Health, Education, Social Protection News & Notes 13/2011

A bi-weekly newsletter supported by GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit)
19 June 2011
You can download back issues (2005 - 2011) of this newsletter at: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/links/newsletters/hesp-news-and-notes

Table of Contents: Newsletter Feedback ........................................................ 4 BOOKS .............................................................................. 4
World Report on Disability .................................................................................................. 4 The Road to Rio + 20 ......................................................................................................... 4 African Economic Outlook 2011: Africa and its Emerging Partners...................................... 5 The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies ....................................................................................... 5 Control and Sexuality: The Revival of Zina Laws in Muslim Contexts .................................. 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS................................................... 6
Global Health.............................................................................................................. 6
WHO: Reform Agenda raises concerns, DG promises inclusive process............................. 6 The Best Things in Life are (Nearly) Free: Technology, Knowledge and Global Health........ 6 Key Strengths of Rounds 8, 9 and 10 Proposals to the Global Fund.................................... 6 2011 Global Fund Partnership Forum e-Consultations: Adding Your Voice to the Global Fund’s 2012 - 2016 Strategy............................................................................................... 7 Healthy Partnerships: How Governments Can Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in Africa.............................................................................................................................. 7 Global burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years: a systematic analysis............ 7

HIV - AIDS - STI ......................................................................................................... 8
Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive................................................................................................ 8 From Talk to Action: Review of Women, Girls, and Gender Equality in National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS in Southern and Eastern Africa ...................................................... 8 Responding to HIV and AIDS: A Practitioner’s Guide to Mainstreaming in Development Projects.............................................................................................................................. 8 More and Better Information to Tackle HIV Epidemics: Towards Improved HIV Incidence Assays ............................................................................................................................... 9 Khayelitsha 2001-2011: 10 years of HIV/TB care at primary health care level ..................... 9 Implementation and outcomes of an active defaulter tracing system for HIV, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and TB patients in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya.... 9 HIV Treatment Guidelines in Guyana - The Fast Track to Diagnosis and Treatment.......... 10 “If the patients decide not to tell what can we do?” - TB/HIV counsellors’ dilemma on partner notification for HIV ............................................................................................................ 10 Effectiveness of interventions to improve screening for syphilis in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis ................................................................................................. 10

Sexual & Reproductive Health .................................................................................. 11
Government of Malawi Guidelines for Family Planning Communication............................. 11 Guideline on safer conception in fertile HIV-infected individuals and couples .................... 11 Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents............................................................. 11 Abortion: Facts and Figures 2011 ..................................................................................... 12

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 1

'The girl with her period is the one to hang her head' Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya ...................................................................................... 12 Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India ......................................................................................................................... 12 Hidden and Neglected: The Medical and Emotional Needs of Survivors of Family and Sexual Violence in Papua New Guinea............................................................................. 13

Maternal & Child Health............................................................................................ 13
Misoprostol use in Postabortion Care: A Service Delivery Toolkit ...................................... 13 Global Impact Report 2010: Expanding choices and access for women globally ............... 13 Reduction of Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Thyolo District, Malawi: The Impact of Obstetric Audit............................................................................... 13 Social theory and infant feeding........................................................................................ 14 Supporting Child Rights: Synthesis of Lessons Learned in Four Countries........................ 14

Malaria...................................................................................................................... 14
Conquering Malaria: Enhancing the Impact of Effective Interventions................................ 14 Safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of artemisinins in pregnancy .................................. 15 Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania .............................................................. 15 Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa................................................................................................................... 16 Reducing malaria in Mali: Effective diagnostics and treatment are not enough .................. 16 Community case management of malaria using ACT and RDT in two districts in Zambia: achieving high adherence to test results using Community Health Workers....................... 16 Is parasite clearance clinically important after malaria treatment in a high transmission area? A 3-month follow-up of home-based management with herbal medicine or ACT...... 17

Tuberculosis ............................................................................................................. 17
Ethics and social determinants: key elements of tuberculosis prevention, care and control 17 Unbalanced strategies do not work ................................................................................... 17 Review of the National Tuberculosis Programme in Ukraine ............................................. 18

Other Infectious Diseases......................................................................................... 18
Using Web Search Query Data to Monitor Dengue Epidemics: A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance........................................................................................... 18 Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper ......................................... 18

Essential Medicines.................................................................................................. 19
Reviews of Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions .......................................... 19

Social Protection....................................................................................................... 19
Cash at Your Fingertips: Biometric Technology for Transfers in Developing and ResourceRich Countries.................................................................................................................. 19 Prayas eMagazine Issue 2: Old, Wise and Weary - Support for the aged in India.............. 19 Helping or Hurting: What Role for Microfinance in the Fight Against Poverty? ................... 20

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene..................................................................................... 20
Community Based Water Supply ...................................................................................... 20 Water and Privatisation .................................................................................................... 21 The Child Health Implications of Privatizing the Urban Water Supply in Africa................... 21

Human Resources.................................................................................................... 21
Devolution and human resources in primary healthcare in rural Mali ................................. 21 Health professional mobility and health systems: evidence from 17 European countries ... 21

Health Systems & Research ..................................................................................... 22
Knowledge Brokering: Exploring the process of transferring knowledge into action ........... 22 Yes, research can inform health policy; but can we bridge the 'Do-Knowing It’s Been Done' gap?................................................................................................................................. 22 NGOs and government partnership for health systems strengthening: A qualitative study presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in Pakistan ................................ 22 Constraints to Implementing the Essential Health Package in Malawi ............................... 23 Implementation of Medical Research in Clinical Practice................................................... 23

Information & Communication Technology ............................................................... 23
mHealth: New horizons for health through mobile technologies......................................... 23

Education ................................................................................................................. 24
Report card: Botswana a model for Africa? ....................................................................... 24

Harm Reduction and Drug Use................................................................................. 24

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 2

Rapid assessment response (RAR) study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa ........................................................................................................................................ 24

Development Assistance .......................................................................................... 24
A Failure to Communicate: Microfinance Confused........................................................... 24 Where does aid go? Mapping the African Development Bank’s Activities .......................... 25

Others ...................................................................................................................... 25
Tackling Violence against Women: From Knowledge to Practical Initiatives ...................... 25 African Innovation Outlook 2010 ....................................................................................... 25 My Children Have Been Poisoned: A Public Health Crisis in Four Chinese Provinces ....... 26 Health in the green economy: health co-benefits of climate change mitigation – housing sector............................................................................................................................... 26

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES ........................................... 26
The Field Epidemiology Manual (FEM) Wiki...................................................................... 26

INTERESTING WEB SITES ............................................. 27
Urban Reproductive Health Gateway................................................................................ 27 Community Health Workers (CHW) Central ...................................................................... 27 Eureka! Discover and Discuss New Research .................................................................. 27 Make Aid Transparent ...................................................................................................... 27

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES .......................................... 27
Post-Graduate Certificate and MSc in Global Health Policy............................................... 27 Health Systems and Services in International Comparison................................................ 28

CARTOON ....................................................................... 28 TIPS & TRICKS................................................................ 29
Windows 7's least-known data-protection system ............................................................. 29

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HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 3

Newsletter Feedback
Our short survey about the newsletter’s usefulness in our subscriber’s daily work generated 115 responses - all, except one, positive and recommending that GIZ should continue to support this endeavour. We have forwarded your comments to GIZ and got the indication that further support might be forthcoming. Many thanks to all of you who took the trouble to respond to our survey. Dieter Neuvians MD P.S. For those who want to search previous issues of the newsletter for topics they are interested in, there is an archive of all 2005 to 2011 issues at: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/links/newsletters/hesp-news-and-notes On the top right you find the customized Google search function to search for key words or topics.

BOOKS
World Report on Disability
by Tony Kahane, Bruce Ross-Larson, Angela Burton et al. World Health Organization and the World Bank Group, 2011 349 pp. 3.3 MB: http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789240685215_eng.pdf The first ever World Report on Disability suggests that more than a billion people in the world today experience disability. People with disabilities have generally poorer health, lower education achievements, fewer economic opportunities and higher rates of poverty than people without disabilities. The report provides the best available evidence about what works to overcome barriers to health care, rehabilitation, education, e mployment, and support services, and to create the environments which will enable people with disabilities to flourish. ***

The Road to Rio + 20
by Lucas Assunção, Eugenia E. Nuñez, Chris M. Simpson et al. United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), 2011 100 pp. 9.5 MB:
http://www.unctad.org/trade_env/greeneconomy/RTR20/1150172%20Low%20RES.pdf

The intent of this publication is to give practical expression to the concept of sustainable development adopted at the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The book features 14 articles and is intended to highlight critical topics and focus global discussion in advance of the 2012 United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development. The Rio +20 summit has as its main theme “the green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication”. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 4

African Economic Outlook 2011: Africa and its Emerging Partners
African Development Bank (AfDB), the Development Centre of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA), June 2011 Read the book (304 pp.) online at:
http://www.keepeek.com/Digital-Asset-Management/oecd/development/africaneconomic-outlook-2011_aeo-2011-en

This year’s African Economic Outlook (AEO) reviews recent economic, social and political developments and the short-term likely evolution of Africa. In addition to economic forecasts for 2011 and 2012, the new AEO includes its 51st country note for Zimbabwe and a special study on Africa and its Emerging Partners. ***

The Causes and Impacts of Neglected Tropical and Zoonotic Diseases: Opportunities for Integrated Intervention Strategies
Workshop Summary by Eileen R. Choffnes and David A. Relman Forum on Microbial Threats, Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2011 604 pp. 30.4 MB(!): http://download.nap.edu/cart/download.cgi?&record_id=13087&free=1 Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) afflict more than 1.4 billion people, many of whom live on less than US$ 1.25 a day. While there are effective ways to manage NTDs, po licy-makers and funders have only recently begun to recognize the economic and public health importance of controlling NTDs. The IOM's Forum on Microbial Threats held a workshop September 21-22, 2010, to discuss the science of and policy surrounding NTDs. ***

Control and Sexuality: The Revival of Zina Laws in Muslim Contexts
by Ziba Mir-Hosseini and Vanja Hamzić Women Living Under Muslim Laws, 230 pp. December 2010 Order online (GBP 9.00) at: http://www.wluml-pic.org/shop/product.php?code=gen25/e Read sample chapter (introduction) as PDF file (24 pp. 329 kB): http://www.wluml.org/sites/wluml.org/files/WLUML%20pub_Control%20and%20Sexualit y%20sample_Introduction.pdf The book examines zina laws in some Muslim contexts and communities in order to explore connections between the criminalisation of sexuality, gender-based violence and women’s rights activism. The “Violence is Not Our Culture” Campaign and the “Women Living Under Muslim Laws” network present this comparative study and feminist analysis of zina laws as a contribution to the broader objective of ending violence in the name of ‘culture’.

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 5

ONLINE PUBLICATIONS
Global Health WHO: Reform Agenda raises concerns, DG promises inclusive process
Third World Network (TWN) Info Service, 26 May 2011 Read online at: http://www.twnside.org.sg/title2/intellectual_property/info.service/2011/ipr.info.110506.htm A number of Member States of the World Health Organization (WHO), while recognising the need for the organization to reform, have raised concerns over the reform plan that has been proposed by the organization’s Director-General Dr Margaret Chan. In particular, concerns were raised over the lack of detail on the reforms proposed, the stress on "donor-funding", especially funding from private entities to resolve the financial difficulties of the WHO, as well as over proposals such as the convening of the World Health Forum, which is likely to increase the influence of the private sector and donors in setting the health agenda in the WHO. ***

The Best Things in Life are (Nearly) Free: Technology, Knowledge and Global Health
by Ursula Casabonne and Charles Kenny Center for Global Development - Working Paper 252, May 2011 36 pp. 659 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425144_file_Kenny__Casabonne_paper_FINAL.pdf The health of the world’s population - including those in the poorest countries - has improved more in the past 100 years than ever before. The improvement is largely a result of the development and spread of cheap, effective technologies. In this paper the authors investigate the cross-country determinants of health improvements and describe the implications for development policy. In short, improving health need not be expensive. Even very poor countries can make great strides with good technologies and good delivery, but it may take time. Historical trends suggest we should not expect too much too quickly. ***

Key Strengths of Rounds 8, 9 and 10 Proposals to the Global Fund
by David Garmaise An Aidspan Report, 06 June 2011 59 pp. 565 kB: http://aidspan.org/documents/aidspan/aidspan-round-8-10-strengths-report-en.pdf The purpose of this report is to provide information to Global Fund applicants on key a ttributes of a strong proposal. The report is based on an analysis of the strengths of all approved Rounds 8. 9 and 10 proposals, as identified by the Technical Review Panel (TRP) when it reviewed the proposals. The report will be of interest to applicants prepa ring proposals for Round 11. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 6

2011 Global Fund Partnership Forum e-Consultations: Adding Your Voice to the Global Fund’s 2012 - 2016 Strategy
by Nadine Ferris France, Robert Worthington, Bobby Ramakant et al. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, June 2011 44 pp. 576 kB:
http://www.aidsportal.org/atomicDocuments/AIDSPortalDocuments/20110615141 505-2011%20Global%20Fund%20Partnership%20Forum%20e-Consultations.pdf

For the Fourth Partnership Forum in 2011, as part of the on-line consultation, the Global Fund commissioned an online survey to seek views from all constituencies on the future direction and operations of the Global Fund. This report summarizes what respondents to the e-Forum and the e-Survey said. It is intended to serve as an important input into the in-person consultations in São Paulo, and therefore, the future Strategy of the Global Fund. ***

Healthy Partnerships: How Governments Can Engage the Private Sector to Improve Health in Africa
by Connor Spreng, Alexander Preker, Scott Featherston et al. The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, June 2011 176 pp. 26.2 MB(!): http://wwwwds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2011/05/18/00038619 4_20110518050813/Rendered/PDF/618950PUB0Heal000public00BOX358355B.pdf The report relies on in-depth data collection in 45 countries on the African continent to describe the current engagement, or lack thereof, between the public and private health sectors. It is the first report to look systematically at the relationship between the public and private health sectors in Africa providing information aimed at both parties on what improvements can be made and how. ***

Global burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years: a systematic analysis
by Fiona M Gore, Paul JN Bloem, George C Patton et al. The Lancet, Vol. 377, Issue 9783, pp. 2093-2102, 18 June 2011 10 pp. 395 kB: http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/lancet/PIIS0140673611605126.pdf?i d=e16241398b8eb460:3c68b886:130a734678c:-79fc1308475486592 Young people aged 10-24 years represent 27% of the world’s population. Although important health problems and risk factors for disease in later life emerge in these years, the contribution to the global burden of disease is unknown. The authors describe the global burden of disease arising in young people and the contribution of risk factors to that burden.

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 7

HIV - AIDS - STI Global Plan towards the Elimination of New HIV Infections among Children by 2015 and Keeping their Mothers Alive
Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), 2011 48 pp. 3.0 MB:
http://www.unaids.org/en/media/unaids/contentassets/documents/unaidsp ublication/2011/20110609_JC2137_Global-Plan-Elimination-HIV-Children_en.pdf

This Global Plan provides the foundation for country-led movement towards the elimination of new HIV infections among children and keeping their mothers alive. The Global Plan was developed through a consultative process by a high level Global Task Team convened by UNAIDS. It brought together 25 countries and 30 civil society, private sector, networks of people living with HIV and international organizations to chart a roadmap to achieving this goal by 2015. ***

From Talk to Action: Review of Women, Girls, and Gender Equality in National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS in Southern and Eastern Africa
by Jenevieve Mannell, Lauren McNicol, Christine Ricardo et al. The Women, Girls, and Gender Equality National Strategic Plans Framework, 2011 57 pp. 2.3 MB:
http://www.heard.org.za/downloads/heard-and-athena-gender-report.pdf

The publication highlights that the majority (16 out of 20) of National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS across southern and eastern Africa fail to comprehensively address women, girls, and gender equality. Where National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS do address women and girls, it is in the context of the prevention of vertical transmission services and programmes - National Strategic Plans on HIV and AIDS fail to identify and respond to the full needs of women and girls. ***

Responding to HIV and AIDS: A Practitioner’s Guide to Mainstreaming in Development Projects
2nd revised edition Edited by Iris Onipede, Ellen Schmitt, Sabine Dorlöchter-Sulser et al. Bischöfliches Hilfswerk Misereor e.V., 2011 134 pp. 5.7 MB: http://german-practice-collection.org/en/download-centre/doc_download/925 The guide provides comprehensive information on HIV/AIDS mainstreaming and assists project staff to identify ways to effectively address the root causes of HIV infection and to mitigate the effects of HIV and AIDS within their core activities. It also addresses HIV and AIDS issues concerning staff within an organization. The guide was developed and revised in conjunction with Misereor partners in the South. Many of the examples and explanations refer to Africa; nevertheless the guide is designed to be used also in Asian and Latin American countries. HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 8

More and Better Information to Tackle HIV Epidemics: Towards Improved HIV Incidence Assays
by Incidence Assay Critical Path Working Group PLoS Med 8(6): e1001045 (14 June 2011) 6 pp. 184 kB:
http://www.plosmedicine.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=80BC15A115446A5BBBA43 EFA19E7D2F0.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pmed.1001045&representation=PDF

Investments in HIV prevention activities aiming to reduce incidence could be targeted more effectively and efficiently to successful programmes if a quick, easy, valid, and precise method of estimating incidence in populations were available. Laboratory methods for identifying recent infections have shown promise for this application, although their accuracy has been questioned. A number of activities are now underway to address these factors and several promising new technologies are anticipated in the next few years. ***

Khayelitsha 2001-2011: 10 years of HIV/TB care at primary health care level
Médecins Sans Frontières 36 pp. 1.7 MB: http://www.healthe.org.za/documents/6eadc65d79595b1a2cb0c86337161a4c.pdf The Khayelitsha programme was the first in South Africa to provide antiretroviral therapy at primary care level in the public sector. It is also one of two pilot projects in the country to provide decentralized care for drug-resistant tuberculosis. This report highlights what has been achieved collectively by several service providers and describes the key clin ical programme and policy changes that have supported universal coverage for HIV and TB care over the last 10 years. ***

Implementation and outcomes of an active defaulter tracing system for HIV, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and TB patients in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya
by Kerry A. Thomsona, Erastus O. Chetia, Tony Reid Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 105 (2011) 320-326 7 pp. 192 kB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/132528/1/Thomson%20Kibera_ Defaulter%20Tracing%20Article_May%202011.pdf Retention of patients in long term care and adherence to treatment regimens are a constant challenge for HIV, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT), and TB programmes in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the implementation and outcomes of an active defaulter tracing system used to reduce loss to follow-up (LTFU) among HIV, PMTCT, TB, and HIV/TB co-infected patients receiving treatment at three Médecins Sans Frontières clinics in the informal settlement of Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 9

HIV Treatment Guidelines in Guyana - The Fast Track to Diagnosis and Treatment
by Victoria Rossi and Bisola Ojikutu AIDSTAR-One, Case Study Series, April 2011 12 pp. 507 kB: http://www.aidstar-one.com/sites/default/files/AIDSTAROne_Case_Study_Treatment_FastTrack_Guyana.pdf This case study details Guyana's process for revision of their national HIV treatment guidelines, based on WHO's 2009 recommendations. While many countries are still working to revise their national guidelines in response to WHO's new report, the National AIDS Programme in Guyana has been implementing elements of WHO's 2010 recommendations since 2006. ***

“If the patients decide not to tell what can we do?” - TB/HIV counsellors’ dilemma on partner notification for HIV
by Barnabas N Njozing, Kerstin E Edin, Miguel San Sebastian and Anna-Karin Hurtig BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011, 11:6, (3 June 2011) 35 pp. 236 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-698x-11-6.pdf Counsellors regularly encounter ethical, legal and moral dilemmas between respecting patients’ confidentiality and autonomy, and protecting patients’ sexual partners at risk of HIV infection. This reflects the complexity of partner notification and demonstrates that no single approach is optimal, but instead certain contextual factors and a combination of different approaches should be considered. Meanwhile, adopting a human rights perspective in HIV programmes will balance the interests of both patients and their partners, and ultimately enhance universal access to HIV services. ***

Effectiveness of interventions to improve screening for syphilis in pregnancy: a systematic review and meta-analysis
by Sarah Hawkes, Nashaba Matin, Nathalie Broutet et al. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, Early Online Publication, 16 June 2011 8 pp. 302 kB:
http://download.thelancet.com/pdfs/journals/laninf/PIIS147330991170104 9.pdf?id=40bade4753939e7f:-cc787c2:130996a4eaa:1a861308247251877

Interventions to improve the coverage and effect of screening programmes for antenatal syphilis could reduce the syphilis-attributable incidence of stillbirth and perinatal death by 50%. The resources required to roll out antenatal screening programmes would be a worthwhile investment for reduction of adverse pregnancy outcomes and improvement of neonatal and child survival. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 10

Sexual & Reproductive Health Government of Malawi Guidelines for Family Planning Communication
Ministry of Health, Health Education Unit, April 2011 59 pp. 554 kB:
http://www.cchangeprogram.org/sites/default/files/Malawi_Guidelines_for_FP_Comm_April_2011_FINAL_website_0.pdf

The Malawi Guidelines for Family Planning (FP) Communication supports the aim of Malawi National Reproductive Health Strategy to promote FP through informed choice, safer reproductive health practices by men, women, and young people, including increased use of high quality, accessible reproductive health services. It provides the tool to ensure that efforts of the Government of Malawi, NGOs and community-based organizations (CBO) are coordinated and will have greater impact towards improved FP uptake in Malawi and the country’s future development. ***

Guideline on safer conception in fertile HIV-infected individuals and couples
by L-G Bekker, V Black, L Myer et al. Southern African Journal of HIV Medicine, Vol. 12, No. 2 (2011) 14 pp. 431 kB:
http://www.sajhivmed.org.za/index.php/sajhivmed/article/view/729/560

The guidelines were designed to assist clinicians to identify patients’ fertility desires and to give safe and effective conception guidance to a presumed fertile couple when one or more partners are HIV infected – both in the interests of ‘normalising’ the lives of people living with this chronic infection and to help ensure that conception, pregnancy and delivery take place with the least possible risk to the mother, her partner and the resulting child. ***

Contraception in HIV-positive female adolescents
by Nadia T Kancheva Landolt, Sudrak Lakhonphon and Jintanat Ananworanich AIDS Research and Therapy 2011, 8:19 (1 June 2011) 34 pp. 215 kB: http://www.aidsrestherapy.com/content/pdf/1742-6405-8-19.pdf The objective of this article is to review the methods of contraception appropriate for HIV-positive adolescents with a special focus on hormonal contraceptives. Delaying the start of sexual life and the use of two methods thereafter, one of which is the male condom and the other a highly effective contraceptive method such as hormonal contraception or an intrauterine device, is currently the most effective option for those who desire simultaneous protection from both pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Health care providers should be aware of the possible pharmacokinetic interactions between hormonal contraception and antiretrovirals. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 11

Abortion: Facts and Figures 2011
by Deborah Mesce and Donna Clifton Population Reference Bureau, 2011 64 pp. 308 kB: http://www.prb.org/pdf11/abortion-facts-and-figures-2011.pdf Abortion is a sensitive and contentious issue with religious, moral, cultural, and political dimensions. It is also a public health concern in many parts of the world. More than one-quarter of the world's people live in countries where the procedure is prohibited or permitted only to save the woman’s life. Yet, regardless of legal status, abortions still occur, and nearly half of them are performed by an unskilled practitioner or in less than sanitary conditions, or both. This guide provides data and other information to help shed light on the public health aspects of unsafe abortion. ***

'The girl with her period is the one to hang her head' Reflections on menstrual management among schoolgirls in rural Kenya
by Shannon A McMahon, Peter J Winch, Bethany A Caruso et al. BMC International Health and Human Rights 2011, 11:7 (16 June 2011) 29 pp. 244 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-698x-11-7.pdf The onset of menstruation is a landmark event in the life of a young woman. Yet the complications and challenges that can accompany such an event have been understudied, specifically in resource-poor settings. As interventions aim to improve female attendance in schools, it is important to explore how menstruation is perceived and navigated by girls in the school setting. This research conveys rural Kenyan schoolgirls' perceptions and practices related to menstruation. ***

Assessing young unmarried men's access to reproductive health information and services in rural India
by Arundhati Char, Minna Saavala and Teija Kulmala BMC Public Health 2011, 11:476 (17 June 2011) 36 pp. 204 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2458-11-476.pdf Young unmarried men in rural India are underserved with regard to sexual and reproductive health information and services, because they are not recognized as key targets under the public health system, and they receive their limited knowledge and information mainly from the mass media; this situation could be greatly improved by public health service providers. It is important that programmers involve young men with effective communication strategies to enable them to act responsibly with regard to their own sexual health needs. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 12

Hidden and Neglected: The Medical and Emotional Needs of Survivors of Family and Sexual Violence in Papua New Guinea
Médecins Sans Frontières Papua New Guinea, June 2011 34 pp. 4.0 MB: http://www.doctorswithoutborders.org/publications/reports/2011/0615-Papua-New-Guinea-Sexual-Domestic-Violence%20report.pdf Family and sexual violence have long been recognized as serious problems in Papua New Guinea. The report highlights the urgent, unmet medical and emotional needs of survivors of family and sexual violence in that country. It recommends concrete action in order to meet these needs.

Maternal & Child Health Misoprostol use in Postabortion Care: A Service Delivery Toolkit
Ipas and Venture Strategies Innovations, June 2011 144 pp. 12.3 MB(!) http://www.ipas.org/Publications/asset_upload_file133_5949.pdf This toolkit is designed to help district or national-level clinicians, facility managers or program managers initiate the use of misoprostol as a medical treatment for incomplete abortion or integrate misoprostol into existing postabortion care services. ***

Global Impact Report 2010: Expanding choices and access for women globally
by Kenzo Fry, Kristen Hopkins, Thoai D. Ngo et al. Marie Stopes International 2011 70 pp. 1.1 MB: http://www.mariestopes.org/documents/publications/MSI_GIReport _FullFinal_LoRes_Sml_noblanks.pdf The Global Impact Report evaluates the impact that Marie Stopes International’s services have on the lives of women on a yearly basis by bringing together key statistics from 40 country programmes. The impact of programmes is measured by the Impact Estimator, developed by Marie Stopes International in collaboration with experts from the Guttmacher Institute and other leading international health organisations. This mathematical model converts service figures into estimates of their health, demographic and economic impacts. ***

Reduction of Severe Acute Maternal Morbidity and Maternal Mortality in Thyolo District, Malawi: The Impact of Obstetric Audit
by Thomas van den Akker, Jair van Rhenen, Beatrice Mwagomba et al. PLoS ONE 6(6): e20776 (3 June 2011)

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 13

8 pp. 242 kB:
http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=D87AB88E491CF7667E2D 3975A98DDAF0.ambra02?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0020776&representation=PDF

Critical incident audit and feedback are recommended interventions to improve the quality of obstetric care. The findings from this study indicate that audit and feedback have the potential to reduce serious maternal complications including maternal mortality. Complications like major hemorrhage and uterine rupture that require relatively straightforward intrapartum emergency management are easier to reduce than those which require uptake of improved antenatal care (eclampsia) or timely intravenous medication or HIV-treatment (peripartum infections). ***

Social theory and infant feeding
by Lisa H Amir International Breastfeeding Journal 2011, 6:7 (15 June 2011) 12 pp. 137 kB: http://www.internationalbreastfeedingjournal.com/content/pdf/1746-4358-6-7.pdf Clinicians, public health advisors, nutritionists and others have been attempting to increase breastfeeding rates for the last few decades, with varying degrees of success. We need social science researchers to help us understand the role of infant feeding in the family. Some researchers in the area of food and nutrition have found Pierre Bourdieu’s theoretical framework helpful. In this editorial, the author introduces some of Bourdieu’s ideas and suggests researchers interested in infant feeding should consider testing these theories. ***

Supporting Child Rights: Synthesis of Lessons Learned in Four Countries
by Arne Tostensen, Hugo Stokke, Sven Trygged, Kate Halvorsen Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) and the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida), May 2011 260 pp. 1.2 MB: http://www.norad.no/en/Tools+and+publications/Publications/Public ation+Page?key=372082 This report synthesises the findings and lessons learned from an evaluation of Norway’s and Sweden’s aid interventions intended to promote child rights in four countries: Guatemala, Kenya, Mozambique and Sudan. As such, it is of a different order than ‘normal’ in-depth evaluations of specific interventions, even if limited samples of interventions have been scrutinised in some depth. Essentially, this evaluation aggregates findings from available material, complemented by information derived from interviews with stakeholders directly involved. For the 4 country studies see:
http://www.norad.no/en/Tools+and+publications/Publications/Publication+Page?key=372082

Malaria Conquering Malaria: Enhancing the Impact of Effective Interventions
Towards Elimination in the Diverse and Changing Epidemiology by AY Kitua, OAT Ogundahunsi, J Lines, CS Mgone HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 14

Journal of Global Infectious Diseases, Apr-Jun 2011, Vol. 3, Issue 2 5 pp. 584 kB: http://apps.who.int/tdr/newsevents/news/pdf/JGlobalInfectDis_2011_3_2_161_81694.pdf Malaria remains a major global disease burden causing just under a million deaths each year, mainly of children and pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa. It consumes up to 40% of public health expenditure of these poor countries, causing in Africa US$ 12 billion in lost GDP every year. This should not be acceptable since malaria is preventable, and there is clear evidence that optimal use of current tools can reduce much of the suffering and deaths. The authors discuss the importance of the surge and the kind of approaches that would accelerate the pace toward elimination and eventual eradication. ***

Safety, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of artemisinins in pregnancy
by Veronica Ades Infectious Disease Reports 2011; Volume 2:e8 7 pp. 361 kB: http://www.pagepress.org/journals/index.php/idr/article/download/idr .2011.e8/2847 Malaria in pregnancy can lead to serious maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Artemisinin-based combination therapy is current the first line of malaria treatment recommended by the WHO for children, adults and pregnant women in second or third trimester. Due to potential embryotoxicity of artemisinins identified in animal studies, artemisinins are not considered safe for use in first trimester of pregnancy. Artemisinins are more rapidly metabolized in pregnant women, but this does not seem to reduce eff icacy. Most studies show very high cure rates for pregnant women. ***

Increasing Access to Subsidized Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy through Accredited Drug Dispensing Outlets in Tanzania
by Edmund Rutta, Bryceson Kibassa, Brittany McKinnon et al. Health Research Policy and Systems 2011, 9:22 (9 June 2011) 44 pp. 619 kB: http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-9-22.pdf The National Malaria Control Program in Tanzania identified the accredited drug dispensing outlet (ADDO) program as a private sector mechanism to supplement the distribution of subsidized artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) from public facilities and increase access to the first-line antimalarial in rural and underserved areas. This paper presents a description of the pilot program implementation, results of the program evaluation, and a discussion of the challenges and recommendations that will be used to guide rollout of subsidized ACT in ADDOs in the rest of Tanzania and probably in other countries. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 15

Best practices for an insecticide-treated bed net distribution programme in sub-Saharan eastern Africa
by Alexis R Sexton Malaria Journal 2011, 10:157 (8 June 2011) 41 pp. 221 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-10-157.pdf Insecticide-treated bed nets are the preeminent malaria control means; though there is no consensus as to a best practice for large-scale insecticide-treated bed net distribution. A literature review indicates that distribution frameworks varied greatly; and consequently so did outcomes of insecticide-treated bed net use. Studies revealed consistent inequities between urban and rural populations; which were most effectively alleviated through a free insecticide-treated bed net delivery and distribution framework. ***

Reducing malaria in Mali: Effective diagnostics and treatment are not enough
by Wilma van den Boogaard, Marcel Manzi, Engy Ali et al. Médecin Sans Frontières Project in Kangaba District, March 2011 36 pp. 2.5 MB: http://fieldresearch.msf.org/msf/bitstream/10144/132809/1/mali_EN_BD.pdf Although it was not possible from this evaluation to prove that the outcomes were due to specific interventions, the authors believe that removing the financial barriers (free and subsidised care) and reducing the geographical barriers (use of Agents Palu) were likely responsible for most of the improvement in outcomes. It is hoped that the Malian health authorities will be able to use the results of this project to improve malaria care in other parts of the country. ***

Community case management of malaria using ACT and RDT in two districts in Zambia: achieving high adherence to test results using Community Health Workers
by Pascalina Chanda, Busiku Hamainza, Hawela B Moonga et al. Malaria Journal 2011, 10:158 (9 June 2011) 25 pp. 175 kB: http://www.malariajournal.com/content/pdf/1475-2875-10-158.pdf WHO recommends home management of malaria using artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) and Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDTs) as one of the strategies for improving access to prompt and effective malaria case management. The authors conclude that Community Health workers (CHWs) are effective delivery points for prompt and effective malaria case management at community level. Adherence to test results is the best ever reported in Zambia. Further areas of implementation research are discussed. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 16

Is parasite clearance clinically important after malaria treatment in a high transmission area? A 3-month follow-up of home-based management with herbal medicine or ACT
by Merlin L. Willcox, Bertrand Graz, Chiaka Diakite et al. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 105, Issue 1, January 2011, pp. 23-31 9 pp. 295 kB: http://download.journals.elsevierhealth.com/pdfs/journals/00359203/PIIS0035920310002312.pdf This study, in a high transmission area of South Mali, explores whether residual parasitaemia at day 28 was associated with subsequent malaria episodes and/or anaemia. The authors found that total parasite clearance at day 28 was not clinically important in the context of high transmission. If this finding can be confirmed, some antimalarials which are clinically effective but do not completely clear parasites could nevertheless be appropriate in high transmission areas.

Tuberculosis Ethics and social determinants: key elements of tuberculosis prevention, care and control
The International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease, Volume 15, Supplement 2
http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iuatld/ijtld/2011/00000015/a00206s2

The June issue of the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease features a special supplement devoted to examining how social and economic factors impact tuberculosis (TB). The issue contains 12 articles that look at ways of understanding these non-medical determinants and how best to deal with them. ***

Unbalanced strategies do not work
by John Davies South African Centre for Epidemiological Modelling and Analysis (SACEMA), June 2011 3 pp. 109 kB: http://www.sacemaquarterly.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/06/Unbalancedstrategies-do-not-work.pdf In South Africa, the tuberculosis infector pool is growing rapidly because neither the epidemic nor the fundamentals of control are clearly understood. The combination of the unrestricted spread of HIV and an ineffective unbalanced tuberculosis control strategy is deadly. This article gives some (historic) background on the issue of the infector pool and proposes a way forward for tuberculosis control. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 17

Review of the National Tuberculosis Programme in Ukraine
Edited by Pierpaolo de Colombani and Jaap Veen WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2011 83 pp. 740 kB:
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0007/142369/e95006.pdf

The reviewers found a range of problems, from inconsistent implementation of the Stop TB Strategy between and within oblasts to tuberculosis services designed for health providers, not patients. Non-supportive legislation and an outdated health system, based on hospital care and with inflexible financing, limit current efforts to improve se rvices. Action is urgently needed to stop the increase in multidrug- and extensively drugresistant tuberculosis (M/XDR-TB) cases, the acceleration of HIV co-infection and high nosocomial TB transmission.

Other Infectious Diseases Using Web Search Query Data to Monitor Dengue Epidemics: A New Model for Neglected Tropical Disease Surveillance
by Emily H. Chan, Vikram Sahai, Corrie Conrad et al. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 5(5): e1206 (31 May 2011) 6 pp. 152 kB:
http://www.plosntds.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=816F0FCA614DD7C54E9A 0BF596641C6E.ambra02?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pntd.0001206&representation=PDF

An online tool that tracks local Internet searches could help health officials in developing countries respond more quickly to dengue fever outbreaks. Researchers looked at webbased search data on dengue in Bolivia, Brazil, India, Indonesia and Singapore between 2003 and 2010 and found that search queries correlate well with actual dengue cases. The tool, Google Dengue Trends, was inspired by Google Flu Trends, a similar service developed in 2008 to detect flu outbreaks. ***

Vaccines against tick-borne encephalitis: WHO position paper
Weekly Epidemiological Record (WER) 10 June 2011, Vol. 86, 24 (pp 241-256) 16 pp. 311 kB: http://www.who.int/wer/2011/wer8624.pdf Immunization offers the most effective protection against tick-borne encephalitis. The 2 vaccines manufactured in Austria and Germany are considered to be safe and efficacious for individuals aged ≥1 year. Current vaccines appear to protect against all virus subtypes circulating in endemic areas of Asia and Europe. Since the incidence of tickborne encephalitis may vary considerably between and even within geographical regions, public immunization strategies should be based on risk assessments conducted at country, regional or district level. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 18

Essential Medicines Reviews of Pharmaceutical Pricing Policies and Interventions
WHO, HAI and a group of international experts are developing a series of in-depth reviews on the use of various pharmaceutical pricing policies and interventions. The first five reviews have now been published and are available on HAIs website: http://www.haiweb.org/medicineprices/articles/index.html      External Reference Pricing The Role of Health Insurance in the Cost-Effective Use of Medicines The Regulation of Mark-ups in the Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Competition Policy Sales Taxes on Medicines

The results of the surveys confirm that substantial opportunities exist to increase availability, lower prices, and improve the affordability of medicines in all regions of the world and at all levels of economic development.

Social Protection Cash at Your Fingertips: Biometric Technology for Transfers in Developing and Resource-Rich Countries
by Alan Gelb and Caroline Decker Center for Global Development - Working Paper 253, June 2011 45 pp. 700 kB: http://www.cgdev.org/files/1425165_file_Gelb_Decker_biometric_FINAL.pdf Cash transfers are often a good way for developing countries to address economic and social problems. They are less expensive than directly providing goods and services and allow recipients the flexibility to spend on what they need the most, but for many developing countries, the technical requirements for large-scale programs have been prohibitive. This paper surveys the arguments for and against cash-transfer programs in resource-rich states, discusses some of the new biometric identification technologies, and reaches preliminary conclusions about their potentially very large benefits for developing countries. ***

Prayas eMagazine Issue 2: Old, Wise and Weary - Support for the aged in India
Editors: Gayathri Vasudevan and Aarti Mohan Supported by Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH 39 pp. 3.9 MB: http://socialprotectioncommunity.in/wpcontent/uploads/2011/05/PrayasIssue2OldAgeCare-print1.pdf Much of India is young today. In the next two decades, this picture will change drastiHESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 19

cally. We will have one of the highest number and proportion of old people. This dramatic shift will place pressure on health care delivery systems, social security programmes, supplemental security income, and families that provide support for the elderly. Hardly 10% of India is covered by any form of pension. Taking care of a rapidly aging India poses some hard questions for us today. In the second edition of Prayas, we take a look at the concerns of old age security in India. ***

Helping or Hurting: What Role for Microfinance in the Fight Against Poverty?
Report on the All-Party Parliamentary Group on Microfinance’s inquiry into the UK’s role in supporting the microfinance sector worldwide, June 2011 72 pp. 1.5 MB: http://www.microfinancegateway.org/gm/document1.9.51461/Helping%20or%20Hurting.pdf The purpose of the inquiry was to use the evidence submitted by academics, practitioners and funders in order to build up a picture of what microfinance is now and to provide recommendations for how the sector should progress from here. The report offers practical suggestions for how to take a more nuanced approach to the sector which will allow investors, donors and other stakeholders to make better decisions on how to engage with microfinance.

Water, Sanitation & Hygiene Community Based Water Supply
A handbook describing the ProAir implementation of the Indonesian policy, “Community Based Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation” by Bernd Unger, Petrus Kanaf, Andreas Umbu Moto et al. Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) GmbH, March 2011 39 pp. 1.8 MB: http://www.ighealth.org/en/library/downloadfile/103/ProAir-Community-basedwatersupply-sanitation-in-Indonesia ProAir is a bilateral program between the government of Indonesia and the Federal Republic of Germany. This project implements community based water supply and sanitation in the East Nusa Tenggara province, Indonesia. This handbook is written for everyone who is interested to learn how community based water supply can be successfully implemented and can function sustainably. The book should be understood as a “cooking recipe” which means that on the one hand, it explains the ProAir approach step by step and on the other hand, this book leaves the readers fully flexible to modify the approach according to their respective conditions. ***

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 20

Water and Privatisation
Pambazuka News 533 - Special issue, June 2011 Read online at: http://www.pambazuka.org/en/issue/533 Donors and development banks have largely focused on private-public partnerships in their attempts to develop water management capacity around the world, overlooking the vast expertise of public sector water operators. But now they too are starting to recognise the benefits of public-public partnerships for the provision of public water and sanitation services. ***

The Child Health Implications of Privatizing the Urban Water Supply in Africa
by Katrina Kosec Stanford University, June 3, 2011 51 pp. 405 kB: http://www.stanford.edu/~kkosec/pdf/Kosec_Africa_June2011.pdf Can private sector participation (PSP) in the urban piped water sector improve child health? Allowing the private sector to provide basic infrastructure such as piped water is politically controversial, with some arguing that the private sector is more efficient and will improve access and quality, and others arguing that access and quality will suffer. PSP appears to benefit the health of children from the poorest households the most. PSP in water also leads to higher rates of reliance on piped water as the primary water source, which is a likely channel explaining child health improvements.

Human Resources Devolution and human resources in primary healthcare in rural Mali
by Elsbet Lodenstein and Dramane Dao Human Resources for Health 2011, 9:15 (8 June 2011) 19 pp. 167 kB: http://www.human-resources-health.com/content/pdf/1478-4491-9-15.pdf Devolution is meant to affect performance of the health system by transferring responsibilities and authority to locally elected governments. The key question of this article is: what does devolution mean for human resources for health in Mali? This article a ssesses the key advantages and dilemmas associated with devolution such as responsiveness to local needs, downward accountability and health worker retention. ***

Health professional mobility and health systems: evidence from 17 European countries
by Matthias Wismar, Irene A Glinos, Claudia B Maier et al. Euro Observer Summer 2011, Volume 13, Number 2

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 21

12 pp. 757 kB:
http://www.euro.who.int/__data/assets/pdf_file/0006/145158/EuroObserver-Summer-2011_web.pdf

The Summer issue of Euro Observer looks at the factors that influence health profe ssional mobility between the countries of Europe. Case studies on Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Spain and the United Kingdom provide details on each country’s health professional mobility profile, impacts on the health care system and government policy responses.

Health Systems & Research Knowledge Brokering: Exploring the process of transferring knowledge into action
by Vicky Ward, Simon Smith, Samantha Carruthers et al. University of Leeds, UK, April 2011 28 pp. 966 kB:
http://www.leeds.ac.uk/lihs/psychiatry/research/TransferringKnowledgeInt oAction/documents/Knowledge%20Brokering%20Final%20report.pdf

Health-related research continually produces and refines knowledge that has the potential to improve both the quality and efficiency of health services and bring significant benefits to patients. However, research has shown that this knowledge does not reliably find its way into organisational or clinical practice. The failure to translate knowledge into action wastes resources, and health services are missing opportunities to implement cost-effective healthcare. We therefore need effective techniques and approaches for translating healthcare knowledge into action. ***

Yes, research can inform health policy; but can we bridge the 'Do-Knowing It’s Been Done' gap?
by Stephen R Hanney and Miguel A Gonzalez-Block Health Research Policy and Systems 2011, 9:23 (16 June 2011) 11 pp. 170 kB: http://www.health-policy-systems.com/content/pdf/1478-4505-9-23.pdf The forthcoming World Health Report, to be entitled: ‘No Health Without Research’, reflects an ever-growing focus on the vital role of health research, and how best to bridge the ‘Know- Do’ gap. Whilst interest and activities have been intensifying in the last decade, it is important to recognise there have been major long-standing attempts within some health research systems to develop approaches in which policymakers and researchers work together to identify priorities for research that will meet the needs of policymakers. ***

NGOs and government partnership for health systems strengthening: A qualitative study presenting viewpoints of government, NGOs and donors in Pakistan
by Iram Ejaz, Babar T Shaikh and Narjis Rizvi HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 22

BMC Health Services Research 2011, 11:122 (24 May 2011) 7 pp. 255 kB: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1472-6963-11-122.pdf The importance of strengthening of public, private and community health systems has been emphasized time and again. In most of the developing countries, certain weaknesses and gaps in the government health systems have been hampering the achiev ement of improved health outcomes. Public sector in Pakistan has been deficient in the capacity to deliver equitable and quality health services and thus has been grossly underutilized. Involving NGOs for health system strengthening may eventually contribute to create a healthcare system reflecting an increased efficiency, more equity and good governance in the wake of the Millennium Development Goals. ***

Constraints to Implementing the Essential Health Package in Malawi
by Dirk H. Mueller, Douglas Lungu, Arnab Acharya et al. PLoS ONE 6(6): e20741 (14 June 2011) 9 pp. 179 kB: http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObjectAttachment.action;jsessionid=EDDCAB 5D4C84D609100157278C21E086.ambra01?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.po ne.0020741&representation=PDF Increasingly seen as a useful tool of health policy, Essential or Minimal Health Packages direct resources to interventions that aim to address the local burden of disease and be cost-effective. Less attention has been paid to the delivery mechanisms for such interventions. This study aimed to assess the degree to which the Essential Health Package (EHP) in Malawi was available to its population and what health system constraints impeded its full implementation. ***

Implementation of Medical Research in Clinical Practice
by Roger Bouillon, Dame Sally Davies, Ruxandra Draghia-Akli et al. European Science Foundation (ESF), 2011 76 pp. 3.9 MB:
http://www.esf.org/index.php?eID=tx_ccdamdl_file&p[file]=33492&p[dl]=1&p[pid]= 3728&p[site]=European%20Science%20Foundation&p[t]=1308959124&hash=83065ee34 59143544b0b0818185180cb&l=en

The ESF “Forward Looks” involve leading experts and summarise the current state and challenges on selected priority topics; they aim to influence future research development and national research agendas. This Forward Look report examines how the quality of medical research can be improved, and how research results can better be implemented in practice.

Information & Communication Technology mHealth: New horizons for health through mobile technologies
by Najeeb Al-Shorbaji, David Aylward, Chris Bailey et al. HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 23

Global Observatory for eHealth Series - Volume 3 World Health Organization, 2011 112 pp. 3.1 MB: http://www.who.int/goe/publications/goe_mhealth_web.pdf Mobile phones are now the most widely used communication technology in the world. They continue to spread at an exponential rate - particularly in developing countries. This expansion provides unprecedented opportunities to apply mobile technology for health. This publication includes a series of detailed case studies highlighting best practices in mHealth in different settings.

Education Report card: Botswana a model for Africa?
Achievements and challenges in provision of education in Botswana by Rodrick Mukumbira AfricaFiles, No. 1 (February-June 2005) Read online at: http://www.africafiles.org/atissueezine.asp?issue=issue1#art3 This article examines Botswana’s progress in the education sector from 1965 (independence from Britain) to 2005. It argues that due to revenue from diamonds, Botswana has been able to invest heavily in its education system, thus making it a model for other African countries. But there is still room for improvement.

Harm Reduction and Drug Use Rapid assessment response (RAR) study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa
by Monika ML dos Santos, Franz Trautmann and John-Peter Kools Harm Reduction Journal 2011, 8:14 (1 June 2011) 26 pp. 214 kB: http://www.harmreductionjournal.com/content/pdf/1477-7517-8-14.pdf Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa.

Development Assistance A Failure to Communicate: Microfinance Confused
By Christopher Dunford HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 24

Monday Developments, May 2011 4 pp. 843 kB: http://www.freedomfromhunger.org/pdfs/MicrofinanceConfusedMo ndayDevelopmentsMay2011.pdf This article is written for peers in international development who are aware of microfinance controversies and want an insider’s view to deepen their unde rstanding. Resulting from Freedom from Hunger’s decades-long internal discussion of the issues involved, it is a carefully crafted commentary on the state of microfinance today. ***

Where does aid go? Mapping the African Development Bank’s Activities
http://blog.aiddata.org/2011/06/where-does-aid-go-mapping-african.html AidData has been working with the African Development Bank (AfDB) to map the Bank's activities on the continent. You can check out the results so far with this map. The map shows the AfDB's ongoing operations in three countries: Cameroon, Morocco, and Tanzania. The Bank launched it at their Annual Meetings last week in Lisbon, where it also reaffirmed its commitment to increasing the transparency of its work.

Others Tackling Violence against Women: From Knowledge to Practical Initiatives
by Jennifer Milliken, Elisabeth Gilgen and Jasna Lazarevic Geneva Declaration on Armed Violence and Development Secretariat, Geneva 2011 49 pp. 775 kB: http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/Full_Document.pdf The publication discusses the need for specific initiatives to address this global problem. Violence against women is often less evident than the deaths and injuries of men fighting in armed conflict or as gang members in violent drug wars. Yet women and girls are often victimized, or affected in other ways, in all armed violence settings. Women and girls are also common targets of sexual violence in armed conflict and fragile states, and they suffer disproportionately from its indirect consequences. ***

African Innovation Outlook 2010
Executive Summary by Claes Brundenius and Philippe Mawoko NEPAD Planning and Coordinating Agency, May 2011 18 pp. 365 kB: http://www.nepad.org/system/files/NEPAD_AIO_Executive_Summary_web.pdf Africa suffers from a lack of an adequate, African-led, science, technology and innovation (STI) system of indicators in support of evidence-based policy. African political HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 25

leadership has recommended several schemes to advance the role of STI for development, yet there are no appropriate instruments to gauge the implementation of these schemes by member states of the African Union (AU). The African Innovation Outlook 2010 is published as the first in a series, intended to inform the people of Africa and other interested parties about STI activities in African countries. ***

My Children Have Been Poisoned: A Public Health Crisis in Four Chinese Provinces
Human Rights Watch, June 2011 79 pp. 1.4 MB:
http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/china0611WebInside_0.pdf

This report draws on research in heavily lead-contaminated villages in Henan, Yunnan, Shaanxi, and Hunan provinces. The report documents how, despite increasing regulation and sporadic enforcement targeting polluting factories, local authorities are ignoring the urgent and long-term health consequences of a generation of children continuously exposed to life-threatening levels of lead. ***

Health in the green economy: health co-benefits of climate change mitigation – housing sector
by Carlos Dora, Nathalie Röbbel, Elaine Ruth Fletcher et al. World Health Organization, 2011 136 pp. 3.1 MB: http://www.who.int/hia/hgehousing.pdf Many strategies to reduce climate change have large, immediate health benefits, while others may pose health risks or tradeoffs. The aim of this publication is to identify impo rtant health co-benefits for health policy-makers, and integrate their consideration in the future policy review of climate change mitigation and sustainability measures. Opport unities for potential health and environment synergies are identified here for the housing sector.

ELECTRONIC RESOURCES
The Field Epidemiology Manual (FEM) Wiki
http://www.femwiki.com/fem/w/wiki/default.aspx The aim of the FEM Wiki is to create a library of training materials for field epidemiology training programmes, as well as a market place for discussions on all theoretical and practical aspects of field epidemiology. Central to this effort will be the Field Epidemiology Manual, a core document for use when undertaking field investigations and research projects in intervention epidemiology:

HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 26

INTERESTING WEB SITES
Urban Reproductive Health Gateway
http://www.urbanreproductivehealth.org/urban-rh-gateway The Urban RH Gateway is a fast and user-friendly search engine that provides health professionals access to relevant and reliable information on urban reproductive health as well as methodologies related to family planning. ***

Community Health Workers (CHW) Central
http://www.hciproject.org/chw-central CHW Central is an online resource for information and dialogue about Community Health Workers (CHW). CHWs play an important role in increasing access to health services in poor and underserved communities around the world. CHW Central supports community health workers and strengthens CHW programs around the world by connecting experts, practitioners, and supporters in interactive discussion forums and sharing the latest developments in CHW research, practice, and policy. ***

Eureka! Discover and Discuss New Research
http://eureka.k4health.org/home Eureka! is designed for people working in international health to discuss the latest research and evidence in public health. The site encourages dynamic debate and gene rates organized discussion by engaging experts to review new research. ***

Make Aid Transparent
http://www.makeaidtransparent.org/ The Make Aid Transparent campaign is a coalition of civil society organisations who have come together to call on donors to publish more and better information about the aid they give. For more information about aid transparency visit: http://www.publishwhatyoufund.org

TRAINING OPPORTUNITIES
Post-Graduate Certificate and MSc in Global Health Policy
(by Distance Learning) London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine is pleased to announce the launch of this new course by distance learning for 2011. HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 27

This course aims to provide students with an in-depth understanding of health determinants and outcomes that transcend national boundaries, and the policy re sponses required to protect and promote population health in a globalising world. For more information see: http://www.lshtm.ac.uk/prospectus/masters/pg_ghp.html ***

Health Systems and Services in International Comparison
30th August - 2nd September, 2011 Schweizerisches Tropen- und Public Health-Institut (Swiss TPH), Basel, Switzerland Course Content: Stewardship/governance, health information and evidence for decisionmaking, organisation and provision of services, resource planning, allocation and d ecentralisation, financing and payment, human resources for health. Target Audience: Public health specialists, medical doctors, economists, epidemiologists, social scientists interested in health system and service planning and manag ement. Language: English; Fees: CHF 1,150 For more information contact: Kaspar Wyss Tel.: +41-61-284-8140 mailto:kaspar.wyss@unibas.ch or see:
http://www.public-health-edu.ch/moduldetail?cc=V305.10.11&zuteilung=basel&jahr=2011&lang=en

For more courses and conferences see also: http://www.going-international.at/index.php?lang=EN

CARTOON

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TIPS & TRICKS
Windows 7's least-known data-protection system
You deleted a file yesterday; now you really need it back. Your Windows recycle bin is empty - what now? Your next-best option is the “Restore Previous Versions” tool - a great, automatic dataprotection feature buried in Windows 7. Most people have never even heard of it. But it is a mistake to ignore or underuse this feature, because it really is a hidden gem. What is Restore Previous Versions, exactly? Introduced in Vista and now present in all editions of Windows 7, previous versions are local backups of every data file and folder that changes on your system. The backups are created automatically and are instantly accessible. Previous versions do for your standard documents (text files, spreadsheets, photos, whatever) what Windows System Restore does for system files. The function that creates previous versions is enabled by default and is probably working right now on your PC, whether you have ever used the previous-versions feature or not. By default, Vista and Windows 7 make copies of changed folders and files at least once a day. But you can adjust the schedule at will. To start, open Windows Explorer, right-click any folder that contains your documents, and select “Restore previous versions”. You may be surprised to see how many archived files Previous Versions has available. To help avoid any confusion between a previous version and the current file, Windows adds a timestamp to the copy’s address bar. More generally said: 1. If you need to recover a file that was recently deleted - within hours or maybe days you can probably retrieve it from the Windows recycle bin. 2. If the file was deleted or altered days or weeks ago, use Restore Previous Versions. 3. If the file is no longer under the Previous Versions tab, you should have it in your regular, full backups - assuming you made them. 4. If the file was deleted a long time ago and is not in your backups, it may be in an old system image. Imagine never losing an important file ever again, never having one of those "Oh, no!" moments when you realize an important file has been incorrectly altered or deleted. Best regards, Dieter Neuvians MD HESP-News & Notes - 13/2011 - page 29

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