0 Strength I +M 0.3 322.5 27.3 241.8 213.5 11.4 171.7 95.5 7 10.8 369.0 23.2 0.4 23.9 138.8 564. Since the unfactored lane load envelopes are given.6 228.5 232.8 23.9 0. the edge beams shall be assumed to support one line of wheels and a tributary portion of the design lane load.2 186.4 386.0 67.0 98.8 157.
4 209.9 31.1 61.6 30.2 143.3 317.9 110.3 12.7 38.5 54.9 Lane +M 0.8 14.3 7.5 193.9 94.2 159.5 24.7 55.6 40.9 23.1 68.8 50.0 5.8 176.4 136.0 317.5 17.1 42.5 212.5 17.4 14.4 31.5 91 94.5 167.2 14.0 364.2 27.3 232.0 55.5 174.0 Superstructure Design 2.8 178.0 M 0.0 57.6 30.5 42.8 5.5 34.446 HL93 Live Load Envelopes Service I (10th points) Pts.8 167.7 45.2 255.4 94.9 76.7 94.1 138.3 227.7 154.5 35 38.2 67.2 10.6 95.5 56 59.2 28.6 30.6 124.8 0.8 227.0 92.5 145.6 18.0 61.3 18.5 28 31.5 19.7 139.0 193.5 90.6 42.6 5.2 47.4 16.3 136.5 154.6 19.7 33.5 0.4 195.0 14.3 5.1 14.1 28.1 42.1 5.0 3.8 68.0 16.0 181.9 34.6 134.5 0.3 31.4 14.4 31.8 213.7 40.0 M 0.1 M 0.9 34.0 186.3 3.8 176.2 255.0 12.0 +M 0.6 30.3 95.2 78.2 198.4 341.0 67.7 7.5 5.5 24.2 9.1 9.6 39.1 47.4 137.2 47.9 138.9 290.9 34.4 275. Factorlane .8 83.7 24.5 244.0 94.8 117.8 41.0 22.5 49 52.5 8.9 94.8 191.7 33.4 195.5 17.7 3.7 290.5 301.6 38.Edge beams shall be assumed to support one line of wheels.2 24.1 55.2 202.5 24.7 0.0 99.5 99.8 43.5 105 Truck +M 0.3 15.3 95.2 9.5 98.0 8.6 159.0 9.9 83.8 0.8 117.9 Lane +M 0.0 48.4 137.1 133.1 0.6 17.0 24.3 208.8 275.8 0.5 70 73.5 34.7 156.6 81.2 6.2 31.6 30.5 205.1 208.0 186.6 12.5 5.7 213.8 244.6 43.1 133.8 165.1 9.1 3.9 48.6 30.0 24.9 250.7 10.9 190.0 39.4 24.5 209.0 62.0 71.7 172.2 95.0 195.3 205.1 Strength I Truck M 0.9 36.0 61.7 354.8 170.1 198.0 55.0 24.8 157.3 181.1 157.3 10.9 24.5 98 101.2 117.8 78.5 17.4 18. Factorlane := EEB − b barrier 10⋅ ft Factorlane = 0.0 66.5 67.4 19.9 63.1 17.6 42.0 110.3 33.7 55.5 191.0 110.5 17.9 143.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 48 .7 63.0 55.1 354.5 81.0 59. since the maximum width of the edge beam is limited by the LRFD to 72 inches.0 250.7 28.9 Fatigue M M Range 0.8 190.8 22.0 157.4 171.0 76.8 170.0 98.3 23.8 90.3 9.6 82.7 167.2 10.7 0.5 7 10.0 33.8 7.5 77 80.7 57.2 195.5 42 45.0 7.0 +M 0.3 11.6 21.5 84 87.9 31.5 0. distance 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 0 3.5 Tributary portion of the design lane load is given by.0 40.0 90.8 232.2 18.4 24.7 122.6 165.1 0.2 12.6 17.1 6.0 94.0 5.4 39.0 167.5 19.8 42.5 14 17.0 30.4 26.7 24.5 34.5 156.0 165.2 15.2 117.0 171.1 110.0 178.5 63 66.1 159.4 165.1 67.1 40.8 11.4 165.9 71.8 157.1 61.9 39.7 341.0 92.1 28.5 12.4 63.5 66.0 24.5 54.0 0.2 24.9 139.5 17.0 90.5 59.2 12.8 39.4 50.2 10. therefore multiply the truck moments by Factortruck := 0.7 0.7 122.4 364.5 1.4 202.6 124.5 21 24.3 212.7 35.0 1.4 10.5 145.8 165.3 21.9 27.3 159.8 38.
9 38.6 28.4 54.5 27.0 30.8 22.8 6.4 21.9 3.5 42 45.8 19.6 62.4 31.3 13.1 17.7 15.7 33.0 1.4 13.7 21.2 7.3 36.5 98 101.0 16.5 91 94.1 4.5 63 66.3 9.0 Strength I +M 0.3 37.2 6.1 64.9 31.0 M 0.7 7.2 11.4 15.1 6.5 27.9 20.8 23.5 39.5 39.7 10.0 50. EEB = 6 ft to obtain the design values for live load.5 26.9 4.8 66.0 0.3 49.6 3.5 40.0 Joint 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Superstructure Design 2.0 M Range 0.0 30.7 29.1 22.8 28.1 0.3 25.5 31.7 5.5 84 87.6 4.3 15.0 3.7 35.9 16.5 35.0 0.6 26.5 27.4 7.5 21 24.5 9.3 37.0 11.9 0.1 30.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 49 .9 45.7 26.9 33.9 2.7 22.7 37.5 5.0 M 0.9 35.5 17.5 6.3 9.7 26.3 16.0 ft Fatigue +M 0.1 28.0 13.0 31.9 17.2 12.5 35 38.4 0.8 4.5 31.2 13.5 8.2 19.8 5.9 21.9 52.4 11.8 58.6 7.2 31.7 9.5 7. Design Live Load Envelopes (10th points) "X" distance 0 3.7 31.2 7.5 29.5 0.8 32.5 18.4 22.9 1.8 25.0 15.7 16.8 34.0 M 0.1 31.5 20.5 56 59.6 34.8 58.2 9.8 6.4 18.1 3.5 49 52.9 11.1 13.0 28.9 34.5 25.3 18.2 15.8 3.3 35.9 30.9 2.2 29.0 6.5 77 80.2 11.5 38.0 62.5 28.8 1.5 7 10.0 15.9 8.0 18.6 15.9 35.8 29.6 26.6 18.5 33.3 24.6 24.5 70 73.1 9.5 28 31.4 10.0 18.2 6.1 18.0 15.5 36.7 9.8 6.0 32.7 12.5 14 17.3 49.1 34.9 32.4 43.5 23.3 29.1 0.9 3.9 1.8 20.7 22.8 5.4 12.7 43.7 9.2 20.7 26.3 25.9 15.2 12.1 66.3 30.5 11.5 32.1 15.1 50.6 52.4 17.7 21.Combine the truck and lane loads per each limit state and divide the moments by the distribution width.8 13.0 29.9 29.0 1.5 37.5 35.4 16.4 6.4 27.1 18.3 10.6 28.8 30.1 45.8 40.0 E= 6.5 105 Service I +M 0.6 64.0 1.3 30.7 30.
Pos M Fatigue . ft 84 105 Fatigue . kip 0 20 40 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge. ft 84 105 Strength 1 . ft 84 105 Moment DC Moment DW Zero moment Strength I & Service I Live Load Moments 100 50 Moment.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 50 .Neg M Zero moment Range Superstructure Design 2. kipft 0 50 100 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge.Positive LL M Service I . kipft 20 0 20 40 0 21 42 63 Distance Along Bridge.Positive LL M Strength 1 .Negative LL M Fatigue Envelopes 40 20 Shears.Dead Load Moments 40 Moment.Negative LL M Zero moment Service I .
3 23.2 16.4 6.0 13.3 22.3 67.6 2.9 2.3 33.0 77.7 17.1 18.1 2.0 11.3 19.0 22.1 40.5 15.5 15.5 70 73.9 17.7 21.4 15.0LL Pt.0 40.6 29. Limit State Moments and Shears The service and strength limit states used to design the section are calculated as follows: Zero moment Range Limit State Design Loads Service I (10th points) 1.2 19.1 6.9 47.5 0.8 102.4 25.3 5.5 17.7 26.3 19.5 98 101.7 72.9 40.0 M 0.5 6.3 77.2 2.5 77.7 102.7 34.9 M 0.5 0.4 50.7 5.9 23.6 62.5 98.0 24.8 25.1 24.7 M min 0.5 45.0 M 0.3 63.5 42 45.2 8.5 61.0 9.0 0.3 72.7 77.4 0.8 19.8 25.0 93.7 8.1 21.6 24.5LL MRange = 0.0 61.0 2.0 61.5 28.1 4.3 4.5 7.8 24.6 26.2 14.8 54.8 28.4 17.5 49 52.7 0.4 13.8 10.3 15.0DC + 1.7 23.4 40.7 22.75LL +M 0.5 102.5 14.0DW + 1.1 48.03 Edge Beam Design Loads 51 .3 7.0 45.0 29.1 15.5 91 94.9 3.4 10.3 48.8 15.7 7.3 77.0 Fatigue 1.7 98.8 0.4 5.9 65.1 24.5 84 87.0 17.3 25.3 0.5 9.6 20.4 <−Maximum positive moment and corresponding fatigue values <−Maximum negative moment and corresponding fatigue values Maximum negative Moments = Maximum positive Moments = Defined Units Superstructure Design 2.8 85.7 62.1 57.9 26.5 38.C3.9 37.0 62.3 7.3 57.6 30.5 14 17.0 9.7 18.6 85.2 3.7 95.5 62.0 26.2 62.4 32.5 73.7 4.8 17.6 5.0 7.2 1.5 0.3 26.0 7.5 63 66.0 9.4 26.9 54.5 56 59.3 26.1 23.0 15.9 14.0 94.75LL +M 0.5 47.0 6.5 5.7 32.8 21.4 41.0 16.0 M Range 0.1 0.8 17.7 45.75LL .0 61.4 22. M min = 0.0 29.1 8.4 2.0 0.5 35 38.6 9.7 26.2 28.9 94.9 28.0 9.0 15.1 10.0 77.4 23.6 61.8 11.0 15.0 17.2 65.0 62.4 61.0DW + 1.0 0.3 2.5 21 24.5 105 +M 0.6 4.6 8.9 26.2 15.25DC + 1.8 63.3 20.5 2.2 10.5 95.0 34.4 9.4 14.6 40.8 9.7 19.0 9.5 Strength I 1.3 73.6 5.5 7 10.7 1.4 29.0 23.4 14.8 14.2 49.6 62.7 28.5 14.1 15.3 10.3 15.3 39.4 19.1 19.1 19.9 12.6 26.5 24.0 28.0 49.3 7.8 23.3 23.1 4.0 26.1 7.7 19.9 23. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 "X" dist 0 3.4 14.3 65.9 39.50DW + 1.1 33.0 37.0DC + 1.3 30.7 5.5 77 80.7 45.7 76.2 19.0 17.5 4.5 28 31.5 76.9 43.3 3.0 10.0 0.0 12.2 38.8 43.9 50.6 17.0 29.
3.7. Summary of Reinforcement Provided Superstructure Design 2.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design for the flat slab superstructure. Positive Moment Region Design .Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.7.10.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.2] B6.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Flat Slab Edge Beam Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\203EdgeBmDesignLds.2] B2.7.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 52 .7. Page 53 54 Contents A.4] B4.2] B3. Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5. Fatigue Limit State B8. Input Variables B.3. Negative Moment Region Design . Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.14. Moment Design B1.8.3. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3.4] B7.3] B5.
5 ft⋅ kip Fatigue M fatigue.9 ft⋅ kip M range.pos = 77.3 ft⋅ kip M range.3 ft⋅ kip Strength M r.pos = 102.5 ft⋅ kip Strength M r.neg = 26.0 ft⋅ kip Fatigue M fatigue.7 ft⋅ kip M min. Input Variables Maximum positive moment and corresponding fatigue values Service M pos = 65.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 53 .neg = −23.neg = −94.neg = −77.pos = −2.A.pos = 29 ft⋅ kip M min.4 ft⋅ kip Superstructure Design 2.9 ft⋅ kip Maximum negative moment and corresponding fatigue values Service M neg = −62.
. bar := "8" spacingpos := 6 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2.... Positive Moment Region Design ..5 ft⋅ kip fc... B1.. Moment Design The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment...5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0..7..2] Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − + 0.......pos = 102.. minimum reinforcement.... and distribution of reinforcement..pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds − As......85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ − 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) Simplifying the nominal flexural resistance a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 where a= As⋅ fy 0.....9 t slab = 18 in b := 1⋅ ft M r = φ⋅ As..3.... The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions...Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5....pos ⋅ fy 2 0.slab = 4. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control... Proposed bar spacing. maximum reinforcement.85⋅ fc..............B....04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 54 .... M r..slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ where t slab = h b = 12 in Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.85⋅ f'c⋅ b Using variables defined in this example..
....04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 55 .........reqd = 1...pos = 1..5 in dia ds...790 in dia = 1..........pos − As.............positive... ds....sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ B2. the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments...pos = 1.. Proposed bar spacing.. Bar diameter..reqd := Find As...reqd ...........58 in .. M r......pos ( ) 2 The area of steel provided.... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement........Bar area.slab = 4...pos − Moment capacity provided..2 ft⋅ kip As... As............ If not......... barneg := "8" spacingneg := 6 ⋅ in Superstructure Design 2......... should be greater than the area of steel required..95 ft⋅ kip fc.... Once As.......7.....pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds...prov = 104.....positive......Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.....prov := φ⋅ As....pos := tslab − cover slab − 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required Given M r.. Negative Moment Region Design ... Abar = 0. M r.....58 in 2 Abar ⋅ 1 ft As..................3...neg = 93...slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ Reinforcing steel required... As..... As......85⋅ fc.reqd = 1.....9 t slab = 18 in b = 1 ft b = 12 in t slab = h Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar.............pos = 15.........85⋅ fc.....pos ⋅ fy 2 0..000 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab..5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0.. As.pos = φ⋅ As..............pos ⋅ fy 2 0......57 in 2 2 As.........pos is greater than As..........57 in .....pos := spacingpos Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel.2] Variables: M r..pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds...
....sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ B3......prov = 104............. decrease the spacing of the reinforcement.4] Concrete is subjected to cracking.....58 in 2 Abar...2 ft⋅ kip M r.. The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths...neg is greater than As.....reqd := Find As.58 in ... "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 Superstructure Design 2.. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state.. As......neg = 15...7........... As..........7. As.43 in 2 2 As......reqd = 1.neg⋅ fy 2 0..................43 in .... Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.4).negative................ the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the design moments.neg = 1..neg⋅ fy⋅ ds.....neg − As............ Moment capacity provided.neg⋅ 1 ft As................. should be greater than the area of steel required.3...5 in ds.prov := φ⋅ As...85⋅ fc.. M r.............slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ Reinforcing steel required......reqd = 1.... Once As.neg = φ⋅ As.....04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 56 ....6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter.....Bar area............neg⋅ fy 2 0.....neg ( ) 2 The area of steel provided.000 in 2 Area of steel provided per foot of slab..neg⋅ fy⋅ ds..... The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5......... ds..neg = 1.3.....790 in dianeg = 1.85⋅ fc......neg = 0....reqd ............ Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure... z 1 fsa = ≤ 0...... Bar diameter....... As........ Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement....neg − As..neg := tslab − cover slab − dianeg 2 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required Given M r. If not.negative....neg := spacingneg Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel.. Abar....
a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure"......04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 57 ....5 in dia dc := min tslab − ds..slab ⋅ As...)..8 in to equal xna = 4... 0.................. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.... fsa = 36............... A = 30.... dc = 2........pos − 3 Superstructure Design 2..................8 in..... If the values are not equal... nbar = 2 Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement.....pos ⋅ ds. This process is iterative........0 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c ...pos .. Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in aggressive environment Positive Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.................. adjust x = 4.....614 kip Ts := M pos xna ds........................ x := 4.... Ts = 56... For this example..0 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) Service limit state stress in reinforcement......The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter. 2⋅ in + 2 b nbar := spacingpos Number of bars per design width of slab... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made......6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement......pos − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 4.......8 ⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec....................8 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x ..
..)............ LRFD 5....Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment... A = 30..... nbar = 2 b nbar := spacingneg Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement...4a := "OK..... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made........... dc = 2.......3.8 in...........neg − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 4...neg⋅ ds...slab ⋅ As... crack control for +M is satisfied" Negative Moment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in......3...... If the values are not equal..... crack control for +M not satisfied.3...... 0.................. provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5............6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement...3....actual := As..8 ksi Ts fs..8 in to equal xna = 4...7................... Superstructure Design 2.......pos The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment........ adjust x = 4..... crack control for +M is satisfied" if fs.... 2⋅ in + dianeg 2 Number of bars per design width of slab.......5 in dc := min tslab − ds.4a = "OK.8 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x .7....neg ..actual = 35...0 ksi fsa := min 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c .. This process is iterative.. fs.0 in 2 A := ( b ) ⋅ 2 ⋅ dc nbar ( ) z Service limit state stress in reinforcement............actual ≤ fsa "NG..... fsa = 36....04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 58 . x := 4...8 ⋅ in Given 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Es Ec..
....neg The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment..04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 59 ..............58 in 2 2 Stress block factor.3.....pos = 15.neg Superstructure Design 2. provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5... LRFD 5.actual = 34...........3...pos := ds.5 in de......pos and de.............1 ksi Ts fs.....neg⋅ fy 0. Ts = 53.4b := "OK.. cpos = 2.....3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced..........825 β 1 := max0.......872 kip Ts := M neg xna ds....65 1000⋅ psi As........5 in de...pos ⋅ fy 0.......neg = 15..........05⋅ fc......7..neg = 1.. crack control for M is satisfied" B4.. fs....slab − 4000⋅ psi ...neg − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment..... The greater reinforcement from the positive and negative moment sections is checked... As... crack control for M not satisfied. Area of steel provided.. β 1 = 0...85⋅ fc..3..............4b = "OK..58 in As...........Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment................slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b and cneg := Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement de = As⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps⋅ fps + As⋅ fy Simplifying for this example.....3...7..5 in cneg = 2.........5 in cpos := As..pos = 1.actual ≤ fsa "NG.. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5..... 0...85 − 0.... de......neg := ds. crack control for M is satisfied" if fs...85⋅ fc.....7..actual := As..slab⋅ β 1 ⋅ b Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section.........3...
.3.3...positive..prov ≥ Mr.....42 "OK.neg The = 0.positive. LRFD 5.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 60 .....42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements.42 "OK.... fr = 509... Mr... see LRFD eq.0 in 3 S := Cracking moment.3...3....42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements..11" otherwise LRFD 5.. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" Superstructure Design 2.neg ≤ 0....pos ≤ 0.5 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S Required flexural resistance (+M).2 ft⋅ kip ...3.reqd := min 1....7... maximum reinforcement in M region" if "NG.prov = 104....11" otherwise LRFD 5....7.... section is overreinforced in M region...3.7.......3..2 = "OK... C5. 133⋅ %⋅ M r.2 ⋅ Mcr .0 ft⋅ kip M r.pos = 0. maximum reinforcement in +M region" if "NG.1 := cneg de. maximum reinforcement in M region" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1..7.2 times greater than the cracking moment....7...... see LRFD eq.1 = "OK.3..pos ( ) Check that the capacity provided..3.3... reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5. C5...3. Modulus of Rupture... exceeds minimum requirements.2 := "OK.....3.....3. LRFD 5...1 = "OK.reqd = 33 ft⋅ kip .. LRFD 5.1 := cpos de....reqd "NG. M r.. minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if Mr..3.....7.24⋅ fc....reqd = 33..162 ratio should be less than 0...162 ratio should be less than 0. M r...7. maximum reinforcement in +M region" cneg de... section is overreinforced in +M region.. S = 648..7. M cr = 27..slab⋅ ksi b ⋅ t slab 6 2 Section modulus.1 psi fr := 0..3..The cpos de..3..
... Bar spacing....2] Shrinkage and temperature reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" )....reqd "NG.......................7.....40 in 2 AST := 0...8 := "OK....4 in spacingST := min b AST Abar .... M r.......7. spacingST = 9... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if barspa.................. barst := "5" barspa.11⋅ ksi⋅ Ag fy Maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement. Bar diameter...10.... 18⋅ in The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5.negative..... exceeds minimum requirements..... M r.prov ≥ Mr................... AST = 0.. minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" if Mr.7........... Mr....reqd = 33.neg ( ) Check that the capacity provided.10.positive....625 in Ag := b⋅ tslab 2 Bar area.........2 ft⋅ kip .Required flexural resistance (M)..0 in 2 Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement....st := 9 ⋅ in Abar = 0..10........3...3.. Gross area of section.... minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" B5..04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 61 ........... 133⋅ %⋅ Mr..7......3. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Superstructure Design 2..st ≤ spacingST "NG.8..prov = 104...2 = "OK.31 in dia = 0...reqd = 33 ft⋅ kip .. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5. LRFD 5....................................8 = "OK.reqd := min 1..... Ag = 216...3... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.......2 := "OK.....2 ⋅ Mcr ... 3 ⋅ tslab .....0 ft⋅ kip M r.............. reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5.
... distribution reinforcement requirements" otherwise LRFD 5.......17 %Asteel := min 100 Lspan ft % ...pos ⋅ %Asteel Maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement..................... 50% Required area for secondary reinforcement...... Distribution of Reinforcement [LRFD 5..9 in MaxSpacing DistR := b As.................... %Asteel = 0...............31 in dia = 0.....dist := 12⋅ in Abar = 0............... Bar area..DistR = 0..................14...4] Transverse distribution reinforcement shall be placed in the bottom of the slab.. As...04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 62 .......DistR A bar The bar spacing should not exceed the maximum spacing for secondary reinforcement LRFD 5. MaxSpacing DistR = 13............ bardist := "5" barspa...dist ≤ MaxSpacing DistR "NG...................... Distribution reinforcement provided Size of bar ( "4" "5" "6" )...625 in 2 The area for secondary reinforcement should not exceed 50% of the area for primary reinforcement... distribution reinforcement requirements" Superstructure Design 2.......B6............27 in 2 As.4 := "OK..4 = "OK.......14.. distribution reinforcement requirements" if bar spa............. The amount to place is based on a percentage of the longitudinal main steel..... Bar diameter......14....DistR := As.......... Bar spacing.
.pos ⋅ ds...894 ksi ft. ftensile = 0. fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" Superstructure Design 2...3..pos − cpos 3 LRFD 5.095 fc.allow := 21⋅ ksi − 0...5 times the fatigue load is tensile and exceeds 0. Fatigue Limit State The section properties for fatigue shall be based on cracked sections where the sum of stresses due to unfactored permanent loads and 1.. fatigue stress range requirements for +M region" otherwise LRFD 5........038 ksi ft := M range...... fmin = −1........5.....pos = 1....498 ksi fmin := Mmin...3...5..... Allowable tensile stress for fatigue.431 ksi Fatiguesection := ffatigue.pos := Mfatigue.....pos − cpos 3 Ratio of r/h is taken as r_h := 0.......allow = 23... fatigue stress range requirement for +M region" if ft ≤ ft.......2 = "OK....202 ksi ftensile := 0...slab⋅ ksi Positive Moment Region Stress due to positive moment.pos > ftensile "Use Uncracked section" otherwise Fatiguesection = "Use Cracked section" Minimum stress in reinforcement due to minimum live load..pos As... ft = 15.3...allow "NG.pos As........33⋅ fmin + 8 ⋅ ksi⋅ ( r_h) ( ) Actual stress range..04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 63 ....pos ⋅ ds........ ffatigue.pos S "Use Cracked section" if ffatigue. therefore the allowable stress range is given by.095 fc.B7. ft.......2 := "OK.....
..neg⋅ ds...neg − cneg 3 LRFD 5...neg > ftensile "Use Uncracked section" otherwise Fatiguesection = "Use Cracked section" Minimum stress in reinforcement due to minimum live load.....neg := M fatigue.............neg As..... therefore the allowable stress range is given by... fatigue stress range requirements for M region" otherwise LRFD 5........... fatigue stress range requirement for M region" Superstructure Design 2.. ft.099 ksi fmin := Mmin..neg As.neg S "Use Cracked section" if ffatigue........443 ksi Fatiguesection := ffatigue......3. fmin = −12..2 = "OK......04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 64 ....393 ksi ft.5..Negative Moment Region Stress due to positive moment....84 ksi ft := M range..neg⋅ ds...... fatigue stress range requirement for M region" if ft ≤ ft..33⋅ fmin + 8 ⋅ ksi⋅ ( r_h) ( ) Actual stress range.....allow = 27.neg = 1.. ffatigue.....3..neg − cneg 3 Ratio of r/h is taken as 0.2 := "OK....allow "NG..5.3.allow := 21⋅ ksi − 0........ ft = 13..
10.14. distribution reinforcement requirements" Defined Units Superstructure Design 2. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" Longitudinal Distribution reinforcing Bar size Bottom spacing bardist = "5" barspa. Summary of Reinforcement Provided Main reinforcing Top bar size (M) Top spacing barneg = "8" spacingneg = 6.04 Flat Slab Edge Beam Design 65 .0 in LRFD 5.0 in Bottom bar size (+M) bar = "8" Bottom spacing spacingpos = 6.8 = "OK.dist = 12.7.4 = "OK.st = 9.B8.0 in Shrinkage and temperature reinforcing Bar size Bottom spacing barst = "5" barspa.0 in LRFD 5.
05 Expansion Joint Design 66 .3] A3. Temperature Movement [SDG 6. Design Summary Superstructure Design 2.SUPERSTRUCTURE DESIGN Expansion Joint Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\204EdgeBeam. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint 73 C.4.4] A4. Movement [6. Bridge Geometry A2.2] 71 B. Expansion Joints [SDG 6. Input Variables A1. Expansion Joint Design B1.4.2) B3.2) B2. Temperature Change only @ 115% Design (SDG 6.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the bridge expansion joints. Page 67 67 68 Contents LRFD Criteria FDOT Criteria A. Creep.4. Shrinkage and Temperature Design (SDG 6.
5] FDOT Criteria Uniform Temperature .4.1] Bridge Joints [14.3] Movement and Loads .4] Superstructure Design 2.4.2.2] Delete LRFD [3.2 and SDG 6.Joints and Bearings [SDG 2.7.General [14.12.12.LRFD Criteria Uniform Temperature [3. Shrinkage and Creep [5.2] Superseded by SDG 2.2] and substitute in lieu thereof SDG Chapter 6.7. Expansion Joints [SDG 6.05 Expansion Joint Design 67 .4.
.. Temperature low....... Temperature fall..... Temperature Movement [SDG 6.. Temperature high...5⋅ ft A2. Bridge Geometry Overall bridge length...... Temperature mean.. Temperature rise.......... Skew angle....A........3] Structural Material of Superstructure Concrete Only Concrete Deck on Steel Girder Steel Only Temperature (Degrees Fahrenheit) High Low 95 45 110 30 120 30 Mean 70 70 70 Range 50 80 90 The temperature values for "Concrete Only" in the preceding table apply to this example. Input Variables A1.05 Expansion Joint Design 68 ....... Bridge design span length.. t mean = 70 °F t high = 95 °F t low = 45 °F ∆t rise := thigh − tmean ∆t fall := t mean − t low ∆t rise = 25 °F ∆t fall = 25 °F Superstructure Design 2. Lbridge = 105 ft Lspan = 35 ft Skew = −30 deg Design length for movement Ldesign := 52...
... A typical joint for most flat slab bridges is the silicone seal.. ∆zTempR := α t ⋅ ∆t rise⋅ cos( Skew )⋅ Ldesign ∆zTempF := α t ⋅ ∆t fall⋅ cos( Skew ) ⋅ Ldesign ∆zTempR = 0...... Temperature Fall....05 in For silicone seals..2...... For new construction................... α t = 6 × 10 −6 1 °F A3.. ∆xTempR := α t ⋅ ∆t rise⋅ sin( Skew ) ⋅ Ldesign ∆xTempF := α t ⋅ ∆t fall⋅ sin( Skew )⋅ Ldesign ∆xTempR = 0.2] Temperature The movement along the beam due to temperature should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or skew.. Wmax := 2 ⋅ in 5 Wmin := ⋅ in 8 W := 1 ⋅ in A4....08 in ∆zTempF = 0... Minimum joint width at 70o F.......05 Expansion Joint Design 69 .... Displacements normal to skew at top of bents Temperature rise. displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs.....4] Joint Type Poured Rubber Silicone Seal Strip Seal Modular Joint Finger Joint Maximum Joint Width * ¾” 2” 3” Unlimited Unlimited *Joints in sidewalks must meet all requirements of Americans with Disabilities Act..... Expansion Joints [SDG 6.. use only the joint types listed in the preceding table... Movement [6.4...4..05 in ( ) ∆xTempF = 0... Maximum joint width. Proposed joint width at 70o F....... Superstructure Design 2... these displacements are ignored..Coefficient of thermal expansion [LRFD 5. For this example....08 in Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents Temperature rise..2] for normal weight concrete...... Temperature Fall..
4............ Superstructure Design 2.. ∆zCS = 0.... εCR := 0..........3................1 as the total shrinkage after one year of drying................Creep and Shrinkage The following assumptions are used in this design example: • • Creep of the concrete for expansion joint design is ignored.... Shrinkage of the concrete for the flat slab is castinplace flat slab will be taken as per LRFD 5...05 Expansion Joint Design 70 ....16 in ∆xCS := εCS⋅ sin( Skew ) ⋅ Ldesign For silicone seals...... Strain due to creep and shrinkage εCS := εCR + εSH εCS = 0.......... εSH := 0....... displacements parallel to the skew are not significant in most joint designs................................. For this example.2.... these displacements are ignored.......00050 The movement along the beam due to creep and shrinkage should be resolved along the axis of the expansion joint or skew......... Displacements normal to skew at top of bents. ∆xCS = 0........27 in ∆zCS := εCS⋅ cos( Skew )⋅ Ldesign Displacements parallel to skew at top of bents....................... Shrinkage strain...0005 Creep strain.
joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise CSTJt_Open = "OK..fall + ∆zcreep.91 in WTclose := W − 1.. Movement from the combination of temperature fall. creep.. ∆zTemperature.... and temperature fall tends to "open" the expansion joint.......4.. Expansion Joint Design For conventional concrete structures..4..rise...35 in Joint width from opening caused by creep....15⋅ ∆zTempF Joint width from closing caused by factored temperature rise......05 Expansion Joint Design 71 ...2) Movement from factored effects of temperature rise ∆zrise... WTclose = 0....fall Using variables defined in this example.or...... CSTJt_Open := "OK....15⋅ ∆ztemperature..fall = 1. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" if WCSTopen ≤ Wmax "NG...... WCSTopen = 1..shrinkage ∆ CST := ∆zCS + ∆zTempF Using variables defined in this example........ shrinkage..... and shrinkage.. Movement from Temperature (SDG 6.. shrinkage...........35 in WCSTopen := W + ∆ CST The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width..... and shrinkage Movement from factored effects of temperature B1.. ∆ CST = 0. the movement is based on the greater of two cases: • • Movement from the combination of temperature fall.. Shrinkage and Temperature (SDG 6. Movement from Creep.... and temperature. creep..Fall = ∆ztemperature.. Joint width from opening caused by factored temperature fall...B..... joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" B2.... WTopen = 1..or......15⋅ ∆zTempR Superstructure Design 2......2) The combination of creep......09 in WTopen := W + 1.
TAdj = 0.. Temperature Adjustment for Field Placement of Joint For field temperatures other than 70o F....................... joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" The joint width from closing should not be less than the minimum joint width..... εCST = 0........ joint width exceeds maximum joint width" otherwise TemperatureJt_Open = "OK..0033 in °F TAdj := ∆zTempR ∆trise B4............05 Expansion Joint Design 72 ....... joint width is not less than minimum joint width" B3.............. joint width is not less than minimum joint width" if WTclose ≥ Wmin "NG...... TemperatureJt_Open := "OK.00065 εCST := εCR + εSH + α t⋅ ∆tfall ( ) Superstructure Design 2.......The joint width from opening should not exceed the maximum joint width.... TemperatureJt_Close := "OK.. joint width exceeds minimum joint width" otherwise TemperatureJt_Close = "OK.................. The adjustment is used during construction to obtain the desired joint width.......... a temperature adjustment is provided...... Design Movement/Strain For the lateral forces into the substructure piles.... the following strain due to temperature...... creep and shrinkage will be utilized. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" if WTopen ≤ Wmax "NG...........
......... joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" ............ WTclose = 0.. W = 1 in Joint width from opening caused by creep.. Wmin = 0.. joint width does not exceed maximum joint width" .......91 in TemperatureJt_Close = "OK................09 in TemperatureJt_Open = "OK.C.....35 in CSTJt_Open = "OK................. and temperature. TAdj = 0...05 Expansion Joint Design 73 ........0033 in °F Defined Units Superstructure Design 2............................................ Design Summary Joint width at 70o. joint width is not less than minimum joint width" ... WTopen = 1......................... Wmax = 2 in Joint width from closing caused by factored temperature.. Wmax = 2 in Joint width from opening caused by factored temperature.....625 in Adjustment for field temperatures other than 70o........................... WCSTopen = 1..... shrinkage.....
End Bent and Pier Dead load (DC. Beam Dead loads B2. Pier Geometry A3. The selfweight of the substructure is generated by the analysis program for the substructure model. Dead Loads (DC. Pier Dead loads B4.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Bent 2 Cap Design Loads Reference Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\205ExpJt. End Bent Geometry A2. DW) B1. General Criteria A1.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design dead loads applied to the substructure from the superstructure. End Bent Dead loads B3. Pile Geometry 76 B.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 74 . Footing Geometry A4. DW) Summary Substructure Design 3. Page 75 Contents A.
..... Intermediate Bent Geometry Depth of intermediate bent cap... Pile Size..5 ft L = 102.....................A.. Width of intermediate bent cap...... Length of intermediate bent cap.. Pile Embedment Depth.........5 ft b = 3..... General Criteria A1....01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 75 . h = 2. only the intermediate bent will be evaluated)........86 ft Pileembed = 1 ft Pilesize = 18 in (Note: For this design example... Substructure Design 3.
Beam Diagrams and Deflections charts.left + V DW.left := 0.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads 76 . DW.6 klf similarly V DW.left := 0.26 klf RDC = 9.right := 0.Dead Load Analysis utilizing Substructure Design 3. the reactions at the intermediate bent (Point B) can be calculated.right (Note: These are the same values summarized in Sect.01 Design Loads . LL) B1.04 klf V DC.32 klf V DW.6 ⋅ wDC⋅ Lspan V DC. Shears and Reactions for Continuous Highway Bridges.015⋅ ksf For a 1' design strip. Longitudinal Analysis Dead Loads The dead loads of the superstructure (moment and shears) were previously computed on a per foot basis utilizing the AISC's Moments.2 klf RDW = 0.left = 5.5 ⋅ wDC⋅ Lspan V DC.left = 0.6 ⋅ wDW⋅ Lspan V DW. published 1966. Based on the following chart.left + V DC.right := 0.5 ⋅ wDW⋅ Lspan the reactions at B: RDC := V DC.right = 0. Loads (DC.2 klf V DW.right = 4. Reaction at B: RB = V left + V right where based on previous calculations for dead loads: wDC := 0. The dead loads and shear could have been calculated utilizing the AISC's Steel Construction Manual . V DC. 2.B.right RDW := V DW.240⋅ ksf wDW := 0.
Live loads The live load reaction at the intermediate bent can be computed utilizing computer programs or similar methods. For purposes of this design example, the HL93 live load reaction at B is given as: HL93 live load reaction at B Live load reaction for an interior strip, E = 12.5 ft ........
RLL.Interior = 9 klf RLL := 112.9⋅ kip RLL E (Note: Includes lane load and impact on truck; 112.9kip = truck (64.7kipx1.33)+lane(26.88kip)).
RLL.Interior :=
Since the live load applied to the edge beam is different than an interior strip, the live load reaction for the edge beam is computed separately, HL93 live load reaction at B..
RLL.EB := 55.0⋅ kip (Note: Includes lane load and impact on truck; 112.9kip = truck (64.7kip)x1.33x0.5 Factortruck + lane(26.88kipx0.446 Factor lane )).
Live load reaction for an edge beam strip, EEB = 6 ft .........
RLL.EB = 9.2 klf
RLL.EB :=
R LL.EB EEB
B1. Transverse Analysis
The loads calculated in the longitudinal analysis can be applied transversely for (1) design of the pier cap and (2) design of the maximum pile force. Pier cap design
Substructure Design
3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads
77
The live loads can be positioned to maximize the loads for the design of the intermediate end bent cap. For instance, for the maximum positive moment in the intermediate end bent cap, the influence line is shaped as follows:
the corresponding live load loading is therefore,
For the maximum negative moment in the intermediate end bent cap, the influence line is shaped as follows:
the corresponding live load loading is therefore,
Substructure Design
3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads
78
The dead load DC, DW for both superstructure and cap were evaluated, combined with the appropriate live load utilizing LARSA 2000. Any frame analysis program could be utilized to obtain the results. In addition, the load combinations were performed within LARSA for both the Service I and Strength I limit states. The following is a summary of the results:
LARSA 2000 Analysis Results
Max. +M (ftkip) Superstructure DC Moment Superstructure DW Moment Substructure Cap DC Moment LL Moment Service I Limit State Strength I Limit State Max. Service I Reaction Max. Strength I Reaction
Defined Units
V (kip) 59.3 3.9 8.5 61.4 126.6 220.5 
Max. M (ftkip) 113.0 7.4 16.1 130.5 267.3 465.9 256.5 447.0
V (kip) 59.3 3.9 8.5 61.4 133.2 232.1 
78.1 5.1 11.1 107.9 202.4 352.5 191.9 334.1
Substructure Design
3.01 Bent 2 Cap Design Loads
79
Positive Moment Design B1.7. Transverse Reinforcement 96 E.7.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5.7.3] B3.2] C2. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.4] 94 D.SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Bent 2 Cap Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\301DsnLds.7.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. Summary SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3.7. Negative Moment Design C1. Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3. Positive Moment Region Design . Mass Concrete Provisions 89 C. Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.2] B5.2] B2.8] D1. Input Variables B.8. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance D2. Page 81 82 Contents A.4] B4.10.3.mcd(R) Description This section provides the criteria for the intermediate bent cap design.3] C3.7.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 80 .3. Shear Design [LRFD 5.3. Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5.3. Negative Moment Region Design .
Strength.....1 kip Moment (+M) ..neg = 267..3 ft⋅ kip M Strength1..................Strength.........5 kip SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.pos = 202.Moments and Shears Moment (M) ......5 ft⋅ kip V Strength1.Service.pos = 220........Strength....Strength......A....pos = 352.... Moment (M) .....9 ft⋅ kip V Strength1... Corresponding Shear (+M) . Corresponding Shear (M) ....... M Service1......02 Bent 2 Cap Design 81 ... Moment (+M) ... M Service1..........3 ft⋅ kip M Strength1...neg = 232... Input Variables Design Loads .....Service.neg = 465..................
Same grid pattern allows the concrete vibrator to be more effective in reaching the full depth of the cap. If this arrangement is not possible.B..pos ⋅ fy 2 0.sub = 5..85⋅ fc.pos ⋅ fy⋅ ds − As...7. The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions.85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ − 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) For a rectangular.slab⋅ b 1 ⋅ SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. give preference to maintaining the same spacing between the top and bottom reinforcement.85⋅ f'c⋅ b B1.9 h = 30 in b = 42 in M r = φ⋅ As. • • Use the same size and spacing of reinforcing for both the negative and positive moment regions. M r := MStrength1. maximum reinforcement.pos M r = 352.2] Using variables defined in this example. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement. Positive Moment Region Design . then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control. a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0.5 ft⋅ kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − + 0. Positive Moment Design A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. and distribution of reinforcement.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 82 .Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. minimum reinforcement.3. nonprestressed section. where fc. This prevents field errors whereas the top steel is mistakenly placed at the bottom or vice versa.. The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment.
reqd = 3....790 in dia = 1....... Area of steel provided...... should be greater than the area of steel required.. If not.9 in dia 5 ds := h − cover sub − − in 2 8 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required..95 in ..... Bar area...... As = 3........................7 in 2 As := nbar⋅ Abar Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #5 stirrup).................85⋅ fc........ Area of steel required................ SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3..pos = 449...... and a bigger bar size should be selected. As = 3............. nbar := 5 bar := "8" Note: if bar spacing is "1"........ M r.25 in .................................pos := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 Moment capacity provided...... Bar diameter......... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5...... As... Equivalent bar spacing...000 in barspa = 8.......25 in 2 2 Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − As.. ds = 25.3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced.......sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy The area of steel provided..reqd := Find As ( ) 2 0.....95 in 2 Abar = 0........... Size of bar...Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars.... As.. Once As is greater than As.................reqd = 3............ the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments.......3..85⋅ fc................. decrease the spacing of the reinforcement........... the spacing is less than 3"........................reqd ........2 ft⋅ kip 2 0....sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy B2.......02 Bent 2 Cap Design 83 . M r........7..............................
.. S = 3.........06 ratio should be less than 0..7...05⋅ fc.6 in c := As⋅ fy 0.....775 β 1 := max0.......3. 0...7...11" otherwise c de ≤ 0............. section is overreinforced......3.1 = "OK..3. maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" if "NG................3....85⋅ fc....... c = 1..sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement.7......24⋅ fc. de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for nonprestressed sections...........3....3....8 psi fr := 0...... de = 25...2 times greater than the cracking moment......sub⋅ ksi Section modulus of cap. see LRFD equation C5..............95 in 2 Stress block factor... As = 3........9 in de := ds The c de = 0......... M cr = 295.. LRFD 5......5 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.............1 := "OK. β 1 = 0..42 LRFD 5...02 Bent 2 Cap Design 84 ... maximum reinforcement requirements for positive moment are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1............ fr = 562................6 ft 3 S := b ⋅h 6 2 Cracking moment......sub − 4000 ⋅ psi .....85 − 0.Area of steel provided.........65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section...... Modulus of Rupture...............42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements....
... M r....... The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths.6 ft⋅ kip M r.. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state... Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5.........3... Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure..7..pos = 449.5 in dia dc := min h − ds . Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement.Required flexural resistance..reqd = 354.. The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5. "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter..........3...... z 1 fsa = ≤ 0..3.........6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter........2 ft⋅ kip . A = 42..3.)...... Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in aggressive environment Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in.... 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided..2 := "OK...... M r....7... a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure". Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement..3.......pos ≥ M r....reqd = 354....3........ 2⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of slab.2 ⋅ Mcr .......4] Concrete is subjected to cracking....7.2 = "OK.7.. reinforcement for positive moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5...reqd := min 1............02 Bent 2 Cap Design 85 .... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" if Mr. LRFD 5.4)...... For this example.. exceeds minimum requirements.........reqd "NG. dc = 2. Mr...0 in 2 nbar = 5 A := ( b )⋅ (2⋅ dc) nbar SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.....6 ft⋅ kip ....... minimum reinforcement for positive moment is satisfied" B3...
so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made... Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment. LRFD 5..1 in..7. 0.9 ksi Ts fs..3.... provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5.Service limit state stress in reinforcement. . fsa = 36.4 := "OK..pos xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment..sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 9. adjust x = 9.........3. crack control for positive moment not satisfied...actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment. x := 9.343 kip Ts := MService1...7.1 ⋅ in 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec...actual = 26. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...3.4 = "OK..3.... This process is iterative.. If the values are not equal. Ts = 106....1 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x .1 in to equal xna = 9..... crack control for positive moment is satisfied" if fs.0 ksi fsa := min z 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c .02 Bent 2 Cap Design 86 .6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement.. fs...actual ≤ fsa "NG...
... Ag = 1260.......10...................... Bar diameter...8 := "OK............st ≤ spacingshrink.10..... Gross area of section. Ashrink.... Shrinkage and Temperature Reinforcement [LRFD 5.........temp := min b Ashrink....31 in dia = 0.....10..........st := 12⋅ in Abar = 0..8 = "OK.B4........7....temp := 0...........0015 ⋅ Ag Maximum spacing of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement spacingshrink...9 in 2 Ashrink....... minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" otherwise LRFD 5... 3in spacingshrink. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.......0 in 2 Minimum area of shrinkage and temperature reinforcement......... barspa........temp "NG...7..... barst := "5" if b < 48in ⋅ h < 48in "6" otherwise barst = "5" ( )( ) Spacing of bar.......02 Bent 2 Cap Design 87 ........8...........0 in ( 100⋅ Abar ) otherwise The bar spacing should be less than the maximum spacing for shrinkage and temperature reinforcement LRFD 5........temp = 1..........temp = 12............temp Abar ⋅ 2 .....625 in Ag := b ⋅ h 2 Bar area.... 12⋅ in if b < 48in ⋅ h < 48in ( )( ) min 2 ⋅ dc + dia ....2] Initial assumption for area of steel required Size of bar. minimum shrinkage and temperature requirements" if barspa......
.719 ft . Volume cap = 900 ft 3 Volume cap := b ⋅ h ⋅ L Mass concrete provisions apply if the volume to surface area ratio.........02 Bent 2 Cap Design 88 ..9 := "Use mass concrete provisions" if Volume cap Surfacecap Volume cap Surfacecap = 0....8 ft 2 Surfacecap := 2 ⋅ b ⋅ h + 2b + 2h ⋅ L ( ) Volume of pier cap... exceeds 1 ft and any > 1.... Mass Concrete Provisions Surface area of pier cap......9 = "Use regular concrete provisions" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.................B5.... Surfacecap = 1251...... dimension exceeds 3 feet SDG3..........0 ⋅ ft ∧ b > 3ft ∨ h > 3ft ( ) "Use regular concrete provisions" otherwise SDG3..
7. M r := M Strength1.neg M r = 465. The design procedure consists of calculating the reinforcement required to satisfy the design moment.5 ksi fy = 60 ksi φ = 0. Negative Moment Region Design . If this arrangement is not possible. nonprestressed section. a M n = As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 a= As⋅ fy 0.C.Flexural Resistance [LRFD 5. This pattern places the top and bottom bars in the same grid pattern. maximum reinforcement. The procedure is the same for both positive and negative moment regions. shrinkage and temperature reinforcement.85⋅ f'c⋅ b − b w ⋅ β 1 ⋅ hf⋅ − 2 2 2 2 2 ( ) For a rectangular. minimum reinforcement. then checking this reinforcement against criteria for crack control.85⋅ f'c⋅ b C1. and distribution of reinforcement.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 89 . The same size and spacing of reinforcing should be utilized for both the negative and positive moment regions.sub = 5.9 ft⋅ kip Factored resistance M r = φ⋅ Mn Nominal flexural resistance a hf a a a M n = Aps⋅ fps ⋅ dp − + As⋅ fy⋅ ds − − A' s⋅ f'y⋅ d's − + 0.9 h = 30 in b = 42 in SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. and any additional steel is placed between these bars. where fc. Negative Moment Design A few recommendations on bar size and spacing are available to minimize problems during construction.2] Using variables defined in this example.3. the top and bottom reinforcement should be spaced as a multiple of each other.
........... Area of steel provided....... M r....... Once As is greater than As............3. Equivalent bar spacing......... the proposed reinforcing is adequate for the applied moments..... M r........5 ft⋅ kip 2 0......10 in 2 Given M r = φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − As......02 Bent 2 Cap Design 90 ... ds = 25.... As = 4.. the spacing is less than 3"........reqd ..... If not.reqd := Find As ( ) 2 0.............9 in dia 5 ds := h − cover sub − − in 2 8 Solve the quadratic equation for the area of steel required................................. and a bigger bar size should be selected.......74 in 2 Abar = 0..........74 in ... decrease the spacing of the reinforcement..neg = 536......... Bar area.85⋅ fc............................Initial assumption for area of steel required Number of bars...............7 in 2 As := nbar⋅ Abar Distance from extreme compressive fiber to centroid of reinforcing steel (assuming a #5 stirrup).......... As = 4..... nbar := 6 bar := "8" Note: if bar spacing is "1".....74 in 2 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.... Limits for Reinforcement [LRFD 5....3] Maximum Reinforcement The maximum reinforcement requirements ensure the section has sufficient ductility and is not overreinforced............................ As = 4... As...neg := φ⋅ As⋅ fy⋅ ds − 2 2 Moment capacity provided..sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy The area of steel provided.........000 in barspa = 8........reqd = 4.... should be greater than the area of steel required..... Size of bar....... As............10 in .......85⋅ fc................sub⋅ b 1 ⋅ As⋅ fy C2..reqd = 4...... Bar diameter............... Area of steel required.7......................790 in dia = 1. Area of steel provided..........
..6 ft 4 I := Section modulus of cap.....1 = "OK..3..85 − 0.....3..sub − 4000 ⋅ psi ....2 times greater than the cracking moment......072 ratio should be less than 0...8 psi fr := 0. de = Aps ⋅ fps⋅ dp + As⋅ fy⋅ ds Aps ⋅ fps + As⋅ fy for nonprestressed sections.......24⋅ fc.....05⋅ fc.....3............. y = 15...... 0.sub⋅ ksi Distance from the extreme tensile fiber to the neutral axis of the composite section...... maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied" if "NG........ I = 4.............02 Bent 2 Cap Design 91 .......... de = 25...........42 LRFD 5.....7....3.... M cr = 295.... c = 1........0 in y := h 2 1 12 ⋅ b ⋅h 3 Moment of inertia for the section.......... β 1 = 0.11" otherwise c de ≤ 0.. fr = 562..... S = 3...65 1000 ⋅ psi Distance from extreme compression fiber to the neutral axis of section........s Stress block factor..........1 := "OK.. Modulus of Rupture..... LRFD 5..85⋅ fc.............9 in de := ds The c de = 0..775 β 1 := max0..3...........sub⋅ β 1⋅ b Effective depth from extreme compression fiber to centroid of the tensile reinforcement.5 kip ⋅ ft M cr := fr⋅ S SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3.. maximum reinforcement requirements for negative moment are satisfied" Minimum Reinforcement The minimum reinforcement requirements ensure the moment capacity provided is at least 1.... see LRFD equation C5.7.. section is overreinforced..9 in c := As⋅ fy 0.......3....7.42 to satisfy maximum reinforcement requirements........6 ft 3 S := b ⋅h 6 2 Cracking moment........
..3.reqd = 354...3... fsa = z 1 ≤ 0.. Mr.....7...5 in dia dc := min h − ds ...6 ft⋅ kip .2 = "OK.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 92 .. minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" C3.reqd = 354...neg ≥ Mr.. Environmentsuper = "Slightly" z := 170⋅ kip in Distance from extreme tension fiber to center of closest bar (concrete cover need not exceed 2 in. The stress equations emphasize bar spacing rather than crack widths....... a "Slightly" or "Moderately" aggressive environment corresponds to "moderate exposure" and an "Extremely" aggressive environment corresponds to "severe exposure".3........4] Concrete is subjected to cracking..2 := "OK.reqd "NG. dc = 2........ For this example..7..2 ⋅ Mcr . Crack Control by Distribution Reinforcement [LRFD 5... Potential cracks can be minimized through proper placement of the reinforcement.... "moderate exposure" 170 kip z = "severe exposure" 130 ⋅ in "buried structures" 100 The environmental classifications for Florida designs do not match the classifications to select the crack width parameter. Stress in the mild steel reinforcement at the service limit state.... 133⋅ %⋅ M r ( ) Check that the capacity provided...4)... M r.3..... 2⋅ in + 2 Number of bars per design width of slab...7.....6 ⋅ fy ( dc⋅A) 3 Crack width parameter.reqd := min 1... minimum reinforcement for negative moment is satisfied" if Mr.6 ft⋅ kip M r....3..........5 ft⋅ kip ....... LRFD 5...7.. exceeds minimum requirements.............. Limiting the width of expected cracks under service conditions increases the longevity of the structure...neg = 536.. nbar = 6 SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. The check for crack control requires that the actual stress in the reinforcement should not exceed the service limit state stress (LRFD 5...3.)....Required flexural resistance.. reinforcement for negative moment is less than minimum" otherwise LRFD 5. M r..
..4 := "OK... ...actual := As The service limit state stress in the reinforcement should be greater than the actual stress due to the service limit state moment.3.02 Bent 2 Cap Design 93 .. 0..8 ⋅ in 1 2 ⋅b⋅ x = 2 Given Es Ec. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...... Ts = 141..Effective tension area of concrete surrounding the flexural tension reinforcement. Tensile force in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.0 in 2 A := ( b )⋅ (2⋅ dc) nbar z Service limit state stress in reinforcement.....9 kip Ts := M Service1.... adjust x = 9.....4 = "OK.sub ⋅ As⋅ ds − x ( ) xna := Find( x) xna = 9......neg xna ds − 3 Actual stress in the reinforcing steel due to service limit state moment.. fs... provide more reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5. crack control for positive moment not satisfied.......8 in Compare the calculated neutral axis xna with the initial assumption x .7... LRFD 5.3..8 in to equal xna = 9....6 ⋅ fy The neutral axis of the section must be determined to determine the actual stress in the reinforcement..9 ksi Ts fs. x := 9.......0 ksi fsa := min 1 ( d ⋅ A) 3 c .actual ≤ fsa "NG... If the values are not equal... so an initial assumption of the neutral axis must be made....actual = 29..8 in... This process is iterative... A = 35.....3.. fsa = 36...7. crack control for positive moment is satisfied" if fs.....3........
..9 ⋅ ds ...0316⋅ β ⋅ fc....... provide minimum reinforcement" otherwise LRFD 5....... V u > 0. It should also have the least amount of transverse reinforcement specified in LRFD 5...2.. 0.85⋅ fc..4 = " Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...2.2..8] D1..8.5 ⋅ φv⋅ V c + V p ( ) The pier cap has no prestressing.. β := 2 θ := 45⋅ deg Nominal shear resistance of concrete section.....448 in dv = 25.. Determine Nominal Shear Resistance V u := V Strength1......... 0...... b v = 42.6 kip V c := 0......sub⋅ b Effective shear depth....sub⋅ ksi⋅ b v⋅ dv D2. V c = 156...3. a = 1..... Shear Design [LRFD 5. V p := 0 ⋅ kip Is transverse reinforcement required? LRFD 5....4......... Transverse Reinforcement Transverse reinforcement shall be provided in the pier cap according to LRFD 5.4 := " Transverse reinforcement shall be provided" if V u > 0..5 ⋅ φv⋅ V c + V p ( ) " Transverse reinforcement not required..8.2 in a := a dv := max ds − ....0 in b v := b As⋅ fy 0.........8.4) The pier cap is a nonprestressed concrete section not subjected to axial tension...72⋅ h 2 Determination of β and θ (LRFD 5..2..02 Bent 2 Cap Design 94 .8...5 or an overall depth of less than 16 in...8....neg Effective width of the section....D.
........8 ⋅ dv ......5 in s := min smin .. smin ........ min( 0......5 in sreq := if V s ≤ 0 . V n = 257. 12⋅ in) φv⋅ (b v⋅ dv) smax = 20.240 in 2 dia = 0.121 in Spacing of transverse reinforcement cannot exceed the following spacing..... V s = 101...........sub⋅ ksi Transverse reinforcement required..... Number of stirrup bars ( "single" "double" ) ....... Area of shear reinforcement......625 in Nominal shear strength provided by shear reinforcement Vn = Vc + Vp + Vs where..... bar := "5" nbar := "double" Av = 1................sub ......... 0............... 24⋅ in) ..25⋅ fc................9 kip V n := min Vu φv ..................4 ⋅ dv ......9 in smin := Av⋅ fy 0.......... smax ( ) SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3...02 Bent 2 Cap Design 95 . sreq = 18..... spacing = 18..... smin = 23......... s ........ Diameter of shear reinforcement..0316 ⋅ b v⋅ fc........ min(0... Av⋅ fy⋅ dv⋅ cot( θ ) Vs Minimum transverse reinforcement required.......3 kip V s := V n − V c − V p Spacing of stirrups Minimum transverse reinforcement.5 in spacing := if smax > s ...........Stirrups Size of stirrup bar ( "4" "5" "6" "7" ). sreq ( ) Maximum transverse reinforcement smax := if V u − φv⋅ V p < 0.........125⋅ fc............. s = 18...sub⋅ b v⋅ dv + V p and.............
.. 4#5 bars can be added in between the #8 bars at the top over the negative moment areas only).negM = 8...7 in (Note: As a detailing alternative....... In addition.st = 12 in Defined Units SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN 3. Bar spacing.temp = "5" barspa........ Bar spacing... barnegM = "8" nbar.... Positive moment (bottom) reinforcement Bar size.7 in Transverse reinforcement Bar size..E.5 in nbar = "double" Temperature and Shrinkage Bar size... barposM = "8" nbar. bar = "5" spacing = 18............posM = 8. barshrink...02 Bent 2 Cap Design 96 .......... Number of bars..... Number of bars........posM = 5 barspa. Summary of Reinforcement Provided in the Moment Region Negative moment (top) reinforcement Bar size.. Type of stirrups......... 5#8 bars top and bottom can be specified. Bar spacing...... Bar spacing.....negM = 6 barspa.
Pile Capacities as per SPT97 Substructure Design 3. Page 98 99 100 Contents FDOT Criteria A.mcd(R) Description This section provides the design of the piles for vertical loads (exclude lateral load design). Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load B1. only the maximum loaded pile is evaluated. For this design example.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 97 .SUBSTRUCTURE DESIGN Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design References Reference:F:\HDRDesignExamples\Ex2_FlatSlab\302BentCap. Input Variables B.
Resistance Factors [SDG 3..7] The minimum pile tip elevation must be the deepest of the minimum elevations that satisfy lateral stability requirements for the three limit states......2] Use 18" square piling......11] The Required Driving Resistance for an 18" square concrete pile must not exceed..........5.5] The resistance factor utilizing SPT97 for piles under compression shall be..3] Minimum pile spacing centertocenter must be at least three times the least width of the deep foundation element measured at the ground line. The Required Driving Resistance for an 24" square concrete pile must not exceed...5...03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 98 .. The design criteria for minimum tip elevation are based on vertical load requirements and lateral load analysis.5.. UBCFDOT_18 := 300⋅ Ton UBCFDOT_24 := 450⋅ Ton Substructure Design 3....... φSPT97 := 0............... Since this bridge is not over water. Pile Driving Resistance [SDG 3......5........ Spacing.......65 Minimum Pile Tip [SDG 3...5. Clearances and Embedment and Size [SDG 3.... scour and ship impact are not design issues..FDOT Criteria Minimum Sizes [SDG 3. except for extremely aggressive salt water environments..................
03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 99 .. neither is accessibility to the job site for pile driving equipment..... UBC := RStrength1 φSPT97 UBC = 343. Utilizing 24" diameter piles.. UBCFDOT_24 = 450 Ton.. the consultant needs to evaluate the following costs: 1..A.... Reducing the pile spacing from 11' and adding an extra pile or two 2.... 24" square piles will be utilized... pile driving vibrations are not an issue...8 Ton This value should not exceed the limit specified by FDOT..... Factored Design Load + Net Scour + Downdrag φ Using variables defined in this example...... For purposes of the design example. therefore...... Input Variables Maximum Strength I pile reaction RStrength1 = 447 kip or RDR = UBC = RStrength1 = 223 Ton Required driving resistance (RDR)..... UBCFDOT_18 = 300 Ton Since the RDR value is exceeded........ Substructure Design 3.....
Pile Tip Elevations for Vertical Load B1. SPT97 NT v1. the program can analyze concrete piles. pipe piles. It is available at the following FDOT website: http://www11. and cylinder piles. Using boring data.exe For this design example.5 dated 6/2/00.B. the boring data is based on Example2 in the program. was utilized to determine the pile capacity. Hpiles.myflorida. Pile Capacities as per SPT97 The Static Pile Capacity Analysis Program.com/structures/programs/spt97setup. which is part of the install package.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 100 . Substructure Design 3.
..... net scour and downdrag are zero........ Recall that the ultimate bearing capacity.in...8 Ton Substructure Design 3. UBC = 343............. is given by.The following picture shows the boring log entries in Example2.. UBC = Factored Design Load + Net Scour + Downdrag φ In this design example. UBC........ so the UBC is............03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 101 ..
The program was executed. and the output can be summarized as follows: Substructure Design 3.03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 102 .
..6 ULTIMATE SIDE FRICTION (TONS) 131...43 212... 370.79 ⋅ Ton − 328..79 ⋅ Ton − 328.91 MOBILIZED END BEARING (TONS) 197...96 ⋅ Ton) ⋅ + −24..73 796.6⋅ ft − −24. the pile lengths for vertical load will require a specified Tip Elevation = 25.3 27. pile tip = −25.3⋅ ft .03 Bent 2 Piles Vertical Load Design 103 .... This file only evaluates the vertical load requirements based on the boring capacity curves......1 PILE TIP ELEV (FT) 24.86⋅ Ton −27...8 36...D.based on the Estimated Davisson pile capacity curve given above..39 ULTIMATE PILE CAPACITY (TONS) 723.1⋅ ft − 32...88 ESTIMATED DAVISSON CAPACITY (TONS) 328.3⋅ ft 370.. the pile in the ground length is 34 ft. pile length = 34 ft pile length := ( UBC − 328....8⋅ ft Calculate the pile tip elevation required...43 157.79 ALLOWABLE PILE CAPACITY (TONS) 164.55 A lateral load analysis may require the pile tip elevations to be driven deeper for stability purposes.86 370.86 ⋅ Ton 36. PENETRATION ================================== TEST PILE LENGTH (FT) 32. Calculate the pile length required.5 ft.. Therefore.......96 ⋅ Ton) ⋅ + 32..5 ft pile tip := ( UBC − 328... Defined Units Substructure Design 3... All piles at the Intermediate Bent will be specified the same...43 185....8⋅ ft .. PILE CAPACITY VS......
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