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In earlier analogue avionic systems the number of cables used to transfer information between the various system components was considerable. With these systems, at least one pair of wires has been required for each signal and so a typical installation requires several pairs of wires. With the equivalent digital systems, all the analogue signals are converted into their equivalent and are assigned unique address labels to ensure there are no conflicts. These signals are then transmitted down a single pair of wires, which makes up a data bus. Aircraft data bus systems allow a wide variety of avionics equipment to communicate with one another and exchange data. The type of language used on an aircraft data bus is known as the protocol. There are currently different data bus standards (protocols) that currently account for most of the avionics data interchange on todays aircraft, and these are: ARINC 429, ARINC 629, MIL- STD 1553, MIL-STD 1773, CSDB and ASCB. In this study after evaluating the main characteristics of data transmission and data bus used aircraft systems, ARINC 629 standard examined in detail.

Key-Words: - Digital data transmission, Aircraft, Aircraft

1 Introduction
The form and interior configuration of aircrafts are determined by aerodynamic and structural characteristics. Equipments (or devices) location therefore weights and dimensions depend on the interior configuration of aircraft. However some of the equipments such as inertial navigation systems should be installed on some specific locations. This kind of restrictions can change options in device design. Such as devices or equipments can not be located in same place, have extensive cabling between each other. Also, some modernization programs cause some divisions in equipment locations. All these effects create groups of equipment communicate each other but different places [1]. On an aircraft, physical parameters (temperature, pressure, attitude information etc.) and data carried by electromagnetic waves are transmitted to related systems after converting electrical signals and processing. Electrical signals can be analogue or digital forms [2]. Data transmission methods had developed with the rapid

development in technology and because of the increase in requirements electronic communication had begun to be insufficient. Using digital data transmission on aircrafts is increased instead of analogue data transmission. In the literature there are severally some studies about data bus standards for civil and military aircraft. In this study after evaluating the main characteristics of data transmission and data bus used both civil and military aircraft systems, ARINC 629 (Aeronautical Data bus, Data bus standards, ARINC 629. Radio Incorporated) data bus standard examined in detail.

2 Data Bus Standards on Aircrafts

Data transmission is the conveyance of any kind of information from one space to another. Historically this could be done by courier, a chain of bonfires or semaphores, and later by Morse code over copper wires. In recent computer terms, it means sending a stream of bits or bytes from one location to another using any number of technologies, such as copper wire, optical fiber, laser, radio, or infra-red light [3]. In earlier analogue avionic systems the number of cables used to transfer information between the various system components was considerable. With these systems, at least one pair of wires has been required for each signal and so a typical installation requires several pairs of wires. With the equivalent digital systems, all the analogue signals are converted into their digital equivalent and are assigned unique address labels to ensure there are no conflicts. These signals are then transmitted down a single pair of wires, which makes up a data bus. A bus is a collection of wires through which data is transmitted from one part of a computer to another. You can think of a bus as a highway on which data travels within a computer. When used in reference to personal computers, the term bus usually refers to internal bus. This is a bus that connects all the internal computer components to the CPU (Central Processing Unit) and main memory. However when used in reference to aircraft, it is the data highway which links
ISBN: 978-960-474-262-2 191Flight Control Data Buses Systems Data Buses Recent Researches in Circuits, Systems, Electronics, Control & Signal Processing

one computer to another within the aircraft, for example, the FMC (Flight Management Computer) and the ADC (Air Data Computer) [4,5]. Bus systems provide an efficient means of exchanging data between the diverse avionic systems found in a modern aircraft as shown in Figure 1 [6]. All buses consists of two parts an address bus and a data bus. The data bus transfers actual data whereas the address bus transfers information about where the data should go. On an aircraft bus, the two parts are incorporated within a single data word. A bus can be either serial or parallel. A serial bus requires less wiring, but is slower. A parallel bus required one wire for each bit within the data word, but is much faster. Aircraft bus systems use serial data transfer because it minimizes the size and weight of aircraft cabling. With such a large number of avionic systems, a modern aircraft requires a considerable amount of cabling. Furthermore, some of the cabling runs in a large aircraft can be quite lengthy. Aircraft cabling amounts to a significant proportion of the unladen weight of an aircraft and so minimizing the amount of cabling and wiring present is an important consideration in the design of modern aircraft, both civil and military. A bus can enable communication between a single computer to a single LRU (Line Replaceable Unit) only, known as single source-single sink or a single computer to multiple LRUs, known as single source-multiple sink, or multiple computers to

multiple LRUs known as multiple source multiple sink. A data bus also classified on whether or not it can transmit in just one direction it is termed simplex. If it can transmit in both directions, but not at the same time it is termed half duplex. Where a data bus can transmit in both directions at the same time, it is termed full duplex. The type of language used on an aircraft data bus is known as the protocol. Main data bus standards that currently account for most of the avionics data interchange on todays aircraft, are ARINC 429, ARINC 629, CSDB (Commercial Serial Digital Bus), ASCB (Avionics Serial Communication Bus) and MIL-STD 1553 (Military Standard) [4,5,6].

Data transmission methods had developed with the rapid development in technology and because of the increase in requirements electronic communication had begun to be insufficient. Basically electronic communication is realized by changing the position of the electrons. So, the factors like the type, structure and dimensions of the conductor (copper, etc) that is used affect the speed of the communication. Light is known as the most rapid existence in universe. As a result of investigations, light is begun to use for communication besides the sound and electricity. On the aircraft, physical parameters (temperature, pressure, position information) taken from different points and the information carried with electromagnetic waves are converted into electrical signals is transmitted to the related systems. At this study, after examining the digital data transmission standards in general and for avionic systems, the usage of them on aircrafts are examined and ARINC 629 data bus standard is examined in detail.

The avionics systems in military, commercial and advanced models of civilian aircraft are interconnected using an avionics databus. Common avionics databus protocols, with their primary application, include: Aircraft Data Network (ADN): Ethernet derivative for Commercial Aircraft Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX): Specific implementation of ARINC 664 (ADN) for Commercial Aircraft ARINC 429: Generic Medium-Speed Data Sharing for Private and Commercial Aircraft ARINC 664: See ADN above ARINC 629: Commercial Aircraft (Boeing 777) ARINC 708: Weather Radar for Commercial Aircraft ARINC 717: Flight Data Recorder for Commercial Aircraft IEEE 1394b: Military Aircraft MIL-STD-1553: Military Aircraft MIL-STD-1760: Military Aircraft

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When it comes to the market for business aircraft datalink messaging services, three companies have settled into sharing and competing for most of the available business. Honeywells service is provided by its Global Data Center in Redmond, Wash., while Arinc Direct operates from Arincs headquarters in Annapolis, Md. Universal Weather & Aviation, which got its start with weather briefings and expanded into aircraft handling, augments those services with datalink messaging via its UVdatalink service. The three companies offer many similar services, including datalinking via VHF and satellite, flight planning, air traffic services, text and graphical weather, flight tracking and participation in the FAAs collaborative decision-making program designed to help minimize traffic delays. Each provider also adds its own services to the mix and is constantly seeking ways to stay ahead of the competition by delivering more to customers.



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ARINC 429, Ahh for the good old days...

ARINC 429 digital buses connecting LRUs have

served us well and are still the mainstay of our

industry, yet...

They are limited in bandwidth (100 kbps)

They result in (too) many wires because

connections are mostly point-to-point (or

point-to-several, at best)

ARINC 629 was a big improvement

First used on the B-777, ARINC 629 connected multiple LRU to a single,

digital bus, yet...

Bandwidth is technically limited and is shared by all users

ARINC 629 is expensive

. Transition From A429 To A664, contd

What Makes Ethernet Different and Attractive?

Ethernet is widely used in terrestrial networks; COTS components,

equipment and software are readily available.

Ethernet equipment is not dependent on the network topology.

This flexibility is a big advantage.

An Ethernet link replaces the (many) point-to-point ARINC 429 bus

connections with throughput from 100 kbps up to 1Gbps

During the A429/A629 periods, early Ethernet, based on sharedmedia, used data-packet collisions for arbitration. Full duplex

technology emerged in the early 90, eliminating these collisions,

which are not acceptable to avionics

Hence, Ethernet became a candidate for use in Avionics, such as

by means of AFDX


Avionics Full Duplex Networks (AFDX)

Avionics Systems require that the information be delivered

Reliably and On-Time

The natural transmission scheme used since A429 is that Avionics

Systems periodically (2 - 50 Hz) multicast data to the receivers/users

AFDX periodic multicast transmissions use UDP:

If a packet does not pass its integrity check (or isnt delivered),

there is NO retransmission of that specific packet, the normal

periodic transmission stream is sufficient for random bit errors.

On-time is achieved with sufficient bandwidth and switch

throughput coupled with flow-control mechanisms in the switches

and end-systems. Thus a concept of bounded latency is achieved:

Packets may be delayed by other traffic in the switched network,

but only by a designed, pre-determined amount

///// Current Airbus and Boeing Implementations

Avionics Networks (requiring bounded latency) are only a portion

of the Aircraft Data Networks:

Passenger Information and Entertainment Services (PIES) Systems,

largely COTS based, with limited life-cycle:

Audio on demand (AOD), Video on Demand (VOD), Email, etc.

Airline Information Services:

Non-Essential Cockpit Data, Airline Operational Data

Affected Airbus Programs

A340-500, -600, A318, A319, A320, A321 Cabin Entertainment Networks

A380 and beyond!!

Affected Boeing Programs

B-777 AIMS Update

B-747, B-767, B-777 IFE Programs

Boeing EFB

B-7E7 and beyond! Summary

The Aviation Industry has a history of adapting mature, commercial

technology in developing aircraft electronics.

Ethernet and IP based technologies are rapidly entering service in today's


Current next generation Boeing (B7E7) and Airbus (A380) aircraft will use

AFDX as the basis for the Avionics System bus.

Both Boeing and Airbus are developing Cabin Service Systems that are

Ethernet/IP based using ARINC 763 as a basis.

Numerous IFE manufactures are developing IFE system using commercial

Ethernet/IP Standards and ARINC 628 guidelines.

ARINC ADN/664 provides the standards necessary for networking and

assures that LRUs of different manufacturers interoperate.

ARINC Aircraft Information Security (SEC) Working group formed to develop

Aircraft Information Security Operational Concepts.

The operational requirements for aeronautical communications should not specify technologies but should specify capacity and quality of service using technology-independent terminology. Due

to imperfect technology, no known solution perfectly meets all requirements. Therefore, engineering judgment must be applied to judge technologies and weigh the various requirements to iteratively approach the technologies that most nearly meet all of the requirements.

Introduction //// /media/AR-09-27.pdf///

Databus and data network technology continues to play an everincreasing role in aviation digital

electronics architectures throughout the range of aviation markets. The evolution of integrated

modular aviation digital electronics architectures with multiple subsystems integration into single

and redundant data networks is increasing the influence of data networking.

The sheer variety of network and databus technology makes it difficult to characterize generic

attributes that can be used for a set of all-encompassing evaluation criteria. The details of the

implementation of these networks determine their characteristics; they may be serial, parallel,

synchronous, asynchronous, external, intrasystem wired, or wireless, etc.




In addition, the potential failure behavior of the databus or network technology may be mitigated

at the system architecture level, for example, by employing multiple independent data paths,

design dissimilarity, or enhanced end-to-end integrity mechanisms above the core network

behavior. For these reasons, a bottom-up go and no-go checklist is very difficult to elicit at the

network level itself. Instead, a holistic view of the entire system is required to ensure that the use

of the network technology is sufficient to meet functional responsibility and

the system-level

safety assumptions. While databus and network technology have traditionally been evaluated on

a case-by-case basis against Federal Aviation Regulation (FAR) XX.1309 (the safety-related

regulations) and FAR section XX.1301 (the intended function-related regulations) with a detailed

review of the implementation mechanisms, the regulations provide very little guidance and

information on the basic safety processes.

The hazards associated with the functional failure conditions are determined for each function at

the aircraft level. Note that at the initial stages of the process, designers and evaluators may not

know how these functions will be allocated to subsystems. While it can be the common cause

for failures in multiple functions, the databus or network has not traditionally been viewed as an

airplane-level function; rather, it is a tier design choice for how the functions are provided.

Thus, at this point, there is no impact. One or more candidate system architectures for aircraftlevel functions are proposed. The system could be a single processing module (analog or digital)

with a number of inputs or outputs fed directly to the box or a single box for each function

(analog or digital) or any of a number of alternative architectures. This architecture then forms

the basis for an aircraft-level fault tree that demonstrates how failure conditions will flow

through the architecture.


1.3.2 Determining Data Network Dependability Requirements.

When evaluating a data network for a particular aviation digital electronics application, one must

begin by establishing the requirements for that data network. The requirements placed on a data

network are highly dependent on the aviation digital electronics architecture that will employ the


To develop requirements for an avionics data network, results from the following tasks should be


Establish the most critical system failure condition for each data on the network.

Determine failure states of the data create that condition. Establish the associated

probability and assurance requirements.

Define the network functions that are required by the systems applications.

For each data element on the network, examine network function failure on the following

classes of failure:

- Inability to provide data

6- Failure to meet specified criteria (e.g., timing, lack of corruption, latency,

sequence, identification, etc.)

Establish the fault containment and fault tolerance requirements from the system safety

analysis for data hosted by the network. integrity message

This may require high-

integrity checks or redundant paths. Determine whether the system requires the coordinate action or data network to

consensus between different networked components (e.g., for synchronization, fault

diagnosis, or voting).

Such a top-down examination of network usage is needed to establish a context for the detailed

analysis of the network lower-level properties and behaviors presented in the following sections.

It is emphasized again that without such a systems context, the justification of databus and

network suitability or nonsuitability is very difficult to determine


Some questions and associated tasks include:

What is the most critical system failure condition for each data on the network? What failure

states of the data create that condition? What are the associated probability and assurance


What network functions are required by the systems applications?

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Avionics data buses industry has developed over the past decade to become more useful. Military aircrafts have used many other sources over the years. The MIL STD 1553 and the Arinc429 have not only survived but have actually thrived. It is a wonder considering how the military consistently uses newer resources as they develop. Here is some of the history of the MIL-STD-1553 and the Arinc-429. In 1974 the digital data bus began. The Air Force created the MIL-STD-1553 and the Arinc-429 to be used as the standard specification for all aircraft. The Arinc-429 was used in Boeing 757 airplanes and 767 airplanes. This continued widely until the eighties. In 2008 on November 7, the DCC released the ARINC 429. It was released with kits that allowed the enduser to be facilitated in the process of implementation. The ARINC 429 was released by the Army to be used for wide implementation in avionics. It was utilized internationally for years. It is still widely used to this day. The ARINC429 is a data-bus that is the standard which is used in cock-pits of airplanes. While it is widely used in the military it does have civilian use as well. Generally it is used in commercial airplanes. The ARINC429 makes it possible for these aircraft to have a simplified system of operation. This is a very large asset when it comes to such complex systems. The ARINC429 allows digital components the ability to function in a safer method. This helps the pilot on a regular basis. While newer systems have begun to be implemented, the ARINC429 is still widely considered to be the norm. From fuel management to the speed of the plane the ARINC429 helps the pilot maintain safety and accuracy in a manner which only the military could require. It allows the system to react appropriately in an emergency every single time without fail. This is really what you want in any airplane system. The ARINC429 allows that to be the standard operating procedure while in flight. This makes it, still to this day, the best choice for airplanes today.

The MIL-STD-1553 allows the computer procedures of the cock pit to be customized to the exact requirements of each airplane. This is also a great asset to any pilot and flight system today. It helps troubleshoot the issues that can occur, before they ever even happen. This is exactly the type of peace of mind that is required during any construction process of any airplane. The military is not the only one to utilize these either. Both the mil-std-1553 and the arinc-429 are the industrystandard to this day for many aeronautics systems. As it is clearly apparent, the mil-std-1553 and arinc-429 are still appropriate to this day for airplanes. Both in creation of the cock pit systems and in the trouble shooting of the airplane operation while in flight. While other advances have occurred recently, there is really a good and solid acceptance of the mil-std1553 and arinc-429 for aeronautics systems today. Excalibur Systems' line of products provides support for MIL-STD-1553, ARINC-429 and other military and commercial avionics specifications.


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