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Hypothesis: The brightness of light depends on circuit that been used. Variables: Manipulated variables: Action of removing and unscrewing of bulbs Responding variables: Brightness of the bulbs, reading of voltmeter and ammeter Controlled variables: Type of bulbs, batteries, type of wire Materials: 1. Battery holder 2. Batteries 3. Several insulated wires 4. Ammeter 5. Voltmeter 6. Light bulbs

in one continuous loop. which may not be sufficient to make them glow. If a wire joins the battery to one bulb. The same voltage is applicable to all circuit components connected in parallel. One bulb burning out in a series circuit breaks the circuit. there is same current through all of them. In parallel circuits. If the four light bulbs are connected in series. If the light bulbs are connected in parallel. consider a very simple circuit consisting of four light bulbs and one 6 V battery. to the next bulb. . The total current I is the sum of the currents through the individual components. As an example. the voltage across each of the components is the same. to the next bulb. the currents through the light bulbs combine to form the current in the battery. and they also have identical polarities. The potential differences across the components are the same in magnitude. while the voltage drop is 6. and the last one will still function. the current through each of the components is the same. each light has its own circuit. the bulbs are said to be in parallel. to the next bulb.5 V across each bulb.0 V across each bulb and they all glow. and the total current is the sum of the currents through each component. and the voltage drop is 1. and the voltage across the components is the sum of the voltages across each component. so all but one light could be burned out. If two or more components are connected in parallel they have the same potential difference (voltage) across their ends. then back to the battery. the bulbs are said to be in series. in accordance with Kirchhoff’s current law. every device must function for the circuit to be complete. In a parallel circuit.Theory : SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUIT In a series circuit. If each bulb is wired to the battery in a separate loop. In a series circuit.

and R3 are the resistance values of the individual resistors that are connected in parallel. the analysis can be conducted in the usual manner.COMBINATION CIRCUIT A third type of circuit involves the dual use of series and parallel connections in a circuit. . The circuit depicted at the right is an example of the use of both series and parallel connections within the same circuit. then the total or equivalent resistance of those branches is equal to the resistance of one branch divided by the number of branches.. This method is consistent with the formula 1 / Req = 1 / R1 + 1 / R2 + 1 / R3 + . R2. Once transformed into a series circuit. light bulbs A and B are connected by parallel connections and light bulbs C and D are connected by series connections. then the above formula must be used. where R1.The basic strategy for the analysis of combination circuits involves using the meaning of equivalent resistance for parallel branches to transform the combination circuit into a series circuit. such circuits are referred to as compound circuits or combination circuits. If the two or more resistors found in the parallel branches do not have equal resistance. An example of this method was presented in a previous section of Lesson 4. In this case. The method for determining the equivalent resistance of parallel are equal. This is an example of a combination circuit..

Now that all resistors are in series..resistors in parallel is equivalent to a resistance of 2 . the two branches can be replaced by a single resistor with a resistance of 2 . the total resistance of the circuit is 10 . Consider the following diagrams below. Then an understanding of the equivalent resistance of a series circuit can be used to determine the total resistance of the circuit. Two 4. the formula for the total resistance of series resistors can be used to determine the total resistance of this circuit: The formula for series resistance is Rtot = R1 + R2 + R3 + . the combination circuit can be transformed into a series circuit.By applying one's understanding of the equivalent resistance of parallel branches to a combination circuit. . So in Diagram B. the analysis continues using Ohm's law and voltage and resistance values to determine current values at various locations. This is shown in Diagram B.. Once the total resistance of the circuit is determined. Thus. Diagram A represents a combination circuit with resistors R2 and R3 placed in parallel branches.

The remaining bulbs observed and the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter in each circuit recorded. . All wires connected and the light bulbs observed. A suitable table constructed to record the readings. Now another bulb in parallel connected to circuit B. 6. The remaining bulbs observed and the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter recorded. several insulated wires and two light bulbs for each circuit. 2. Now another bulb in series connected to circuits A. The remaining bulbs observed and the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter recorded.ACTIVITY 1: BUILDING A SIMPLE SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUITS Diagram: Procedures: 1. Now the ammeter connected and voltmeter in both the above circuits. 3. Both the circuits constructed as shown by using a battery holder. 4. Now one bulb unscrewed in each circuit. 5.

0 2. then the circuit is referred to as a parallel circuit.00 0. I (A) 0.7 2. When all the devices in a circuit are connected by parallel connections.54 Voltmeter. V (V) 2.16 0.0 Conclusion: When all the devices in a circuit are connected by series connections.38 0.20 0.5 2.1 Parallel (circuit B) Number of bulbs 1 (Unscrew) 2 (Normal) 3 (Addition) Brightness Bright Normal Normal Ammeter.Results: Activity 1 Simple series (circuit A) Number of bulbs 1 (Unscrew) 2 (Normal) 3 (Addition) Brightness Bulb is not lighted up Normal Dim Ammeter. MASTERY OF K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS QUESTIONS: . then the circuit is referred to as a series circuit.13 Voltmeter. I (A) 0. V (V) 3.3 2.

What happens to the bulbs in a series circuit if one of the bulbs burns out? Explain. the current passing through the cell is equal to the sum of the currents. Since there is only one path for the flow of current. 2. How is the brightness of the lights related to whether you connect the bulbs in series or in parallel? . The voltmeter will also show the reading of zero because there is no current pass through it. 3. All the bulbs will not emit light. The potential difference across the bulb is still same as the potential difference across battery. What happens to the bulbs in a parallel circuit if one of the bulbs burns out? Explain. This is because a parallel circuit is one that splits into two or more branches with connected electrical devices forming different loops. So.1. Other bulbs will emit light and the circuit also will not turn off. The current still can pass through in other branches of circuit. the current passings through all the bulbs are same. the current will stop flowing and the ammeter will show reading of zero. You are building a string of lights using several bulbs. The ammeter and the voltmeter still show readings. The reason is a series circuit is one that connects electrical devices such that it forms a single loop. So. when one of the bulbs burn out.

What happens to the bulbs in a parallel circuit if another bulb is connected in series to it? Explain. will cause the brightness of the bulbs to be dim. When another bulb is connected in series the originally connected bulbs becomes dimmer because the total resistance of the series circuit increases. the brightness of the bulbs will be normal or glows to its maximum brightness. 4. The voltage across each bulb decreases. This is because in series the bulbs are connected in same circuit that is in one single way and the total resistance of each light bulb is added together. The current anywhere along the circuit is equal to the voltage supplied by the source divided by the total resistance of the circuit. . This consequently drops the current. So the power dissipated by each bulb decreases and make the bulbs shine more dimmer. 5. This is because the resistance in each branch is the same so that the same current flows through each bulb. The current that flows through the series circuit decreases. If a string of lights was built using several bulbs in parallel. which makes the bulbs dimmer. What happens to the bulbs in a series circuit if another bulb is connected in series to it? Explain.A string of lights built using several bulbs in series. This makes each identical bulb in a parallel circuit have the same brightness.

Each branch will have the flow of the same current.When another bulb is connected in parallel the brightness of every single bulbs remain unchanged. ACTIVITY 2: BUILDING A COMBINED SERIES AND PARALLEL CIRCUIT Diagram: . The reason for this is that the total resistance of a parallel circuits drops as more branches are added in. This drop in total resistance results in an increase in the total current. which divides evenly among the branches.

Now bulb 1 removed. a battery.Procedures: 1. several insulated wired and three light bulbs. 3. The remaining bulbs observed and the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter are recorded. 2. Now bulb 2 removed. 4. The remaining bulbs observed and the readings of both the ammeter and voltmeter are recorded. The circuit shown constructed by using a battery holder. 5. A suitable table constructed to record the readings. Activity 2 (Combined circuit) . a switch. Now ammeter and voltmeter connected to measure the current and potential difference through each bulb. The switch connected and the light bulbs observed.

18 1.5 normal 0.0 B normal normal 3 A 0.45 V 0.2 V 0.5 - - - normal 0.12 0.Conclusion: BULBS 1 B All bulbs 1st bulb removed 2nd bulb removed bright A 0.9 The circuit that involves the dual use of series and parallel connections in a circuit.18 1.5 B normal normal 2 A 0.50 2. such circuits are referred to as compound circuits or combination circuits ACTIVITY 2: MASTERY OF K NOWLEDGE AND SKILLS QUESTIONS: .12 0.34 V 4.8 3.

In parallel circuit electricity has more than one path on which to travel. The electric current would beinterrupted. The series circuit will cause the whole circuit to be non-functional if one bulb broke down. What happens to the other bulbs in the circuit when bulb 2 is removed? Explain. This is because bulb 1 and 2 are connected in parallel with bulb 1 and 3 in different branches. What happens to the other bulbs in the circuit when bulb 1 is removed? Explain. Bulb 1 and bulb 2 are able to emit light. This will cause all the light bulbs not light up. 3. the connection in series has is disadvantages. This is because. Therefore. the other bulb would still be able to light up because the flow of electricity to the removed bulb would not stop the flow of electricity to the other bulbs. Bulb 2 and 3 will not be able to emit light because bulb 1 and 2 and bulb 1 and 3 are connected in series.1. BIBLIOGRAPHY . the failure of one bulb does not affect the others. This makes. Would you want the circuits in your home to be series or parallel circuits or a combination of both? Explaining your reasoning. the fixing of the appliances will be such that there are many different loops so that it provides separate branches for the current to flow. 2. I will have parallel circuit. In series circuit the electricity can only flow in one path and this will make the other bulb also fail to light up if one bulb is removed. if one of the bulbs blew out. Furthermore. In series circuit when a bulb is removed the circuit becomes incomplete.

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