INSTRUCTOR’S

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A+ Certification
Core Hardware
JUTTA JOE GAIL JOHN VANSTEAN

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FROEHLICH SANDLER K. ELBERFELD

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A+ Certification
Core Hardware

Jutta VanStean
Jutta VanStean started her IT career administering networks in 1989. She moved into the technical writing field in 1996, writing multiple network operating system related courses for Element K. Her book NetWare 4.11: System Administration received the Award of Excellence from the Society for Technical Communication. Jutta’s certifications include Novell’s CNE (for versions 3, 4, and 5) and Master CNE (NT Integration), as well as CompTIA’s Network+ certification. She is also the editor of Element K Journals’ Inside NetWare, and has written other IT titles, including Sybex’s Windows 2000 Instant Reference. Jutta has been working as a freelance technical writer since early 1999.

Gail Sandler
Gail Sandler has been a technical writer and course developer since 1992. After getting a degree in Music History and Theory, she went back to school and got a degree in Data Processing. She is still playing music when she isn’t writing or coding. Gail has several Novell certifications including Certified Intranet Manager, Certified Internet Business Strategist, and Certified Novell Administrator for NetWare 4 and NetWare 5. She holds several Brainbench certifications in NetWare, Linux, and other areas. Her book Novell Web Server: Web Authoring and Publishing won the Award of Excellence from the Society for Technical Communication.

John K. Elberfeld

Joe Froehlich

Joe Froehlich has held professional positions as a network administrator, technology coordinator, and instructional designer in a variety of commercial and educational settings. He holds the CompTIA A+, Network+, and i-Net+ certifications. He’s also a Certified Novell Administrator (CNA) and a Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP). Formerly the Editor of Element K Journals’ Inside NetWare, Exploring Windows NT, and Windows NT Professional, Joe currently works as a technical writer and curriculum developer for Element K.

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John Elberfeld was Science Department Head and Computer Coordinator at Allendale Columbia School in Rochester, NY, before becoming president of EduTech, an educational science software company. In addition, John has developed training materials and taught courses on computer use for several organizations, including the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology Learning Development Center. Recently, he has designed several commercial, database-oriented Web sites. Teaming with his wife, Jane McLean, John has expanded the focus of EduTech to encompass technical writing. Recent projects include work on the i-Net+ certification manual and this manual for Element K.

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A+ CERTIFICATION: CORE HARDWARE
Course Number: 077811 Course Edition: 2.5 For software version: na

Project Team

Project Support
Managing Editor: Susan B. SanFilippo

Administration

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A+ Certification: Core Hardware

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TRADEMARK NOTICES: Element K Content LLC, ZDU, FirstEdition, Element K Journals and the corresponding logos are trademarks and service marks of Element K Content LLC. All product names and services used throughout this book are common law or registered trademarks and service marks of their respective companies. Use of another entity’s product name or service in this book is for editorial purposes only. No such use, or the use of any trade name, is intended to convey endorsement or other affiliation with the book. Copyright © 2001 Element K Content LLC. All rights reserved. This publication, or any part thereof, may not be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, storage in an information retrieval system, or otherwise, without express written permission of Element K Content LLC, 500 Canal View Boulevard, Rochester, NY 14623, (716) 240-7500, (800) 434-3466. Element K Content LLC’s World Wide Web site is located at www.elementkpress.com. Unauthorized reproduction or transmission of any part of this book or materials is a violation of federal law. If you believe that this book, related materials, or any other Element K Content LLC materials are being reproduced or transmitted without permission, please call 1-800-478-7788.

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DISCLAIMER: While Element K Content LLC takes care to ensure the accuracy and quality of these materials, we cannot guarantee their accuracy, and all materials are provided without any warranty whatsoever, including, but not limited to, the implied warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. The name used in the data files for this course is that of a fictitious company. Any resemblance to current or future online companies is purely coincidental. We do not believe we have used anyone’s name in creating this course, but if we have, please notify us and we will change the name in the next revision of the course.

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NOTICES

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Senior Director of Content and Content Development: William O. Ingle • Director of Certification: Mike Grakowsky • Director of Design and Web Development: Joy Insinna • Manager of Office Productivity and Applied Learning: Cheryl Russo • Manager of Databases, ERP, and Business Skills: Mark Onisk • Director of Business Development: Kent Michels • Instructional Design Manager: Susan L. Reber • Manager of Publishing Services: Michael Hoyt

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Curriculum Developers and Technical Writers: Jutta VanStean, Joe Froehlich, Gail Sandler and John Elberfeld • Copy Editor: Elizabeth M. Swank • Reviewing Editors: Christy D. Flanders, Angie J. French and Taryn Chase • Quality Assurance Analysts: Frank Wosnick and Paul J. Froehlich • Print Designer: Daniel Smith and Isolina Salgado

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The logo of the CompTIA Authorized Curriculum Program and the status of this or other training material as ″Authorized″ under the CompTIA Authorized Curriculum Program signifies that, in CompTIA’s opinion, such training material covers the content of the CompTIA’s related certification exam. CompTIA has not reviewed or approved the accuracy of the contents of this training material and specifically disclaims any warranties of merchantability or fitness for a particular purpose. CompTIA makes no guarantee concerning the success of persons using any such ″Authorized″ or other training material in order to prepare for any CompTIA certification exam. The contents of this training material were created for the CompTIA A+ exam covering CompTIA certification exam objectives that were current as of November, 2001. How to Become CompTIA Certified: This training material can help you prepare for and pass a related CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to achieve CompTIA certification, you must register for and pass a CompTIA certification exam or exams. In order to become CompTIA certified, you must: 1. Select a certification exam provider. For more information please visit http://www.comptia.org/certification/test_locations.htm. 2. Register for and schedule a time to take the CompTIA certification exam(s) at a convientent location. 3. Read and sign the Candidate Agreement, which will be presented at the time of the exam(s). The text of the Candidate Agreement can be found at www.comptia.org/certification. 4. Take and pass the CompTIA certification exam(s). For more information about CompTIA's certifications, such as their industry acceptance, benefits, or program news, please visit www.comptia.org/certification. CompTIA is a non-profit information technology (IT) trade association. CompTIA's certifications are designed by subject matter experts from across the IT industry. Each CompTIA certification is vendor-neutral, covers multiple technologies, and requires demonstration of skills and knowledge widely sought after by the IT industry. To contact CompTIA with any questions or comments: Please call + 1 630 268 1818 questions@comptia.org.

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Credits
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2. Click on Student Enrollment 3. Enter the following Enrollment Key 23816-33790-comptia

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4. Choose a user name and password, complete personal information, and then click Submit. 5. Your profile has been set up successfully. You may now proceed to Login to Element K.

Your Knowledge2 online ID is valid for 90-days from initial logon.

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1. Log on to www.elementk.com

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To use your Knowledge2 online ID, follow these five easy steps:

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This courseware includes a companion online ID. Use your online ID to reinforce what you’ve learned in the classroom, prepare for certification tests, or as a reference guide. It’s easy, and available to you anytime, 24x7, at www.elementk.com.

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New from Element K Press – Knowledge2 gives you two great ways to learn using our best-in-class content.

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A+ CERTIFICATION: CORE HARDWARE
About This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Lesson 2: Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Lesson 3: System Components. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

CONTENT OVERVIEW

Lesson 4: Bus Architectures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Lesson 5: Ports, Connectors, and Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

Lesson 6: Expansion Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175

Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Lesson 9: Portable Computing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Lesson 10: Networking. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 315 Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371

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Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

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Glossary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 389

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Lesson 7: Storage Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

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CONTENTS

Topic 1A

Topic 1B

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Numbering Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1B-1 Understanding the Decimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Binary Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1B-2 Understanding the Binary Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Hexadecimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1B-3 Understanding the Hexadecimal Number System . . . . . . . . . . Exploring Computer Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1B-4 Applying Number Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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A Brief History of Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Task 1A-1 Identifying Contributions to the Development of Mechanical Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Electronic Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Task 1A-2 Identifying Key Technologies in the Development of Electronic Computers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

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LESSON 1: INTRODUCTION TO MICROCOMPUTERS

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About This Course . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Course Setup Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi How To Use This Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii

Topic 1C

Topic 1D

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Software and Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1D-1 Identifying the Role of Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firmware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1D-2 Defining Terms Related to Read-only Memory . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Microcomputer System Components and Their Functions . . 19 Task 1C-1 Identifying System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 25 27 28 30 30 33 33 34 36

Topic 1E

Tools of the Trade . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1E-1 Identifying Tools Needed for Servicing Microcomputers . . . . . Software Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 1E-2 Creating a Windows 98 Startup Disk . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lesson Review 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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LESSON 2: SAFETY
Topic 2A
Basics of Electricity and Electronics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2A-1 Applying Ohm’s Law . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measuring Electricity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2A-2 Testing a Wall Outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Understanding Static Electricity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2A-3 Identifying the Components of an ESD-free Environment . . . . 40 42 43 45 46 50 51 56 57 64 65 65 67 67 69

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Topic 2B

Topic 2D

Topic 3A

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Central Processing Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CISC and RISC Instruction Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Intel Family Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8086 and 8088 CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The 386 Family of CPUs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386DX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 386SX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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ROM BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 3B-1 Identifying the Power-On Self-Test (POST) Sequence . . . . . . . Configuring the ROM BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 3B-2 Examining the BIOS Settings of a Computer . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 3A-1 Measuring the Output of a Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Servicing Power Supplies. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 3A-2 Replacing a Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply Problems and Their Prevention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 3A-3 Diagnosing Power Supplies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Computer Equipment Disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Task 2D-1 Identifying Proper Disposal Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Lesson Review 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

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Fire Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Extinguishers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2C-1 Fire Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fire Emergency Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2C-2 Identifying Steps in Using a Fire Extinguisher . . . . . . . . . . .

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General Safety Guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2B-1 Identifying Hazards of Servicing Microcomputers . . . . . . . . . Potential Hazards of Using PCs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Task 2B-2 Identifying Safe Computing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Merced . . . 91 Speculative Execution and Branch Prediction . . . . . . . . . 93 Pentium II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Celeron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Memory . . . 90 The Pentium Manufacturing Process and Chip Voltages . 88 Math Coprocessors. . . . . . . . . . 101 Single Edge Contact Cartridge (SECC) . . . . . . . . 101 Pin Grid Array (PGA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Task 3D-1 Identifying Computer Enclosures and System Board Form Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Pentium Pro. . 111 System Board Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Pentium CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Topic 3E O N O T C O PY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Socket and Slot Types . . . . . . . . . 98 Addressable Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Register Renaming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Pentium III . . . . . . . . 92 Pentium with MMX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 The Next Generation of Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Superscalar Technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Dual Independent Bus (DIB). . . . . 91 Superpipelining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Comparing CPUs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Out-of-order Completion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 486 Variations . .CONTENTS L 386SL. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Task 3C-1 Reviewing Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Pentium III Xeon. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Task 3C-2 Identifying the Processor Internal Bus Width . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Heat Sinks and Fans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Processors Beyond the Original Pentium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Servicing Processors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 486 CPU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Mobile Processors .116 Task 3E-1 Identifying Types of Memory . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Task 3D-2 Identifying the System Board’s Major Components . . . . . . . . 97 Internal and External Bus Width. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Task 3D-3 Examining the System Board DIP Switch Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 A EV viii A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Topic 3D System Boards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Clock Speed and MIPS . . . . . . 102 Task 3C-3 Replacing a Microprocessor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Memory Chip Packages . . . . . . 114 Repairing System Boards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Dual Inline Package (DIP). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Task 4H-1 Replacing an AGP Expansion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 How Data is Transmitted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Task 4F-1 Replacing a PCI Expansion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 PS/2 Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Plug and Play Operating System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .128 Task 4B-1 Replacing an 8-bit Expansion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Task 3E-2 Replacing Memory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .133 Task 4D-1 Identifying an EISA Expansion Card . . . . . 144 O Plug and Play. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 N O T Contents ix C O PY Topic 4A What is a Bus? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .139 Plug and Play Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 The ISA Bus . . . . . . . . . 152 Task 5C-2 Identifying Pins that are Necessary for a Connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Task 5B-1 Working with PS/2 Ports . . . . . . . .150 Task 5C-1 Configuring Serial Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 Task 4C-1 Replacing a 16-bit Expansion Card . . AND CABLES -D Topic 4H Video Circuitry Buses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Lesson Review 3 . . . . . . 157 L LESSON 5: PORTS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Micro Channel Architecture Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Serial Ports . 138 The PCI Bus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 EV Topic 5B Topic 5C A Topic 5A Overview of Input/Output Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Task 4A-1 Identifying the Physical Components of a Bus . . . . . . 133 The EISA Bus . . . . . . . . . .136 Task 4E-1 Identifying a Micro Channel Architecture Expansion Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Plug and Play BIOS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Task 5A-2 Comparing Data Transmission Types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Task 4G-1 Reviewing Plug and Play . . . . . . . . . . .146 Task 5A-1 Examining Ports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Lesson Review 4 . . . . . . . . . . . 121 CONTENTS LESSON 4: BUS ARCHITECTURES Topic 4B Topic 4C Topic 4D Topic 4E Topic 4F Topic 4G The 8-bit Bus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONNECTORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . 181 SCSI-III . . . . . . . . . . . 185 PIO Mode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Lesson Review 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Task 5F-1 Connecting FireWire Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 N O T C O LESSON 6: EXPANSION BOARDS PY FireWire Ports . . . . . . . 195 Sound Cards . 167 Topic 6A L A EV x A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Drive Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 LBA and ECHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 SCSI-II . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Ultra DMA (UDMA). 202 Configuring a Remote Access Connection Through Dial-up Networking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Installing Hard Drive Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Low Voltage Differential (LVD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Topic 5D Topic 5E Topic 5F Parallel Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 O Video Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 INT13 Extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Task 6D-2 Configuring a Modem in Windows 9x. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 IRQs and I/O Addresses. . . . . 160 Universal Serial Bus Ports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 EIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 ESDI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .176 ST-506/ST-412. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .197 Task 6D-1 Replacing an Internal Modem . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Topic 6B Topic 6C Topic 6D Modem Cards . . . . . 202 Task 6D-3 Configuring a Dial-up Networking Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Lesson Review 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Task 6A-1 Discussing Drive Controllers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .195 Task 6C-1 Replacing a Sound Card . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .157 Task 5D-1 Identifying Parallel Port Modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Task 6A-2 Installing a SCSI Controller . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 SCSI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 IDE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Task 5E-1 Connecting USB Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .192 Task 6B-1 Examining Video Displays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Interface Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 CONTENTS Topic 7B Topic 7C EV Topic 8B Primary Output Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 Task 7A-2 Replacing an IDE Hard-disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . 225 Task 7B-2 Replacing an IDE CD-ROM Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Installing SCSI Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252 L LESSON 8: PERIPHERAL DEVICES -D Backup Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Lesson Review 7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Troubleshooting Ultra DMA Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 Task 8B-2 Identifying the Phases of the EP Print Process . . 232 Backup Types. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Task 7C-1 Discussing Backup Strategies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227 Task 7B-3 Installing an IDE Drive as a Slave . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .238 Keyboard Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Storage . . . . . . . . . 238 Task 8A-1 Checking the Keyboard . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 Removable Media Disk Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resolution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 Backup Types and Their Backup and Restore Time Requirements . . . .LESSON 7: STORAGE SYSTEMS Topic 7A Fixed Disk Drives . . . . . . 227 Other Removable Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Rotation Method and Backup Types . 224 CD-ROM Drives . . . . . . . . . . . . .252 CRT-based Monitors . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Ultra DMA Drives . 221 Troubleshooting SCSI Hard Drives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 Printers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 O N O T C O PY . 232 Rotation Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .208 Task 7A-1 Examining Fixed Disk Drive Characteristics . . . . 244 Task 8A-2 Cleaning the Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .229 Backup Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Mouse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Task 7A-4 Installing a SCSI Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Procedural Backup Policy . . . . . . . . . 252 Task 8B-1 Configuring a Monitor’s Color Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Contents xi A Topic 8A Primary Input Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Refresh Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Task 7A-3 Enabling DMA Support in Windows 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .222 Task 7B-1 Replacing a Floppy-disk Drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212 IDE and EIDE Drives . . . . . . 216 Troubleshooting IDE Hard Drives . . . . . . . . . . . .

288 LESSON 9: PORTABLE COMPUTING Topic 9A Topic 9B Topic 9C PC Cards . . . 330 Infrared Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Network Architecture Standards . 348 Topic 10C Network Connectivity . 308 LESSON 10: NETWORKING L EV A xii A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Topic 10B Introduction to the OSI Model . . . 278 Task 8B-3 Connecting and Adding a Local Printer with the Add Printer Wizard . . . . . . . . 361 Half Duplex and Full Duplex Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . 312 Lesson Review 9 . . . . 353 Network Media. . . . . . . . . . . . .305 Task 9B-1 Identifying PC Card Characteristics and Uses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331 N O Power Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Task 9A-2 Reviewing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362 O Topic 10A Network Concepts . . . . . . . . . .CONTENTS Connecting Printers. . . . . . . . . . . . 353 Task 10C-2 Identifying Network Cabling . . . . . . . 287 Lesson Review 8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .281 Task 8C-1 Identifying the Function of Various Peripheral Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Topic 8C Other Input/Output Devices . . . . . . . . 326 Task 10A-3 Comparing Fault Tolerance of Different Network Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316 Network Terminology. . . . . . . . . . . .332 Task 10B-1 Identifying the Role of Each Layer in the OSI Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304 O PY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Network Models . .348 Task 10C-1 Identifying the Purpose of Common Connection Devices . 312 T C Components of Portable Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359 Task 10C-3 Installing a Network Interface Card . . . . . . . . . .308 Task 9C-1 Identifying Battery Power Characteristics . . . . . 325 Network Topologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343 Task 10B-2 Identifying IEEE 802 Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321 Task 10A-2 Comparing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Network Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303 Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316 Task 10A-1 Identifying Operating System Applicability. . . 359 Network Adapters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .292 Task 9A-1 Comparing Portable and Desktop Computers . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363 Task 10C-4 Installing the TCP/IP Protocol and Assigning an IP Address . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 Lesson Review 10 . . .Network Protocols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367 Task 10C-5 Identifying Common Network Problems .382 PY APPENDIX A: CUSTOMER SATISFACTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 366 Common Network Problems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409 EV A L -D O N Contents xiii O T C O Importance of Customer Satisfaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .389 Index. . . .371 Communication Skills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368 CONTENTS Glossary . . . . . .376 Service Calls . .

EV xiv A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

INTRODUCTION Welcome to the Element K Content training team.or software-related. Our corporate heritage is based in training. -D Course Objectives O • N O Course Prerequisites T About This Course xv A+ Certification: Core Hardware is a hands-on instruction book that helps prepare you for CompTIA’s A+ Core Hardware exam #220-201. A Identify safety procedures. In fact. L Diagnose and troubleshoot system problems and determine whether they’re hardware. C ABOUT THIS COURSE O PY . environmental hazards. Differentiate between effective and ineffective behaviors related to customer satisfaction. To ensure your success. Our goal is to provide you with the best computer training available and we know exactly what that takes. we use our Student Manuals every day. types of memory. ABOUT THIS COURSE We designed A+ Certification: Core Hardware for the student who has a basic knowledge and experience with PCs and who wants to pursue a career as a computer service technician. so you can be confident that the material has been tested and proven to be effective. you’ll be able to: • • • • • • • • Identify proper procedures for installing and configuring system components and devices. Identify the unique components of portable systems. and preventative maintenance techniques. we recommend you first take the following Element K courses or have equivalent knowledge: • Hard Disk Management for DOS 6.22 Introduction to Personal Computers Using Windows 98 When you’re done working your way through this book. If you have any suggestions on how we can improve our products or services. in classes just like yours. Define the print process and identify procedures for servicing printers. bus architectures. please contact us. EV Identify popular motherboards. Define basic networking concepts and configure a computer to function on a network. and the purpose of CMOS.

— PS/2-style Enhanced-101 keyboard. • Optionally. — 4 GB SCSI internal hard-disk drive (not pre-installed). — Computer technician’s toolkit. you can have one or more printers available for demonstration purposes during teaching time. — 32 MB of RAM. C O PY • A pre-assembled Intel-based microcomputer which students will disassemble and reassemble during the course—one for the instructor and one for each student in the class. connectors. Optionally. — 4 GB internal IDE hard-disk drive. — Blank floppy disk. O — AGP video adapter.S. You will also need at least one research workstation. — 56K 3COM (U. — 3COM 3C905B 10/100 PCI network adapter. Robotics) ISA internal modem. — Pentium II or Pentium III using Slot 1 architecture. • • — Pentium or better. disk drives. — Isopropyl alcohol and cotton swabs. preferably one for each student or pair of students. cables. — Windows 98 Second Edition (full version) installed on each PC.44 MB floppy-disk drive. — PC-compatible speaker set. the instructor should have an assortment of computer components including RAM. you will need: — ATX mid-tower case with ATX power supply. — Digital multimeter. The system should meet the following requirements as closely as possible: . — PC-compatible microphone. which is capable of running Windows 98. — IDE internal Zip disk drive. — Soundblaster 16-bit sound card. T — SCSI host adapter with bootable BIOS (not pre-installed). — ATX-style motherboard using the Intel 440BX chipset. interface cards.ABOUT THIS COURSE COURSE SETUP INFORMATION Hardware and Software Requirements To run this course. L A EV xvi A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D — PS/2-style Microsoft mouse. and adapters to show the class throughout the teaching time. or second CD-ROM drive (not pre-installed). O N — 24x internal IDE CD-ROM drive. — 1. — A portable computer for demonstration purposes. SuperDisk drive.

skills you acquire in one lesson are used and developed in subsequent lessons. For this reason. a review tool. Install Windows 98 Second Edition on each PC using the Typical Settings option. As a Reference You can use the Concepts sections in this book as a first source for definitions of terms. Network the PCs using a 10/100 Base T hub and Category 5 cabling. 1. This saves you typing time and allows you to concentrate on the technique at hand.— 32 MB of RAM or better. About This Course xvii A L -D O Each lesson covers one broad topic or set of related topics. You can use this book as a learning guide. 3. You get to try out each new skill on a specially prepared sample file. and supporting background information. background information on given topics. you should work through the lessons in sequence. perform the procedures described below. and activities allow you to apply this theory to practical hands-on examples. ABOUT THIS COURSE Class Requirements In order for the class to run properly. illustrations that give you feedback at crucial steps. this book provides you with the foundation and structure to learn A+ Certification: Core Hardware quickly and easily. we encourage you to spend some time reviewing the book’s more challenging topics and activities. Configure each PC for networking as follows: • Install Client for Microsoft Networks. Through the use of sample files. Topics provide the theory you need to master A+ Certification: Core Hardware. N O HOW TO USE THIS BOOK T C O PY . — 500 MB or larger drive. Lessons are arranged in order of increasing proficiency with A+ Certification: Core Hardware. Install NetBEUI. As a Learning Guide We organized each lesson into explanatory topics and step-by-step activities. Enable a live connection to the Internet. 2. EV As a Review Tool Any method of instruction is only as effective as the time and effort you are willing to invest in it. and summaries of procedures. hands-on activities. For this reason. • 4. — Internet access. and a reference.

EV xviii A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

tape. CD-ROMs. relatively inexpensive computers designed for an individual user. binary. This lesson reviews the development of personal computers. Describe the functions of software and firmware as they relate to hardware. lists the components that make up personal computers.Introduction to Microcomputers Overview Microcomputers are small. O N To gain a basic understanding of the development and function of personal computers. Programs are organized lists of instructions that determine the behavior of a computer. Programs may be stored on many media. A good collection of software and hardware tools (kept ready to use) will make your life much easier. 1D EV 1E A This topic introduces vocabulary and ideas you need to master future lessons. Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 1 L -D 1B Investigate the mathematical basis for number systems and how to convert values between decimal. including floppy disks. and ROMs. hard disks. Identify the hardware and software tools needed to service and maintain a microcomputer. 1C Identify the basic system components and describe the function of each. Computers deal only with numbers. LESSON 1 Data Files none 1A Identify key persons and key technologies that contributed to the development of the modern-day personal computer. and organizes the tools you will need to maintain computers. you will: O Objectives T C O Lesson Time 4 hours PY . you must understand how they store and process numerical information. and hexadecimal systems. so to begin to understand computers. Today’s personal computers have more memory. more disk space and faster processing capabilities than the giant mainframes of a few years ago. introduces the number systems used by computers. Knowing the history of computers will help you appreciate the current situation and prepare you for the future. describes programs that control computers.

Europeans learned the written form of math used by the Arabs and wrote down multiplication tables to help merchants.D. C The abacus is usually listed as the first mechanical computation device. L -D The written number for zero appeared around 650 A. Skilled users could outperform early electronic computers. the Scotsman John Napier designed a set of rectangular rods with numbers etched on them that let the users do multiplication by adding the numbers on properly positioned rods. Created 2.D. During the 1100s. However.Topic 1A A Brief History of Computers Early Mechanical Computers Mechanical Computers An Abacus Figure 1-1: An abacus. certain advances were so outstanding that they have become part of the folklore of computer history. The position of the beads represents a number. Few historians can agree on who was the “first inventor” or what was the “first machine” in any number of categories. Today’s mature engineers can still remember using slide rules in their college days.000 or more years ago in India or the Far East. A Persian scholar wrote the first textbook on algebra in 830 A. O PY The history of computational devices is full of uncertainties. EV 2 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Napier’s Bones: In 1617. Five hundred years later. John Napier. The use of logarithms on Napier’s Bones in 1617 led to the development of the slide rule. . carved a set of multiplication tables on ivory sticks that could slide back and forth to indicate certain results. a Scotsman. in India and made written calculations much easier. an abacus consists of columns of beads that can slide up and down on rods that are held together in a frame. O N O T abacus: An early calculating instrument that uses sliding beads in columns that are divided in two by a center bar.

Difference Engine: Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine No. In 1832. Odhner improved on the Arithmometer. improved on Pascal’s design to create a Stepped Reckoner that could do addition. Babbage’s Difference Engine PY The Frenchman Blaise Pascal is usually given credit for the first calculating machine. In 1642. a German. Gottfried von Leibniz. developed in 1642 by French mathematician Blaise Pascal. Although the 12. subtraction. The engine could store results for use later. designed calculating machines before Pascal.N L -D O EV Figure 1-2: Babbage’s Difference Engine. A Frenchman. the parts that were completed functioned perfectly. established the industry of manufacturing calculating machines when he started production of the Arithmometer. and look up values in tables and call on standard subroutines. a German mathematician. Leonardo da Vinci and Wilhelm Schickard. 1 was the first successful automatic calculator. O Punched cards first appeared in 1801. Lady Ada Augusta Lovelace worked with Babbage on his machine. A Swedish inventor. and division.000 parts were never assembled into a finished engine. . Pascaline machine: A calculating machine that could add and subtract. Only two prototypes were produced. T A Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 3 O Arithmometer: Charles Xavier Thomas of Colmar. not just a prototype or description. created an Arithmometer in 1820 that was produced in large numbers for the next century. Gottfried von Leibniz. Analytical Engine: Charles Babbage’s vision of a mechanical calculator that would follow programmed instructions to perform any mathematical operations. Charles Babbage was working on a Difference Engine when he realized Jacquard’s punched cards could be used in computations. Willgodt T. and his calculating mechanism was used by dozens of companies in the calculating machines they produced. to help his father—a tax collector—with his work. multiplication. but Pascal receives the recognition because he produced fifty models of his Pascaline machine. introduced the idea of memory for storing results and the idea of printed output. that improved Pascal’s design to include multiplication and division. She became the first computer programmer when she wrote out a series of instructions for his Analytical Engine. the machine Babbage designed but never manufactured. His drawings described a general-purpose. or Thomas de Colmar. France. automatic mechanical digital computer. Joseph Marie Jacquard used the holes placed in the card to control the patterns woven into cloth by power looms. The Analytical Engine. In 1673. Pascal invented a machine with eight metal dials that could be turned to add and subtract numbers. Thomas de Colmar. C Stepped Reckoner: A mechanical calculator developed by the German. fully program-controlled.

electromechanical calculator that combined 78 adding machines to perform three calculations per second. and installed at Harvard in 1944. Grace Hopper worked at Harvard on the Mark I. and divide. Aiken developed the Harvard Mark I—also known as the IBM automatic sequence-controlled calculator (ASCC).Punched cards were used in the United States census of 1890. most people describe the Mark I as the first modern (but not electronic) digital computer. II. The Mark I was made out of mechanical switches. subtract. and a dataprocessing machine by Herman Hollerith tabulated the census results in only two and one-half years—much less than the predicted ten years. memory. and clutches totalling 750. Punched cards provided input. Howard H. which used electrical contacts to detect the pattern of holes in each card. TASK 1A-1: 1. C O Identifying Contributions to the Development of Mechanical Computers PY . Processed census data using punched cards. 4 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O O T c. b. eventually became IBM. Also. d a John Napier Blaise Pascal a. Designed a mechanical calculator that could add. and III. causing it to malfunction. electronic computers took on national importance. multiply. The calculations needed to develop the atomic bomb also required more calculating power than was available before the war. electrical relays. Programming instructions were fed to the Mark I on paper tape. With the beginning of World War II. rotating shafts. It was designed by Howard Aiken. Between 1939 and 1944. d. e. b e Gottfried von Leibniz Herman Hollerith c Charles Babbage N Electronic Computers Development of Electronic Computers (2 slides) EV Mark I: A programmable.000 components weighing 5 tons. The accurate calculation of projectile trajectories became a life-anddeath concern for the military. and discovered the first computer “bug” when she removed a moth that had flown into a mechanical relay. The company Hollerith founded to manufacture his card-operated data processors. Developed the first digital calculating machine that could add and subtract. and output on an unlimited scale for business calculating machines for the next 50 years. built by IBM. Match the inventor on the left with his contribution on the right. during the war. Konrad Zuse was working secretly on his Z3 computer in Germany. and data was fed in on paper punched cards. Because so little was known about the Z3 for so long. Designed the Difference Engine and the Analytical Engine Developed a series of rods that let users do multiplication by adding numbers.

The computer used magnetic tape to store data. worked with the EckertMauchly Computer Corporation to develop UNIVAC. It was the first commercial computer in the United States and could handle both numerical and alphabetical information. a major change from IBM’s punched cards. In 1939. O O T A L -D C Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 5 O ENIAC: Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer was developed for the U.Vacuum Tubes Dr. Remington Rand Inc. After a lecture. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. was 1. Presper Eckert were at the University of Pennsylvania in 1942 when they built ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) to aid the United States military during World War II. Starting in 1951. Dr.S. had 500. ENIAC was programmed by plugging in cords and setting thousands of switches to direct how 18.000 times faster than the Mark I. John Vincent Atanasoff was an associate professor at Iowa State College when he designed an electronic digital computer (EDC) that would use base two (binary) numbers.000 crystal diodes. and had to be rewired to change its program. . UNIVAC: The Universal Automatic Computer was completed in 1951 by Eckert and Mauchly for the U. Army by J. and introduced many other features that are common today. N Figure 1-3: Vacuum tubes. with his assistant Clifford Berry. John W. ENIAC was used from 1946 to 1955. Eckert and Mauchly also designed the EDVAC (Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer). and because of its reliability.000 hand-soldered connections. he built the world’s first electronic digital computer using vacuum tubes. Mauchly and J.000 vacuum tubes would perform 5. 46 UNIVAC I computers were made for the government and business.S. Programming ENIAC PY vacuum tube: A sealed glass or metal container that controls a flow of electrons through a vacuum.000 calculations per second.000 vacuum tubes and 10.000 vacuum tubes. Bureau of the Census. Vacuum Tubes EV Dr. the first commercially successful computer. which contained 4. After their success with ENIAC. ENIAC used 18. Eckert and Mauchly proposed to build a UNIVAC (Universal Automatic Computer) machine to help the Census Bureau handle all its data. although some experts at the time thought that five computers would be enough to handle all the computational needs of the world. After four years of delays and cost overruns. is commonly accepted as the first successful high-speed electronic digital computer. Mauchly asked to see Atanasoff’s computer and later used so many of Atanasoff’s ideas in the ENIAC that it took a lawsuit to declare that Atanasoff was the first to use vacuum tubes in an electronic digital computer.

Transistors performed the same function but were the size of a pencil eraser. and Eckert and Mauchly’s EDVAC were among the first to use von Neumann’s ideas.25 MHz clock rate. and were extremely reliable. or feeding in another paper tape to meet different conditions. and unreliable. and a 2. He also recommended storing both the data and instructions in memory so both could be changed as needed. UNIVAC set the standard for computers in the 1950s. O EDSAC: The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer was a well-engineered machine built by Maurice Wilkes and colleagues at the University of Cambridge Mathematics Lab in 1949 and was a productive tool for mathematicians. Army photo). were large (several inches high). He realized that physically rewiring a computer to change the program. The EDSAC (Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer) at Cambridge University. Vacuum tubes. EV transistor: A device containing semiconductor material that can amplify a signal or open and close a circuit. N O T C O PY . Dr. Von Neumann recommended that a computer program should be able to stop under certain conditions and start again at another point.S.Figure 1-4: Programming ENIAC (U. Combining von Neumann’s stored program concept with a 1. printer and typewriter output. generated almost no heat. red-hot to touch. magnetic tape for secondary memory.000-word main memory. which were used to control the flow of electricity in digital computer circuits. but he is credited with the theoretical work that all modern computers are based on. EDVAC: The Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was the first computer to use stored programs. John von Neumann did not design the electronics in computers. In computers. 6 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Transistors L -D Transistors and Magnetic Memory The progress of electronic computing was limited by technology. was not practical for successful highspeed computing. England. William Shockley worked at Bell Telephone Laboratories as co-head of a solid-state research group that developed the transistor. transistors function as an electronic switch. The replacement of vacuum tubes with transistors opened up new possibilities.

Fairchild and Texas Instruments were massproducing integrated circuits on a single chip.” the first integrated circuit was fabricated in 1958 by Texas Instruments inventor Jack Kilby. N O Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 7 O Integrated Circuit integrated circuit: Now usually called just a “chip. while the United States worked on making smaller.000 to 64. the huge mainframes increased their memory from 8. The Micromosaic was an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC). PY . The transistors could be connected into specific circuits for an application using computer-aided design. where a series of programs and data was stored on magnetic drums and fed to the computer one after the other so no computing time was wasted. more powerful computers that fit into the smaller rockets they had. Combining the computational capability made available through transistors with expanded magnetic core memory gave computers so much power that they had to be used in new ways to justify the cost. The millions spent on research to miniaturize computer components used in the space race produced the technology needed for current computers. The complex rockets demanded sophisticated computers to control them. T C magnetic core memory: Memory that stores binary data (0 or 1) in the orientation of magnetic charges in ferrite cores about 1/16th-inch diameter. The Soviet Union concentrated on designing bigger rockets to carry larger computers into space. which allowed information to be stored in the magnetic orientation of tiny magnetic rings strung together on fine wire. but combining several transistors and the resistors needed to connect them on a single semiconductor chip in an integrated circuit was even better. which contained a few hundred transistors. Fairchild introduced the Micromosaic. Some mainframes used batch processing. the United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to see who would be first in space. A L Integrated Circuits -D At this time. In 1958.Figure 1-5: Transistors. Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments made several components on a single-piece semiconductor. O Another important innovation was magnetic core memory. Other computers used time sharing. EV Transistors were great. where the computing power was shifted among several different programs running at the same time so no power was wasted waiting for an individual program’s results to print or for more input to arrive.000 words. By 1961. In 1967. Using magnetic core memory.

T C O PY . which contained approximately 3.Figure 1-6: Integrated circuit.000 operations per second. EV 8 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O 8008: Introduced by Intel in 1972.300 transistors and was the first microprocessor to be supported by a high-level language compiler called PL/M. Marcian “Ted” Hoff at Intel designed a general-purpose integrated circuit that could be used in calculators as well as other devices. The 8080 was an 8-bit device which contained around 4. Hand-held calculators. A microprocessor is the heart and brains of a personal computer. A major breakthrough occurred in 1974 when Intel presented the 8080. in 1972. Computers that could make use of this memory were still monsters to maintain. on the other hand. N O RAM: Random Access Memory integrated circuit is a chip that functions as the computer’s primary temporary storage place for data. and Zilog (Z80).500 transistors and could perform 200. the 8008. personal desktop computers became a possibility. As more chips appeared and the prices dropped. Other companies besides Intel designed and produced microprocessors in the mid-1970s. the first general-purpose microprocessor. appealed to everyone from scientists to school kids. including Motorola (6800). the 8008 was the first microprocessor to be supported by a high-level language compiler. while Intel announced the first 1024-bit dynamic RAM. Intel introduced. Rockwell (6502). Using ideas from this circuit. The 8080 microprocessor had a single chip that contained an entire programmable computing device on it. In 1970. Fairchild introduced the first 256-bit static RAM. microprocessor: A complete central processing unit on a single chip.

and color output. 4 KB of RAM. company and modified the Apple I to create the Apple II (with a 6502 microprocessor). Both kits were strictly for computer fanatics. The Commodore PET (6502) and Radio Shack’s TRS-80 (Z80) were also popular. Steve Wozniak and Steve Jobs formed the Apple Computer Inc.000 systems were sold in 1975. In 1977. Apple broke from the pack and produced the Macintosh computer with a mouse and graphical user interface that opened the computer world to artists and publishers. and the software development industry took off. More than 2. contained 256 bytes of RAM. made microcomputers attractive to businesses. a spreadsheet program for the Apple II. demand appeared for wordprocessing applications. Credit for the first popular personal computer often goes to Ed Roberts whose company. only the IBM PC and Apple Macintosh have withstood the test of time. MOS Technology announced its 6502-based KIM-1 microcomputer. single-user desktop.Personal Computers About a dozen computers claim to be the first PC (personal computer). C O PY . computers that can function independently. and usually have some version of Windows as an operating system. In 1979. Dozens of other models and companies followed IBM’s lead. PC used to refer to any personal computer. designed a computer called the Altair 8800 and marketed a kit for about $400 in 1974. came with 16 KB of ROM. Bill Gates and Paul Allen founded Microsoft and wrote a BASIC interpreter for the Altair. and Sphere Corporation introduced its Sphere 1 kit. the Apple II cost $1. a keyboard. The Apple II is usually listed as the first personal computer that was available for the general public. As more businesses bought Apples. In 1976. The Altair 8800 used Intel’s 8080 microprocessor. VisiCalc. but in 1984. IBM joined the party with its first PC. MITS. In 1975. EV A In 1975. In 1981. use Intel or compatible chips. L -D O N O Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 9 T PC: Personal computers are stand-alone. An Early PC Figure 1-7: An early PC.300. Of all the computers designed during this period. PCs are sometimes called IBM Compatibles. or smaller. and was programmed by means of a panel of toggle switches. but now refers to personal computers that follow the original design by IBM.

a can that will hold exactly 100 marbles.TASK 1A-2: Identifying Key Technologies in the Development of Electronic Computers 1. and cups of marbles are stored in a large jar as quickly as possible. you would write down 237. 1000 grams are equal to one kilogram. describe its contribution to the development of electronic computers. which you can fill up only two times. one meter is the same length as 100 centimeters. Your report on the number of marbles might be zero pails. but $98. smaller. O PY . but the following approach will introduce ideas helpful in understanding other number systems. You know 10 pennies are equal to one dime. This report will make little sense to people who do not know the number of marbles that can fit into the pail. You pour the remaining marbles into the cup. but the last three do not use decimal notation. You could fill the cup over and over until you run out of marbles. and cup. If you counted the number of marbles in a jar. and seven left over. O N Numbering Systems O Topic 1B T C Eliminated the need to manually wire a machine and set switches for each different program that was to be executed.98 is a good price for a CD. you put all the marbles in the pail. All four answers are right. not CCXXXVII like an ancient Roman. Replaced vacuum tubes to make electronic computers faster. You will start by counting marbles. and that $11. You pour the marbles from the pail into the can. but that takes too long.11 is not. To learn more about other number systems. you will review what you already know about your own decimal number system. A table can make things clearer. two cans. three cups. You are asked to report how many pails. There are many correct ways to complete this task. To save time. The Decimal Number System Imagine this: You are given a large pail that will hold exactly 1000 marbles. There are seven marbles left in the bottom of the pail. Allowed an entire computing device to reside on a single chip whose function could be controlled by programmed instructions. cans. Technology Vacuum Tubes Transistors Integrated Circuits Microprocessors Contribution EV 10 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Counting Marbles in the Decimal System L -D You have used the decimal number system all your life. which is only partly filled. which you can fill three times. and not ED or 1110 1101 like a modern computer. and a small cup that holds only 10 marbles. can. Allowed multiple transistors to exist on the same base material and connected transistors without using wires. For each technology shown in the following table. and more efficient.

The third place tells how many hundreds or 102 or 10*10 you counted. and the fourth place tells how many thousands or 103 or 10*10*10 you had. and the 2 in the third place from the right tells how many hundreds of marbles you had. the answer must be 237 base 10. and seven individual marbles in the jar. 1000/ 1000=1 is the same as 103 /103=103–3=100=1. Knowing you had 0*1000 plus 2*100 plus 3*10 plus 7 marbles.Number In Container Times Filled 1. PY . but now you are also working with computers that use other number systems. but it could be shorter. This report leaves no room for misunderstanding. Another way of expressing one using exponents is 100. Follow these examples if you are unsure. For a computer. the 3 in the second place from the right tells how many tens of marble you had. 101. the computer could then translate the value into its own number system. 102. The digit in the first place on the right tells how many individuals (ones) you had. the place value of the digits are 100. Exponential Notation 0*100 1*100 2*100 3*100 4*100 5*100 6*100 7*100 8*100 9*100 1*101+ 0*100 1*101+ 1*100 1*101+ 2*100 1*101+ 3*100 1*101+ 4*100 1*101+ 5*100 1*101+ 6*100 N O 0=0 1=1 2=2 3=3 4=4 5=5 6=6 7=7 8=8 9=9 10+0=10 10+1=11 10+2=12 10+3=13 10+4=14 10+5=15 10+6=16 A computer would analyze your report this way: Base 10 tells the computer that the place value of each digit in your number is based on some power of 10. 103.” and is much clearer to the computer than 2 X 100. and so on. Going from right to left. 237 would be fine. The second place from the right tells how many tens or 101 you had. 1000/100=10 is the same as 103 /102=103–2=101=10. Any number raised to the power of zero is one. T 100equals 1. n0=1 Items To Count | || ||| |||| ||||| |||||| ||||||| |||||||| ||||||||| |||||||||| ||||||||||+| ||||||||||+|| ||||||||||+||| ||||||||||+|||| ||||||||||+||||| ||||||||||+|||||| Result 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 O Decimal Equivalent EV A L -D Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 11 C O Using the number in a container as a place value. two hundreds. The number 237 could be written as 2*102+3*101+7*100. you could say that you counted no thousands. Stating that 237 marbles were in the jar is just as precise if everyone agrees that the 7 on the right tells how many individual marbles you had. three tens.000 (103) 0 100 (102) 2 10 (101) 3 1 (100) 7 Exponential notation is just an extension of this idea. The following table is a summary of base 10 information. The asterisk (*) is the computer’s way of saying “times. Why? Division in exponential notation involves subtracting exponents. 104. If you only dealt with humans. for example. Along the same line.

leaving 109 marbles. 128. 16. so it is not filled. 4.Items To Count ||||||||||+|||||| | ||||||||||+|||||| || ||||||||||+|||||| ||| ||||||||||+|||||| |||| ||||||||||+|||||| ||||+| Result 17 18 19 20 21 Exponential Notation 1*10 + 7*10 1 0 Decimal Equivalent 10+7=17 10+8=18 10+9=19 20+0=20 20+1=21 1*101+ 8*100 1*101+ 9*100 2*101+ 0*100 2*101+ 1*100 TASK 1B-1: 1. computers use the binary number system (base 2). Because there are only two ways to represent a number. so you move down the row to the cup that holds 64. but it will fill the 32 cup. Understanding the Decimal Number System Express each decimal number in exponential notation. Imagine this: You are given the same jar of 237 marbles to count. Modern digital computers recognize only two electrical states—ON and OFF— but their memories contain millions of transistors that can be either on or off. The next cup is filled and takes 128 marbles from the total. Because there are so many cups. cannot fill the 2 cup.672 A L EV Counting Marbles in the Binary System 12 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The Binary Number System Computers are electronic devices that use electrical patterns to represent numbers. This will not fill the 64 cup again. and 2 marbles. which you fill. and have 1 marble left over. so you fill the 8 cup. Working with numbers in computers is like making numbers out of a row of lights that can be switched on and off independently. leaving you 5 marbles. You can’t fill the 128 cup a second time. 64. O N O Exponential Notation 7*100 4*101 + 3*100 4*102 + 6*101 + 5*100 8*103 + 6*102 + 7*101 + 2*100 T C O PY . The same concepts that you know work for the decimal system also work for the binary system. Decimal Number 7 43 465 8. You fill the 4 cup. The largest cup holds 256 marbles. it is easiest to report your results in a table. leaving you 13 marbles. leaving 45. but this time you have a series of measuring cups that can hold 256. 8. You don’t have enough to fill the 32 or the 16 cup. 32.

so follow along. Using exponential notation. 128/128=1 is the same as 27 /27=27-7 =20=1. Along the same line. This is an important idea. .Number In Cup Times Filled 256 (28) 0 128 (27) 1 64 (26) 1 32 (25) 1 16 (24) 0 8 (23) 1 4 2 (22) (21) 1 0 1 (20) 1 Items To Count | || ||+| |||| ||||+| ||||+|| ||||+||+| |||||||| ||||||||+| ||||||||+|| ||||||||+||+| ||||||||+|||| ||||||||+||||+| ||||||||+||||+| | ||||||||+||||+| |+| |||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||| +| |||||||||||||||| +|| |||||||||||||||| +||+| |||||||||||||||| +|||| |||||||||||||||| +||||+| Result 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111 1 0000 Decimal Value 0*1=0 1*1=1 1*2+0*1=2 1*2+1*1=3 1*4+0*2+0*1=4 1*4+0*2+1*1=5 1*4+1*2+0*1=6 1*4+1*2+1*1=7 1*8+0*4+0*2+0*1=8 1*8+0*4+0*2+1*1=9 1*8+0*4+1*2+0*1=10 1*8+0*4+1*2+1*1=11 1*8+1*4+0*2+0*1=12 1*8+1*4+0*2+1*1=13 1*8+1*4+1*2+0*1=14 1*8+1*4+1*2+1*1=15 1*16+0*8+0*4+0*2+0*1=16 1*16+0*8+0*4+0*2+1*1=17 1*16+0*8+0*4+1*2+0*1=18 1*16+0*8+0*4+1*2+1*1=19 1*16+0*8+1*4+0*2+0*1=20 1*16+0*8+1*4+0*2+1*1=21 1 0001 1 0010 1 0011 1 0100 1 0101 0*2 1*20 1*21 + 0*20 1*21+ 1*20 1*22 + 0*21 + 0*20 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 1*22 + 1*21 + 0*20 1*22 + 1*21+ 1*20 1*23 + 0*22 + 0*21 + 0*20 1*23 + 0*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 1*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 0*20 1*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 1*20 1*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 0*20 1*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 1*23 + 1*22 + 1*21 + 0*20 1*23 + 1*22 + 1*21 + 1*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 + 0*21 + 0*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 0*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 0*22 + 1*21 + 1*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 0*20 1*24 + 0*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*10 0 EV A L -D O N O T Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 13 C O Exponential Notation 20 equals 1. A human would have to look at the table and figure you counted 1*128 + 1*64 + 1*32 + 1*8 + 1*4 + 1*1 marbles or 237 (base 10) marbles. but would be crystal clear to a computer. 256/32=8 is the same as 28 /25=28-5=23=8. the same result would be: 1*27 + 1*26 + 1*25 + 1*23 + 1*22 + 1*20 marbles or 237 (base 10) marbles. PY A report that you counted 1110 1101 (base 2) marbles would make little sense to most humans. Any number raised to the power of zero is one.

If the result is positive. For example. to convert 213 (base 10) into a binary number (base 2). enter the place values for the binary number system—(1. put in 20 or 1. In the second row. In the top right-most column. Other techniques for converting numbers work just as well. If the result is negative. convert the binary number 1101 0101 back to decimal. and place the remainder of the subtraction in the second row of the next column.. look at the following table where 1010 0010 (base 2) is equal to 128 + 32 + 2 = 162 (base 10). In the third row. In the third column.) going from right to left until you reach a power of 2 that is bigger than the decimal number. 14 A+ Certification: Core Hardware PY 2 1 1 2 0 The process of converting binary (base 2) numbers you get from the computer into decimal (base 10) numbers for yourself is much easier if you make a table. 8. try to subtract the place value for a column from the decimal number. place 22 or 4. copy the decimal number (place value) above it into the third row. 2 1–2<1 1 1–1=0 0 1 2 0 0 1 1 1 . Add up all the numbers in the third row and you will have the decimal equivalent of the binary number. and continue until you have a column for every digit in the binary number. put a 1 in the third row of that column. Notice that to convert from binary to decimal. Place Value Binary Number Decimal Value EV 128 1 128 64 1 64 32 0 0 16 1 16 8 0 0 4 1 4 The binary number 1101 0101 (base 2) is equal to 128 + 64 + 16 + 4 + 1 = 213 (base 10). fourth column 23 or 8. to convert 1010 0010 (base 2) to its decimal value (base 10). Keep subtracting binary place values from the decimal number until there is no remainder. Place Value O 128 N 64 O 32 21–32<1 0 1 T 16 21–16=5 C 8 5–8<1 4 5–4=1 -D Decimal 213– Number/ 128=85 Decimal Remainder Binary 1 Number 85– 64=21 1 0 1 L A To check your work. we subtract values. where 213 (base 10) is equal to 1101 0101 (base 2). Place the binary number in the second row. place 21 or 2. 2. if the binary digit in the column is 1. and to convert from decimal to binary. Your answer checks. we are adding values. For example. 4. enter the decimal number in the left-most column. If the binary number is 0. leave that cell in the third row blank.. but this one is the most direct. In the top row. put a 0 in the third row of that column and copy the same number over into the second row of the next column. look at the example in this table. The values you subtracted from the decimal number until you had nothing left should add up to equal the original decimal number.Binary Number Decimal Value 1 128 0 1 32 0 O 0 0 Place Value 128 64 32 16 8 4 Converting decimal to binary uses a similar table. Working from left to right. In the second column from the right.

The letter A (base 16) is equal to 10 (base 10). Your report on the number of marbles might be zero pails.TASK 1B-2: Understanding the Binary Number System 1. Binary Number 1 10 101 1101 Exponential Notation 1*2 1*21 + 0*20 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 1*23 + 1*22 + 0*21 + 1*20 0 Decimal Value 1*1=1 1*2 + 0*1 = 2 1*4 + 0*2 + 1*1 = 5 1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2 + 1*1 = 13 2. D (base 16) = 13 (base 10). O The Hexadecimal Number System N L Counting Marbles in the Hexadecimal System EV Number In Container Times Filled 256 (162) 0 16 (161) 14 Now the trouble starts. E (base 16) = 14 (base10) and F (base 16) = 15 (base 10). Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 15 O 1 (160) 13 101 = 4 + 1 = 5 0100 1000 = 64 + 8 = 72 1 0001 1011 = 256 + 16 + 8 + 2 + 1 = 283 1 0000 0000 0000 = 212 = 4096 T Binary Equivalent C O PY . but easier to read and understand. 14 cans. the can 41 times. The hexadecimal system (base 16) is the solution. You don’t have enough marbles to fill the pail. A table can make things clearer. you could report you counted ED (base 16) marbles. -D The hexadecimal system is a compromise by the computer world for humans. Binary numbers tend to be very long and.096 A Imagine this: You are given the same jar of 237 marbles to count. Humans need a way to communicate with the computer in a number system related to the binary system. with only 0s and 1s. Convert each decimal number to its binary equivalent and check your work. and 13 left over. the letter B (base 16) is equal to 11 (base 10). and have three left over? Computers do not like any doubt in the numbers they are given. Reporting 1413 (base16) is too confusing. but you can fill the can 14 times and have 13 marbles left in the bottom of the pail. Did you fill the pail one time. so another way of writing hexadecimal values greater than 9 was agreed on. Express each binary number in exponential notation and compute its decimal value. C (base 16) = 12 (base 10). Decimal Number 5 72 283 4. tend to all look alike. Using this notation. but this time you have a large pail that will hold exactly 256 marbles and a can that will hold exactly 16 marbles. This report will make little sense to people who do not know the number of marbles that can fit into the pail and can.

and continue until you have a column for every digit in the hexadecimal number. In the third row. Add all the numbers in the third row. and write the product in the third row. In the third column. These numbers are the place values for the hexadecimal digits.096. put 161 or 16.960 T 256 4 4*256=1. take a look at the illustration in the following table. put in 160 or 1.Using exponential notation.960 + 1. For example.096 O A 10*4096=40. A4 B6 (base 16) is equal to 40. fourth column 163 or 4. Place Value Hexadecimal Number Decimal Value O N 4. In the top right-most column. place 162 or 256.166 (base 10). and you will have the decimal equivalent of the hexadecimal number. the same result would be: E*161 + D*160 = 14* 16 + 13 = 224 + 13 marbles or 237 (base 10) marbles. multiply the hexadecimal digit in the second row times the place value of the column in the first row. Place the hexadecimal number in the second row. Items To Count | || ||| |||| ||||| |||||| ||||||| |||||||| ||||||||| |||||||||| ||||||||||| |||||||||||| ||||||||||||| |||||||||||||| ||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||| |||||||||||||||| +| |||||||||||||||| +|| |||||||||||||||| +||| |||||||||||||||| +|||| |||||||||||||||| +||||| Result 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F 10 11 12 13 14 15 Exponential Notation 0*16 1*160 2*160 3*160 4*160 5*160 6*160 7*160 8*160 9*160 A*160 B*160 C*160 D*160 E*160 F*160 1*161 + 0*160 1*161 + 1*160 1*161 + 2*160 1*161 + 3*160 1*161 + 4*160 1*161 + 5*160 0 Decimal Value 0 1=1 2=2 3=3 4=4 5=5 6=6 7=7 8=8 9=9 A=10 B=11 C=12 D=13 E=14 F=15 16+0=16 16+1=17 16+2=18 16+3=19 16+4=20 16+5=21 EV A L -D The process of converting hexadecimal (base 16) numbers from the computer into decimal (base 10) numbers for yourself is much easier if you make a table.024 + 176 + 6 = 42. to convert A4 B6 (base 16) to its decimal value (base 10). In the second column from the right.024 C 16 O 1 6 6*1=6 B 11*16=176 16 A+ Certification: Core Hardware PY .

.304 + 0 + 12 = 59.316 E 256 2. Exponential Notation 12*160 = 12 1*161 + 10*160 = 16 + 10 = 26 3*162 + 13*161 + 15*160 = 768 + 208 + 15 = 991 14*163 + 9*162 + 11*161 + 2*160=57. 4.096. If the result is greater than 1. but this one is the most direct. This is shown in the following table. convert the hexadecimal number E90C back to decimal.096=E (14) rem.344 256 9 9*256=2. In the second row.660 (base 10). put the number of times the place value went into the decimal number in row three of that column.) going from right to left until you reach a power of 16 that is bigger than the decimal number. 256.304 16 TASK 1B-3: 1. look at the example in the following table where 59. and to convert from decimal to hexadecimal. In the top row. Working from left to right. If the result is less than 1. Place that remainder into the 1s column. Notice that to convert from hexadecimal to decimal.660 (base 10) is equal to E90C (base 16). O N 0 0*16=0 O 1 T C 12*1=12 Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 17 C O Converting decimal to hexadecimal uses a similar table.660/4. you are multiplying values. Hexadecimal Number A Express each hexadecimal number in exponential notation and calculate the decimal value. put a 0 in the row three of the column and copy the same number over into row two of the next column to the right.304 +176 + 2 = 59.826 EV C 1A 3DF E9B2 L Understanding the Hexadecimal Number System -D The hexadecimal number E90C (base 16) is equal to 57.344 + 2.344 + 2. 16. to convert 59.316/256=9 rem. Your answer checks.660 (base 10) into a hexadecimal number (base 16). and place the remainder of the division into row two of the next column to the right. For example. enter the decimal number in the left-most column. 12 9 16 12/16<1 0 1 12/1=C (12) C To check your work. Place Value Hexadecimal Number Decimal Value 4096 E 14*4096=57. 2. PY . Keep dividing hexadecimal place values into the remaining decimal number until the remainder is less than 16. you divide values..Place Value Decimal Number/Decimal Remainder Hexadecimal Number 4096 59. enter the place values for the hexadecimal number system—(1. try to divide the place value for a column into the decimal number. Other techniques for converting numbers work just as well.

EV A kilobyte: A means of measuring file or disk size.024. K is used as shorthand for 210. Understanding Kilobytes. T C Many of the values you see on your computer screen are based on numbers converted from the binary number system to decimal or hexadecimal numbers.416 Bits and Bytes and Nibbles bit: A single binary digit having a value of 0 or 1. Convert each decimal number to its hexadecimal equivalent and check your answer.5 KB in the Properties dialog box. equivalent to 1. Most computers work with groups of 8 bits.200 bytes.096 bytes.5 * 1024 bytes = 68. which is called a byte. N O A bit is a single binary digit. which equals 1. called nibbles. Those numbers may have seemed rather odd before. One byte may hold binary numbers ranging in value from 0000 0000 (base 2) to 1111 1111 (base 2). To make it easier to read. or 1.800 KB or 209.024 KB. or you are limited to 256 choices. Megabytes. but this is not totally accurate. when they are written. In computer terms. but 220 bytes.000 bytes. or 1.328 + 80 + 8 = 3. the maximum value is 255 because the computer wants to store the value in a single byte. a kilobyte is 1. and a switch or transistor that is on represents a 1. A file listed as having a size of 67 KB may show a more accurate size of 66. 18 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D A kilobyte is often referred to as 1.024 bytes. or 68. In a computer. a switch or transistor that is off represents a 0. but with your new knowledge of number theory. A bit may have a value of 0 or 1. the 8 binary digits in a byte are divided into two groups of four. The file hasn’t changed size (66. Counting 0 as a value. or from 0 (base 10) to 255 (base 10). you will be able to explain where the numbers came from. Figure 1-8: Examples of disk capacities. and Gigabytes nibble: A group of 4 bits. Abbreviated as KB.000. Decimal Number 8 57 166 3.024 KB. Abbreviated as MB.096 bytes).715.048.024 bytes. L megabyte: A means of measuring file or disk size. An 8-bit byte is written as 2 nibbles to make it easier to read.416 Hexadecimal Equivalent 8 39 = 3*16 + 9 = 48 + 9 = 57 A6 = 10*16 + 6 = 160 + 6 = 166 D58 = 13*256 + 5*16 + 8 = 3. O byte: A group of 8 bits. equivalent to 1. O Exploring Computer Values PY .2.576 bytes. A megabyte is not exactly 1. A 200 MB drive can store 204.5 KB = 66. For many computer variables.000 bytes. one byte can contain 256 values.

472 bytes thrown in for free. System Components Every make and model of PC has a slightly different layout for its components.400 KB of free space. How many different values can you store in a binary number that is 16 bits long? What is the maximum value you can store? N Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 19 Binary (base 2)? Hexadecimal (base 16)? Octal (base 8)? 1111 1111 1111 F FF 7 777 O What is the value of 4. but the computer states you don’t have enough room. Your file is 33 KB larger than the disk can handle. but 230 bytes or 1.221.A gigabyte is not 1 billion bytes. A quick check of the math shows the drive maker was misleading but numerically accurate. concentrate on the big picture of general computer organization so you can adapt to different situations with a variety of computers.824 bytes. resistors. To make it easier to grasp how a computer works.472 bytes.536 different values.4 MB is really 1. One drive maker even promoted his drive as much better than other 3 gigabyte drives because on his drive you had room to store 3 billion bytes.535 (base 10) for a total of 65. the pieces are grouped together into components. O 3.4 MB file on a disk with 1. Open the Windows calculator in the Accessories program group. Rather than trying to memorize details of one system. You try to save a 1. Enter 4095 as a decimal number. and other pieces that all work together to run your computer programs.024 MB. equivalent to 1. Topic 1C EV Computers are made up of thousands of electronic chips. 2. What is going on? 1. Abbreviated as GB.095 (base 10) in: T C O PY . 3 GB is the same as 3.225. Select Scientific from the View menu if you need to.4*1024 KB or 1433 KB. The components are the major building blocks of your PC. TASK 1B-4: Applying Number Skills 1. Computer Interior A L Microcomputer System Components and Their Functions -D Sixteen bits can range from 0000 0000 0000 0000 to 1111 1111 1111 1111 or from 0 (base 10) to 65.073. diodes.741. plus room for another 221. capacitors.225. gigabyte: A means of measuring file or disk size.

new chip comes out. the cost of the board is kept down. Sometimes computer makers who sell complete systems find it is cheaper to build a system board with the modem. the designers build in flexibility that most users appreciate. The buyers of these complete systems get a low price but give up the freedom of easily upgrading and customizing the computer. and all other features built-in. The chips that control the flow of information to and from the CPU are usually soldered to the system board and are not replaceable. System Board L The system board is the main circuit board in a microcomputer. the slots. The system board is the principal printed circuit board in a computer. that will not change much in the near future. Because features that are built into the design of the system board cannot be changed without replacing the whole system board. most system boards include only the standard features that most users want.Figure 1-9: Computer interior. and basic controllers for the system. the computer memory. or CPU. the system board has some electrical components soldered directly to it. Usually the microprocessor. but the network and modem connections are usually on interface cards that are easily inserted and removed from slots on the system board. The wires that connect the soldered components. EV 20 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D O N O T C O PY . By allowing the users to buy the modem with the speed and features they want. and slots and sockets where components can be added and removed easily. The jacks where you plug in the mouse and keyboard are usually soldered to the system board. By leaving off features that many users do not use. and letting the users attach the card to the motherboard. video. and the sockets are all permanently built into the system board. rather than add interface cards to a standard system board. It is a very thin plate which has chips and other electrical components on it that make up the CPU (Central Processing Unit). like SCSI and network connections. Sometimes called the motherboard. is on a large chip that is held in a socket on the motherboard so you can upgrade the chip when a compatible. sound card.

they all come with certain standard features. A smaller Baby AT board. and executes the instructions. sometimes called just the processor or the CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the real brains of the computer where most of the calculations take place. The CPU must be mounted on a card which is inserted into a special slot on the ATX board. The third area sends the results back out to the rest of the computer. the system board usually has slots that hold cards full of memory chips. the standards for these features change over time. Processor -D The microprocessor. The ATX board design took into account the need to cool the CPU and memory chips. T chipset: The set of chips on the system board that support the CPU and other basic functions.6 inches long. A L Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 21 O PY Because system boards must be replaceable. rather than having the chips soldered directly to the board. decodes. For example. . and the kind of chip set that is on the board. At that point. and the need to move highspeed components as close together as possible to reduce errors as the extremely high-speed signals move across the system board. became popular after 1989 when the demand for small computers increased. When buying or working on a computer. rather than inserted into a socket on the system board. 9 inches wide by 10 inches long. You can increase the memory of your computer by replacing the memory cards with cards with more capacity. The original motherboard design was the AT. O N C Microprocessor in Zero Insertion Force Socket EV Figure 1-10: Microprocessor in Zero Insertion Force socket. Every few years. a completely new style of memory card will appear that will not fit into the old-style slots. you must know the general design of the system board. New processor chips required a redesigned system board. the first of which retrieves programmed instructions from the computer’s memory. System boards are often described by their general physical characteristics. the CPU may consist of many chips mounted on a series of printed circuit boards. which was 12 inches wide. This system board was 12 inches wide by 9. the make and model of the processor on the board. On very large computers. and in 1996 the ATX design was introduced. or its chipset. you either need to buy a new system board or miss out on the advantages of the new-style memory cards. the CPU is housed in a single microprocessor chip. The second area is the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU) that does the math operations when needed.O Another way to classify system boards is by the set of chips on the board that support the CPU. Unfortunately. The microprocessor is divided into areas. while the Baby ATX was about an inch shorter in both width and length. though. but on personal computers.

Many companies make microprocessors for IBM-compatible personal computers (PCs). Other models followed over the years. The original IBM PCs were based on Intel’s 8086 CPU. O N O T C O PY . the 386. some people refer to those PCs as Wintel. Memory chips contain millions of transistors etched on one sliver of a semiconductor. the popularity of the combination is overwhelming. Memory refers to the internal storage areas in the computer. Intel Inside. it used a name it could trademark. Because Intel microprocessors and the Windows operating system are found together on so many machines. Typical RAM Chip A L EV 22 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 1-11: Typical RAM chip. for its 586 processor and Pentium Pro for its 686 equivalent processor. and not the information stored on tape or hard drives. however. Cyrix and AMD are two of the companies that make Intel-compatible chips that are often less expensive than Intel and sometimes offer better performance. Pentium. Each of these processors came in a variety of configurations. including 80286 (commonly called the 286). These transistors either conduct electricity and represent the binary number 1. Because Intel couldn’t own the name 486 for a processor. Memory memory: Internal storage areas of the computer. In common usage. and the 486. memory refers to actual chips that keep track of computer data. or don’t conduct electricity and represent the binary number 0. Many of the microprocessors come in different varieties that run at various clock rates. but Intel CPUs are the ones against which the other companies’ CPUs are compared and rated. Even though other operating systems can run on Intel processors. New Intel chips can run all the programs written for earlier models. and some Windows operating systems run on non-Intel chips. is a selling point used by many computer manufacturers. but old processors cannot run programs that make use of the special features found only in the newer processors.

The computer will remember to look for the drive each time it is turned on.CMOS RAM is special memory that has its own battery to help it keep track of its data even when the power is turned off. SIMM: Short for Single In-line Memory Module. Pentium processors require a 64-bit path. RAM memory requires a constant source of electricity to keep track of the data it is storing. DRAM: Short for Dynamic RAM. A group of memory chips that transfer information 64 bits at a time. ROM: A special type of memory that is permanent. printed circuit board that you inserted into a slot on the system board of your computer. are generally on an interface card. DRAM must be refreshed thousands of times per second. you added more memory by filling empty sockets on the motherboard with more memory chips. so you must add either two SIMMs at a time or one DIMM to a Pentium computer. so ROM is read-only memory. SIMMs transfer information 32 bits at a time. which are constantly improving. . small. but both forms of RAM are volatile. SRAM (Static RAM) does not need to be refreshed. so the computer has random access to the data in RAM memory. A type of RAM that needs to be refreshed. More importantly. DIMM: Short for Dual In-line Memory Module. Modems. modem. O T In the early personal computers. CMOS memory stores information about the computer setup that the computer refers to each time it is turned on. like the mouse port and keyboard port. Any byte of data can be accessed without disturbing other data. RAM forgets everything. RAM memory is described as volatile memory. Interface Card PY RAM (Random Access Memory) is the main memory. Because you can write new information to CMOS RAM. interface card: A means of connecting devices to the system board so that they can communicate with the microprocessor. the computer cannot change any of the data stored on the ROM. Sometimes the actual connector is on a printed circuit card that adapts the signals to and from the attached device so it can communicate with the computer. or mouse. Because of this. SRAM: Short for Static RAM. It stores programs necessary to boot the computer and to diagnose problems. If the electricity is cut off. A SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) made adding memory easier because all the chips were soldered to a single. you can store information about new disk drives that you add to your system. The computer can both read the data stored in RAM memory and write different data into the same RAM memory. ROM also allows the computer random access to data in its memory. A group of memory chips that transfer information 32 bits at a time. but more expensive. Sometimes the interface connection is built into the system board. SRAM is faster. than DRAM. DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is the most common type of RAM. Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 23 O ROM (Read-Only Memory) refers to special permanent memory used to store programs that boot the computer and perform diagnostics. C Interfaces O N -D An interface on a computer is a place where you can connect another device like a disk drive. A type of RAM that doesn’t need to be refreshed. A L EV Figure 1-12: Interface card. while DIMMs (Dual In-line Memory Modules) transfer data 64 bits at a time. CMOS RAM: A special type of memory that stores information about the computer’s setup. keyboard.

The ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) bus connects to ISA slots that accept only ISA cards. and PCI. The ISA slots were used on early IBM computers and became the industry standard. and the rules that describe how data should be transferred through the connection. Examples include ISA. . is called a bus. The collection of wires that make the connection. and the rules that describe how the data should flow through the wires.Primary System Components Identifying System Components 1. Expansion Slots d Processor b System Board a Built-in Ports e Memory c Identify the system components in the following illustration: EV 24 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O TASK 1C-1: PY bus: The collection of wires that connect an interface card and the microprocessor. As computers became faster. they needed buses that could transfer more data. than the ISA bus could handle. The PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) local bus solved this problem. more quickly. Most computers have a combination of ISA and PCI slots on the system board. Interface cards are inserted into a slot on the system board that connects to the microprocessor. although only new PCI cards could be used in the PCI slots on the system board. EISA.

C O Software Floppy Disks PY Software is a set of electronic instructions for the computer that tell the hardware how to process data. assembler. which is hardware. As usual. Cobol. which is software. The line between software and hardware is fuzzy when a computer program. . L -D O N Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 25 O T When you buy a program like MS Office. the program must be translated into machine language before it can be used. Software is written in computer languages like Visual BASIC. the disks it comes on are considered hardware. As a compromise. is permanently stored in the electronic circuits of a computer chip. but the program code stored on the disk is software. Figure 1-13: Floppy disks. This translation is also done by software in the machine.Topic 1D Software and Firmware software: A set of electronic instructions for processing data. programs on chips are called firmware. EV A Software is divided into two categories that sometimes overlap—system software and application software. C++. experts will disagree on the details. but the following sections give you a good way to think about software. Unless the program is written in a machine language that the microprocessor can understand. Software that performs a particular task is called a program. and machine language.

Paradox • • • • • • • • • • Word processing—Microsoft Word. Operating systems like Windows and the Mac OS are GUIs (graphical user interfaces). In a GUI. Harvard Graphics. dBASE. IBM OS/2. and controls peripheral devices such as disk drives. Examples of popular operating systems include Windows 2000. The applications communicate with the computer through the operating system. . C OS: An operating system is a type of system software that provides the basic interface between the user and the computer components. and provide security for their work. sends output to the display screen. and Windows programs will not run on a pure Linux machine. and printers. Windows NT. Milestones. Operating systems have one to two types of interfaces for interacting with users. Newer versions of Windows are complete operating systems that bypass DOS. DOS. For example. Illustrator Contact manager—ACT Authoring programs—Macromedia Director. Applications like word processing and graphics programs are written for specific operating systems. because it is the master control program that determines what the computer will do and how it will do it.System Software System software is the low-level program that interacts with the computer at a very basic level. it recognizes input from the keyboard and mouse. not make and model of each computer. For this reason. and more than one application to run on the computer at a time. graphics creation. CD-ROM drives. An OS (operating system) is a type of system software found on every personal computer. Multi-user operating systems keep users from interfering with each other. CorelDraw. Quark. The operating system is the most important software that runs on the computer. Publisher Project management—Microsoft Project. O PY system software: Low-level programs that provide the most basic functionality. The operating system does all the hardware communication for the application. Lotus 1-2-3. which actually still had complete control of the computer. Corel WordPerfect Spreadsheet—Microsoft Excel. Macintosh OS. UNIX. Visual Basic Games and education—Flight Simulator. such as operating systems. Microsoft Powerpoint Communications and email—Microsoft Outlook. A EV Application Software 26 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Application Software Application software is a program designed to help the end-user accomplish a task. keeps track of files and directories on the disk. An application sits on top of the operating system and uses the operating system to communicate with the computer hardware. Reader Rabbit O application software: High-level programs that are written to run on specific operating systems and that provide specific functionality such as word processing. Macintosh programs cannot be run on a straight Windows machine. Operating systems like DOS and UNIX are command-driven interfaces where users type commands in by hand from the keyboard. FileMaker Pro. instead of typing text commands at the keyboard. click. Some operating systems allow more than one user to use the computer at a time. and drag graphics on the screen. Quattro Pro Presentation graphics—Astound. N O T Operating Systems Operating systems are a common base for application software. and Linux. A computer’s OS performs many functions. or database management. The early Windows programs were DOS programs that translated clicks into DOS commands that were sent to DOS. Delegator Graphics—PhotoShop. The following list shows some of the categories of application software and example applications: • Database management systems—Microsoft Access. Eudora Desktop publishing—PageMaker. L GUI: A graphical user interface is a means of communicating with an operating system by using a mouse or other device to work with pictorial screen elements. the user uses a mouse to point. Multi-user operating systems can also keep track of who uses the computer and determine which programs they can run and which data they can access.

FreeSpeech Driver Software Updating drivers is the solution to many computer problems. Sometimes several programs are bundled together and sold as a suite. writing a memo. There is no right or wrong way to categorize software.com/. the package is called integrated software. Examples of bundled programs are Microsoft Office and Corel WordPerfect Suite. Internet Explorer Anti-virus software—Norton. are sometimes listed separately from applications. Old drivers may not work correctly with new versions of the operating system. Voice Xpress. Internet sources for updated drivers include www. EV Identifying the Role of Software 1. New operating systems include thousands of drivers that let them work with all current. or any other peripheral. T C driver: Software that enables the operating system and a peripheral device to communicate with each other. When several applications are combined into a single program. printer. Peripherals that are designed after the operating system comes out have to supply their own drivers on a CD-ROM or floppy disk. Quicken. or maintaining a mailing list. developing a budget.• • • • • Web browser—Netscape Navigator. -D O Driver software is often called a device driver or just a driver. or else the device will not function with that operating system. or from sites that are dedicated to making drivers available. part of the installation process is setting up a driver and letting the operating system know to use the driver to make the peripheral function as needed.drivershq. Updated drivers can be downloaded from the peripheral vendor’s site on the Internet. Sometimes a new driver will add features and improve performance. Also referred to as device driver. A TASK 1D-1: L N O Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 27 O PY . disk drive. like Microsoft Works or ClarisWorks. Utilities that perform a function for the computer. QuickBooks. A driver is considered part of the system software by some experts. Corel Flow Speech recognition—IBM ViaVoice. popular devices. Sometimes drivers contain bugs that don’t affect performance until the right combination of events occurs. like disk compression or virus protection. Dragon NaturallySpeaking. Microsoft Money Flow charts and diagrams—Visio. A driver is a program that lets the operating system and a peripheral device talk to each other. When you install a new CD-ROM drive. Driver updates are free and usually come with installation instructions or programs that automatically install them. McAfee Accounting and business management—Peachtree. What role does application software play in the function of a microcomputer? Application software enables users to complete specific kinds of tasks—for example. and then the peripheral stops working. The driver takes generalized commands from the system software or application—like Print This Page—and translates them into unique programming commands that the device can understand. Computer languages may also be given their own software category.

so ROM chips are usually mass produced. a printer driver enables you to print your word-processing document. so if they become outdated. ROMs store the firmware that is essential for a computer to have access to when the power is first turned on. O N O firmware: Software stored in memory chips that retain data whether or not power to the computer is on. Firmware is software that is stored in memory chips that retain their data even when the power is turned off. Firmware is usually a small program that knows how to read a small part of the hard drive into memory. the whole chip must be replaced. Programs stored on a ROM chip cannot be changed. ROM is non-volatile because its contents stay unchanged even when the power is turned off. What role does driver software play in the function of a microcomputer? . not added later. ROM is memory that can be read but not changed. ROM As you learned earlier. The firmware in ROM is usually specific for the hardware on the system board. Firmware Typical ROM Chip L EV 28 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Figure 1-14: Typical ROM chip.2. and controlling peripheral devices. T C O PY 3. The program that the firmware reads into memory from the hard drive then instructs the computer on how to load the operating system. such as recognizing input from the keyboard. as well as several other types of chips. What role does operating system software play in the function of a microcomputer? Operating systems perform basic tasks. The program in the ROM chip is manufactured into the chip. Driver software enables the operating system and applications software to communicate with the hardware. which will not change. sending output to the display screen. Firmware can be stored in ROM (Read-Only Memory) chips. such as disk drives and printers. but use a slightly different technology to make them more economical to use if the firmware is needed in small quantities. for example. Usually the only programs stored in ROM are those that will not become outdated as long as you use the same system board. Other types of chips are non-volatile like ROMs. keeping track of files and directories on the disk.

the EEPROM is erased by using an electrical charge. Instead of using ultraviolet light like the EPROM. PY PROM: Stands for Programmable Read-Only Memory. A PROM chip is programmed by applying high voltages that permanently alter the circuits so they store the desired program. it acts like a regular ROM chip. it acts like a regular ROM chip. but that does not lose its content when electrical power is removed. The voltages are higher than those used in the computer. PROMs are used to test programs before the final ROM chip is designed and manufactured. L -D O EV Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 29 O EPROM: Stands for Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory.PROM PROM (Programmable Read-Only Memory) is a memory chip that can be programmed only once by a user who has access to the right equipment. O EEPROM T A EEPROM (Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) is a memory chip that can be recorded or erased electrically. the PROM chip behaves just like a ROM chip. When the EPROM is programmed. it behaves just like a ROM chip. After it’s programmed. When the chip is in use. so the program remains on the chip. . the EEPROM behaves just like a ROM chip. C N Figure 1-15: An EPROM memory chip. EPROM EPROM (Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) is a re-usable memory chip that can be programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light. Once it is programmed. The difference is that the ROM chips have the program etched into the silicon chip by the manufacturer. A re-usable memory chip that is programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light. the user can then store a different program on the same chip. it will erase the program. When the EEPROM is programmed. Once the EPROM is programmed. the crystal window is always covered to prevent unwanted ultraviolet light from destroying the program on it. However. A memory chip that is programmed and erased electrically. if ultraviolet light is shined through a crystal window over the silicon chip on the integrated circuit package. it acts like a regular ROM chip. An EPROM Memory Chip EEPROM: Stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. A memory chip that can be programmed once. while the PROM chip can have a program added later. Once it is programmed.

A memory chip that can be programmed only once. Most kits will contain the following items and cost under $20: • Straight-head screwdriver (large and small) • • • • • • • • Phillips-head screwdriver (large and small) Tweezers Chip extractor Torque driver Nut driver (large and small) Three-claw component holder Tube to hold screws and small parts Digital multimeter O N O T C O A memory chip whose contents can only be read. No matter what you need to repair. You can install a hard drive using just a screwdriver. on the other hand. and expense. Hardware Tools Hardware Tools L A Basic Toolkit EV 30 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The hardware tools you need depend on the type of repairs you will perform. A memory chip that can be programmed. PY . requires a set of specialized tools. Installing a network. and then programmed again.TASK 1D-2: Defining Terms Related to Read-only Memory 1. Topic 1E Tools of the Trade Having the right tool will save you time. Provide a concise definition for each of the following terms: Type of Read-Only Memory ROM PROM EPROM Definition 2. A good collection of software and hardware tools (kept ready to use) will make your life much easier. What is the purpose of the crystal window in the EPROM chip? High-intensity ultraviolet that is shined through the window clears the memory of the chip so that it may be programmed again. erased. you must make sure you do not inflict other damage to the computer during the process. trouble. Basic Toolkit You can purchase toolkits that contain the basic items you need for most computer work. while replacing a chip or broken contact on a circuit board requires a different set of tools. not written. but you won’t usually know what you need until you get to the site.

but these tools can make your life much easier if they are available when you really need them. but zap the microprocessor into oblivion during the process. install disk drives.The tools in a kit like this will help you get the cover off the computer. you should wear a grounded wrist strap so the electricity flows safely from your body to the earth. are needed to make and install network cables. To discharge static electricity from your body. no one will be pleased. can permanently destroy computer chips. The following tools prove useful in many situations: • Flashlight • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Small mirror Small dust brush Long-nosed pliers Wire cutters Chip inserter/pin straightener Cable ties Paper and pencil for notes Utility knife Scissors Hex wrench set Mini-vacuum cleaner Mini-hammer Adjustable wrench Sealable baggies Compressed air Additional Tools Network Toolkit L Specialized tools. but the prices vary widely depending on the quality of the tools. The ground mat discharges any static from the parts and prevents static from outside sources from hurting the parts. replace interface cards. and most other common chores. O N Many technicians survive very happily without all these tools. A large. EV A Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 31 C O PY . • Cable crimper with dies for a variety of cable styles • • • • • Wire stripper for flat and coax cable Precision wire cutters Curved forceps Multi-network LAN cable tester Digital multimeter -D Static electricity on your body. instead of through the computer. If you repair a broken network card. upgrade memory. in addition to those listed previously. Kits containing these tools are available. ground mat is needed if you remove parts from the computer and need to place them down somewhere. flat. O T ESD Kit Network Tools A Typical Technician’s Toolkit. that you cannot see or feel.

Work in this area requires these tools: • 30w ceramic solder iron • • • • • Desoldering pump Solder iron stand with sponge Solder Miniature pliers and wire cutters Heat sink EV 32 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Before you spend hundreds of dollars on tools. Sometimes an obviously loose connection can be fixed. wait until you know the type of work you will be expected to do and see what tools will be made available to you. not repaired.Figure 1-16: A typical technician’s toolkit. or a jack with a broken pin can be replaced. O • Desoldering braid N O T C O PY . Circuit Board Repair Kit Circuit Board Repair Kit Usually circuit boards are replaced.

repair software problems and optimize software settings. Name of Tool Answers will vary. Purpose of Tool Answers will vary. Search the Internet for sources of computer repair tools and kits. The disk must have the basic system files to get the computer up and running. repairs. Answers will vary. detect and remove un-needed programs and files. Windows comes with its own set of diagnostic tools which may detect problems. L -D The McAfee. C 2. N O Many companies produce software to diagnose and. Compare the prices and quality of the tools you find. protect your computer against system crashes and screen freezes. www. Answers will vary. Develop a list of hardware tools you and your lab partners feel are needed for basic computer maintenance.com/ provide a variety of tools and information. and even back up or clone entire systems. EV A All of these programs make the huge assumption that your computer is working well enough to run the software. if possible. Answers will vary.elexp. all the diagnostic software on the hard drive. Software Tools PY . Utilities will be covered in detail in later lessons. so you don’t need to load up your computer with resident software. If the computer will not start up or read from the hard drive.TASK 1E-1: Identifying Tools Needed for Servicing Microcomputers 1.com Clinic offers most of the same features over the Internet. CD-ROMs. Answers will vary. Most computer stores will have an aisle dedicated to utility software. T Software Tools Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 33 O If you prefer to send students directly to a site. The solution is to have a bootable floppy disk that will start the computer independently of the hard drive. and the Internet is useless.com/ and www. Again. O Norton SystemWorks includes software that detects. Answers will vary.tecratools. Other programs in the system detect and remove viruses. and prevents hardware and software problems. Answers will vary. the assumption is that the computer is working enough to boot from a floppy disk. The floppy disk can hold a basic set of diagnostic programs to help detect where the problem is.

Select the Startup Disk tab. O N O T C O PY 1. 3. 2.44 MB floppy disk into Drive A. insert the CD-ROM. 4. Click OK.44 MB floppy disk is available. insert a blank 1. . This process may take a few minutes. Click Create Disk. or locate the Windows 98 setup files on your C drive. Windows 2000 provides a wizard for creating an Emergency Repair Disk (ERD) in the Backup System Tools in the Accessory folder. Windows 98 starts creating the Startup Disk.TASK 1E-2: Creating a Windows 98 Startup Disk Setup: Windows 98 SE is already installed. and a blank 1. A L EV 34 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D When prompted. double-click on Add/Remove Programs. Click OK and close the Control Panel. If you’re prompted for the Windows 98 CD-ROM. In Control Panel.

What happens first during the boot-up process? You are presented with a menu that offers you a series of choices. leaving the floppy disk in the disk drive. N 7. Windows 98 startup problems list. O T Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 35 C O PY . 6. Remove the floppy disk and use [Ctrl][Alt][Delete] to reboot the system. real-mode CD-ROM drivers. Use the Down Arrow on the keyboard to highlight the second option to start the computer without CD-ROM support and press the [Enter] key. L -D What are some of the options found on the Windows 98 startup disk? O 8. EBD. and the machine boots into Windows. RAM drive. Restart your computer. Read the text that appears on the screen.TXT file that appears. When the A:\> prompt appears.CAB file. Review the README. What happens during the boot process? EV A The computer starts up using files from the hard disk. Use Windows Explorer or My Computer to view the files on the floppy disk. type HELP and press [Enter] as directed.5. 9. Multi-config start menu. and using the tools available on the startup disk section are new.

in the 1800s. 2. and interfaces? Answers will vary.Summary In this lesson. Finally. you identified key persons and key technologies that contributed to the development of the modern-day personal computer. you identified the hardware and software tools needed to service and maintain a microcomputer. and hexadecimal systems. Lesson Review L 1A How did the following individuals or inventions contribute to the development of computers? 1. Transistor 5. You identified the basic system components and described the function of each. Pascal 2. Transistor is a semiconductor device that controls the flow of electric current. microprocessor.000 vacuum tubes and was completed in 1946 at the University of Pennsylvania. As a check. You studied the function of software and firmware as they relate to hardware. first designed a Difference Engine to produce mathematical tables. binary. It used 18. but might include: The system board contains a socket or a slot for the microprocessor and slots for memory and interfaces. 3. memory. The system board provides the electrical connections for these components. Babbage 3. Microprocessor 1. EV A 36 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 1C What are the relationships among the system board. You also reviewed the mathematical basis for number systems and converted values between decimal. Babbage was an English inventor who. 5. and later designed the Analytical Engine as an all-purpose mechanical calculator. Microprocessor is a silicon chip that contains a CPU (Central Processing Unit) that is the heart of all personal computers. O N O T C O PY . Pascal constructed one of the first mechanical adding machines in France during the 1600s. 1101 1101 binary = 1*128 + 1*64 + 0*32 + 1*16 + 1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2 + 1 = 221 (base 10). 221 (base 10) = 1*128 + 1*64 + 0*32 + 1*16 + 1*8 + 1*4 + 0*2 + 1 = 1101 1101 binary. 1B Convert the decimal number 221 to binary and check your answer. Interfaces extend the capabilities of the computer system beyond those built into the system board. 4. ENIAC 4. ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer) was the first all-purpose electronic digital computer. Microprocessors contain tens of millions of microscopic transistors.

What disadvantages can you see in this approach? Answers will vary but might include: It was impossible to upgrade the operating system and diffıcult to add peripherals. so you need to obtain the right tools for the job. and you had no extra expense for software. New operating systems might require updated debugging software and rescue disks. The built-in software could not be upgraded. EV A L -D O N Lesson 1: Introduction to Microcomputers 37 O T C O PY .1D Several years ago. It was ready to use the second it was turned on. a manufacturer made a computer that had the operating system and applications on a ROM on the system board. 1E Why must a computer repair technician be aware of changes to computer design and updates to software? New computer designs might require special tools for removing components.

EV 38 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

Safety Overview Being a computer technician is a safe and rewarding job. and preventing you from doing more damage to the equipment you are trying to learn about and repair. Disposal of obsolete computer components must follow state and federal environmental regulations. and fire emergency procedures. Then you will explore static electricity and learn how to protect computer equipment from electrostatic discharges. you will deal with the disposal. You will discuss fire prevention. you will: 2A Discuss the fundamentals of electricity. First. You will learn the potential hazards of servicing PCs and then the potential hazards of using them. You will be able to suggest healthy modifications to work practices and environments. re-use. The health and safety of you and those around you are your first priority and your responsibility. In this topic. Next. you will learn the basics of electrical current circuits and how to measure them. and recycling of computer equipment. how to perform electrical measurements using a multimeter. and how to create an environment free of electrostatic discharge. but you must learn and follow safety guidelines to protect yourself and the equipment from avoidable damage. LESSON 2 Data Files none Because safe and healthy work habits play such an import role in your work. EV 2D A L -D O N O Objectives T Lesson 2: Safety 39 C O Lesson Time 2 hours PY . the following suggestions are made with the intent of keeping you alive and safe. Identify computer equipment disposal procedures that comply with environmental guidelines. Then you will review some fire emergency procedures. While many workplace rules and policies may seem arbitrary and pointless. fire extinguisher classifications. 2B Identify safety issues related to servicing microcomputers and using them for extended periods of time. you will investigate types of fire extinguishers and their extinguishing agents. In your profession. you will encounter computer users who have established some unhealthy work habits. reclamation. 2C Identify fire prevention practices.

Household electricity is enough to kill humans and completely destroy computers. Electricity is the flow of electrons through a material or through a vacuum. as well as cause damage to the components in the computer. speakers. while a positive voltage means the supply is drawing electrons in. The electronics in the computer usually have electric current in the milli-ampere (1/1. A negative voltage means the power supply is pushing electrons out. but you cannot bring the five volts down to three volts easily. You must understand electricity to understand how computers work and why they sometimes fail. for example. memory chips. This voltage level is usually harmless for humans. The voltage output from a power supply remains constant at -12 V. Current Amperes measure the electric current in a circuit. Electrons carry energy. and is used as a basis for measuring the other voltages.000 of an ampere) or micro-ampere (1/1. You can detect if a wire is connected to a +12 V or -5 V source. A standard computer power supply puts out several voltages in this range. so the flow of electricity is really the movement of energy. +5 volts. . and just about everything else. There are two major types of electric current: • The current in computers is direct current (DC). Voltage Voltage works like the push or force behind the flow of electricity. N electrons: Negatively charged subatomic particles that carry energy with them when they move from one place to another. Learning to handle electricity safely will make your computer work less stressful and more productive. so an increase in current means an increase in available energy. and an electric room heater might have a current of 10 amperes. the more electrons that flow past a given point in a second. 40 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Voltage is usually determined by the power supply and is not something under your control. and zero volts. so electrons always flow away from the output. Computers work with voltages in the range of 12 volts (V) and lower. +12 volts. LED lights.Topic 2A Basics of Electricity and Electronics Electrical Terms L A EV current: The amount of electricity moving through a conductive material such as a wire. O T C electricity: The flow of electrons through a material or through a vacuum. -5 volts. video monitors. O voltage: Electric potential or potential difference. A group of electrons from a high-voltage source has more energy and can do more work (and damage) than a similarly sized group of electrons from a low-voltage source. -12 volts. printers. The power supply in the computer converts the 120 volts from the electric outlet down to 12 volts or less for the computer. never toward it. Computer hardware is designed to distribute the correct electricity to exactly the right place at the right time. Electrons are negatively charged sub-atomic particles that carry energy with them when they move from one place to another. Current is measured in amperes (amps). Computer systems use electric energy to turn the cooling fan on and control the microprocessors. expressed in volts. Zero volts is referred to as neutral or ground. including. O PY Computers depend on electricity to function. disk drives.000 of an ampere) range. but this same electricity can pose a threat to your safety. the higher the current.000. A bright light bulb has a current of one ampere.

Power is the mathematical product of voltage and current and is measured in watts. higher voltages will produce higher currents. The total energy delivered can be spread over a long or short period of time. If the resistance remains the same. changing direction 120 times a second. Resistance is measured in ohms. You can calculate the power delivered by a flow of electrons by multiplying the voltage times the current. The power supply in a computer not only reduces the voltage of the electricity it receives from the wall outlet. Ohm’s Law states that you can compute resistance (R) in a circuit by dividing the voltage (V) by the current in amperes (I). Electrons zoom back and forth through the wires. Resistance is calculated by dividing the voltage by the current and is measured in ohms (Ω). A light bulb connected to 120 V that has 0. O N O Electrical power describes the energy delivered by a flow of electrons in one second. All three equations are the same law. but also changes it from alternating current to direct current. A switch is a variable resistor that has zero resistance in the ON position.5 amps flowing through it uses 60 watts of power. T C electrical power: The energy delivered by a flow of electrons. and infinite resistance in the OFF position. which is the case in most computer circuits. EV A L -D Resistance is the opposition to the flow of electric current through a material. A power supply rated at 500 W can deliver twice the electrical energy per second as a 250 W power supply. lower voltages will produce a lower current and the power goes down. The voltage in the wall outlet varies from +120 V to -120 V and back to +120 V sixty times a second. If the voltage source remains constant. and the power will go up. V=I*R. A volume control on a radio is a variable resistor that decreases in resistance as you turn the volume up so more current carrying more energy can get to the speaker and make more noise. higher resistances decrease current.• The current in a wall outlet is alternating current (AC). A low voltage pushing a small number of electrons delivers a small amount of total energy. resistance: The opposition to the flow of electric current through a material. Electricians use the Greek letter Omega (Ω) as a symbol for ohms. Electrical Power Resistance If resistance remains the same in a material. O Lesson 2: Safety 41 PY . Insulators like rubber and plastic have a very high resistance. Electric Energy The total amount of electric energy that a flow of electrons delivers depends on both voltage pushing the electrons and the total number of electrons that move by a point. but rewritten to make it easier to calculate one of the values. Conductors like copper and silver have very low resistance. and I=V/R. A high voltage pushing a high number of electrons supplies a great deal of energy. An LED connected to a 2 V source with a current of 10 milliampere uses 20 milli-watts of power. and lower resistances increase current. The product is power and is measured in watts (W). Ohm’s law may be written three ways: R=V/I.

In a computer. Certain elements in nature. O PY transistor: A device used to amplify a signal or open and close a circuit. If voltage is doubled and resistance is doubled. Millions of microscopic transistors with connecting conductors and resistors are made on a single silicon chip that is used in RAM and other integrated circuits found in the computer. Energy per second delivered by electric current. depending on a weak electrical signal sent to control it. will the current increase.Voltage V Volt Current A Ampere Applying Ohm’s Law Summary of Electrical Terms 1. or remain the same? Current will remain the same. will the current increase. such as silicon. Because the transistor can switch from a conductor to an insulator. A semiconductor is halfway between a conductor and an insulator. will the current increase. it is called a semiconductor. Opposition to the flow of electrons. Resistance Power Ω W Ohm Watt TASK 2A-1: T C Push behind electrons. O N O semiconductor: A solid-state substance that can be electrically altered. The transistor contains a semiconductor material that can change its electrical state when pulsed. If voltage is increased and resistance remains the same. perform like semiconductors when chemically combined with other elements. EV 42 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D 3. or bridge. A transistor is an electrically controlled switch that either conducts electricity or does not conduct electricity. Term Symbol Unit Measures . or remain the same? Current will decrease. or remain the same? Current will increase. decrease. decrease. decrease. Indication of the number of electrons per second flowing past a point. If voltage remains the same and resistance is increased. indicates the energy of the electrons. 2. it functions as an electronic switch.

that are plugged into two sockets on the meter. A L O Lesson 2: Safety 43 T O multimeter: Electronic test equipment that can perform multiple tasks. Digital Multimeter PY . Newer digital meters have a little screen that displays the numeric value of what you are measuring. Older meters have a thin needle that swings in an arc and points to a number that indicates the value of what you are measuring. It usually has two wires. -D O N Analog Multimeter EV Figure 2-2: Analog multimeter. Which socket you use will be determined by what you want to measure. current. and resistance.Measuring Electricity A multimeter is an electronic instrument used to measure voltage. current. C Figure 2-1: Digital multimeter. current gain of transistors. inductance. one red and one black. and resistance. Typically one capable of measuring voltage. More sophisticated modern digital multimeters also measure capacitance. and anything else that can be measured electronically.

This may be done by turning a large. A material with a high resistance will let very little current flow. If the meter is expecting to measure 2 V. the metal case is an electric ground. O N O If you are measuring direct current voltages. you need to adjust the meter to the approximate voltage you expect to find. In a computer. This step is usually more destructive than the results are useful.Measuring Voltage Voltage measurement indicates the difference in energy that electrons have between two places. The voltage the meter applies is small. You measure the resistances of cables and wires and connections. Resistance is measured most often to determine if the ends of a cable are making a good connection through the wire. Another place where voltage measurements are important is at the connectors that plug into disk and CD-ROM drives. or if a connection between a socket and the system board is good. the black wire goes to the source of the electrons in the current. If a wire has -5 V applied to it. These drives need the proper voltage to function. Resistance measurements tell if a wire has a break in it. and if a switch is really turning on and off. you would touch the red probe to the wire. not the resistances between pins on a chip. The black wire from the multimeter is usually connected to a ground. rotary switch. If a wire has a +5 V applied to it. or plugging the red probe into a special socket on the meter. and the red wire to the ground because the ground is absorbing the electrons. T C O PY . but even a small voltage can damage electronic chips. Some digital multimeters automatically make this adjustment for you. Measuring Resistance L A EV 44 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D A multimeter measures resistance by applying a small voltage to a material and seeing how much current flows through material. the voltage in the circuit may be enough to damage the multimeter. the components will not work correctly. Measuring Current Current is rarely measured because you have to break the circuit and place the meter between the two ends of the break. If you try to measure the resistance of a component in a live circuit. and the red wire goes to the destination for the electrons. and the black probe to ground (which has 0 V) because a positive voltage means the wire is drawing in electrons from the ground. the extra voltage can damage the components in the meter. It is better to overestimate the voltage and reduce the settings later than underestimate the voltage and destroy the meter. Many network problems are the result of poorly installed plugs on the ends of network cables. you would touch the black probe to the wire because it is the source of the electrons. while a material with low resistance will let more current flow. while a wire with a break in it will have more than 100. Higher-end digital meters automatically detect the range for you. A good conductor will have close to 0 Ω resistance. Electrons on a grounded material have zero voltage because there are no forces trying to push them off or pull them onto the grounded item. What to Measure The most common things to measure include the output voltage of the power supply. and resistance measurements determine if plugs are properly installed. Before you touch the red probe to anything. If the computer is not receiving the correct voltages from the power supply.000 Ω resistance. and you touch a 120 V source.

and then avoid them. Part of this task is to learn what those conditions are. Place the black probe in the center round contact and the red probe on the cover plate screw.TASK 2A-2: Testing a Wall Outlet Setup: The voltage in a wall outlet is enough to kill you under certain conditions. EV Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. thin slit and the red probe in the shorter. Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. measure the voltage between the center round contact and the contact behind the longer slit in the outlet. If the reading is not 0 V. 4. stop the task and consult with your instructor. the black wire (load) that connects to the short slit is hot (120 VAC). If you don’t feel comfortable performing this task. A L Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. The white wire (neutral) that connects to the long slit and the bare copper wire (ground) that connects to the round contact go back and join to a common ground in the circuit breaker box. 5. If the reading is not 0 V. The expected result is 120 VAC. N 1. but local conditions may cause variations. C Lesson 2: Safety 45 O PY . The cover screw is in direct electrical contact with the bare copper wire if the outlet is wired properly. thin slit. measure the voltage between the center round contact and the shorter slit in the outlet. thin slit. Place the black probe in the center round contact and the red probe in the shorter. You will use a multimeter with two insulated probes to measure the voltage in a wall outlet. Wall Outlet Wiring O 2. 3. Record your result and compare it to your lab partner’s. measure the voltage between the shorter slit and the longer slit in the outlet. make sure you follow all of the steps carefully to avoid injury. If you do perform the task. -D Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. If needed. thin slit. Trying to measure voltage this high with the wrong settings can permanently damage your meter. Place the black probe in the longer. Place the black probe in the center round contact and the red probe in the longer. simply review the steps. stop the task and consult with your instructor. measure the voltage between the screw that holds the plate covering the electric outlet in place and the center round contact. O T In the wall outlet wiring diagram. set the meter to read alternating current voltage (VAC) with a maximum reading above 120 V.

Static Electricity Static electricity causes terrible damage to computer parts. Understanding Static Electricity To control the damage done by an ESD (electrostatic discharge). 8. or arc. Styrofoam packing peanuts that stick to objects. 6. C The expected result is close to zero ohms. how it is created. through the air to another object that doesn’t repel them as much. Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. and the smallest distance you can hold the probes without having them make contact. measure the resistance between one inch of air. Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. Wet two fingers on one hand and place one of the probes on each finger so you are measuring the resistance between the two finger tips. If needed. O N The expected result is an infinite resistance for all measurements. but local conditions may cause variations. 46 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Results will vary with body chemistry. EV ESD: Electrostatic discharge is sparks (electrons) that jump from an electrically charged object to an approaching conductive object. and shocks when you touch a doorknob or groom a pet. measure the resistance when the two probes are in solid contact with each other. how it causes damage. thin slit is the only hot (120 VAC) contact in the outlet. adjust the reading to zero ohms on the most sensitive scale.000 V range. This high voltage commonly occurs when you walk across a rug and gather a huge number of electrons on your body that repel each other. The expected result is 120 VAC.Record your result and compare it to your lab partner’s. dust build-up on monitor screens. These include static cling in your clothes. The jumping electrons are the static electric spark you feel on dry winter days when you touch a doorknob. Lightning is the most visible form of ESD. 9. O PY . The shorter. you need to know what static electricity is. but static events on a smaller scale occur constantly. one-half inch of air. and how to eliminate it from the workplace. 7. O T Being very careful to touch only the insulated handles on the probes. Record your results and compare it to your lab partner’s. and less sensitive meters may not detect any resistance. When the electrons on your fingertip have enough other electrons repelling them. Place the black probe in the center round contact and the red probe on the screw. measure the resistance between the screw that holds the plate covering the electric outlet in place and the center round contact. but a measurable resistance should be detected. Record your results and compare it to your lab partner’s. A L static electricity: A stationary electrical charge that is the result of intentional charging or of friction in low-humidity environments. This shows that the human body is an electrical conductor. Air is an excellent insulator. they will jump. Record your result and compare it to your lab partner’s. and electricity will not flow through air unless there is a very high voltage in the 10. Air has a higher resistance than normal multimeters can detect.

computer technicians usually wear a conducting band around their wrist with a wire that goes from the band to a ground. why does a spark of 20. If they can possibly move from a negatively charged object to a positively charged object. Static electricity. the humidity of the air. harmless path for the static electricity that tries to build up on your body. To prevent the build-up of potentially damaging static electricity on their bodies. creating a negative charge on the object with extra electrons. Each electron in a static discharge has extremely high energy. Compared to the electric current in the wires in your home. Because transistors don’t grow back once they are destroyed by static electricity. and all the circuits that depended on them are useless. A ground connection is a location that can easily absorb all the extra electrons that may be gathering on your body. A transistor on an integrated circuit chip is microscopic in size. A ground connection provides a safe. and are attracted to the positively charged material. but they easily grow back. Electrons repel each other because they have the same charge.Creating Static Electricity EV The number of electrons transferred when triboelectric generation occurs depends on the type of materials that are rubbed together. or even to a less negatively charged object. they remain on the negatively charged object until they discover a path to escape from it. the electrons form static electricity. and the electric charges balance. Rubbing two surfaces together can transfer electrons from one material to another. and a positive charge on the object that is missing electrons. Anti-static materials naturally generate little static electricity. and the process of using friction to create the charge is triboelectric generation. All the energy of all the electrons in a spark added together cannot hurt you. or when they shuffle their feet across a thick rug and touch a friend to surprise them with a shock. or even pulled apart to separate them.000 V just startle you? The total energy carried by electricity depends on both the voltage and the number of electrons. and the texture of the materials. which has plenty of room for all the extra electrons you could ever scrape off a rug. even though it may surprise you. Even small amounts of static electricity that humans are insensitive to have enough energy to destroy chips in a computer. they will do so. Because they remain still. O C Lesson 2: Safety 47 O PY If 120 V can kill you. a tiny number of electrons is involved in a static electric spark. People intentionally use triboelectric generation to create an ESD event when they rub a balloon on their hair and then use the static charge to stick the balloon on the ceiling. A L -D Electrons have a negative charge. This imbalance of electrons is an electrostatic charge. they stay destroyed. how big their surfaces are. even though it won’t kill you. or electricity that does not move. A few cells in your fingertip may be wiped out. but the human body is just too big for the very small number of electrons involved in the spark to cause widespread damage. protons have a positive charge. N O T triboelectric generation: The use of friction between different materials to generate an electrostatic charge on the materials. and usually the number of protons and electrons in a material is equal. has enough energy to destroy the transistor. Usually a ground connection is connected to the earth. Once the electrons are transferred from one object to another. or are specially manufactured to avoid the creation of static electricity. .

A dissipative material allows electrons to flow through it. An object grounded to the earth has zero volts. the extra electrons cannot flow off the charged insulator. Electrically charged insulators can lose their extra electrons if they are absorbed by electrically charged ion molecules and atoms that move naturally through the air. and conductors have the least resistance. Touching a grounded dissipative object will discharge the extra electrons from your body slowly so the electron flow is spread over time and you don’t feel any shock. rather than all at once—the way a conductor would. so the path of least resistance to a low voltage would be a path through a conductor to a ground. Electrons can move off the negatively charged object all at once in a spark through the air. all the extra electrons will immediately flow through the circuit. A grounded dissipative object will lose its charge over a period of time. Below 3. walking across a floor and touching a grounded conductor will give you a shock because all the extra electrons flow off your body in a fraction of a second. you can use a device that generates extra ions in the air. but has enough resistance to electric current flow to keep the current low. Almost any material can conduct some electricity if the voltage is high enough.000 V. An insulator is a material like rubber that does not allow the flow of electrons through it. If there is no path for the excess electrons to escape from the conductor. The electrons cannot move through the insulator to get to the connection that leads to the ground. but can experience a latent failure after it has passed the initial quality control tests. Using the same reasoning. If there is no path for the excess electrons to escape from the insulator. For example. Dissipative materials are better to use near electrostatic-sensitive parts because they get rid of static charge using currents too small to damage chips. ESD is an invisible. If the spark is above 6. The programs try to reduce the initial EV 48 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N A conductor can build up an electrostatic charge. so the division between conductors and insulators is not razor-sharp. If the charged conductor is connected to a ground. A dissipative material falls between a good conductor and a good insulator. If the charged insulator is connected to a ground. you can still feel it.A conductor is a material like copper that lets electrons move freely through it. Electrons flow from high voltage to low voltage following the path of least resistance. The weakened chip will function for a while. Many companies have an ESD safety program to cut down on the losses and damage associated with ESD. Studies estimate that the cost of ESD damage in the electronics industry is $5 billion a year. but voltages as low as 10 V can destroy some chips. and sparks only occur when voltages are very high and no other path to the ground with lower resistance is available. Often the damage only weakens the chip. and if it is more than 3. Air will be a path only if the voltage is in the thousands of volts range. If the conductor is connected through an integrated circuit to the ground.000 V. To speed up the discharge of insulators.000 V. enemy of integrated circuits. they will remain on the conductor. humans cannot see or feel the discharge. the extra electrons can quickly flow off the charged conductor and be absorbed by the ground. This includes the cost of repairing or replacing the ESD-damaged equipment. an insulator can build up an electrostatic charge. Air has a very high resistance to electron flow. Air will be a path only if the voltage is in the thousands of volts range. These extra electrons may have enough energy to damage the microscopic electronics on the chip. you can see it. O T C Preventing ESD O PY . almost undetectable. The earth can absorb an unlimited number of electrons. they will remain on the insulator.

any electric charge they start to build up on their body will be conducted through the foot grounder to the grounded floor and carried safely away. Wood. Humans are conductors. Movable carts may drag a small chain that connects them to the grounded floor. and nylon should not be present in an ESD-safe workstation because they create static electricity more easily than other materials. plastic. If workers wear a foot-grounder on each foot. The floor can be made of a conductive material connected to a ground that will carry any charge safely away from sensitive parts. some build-up is unavoidable. so grounding them will remove their electric charges. Sensitive parts may be stored in bags that conduct electricity safely away from the part and shield it from ESD damage. In spite of efforts to avoid creating static charges. Keep a supply of dissipative anti-static bags available so you have a safe place to store parts while you are working on the A L -D O N Lesson 2: Safety 49 C O PY creation of static charges by eliminating unnecessary activities that create static charges. Many companies manufacture special mats for this purpose. The charges on conducting materials can be removed by connecting the conductor to a ground. Work surfaces in a workstation should be made of a dissipative material connected to a ground. and using anti-static materials. removing unnecessary materials that are known charge generators. O T ESD-safe Work Area EV Figure 2-3: Grounded work surface and floor mat with details of ground connection. the floor can be of anti-static material that does not contribute to the build-up of electric charges.Designing an ESD-safe Workstation Carts rolling across the floor and people walking from one computer repair workstation to another create electric charge through tribocharging. . To avoid the build-up of charges. so ion generators are set up to flood the air with charged particles that will neutralize the charge on insulators. Insulators will not lose their charge when grounded. Conductors in the workstation area should be covered with a dissipative material to prevent shocks and large currents. vinyl.

O N Figure 2-4: Anti-static wrist strap and foot strap. Contacts that are often used as grounds are a water pipe and the screw that holds the cover onto an electrical wall outlet. Which material would have the highest current. an insulator. you can also touch the power supply or chassis to discharge your body. Any extra electrons flow safely through the strap. while the insulator would have the lowest current. An ideal insulator would have no current. The power cord contains a wire that grounds the computer case and adds another safe path for electrostatic discharges. Anti-static Wrist Strap and Foot Strap Human beings are constantly moving and generating static electricity. Because clothing can generate static electricity. If you are not working on the power supply. Workers who handle static-sensitive equipment should wear wrist straps connected to a ground.computer. Foot straps that ground the user are also recommended as a way to discharge static electricity when the user is moving and cannot be connected to a permanent ground through the wrist strap. Compressed air is an ESD-safe method for clearing dust and small debris from static-sensitive equipment because it avoids rubbing materials together. and which would have the lowest current? The conductor would have the highest current. and a dissipative material are connected to the terminals of identical batteries. Individual memory chips are usually sold in anti-static tubes that are good to keep around in case you need a safe place to store chips. special dissipative smocks can be worn over street clothes to reduce static build-up. O T C O PY . The dissipative material would have a small current. A conductor. you should turn the computer off. L A 50 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D TASK 2A-3: Identifying the Components of an ESD-free Environment 1. which can generate static electricity. but leave it plugged into a wall outlet. EV While leaving the computer plugged into the wall outlet is the preferred method.

• Your responsibility—to yourself. Electrical Hazards EV Contact with electrical energy can cause electrical injuries including: • Electrocution (fatal) • • • Electric shock Burns Collateral injuries collateral injuries: Injury caused by involuntary muscle movement. your employer. and your customers—is to be informed of potential hazards and to always use safe practices. (Occupational Safety and Health Administration) and/or state standards regarding employee safety.2. always safety first. You will learn the potential hazards of servicing PCs and then the potential hazards of using them. What purpose does an anti-static wrist strap serve when worn by a computer repair technician? The wrist strap conducts static electric charges off the body and carries them safely to a ground so it will not harm electrostatic-sensitive devices. A The previous introduction to electricity and electrostatic discharge (ESD) focused on the damage that electricity can do to the computer. Employers must provide: • A workplace that is free from recognized hazards that could cause serious physical harm. This section deals with the damage that electricity can do to you. The health and safety of you and those around you are your first priority and your responsibility. L -D Communication—in the form of labeling. Some computer repair shops have an air ionizer. your co-workers. What purpose does it serve? The air ionizer emits charged atoms and molecules that can float through the air to insulated materials and absorb the static charge that is on the insulator. N Your employer is obligated to comply with OSHA. C Lesson 2: Safety 51 General Safety Guidelines O Topic 2B PY . O • Personal protective equipment designed to protect employees from certain hazards. and training about hazardous materials. 3. O Potential Hazards of Servicing PCs T Potential Hazards of Servicing PCs Safety first. material safety data sheets (MSDS).

Electric current flows from a high voltage to a low voltage through the path of least resistance. The lower the resistance. All the precautions used to prevent ESD increase your danger when you work near high voltages. Contact with a source of electrical energy can cause external as well as internal burns. If a tiny pacemaker can control a heartbeat.Figure 2-5: Typical warning signs. workstations are located in areas with grounded floors and workbenches. and reduce the possible damage from a shock. The resulting damage to the human body and the emergency medical treatment determine the outcome. Standing on a totally insulated rubber mat increases the resistance of the path to ground and provides some protection. The extent of injuries received depends on the current’s magnitude (measured in Amperes). When you touch the source of lower electrical voltage directly. Electricity will flow through you only if your body completes a path to a ground or lower-voltage point. A 12 V car battery is generally safe unless the path to ground has such low resistance that a large current can flow. Water is a better conductor than air or dry skin. or both. If you come close to a very high-voltage source. you need to decrease the voltage. the pathway through the body. EV A L 52 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Air is a good resistor. The higher the voltage. Electrocution results when the body is exposed to a lethal amount of electrical energy. the greater the current will be that flows along the path. you have decreased the resistance to a point where low-voltage current can start to flow through you. Standing in a puddle and touching the battery with wet hands provides that low-resistance path. increase the resistance. the electrons may form an arc or steady spark though the air and flow into your body. An anti-static wrist band is specifically designed to provide a low-resistance path for electricity to a ground. imagine what the O N Ohm’s Law can help you understand how lethal shocks occur. non-destructive path to ground. It is possible to have a low-voltage electrocution without visible marks to the body. the more resistance there is. the greater the current will be that flows along the path. and the duration of flow. and a large electric current will flow through your body. so touching an electrical contact with wet hands reduces resistance and increases current flow even more. and the more air between you and an electrical contact. For example. In some cases. It is the total electric energy carried by the electric current that overwhelms your body’s nerves and organs and causes damage (or kills you). For death to occur. or touch it with a conductor like a metal screwdriver. so static electricity has a lowresistance. the body must become part of an active electrical circuit with a current capable of overstimulating the nervous system or damaging internal organs. O T C O PY . you are standing in a puddle of water to cool off on a hot summer day and decide now is the time to work with the car battery. To reduce the current.

After cleaning the keyboard. The voltage and current are stored on capacitors that do not discharge when the monitor is turned off or unplugged. Don’t assume anything without checking it out for yourself. The heat generated by an electric arc or electrical equipment can burn your skin or set your clothes on fire. O PY Electricity can hurt you even if you are careful and avoid becoming part of an electrical ground circuit.current from a car battery could do to your heartbeat. and your primary diagnostic tool. but you will be just as dead. sound cards. common sense precautions keep swimming a safe and enjoyable activity. You instinctively pull your hand back from the doorknob when you get a static shock. • • • • • • • EV • A Suspend work during an electrical storm. however. . O N Most internal circuits on a computer use voltages in the range of 12 V or less from the power supply and so do not present a great threat to your personal safety. Working on a computer can also be safe and enjoyable if you protect yourself from electrical hazards by taking appropriate precautions: • Perform only the work for which you have sufficient training. These motions can cause you to hurt yourself on objects around you. People around you won’t see tremendous sparks and flames during your electrocution. For this reason. be very sure it is dry before powering it up. you may make careless mistakes. Use an anti-static wrist strap when handling static-sensitive components like system boards. When removing circuit boards. leave the internal workings of the monitor to specialists who have the extra training and special equipment that are required to safely remove a monitor cover and make repairs. the danger of these deep burns is destruction of internal tissues. The power supply in the computer monitor is there to increase the voltage. Even after months of inactivity. place them on a dissipative ground mat or put them in an anti-static bag. deductive reasoning. Exposure to higher voltages will normally result in burns at the sites where the electrical current entered and exited the body. the capacitors may have enough stored electrical energy to kill you. High voltage contact burns may display only small superficial injury. Electricity flowing through your body can also cause your muscles to twitch uncontrollably. and memory chips. will not be operating at full capacity. Computer monitors contain circuits that require 35. but remove the strap if you are working on any part of a computer monitor. • Don’t attempt repair work when you are tired. Don’t handle electrical equipment when your hands or feet are wet or when you are standing on a wet surface. Don’t wear jewelry or other articles that could accidentally contact circuitry and conduct current. Anyone who has tried to unscrew a hot light bulb has direct experience with electricity-related thermal burns. and even though the threat of drowning exists.000 V with a high current. Perform as many tests as possible with the power off. L -D People go swimming every day. O T Lesson 2: Safety 53 C Collateral injuries occur when involuntary muscle contractions caused by the shock cause the body to fall or come in contact with sharp edges or electrically live parts.

O Do not take the case off a monitor. and make sure you plug them back into the proper sockets in the proper order. C Don’t bang on the monitor screen with your tools. Never stick anything into the power supply fan to get it to rotate. Your workplace is required by OSHA to make MSDS (material safety data sheet) information available to exposed employees. Use isopropyl alcohol rather than a general-purpose cleaner. You can get MSDSs online. as well as the safety of people around you. If you see others working under potentially hazardous conditions. never wash the glass with the power on. MSDS may be kept in a file folder accessible to “exposed” employees. and with any shipment after the MSDS is updated with significant and new information about safety hazards. and it’s dangerous. • • • • Chemical Hazards L MSDS: Material safety data sheets are technical bulletins designed to give users and emergency personnel information about the proper procedures of storage and handling of a hazardous substance. do not wear an anti-static wrist strap. The case may have sharp edges that can cut through exposed cables. or in the event of an emergency. Disconnect the power cord before you start work on a power supply and leave it off until you are done. the Internet has a wide range of free resources. turn it off and unplug it. For example. OSHA doesn’t require the use of their MSDS (Form 174). You will need to handle and dispose of them safely for your own protection. but any MSDS must contain the required information. PY .com/. An MSDS is a technical bulletin designed to give users and emergency personnel information about the proper procedures of storage and handling of a hazardous substance. This applies to any situation in which an employee may be exposed to a chemical under normal use conditions. as well as at www. Information in an MSDS may include: • Physical data • • • • • • Toxicity Health effects First aid Reactivity Storage Safe-handling and use precautions EV You will find a wealth of information at www. 54 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D O N Following these precautions will help you avoid accidents and prevent personal injury.MSDSonline.• • • Label wires and connectors as you detach them. or may be entered into and kept in a computer file. The risk to your life is not worth any repairs you might make.gov. This approach doesn’t work. share your knowledge with them to help prevent accidents and injury in your workplace.osha. Use an anti-static cleaner to clean the glass on the monitor. an implosion will propel shards of glass in every direction. it doesn’t create a safety hazard if dripped inside the case. make sure all the wires are inside. Power supplies have a high voltage in them any time the computer is plugged in. When you replace the computer’s case. Manufacturers supply MSDSs with the first shipment to a new customer. even if the computer power is turned off. O T To clean the monitor. Turn off the computer but leave the cord plugged in to maintain a good ground connection if you are not working on the power supply. You will work with some hazardous chemicals.

You can find out about these ordinances by contacting your local government’s environmental office or department for trash disposal and recycling. follow the manufacturer’s recommendations for replacement and disposal of the filter. the injury is permanent. Be sure to read labels and follow instructions. do not use ammonia-based cleaners on or around laser printers. In addition. rinse with cold water. including the computer’s case. the toner could fuse to your skin. Lasers Laser is an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. Follow your company’s guidelines for disposing of these materials and their containers. Thoroughly wash your hands after handling capacitors. ozone can be a mild-tosevere irritant. These compounds may present safety or environmental problems. Empty cartridges should not be tossed into the trash because of the damage the residual chemicals can do to the environment. standards are established for maximum permissible exposure (MPE). Instead. Follow your company’s guidelines for disposal procedures. Depending on the levels. as the ammonia may react chemically with the toner. This powerful beam can cause damage to the human eye or skin. directional beam of light by stimulating electronic or molecular transitions to lower energy levels. as well as other dangerous chemicals. N O Laser printer toner—made of fine particles of iron and plastic—presents its own set of problems due to its reactions with heat. Since retinal tissue does not regenerate. Lasers have many uses and—like other tools—are capable of causing injury if improperly used. Used batteries should not be tossed into the trash.• • • Disposal Protective equipment Spill/leak procedures Batteries are used to maintain the data in CMOS chips and to supply power to remote controls and portable computers. cadmium. The laser printer may have a filter to control ozone emissions. Don’t use warm water to wash toner off your hands or arms. . It produces an intense. Each municipality has its own regulations that you must learn and practice. usually when the corona wire produces an electrical discharge during printing. but disposed of following your company’s guidelines. O Laser printers produce ozone gas. and glass surfaces. To provide a basis for laser safety. and then wash with cold water and soap. Used toner cartridges should be refilled or returned to the manufacturer for recycling and/or disposal. brush off as much as you can with a dry paper towel. don’t clean it up with a regular vacuum. You should be aware of the dangers and basic safety precautions. Be sure the printer operates in a wellventilated area. and lithium. Regulatory agencies have established limits regarding the amount of ozone that employees are exposed to. L -D The electrolytes in capacitors are very caustic. These batteries may contain mercury. contacts and connections of adapter cards. Lasers and laser systems and devices are grouped into classes: Lesson 2: Safety 55 EV A Lasers are used in printers and CD-ROM drives. T C O PY You use liquid cleaning materials to clean or condition the equipment you service. If you spill toner. the particles will get into the motor and melt. The most likely injury is a thermal burn which will destroy retinal tissue in the eye. treat them as you would any hazardous chemical.

Never look directly at a laser beam. Safety Hazard Sharp edges cut through cables ESD damage Electrocution ESD damage Electrocution Burn or melt when exposed to heat.• • • • Class 1 lasers do not emit harmful levels of radiation and are exempt from control measures. for service—and the embedded laser beam is accessible. Your clothes can catch on fire or your skin can be burned. microscopes) or with the naked eye. Electrical injuries include electrocution. as well as being fire hazards. For example. • • • Never point a laser beam in someone’s eyes. Class 2 lasers are capable of creating eye damage through chronic. Identifying Hazards of Servicing Microcomputers 1. When the system is opened—for example. you can receive a thermal burn from the heat of an electric arc or electric equipment. PY Class 4 lasers pose danger to eyes and skin. laser printers and CD-ROM drives are Class 1 laser products. precautions must be based on the classification of the embedded laser (Class 3 or 4). environmental damage Caustic electrolytes Ozone production Burn eye tissue C Learn the precautions associated with computer equipment and peripherals: O Frequently. they contain Class 3 or Class 4 lasers. 56 A+ Certification: Core Hardware T Never disable safety mechanisms when servicing a device with an embedded laser. this class includes barcode readers. . N TASK 2B-1: O Type of Hazard Electrical Electrical Electrical Electrical Electrical Chemical Chemical Chemical Laser EV A L 2. shock. continuous exposure. the controls for the device’s class (Class 1) apply. -D Computer System Component Enclosure Memory chip Monitor Circuit board Power supply Laser printer toner Capacitor Laser printer CD-ROM drive O For each of the following computer system components. Can you be injured if you are not part of the electrical ground circuit? Yes. lasers are embedded in laser products or systems with a lower hazard rating. and collateral injury. Class 3 lasers pose severe eye hazards when viewed through optical instruments (for example. however. When the printer or drive is used as intended. identify a type of safety hazard or an example of a hazard.

Ergonomics is the study of people in their working environments. Consider this scenario: A technician is called in to repair a sound card and doesn’t have your expertise with safe practices. O PY Connect wrist strap to a ground. Customer helps technician clean up by spraying window cleaner on monitor screen. some individuals develop more severe and chronic symptoms. rapid movements that are repeated over and over Working in an awkward position or holding the same position for a long time Using force to complete tasks Not taking time to relax Repetitive tasks L Clicking mouse Turning head to see monitor placed to one side Excessive pressure when keying Sitting at computer for two hours Awkward or fixed postures Forceful movements Insufficient rest time C Lesson 2: Safety 57 Store sensitive parts in anti-static bags or on dissipative mat. tendons. repetitive strain injury: Involves damage to muscles. Studies show that the problems which computer users have developed—including discomfort in the wrist. T Ergonomics: The study of people in their working environments. While many people have mild and passing symptoms. Employers are obligated. by regulation and by economic necessity.3. . ozone filter may need to be replaced. and nerves caused by overuse or misuse. as well as productivity and morale. shoulders and neck—are ergonomic in nature. do not wear anti-static wrist strap. Any combination of the following factors can lead to this condition: Description Small. Check that printer is in ventilated area. and nerves caused by overuse or misuse. especially of their physical interaction with machines. Turn off power. This information will also be important when you are working with your customers. Anti-static wrist strap gets in the way. Technician assures customer that ozone odor from laser printer is normal. so technician doesn’t connect it. tendons. affecting insurance and healthcare costs. check for yourself. Ergonomics N Example Repetitive Strain Injury O You take responsibility for your own health by practicing safety when you use a computer as well as when you service one. apply cleaner to cloth instead of directly on monitor. Safe Practice Never assume anything. Technician carefully places sound card on top of metal filing cabinet. arm. -D O Research shows that repetitive strain injuries account for the largest number of new workers’ compensation claims. Potential Hazards of Using PCs EV Factor A Repetitive strain injuries involve damage to muscles. to consider the importance of ergonomics in their workplaces. which may be labeled Repetitive Strain (or Stress) Injury (RSI) or Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD). What would you do differently? Hazardous Practice Customer assures technician that power is off.

C O PY Pain. The following sections examine ergonomic points to consider and give suggestions for modifying equipment placement or use. Backrest for firm support to lower back. In general. the more intense the symptoms. loss of strength Loss of joint movement. People with more severe forms of RSI may be referred by their medical provider to an occupational therapist who can do further evaluation and recommend a program of localized treatments. Padded arm rests (optional). Older workers may be at more at risk because the body’s ability to repair from constant wear and tear decreases with age. The key to RSI management is to remove an individual from the exposure that causes injury. stretches. action should be taken. swelling Numbness. and the longer symptoms last. and arm. wrist. splints may be recommended. For instance. while these are useful in the first stages of recovery. which usually result from a single incident— called acute trauma—repetitive strain injuries develop slowly over time. Footrest. of course. if needed. Unlike strains and sprains. the more serious the injury is likely to be. Symptoms may appear in any order and at any stage in the development of an injury of RSI and can include: • • • • Aching.Computer users suffer mostly from repetitive strain injuries to the hand. if an individual wakes up in the middle of the night with elbow or shoulder pain. A serious injury can develop only weeks after symptoms appear. they are not the long-term solution. If symptoms are allowed to progress. or it may take years. If the individual displays symptoms even at rest. tingling . tenderness. crackling. Casters that roll easily on floor. • • • • • Correct chair height for user. The best treatment for RSI. tendon. Occasionally. Chair Ergonomic checklist: • Adjustable seat height. the more often the symptoms will be experienced. A period of time away from the keyboard and mouse is followed by a gradual return to keying in an ergonomically correct work setting. The type of injury depends on whether the muscle. or nerve tissue has been irritated or damaged. is prevention by proper arrangement of computer workstations and reasonable project design. tendon sheath. that may be a sign of RSI resulting from keying or mousing at a computer. Referral to an orthopedic hand specialist may be needed to determine treatment options. decreased coordination L Proper Chair and Posture A EV 58 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D If an individual has even mild symptoms. O N O T Symptoms may not appear immediately after the activity that is causing the problem and are not necessarily experienced in the body part where the actual stress is occurring. a person with RSI can develop chronic symptoms. and exercises. a physician will prescribe a medication to help reduce symptomatic inflammation and pain.

a lumbar cushion may help. you should have a good chair that is comfortable and makes you sit with your back straight. If the work surface is too high. then slowly lower hands toward the floor behind your back until you feel the stretch. • Forearms: Put palms together with fingers pointing toward the ceiling. If not. neither bent up or down nor to the left or right.Figure 2-6: Proper chair and posture. Wrists straight. Back stretch tips: • Take regular breaks. • • • • • • • • Knees bent at approximately right angles. Clearance for the legs should be provided at seated computer workstations. A L -D O Posture N To avoid uncomfortable strains. don’t perch. Chair height should be adjusted so that the feet rest flat on the floor with the thighs parallel to the floor. EV To check your posture. Upper body straight. O T Lesson 2: Safety 59 C O PY . Forearms parallel to the floor. The chair should provide good lumbar (lower back) support. Head looking forward with a slight downward tilt. Sit back in the chair and use the backrest. Thighs parallel to the floor. Sit up straight and verify that your keyboard and mouse are close enough so that you don’t have to reach for them. Upper arms hanging straight down at sides. the chair should be raised to an appropriate height and a footrest used. Arm rests must be recessed so that the user can easily pull up to the work surface and work with elbows at approximately right angles. Elbows against sides and bent at right angles. raise or lower your computer and/or chair to achieve this position. Ergonomic checklist: • Feet resting fully and firmly on floor or footrest. with lower back firmly supported by chair backrest.

Left-handed people have more choices than before. Mice may be adaptable for either hand. Many RSI sufferers report that they feel less pain when typing than when using a mouse. if used. cordless (using radio waves). and repeat. gently sloped keyboard with a built-in palm rest. relax and take a break if you find yourself becoming tense. Keyboard should be pulled close to the body. a keyboard and a mouse tray which are the same height. Many new and popular options to the standard mouse have appeared on the market. Researchers point out that banging the keys does not translate into faster typing speed. and repeat. Shoulders: Shrug. Adjustable keyboard height. Ergonomic keyboards are designed to encourage a more natural hand and wrist position. and so on. Keys give feedback to stop from pressing too hard: tactile (feel key pressure decrease when the character is registered) or audible (hear a click when character is registered). Wrists should be flat over the keyboard. • • • A L EV 60 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Elbows should be at sides with shoulders relaxed. They feature a split. Overall. optical sensor. O N O T C Keyboard thin and level with floor. three to five buttons with various functions. Use the wrist rest only when not typing so that you move your hands when reaching for keys. Hands: Make a fist. Studies show that banging on the keyboard increases the risk of developing RSI. scroll wheel. well padded and proper thickness. Keyboard at right height so elbows are at sides. Back: Bend forward in chair. and wrists straight. with its rapid motion of the fingers—can be a major source of RSI. Fingers reach shift and function keys without awkward straining. ergonomic (to fit hand shape). Keyboard support surfaces should be wide enough (minimum approximately 30 inches) to accommodate the keyboard and the mouse. your wrists should not bend or rest on anything as you type.• • • • Wrists: Put arms straight in front of you and move hands up and down so fingers point to the ceiling and then to the floor. An alternative is to use two separate surfaces—for example. To stretch the upper back. O PY Keyboard and Mouse Placement . Move the whole hand to reach distant keys. the vast majority of computer users were found to use excessive force—up to five times too much—when striking the keys. they prefer to use keyboard shortcuts (for example. Use a light touch. Mouse located at same height as the keyboard and as close to it as possible. then spread out fingers as far as you can. Keyboard on foam pad to soften impact of fingers on keys. don’t stretch the hand. or software may be able to swap the functions of buttons on a standard mouse. [Ctrl]S for Save) instead of the mouse. Ergonomic checklist: • • • • • • Keyboard detached from the monitor. Repetitive mouse clicking and moving—as well as the double-click. Arms and wrists should not rest against a hard and/or sharp surface. including the trackball. and roll shoulders forward and back. forearms parallel to floor. then relax. Wrist rests. Lowering the back legs on the underside of the keyboard may also help keep wrists neutral while typing. grasp hands behind head and press elbows back.

top of screen opposite eye level. center of screen opposite eye level. The depth of the computer work surface must be deep enough (minimum 30 inches. Monitor at proper viewing distance. Monitor directly in front. Proper Monitor Placement Figure 2-7: Proper monitor placement. If screen is small. EV A The top of the screen should be at eye level or below so the user looks slightly down at the screen without having to tilt back to look at any parts of the screen.Monitor Placement Ergonomic checklist: • • • • • • • • Adjustable monitor height. usually one and one-half to two feet from eyes. If screen is large. to avoid neck strain. not to the side. People with bifocals have particular trouble with this. Position the monitor directly in front of the user. Copy stand or document holder. The user should keep an arm’s length away from the front of the monitor and also from the backs and sides of other monitors. L -D O N Lesson 2: Safety 61 O T C O PY . Monitor positioned to avoid glare. Copy stand and computer screen at the same height and at same distance from eyes. depending on the size of the monitor) to allow this setup. rather than off to the side.

Adjust workstation furniture. Direct glare results when a light source is exposed directly to the eye. requiring a greater visual effort to see it. • • • • • • Take a break before feeling any muscle fatigue in upper body. Work Environment • • • • footcandle: A unit of measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface. for example. to alternate sitting and standing while doing computer work. Cover windows with drapes or blinds to limit the penetration of direct sunlight.reflective glare: Created by a monitor screen’s mirror-like surface. To control screen glare: • Maintain proper illumination levels. O N Phone can be used without having to squeeze the receiver with shoulder while typing. Consider attaching a glare screen and/or screen hood. Do not place the monitor back to or directly facing windows. Pause periodically to do relaxation exercises. if appropriate. direct glare: Results when a light source is exposed directly to the eye. Use the same workstation all day so that adjustments are minimized. Give input when department is purchasing computer equipment and furniture. • • • • • Position the monitor screen in relation to light sources to avoid a direct lineof-sight. . Monitor screens are particularly susceptible to two types of glare. C O PY Glare on the monitor can be a major source of irritation when it obscures the image on a screen. parabolic lenses with fluorescent fixtures are also good. Task lighting used if more light is needed at certain work areas. Indirect lighting preferred. which may reflect an operator’s bright clothing. by brightness from uncovered windows directly behind the terminal. Reflective glare is created by a monitor screen’s mirror-like surface. frequent breaks from computer work. O • Enough room for legs under desk. Install recessed overhead lighting. Get up and move around whenever any symptoms are felt. short rests taken often provide better protection than longer breaks after longer periods of work. Lighting levels for monitor screen without hard-copy reading are 20 to 40 footcandles. reflective and direct. Lighting levels for combined monitor screen and hard-copy reading are 30 to 40 footcandles. Enough space to put the equipment and other materials at the proper distance without crowding. T Ergonomic checklist: • Desk with lower surface for the keyboard and higher surface for the monitor. L A EV 62 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D • • • Project Design Ergonomic checklist: • Take short. Standing counters available.

Symptoms associated with dry eyes are redness. altering the layout of workstations. O Scientific research offers no evidence that regular use of computer monitors threatens eye health or results in permanent vision damage. Possible changes may include restructuring jobs. The Job Accommodation Network (JAN) was founded by the President’s Committee on Employment of People with Disabilities. or they may be a direct result of factors that are unique to the computer workstation. This can cause stress and strain on the eyes and the muscles that control them. You can access JAN at http:// janweb. burning.usdoj. however.htm. computer users frequently report visual symptoms. A monitor refresh rate of 70 Hz or greater is recommended to reduce noticeable flicker. N O T Lesson 2: Safety 63 C O PY . The eye surface becomes dry because computer users tend to blink less and tears evaporate faster during monitor use. because of the increased demands on the visual system as a result of monitor use.The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) requires employers to make reasonable accommodations to protect the rights of individuals with disabilities. or itchy eyes EV • Recognize that visual breaks are necessary. Enlarge font size. sore. A specific eyeglass prescription for computer use may help compensate for the strain involved in looking at a close and fixed point for periods of time. their resolution may be grainy or diffused. You can access the ADA at www. Screen magnifiers reduce the need for near focusing. It can perform individualized searches for workplace accommodations. • • A For visual health: • Images on the screen should not flicker or appear blurred. and excess tearing. requiring the eyes to maintain active focusing. -D A vision examination is recommended.edu/. Artificial tears—used to supplement the eye’s natural tear film and lubricate the dry surface—alleviate symptoms for some computer users. or close the eyes for a few moments. or modifying equipment. based on the job’s functional requirements and the functional limitations of the individual. Rest the eyes periodically by turning them away from the screen and looking at something 25 to 30 feet away. These symptoms may result from a preexisting condition made worse by monitor use. A very common health problem reported by users of computer monitors is eyestrain—including symptoms of: • • • • • • Blurred vision Difficulty focusing Double vision Tiredness Headaches Burning. JAN provides free technical support and assistance both to people with disabilities and to businesses on how to fashion job-site accommodations. Change to another task.gov/crt/ada/ adahom1. However.icdi.wvu. Vision Many computer tasks are done at a close working distance. L Dry eyes can be a concern for computer operators.

knees at right angles. frequent breaks. Adjustable keyboard height. monitor 1 1/2-2 feet from eyes. TASK 2B-2: 1. Noise reduction hoods are recommended. correct chair height. copy stand. Short. While the research continues. Noise levels produced by computers and printers are well below those that cause adverse health effects. or VLF) for the horizontal scan. forearms parallel to floor. For each of the following ergonomic factors. directly in front of user. padded armrests. Feet on floor. The equipment has minor noise sources such as the hum of cooling fans and the clicking of keys. including computer monitors. Printers can be noisy and should be located in rooms away from operators. adjust furniture. describe a safe computing practice. head forward with slight downward tilt. arms straight at sides. mouse same height as keyboard. current scientific information does not identify a health risk from exposure to these electromagnetic fields. move around before feeling fatigued. appropriate lighting levels. Circuits within the monitor are responsible for the horizontal and vertical movements of the electron beam. Ergonomic Factor O L A EV 64 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Chair Posture Keyboard and mouse placement Monitor placement Work environment Project design N Identifying Safe Computing Practices Preventative Measure Adjustable seat height. phone not squeezed with shoulder. Electromagnetic radiation comes from both natural and manufactured sources. standing computer station. control glare. Excessive noise from the computer may indicate an internal malfunction. and 50 to 60 times each second (extremely low frequency. Adjustable monitor height. footrest. keyboard on foam pad. backrest. upper body straight. elbows at sides. wrists straight. relaxation exercises. wrists straight. Computer monitor users have expressed concerns about the possible health effects—including adverse pregnancy outcomes—from the electromagnetic radiation that monitors produce. This movement occurs tens of thousands of times each second (very low frequency. The VLF and ELF field intensities have been extensively evaluated in many different models of monitors for possible biological effects. mouse close to keyboard. room for legs under desk. Keyboard lower than monitor. or ELF) for the vertical scan. O T C O PY .Other Considerations Radiation is a broad term used to describe energy in the form of waves or particles. where possible.

move paperwork close to monitor and at eye level. You notice that the customer’s monitor sits on a two-drawer filing cabinet to the right of the desk. Selecting the correct extinguisher is important both to insure suitability for the type of fire and to reduce damage from the extinguishing agents. oils. the customer uses an 8-point font and sits in a cafeteria chair. Fire Class A B A L Fire extinguishers are the first line of defense against unfriendly fires and should be installed in all homes and businesses. Description Ordinary combustibles such as wood. and D. In addition. this could cause excessive heat build-up and trigger a failure. move monitor directly in front of customer. The only light is an overhead incandescent fixture behind your customer. Using the wrong type of extinguisher can needlessly ruin an expensive computer which gets blasted with spray. N Don’t operate a computer. C. Flammable liquids and gases such as gasoline. What ergonomic changes could you suggest? . Safe practices include: • Turn off monitors. paper. paint. monitor. cloth. or printer with the protective dust cover in place. Fire Extinguishers Types of Fire Extinguishers EV Fire extinguishers are classified according to the type of fire for which they are suitable. rags and most plastics. enlarge font size. Ensure that facilities meet local fire safety codes. the keyboard is on the desk. -D O Make sure the equipment is properly grounded and has sufficient power rating to handle the components connected to it. If possible. Fire Safety O Fire prevention is everyone’s responsibility. raise monitor above keyboard height. they generate high voltage internally and can start an electrical fire or an explosion in a combustible atmosphere. greases. and solvents. B. Note that Class C fires—which include computer equipment—require extinguishing agents which will not serve as conductors of the electrical current.2. resulting in an electrical fire. There are four classes—A. C Lesson 2: Safety 65 Topic 2C O PY Consider this scenario: You are called in to repair a network connection. • T Fire Prevention Practices Types of Fire Extinguishers • • • Keep beverages and other liquids away from electronic equipment. use rolling chair with adjustable height. Class D is highly specialized and will not be discussed here. and install task lighting closer to work area without causing glare on screen. and paperwork is flat on the desk to the left of the keyboard.

In the past. must be applied close to fire. foam. Inexpensive to refill and maintain. no residue. so a worldwide phase-out of the production and use of halons has been established. O N Leaves mildly corrosive residue which must be cleaned up immediately to prevent damage to electrical equipment. Not for use around delicate electrical appliances or computers. Extinguishing Agents Extinguishing Agents Dry chemical. data storage centers. electronics manufacturing plants. . halon is the most destructive of all the ozone-depleting gases. These items—which could be damaged or destroyed by water. halon extinguishers were considered excellent for delicate computers and electrical equipment because they were very clean and left no residue. Versatile and effective on most common types of fires. Highly corrosive and leaves a sticky residue. Environmentally friendly alternatives to the halon device have been developed for areas that contain sensitive or irreplaceable equipment. The common groups of agents and their uses are as follows. as well as in control rooms. standard type B and C Dry chemical. Short range. a minimum rating of 10 is recommended. Best uses are automotive. O T C Extinguishing Agent Fire Class Description O The extinguishing agent must handle the correct class of fire while keeping damage to a minimum. However. dry chemical. PY Extinguishers also have numerical ratings which denote the amount of fire the extinguisher will handle. The Environmental Protection Agency has passed strict regulations concerning the use and disposal of equipment containing halon. The minimum rating for a Class A extinguisher on light hazards is 2A. they also eliminate oxygen for people in the area. B. multipurpose type Carbon Dioxide Water-based A. and laboratories. and flammable liquids. grease fires. unfortunately. art galleries. Extinguishers which can handle several types of fires have combined ratings such as 2A:10BC. museums. Very clean. and communications facilities. and C B and C A EV 66 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D CAUTION: Halon fire extinguishers work by eliminating oxygen so the fire goes out.Fire Class C Description Electrical fire and energized electrical equipment where non-conductivity of the extinguishing agent is important. or carbon dioxide—are found in computer centers. For Class B or C hazards.

The following is a mental checklist for a fight-or-flight decision: • Is the building being evacuated? L -D O N Carbon dioxide is best suited because it is very clean and leaves no residue. You should not use a water-based fire extinguisher around an electrical fire. keep liquids away from equipment. Classification Classification Classification A B C X X X X X X X X Extinguishing Agent Dry chemical. If you have any doubt about your personal safety or whether you can extinguish the fire. Mark the type(s) of fire classification each type of extinguishing agent is suitable for. Each situation will have its own circumstances which you will have to assess quickly. Your first thought should be safety. the device will normally give off clouds of foul-smelling black smoke. O 3. and facilities meet fire codes. 2. Do not take any actions that would put you or anyone else at personal risk. leave immediately and close off the area. A disadvantage is that the extinguisher has a short range and must be used close to the fire. List three safe practices to prevent a fire in computer equipment. standard Dry chemical. Answers may include: Turn off monitor. Data can be recovered from seriously damaged equipment. a lost human life can never be recovered. Which type of extinguishing agent is best suited for computer fires? Why? Are there any disadvantages? T Fight or Flight? EV • • • • • • • Are toxic gases being produced by the fire? Has the fire department been called? Is the fire small and contained? Can I unplug the computer or the power strip to eliminate the source of ignition? Is the exit clear? Can I fight the fire with my back to the exit? Can I stay low and avoid smoke? Lesson 2: Safety 67 A C O PY .TASK 2C-1: Fire Safety 1. multipurpose Carbon dioxide Water-based Fire Emergency Procedures How should you respond if you see a computer smoking or on fire? When a computer or printer burns or electrical components melt. don’t operate with protective cover on. equipment is properly grounded.

S. The firefighters can help remove any damaged equipment from the building. Hold the nozzle firmly and stand eight to 10 feet from the fire. S: Squeeze the handle to activate the extinguisher. the monitor was the source of the fire. Computer equipment can be salvaged from fires.: 1. PY A: Aim the nozzle at the base of the fire. movement closer may be necessary for complete coverage. A small fire that appears to be out may still be burning inside a wall and can turn into a blazing inferno with surprising speed. Figure 2-8: Proper use of a fire extinguisher. Once you exit the building. Even if you extinguish the fire. Do not attempt to retrieve data from a damaged computer. This is a job for a specialist. When the equipment was inspected.• • • Is a Class C extinguisher available? Do I know how to use it? Is someone else available to back me up? When handling a fire extinguisher. call the fire department to make sure the fire is completely out. . The hard disk’s I/O connectors were melted and its circuit board charred. 3. use the memory device of P. they will remove the smoke and toxic gases before people are allowed to re-enter. and data can be recovered by specialists. The keyboard’s plastic was melted by hot gases. card guides were lying in solidified puddles at the bottom of the case. and metal parts were warped or twisted. In one structural blaze. which probably started in the high-voltage flyback circuit at the rear of the monitor.A. Melted solder had dripped across the surface of the board. The printer was the least recognizable component. No trace of the mouse EV 68 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C Proper Use of a Fire Extinguisher O S: Sweep the base of the fire from side to side and proceed upward until the fire is out. do not attempt to restart the computer or restore electrical power to it. Data recovery is a specialized skill requiring specialized tools and techniques to prevent further damage to the drive and/or file system. wires were melted or burned. it was described as two rods and a dot-matrix printhead embedded in a pile of charred plastic. P: Pull the pin from the handle. Recharge any discharged extinguisher immediately after use. If necessary. After the fire. 4.S. 2. Circuit boards were charred. do not re-enter.

Fill in the following table to identify steps in the memory device P. However—as bleak as this situation appeared—by using special techniques. Sweep base of fire from side to side. for using a fire extinguisher: Memory Device P A S S Steps Pull pin from handle. Building evacuated. every three years. that is a job for an expert. The 4 Rs stand for environmentally friendly procedures to: • Reduce waste • • • Reclaim materials Re-use equipment Recycle equipment A L -D O N O T Disposing of Electronic Equipment EV C Lesson 2: Safety 69 O PY . The customer assures you that the fire is out and urges you to start work on the printer. all of the data from this computer was recovered with no losses. Topic 2D Computer Equipment Disposal Companies throw away over 10 million PCs annually. Tell the customer that you would need to use the monitor to check the printer. List five considerations in making a fight-or-flight decision in a fire. size of fire. 3. 2. avoid smoke. The customer has just put out a small fire in the monitor with a fire extinguisher. its serial port connector and several inches of wire verified its existence. fire department called. Aim nozzle at base of fire.A. What should you do? Suggest that the customer call the fire department to make sure the fire is out and that it is safe to stay in the building. clear exit. more than 315 million computers will become obsolete.S. and backup help. on average. Studies estimate that by the year 2004.was found. No information is available about the damage to the rest of the building. Programs for proper PC recycling and disposal must be established to ensure compliance with regulations and to avoid liability. TASK 2C-2: Identifying Steps in Using a Fire Extinguisher 1. Class C extinguisher. Computer systems are replaced. but it is not safe to restart the equipment. Consider this scenario: You go on a call to repair a printer. however. unplug equipment. Squeeze handle.S.

upgrading outdated systems. and combining useful parts from various machines. cadmium. remarketing. as well as state and local municipalities. include: PY Disposal . and homebound individuals. Chemicals from the components would leak out. Reclaiming EV A L 70 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Computer components that are not destined for refurbishing may be dismantled by technical recycling companies for reclamation of their materials. hard drive erasure. Re-using Components can be re-used within a company by departments which do not require state-of-the-art equipment. Recycling Computer equipment which is still usable can be sold through an employee purchase program. disk drives. the landfill is no longer an option for disposal. mercury. community groups.When a company tries to conduct its own equipment retirement program. Approximately 55 percent of a standard desktop PC is made of recoverable materials. costs can exceed $300 per computer in time and labor. which are toxic at high levels. It can contact the local office of environmental services or department for trash collection and recycling for disposal information. A company must comply with municipal ordinances concerning the disposal of toxic materials. transportation. O N O T C • O Due to regulations laid out by the Environmental Protection Agency. cabling. instead of randomly donating equipment. and disposal. keyboards. refurbishment. the company can contract with a technical disposal/recycling company. Equipment or individual peripherals—such as hard drives. the equipment can no longer be tossed in the dumpster. system boards. copper. technical evaluation. Alternately. gold. mixing and forming a toxic mess. Lead—the average monitor contains about eight pounds of lead. There are groups which facilitate donations of used computer hardware for schools. Tax breaks may be available to companies donating older equipment to a school or charitable organization. These chemicals. aluminum. including plastic. steel. Hardware is refurbished by erasing hard drives. Ceramic chips from computers are not biodegradable and would sit there forever. It may be advisable to go through an agency which coordinates these donations. It would take several thousand years for a monitor to decompose in a landfill. lead. and platinum. idle inventory liquidation. and then seep into the groundwater. silver. can also be found on circuit boards Mercury—in batteries Lithium—in batteries Cadmium—in batteries PCBs—in capacitors • • • • Obviously. reclaiming. An economical alternative is to work with a company which specializes in removal and disposal of this equipment. and printers—can be sold to repair facilities or technical recycling companies. Services may include removal. Why? Because as much as 60 percent of electronics donations are discarded within six weeks. A technical recycling company can supply certified documentation of the services performed.

cadmium. Computer disposal can be costly and time-consuming for a company. steel. Your understanding of ergonomically sound practices will contribute to the health and satisfaction of your customers. you have come across several items that your customers told you to toss in the trash. you must employ safe practices on a daily basis. lead. copper. transportation. A L -D Disposal Procedure Safe disposal according to your company’s procedure Re-use with other components Re-use Return to manufacturer for refilling/recycling. TASK 2D-1: Identifying Proper Disposal Procedures 1. silver. gold. Procedure Safe Disposal Reclaiming Re-using/Recycling Type of Material Toxic Materials Recoverable Materials Equipment and Peripherals Examples Lead. What services can a technical recycling and disposal company provide? T Lesson 2: Safety 71 C O PY . Fill in the table by listing examples of items involved in each disposal procedure. aluminum. system board. printer 3. To be a successful repair technician. removal.This happens for two major reasons: the equipment does not function with existing systems or software programs. What are better ways to dispose of them? N Disposal of toxic materials. hard drive erasure. keyboard. safe disposal according to your company’s procedure Recycle O Consider the following scenario: During your busy day. re-using/recycling equipment and peripherals. hard drive. Item Lithium batteries Extra cables Anti-static bags Laser toner cartridges Paper from printer trials EV Summary Safety contributes to your well-being as a person and to your productivity as an employee. reclaiming component materials. supply certified documentation. platinum Monitor. PCBs Plastic. An alternative is to sell the equipment to a technical recycling company and donate any proceeds to the charitable organization. mercury. disk drive. mercury. cabling. or the equipment needs repairs which are not budgeted for. lithium. O 2. cadmium.

or environmentally friendly considerations in a computer retirement program? EV 72 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Reduce waste. 4. The same number of high-voltage electrons has enough energy to destroy the microscopic transistors found in memory chips and microprocessors. O N 2B Consider the following scenario: You are on a service call to fix a laser printer. 1. 2C What is your first concern in a computer equipment fire? Why? Safety of people. As you change the toner. Work on non-electrical projects. Move coffee cup away from electrical components. Clean up the laser toner. 3. Refer monitor repair to a technician with specialized skills. 2D What are the 4 Rs. you spill some on the carpet. O T C O PY . Offer to help customer raise seat height. You also notice that your customer’s chair is too low for his workstation and that he keeps his coffee cup between the mouse and the keyboard. reclaim materials. Discuss differences with your lab partner. Your customer asks you to fix the monitor because the display size keeps changing. but don’t use a regular vacuum. You hear thunder in the distance. if possible. recycle equipment. Equipment and data can be replaced. 2. 5. Which safety issue should you address first? Rank the other issues in terms of safety (most important to least important). Cease work during an electrical storm. re-use equipment. people cannot.Lesson Review 2A Why is the high voltage in static electricity deadly to electrical components but only annoying to humans? The high voltage is enough to cause a spark that sends over enough electrons to trigger the nerve endings in a finger and make someone jump.

you learn the phases a system board goes through during a Power On Self Test. and the ROM BIOS. and how to service them. Central Processing Unit. T To identify the characteristics of internal system components and develop procedures for servicing them. You will also investigate typical problems that affect efficient operation. -D In this topic. Next. and then measure the power supplied to an internal device. O 3B Describe the role of the ROM BIOS and how to perform a BIOS upgrade. Identify the characteristics of RAM types and how to replace RAM. you will learn how the CMOS interoperates with the ROM BIOS. In this topic. and how to upgrade the ROM BIOS. you will examine the basic operation of a power supply.System Components Overview In this lesson. you will learn to describe the characteristics of different types of RAM and its packaging format. N In this topic. Next. you will learn to identify the form factor of a system board and its major components. you will: C O Lesson Time 4 hours. the types of power supply problems you will encounter. you will identify the distinguishing characteristics of processors in the Intel family. Lastly. You will learn to identify their characteristics. Next. LESSON 3 Data Files none Objectives 3A 3C Identify the characteristics of PC processors and how to replace a processor. 30 minutes PY . Lesson 3: System Components 73 L In this topic. and how to replace a power supply. O Identify the characteristics of a power supply. 3D EV 3E A Identify the characteristics of system boards and how to replace a system board. you will describe the function of the ROM BIOS and identify the kinds of configurations you’ll make to the BIOS. recognize problems associated with them. including the power supply. and how to replace a defective processor. RAM. you will learn how to remove a defective power supply and install a replacement. you will learn how to remove defective memory and install new memory. system board. the difference between a data bus and an address bus. you will learn how to remove a defective system board and how to install a new system board. Lastly. In this topic. you will examine the major components found inside a computer.

it is keyed. With dual connectors. Converting AC Power to DC Power The power supply is responsible for converting AC power to DC power. It is also connected to the system board with either a single connector or two connectors.Topic 3A Power Supplies The power supply. Color or Component Yellow wire Blue wire Red wire White wire Motor Circuitry O N EV Voltage +12 -12 +5 -5 +/-12 +/-5 74 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O T C O PY . Many machines still use the two connectors. If a single connector is used. It is converted to the appropriate voltage required for various system components. keyed connector to prevent the possibility of reversing the connectors and thereby damaging the system board. This can damage or destroy the system board if you reverse the connections. is required in order for system components to receive power. In either case. it is possible to switch the two connectors (put the P8 cable in the P9 plug and vice versa). Keyed connectors are designed so that the plug and socket have notches which must line up in order for the plug to fit into the socket. power supply: The component that supplies power to the computer and converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). The power supply is attached to the computer case. keyed component: A component whose connector is designed such that connecting cables can only be attached in one way. which are often labeled P8 and P9. A Power Supply L A -D Figure 3-1: A power supply. There is a movement to incorporate the two connectors into a single larger. connectors are keyed so that the connector itself only plugs in one way. while not actually a component of the system board. The wires from the power supply have the following voltages.

or SuperDisk drives. and DVD drives. 3. often under 100 watts. TASK 3A-1: Measuring the Output of a Power Supply EV 1.The power supply sends power to all system components except for components requiring a high current. Zip drives. These components include the fan and disk drives. Turn on the power to the computer. Shut down Windows and turn off the computer. CD-ROM drives. This is enough power to support most any system. flat connector. Reconnect the power cable. These power supplies were unable to hold up to the demands added when you added components to the system. A L -D O N Lesson 3: System Components 75 O T C O PY Drive Power Connectors . Most power supplies are at least 200 watts. The Berg connector is a small. Drive Power Connectors Figure 3-2: Drive power connectors. 5. Remove the computer enclosure. The Molex connector is the standard peripheral connector for powering internal hard drives. This type of connector is typically used for connecting power to floppy drives. make sure you follow all ESD safety practices you learned earlier. Disconnect all cables externally connected to the chassis. 4. Whenever you open the computer to work with components. 2. Older systems had much smaller power supplies.

The measurement should be about +12 V. A L EV 76 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Repair or Replace? You should never attempt to repair a power supply. Power supply voltage levels can be deadly. The fan and openings around the power supply bring in air to cool system components. Power down the computer. O PY . If this happens. or prevent the fan from working. You should always replace it when it has a problem. 7. you can try simply cleaning the power supply. 13. 10.6. 9. If you need to service a power supply. computer-grade capacitors can hold a charge. Sometimes. Locate a free Molex connector. 11. Insert the multimeter’s black probe into the black (GND) lead of the power connector. There are several symptoms of a problem power supply. constantly rebooting itself. but they also allow dirt and dust to gather around the power supply. 8. be sure to unplug the system before beginning to work on it. Set your multimeter to measure DC voltage. make sure it is cool before removing it. The measurement should be about +5 V. Examine the voltage measured by the multimeter. Examine the voltage measured by the multimeter. Also. Insert the multimeter’s red probe into the red (+5) lead of the power connector. You can use compressed air to remove this debris from the system. or the fan not working. it can short out the power supply. T C 12. Even after being unplugged. Insert the multimeter’s black probe into the black (GND) lead of the power connector. Insert the multimeter’s red probe into the yellow (+12) lead of the power connector. O N Servicing Power Supplies O 14. These include the computer not booting. This is referred to as “swapping out” components.

EV A L -D 7. and check those connections. To facilitate reconnecting the internal devices later. Remove any screws that mount the power supply to the computer chassis. 3. Disconnect the power supply’s system connector from the system board. 6. N Take a few minutes to examine the physical characteristics of the power supply. 4. mount the power supply to the computer chassis. O T Lesson 3: System Components 77 C O PY 1. The connector to the system board has a plastic tab that locks the connector in place. Can you determine the power supply’s power rating? 8. Disconnect the power supply’s power connectors from all internal devices. 5. To re-install the power supply. 11. You can press the tab to release the lock.TASK 3A-2: Replacing a Power Supply Setup: The computer enclosure has already been removed and the computer is powered down. Turn on the computer and wait for the operating system to load. O Answers will vary. 10. 9. Reconnect all external cables. you should make note of which device each power connector services. Using the screws you removed earlier. 2. If you don’t hear the floppy drive search for a disk or the operating system doesn’t load. slide it back into the appropriate location on the computer chassis. You can usually find the power supply rating (in Watts) on a label on the surface of the power supply. and then work the connector loose. Slide the power supply out of the enclosure. Unplug the power cord from the computer. Reconnect the power connectors to their respective internal devices. If so. including the power cable. power down the computer. you may not have reconnected the power connectors correctly. .

before the UPS battery will engage. replace the power supply or take it out and send it for service. or short-term undervoltages. Standby systems often can’t solve sag problems. overvoltages (spikes). especially drives. If that doesn’t turn on. Standby UPS A standby UPS (SUPS) uses a battery to supply power when a power problem occurs. It might be damaged from overheating. the power supply should start working again. spikes. especially on ATX systems. If the noise isn’t from the fan. or short circuits. If this is the problem. the system won’t turn on. A standby UPS shouldn’t create power transients of its own during the switch from wall voltage to battery voltage. 78 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Power problems can be cured. or altogether. Once the rear power switch is turned on. Sometimes referred to as standby power supply (SPS). clean it with a PC vacuum or compressed air. can also sometimes make a lot of noise. An accumulation of dust and dirt can lead to fan failure. At times of normal power operation. it will short-circuit the power supply. If the power supply itself isn’t working. the better the UPS. a motorized device on the same circuit as your computer could cause a sag when the motor starts. by the use of a UPS (uninterruptible power supply). Sags are usually caused by heavy loads placed on the electrical system. For example. Standby UPSs are rated on their switching time—the faster the UPS switches from wall voltage to the battery during a power anomaly. • • Other components. you know that you have a bad outlet and not necessarily a bad power supply. The most common of these power problems is power sags.Power Supply Problems and Their Prevention Computer systems require a steady supply of electricity. lightning. O • T Check that the connections from the power supply to the system board are secure. C Here are several things you can try when you suspect a problem with a power supply: • Make sure that there is power to the outlet. UPSs come in at least two varieties. Make sure this isn’t where the noise is coming from. Often the wall voltage must fail significantly. leading to longer UPS life. it just sends a signal to the system board to turn the PC on. EV standby UPS: SUPS are UPSs that supply power from a battery when power problems are detected. You can do so by plugging in a lamp or other device that you know works. O PY . O A whine or squeal from the power supply area is usually from the fan. A L UPS: An uninterruptible power supply is a device intended to save computer components from damage due to power problems such as failures. If you fix the short (by putting the power cable onto the drive correctly). and sags. but from another power supply component. The power switch at the rear of an ATX system doesn’t turn on power on ATX systems. often referred to as a clean power source. The power supply can detect this problem and disable itself. you need to press the power button on the front of the computer. Interruptions (brownouts and failures). power is supplied from the normal electrical system. or undervoltages (sags) can cause your systems to fail. standby and online. This method places minimal burden on the batteries and power inverters in the UPS. in most situations. N If a power connection is incorrectly attached (such as to a drive).

recognizable problems associated with power supplies? N TASK 3A-3: O Lesson 3: System Components 79 O A Web site that compares different power protection is at www. because the power is supplied from the battery at all times. PY online UPS: A UPS that supplies power from a battery at all times. 2. What can you do to minimize the effects of EMI and RFI on power supplies? Install a line conditioner.com/ref/ power/ext/comp. A UPS switches to battery power during an outage without delay and supplies power even when the power line is functioning properly. Online UPSs generally filter power to reduce or remove power spikes. Line Conditioners A line conditioner is used to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). EMI usually occurs when the computer’s power supply is too close to another power source. line conditioner: A device that reduces noise and some power problems. online UPSs prevent power sags. Such a UPS system usually supplies cleaner power at the cost of quicker battery failure. Power from the normal electrical system is used to constantly charge the batteries. O What are some common. it provides no protection from blackouts. computer repeatedly restarts. It also provides high protection from surges and good protection from lightning and sags. However.Online UPS An online UPS supplies power to your systems from its batteries at all times.pcguide. An SPS switches to battery power during an outage. .htm. Describe the difference between a standby power supply (SPS) and an uninterruptible power supply (UPS). 3. mainly implemented because of its ability to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI). but there are a few milli-seconds when the computer isn’t receiving any power. EV A L -D Computer doesn’t boot at all. T C Diagnosing Power Supplies 1. A line conditioner provides very pure protection from line noise. RFI usually occurs when the computer’s power supply is too close to a device that generates radio waves. The battery is recharged from the regular electrical supply. Additionally. This is because a surge of electricity into all system components will occur when the power comes back on. because the constant charging of the battery can lead to premature failure. be sure to turn off the power. After a power interruption of more than a few seconds. or power supply is hot from a failed cooling fan.

C O Although most people don’t realize it. the BIOS is loaded into memory. . O T One of the most important functions of the BIOS is booting up the system. the system halts without displaying any message. A series of checksums are computed and. The BIOS then performs a subroutine typically known as POST (Power-On Self Test). The BIOS. If this test fails. PY BIOS stands for Basic Input/Output System.Topic 3B ROM BIOS BIOS: Stands for Basic Input/ Output System. although the full term is used infrequently. you will hear a long beep followed by two short beeps. When people say “the BIOS. When the PC is first turned on. and often the POST. POST beep codes indicate the area of the boot problem. Windows 95. System halts if this test fails. Description of Test If this test fails. SCSI host adapters. Low-level software that acts as the interface between the hardware and the operating system in a computer. there are also BIOSs to control PC peripherals. Signal is sent to adapter to activate floppy drive motor. and it needs to find instructions to tell it what to do. A series of built-in diagnostics that are performed when the computer is first started. performs a system inventory to determine what sort of hardware is in the system. hard drives. and so on). Boards are initialized and. The Boot Process A L EV 80 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D POST: Stands for Power-On Self Test. if they don’t match. and other peripherals can also contain their own BIOS instructions. The system BIOS is the lowest-level software in the computer. it acts as an interface between the hardware (chip set and processor) and the operating system (DOS. the expansion board’s ROM gets copied to upper memory. However. the boot process stops. ROM BIOS gets copied into RAM memory. System halts if this test fails. Presence of keyboard and any stuck keys. the system then halts. Parallel and serial ports are queried. the system halts. Counts and tests RAM by writing a bit to each memory bit. Typically. If this test fails. if necessary. If there are any fatal errors. Processor ROM BIOS O Component DMA controller Interrupt controller Timing chip BASIC ROM Video card Expansion boards RAM memory Keyboard Floppy drive Other resources N When your PC is powered on.” they are generally referring to the main system BIOS. Each time the system is booted. there are in fact several different BIOSs in your PC. Proprietary codes are generated (POST codes) that indicate test results. These instructions are found within the BIOS program. the PC’s video card has its own BIOS that contains hardware-driving instructions for displaying video information. if the test succeeds. Only occurs on older PCs with built-in BASIC. the components are checked in the order found in the following table. system looks for an operating system to load. its main system memory is empty. you will hear a long beep followed by a short beep.

check video cable. either an error code number or a series of beeps will tell you which error is present. Check for monitor power. check display adapter. check for sufficient wall voltage. one short beep None or incorrect display (garbage) Error code number Probably none Probably none Probably none Display See the next table for a list of error codes and their interpretations. The following table lists the error-code numbers and their meanings. wall voltage. POST Results PY . check display adapter. the Power-On Self Test (POST) routine checks your system for hardware errors. Check for monitor power. May be a defective speaker. Check for monitor power. one long beep Two short beeps Plug and Play is described in more detail in the Bus Architectures lesson. including configuration errors. Also written as PnP. check for sufficient wall voltage. Check for monitor power. check video cable. three short beeps A Probably none Probably none L Two short beeps Repeating short beeps Continuous tone One long. If so. Lesson 3: System Components 81 O Plug and Play: Method to have the operating system automatically configure adapter settings. I/O address. check for proper power connections to the system board. the main BIOS looks for the video card BIOS and then other peripheral BIOSs and runs them. PC’s power supply. check video cable. POST Error Codes -D Power Power System board Display Display O Check the PC’s power supply. If the BIOS supports the Plug and Play standard. and chips are seated firmly. Normally. check display adapter. Power-On Self Test As mentioned. it will detect and configure Plug and Play devices at this time and display a message on the screen for each one it finds. check video cable. Check to see that all adapters. This might not be possible with the more serious error conditions. EV One long. Check the PC’s power supply. check display adapter. use diagnostics software or hardware to further troubleshoot the system board. two short beeps One long. memory. C N O T Video Output DOS prompt None Cursor DOS prompt None Problem None (normal startup beep) Power Power None Display Solution None Check power cords. Audio Error Code One or more short beeps None None None One short. Check the PC’s power supply. or Base Memory address conflicts.In newer PCs. The following table lists common audio and video POST error codes and their meanings. check for sufficient wall voltage. pressing [F1] will enable you to acknowledge the error and continue booting. The POST routine might detect interrupt.

You can then configure as appropriate. CMOS was introduced with the AT system boards. Memory: Some systems require you to specify in CMOS how much RAM is installed on the system. If you can’t access CMOS for whatever reason. • • • • Drive order: The order that POST checks drives for the operating system. you configure things from the keyboard. Display: Specify the monitor type. EV Configuring Through CMOS L 82 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D You can change the CMOS settings by accessing the menu and making the appropriate changes at the keyboard. Prior to the use of CMOS. Also. O N O T C O PY . you can configure CMOS without needing to pop the cover. Virtually everything is configured through CMOS today. Drive type: Specifies the type of hard drive attached to the system. settings were configured with jumpers and switches. Some of the things you can configure through CMOS are: • Password: You can specify whether a password is required following the POST. you can remove the CMOS battery and it will lose all of its settings and return to factory defaults. It allows for more configuration options than the switches and jumpers did.POST Error Code 02# 01## 0104 0106 0151 0162 0163 164 or 0164 199 or 0199 02## 201 or 0201 0202 03## 0301 0302 06## 0601 0602 17## 1701 1704 1707 1714 1730-1732 Problem Power System board Interrupt controller System board Real-time clock or CMOS RAM CMOS checksum error Time and date (clock not updating) System memory configuration incorrect User-indicated device list incorrect Memory Memory error (may give memory address) Memory address error Keyboard Stuck key (scan code of the key may be indicated) Keyboard locked Floppy-disk driver or controller Floppy-disk adapter failure Disk failure Hard disk or adapter Drive not ready or fails tests Hard-drive controller failure Track 0 failure Drive not ready Drive adapter failure CMOS A CMOS: Stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor and pronounced “see-moss. CMOS is a memory area with battery backup used to store system configuration settings. CMOS will display error messages through the POST.” The most widely used type of integrated circuit for digital processors and memories.

you need to tell the BIOS about the new hardware you just added. This generally happens when the physical device is different than what is specified in CMOS. Other devices such as hard drives can also generate mismatch errors. Indicate the order in which the following components are checked during a POST: 2 9 11 5 12 1 4 10 3 6 8 BIOS ROM RAM Floppy drives System timing Ports Processor Interrupt controller Keyboard DMA controller BASIC ROMs EV Configuring the ROM BIOS In the ROM BIOS. you configure the basic settings for your hardware.• The messages Bad or missing command interpreter and Non-system disk or disk error are generated when the system can’t access the operating system. or a loose connection to the battery. The error Memory Size Mismatch is displayed if the amount of RAM detected and the amount specified in CMOS don’t match. although you might need to reboot to fix it. • • • TASK 3B-1: Identifying the Power-On Self-Test (POST) Sequence 1. You can also set the date and time and specify a password for booting the system. This can happen from a bad or dead battery. For example. The error Display Type Mismatch is displayed if the video settings don’t match the monitor attached to the system. Try replacing the battery and see if it clears up the problem. the system board might be bad (or getting bad). The error CMOS Checksum Failure is generated if the CMOS memory is corrupted. if you add a second hard drive. The ROM BIOS also lets you configure ports A Expansion board initialization L -D O N Lesson 3: System Components 83 7 Video card O T C O PY . If it doesn’t. This error is usually self-correcting.

5. In most cases. Lastly. Answers will vary. Today. Answers will vary. To find out which key to press. Answers will vary. the most common way to upgrade your BIOS was to install a new BIOS chip on your system board. you can reprogram the BIOS with the lastest version provided by the manufacturer. you can use the BIOS to establish the boot order for devices. For example. In the past. System board manufacturers periodically release BIOS upgrades. Current Setting Answers will vary. most BIOSs can be flashed. a message on the screen indicates which key or keys to press. Shut down the operating system and restart the computer. L A EV 84 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 4. BIOS Option Diskette Primary Master Primary Slave Secondary Master Secondary Slave CPU Speed Level 1 Cache Level 2 Cache Boot Sequence N Using the keystrokes defined on the BIOS menu. Lastly. 3. O T C O TASK 3B-2: PY . the names of BIOS options may differ from those listed in this task. navigate the BIOS screens to complete the information in the following table. 2. Exit the BIOS without saving any changes. Answers will vary. that is. Press the appropriate key to enter the BIOS setup utility.and reserve system resources for specific cards. you can download BIOS upgrades from the system board manufacturer’s support site on the Internet. Answers will vary. you can configure the ROM BIOS to boot from a different hard drive controller or from a CD-ROM. Answers will vary. Examining the BIOS Settings of a Computer 1. Restart the computer to load the operating system. Answers will vary. Answers will vary. you can carefully watch the initial text-based screen as the computer starts. most modern BIOSs let you configure power management on your system. O On some computers.

These are processors that don’t require instructions to be of a fixed length. -D Processors are either CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) processors or RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) processors. These newer sockets are referred to as ZIF sockets (Zero Insertion Force). and allow for more complicated functions to be executed in one instruction. CISC processors don’t require instructions to be of a fixed length. Others used standard 169-pin screw machine sockets. T Original CPUs were sometimes soldered onto the system board. It takes around 100 pounds of force to install a chip in this type of socket. and that allow for more complicated functions to be executed in one instruction. Most of the Intel x86 processors explained later in this topic fall into this category of processors. than CISC. making their instructions simpler. the pins. requiring no force to insert or remove a processor chip. PY The CPU (Central Processing Unit) is the brain of the computer. and fewer. ZIF socket: A Zero Insertion Force socket is a type of processor socket that uses a lever to tighten or loosen the pin connections between the processor chip and the socket. This little component is the most costly of any system component. making RISC instructions simpler. the CPU performs software instructions. C Lesson 3: System Components 85 O CPUs The CPU is relatively easy to locate. We’ll look at sockets more closely later in this topic. Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) processors require instructions to be of a fixed length. since it is the biggest chip on the system board. In more recent years. manufactured by Motorola and IBM. L Intel Family Processors RISC: Stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. These look like big tweezers with bent over ends which go under the edge of the chip so you can pull it out. other companies have started making compatible chips. . because they use a lever to tighten or loosen the pin connections between the processor chip and the socket. It was easy to damage the socket. and fewer. and mathematical and logical equations. they became faster and more features were integrated into the CPU that were previously carried out outside of the CPU. The main chip on the system board. You needed to use a special type of tool called a chip extractor to remove the chip. These are processors that require instructions to be of a fixed length. CISC: Stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. Macintosh computers use RISC processors.Topic 3C Central Processing Units CPU: Stands for Central Processing Unit. O N O As chips developed. Newer PCs make it even easier to find because it is usually installed in a larger socket. than CISC. or the chips. but more instructions are required to carry out a single function. CISC and RISC Instruction Sets EV A Intel makes the majority of CPUs. these include Advanced Micro Devices (AMD) and Cyrix. but more instructions are required to carry out a single function. This is where software instructions are performed and math and logic equations are performed. Among others.

12. The 286 could run at 8. or 20 MHz. 286 CPU The IBM AT systems introduced the 80286 CPU along with the new AT system board. the 8086 wasn’t used in the original IBM PC. Both systems use about 12 cycles per instruction and run at about 4. O T C O PY . This was a major improvement over the 1 MB allowed by the 8086/8088 chips. The 8086 is about 20 percent faster than the 8088 due to the 16-bit external bus. Intel CPUs 8086 and 8088 CPUs A L EV 86 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The 8086 was a 16-bit chip. Two of the most important features introduced with the 286 chip were the real and protected modes. However. which had a 16-bit internal bus and an 8-bit external bus.Figure 3-3: CPUs. although later this was improved to 8 MHz. Another improvement was running at 4. the Compaq Deskpro and the AT&T 6300 both used the 8086. The 286 allows 16 MB of addressable memory. 10. IBM finally used it when they introduced their PS/2-25 and PS/2-30 systems. The PS/2-50 and PS/2-60 also used the 286 chip. A 20-bit address bus allows access to 1 MB of RAM. O N Let’s take a look at the various Intel CPU chips that have been used. It used 16-bit internal and external buses.77 MHz. Since it was believed that people wouldn’t pay the higher cost for this chip over the cost of the 8088.5 cycles per instruction.

This idea is very important to all of the Windows-based operating systems. If one of the programs in the multitasking computer “hangs up. Protected mode also supports virtual memory.• Real mode refers to the CPU addressing the first 1 MB of conventional memory by assigning real addresses to real memory locations. The CPU still thought it was just working with a single machine. It also was designed to allow one program to fail without affecting other programs. L Uses CMOS to reduce power requirements and allow the system to be configured through software. there needed to be a way to access more memory. the result—the idea of the virtual machine. Although real mode provides backward compatibility with the 8086. each virtual machine runs as a standalone 8086 running its own operating system and applications. It can run programs written for the 8086 without modification. the first 640 K of memory. The 386 finally had a protected mode that worked more consistently than that introduced with the 286. the 286 CPU acts like it was an 8086/8088 CPU. Protected mode allows things in RAM to be swapped to disk to make room for other things to go into RAM. A Lesson 3: System Components 87 O In real mode. protected mode: In PCs. and other operating systems can be running simultaneously. it prevents the use of the 80286’s additional features. Although MS-DOS (through version 6. In a 386 and higher machine. • T In protected mode. thus. The single physical machine could make each copy of DOS seem like it was running on its own machine. Problems in one region of memory cannot negatively affect programs running in other regions of memory.2) does not directly support protected mode. which are available in protected mode. it can address up to 1 GB of total memory. an operational state that allows the computer to address all of its memory.) In order for protected mode to work. the 80286 operates similar to an 8086. Under direction of a control program. Although the microprocessor can address only 16 MB of real memory. All virtual machines are multitasked together. though. the 80286 can address up to 16 MB of memory. It also prevents an errant program from entering into the memory boundary of another. DOS applications run in real mode. conventional memory: In a PC. UNIX. the CPU and the operating system had to work together to swap information in and out of memory. -D Some features of the 386 chip include: • A 32-bit processor. The ability to run several real mode sessions simultaneously through virtual machines. UNIX and OS/2 do. Each of these virtual machines can address only 1 MB of RAM. N O EV The 386 protected mode used virtual real mode to simulate the 8086/8088 real mode.” you do not have to reboot the computer. (This didn’t work too well. it provides access to 32-bit instructions and sophisticated memory management modes. When the 80286 is in real mode. C The 386 Family of CPUs • • • The ability to switch between protected and real mode without resetting the system. DOS. both internally and externally. By partitioning memory. each partition runs its own copy of DOS acting like each was a separate DOS machine. and supports multitasking by protecting memory regions. which is limited to accessing 1 MB of memory. starting with the 286. unless they have been enhanced with a DOS extender that allows them to use more memory. it cannot return to protected mode unless you reset the computer. real mode: An operational state in Intel CPU chips (starting with the 286) in which the computer functions like the first Intel CPU chip (8086/8088). People were now willing to pay a little extra to get more RAM for their systems. PY . virtual machine: The ability of a CPU to perform as multiple 8086 CPUs. O With the introduction of programs such as Windows that required more and more memory. A true multitasking system could now load multiple copies of DOS. In real mode.

386DX The 386DX chip implements all of the 386 features. the 286 CPU was rendered obsolete. These include: • • • full 32-bit processing including internal registers. and T With the 386. These features were later incorporated in all CPUs. It includes a cache controller which can control 16 to 64 K of external processor cache. 386SL EV 88 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D The 386SL chip was introduced for laptops. and 4 GB of physical memory can be addressed. C 386SX O PY . • a 24-bit memory address bus that can only address 16 MB of RAM.The 386 began the tradition of having several variations of a CPU on the market. and power management logic. 16 to 33 MHz clock speeds. Even with these limitations. and memory address bus. It also introduced the system management interrupt for power management such as prolonging battery charge and sleep mode. The 386SX still had better memory management and could use virtual real mode. Each of the variations offers different performance and features. DMA and interrupt controllers. the 386 DX). It also introduced the 82360SL subsystem which provided peripheral functions for serial and parallel ports. O N O The differences between the DX and SX include: • a 16-bit external bus. It ran at 25 MHz. It is a lower-power chip. but also save money by not having all of the features implemented in some variations. The price of the 386SX was closer to that of the 286 CPUs. internal and external buses. Intel introduced lower price-point CPUs that weren’t as fully featured as the complete CPU (in this case. This allows you to take advantage of a set of new features in the CPU.

It is usually faster than main memory. In this process. In older PCs. • EV The 486 SL Enhanced chip for laptops included system management mode for power management and suspend and resume modes to bring the computer back up in a matter of seconds. burst mode. This is usually 8 or 16 K. including being the same speed. a 33 MHz 80386 chip must be paired with a 33 MHz 80387 if you’re going to add a math coprocessor to the system. and the ability to upgrade the CPU. this is referred to as a burst. The 486 DX2/Overdrive was a chip with the speed doubled. The cache area can be in RAM. but the marketing push came about with the 386 systems. or in dedicated cache chips. math coprocessor: A mathematical circuit that performs high-speed floating point operations. Let’s examine just what this means. These are 80x87 chips that match up with the 80x86 CPU. For example. N O Cache chips that have their own internal clock use synchronous burst mode. T C Lesson 3: System Components 89 O cache: Dedicated high-speed memory for storing recently used instructions and data. PY These math coprocessors were always available (since the 8086). The 486 DX4/Overdrive was a chip with the speed tripled.Math Coprocessors Math coprocessors or floating point units were designed to be added to a system to help with math calculations. the speed can be the same or different from the system board clock speed. Other improvements include two cycles per instruction. such as the 386SX and 486SX. the math coprocessor was an optional and separate chip. 486 Variations As with the 386. Cache is an area in memory reserved for storing data the CPU thinks will be needed again soon. This is like having a cache for the cache. Pipeline burst uses a less expensive internal storage area called a register to hold data in place of the internal clock on a cache chip. Still. It also has fewer transistors than the DX version of the 486. on disk. Originally. Level 1 cache does help with system performance since it is built into the processor and is faster than accessing RAM. • • A L • The 486 SX was designed for budget-conscious consumers. the 486 introduced several variations to allow more flexibility in price and features. only one address is sent to the CPU for a stream of data. which included all the functionality described earlier. Level 1 cache is also called L1 cache. The coprocessor chip must match the CPU. it was designed to work only on 486 SX systems. If it is in dedicated chips. and Level 2 cache is also called L2 cache. It is generally built into the CPU chip. 486 CPU The 486 CPU is about twice the speed of the 386. -D O Level 1 internal cache is built into the CPU and isn’t limited to the system board clock speed. you need to have Level 2 cache since the Level 1 cache is so small. These included: • The 486 DX. To really boost system performance. incorporation of Level 1 internal cache. but it was soon designed to also work with the DX. . It basically just disabled the internal math coprocessor. a built-in math coprocessor.

go to www.000 lines per inch on the chip. the Pentium was born. and internal memory cache.28.3 or 2. Pentiums use a 32-bit (earlier models) or 36-bit (later models) address bus. with the exception of some mobile Pentium processors. These processors used five volts for operation.org. 120 MHz. Thus. instead of calling the processor the 586 (80586). depending on the processor.com and www. 66 MHz. The cache of a Pentium is configured through CMOS to improve performance. The Pentium also takes advantage of the SL features of power management.sandpile.intel. and generate less heat. and a lower internal. With the introduction of the Pentium 75 in 1994.18 to 0. You can also find information on AMD and Cyrix processors at www. This design uses a higher external voltage (also called I/O voltage). with processors today most often using the 0. at 3. EV dual-voltage: Design that enables use of a higher external voltage (also called I/O voltage). Later Pentiums can access 64 GB of RAM. Chips manufactured using 0.1 million transistors. which runs between 1. 150 MHz.com. For a wealth of detailed and updated processor specification information.cyrix.com. which is the external voltage used by all Pentium processors introduced after the Pentium 66. Intel’s major competitors in the processor market include AMD. The Pentium Manufacturing Process and Chip Voltages The 60 and 66 MHz Pentiums were manufactured using the 0. Intel switched to manufacturing processors using the 0.6 micron process. 133 MHz. Clock speeds for the original Pentium included 60 MHz. 90 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O For detailed and updated information on AMD’s and Cyrix’s processors. making the use of a heat sink (explained later in this topic) and fan a necessity. which enables drawing 21. The resulting chips use a fair amount of power. and www. The name is derived from the Latin word for the number 5.3 volts.amd.35 volts and 2. go to http:// developer. The original Pentium could access 4 GB of memory (the same as the 386/486 chips). 180 Mhz.sandpile. voltage. and have two 8 KB Level 1 caches. and 200 MHz.18 micron process technology.35. It is manufactured using Bipolar CMOS to increase performance at least 30 percent over regular CMOS. This design is also called split-rail.org.000 lines per inch on the chip.com. They can run on 3. For detailed and updated information on processors from these manufacturers check out their websites at www. which can use 2. www. The original P60 (60 MHz) Pentium had 3. and 0.intel.18 micron process technology.com. and Cyrix. Newer chips use a design called dual-voltage or split-rail.5 volts. a 64-bit external data bus.org. clocking.5 V external voltage. but heat sinks and fans are still necessary. and generate a lot of heat. 166 MHz. Over time.amd.cyrix. T C O PY . and www. 100 Mhz. 0.sandpile. or core.25 and 0.Pentium CPUs Processor information changes constantly.8 micron process. http://support. 75 MHz. and a lower internal (also called core) voltage for processors. they decided to use trademarkable names. and dual 32-bit internal registers.6 micron processes need less power. 0.com.25.9 volts. After Intel found that it couldn’t trademark its chips named with numbers. the manufacturing process evolved to using 0. This process enables drawing 16. 90 MHz. to provide compatibility with other chips on the system board.

Speculative execution and branch prediction are necessary because of the Pentium’s superscalar technology. N O Speculative Execution and Branch Prediction T C O Register Renaming A L Register renaming uses multiple sets of registers in the processor to provide multiple execution paths. branch prediction: The process of the CPU trying to anticipate which code will be used next. hoping that this will be the next necessary instruction. and write) of four instructions. decode. instruction number 2 is executed. simple instructions. the V pipeline can handle only certain.5 MHz per instruction. execute. This term refers to the ability of the CPU chip to overlap the execution steps (fetch. instruction number 3 is decoded. and executing one or more instructions as a result of the guess. With branch prediction. . register renaming: Technology that uses multiple sets of registers in the processor to provide multiple execution paths. multiple instructions being executed at the same time don’t have to fight for the same register. multiple instructions may be executed and the processor will discard the instruction that turned out to be unnecessary. called the U and V pipelines. EV Lesson 3: System Components 91 O superpipelining: The ability of the CPU chip to overlap the execution steps (fetch. and finally write the results. This can be written as two instructions per cycle or 0. the processor decides on a specific instruction to execute. based on past history. This means that while the results of instruction number 1 are written. -D Pentiums also use speculative execution and branch prediction. Superpipelining Another method of improving processing speed is called superpipelining. With speculative execution. and instruction number 4 is fetched. execute. This way. decode. The U pipeline can handle any Pentium instruction. then decode it. speculative execution: The process of the CPU trying to guess which instruction will be used next. which instruction will be executed next. A single instruction requires the processor to first read the instruction. Both of these features improve processor performance. using the U and V pipelines. PY superscalar: Technology that enables the CPU to execute two instructions simultaneously. so that the CPU can execute two instructions simultaneously and independently. then execute the instruction. This can increase performance from four clock cycles per instruction to one clock cycle per instruction. the process both guesses at (speculative execution) and tries to predict—based on past history—(branch prediction).Superscalar Technology Pentium systems use a superscalar technology based on dual pipelines. and write) of four instructions. based on past history. and executing that code. next get operands. Rather than waiting for each instruction to finish to obtain results and identify the next necessary instruction.

can have clock speeds of 150 MHz to 200 MHz.66-inch 387-pin PGA design (explained later in this topic). Pentium II. introducing higher clock speeds.5 million. and one from the processor to L2 cache. The package includes both the processor core and the on-board Level 2 cache. The Pentium Pro was packaged using a 2. T C O PY Dual Independent Bus (DIB) . such as computer-aided design (CAD) programs. as well as high-end workstations running advanced applications. correct program execution is assured. This architecture uses two buses—one from the processor to main memory. It was introduced to satisfy the demands of 32-bit server operating systems. Celeron. and Pentium III chips support the Windows operating system. It requires the use of a specialized ZIF socket. can address up to 64 GB of RAM. out-of-order completion: Technology that enables superscalar processors to re-assemble the results of instructions that were finished out of order into the correct order. Pentium Pro EV 92 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D The Pentium Pro was the first new generation Pentium chip. Celeron. It has a 64-bit data bus. The Pentium III Xeon chip also supports the UNIX operating system. Pentium. This way. and newer instruction sets. or 1 MB Level 2 cache. Some motherboards boast sockets for both a regular Pentium and a Pentium Pro chip. The Pentium Pro’s internal architecture is RISC. Pentium III. This increases throughput. and it uses a CISC to RISC translator.46-inch by 2.3 V. and one from the processor to the L2 cache. introduced in 1995. Processors Beyond the Original Pentium Pentium Pro. but typically. Pentium MMX. It featured a large increase in addressable RAM and the addition of Level 2 cache. thus increasing throughput.Out-of-order Completion Out-of-order completion enables superscalar processors to re-assemble the results of instructions that were finished out of order into the correct order. the processor is able to access both buses at the same time. and has two 8 KB Level 1 caches. Pentium III. Pentium Pro. and Xeon chips have been developed since the original Pentium was released to the market in early 1993. 512. more addressable RAM. The external and internal voltage is 3. The Pentium Pro is no longer sold today. Using DIB architecture. The total number of transistors on a Pentium Pro is 5. The Pentium Pro can support up to four CPUs. and a 256. you have to choose one or the other. larger caches. and Pentium III Xeon chips are optimized for the Windows NT operating system (32-bit). DIB (Dual Independent Bus) architecture in Pentium processors means that two buses are used: one from the processor to the main memory. O N O DIB: Dual Independent Bus is the architecture used in Pentium processors. Pentium MMX. Pentium II. so that correct program execution is assured. Pentium.

can have clock speeds of 133 to 300 MHz. The acceleration of calculations used in 2D and 3D graphics. depending on the process technology and CPU packaging used. 350 MHz. N O T Pentium II C SIMD: Single Instruction Multiple Data is a processing technique that allows a single instruction to work on multiple pieces of data.Pentium with MMX The MMX (multimedia extensions) were added to the Pentium chip in 1996 to help handle sound. can address up to 64 GB of RAM.3 V (0. and the internal voltage ranges from 1.5 V (0. speech synthesis. which has 7. and has two 16 KB Level 1 caches and a 512 KB Level 2 cache.5 million transistors. video.8 V. Its external voltage is 3. can address up to 64 GB of RAM.0 V for processors manufactured using the 0. and is no longer sold today. 3D. It also uses SIMD (Single Instruction Multiple Data) processing. or 1 GHz). particularly the performance of advanced imaging. video. and 2. can address up to 4 GB of RAM. which was also introduced in 1999. It has a 64-bit data bus. MMX provides 57 additional new instructions to help with multimedia and communications applications. streaming audio.25 to 0. Only software written specially to use MMX takes advantage of these improvements. and uses 0. can have clock speeds of 233 MHz. and 450 MHz.18 micron process technology. and speech recognition.3 V). the next generation Pentium chip was the Pentium II. EV Pentium III Next came the Pentium III chip. and was developed to significantly improve the user’s Internet experience. It has a 64-bit data bus. 400 MHz.30 and 2. Earlier Pentium IIIs were produced with 0. 333 MHz. and higher (up to 1000 MHz. can have clock speeds of 450 MHz. This chip has a 64-bit data bus. can have clock speeds of 333 MHz. The Pentium MMX has a 64-bit data bus. It has 4. 500 MHz.25 Lesson 3: System Components 93 A Next in the development of Intel chips was the Celeron.28 micron) or 2. and a 128 KB Level 2 cache on 300 MHz. can address up to 64 GB of RAM. 400 MHz.28 micron process technology. and voice recognition is in the range of eight times the speed of systems without MMX technology.28 micron process technology.3 V. It has 9. which was introduced in 1999. L -D Celeron O Introduced in 1997. has two 16 KB Level 1 caches and a 256 KB or 512 KB Level 2 cache.8 V for processors manufactured using the 0. or higher chips. It integrates MMX technology. video. and has two 16 KB Level 1 caches.25 to 0. This means that a single instruction can work on multiple pieces of data when an application performs a repetitive loop.8 V to 2. It is a lower-cost chip aimed at the lower-end consumer market. and graphics required of today’s systems.5 million transistors. and its internal voltage is 2. It includes 70 new SIMD instructions.28 micron process technology. and has an internal voltage of between 1.5 million transistors and uses 0. 600 MHz. and higher (up to 700 MHz). The external voltage is 3. 300 MHz.25 and 0. .0 V (external voltage is 3. and has two 16 KB Level 1 caches.25 micron process technology. O PY MMX: A set of additional instructions to support multimedia functions and beyond.25 micron). The Celeron is produced using 0. a significant increase over earlier Pentiums. 350 MHz. The Pentium II was replaced by the Pentium III. 266 MHz. 333 MHz.

Internal voltage for the Pentium III was 2. 1 MB or 2 MB Level 2 cache. up to two processors. 150 MHz. Its internal voltage is 2. 180 Mhz.0 V or 2. 450 MHz 64-bit 4 GB T Pentium Processor Clock speeds Data bus Addressable RAM Caches C The Pentium III Xeon chip was the next chip brought to market in 1999. 266 MHz. up to four processors. 150 MHz.8 V/3. Pentium with MMX A L Pentium II EV 94 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Two 8 KB L1 PY Multiprocessor support Yes. and a 256 KB. and one 512 KB L2 Yes. Starting with some models of the 500 MHz Pentium. Pentium Pentium Pro -D 60 MHz.18 micron process technology. 350 MHz. 300 MHz 233 MHz. Pentium III Xeon .3 V O N 64-bit 64 GB 64-bit 4 GB Two 16 KB L1.3 V Yes. Starting with some models of the 550 MHz Pentium III. can have clock speeds from 550 MHz to 1 GHz. 512 KB. 120 MHz. and has two 16 KB Level 1 caches.3 V/3. 400 MHz. such as new generation servers.3 V/ 3. and one 256 KB. 166 MHz.8 V or 5/12 V (allowing operation at either 5 V or 12 V). The Pentium III can support multiprocessing with up to two CPUs.3 V (not split) 3. 75 MHz. 512 KB. or 3.8 V for earlier models. O Internal/ external voltage 5 V/5 V (not split). 200 MHz 150 MHz.0 V or lower.micron process technology.3 V/2. it is 2.5 V or 3. 333 MHz. can address up to 64 GB of RAM. 64-bit 64 GB Two 16 KB L1. The Pentium III Xeon chip has a 64-bit data bus. 66 MHz. 300 MHz. 200 MHz 133 MHz. 233 MHz. 133 MHz. It features much larger and improved Level 2 cache. 100 Mhz. 1. It supports multiprocessing for up to eight CPUs. 180 MHz. 166 MHz. 90 MHz.3 V 2.8 V to 3. or 1 MB L2 Two 16 KB L1 Yes. up to two processors. they are produced with 0. The Xeon was designed for multiprocessor computers. 166 MHz. 200 MHz. 266 MHz. up to two processors.

533 MHz.8 V or 5/12 V/3. up to eight processors. 466 MHz. 550 MHz. 433 MHz. 600 MHz. 1 MB.3 V Yes. 1000 MHz Data bus 64-bit Addressable RAM Caches 64 GB Two 16 KB L1. 566 MHz. 866 MHz.1 V/3. 700 MHz 450 MHz. 750 MHz.Pentium Processor Celeron Clock speeds 266 MHz. 866 MHz.8 V)/3. 850 MHz. 667 MHz. 600 MHz. up to two processors. O Lesson 3: System Components 95 T Two 16 KB L1. 650 MHz. and one 128 KB L2 on models 300A and above Internal/ external voltage 1. 500 MHz. C O PY . 667 MHz. Intel Pentium III 64-bit 64 GB EV A L -D Intel Pentium III Xeon 64-bit 64 GB O Two 16 KB L1. 500 MHz. 533 MHz. and one 256 or 512 KB L2 1. 800 MHz. 1000 MHz 600 MHz.5 V to 2. 933 MHz. 512 KB. 300 MHz. 366 MHz. 667 MHz.30 to 2. 400 MHz. 733 MHz. 933 MHz. or 2 MB L2 N 2. 633 MHz.3 V Multiprocessor support No. and 256 KB. 700 MHz.3 V Yes. 800 MHz.05 V (earlier models 2. 333 MHz. 700 MHz. 733 MHz.

3. 386. Pentium II.5 V external voltage. providing backward compatibility with existing DOS and Windows applications. Pentium III. 4. featuring a completely new design and instruction set.3 to 12 V internal voltage. 286. Clock speeds will be between 600 MHz and 1000 MHz. Merced PY . which takes multiple simple instructions and combines them into a longer internal instruction word format.3 or 2. and Pentium.The Next Generation of Processors In the future. TASK 3C-1: Reviewing Processors 1. This enables simultaneous execution of two instructions. Pentium MMX. Intel has been working to introduce a new generation of processors that aren’t CISC or RISC. and the range for internal voltage. L A EV 96 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Pentium. What is the most common external voltage. 486. A new processor design that resembles Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW). and Pentium III Xeon. called the U and V pipelines. Superscalar technology allows the use of dual pipelines. x86 programs will be supported through hardware translation. Define the term superscalar. It uses execution units that can execute all instructions in an instruction word in parallel. 5. To be able to satisfy future processing demands. It is a departure from the x86 processor architecture. O 2. 6. Pentium Pro. What does the acronym EPIC stand for? Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing. O EPIC: Stands for Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing. This design resembles VLIW (Very Long Instruction Word). and from 1. Intel won’t be developing the x86 processor architecture further. which takes multiple simple instructions and combines them into a longer internal instruction word format. The 8086. What will Intel’s next generation processor chip be called? Merced. Celeron. for Pentium processors? 3. What are the names of the processors in Intel’s Pentium line of processors? N What are the major processors in Intel’s x86 line of processors? O T C Merced is the code name for the next generation of processors from Intel. Intel considers the new generation processors EPIC (Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing).

the Mobile Celeron. N O Mobile processors are processors used in portable computers. based on past history. and a higher MIPS rating if the slower microprocessor uses clock cycles more efficiently.000 instructions per second. Mobile Processors Comparing CPUs EV You learned earlier that clock speed refers to the number of processing cycles that a microprocessor can perform in a given second. Realistically. the Mobile Pentium II and Pentium III. Another term for dual-voltage is split-rail. The execution speed of a computer. MIPS (Millions of Instructions Per Second) refers to the number of instructions that a microprocessor can perform in a given second. voltage.7 MIPS is 700. Common processors include the Intel Mobile Pentium MMX. voltage. 0. execution methods. and so on. whereas other microprocessors require fewer cycles. which instruction will be executed next by an application and automatically start execution of this instruction. Some microprocessors require several cycles to assemble and perform a single instruction. A dual-voltage design uses a higher external. and the AMD K6-2. T MIPS: Millions of Instructions Per Second. How many clock cycles are required per instruction using a processor that uses superpipelining? PY . but they are not identical. A L C Lesson 3: System Components 97 O 9. One. or core. Explain the meaning of the term dual-voltage. to provide compatibility with other chips on the system board. These two measurements are related. or I/O. and identify another term that describes this concept. the MIPS rating doesn’t provide an accurate measurement because no two chips use identical instructions. for example. A microprocessor can have a slower clock speed than another microprocessor. This improves processor performance because the CPU doesn’t have to wait for the results of the previous instruction. Several of these are described in the following sections. and a lower internal. Mobile processors are presented in greater detail in Lesson 8. What is the benefit of branch prediction? The CPU can anticipate. 8.7. -D Clock Speed and MIPS O There are many ways to compare microprocessors.

Addressable Memory Processor (Date) 8086 (1978) 8088 (1979) 80286 (1982) 80386DX (1985) 80386SX (1988) 80486DX (1989) 80386SL (1990) 80486SX (1991) Pentium (1993) Pentium Pro (1995) Pentium with MMX (1996) Pentium II (1997) Celeron (1999) Pentium III (1999) Pentium III Xeon (1999) C 5 to 10 5 6 to 12 16 to 40 16 to 33 25 to 66 20 to 25 20 to 25 60 to 200 150 to 200 133 to 300 Internal Bus 16 bits 16 bits 16 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits 32 bits External Bus 16 bits 8 bits 16 bits 32 bits 16 bits 32 bits 16 bits 32 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64 bits 64 bits Clock (MHz) O N X O 8-bit Data Bus T 16-bit Data Bus -D 233 to 450 333 to 700 450 to 1000 550 to 1000 (1 GHz) A L TASK 3C-2: Identifying the Processor Internal Bus Width 1. The external bus width refers to the bus that the microprocessor uses to communicate with external devices in the computer. The data bus refers to moving data. . whereas the address bus refers to locating the data. In many microprocessors. The wider the bus. The following table compares popular microprocessors manufactured by Intel Corporation. The internal bus width refers to the bus inside the microprocessor. the internal and external data buses are not the same width. where n equals the address bus width. the faster the data can move. The formula to calculate addressable memory is 2n.Internal and External Bus Width The data bus width refers to the number of bits the microprocessor can move at one time. Addressable Memory 1 MB 1 MB 16 MB 4 GB 16 MB 4 GB 32 MB 4 GB 4 GB 64 GB 4 GB 64 GB 64 GB 64 GB 64 GB PY Both the internal and external buses have a data and address component. 32-bit Data Bus 64-bit Data Bus EV 8080 98 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O The microprocessor can also be described by the amount of memory it can address. For each of the following CPUs. indicate the width of its data bus by placing an “X” in the appropriate column.

and the like. Failure obviously means that the chip is no A Processor with Heat Sink and Fan A L O X X X T 36-bit Address Bus Lesson 3: System Components 99 C X X X X X X X O PY X X X X . such as system lockups. Damage can cause unpredictable processor behavior.8-bit Data Bus 8086 8088 80286 386DX 386SX 486DX 486SX Pentium Pentium Pro Pentium with MMX Pentium II Celeron Pentium III Pentium III Xeon 16-bit Data Bus X X X 32-bit Data Bus 64-bit Data Bus 2. sudden reboots. For each of the following CPUs. indicate the width of its address bus by placing an “X” in the appropriate column. they also generated more and more heat. introducing the possibility of damage to or failure of the chip due to overheating. 8-bit Address Bus 8080 8086 8088 80286 386DX 386SX 486DX 486SX Pentium Pentium Pro Pentium II Pentium III X X X O X X -D N X X X X 20-bit Address Bus 24-bit Address Bus 32-bit Address Bus EV Heat Sinks and Fans As processors became more and more powerful.

Each of these is described in more detail in the following section. In terms of troubleshooting. you must select a processor that is compatible with the type supported by the system board. which is costly to replace. with socketed processors. the processor won’t work and might even be damaged. Otherwise. Processors come in a variety of packages. Otherwise. Servicing Processors Processors have no servicable parts. O N O T C O PY heat sink: A device attached to a processor that addresses the problem of overheating processors. The most commonly used packages are Dual Inline Package (DIP). you need to install a new one. remove it from the chip (if it’s clamped on). Also. The two most general categories of packages include slot-based and socketed. Slot-based processors plug into a system board in much the same way as an expansion board. . socketed processors plug into a system board using a grid array of pins. Cool air is blown by a fan onto the device’s metal elements. cool air is blown onto the heat sink metal elements. longer usable. it’s likely the CPU fan is starting to go bad. you must be careful not to bend the pins when removing or inserting the processor. you can ruin the processor. These devices are either glued to the CPU or attached with a clamp. keeping the air around the processor cool. if a customer hears whining noises inside their computer. It is imperative that the connection to the CPU is tight.You can also purchase adapters that allow you to use a socketed processor in a slot-based system board. You can use a computer vacuum to remove accumulated dust. it’s a good idea to periodically (every six months to a year) clean any dust from the fan. Before cleaning the fan.EV A L 100 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 3-4: A processor with heat sink and fan. Starting with the 486 processor. heat sinks with fans were added to address the problem of overheating processors. you must be careful to line up Pin 1 on the processor with Pin 1 on the socket. and Single Edge Contact Cartridge (SECC). keeping the air around the processor cool. Pin Grid Array (PGA). Also. To prevent overheating. As a preventative measure. When you replace a processor. When a processor is defective.

N O T C -D O EV Figure 3-5: Diagram of a PPGA processor using an SPGA pin arrangement. Both the PPGA package and the FC-PGA package connect to the PGA370 ZIF socket. and plastic PGA (PPGA) packaging. With the FC-PGA package. SPGA (Staggered Pin Grid Array) pin arrangement is used on today’s chips. This CPU packaging design staggers pins so that more pins will fit on the same amount of surface. the Celeron. To accommodate the larger number of connections used on today’s processors. and on the FC-PGA package. and early Pentium processors. A commonly used processor today for lower-end systems. The difference between the PPGA packaging and FC-PGA packaging is that on the PPGA package. you can use this notch to line up the processor correctly. Used with older CPUs. Another form of packaging. Pin Grid Array (PGA) PGA (Pin Grid Array) packaging refers to a packaging design on which the pins are distributed evenly in parallel rows on the entire bottom of a square or rectangular chip. used for 8086. the silicon core faces toward the system board. and some 80286 CPUs. ceramic PGA (CPGA) packaging. A DIP package has a notch on one end to identify the end that holds Pin 1. 486. away from the system board. SPGA: Stands for Staggered Pin Grid Array. one down each side of the CPU package. A L Lesson 3: System Components 101 O PGA: A Pin Grid Array is a type of CPU packaging design on which pins are distributed evenly in parallel rows on the entire bottom of a square chip. PGA packaging was most commonly used for 386. This older-style packaging. This design is used by most Pentium chips. When you install a DIP-packaged processor. one on each side of the CPU package. This design staggers pins so that more pins will fit on the same amount of surface. the silicon core makes direct contact with the heat sink for more efficient cooling. Two forms exist. through the 80286. the silicon core faces upward. Diagram of a PPGA Processor Using an SPGA Pin Arrangement PY DIP: Dual Inline Packages are CPU packaging designs that feature two rows of pins. is obsolete now because it isn’t possible to fit enough components onto a board.Dual Inline Package (DIP) DIP (Dual Inline Package) packaging refers to a design of two rows of pins. is used by many of today’s Pentium III processors. You can find Pin 1 by locating the corner that doesn’t have a 90 degree angle (but rather looks as though the corner has been cut off). called the Flip Chip Pin Grid Array (FC-PGA). uses PPGA. . 8088.

Two slot types are available. Socket and Slot Types EV A plethora of information about which processor in which packaging will fit into which socket or slot is available at www. and newer versions of the Pentium II processor. SECC packaging is used with Pentium II processors. Each socket type supports a specific number of pins.sandpile. SECC2. It’s used with Pentium III processors. which reduces thermal resistance. you will have to insert the processor into a socket or slot located on the system board. doesn’t have an extended thermal plate. Only certain processors will fit into each socket or slot type. and connected to the processor via a high-speed bus. This packaging is also called SEC Cartridge. you can go to www. replace a bad chip. To see detailed information on which processor in which packaging will fit into which socket or slot.org. O N O T C An SECC Package on a System Board O PY SECC: Stands for Single Edge Contact Cartridge. Type of CPU packaging that refers to a design where the processor is located on a circuit board that is inserted into a slot on the system board. Slot 1 (also called SC242) and Slot 2. The Level 2 cache is also located on the circuit board. This type of packaging greatly reduces the possibility of damaging the processor during installation or removal. .Single Edge Contact Cartridge (SECC) SECC (Single Edge Contact Cartridge) packaging refers to a design where the processor is located on a circuit board that is inserted into a slot on the system board. but external from the processor. The edge connector for this mount is proprietary. or to upgrade a computer using an overdrive chip). much in the fashion of adding an expansion board. A newer design. and a specific type of CPU packaging. for processors using SECC and SECC2 packaging. where this information is available for each processor. Several Examples of CPU Sockets 102 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D In order to connect processors to the system board (for example to put together a system. Figure 3-6: An SECC package on a system board.org.sandpile.

Today. 80486 DX4. As an example. Celeron. O T overdrive chip: Chip that enables you to upgrade a computer’s performance simply by replacing the original processor with a new (overdrive) processor on the older system board. Pentium overdrive 80486 SX. 80486 SX2. Pentium III Xeon Lesson 3: System Components 103 O Slot 1 (For SECC Packaging) PY .Figure 3-7: Several examples of CPU sockets. Figure 3-8: Slot 1 (for SECC packaging). 5. but regular Pentium chips fit only into sockets 4. Intel no longer manufactures overdrive processors today. The following table broadly summarizes socket and slot information for processor chips. 80486 DX2. 80486 DX. 169 238 4 5 6 7 8 PGA370 (ZIF socket) Slot 1. 80486 DX. 80486 DX. 80486 DX2. 3. Pentium overdrive chips can fit into sockets 2. 80486 SX2. 80486 DX4. 80486 DX2 80486 SX. C Socket #/Slot # 1 2 Supported CPU Packaging 17 x 17 PGA 19 x 19 PGA -D # of Pins O Note that overdrive chips. 80486 SX2. starting with the 486 processor. Pentium 66 Pentium 80486 DX4. or SC242 Slot 2 A 3 L 19 x 19 PGA 237 21 x 21 PGA 37 x 37 SPGA 19 x 19 PGA 21 x 21 SPGA 21 x 24 SPGA PPGA or FC-PGA SECC and SECC2 SECC 273 320 235 321 387 370 242 330 EV N Processors Supported 80486 SX. Pentium overdrive Pentium 60. which were designed to enable you to upgrade a computer’s performance simply by replacing the original processor with a new (overdrive) processor on the older system board (for example. and 6. can be inserted into sockets that wouldn’t be able to hold the regular equivalent of the overdrive chip. Pentium overdrive Pentium Pentium Pro Celeron. Pentium III Pentium II. or 7. replacing a 486 processor on a 486 system board with a Pentium overdrive processor). it’s typically cheaper to just buy a new computer with a new system board and processor rather than using overdrive chips to upgrade a system.

Typically.Because the majority of processors and sockets are square. Next. and then pull the processor straight up (away from the system board) until it clears the retention mechanism. release the locking lever and leave it in a vertical position. gently pry the processor free from the ZIF socket. however. and O N O T C Depending on the type of microprocessors you have available. If you’re removing a slot-based processor. If you’re removing a socketed processor. Push the processor into the socket. Newer chips. TASK 3C-3: 1. Pin 1 is marked on the chip in some way. align Pin 1 on the microprocessor with Pin 1 on the ZIF socket. align the processor in the retention mechanism. If you’re installing a slot-based processor. either by a notched corner. If you’re installing a socketed processor. Always line up Pin 1 on the chip with Pin 1 on the socket to make sure the chip is inserted correctly. it’s possible to insert them the wrong way. then push straight down (toward the system board) until it’s seated properly. L EV 104 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D 2. O Replacing a Microprocessor PY . or the number one printed in one corner. Setup: Your instructor will inform you if you should perform step 1 or step 2. use an assymetrical pin layout. you will either perform step 1 or step 2. and thus wrong insertion isn’t possible in that case. a dot. but not both. open the clips on the retention mechanism.

which used the 8088 processor. including Baby AT. The AT boards were introduced with the 80286 processor. LPX. the system board is the main printed circuit board. and microATX. These additional boards are sometimes referred to as daughter boards. The XT (eXtended Technology) boards were used in the original IBM PCs or XT PCs. O N As you know. O T datapath: The number of bits wide or the number of channels in the bus. Since the introduction of AT boards. we need to define some terms: • A bus is one of the sets of conductors connecting the various functional units in a computer. C Lesson 3: System Components 105 O PY . It contains the sockets needed to install additional boards. Topic 3D System Boards Types of System Boards • The datapath refers to the width (in bits) of or the number of channels in the bus. ATX. other system board types have been introduced. NLX. bus: A set of physical and logical interconnections between the computer and add-on boards.then push the locking lever down until it snaps into place. EV A -D There are two main types of system boards: XT and AT. Each type of system board has a unique physical size and feature set. L Before we delve any further into a discussion of these two board types.

O The system board frequency needs to match the speed of the oscillator. The CMOS is a technology introduced with AT system boards for configuration (rather than using jumpers.• CMOS: Stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor. Since the tower proved to be popular. The original style was the desktop model. T clock speed: The frequency at which the system board and CPU operate. This could sit vertically on the floor next to your desk. So. switches. • • Mid Tower—a slightly smaller version of the full-size tower. You will hear someone say they have a 233 MHz system. RAM is volatile (non-permanent) memory used by applications to store data. A small memory bank backed up by a battery that stores system configuration settings. or both) to configure the system. the tower model was developed. Micro Tower—this size replaces the original desktop case in most modern systems. This determines the speed at which the CPU runs. C O PY 16-bit bus 16 MB CMOS Intel 80286 . the chip can overheat. People often refer to their systems by the clock speed. O Enclosure Styles N The newer AT boards can be configured to run at different clock speeds. there are now several versions of the tower model: • Full Tower—usually used for servers or when you will be installing many drives and other components. produce random results. thus not robbing you of precious desk space. or be damaged or destroyed. rather than by the system board type. XT Datapath Addressable RAM Configured by Designed around the 8-bit bus 1 MB Jumpers/switches Intel 8088 AT Clock Speed L EV 106 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Enclosure Styles -D There are several styles of enclosures for PCs. If the system board and CPU chip don’t match speeds. This took up a good piece of real estate on your desk. This refers to the number of cycles per second or frequency. • The following table compares the XT and AT system boards. This is determined by an oscillator or electronic clock on the system board that is configured for a specific frequency. You should configure your system board to run at the highest speed the board is rated for.

By orienting tower systems vertically. and can still use the full-size system board. EV A L Lesson 3: System Components 107 O Full-size AT System Board PY . it was designed from the original XT motherboard.Figure 3-9: Enclosure styles. N Full-size AT System Board O The AT system boards have been designed with different shapes and sizes. Originally. they can stand on the floor and not take up desktop space. This is referred to as the form factor. and their location on the board. -D O The full-size AT system board is usually used in tower cases today. T Form Factors C Form Factors form factor: The size and shape of AT system boards. Let’s examine the various form factors and determine the various components on the system board based on their general outline. These original full-size systems took up a large amount of desktop space.

but is otherwise the same as the original system board. and have a 5-pin DIN keyboard connection.8 inches. use CMOS for configuration settings. It works in any case except for those considered low profile or slimline. However. The Baby AT system board was developed to meet this need.) This board also used the 5-pin DIN keyboard connector.Figure 3-10: Full-size AT system board. A type of connector with 5 pins. EV Baby AT System Board 108 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L DIN: Stands for Deutsche Industrie Norm. It fits into a smaller case. These system boards have 16-bit or better transfer buses. Baby AT System Board In an effort to free up desk space. -D O N The main form factor of a full-size AT system board is the size: 12 inches by 13. O T C O PY . (We’ll get to the system board for those cases in a minute. a smaller computer was needed. the AT system board had become very popular. The flexibility of this board has made it the most popular system board of all the ones we’ll be discussing.

LPX System Boards -D Slimline and low-profile cases were being developed about the same time as the Baby AT system board was introduced. the case doesn’t have to be as high as the card. and two serial ports were placed at the rear of the board in standard locations on the LPX boards. The LPX and Mini-LPX system boards were developed for these cases. A L C Lesson 3: System Components 109 O PY .Figure 3-11: Baby AT system board. these smaller cases couldn’t use even the Baby AT board. These are your typical desktop cases. parallel. However. O N O T LPX System Board EV Figure 3-12: LPX system board. A riser card is used to plug expansion cards into the system board. Video. Another difference in this system board is that it uses a PS/2-style keyboard connector rather than the 5-pin DIN connector used on the AT boards. Thus. This riser cards enables the expansion cards to lie sideways (the same orientation as the system board).

• Since Pentium chips tend to run hot. the cooling circulation blows air into the case instead of blowing air out of the case. Compared to AT system boards. Also. All Pentium Pro systems use the ATX form factor.3 V DC is available directly from the power supply. • • • NLX System Boards Intel’s NLX system board replaces the LPX system board. and better processor support. easier use. ATX System Board Figure 3-13: ATX system board. They did this by rotating the board 90 degrees. N O T C O PY . Can’t be used in Baby AT or LPX cases. lower cost.ATX System Boards In 1995. Older Pentium systems are usually built on AT system boards. O Some of the features of the ATX board are: • Power supply with a single. 3. It is the standard for new system boards. the ATX boards provide better I/O support. the placement of the CPU near the power supply cooling fan prevents you from needing a separate cooling fan for the CPU. keyed 20-pin connector. L EV NLX System Board 110 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D The CPU is closer to the cooling fan on the power supply. Intel introduced the ATX system board. rather than requiring voltage regulators to reduce voltage down from 5 V. You can access the entire board without reaching around drives. I/O ports are integrated into the board along with PS/2 connectors (instead of 5-pin DIN connectors). It’s a small form factor designed around the Pentium II processor. It supports DIMM technology and accelerated graphics port (AGP) technology.

Vertical enclosure with little expandability. Good expansion capabilities. indicate whether it’s representative of an older PC or a newer PC. Horizontal enclosure designed for setting a monitor on its top. Matching Enclosure Older Newer Older Newer EV AT ATX LPX NLX -D Very expandable. Full Tower Mid Tower Micro Tower Desktop Form Factor A L 2. name a distinguishing characteristic. For each of the following computer enclosures. vertical design for desktop or floor. multiple drive bays. For each of the following form factors. O Enclosure Distinguishing Characteristic N O T Lesson 3: System Components 111 TASK 3D-1: C O PY . Identifying Computer Enclosures and System Board Form Factors 1.Figure 3-14: NLX system board.

Peripheral connection designed to be Plug and Play compatible. Slots for 32-bit PCI cards. 5-pin DIN or PS/2 port. Where system RAM memory is installed. You will examine each of these components throughout the course in greater detail. but let’s examine the purpose of each of these components briefly now. and to eliminate the need to install expansion cards. Connects the power supply to the system board. Connects the floppy drive to the system. used for configuring system hardware. A Generic System Board Figure 3-15: A generic ATX system board. PS/2 port. Where the processor stores frequently used data and instructions. DB25 female connector. A L -D Be sure to note that you can easily visually identify the difference between 25-pin serial and parallel ports because serial connectors are male and parallel connectors are female. DB9 or DB25 (9.or 25-pin D shaped) male connector.System Board Components Figure 3-15 shows a generic system board. Slots for 16-bit ISA cards. Component EV BIOS Processor slot Memory slots L2 cache PCI slots ISA slots Keyboard connector Mouse connector Serial port Parallel port USB port Chipset AGP slot Power supply connector Floppy drive connector 112 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O System board components include: Description Basic Input/Output System. Integrated circuit that provides the system board’s core functionality. N O T C O PY . Where the CPU is installed. Dedicated video card adapter slot. It identifies the basic components of a system board.

EV A L -D O N Lesson 3: System Components 113 O T C O PY .Component IDE connector Description Connects fixed hard drives and removable drives. such as a CD-ROM’s to the system.

TASK 3D-2: Identifying the System Board’s Major Components 1. Using the following diagram. Parallel port 9 AGP slot 11 BIOS 3 Power supply connector 12 Processor slot 1 IDE connectors 13 ISA slots 6 Floppy drive connector 14 Keyboard Cconnector 7 Memory slots 2 Chipset 4 USB ports 10 Mouse connector 8 EV 114 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY PCI slots 5 . match each system board component to its corresponding name.

EV A L -D O N Lesson 3: System Components 115 O O The battery provides power to the CMOS.Repairing System Boards Today’s system boards are highly integrated and generally not repairable. In essence. Additionally. so you can configure these values through the BIOS setup program. For example. You accomplish this by specifying a frequency multiple. if you want to run a 500 MHz processor on a 100 MHz system board. you will have to replace the system board. you must configure the system board so that the internal and external frequencies of the processor are compatible. Even if you’re highly skilled in the use of a soldering iron. you can disable the DIP switches on the system board. When you replace a system board. Other than the battery. For example. in most cases. PY . you will have to install an expansion card that provides that port’s functionality. as shown in Figure 3-16. you’ll replace it. These are usually rocker switches (like light switches) to turn on or off. On some newer system boards. CPU external (bus) frequencies. so the CMOS settings can be retained while the computer is turned off. C CPU Frequencies DIP switch: Switches on a card used to configure hardware settings. Most system boards operate at either 66 MHz or 100 MHz. there’s virtually nothing you can repair on a system board. you will find that there are very few components on the board that are actually repairable. you get the advertised internal frequency of the CPU. If an integrated circuit fails. When you multiply the CPU bus frequency by its multiplier. When you examine a system board. you would select a multiplier of 5. if a built-in port fails. when a system board fails. you must ensure that it’s properly configured to match the processor that it will host. if the system board has an AGP bus. and multipliers. System boards usually have a set of DIP switches that allow you to specify the multiplier and the CPU bus frequency.0. T Figure 3-16: CPU internal frequencies. you must set the frequency ratio between the AGP bus and the CPU bus.

As the name implies. ROM might also contain a specialized operating system or application software. but uses a super-voltage charge to erase a block of data. O T Memory C Topic 3E O Compare the DIP switch settings to the recommended values in the system board manual.) Because the contents of ROM remain intact when the computer is turned off. EPROM 116 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Description Programmable Read-Only Memory chips can only be written to once by a special burner. it can’t be changed. It is used in ROM chips. 3. the contents of ROM can be read. Can only be erased and rewritten a few times. and then new instructions burned in. 2. After it has been burned. Non-volatile memory retains the information whether the PC is turned on or not. In certain microcomputers (usually small. It is used in RAM chips. portable computers that do not have built-in harddrive storage). The following table describes them. Shut down the operating system and power down the computer. we need to examine the physical memory installed in your system. PY . by using ultraviolet light. Some of this memory is volatile and some is non-volatile. The ROM in microcomputers is sometimes called BIOS (Basic Input/Output System). This is a very popular ROM chip. ROM You learned earlier that Read-Only Memory maintains information even after the computer is turned off. L A -D Programmable ROM There are four basic types of ROM that can be changed in varying degrees. (You can write to certain types of ROM.TASK 3D-3: Examining the System Board DIP Switch Settings 1. Record the DIP switch settings for the CPU bus frequency and multiplier. 4. locate the DIP switches on the system board that control CPU bus frequency. the entire chip is erased. The blank chip you receive is burned with the instructions. N Next. Using the system board’s manual as a reference. but only by using special equipment. Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory chips are burned the same way as PROMs. Type PROM EV Flash ROM: Memory that stores data similarly to EEPROM. Volatile memory retains information only while the PC is turned on. but it is difficult or impossible to change. ROM is ideal for storing basic instructions that the computer needs for startup purposes.

rather than erasing the entire chip at once. This is referred to as being volatile. It stores data similarly to the EEPROM. If the computer loses power. The following list describes some of the most common types of RAM available: • DRAM (Dynamic RAM) is the most common type of RAM and holds a charge for short periods of time and must be refreshed often with power from the main power supply. the power is supplied from the main power supply. It can only be erased and rewritten to a few times (it can’t be unlimitedly redone). The results are then copied to RAM. burst mode. Memory that has a clock that is coordinated with the system clock to synchronize the memory chip’s input and output signals. where calculations are performed. though. which is usually outside of the CPU. Other uses for SRAM include CMOS. This type of RAM is very fast. Also. It uses a super-voltage charge to erase a block of data. new information replaces information currently in RAM when RAM becomes full. and for credit-card memory cards from 128 K up to 4 MB with a very long battery life. A continuous flow of electricity is necessary to keep Random Access Memory intact. RAM is described as “random access” because any storage location in RAM can be accessed directly. Instructions are removed a byte at a time. When SRAM is used for main memory. These are often used in peripherals such as printers since the changes to the chip can be made without opening the case. SDRAM is faster than regular DRAM.Type EEPROM Description Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory chips use a higher voltage than is normally used to erase information. Data in RAM is processed by copying the data to the processor’s registers. A memory controller is placed between RAM and the CPU. the contents of RAM are lost. Also known as Flash Memory. SRAM is used in Level 2 (L2) cache. N O T Types of RAM SDRAM: Stands for Synchronous DRAM. • SRAM (Static RAM) gets its charge from the system board battery. It is often used in video cards so that graphics processing can be moved out of the main CPU. It is responsible for supervising data movement out of memory. You do not have to read through memory locations one by one sequentially. SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) has a clock that is coordinated with the system clock and is used to synchronize the memory chip’s input and output signals. Flash ROM RAM A general-purpose memory area called Random Access Memory (RAM) enables the microcomputer to hold instructions and data. The data in RAM is lost if it isn’t refreshed. It also checks the data integrity checking used (if any). Some systems use SRAM for main computer memory rather than DRAM. EV A L • -D O C Lesson 3: System Components 117 O PY .

the computer counts the number of bits that contain a 1 value. EV A ECC: An Error Correct Code is a type of memory that corrects errors on the fly. The SIMMs must have parity capabilities and the system board must be configured to enable parity. everything comes through as valid whether it is or not. that supports speeds of up to 800 Mhz. Instead of reading a data bit using discharge. For even parity. if the parity bit is 0. it uses the same type of dual-ported structure that simultaneously refreshes the screen while text and images are being drawn in the memory. In other types of memory. Parity Checking T C O EDO RAM: Stands for Extended Data Output RAM. to support speeds of up to 800 MHz. is used to verify the integrity of the data stored in that byte. The main difference between ECC and parity checking is that ECC can detect and correct one-bit errors (as opposed to whole bytes being checked with O N O VRAM: Stands for Video RAM. The memory controller then decodes the error correction bits and decides whether the data bit is valid. In many computers. WRAM (Window RAM) is a type of RAM developed by Samsung Electronics that is optimized for display adapters. and there are an even number of 1s. One path is used for reads. the computer places a 0 or 1 in the parity bit. manufacturers use fake parity that sends a 1 or 0 to the parity circuit based on which state is expected. Based on whether the sum of those bits is an odd or even number. These chips have two access paths to a single memory address. or parity bit. A new memory architecture by Rambus. This makes it faster than other types of memory. When data is stored. this type of RAM is optimized for display adapters. Other systems disable parity checking completely. the data is invalid. 118 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D WRAM: Stands for Window RAM. • VRAM (Video RAM) chips have two access paths to a single memory address. and there is an odd number of 1s. Information is read on one path and written to memory by the CPU on the other path. It was developed specifically as a video graphics accelerator for Windows 3. Inc. • • L parity bit: An extra bit attached to a byte. the meanings of the 1 or 0 parity bit is reversed. ECC ECC (Error Correct Code) uses an algorithm and works with the memory controller to add error correction code bits to each data bit sent to memory. EDO memory is no-wait state memory. For odd parity. a ninth bit. or word used to detect errors in transmission. and a parity error is generated. then the remaining bits are sent through.• RDRAM: Stands for Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory. PY . On some lower-end systems. This results in at least a 15 percent improvement in performance. the other for writes. a wait state (usually 10 nanoseconds) is required before an address is able to hold a new charge. to improve performance. There are two types of parity checking: odd and even. but can improve performance in the range of 60 percent. At any time after that. These chips are larger than DRAM chips. Although faster than VRAM. character. If the parity bit is 1. Inc.x. are more expensive. EDO RAM (Extended Data Output RAM) is a type of DRAM that enables a memory address to hold data for multiple reads. the bits can be added and compared to the parity bit to verify that the contents of memory are valid. A type of DRAM that enables a memory address to hold data for multiple reads. Developed by Samsung Electronics. Each byte of memory contains 8 bits. EDO doesn’t discharge a memory address until a new bit of data is written to that memory address. the data is considered valid and the parity bit is removed from the data. or switches. RDRAM (Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory) is a new memory architecture developed by Rambus. The main thing to remember is that parity checking uses an extra bit per each byte which is set to 1 or 0 based on whether the byte is made up of an even or odd number of 1s or 0s.

Operates at a clock speed that matches the CPU bus. The modules have opposing pins on either side of the board connecting to form a single electrical contact. Increases performance by eliminating wait states. f. The most common types of memory chip packages are SIMMs and DIMMs. ECC is most often used on high-end servers. high-end systems use ECC memory controllers. Type of memory that increases color depth and resolution. SDRAM N Remember that DRAM refers to chips and SIMM refers to a module. DRAM a b. RDRAM EDO RAM Memory Chip Packages Memory is manufactured in different chip packages. hence the name. EV SIMMs are groups of DRAM chips on a printed circuit board which fits in a socket on the system board. SIMMs must be installed in pairs. If you use SIMMs with different speeds within a memory bank. Identifying Types of Memory 1. but can only correct single-bit errors. This prevents the CPU from determining how much memory it has. d. The chips are placed in a line. and low-end home systems often use no parity checking or fake parity. O Lesson 3: System Components 119 T C O PY TASK 3E-1: . Newer technology includes RIMMs. Special type of memory used on accelerator cards.parity). Parity can’t correct any errors. Don’t mix different types of SIMMs within a memory bank. Supports speeds of up to 800 MHz. SRAM VRAM b d e. All of the memory banks together run at the speed of the slowest SIMM. A L SIMMs -D O e g. Uses capacitors and requires constant refreshing. business-level systems use parity checking. resulting in either a boot failure or not using some memory. Match the memory type on the right to its description on the left: c Uses transistors and doesn’t require constant refreshing. ECC can detect multiple-bit errors. In general. WRAM f g c. a. There are 72 pins on a SIMM. you need to use the same or faster speed of module than what you are replacing or adding to.

A RIMM memory module can support from one to 16 direct RDRAM devices in Rambus channel. 3. A memory module for RDRAM. Compare the key on the DIMM to the matching key in the DIMM socket. and 20). 60. For each installed DIMM. Supports from one to 16 direct RDRAM devices in Rambus channel. O N O Setup: The computer enclosure has already been removed and the computer is unplugged. RIMM’s primary use is as main memory installed on system boards. Observe the pin groupings (88. Re-install the DIMM by inserting it into its socket (make sure the keys match).5 volt. 600 or 800 MHz. Used primarily as main memory on a system board. These have opposing pins on either side of the board that are electronically isolated to form two separate contacts with the system board. T C O RIMM (Rambus In-line Memory Module) is a 184-pin.DIMMs There are also DIMMs. Direct Rambus Channel provides support for up to three RIMMs. 4. There are 168 pins on a DIMM. DIMMs can be installed individually as opposed to pairs. TASK 3E-2: Replacing Memory 1. 5. Refer to the following diagram as you complete the steps in this task: L A EV 120 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 2. PY RIMMS . unlock the DIMM by releasing the locking lever on either side of the DIMM until it pops out of its socket. 16-bit and 18-bit memory module for Direct Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory (Direct RDRAM). which are Dual In-line Memory Modules. DIMMs are often used in systems with 64-bit or wider memory buses. RIMM: Stands for Rambus In-line Memory Module. 2. Push down on the DIMM until the locking lever snaps into place.

it also supplies power to internal devices. Then. we discussed the evolution of the Intel processor family. 3C Describe the observable. 3E Describe the difference between a SIMM. such as hard drives and expansion cards. 3A Describe the primary function of a power supply. we identified the technical characteristics of the major system components—the power supply. The ATX power supply includes 3. A power supply converts the alternating current from a wall outlet to the direct current required by the system board. Finally. today’s Pentium III and Celeron processors also use FC-PGA and PPGA packaging. DIMM. with an SPGA pin arrangement. We described the boot process and the POST routine. O T Lesson 3: System Components 121 C O Lesson Review PY . system board. processor. A flexible I/O panel allows ATX to support many different I/O requirements.Summary In this lesson. Besides supplying power to the system board and its components. However. RIMMs have 184 pins and up to three RIMMs can be installed on a Direct Rambus Channel.3 VDC and an ATX power connector. A L -D O N The BIOS is software built into a ROM chip that allows you to configure hardware devices. and RIMM. whereas many Pentium II and later processors use SECC packaging. Early Pentium and earlier processors used PGA packaging. The processor has been relocated away from the expansion slots to allow for more full-length cards and the capability for hosting more on-board I/O connectors. ATX is an evolution of the popular Baby AT form factor. The ATX system board typically provides two ISA slots and four PCI slots. we looked at configuring a system board to match the processor it will host and described the processes for installing RAM memory. DIMMs have 168 pins and can be installed individually. physical characteristic that distinguishes a Pentium and earlier processor from many Pentium II and later processors. 3D Describe the characteristics of a standard ATX system board. The CMOS is a special type of memory that stores the configuration settings you make in the ROM BIOS. EV SIMMs have 72 pins and must be installed in pairs. 3B Describe the difference between the BIOS and CMOS. and RAM memory. ROM BIOS.

EV 122 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

you will examine the technical specifications for the Micro Channel Architecture bus.Bus Architectures Overview Since it would be cost-prohibitive to create a system containing every available option in a PC. This architecture is referred to as the bus. 4D Identify the characteristics of the EISA expansion bus. 4E Identify the characteristics of the Micro Channel Architecture bus. You will also learn how to recognize a PCI expansion card and how to install a PCI expansion card. T Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 123 C O Lesson Time 2 hours PY . Identify the characteristics of the PCI expansion bus. 4C Identify the characteristics of the ISA expansion bus. You will learn how to recognize an 8-bit expansion card and how to install an 8-bit expansion card into a 16-bit ISA slot. you will examine the characteristics of the 8-bit expansion bus. You will learn how to recognize a Micro Channel expansion card and how to configure it. O You will discuss the basics of computer bus architecture and how adapters work with the bus. In this topic. LESSON 4 Data Files none Objectives To identify features of various bus architectures. you will examine the technical specifications of the PCI expansion bus. EV 4F 4G A In this topic. you will: 4A Define the purpose of a bus and how it works. L -D In this topic. You will learn how to recognize a 16-bit expansion card and how to install a 16-bit expansion card into an ISA slot. and determine the necessary components for Plug and Play to work properly. you will examine the characteristics of the ISA expansion bus. you will examine the characteristics of the EISA expansion bus. In this topic. O N 4B Identify the characteristics of the 8-bit expansion bus. In this topic. You will also learn how to recognize an EISA expansion card. designers developed various standards for the interfaces between the computers and the components to be installed later. Examine the concept of Plug and Play.

you will examine the characteristics of buses that have been specifically designed to increase video performance. EV 124 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY . 4H Identify the characteristics of buses designed primarily for increasing video performance. In this topic. They include the VESA Local-Bus (VL-Bus). We will also examine the components that are necessary for Plug and Play to work properly.In this topic. and the Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP). we will take a look at Plug and Play. and how it works to ease device installation and configuration.

or cards. If such a computer were manufactured. but they are still called adapters. Computers based on the Intel chips generally use one or more of the ISA. This interface is called a bus. that provide special functions for customizing or extending a computer’s capability. N O T adapter: A device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. and SCSI host adapters perform extensive processing. PCI. -D In general. and what those signals mean. O Adapters. Specifically. PCMCIA. the processor puts its current task on hold and responds. Conflicts are a main cause of problems in communication between adapter and host systems. display adapters (video cards). . the interrupt. such as periodic polling of adapters. however. it would be so expensive that few people would be able to afford it. Bus designs usually specify the placement of connections. For this reason. computers are designed in a modular fashion. a device gains the attention of the host processor. You can customize or upgrade a computer by adding adapter cards that offer the special functions you need. and software interrupts. A number of techniques can be used to gain the attention of the processor. or services. PY Computer designers can’t foresee every desired feature in a single computer. The Intel family of computer chips and compatible chips supports hardware. When signaled. Interacting with the Host System Interrupts EV A L Interrupts signal the system processor that the adapter card. as well as other hardware and applications. network adapters (NICs).Topic 4A What is a Bus? adapter card: Add-on boards. an adapter bus is a set of physical and logical interconnections between the computer and add-on boards. but the most common is the use of interrupts. For example. exception. Local Bus. interrupt: A signal that gets the attention of the CPU and is usually generated when I/O is required. must communicate with the host system in an orderly and established way. Most bus interface designs even specify the size of the adapter card that can be inserted and the power that the card can consume. EISA. system hardware. or application software needs attention. It’s important to keep this in mind for any changes you may make to your system. the term often refers to devices which are more accurately called controllers. C Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 125 O Computer designers develop standard interfaces between their generic computers and the specific adapters that you install later. or Micro Channel buses. Different computer systems use different bus designs. the electrical signals that are allowable on each connector. An adapter is often a simple circuit that converts one set of signals to another. and then transfers data. Communication must be orderly to avoid setting conflicts when configuring adapters to gain the attention of the host processor.

when a process requests the processor to divide a number by zero. O PY • Software interrupts are interrupts sent by an application that is running on the computer. The substituted routines would be called in the case of a software interrupt. Ask your students how many of them are aware of the MSD tool that comes with DOS. IRQ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 8-bit Defaults T Should two or more adapters share an interrupt number. causes the processor to reset and the system to reboot. . and from adapter cards. interrupt 25. the processor will be unable to determine which adapter actually sent the interrupt. Hardware interrupts are those that come from the system hardware. 126 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Interrupts L You can’t emphasize enough the importance of avoiding conflicts.• hardware interrupt: An interrupt caused by some action of a hardware device. Adapter cards must have a unique hardware interrupt number to distinguish them from the other adapters in the system. This is what happens when you press [Ctrl][Alt][Delete]. such as a keystroke or mouse movement. usually resulting in erratic behavior. This explains the erratic behavior of the boards. The term IRQ. EV IRQ: Stands for Interrupt Request Line. Only when both adapters are being used is there actually a problem. These built-in routines can be replaced by routines available from third-party vendors. An exception interrupt will be issued. such as the keyboard or the system clock. for example. can be used to describe the interrupt number to be used by an adapter. One such signal. 16-bit Defaults System Timer Keyboard Cascade to IRQ9 COM2 and COM4 COM1 and COM3 LPT2 Floppy drive controller LPT1 Real Time Clock (RTC) Cascade to IRQ2 Available Available Bus mouse port Math coprocessor Hard disk controller Available System Timer Keyboard Available COM2 COM1 Hard disk controller Floppy drive controller LPT1 O C software interrupt: An interrupt caused by an instruction in a software program. Exception interrupts are used mainly by the processor itself to handle error conditions. the processor might attempt to service either or neither of the adapters. Software interrupts generally trigger one of the built-in ROM BIOS routines. In such a situation. You might choose to mention that there are many thirdparty utilities available to read systems hardware and software settings. or Interrupt Request Line. -D O N Just the act of configuring two boards with the same settings doesn’t result in a conflict. • exception interrupt: An interrupt used by the processor to handle errors. A hardware interrupt on a PC.

This feature is often used to provide a buffer space. TSR: Terminate and Stay Resident. are fully capable of managing access to this memory region by adapter cards. Several terms are used to describe this feature. These addresses usually fall between 0x200 and 0x3FF (hexadecimal). Each adapter must have its own unique. such as HIMEM. especially the commercial ones. Base I/O address. In a non-DMA situation. and TSRs. a three-digit hexadecimal number (2AB.SYS. and so on) used to identify and signal a peripheral device like a serial port. Default DMA Assignments on an 8-bit Bus Dynamic RAM refresh Hard disk controller (XT) L DMA (Direct Memory Access) is a technique for speeding data transfers within the computer. with a 16-bit video card. An I/O address marks the beginning of a range of memory. The DMA controller also communicates with the adapters to facilitate transferring data from them directly to system memory. drivers. or sound card. C O T O N Direct Memory Access EV Adapters must each use a unique DMA channel to communicate with the DMA controller. Failure to do so will prevent proper operation of the conflicting adapters. DMA Channel 0 1 A The DMA controller works with the processor and other components in the system to speed data transfer by relieving the processor from this duty and handling all of the related issues. DMA PY I/O address: On PCs. parallel port. Problems can arise when you are using an 8-bit network card. on the adapter. Memory addresses for these on-board memories are most often mapped to the range between 640 kilobytes (KB) and 1 megabyte (MB). either 8 or 16 bit. DOS memory managers. . or QEMM. and I/O port. load TSRs. In such a situation. EMM386. 2A0. it then needs a way to communicate with the host system. a program that always stays in memory. While dealing with these data transfers. Base Memory Addresses The Base Memory address is the memory address of any memory that might be on the adapter card. and other programs into the Upper Memory Block region. The following table shows the most common uses for each channel. This is accomplished with an I/O address. and must operate in the same mode. the processor can’t perform other tasks. usually in the lowest portions of memory (conventional memory). or the network card should be replaced with a 16-bit card. drivers. This configurable area is usually associated with adapters that contain their own BIOS chips or memory. non-overlapping I/O address space. the video card should be switched to operate in 8-bit mode. which is the UMB (Upper Memory Block) region of the host computer. The system might be unable to boot or operate properly due to the mode differences. Specialized circuitry or a dedicated microprocessor that transfers data from adapters to memory without using the CPU. for example.SYS. such as I/O address. the system processor is involved with transferring every single byte of data between adapters and system memory. Adapters must have unique Base Memory addresses. -D Default DMA Assignments on a 16-bit Bus Available Available Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 127 O Base Memory address: The memory address of any memory that might be on the adapter card. DMA: Stands for Direct Memory Access. that is used for communications between the processor and the adapter. Most of these. I/O addresses are generally ranges of memory on the order of 4 to 32 bits of contiguous memory space. UMB: Upper Memory Block is an unused blockin the upper memory area (640 KB to 1 MB). or a control program execution space.Input/Output (I/O) Addresses Once the adapter has used an interrupt to signal the processor that it needs attention.

the PC/XT. a. with minimal support circuitry. c. The CPU talks to a device at this location. A signal line used by a device to get the attention of the CPU. used simple expansion buses. e. Match the description on the left with its corresponding term on the right. Its architecture provided an 8-bit data bus. Bus d. Refers to memory resident on an expansion card. T b.DMA Channel 2 3 4 5 6 7 Default DMA Assignments on an 8-bit Bus Floppy drive controller Available n/a n/a n/a n/a Default DMA Assignments on a 16-bit Bus Floppy drive controller Available 2nd DMA controller Available Available Available 1. c The means by which the CPU and devices communicate. Allows a device to bypass the processor and write information directly to main memory. O e N a O b d L EV An 8-bit Expansion Card 128 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Topic 4B The 8-bit Bus The original IBM PC and its successor. DMA Channel I/O address Base Memory Interrupt C Identifying the Physical Components of a Bus O TASK 4A-1: PY .

disconnect all cables. To install a card. O The cards for an 8-bit slot have only one edge connector. Drivers were then loaded on the computer to support the card. Press the card down firmly into the slot. so the circuitry had to be included on the card. and then place it in an anti-static bag to prevent electrostatic damage to the card. It also has many resistors and larger components because VLSI (Very Large-Scale Integration) hadn’t come out yet. and then screw it to the case. except for IRQ 2 and DMA 3. You can use the modem card for this exercise.Figure 4-1: An 8-bit expansion card. O Removing and Installing Cards N C Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 129 O PY . Gently rock the card front to back (not side-to-side) to remove it from the slot. disconnect any external cables and any internal leads from the 8-bit card to the system board. It supports 8 interrupts and 4 DMA channels. making a note of where they were installed and the orientation (such as white wire on left pin). jumper: A small plug placed over pins (or removed from pins) to configure hardware settings. Replacing an 8-bit Expansion Card EV 1. Cards were configured with jumpers and DIP switches to operate with the computer. A TASK 4B-1: Setup: The computer enclosure has been removed. After examining any cables or wires connected to the card. however. so you didn’t have many choices when you installed additional cards. The process of placing thousands of electronic components on a single chip. an 8-bit card needs to be installed in an 8-bit slot. For example. VLSI: Stands for Very Large-Scale Integration.77 MHz. reconnect any cables. all resources were already assigned. unscrew the card from the case. T Be sure you’re able to identify each card type based on its edge connector. Finally. and noting their location and orientation. L -D To remove a card. locate a slot matching the card connector. and you have an 8-bit expansion card already installed. This bus has a clock speed of 4.

unless the boards are skirted (part of the board drops down to the system board right after the edge connector). Technically. O PY . The ISA acronym is pronounced “eye-suh. Be careful not to drop the screw down into the system where it can be hard to retrieve. It is best not to use a magnetic screwdriver since the magnet can damage computer components. Some 8-bit boards can be used in 16-bit slots. T Re-insert the expansion card in its slot. Make sure it’s seated firmly. C It has a single-edge connector and many resistors and other components on-board. A consortium of vendors that was seeking to expand on the ISA bus gave ISA its name. A The Industry Standard Architecture Bus L EV ISA bus: Industry Standard Architecture bus is an expansion bus commonly used in PCs. Remove the screw that mounts the expansion card to the chassis. O Reconnect any internal leads to the system board and any external cables. Slot extension connectors enable the use of additional connector pins. 130 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Topic 4C The ISA Bus The ISA bus (Industry Standard Architecture bus) was developed by IBM for the IBM AT. If you do use a magnetic screwdriver.and 16-bit adapter cards. It operates at 8 MHz. the ISA bus has 16 data-line connections and 24 address line connections: • For XT and similar computers. At that time. Use the notes you recorded before removing the card to verify that the correct cables are reconnected and if there are any internal leads. but was simply called the expansion bus. 7. and potentially damage other components if left in when the system is restarted. 8-bit data transfer occurs through 62-line slot connectors. the flat part of the back plane of the card will rest on the chassis where you will be able to screw it back in. Be sure not to rock it from side-to-side as this can damage the card and won’t get it out of the slot either. Remove the expansion card by rocking it slightly in a forward/back motion. be sure not to accidentally touch system components with it. 5. What characteristics could you use to identify this card? 3. Data can be transferred across the bus at either 8 or 16 bits per cycle. Some system boards have slots without slot extension connectors to provide backwardcompatibility with skirted boards. 16-bit data transfer occurs. Examine the connectors on the expansion card. they are correctly installed. These are the gold pins on the bottom edge of the card and make the connection between the card and the bus through the slot.2. it was not called the ISA bus. 6. • For AT and similar computers. N O Mount the expansion card to the chassis using the screw you removed earlier.” The ISA bus supports 8. Be careful not to touch these as they can be easily damaged. When it is. 4.

you might also be able to use an ISA system as a server. overwriting any data that may be there.2 inches high. the system will operate erratically or not at all. Configuration EV ISA adapter cards are most often configured with switches (also known as DIP switches. A L C Pass around one of each type of ISA board for the students to examine. With these. DMA.8 inches high and might not fit into some machines. if the card were performing a DMA transfer of one megabyte to the range between 16 MB and 17 MB in RAM. . Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 131 O PY ISA boards range in physical size. Some vendors have implemented work-around solutions to surpass this 16 MB limit. If you have a single-server network with fewer than 20 users and consistently less than 50 percent utilization. O This limited transfer rate. which limits the bus to a theoretical maximum of 20 Mbps transfer rate. make it a poor choice for a server. Most of the newer boards are not more than 4. memory I/O ranges. The software drivers for these boards use DMA for transfers below the 16 MB limit and standard processor-assisted transfers above that limit. In such a situation. and other settings. Conflicts between cards occur when they share or overlap configurations. the controller would actually be transferring the data to a location within the 16 MB. For example. T A Representation of the ISA Bus Connections on an Adapter Notice that the ISA card has two separate edge connectors as compared to the single-edge connector on an 8-bit card. a disk controller card that uses DMA (Direct Memory Access) to transfer data from the disk to system RAM might have a problem if it attempts to transfer that data to a memory location above the 16 MB limit. However. When configurations overlap. Each card in a system must have unique and exclusive values for these settings. plus the memory limitations inherent to the ISA bus. Because of its 24-bit addressing architecture. you physically alter circuitry paths on the card by selectively opening or closing switches. There are 16 interrupts and eight DMA channels—a huge improvement over the 8-bit bus. Demonstrate how to configure the adapter that requires software configuration. The ISA bus is most often implemented as a 10 MHz bus. where DIP stands for DIPolar or Dual In-line Package) or jumpers.N -D O Figure 4-2: A representation of the ISA bus connections on an adapter. The ISA bus enables only one adapter in a system to take control of the bus during a data transfer. For example. Using an ISA card in a system with more than 16 MB of memory can cause problems. it would actually write that data to the first megabyte of system RAM. so it is a popular choice for client systems. This would crash the system. while some older boards are 4. Settings for adapter cards include IRQ. more expansion boards are available for the ISA bus than for any other bus. the ISA bus supports systems with up to 16 MB of memory. This configuration process adds difficulty and labor requirements to the use of ISA cards.

pen point.• L EV A 132 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 4-3: Examples of switches and jumpers for an ISA card. One way to save jumpers so that they are available for replacement (or reconfiguration of the board) is to place them over only one of the jumper pins in a pair. These cards come with special software to accomplish this task. the circuit will not be completed until the jumper is replaced. You configure cards with switches by using a small object such as a mini-screwdriver. the software uses a pulsed signal on the ISA bus. To communicate with the card before the communications parameters have been established. Do not use a pencil to set switches—the graphite can get into and foul the switch mechanism. software-configurable and Plug and Play adapters are becoming more and more prevalent. you might find an ISA adapter that is configured combining software and hardware (switches or jumpers). If a jumper goes bad. Most newer ISA adapter cards can be configured through the use of software. Electronic pulses send out a code. or bent paper clip to set the switches to ON or OFF. to close a circuit represented by a bank or group of jumper pins. The setup software communicates with special circuitry on the adapter. analogous to Morse code. Each manufacturer will list the valid settings for its cards. . During normal operation. rather than switches or jumpers. O PY The settings needed for a particular card that will be used in a particular system are specific to that installation. such as the IRQ or DMA channel. the host computer uses these settings to communicate with the card. because they can differ among computer makes and models: • You configure cards with jumper pins by using the jumpers. Switchless ISA Adapters Although you will probably see switches and jumpers on older equipment that you service. as shown in Figure 4-3. This circuitry sets the appropriate communications parameters. The configuration software O N O T Examples of Switches and Jumpers for an ISA Card C Switches are usually found in even-numbered banks or groups. On rare occasions. across certain lines on the bus. which are plastic-coated metal clips. The circuitry of the card is designed to detect such pulses. Check the manuals that come with your system to determine the valid settings for your computer as well.

(Remember. What characteristics could you use to identify this card? The card has two separate groups of edge connectors. EEPROM stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. T EISA bus: Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus standard that extends the 16-bit ISA bus (AT bus) to 32 bits and provides bus mastering. 7.) TASK 4C-1: Replacing a 16-bit Expansion Card Setup: The computer enclosure has been removed and you have a 16-bit expansion card already installed. formed a consortium to extend the features and capabilities of the ISA bus. Remember to note the cables and orientation before removing them. Re-insert the expansion card in its slot. Notice that the edge connector is divided into two separate connectors that will only fit into ISA slots. EISA cards differ physically from ISA cards by the addition of a second row of connectors and some additional guide notches. PY . Most EISA cards are 5 inches high.uses this pulse-coding to inform the card of the proper settings. non-volatile memory. 3. 1. 5. Mount the expansion card to the chassis using the screw you removed earlier. Those settings are configured and stored in on-board. The EISA acronym is generally pronounced “ee-suh. Disconnect any external cables and any internal leads to the system board. including Compaq. 4. Settings are saved on the board itself by the use of an EEPROM chip. A The EISA Bus L Topic 4D -D O N O Examine the connectors on the expansion card. Reconnect any internal leads to the system board and any external cables. It supports existing 8and 16-bit ISA adapter cards. Remove the expansion card by rocking it slightly in a forward/back motion. Remove the screw that mounts the expansion card to the chassis. and named the ISA bus in the process. plus newer 32-bit EISA cards. They jointly developed the EISA bus (Extended Industry Standard Architecturebus). EV During 1988 and 1989. C Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 133 O You can use the sound card for this exercise. 2. Make sure it’s seated firmly.” The EISA bus uses a 32-bit slot and runs at 8 to 10 MHz. 6. Be sure to check with the notes you recorded if it’s necessary to correctly reconnect internal leads. a number of vendors.

and 16-bit ISA boards can be used with an EISA bus. System configurations are saved in non-volatile CMOS memory and a System Configuration Information (SCI) file. the configuration program is run. In addition. O One of the most important features of the EISA bus is the way in which EISA adapters are configured. non-volatile memory. using ISA boards in an EISA system can cause performance problems even with EISA boards in the system. If you are using 8-bit ISA boards with an EISA bus. EISA adapters also store their configurations in on-board. N When an EISA system is booted. are specific to that system. or other needed settings. run the configuration program (by booting with the floppy disk in the drive. configuration is accomplished with software. memory I/O settings. bus master: Takes control of the bus away from the CPU to transfer data directly to RAM or other devices. Then set O The configuration program is supplied on a set of floppy disks. make sure that there are no resource conflicts. EISA systems support existing ISA adapters. Such cards. The steps required for the configuration program are specific to the system’s manufacturer. many EISA adapters are simply ported ISA cards and still use only 24 address lines. but cannot configure those adapters through software. It compares the current configuration to that stored in CMOS memory. . This means that the EISA bus supports systems with up to 4 GB (4. it checks the configuration of the currently installed adapters and options. If differences are found. These floppy disks. after they have been used to configure a system. Configuration EV 134 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Because the configuration is also stored in an SCI file. T C O The EISA bus allows one adapter in a system to occasionally take control of the bus during a data transfer. The configuration utility for your system should offer that option. Such an adapter is described as a bus master.096 MB) of system memory. However. Printing the CMOS information is another good backup strategy. can address only 16 MB of system RAM. if the CMOS memory becomes corrupted or gets lost.In addition to 32 data lines. This difference makes EISA more suitable for server systems than for clients. PY Although 8. You might want to back up your current CMOS configuration information to a floppy disk. To install an ISA card in your EISA system. you can restore the settings from that file. for example) to look for available interrupt. you need to use 32-bit boards to get the full benefit of the architecture. the EISA bus uses 32 address lines. even though they use the EISA bus interface. Jumpers and switches are not necessary with EISA adapters. but you can copy the program to the hard disk for convenience. A bus master takes control of the bus away from the system processor in order to transfer data directly to system memory or to other I/O devices.

the jumpers or switches on the ISA adapter based on that information. 2. Describe the physical characteristics of an EISA expansion card. An EISA expansion card is taller than an ISA card and has additional guide notches. A Representation of the EISA Bus Connection on an Adapter Figure 4-4: A representation of the EISA bus connection on an adapter. Identifying an EISA Expansion Card 1. you can install the adapter in your system. Once your system is turned off. If so. How do you configure an EISA card for your system? EV A L -D You must use an EISA configuration utility disk. O N O Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 135 TASK 4D-1: T C O Notice how the edge connector of EISA cards compares to 8-bit and ISA edge connectors. The configuration files for specific devices are stored in SCI files. PY . set such information by using the configuration utility. The configuration utility can include an option to inform the system that an ISA adapter is located in a particular slot.

096 MB) of system RAM.Topic 4E Micro Channel Architecture Bus Micro Channel Architecture bus: A proprietary 32-bit bus from IBM that was used in PS/2. EV A L 136 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D • O N The 32-bit Micro Channel Bus Connection with a Video Extension O T It is incorrect to refer to Micro Channel Architecture as MCA. connector. data is transferred at 64 bits per cycle. Figure 4-5: The 32-bit Micro Channel bus connection with a video extension. the data is transferred across the 32 data lines and across the 32 lines usually reserved for address information. The streaming mode operation offers the ability to transfer data at up to 40 MBps. such as data in a disk drive’s read buffer. C O Micro Channel cards and slots are either 16. RS/6000. One slot in a system will have an additional connector that provides direct access to video circuitry on the motherboard. who legally challenged IBM’s use of the acronym. The Micro Channel bus can also address up to 4 GB (4. or Micro Channel bus. However. The 32-bit versions use an extra edge connector in line with the first. ISA and EISA cards communicate with the host system in a two-step process: they signal that they are about to transfer some data. and multiplexed streaming mode. Micro Channel offers three additional modes of data transfer: burst mode. streaming mode. This bus operates at 20 MHz and can accept 16. • Micro Channel burst mode uses one signal for the transfer of more than one byte of data. This process is repeated until all of the data is transferred. MCA is a trademark of Universal Studios. . for its PS/2 line of computers. In this special mode. 16-bit. The Micro Channel bus offers many performance improvements that make it ideally suited for server applications. Such cards (for example. the Novell DCB-2) work properly only in systems with 16 MB of memory. Micro Channel offers the multiplexed streaming mode. offering higher performance than the streaming mode. the Micro Channel bus calls for 32 data lines and 32 address lines. and certain ES/9370 models.and 32-bit adapter cards. PY In 1987. cards for ISA or EISA systems cannot be used in Micro Channel systems. Like many EISA cards. IBM developed the Micro Channel architecture to overcome many of the limitations of the ISA bus architecture.or 32-bit. In this mode. many Micro Channel cards are simple ports of ISA cards and use only 24 address lines. These connections allow designers of video boards to use some of the built-in video circuitry and to avoid duplicating engineering effort. To further improve data transfer performance. • Streaming mode is used when the data to be transferred exists as a large block. and then they transfer one byte. IBM developed the Micro Channel Architecture bus. Like the EISA bus.

At a certain point as the system starts. The Micro Channel Architecture bus allows up to 15 adapters in a system to occasionally act as bus masters during a data transfer. slow or inadequately engineered boards will work properly in a Micro Channel system. To access the programs stored on the configuration partition on the hard drive. the system checks for installed options and compares this information with the configuration information stored in CMOS. EV A L -D During the configuration process. The configuration program compares the valid settings in all of the ADF files and chooses appropriate settings for each board. The finished configuration information is stored in non-volatile CMOS memory. Micro Channel cards can actually slow the bus. it does not depend on the timing of the system for its interaction with that system. the cursor will jump to the upper-right corner of the screen. These are provided by the manufacturer of the board you are configuring.Micro Channel is an asynchronous bus. you need to provide Adapter Definition Files (ADFs). If a discrepancy is discovered. Thus. N O Micro Channel systems can access the configuration program from a Reference Disk. When it does. in order to work properly. The system will then load the configuration programs from the hard-disk partition. if necessary. They hold similar information to the EISA SCI files. you must first perform a warm boot by pressing [Ctrl][Alt][Delete]. Systems that are purchased from IBM and are configured with a hard drive have the configuration programs loaded on a special 3 MB partition of the hard disk. O To access the programs from the Reference Disk. the system attempts to load the configuration program. Configuration Micro Channel introduced the software configuration concept that was later adopted by the EISA design committee. Thus. In addition. press [Ctrl][Alt][Insert]. simply boot the computer with the disk in the A drive. At boot time. T Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 137 C O PY . The Micro Channel specification calls for smaller board dimensions and lower power levels. Plug and Play specifications exist for Micro Channel systems. Micro Channel boards are harder to design and are more expensive than either ISA or EISA adapters. IBM calls this feature Programmable Option Select (POS). The POS feature operates in a manner similar to the EISA configuration process.

A Micro Channel Architecture expansion card has nearly twice as many connectors as an ISA card and is segmented to provide for 16-bit. This standard was introduced in 1992 by Intel and has become a popular standard for high-end systems. and PowerPC chips. How do you configure a Micro Channel Architecture card for your system? PY . Pentium. Describe the physical characteristics of a Micro Channel Architecture expansion card. O PCI bus (Peripheral Component Interconnect bus) is a local bus standard. With PCI. EV A Representation of the PCI Bus Connection on an Adapter A L load: Power consumption of a device. N O The PCI Bus T Topic 4F C You must use a Reference Disk and an options disk after installing the device. The PCI chipset uses three loads. 32-bit. PCI cards are automatically configured at startup for Plug and Play support. and other electrical characteristics. 138 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D PCI bus: Peripheral Component Interconnect bus is a peripheral bus commonly used in PCs that provides a high-speed datapath between the CPU and peripheral devices. up to eight functions can be integrated onto one peripheral board.TASK 4E-1: Identifying a Micro Channel Architecture Expansion Card 1. the remainder of the slots will be ISA or EISA slots. and is designed to be scalable for 64-bit bus implementations. A PCI controller or two may also be built into the motherboard. A load is calculated with inductance. and has separate buses for network and disk boards. Peripheral boards in Windows 95 and Windows 98 machines can even share IRQs. and video extension segments. O 2. PCI uses a 32-bit bus operating at 33 MHz. and controllers plugged into a slot use one and one-half loads each. capacitance. Support for peripherals is assigned via loads. A motherboard typically contains three or four PCI slots. It supports 10 devices and 32-bit bus mastering. Each bus receives 10 loads. PCI is compatible with many CPUs. Figure 4-6: A representation of the PCI bus connection on an adapter. controllers integrated into the motherboard use one load each. including 486.

You can use the network card for this exercise. Remove the screw that mounts the expansion card to the chassis. and DMA settings that are not used by other components to configure the new component. the less likely you will be to encounter problems. in its early days. the system detects the new component and uses I/O. the configuration of adapters is performed by the operating system. This is because. the fewer legacy devices you have installed in your system. 2. 4. For PnP to work.TASK 4F-1: Replacing a PCI Expansion Card Setup: The computer enclosure has been removed and you have a PCI expansion card already installed. • • The BIOS. was often also called Plug and Pray. Mount the expansion card to the chassis using the screw you removed earlier. A L In Plug and Play (PnP). both PnP components and legacy (non-PnP) components were often found in the same system. the following components must support Plug and Play: • The device/adapter you want to install. In general. Plug and Play EV Plug and Play. opening up the potential for conflicts and improper configuration. EISA. . Reconnect any internal leads to the system board and any external cables. IRQ. The operating system. After you install a component into a Plug and Play computer and reboot. -D O Topic 4G N O T Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 139 C O PY 1. Make sure it’s seated firmly. Most newer components support Plug and Play. Disconnect any external cables and any internal leads to the system board. 5. and inserts into a white slot. 7. Remove the expansion card by rocking it slightly in a forward/back motion. Examine the connectors on the expansion card. What characteristics could you use to identify this card? It’s short. 6. especially in older systems. Re-insert the expansion card in its slot. and thus problems are much less likely in such systems. 3. Plug and Play specifications exist for ISA. and PCI buses. has closely spaced pins on two edge connectors.

If it’s successful.PnP was originally developed and introduced around 1993 through a joint effort by Microsoft. When you install a PnP device in the system and restart the operating system. you can install a new system board with a BIOS that supports PnP. you should look into upgrading the BIOS. the BIOS determines what resources they need (as assigned by you or the operating system) by checking a list of resources that are already assigned. The symptom you will likely see is that the device just won’t be recognized. or let the BIOS reconfigure all devices. it’s not Plug and Play. Windows 95. In this scenario. and will try to locate and install the correct driver for the device. EV 140 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Plug and Play Operating System The operating system you’re running must support Plug and Play for Plug and Play devices to be recognized and configured automatically. even though resource assignment is automatic. Intel. if possible. If Windows can’t find a driver. and Compaq provided the computers that could use PnP. you can pretty much count on the BIOS supporting PnP. Then. To verify whether the BIOS supports PnP. If you have a Pentium computer. after the POST routine finishes. Phoenix. Make sure the device you’re buying is truly a Plug and Play device. This enabled other manufacturers to manufacture adapters and devices that could take advantage of PnP. Alternatively. and thus the BIOS can choose from only those resources. During boot-up. T C O Most new devices you might buy will be PnP-compliant. 98. watch the screens during bootup. and the proper resources allocated and resource information saved. O N O Today’s BIOSs all support PnP. and in the documentation. Phoenix provided a BIOS that supported PnP. PCI devices are always PnP devices. and so on. PY . If it just says it works as well as Plug and Play. Thus. Plug and Play Devices Plug and Play BIOS A L Here’s how a PnP BIOS handles resource assignment for both PnP devices and legacy devices. network cards. you will see a screen that will make reference to the Plug and Play BIOS extension. You can do this through PnP’s Reset Configuration Data option in the system BIOS (which you can enter during boot-up). Intel provided chips that supported PnP. the device driver will be installed automatically. or specify that you have the driver on a disk (as supplied by the hardware manufacturer). and Compaq. Windows will display a message that a new device was detected. If your BIOS doesn’t support PnP. the BIOS takes over. you might need to re-allocate resources for legacy devices. and Windows 2000 all support Plug and Play. Such devices might include modems. it queries PnP devices and identifies the resources required by those devices. and first looks to see if there are legacy devices in the system. you don’t have to do anything. If it does. CD-ROM drives. you will be able to either choose the correct driver from a list. Typically. ISA devices should state whether they’re PnP or not on the packaging. If there are. Microsoft provided an operating system that supported PnP. it can become complicated if other devices are already using all of the resources a new PnP device can use. and you can run into problems. a PnP device can only use certain resources.

however. You will find driver information on the Driver tab. it will identify and install the driver for the device. and the driver that is used for any device installed in your system. and click Properties. If you install a new device. but are instead permanently assigned to the device for which you made the manual assignment. those resources are no longer available for possible. you should initially let Windows try to scan for new hardware (this will be the default selection). you can also use the Add New Hardware Wizard to install and configure PnP devices. you can then either choose the device from a list of devices offered by Windows. T The Resources Tab of a Device in Device Manager EV A L -D O N Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 141 C O PY You can use the Device Manager in Windows to see current resource assignments. You will find the Add New Hardware Wizard in the Control Panel. that if you manually assign resources. future PnP reconfiguration or assignment. It is permanently assigned to the device for which you made the manual assignment. O Figure 4-7: The Resources tab of a device indicating that Plug and Play is used for resource assignments. If Windows can’t find the device. PnP is used to allocate resources. and Windows will install the appropriate driver. Note. If unchecked. and resource information on the Resources tab. you can manually assign resources (even to PnP devices) by clicking Change Setting and making the necessary assignments. Select a device in Device Manager.Note that if you manually assign a resource in Device Manager. you will see a check box called Use Automatic Settings. and Windows doesn’t automatically detect it. . On the Resources tab. If checked. If Windows can find the new device. When using the Add New Hardware Wizard. that resource is no longer available for future PnP reconfiguration or assignment. or you can click Have Disk to point to a driver you’ve been provided by the manufacturer.

configuration information is stored in on-board. 2. the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA) introduced the VL-Bus (VESA Local-BUS standard). A motherboard can contain up to three VL-Bus slots. VL-Bus boards are generally software-configurable. or Micro-Channel Architecture slot and enables vendors to design adapters that use the local bus or both buses simultaneously. Even so. the maximum practical speed is 33 MHz. Figure 4-8: A representation of the VL-Bus connection on an adapter. Where can you see which resources are currently assigned to a Plug and Play device? On the Resource tab of a device in Device Manager. the increased speed (over ISA and EISA) enhances performance on systems that run graphics and other applications requiring intensive I/O operations. Plug and Play enables the automatic assignment of device resources when a new device is installed in a system. Like some ISA systems. Define the function of Plug and Play. O Video Circuitry Buses T Topic 4H C O PY . the system’s BIOS. Both of these architectures deal with video performance. VL-Bus VL-Bus: Stands for VESA Local-Bus. 3. Bus mastering is supported by the VL-Bus standard. EISA. and the operating system all must support Plug and Play. A 32-bit slot is located next to an ISA. EV A Representation of the VL-Bus Connection on an Adapter A L 142 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D In 1992. A peripheral bus from VESA that was primarily used in 486s and provides a highspeed datapath between the CPU and peripherals. Although the VL-Bus standard provides for theoretical speeds up to 66 MHz. Which components must support Plug and Play for it to work properly? The device you want to install.TASK 4G-1: Reviewing Plug and Play 1. non-volatile memory and EEPROMs. O N We will briefly examine two other popular architectures in this topic: VESA Local Bus (VL) and Accelerated Graphics Port (AGP).

AGP provides an improvement in speed of four times the current speed over a PCI bus. Reconnect any internal leads to the system board and any external cables. 6. Make sure it’s seated firmly. Architecture that is based on the PCI architecture and is designed specifically to speed up 3D graphics. 7. Remove the screw that mounts the expansion card to the chassis.htm for in-depth information on AGP. For more information on AGP. Finally. Setup: The computer enclosure has been removed and you have an AGP expansion card already installed. Mount the expansion card to the chassis using the screw you removed earlier.AGP Bus The AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) was developed by Intel and is based on the PCI architecture. Summary EV In this lesson. and using Windows 95. you can visit Intel’s AGP Web site at http://developer. Replacing an AGP Expansion Card 1. rather than first loading data into local video memory. It uses the same connector as a PCI card and plugs into a port that is dedicated to video data. 4.com/ technology/agp/index.com/ technology/agp/ index. 2.intel. 3. you learned how to replace expansion cards. A L -D Re-insert the expansion card in its slot. Disconnect any external cables and any internal leads to the system board. Then. It includes a dedicated 32-bit wide channel running at 66 MHz direct to memory to increase speed and throughput. AGP only works on system boards with an AGP slot.intel. the graphics controller can directly access system memory. you learned what a bus is and how it’s used for communication between the CPU and expansion cards. O T You can use the video card for this exercise. 5. . Remove the expansion card by rocking it slightly in a forward/back motion. With AGP. Current maximum speed is 528 MBps. O N C TASK 4H-1: Lesson 4: Bus Architectures 143 O Check out http:// developer. You examined the technical characteristics of popular buses and you learned the various methods for configuring them. PY AGP: Stands for Accelerated Graphics Port. Examine the connectors on the expansion card. It was designed specifically to speed up 3D graphics. future maximum speeds are around 1 GBps.htm. you examined the concept of Plug and Play and how it makes adapter installation much easier. Windows 98 or Windows 2000.

and RISC systems.77 MHz. The 16-bit connectors are near the top of the slot. whereas the 32-bit connectors are near the bottom of the slot. but runs at twice the speed (66 MHz). It is backward-compatible with the 8-bit expansion cards. L EV 144 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D The PCI expansion bus supports both 32-bit and 64-bit datapaths and runs at 33 MHz. O The EISA expansion bus is a 32-bit bus that is backward-compatible with the 16-bit ISA bus. O The 8-bit bus is characterized by having a maximum bus clock speed of 4. The expansion bus allows you to add additional functionality to the PC by installing expansion cards for specific purposes. Macintoshes. It has 16 interrupts and eight DMA channels. The expansion bus is a set of pathways over which the CPU and devices communicate with each other. and uses a high-density connector. PY . It has eight interrupts and four DMA channels. 4F Describe the characteristics of the PCI expansion bus. The bus is universal in that PCI expansion cards can be used in PCs. The Micro Channel Architecture bus runs at a slightly higher clock speed than ISA (10 MHz). and Windows 2000. is available in 16-bit and 32-bit versions. The VL-Bus was based on the ISA bus with the addition of a 32-bit local bus connector. the AGP bus was based on the PCI bus. 4G Which operating systems support Plug and Play? Windows 95. Both buses were designed almost exclusively for the purpose of increasing video performance. 4B Describe the characteristics of an 8-bit expansion bus. O N 4E Describe the characteristics of the Micro Channel Architecture bus. Windows 98.Lesson Review 4A Describe the function of the expansion bus. 4C Describe the characteristics of the ISA expansion bus. 4H Describe the difference between the VL-Bus and the AGP bus. C The ISA bus is characterized by having a bus clock speed of 8 MHz. T 4D Describe the characteristics of the EISA expansion bus.

you will examine the technical specifications. and capabilities of ports that you will find on-board or that you can add to a PC. you will examine the technical specifications for FireWire. you will: 5A Examine how microcomputers use input and output ports to communicate with electronic devices. 5D Identify the characteristics of a parallel port. In this topic. 5C Identify the characteristics of serial ports. You will then use your system’s BIOS setup utility to examine which parallel port modes are available. characteristics. 5B Identify the technical characteristics of PS/2 ports. You will learn how to physically identify them. You will also examine how to connect devices using FireWire. Connectors. connectors. Then. In this topic. and Cables 145 Objectives C O Lesson Time 3 hours PY . In this topic.Ports. we will look at how microcomputers use input and output ports to communicate with electronic devices. how to configure their operational parameters. EV 5E 5F A In this topic. and how to design device topologies. Finally. LESSON 5 Data Files none To become familiar with the ports. Specifically. you will examine the technical specifications of a parallel port. Then. L -D O N O T Lesson 5: Ports. you will examine the technical specifications of PC serial ports. you will learn how to configure the serial ports on a PC running Windows 98. you will look at troubleshooting USB. you will examine the technical specifications for USB. and Cables Overview In this lesson. Identify the characteristics of the Universal Serial Bus. In this topic. Identify the characteristics of FireWire ports. you will examine the role of PS/2 ports. You will also learn how to test them for proper functioning. In this topic. you will create a topology for connecting multiple devices to a single host. you will identify general ways that data can be exchanged with peripheral devices. Connectors. and cables.

Bytes are disassembled into bits on the sending end. For example. O How Data is Transmitted N Examine the ports on various computers in the classroom. ask students to gather around a single microcomputer. and re-assembled into bytes at the receiving end. ports are sockets. Parallel Transmission Sends Several Bits at Once 146 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Serial Transmission Sends One Bit at a Time -D There are two fundamental ways that ports transmit and receive data. Other less common ports include MIDI (Musical Instrument Device Interface) and SCSI (Small Computer System Interface). L EV serial transmission: Data is sent and received one bit at a time over a single wire. into which you can plug cables. Two types of ports commonly found in microcomputers are serial ports and parallel ports.Topic 5A Overview of Input/Output Ports In addition to the many devices that can be added inside a microcomputer. to which devices such as mice. modems. The shape of the socket and the number of pins (connectors) it provides depends upon the type of port. Types of Ports 1. and keyboards can be connected. You can move from group to group and quickly point out the port types. If there are too many students to do this easily. data is sent and received one bit at a time over a single wire. such as printers. They will use either serial or parallel communications. or port. and other peripherals. and the types of devices that are commonly connected through that type of port. mice. For this task. Your instructor will identify the type of each port. you can also use cables to attach devices that are outside the microcomputer. On the outside of the computer. The portion of the microcomputer into which you plug these cables is called an input/output port (I/O port. O Examining Ports T TASK 5A-1: C I/O port: A place on a computer where you can plug in peripheral devices. Also referred to as input/output port. A variety of other types of ports is used in microcomputers. In a serial transmission. O PY . older Macintosh computers have an ADB (Apple Desktop Bus) port. Figure 5-1: Serial transmission sends one bit at a time. have students work in groups around various computers. Then explain ports to the entire class. or simply port). trackballs.

the eight wires used for transmitting data (and other wires that provide supporting signals) can cause interference that degrades the quality of signals. parallel transmission is potentially faster than serial transmission. and Cables 147 O PY . This short distance can be easily handled by a parallel connection. N O Because more bits are transferred at one time. These wires are typically twisted around each other or shielded within a metal sheath to reduce crosstalk. Connectors. Comparison of Parallel and Serial Transmission TASK 5A-2: Comparing Data Transmission Types EV Most likely parallel. This interference. The circuitry used for parallel transmission is typically less complicated (and therefore less expensive) than the circuitry for serial. L Objective: For each of the following scenarios. In a parallel transmission. parallel cables are kept under 10 feet to reduce crosstalk. A 1. Lesson 5: Ports. The printer will be located on the same desk as the computer. is not a problem if the length of a parallel communication channel can be kept short. Typically. crosstalk: Interference caused by “leaks” from a nearby communication channel. The data bus within the computer transmits data in parallel. Ellen needs to connect a printer to her computer. No disassembly or re-assambly of bytes is necessary.Figure 5-2: Parallel transmission sends several bits at once. Serial cables have fewer wires than parallel cables. -D O On the other hand. T C parallel transmission: Data is sent several bits at once. called crosstalk. identify whether parallel or serial data transmission is more appropriate and explain why. although serial can also be used. eight wires are used to send an entire byte at the same time.

The mouse port uses IRQ 12. This pin isn’t connected. The output voltage of a PS/2 port is +5 V DC. EV pinout: A diagram of wire termination to connector pins. The pinouts for the PS/2 connector are shown in the following table. This pin is the ground. She needs to design a data transmission circuit between the processor and memory. Parallel. This pin isn’t connected. The short distance inside the system cabinet is not subject to crosstalk and other limiting factors. Jim needs to connect a printer to his computer. Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 O mini-DIN: Another term for a PS/2 port. This is the clock pin. Although serial data transmission is potentially much slower than parallel. Referred to as CLK. . you will probably need to get an adapter that goes from DIN to mini-DIN to make a newer keyboard work on a regular DIN connection. L PS/2 Port Pinouts -D Figure 5-3: PS/2 port pinouts. Referred to as GND. If you need to replace that keyboard. The printer will be located on a table 12 feet away from the computer. C O PY Dora is designing and building a microcomputer. T The PS/2 port is a 6-pin round port. PS/2 ports are used to connect keyboards and mice to the system. 3. 148 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Some older AT systems use a regular 5-pin DIN for the keyboard connection. Serial. 12 feet is too long a distance for a parallel connection to be reliable. Topic 5B PS/2 Ports PS/2 port: A round 6-pin port used to connect keyboards and mice to PCs. A Direction Bidirectional Through Computer to keyboard or mouse Computer to keyboard or mouse N Used for This pin carries key data. Referred to as DATA. Referred to as VCC. Data buses inside a microcomputer are typically parallel because they are fast and inexpensive. This pin carries +5 volts of direct current. It is also referred to as a mini-DIN. the keyboard port uses IRQ 1.2.

Just imagine sliding it up the wall of the computer so that it would be next to the ports to determine which device goes in which port. TASK 5B-1: Working with PS/2 Ports Setup: Your computer case is open and all external cables are disconnected. On some systems. you can have students test the voltage by inserting the black probe in Pin 3 and touching the chassis with the red probe. then power on your system. they used a bus port or a serial port. T C If you have a multimeter with small enough probes to fit into the holes on the PS/2 ports.PS/2 Keyboard Port Most systems mark which port is the keyboard and which is the mouse because they appear identical when you look at them. L 6. Most systems today use the PS/2 port. The port usually will either be color-coded to match the end of the cable that came with the system (often green for mouse and orange for keyboard) or there will be a picture of a mouse and keyboard near the connectors. Lesson 5: Ports. they standardized the PS/2 port. the IRQs are different. What happened? Why? The BIOS reported the keyboard was missing. Originally. Use the information on the system case to determine which port is which. What happened? Why? 5. 4. EV A You should have been able to boot without any BIOS error messages and your mouse should have worked when you booted into Windows. 3. Mice come in many different configurations. Turn off the system. Plug the keyboard and mouse into the appropriate ports. Were you able to successfully boot? When Windows started. so the BIOS reports that the keyboard is still missing. With the PS/2 line of computers. 2. and Cables 149 O PY PS/2 Mouse Port . Power on your system. Plug the mouse into the keyboard port and the keyboard into the mouse port. and then power on your system. on IBM PCs. Connectors. The keyboard and mouse remain unplugged. 1. were you able to use your mouse? -D Even though either device will fit into either port. O N O Plug in the power cord and the monitor cable. the sticker is under the connectors and perpendicular to the actual ports. Turn off the system.

Topic 5C Serial Ports In order for the two systems to communiate. Figure 5-5: Without synchronization. some type of synchronization or clocking is necessary. Without Synchronization. These include: • • • • • Modems are Commonly Connected to Serial Ports Bits per second Data bits Parity Stop bits Flow control Figure 5-4: Modems are commonly connected to serial ports. data-transmission errors can occur. the signals will be misread. Modems enable two computers to transfer data across a telephone line. As shown in Figure 5-5. O Synchronization N O T C O PY Serial ports provide two-way serial communication in microcomputers. . To prevent this problem. you need to configure both systems to use the same settings. Data-transmission Errors can Occur EV A L 150 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The device receiving a transmission must know how frequently to read the data line. if the receiving device is not synchronized with the signal. One of the most common devices that connects to serial ports is a modem. Two methods for doing this are synchronous and asynchronous transmission.

Typically. and so forth. To signal the beginning and end of a block of data. the transmitter adds a start sequence (typically a pattern of bits) to the beginning of the block of data. framing: The process of using start. Use a configuration utility (such as MS-DOS’s MODE command) to set the rate used by the serial port. stop. and an end sequence (another special bit pattern) at the end. Asynchronous Transmission Another way to accomplish this is for the transmitter to embed clocking pulses in the data line. If a transition in the signal equates to a single bit of data. data. and parity bits to verify asynchronous transmission. stop. However. The receiving device can verify the data by summing it and examining the parity bit. When you set up a computer to communicate with a serial device (such as a modem or printer). the hardware and software must be configured to communicate using the same settings. Settings include framing bits. For example. You must also specify the data rate—the number of bits of data that are transmitted per second. The baud rate measures the number of signal changes that a data transmission line makes in one second. O T COM1 is also sometimes known as AUX. A parity bit can also be included to verify that data has transmitted correctly. whereas the bps rate measures how much data can be transferred in one second. some devices (such as modems) can use special encoding and compression techniques to communicate with other devices. Not to be confused with data rate.Synchronous Transmission Synchronous transmissions keep the receiver’s clock synchronized with the transmitter’s clock. Configuration EV A L Lesson 5: Ports. -D Data Rate O N IBM computers provide one or more serial ports named COM1. Not to be confused with baud rate. PY synchronous transmission: Keeps the receiver’s clock synchronized with the transmitter’s clock. Connectors. The block of data combined with a start and stop pattern is called a data frame. and stop bits. data rate. The bps rate is often confused with another data transfer rate called baud. These include the start. This rate is referred to in bits per second (bps). computers typically communicate with serial printers at 9600 bps. and parity bits is called framing. a clock line between the two devices enables the receiver to adjust the frequency with which the receiver retrieves bits from the data line. baud rate: The number of signal changes that a data transmission line makes in one second. then these measurements are the same. and Cables 151 O asynchronous transmission: Transmitter embeds clocking pulses in the data line. These techniques enable a modem to transfer more bits per second over a telephone line than the maximum baud rate. C Framing Bits The computer and devices with which it communicates must use the same number of several types of bits. To accomplish this. This refers to the DOS auxiliary device. data rate: The number of bits of data that are transmitted per second. parity. The process of adding start. The transmitting device sets the parity bit to a particular value (1 or 0) depending on whether the sum of the bits in the data block is an even or odd number. COM2. This is referred to as asynchronous transmission. The printer’s bps rate is most likely set through DIP switches. These two rates are confused so often that even technical documentation sometimes uses the wrong terminology. and flow control. . the operating system and applications that use the COM ports provide configuration options that you can set.

Expand Ports. Flow-control techniques control and acknowledge the flow of data. PY handshaking: Signals transmitted back and forth over a communications network that establish a valid connection between two stations. With hardware handshaking. 2. . Devices also need a way to confirm that they have received data that was sent to them. The receiving device sends a Control-Q character (ASCII value 17) to request that the sending device resume sending data. EV 152 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O Setup: The computer is powered on and the operating system has loaded. electronic devices need to know when the other device has finished talking so that they can talk. TASK 5C-1: Configuring Serial Ports 1. a separate wire is provided for flow control. Right-click on My Computer and choose Properties. The receiving device sends a Control-S character (ASCII value 19) to request that the sending device stop sending data. The receiving device sends a signal over this wire to inform the sending device that it is ready to receive data. The XON/XOFF (transmit on/transmit off) protocol is an example of this. T C O Software handshaking reserves special characters for the receiving device to send control signals to the sending device. Handshaking is a flow-control method that can be implemented through hardware or software.Flow Control As with human communication. Select the Device Manager tab. 3.

N O Lesson 5: Ports. 5. 7.4. 6. Select the Port Settings tab. Double-click on a COM port. A L -D O Click Advanced and examine the Receive Buffer and Transmit Buffer slider controls. Close all dialog boxes. Connectors. and Cables 153 T C O PY . EV 8. Click on the drop-down list for each setting and examine the possible values. You may need to adjust the receive and transmit buffers to ensure a compatible connection with the other modem.

-D Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 O Signal Protected ground Transmitted data Received data Request to send Clear to send Data set ready Signal ground Data carrier detector Reserved for data set testing Reserved for data set testing Unassigned Secondary carrier detector Secondary clear to send N Pin 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 O Signal Secondary transmitted data Transmit timing signal Secondary received data Receive timing signal Unassigned Secondary request to send Data terminal ready Signal quality detector Ring indicator Data rate selector External timing signal Unassigned • Pin assignments. the need arose for a standard way to connect computer terminals (Data Terminal Equipment. The other pins are left unconnected. Procedures that devices use to communicate over RS-232 lines. • • • Signaling techniques. In 1969. and 20. the name RS-232 is still used to refer to the serial communication standard. which described how these devices should be connected. the Electronics Industry Association published the RS-232 standard. 3. 6. which are listed in the following table. L 10 11 12 13 154 A+ Certification: Core Hardware T The RS-232 standard specifies the following mechanical characteristics: • A male. connector-pin arrangements. In general use. You can illustrate this by removing the hoods from a DB-9 to DB-25 modem cable. and cable connectors. or DCE). Functions of support circuits. the standard was enhanced to meet the changing needs of the electronics industry. The RS-232 standard describes: • Mechanical characteristics. EV A Have students make a star next to pins 2. when the technology for modems became available to the general public. 8. . 7. 25-pin connector (such as the DB-25 connector shown in Figure 5-6). or DTE) to modems (Data Communication Equipment. Explain that only these eight pins are used in most RS-232 cables. including wiring. Mechanical Characteristics DB-25 Connector Pins Figure 5-6: DB-25 connector pins. 4.The RS-232 Standard In 1967. In 1987. 5. C O PY RS-232: Serial communication standard that describes how to connect computer terminals to modems.

Most implementations do not use all of the pins shown in the previous table. The rate at which data is transmitted cannot exceed 20 kilobits per second. • • Data—The circuits over which data are transmitted. and Cables 155 A L -D Signaling Techniques O N O T C O PY . Serial Port Pinouts for a 9-pin Connector Figure 5-7: Serial port pinouts for a 9-pin connector. Lesson 5: Ports. Voltage levels must not exceed 25 volts. many computers provide a 9-pin (rather than a 25-pin) connector for their serial ports. The following table explains the default pin assignments for a 9-pin serial cable. • • • • • Voltages between +3 and +15 represent a binary value of 0. EV Circuit Functions The RS-232 standard specifies the following functional categories of circuits: • Ground or common return—Provides a reference for positive or negative voltages. The RS-232 standard specifies the following signaling characteristics: • Voltages between -3 and -15 represent a binary value of 1. Voltages between -3 and +3 do not represent values. For this reason. Pin 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Signal Received line signal detector Received data Transmitted data Data terminal ready Signal ground Data set ready Request to send Clear to send Ring indicator Signals on RS-232 pins carry voltage levels that represent a certain binary value. Connectors. RS-232 circuitry must be designed so that any combination of wires can be crossed without causing damage to connected equipment. such as computers or modems. In fact. it is possible to use nine or fewer pins to provide a functional two-way serial connection. Secondary channel—Enables simultaneous two-way communication.

• • Control—Circuits that control the flow of data and other factors. but use different I/O addresses. IRQs and I/O Addresses Serial ports share IRQs. or “dumb. At other times. you can determine which pins need to be connected. O N O T C O PY . Figure 5-9 shows an example of wiring a 9-pin serial cable for a nullmodem connection. Timing—Enables receivers to decode signals at the same rate at which they were encoded. Null-modem Serial Connections There are times when you need to make a serial connection. but most connections today use a standard modem or null-modem cable. This was commonly required in the past. The following table shows these settings. you may need a different pin arrangement. This is an RS-232 communication. a single pin will be jumpered to two or more pins on the other end. such as from Pin 4 on the left to Pins 6 and 1 on the right. such as a multimeter. but need a different configuration than the usual serial connection. If two devices need to connect and are within tens of meters of each other. In some cases.” configuration can be used in place of a modem. such as the connection used with a modem. A Procedure for RS-232 Communication L Null Modem Pinouts EV A 156 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 5-8: A procedure for RS-232 communication. COM Port 1 2 3 4 IRQ 4 3 4 3 I/O Address 3F8H 2F8H 3E8H 2E8H RS-232 Communication Procedures Figure 5-8 shows a typical procedure through which a computer might communicate with a modem. Using your tools. a cable wired in a null-modem.

14 (secondary transmitted data)? Pins 3 and 14 aren’t required. Identifying Pins that are Necessary for a Connection 1. 3 (data the computer sends). A Parallel Ports L Topic 5D -D O N O TASK 5C-2: T Lesson 5: Ports. but not receiving. 2. so Pin 3 is unnecessary. The computer does not have to send data.Figure 5-9: Null-modem pinouts. which is capable of sending. EV Parallel ports are commonly used to connect microcomputers to printers. Connectors. Only one channel of data is required. and AT computers had a unidirectional parallel port. Communication with the mouse is one way. The most common use for parallel ports is to connect the microcomputer to a printer. Explain your answer. XT. Because parallel ports use parallel transmission. 7 (signal ground). data. The IBM PC. so Pin 14 is not needed. and Cables 157 C O PY . they are fast. Which of the following pins aren’t required for a mouse cable: 2 (data the computer receives).

O N O 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 . IBM computers have up to three parallel ports: LPT1.Auto feed .Strobe + Data bit 0 + Data bit 1 + Data bit 2 + Data bit 3 + Data bit 4 + Data bit 5 + Data bit 6 + Data bit 7 . Pin Signal Pin Signal .Initialize printer .Acknowledge + Busy + P. LPT2. and a DB-25 (25-pin) connector to connect to the PC.Centronics Pinouts A Centronics Parallel Cable with a Centronics and a DB-25 Connector EV A L 158 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 5-10: A Centronics parallel cable with a Centronics and a DB-25 connector. The type of parallel port used in IBM and compatible computers is called the Centronics standard.Error .Select input Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground Ground C O PY Centronics: Parallel port standard that uses a 36-pin connector to connect to the printer. and a DB-25 connector to connect to the PC. These ports provide the following connections. named after the company that designed the original interface. The Centronics standard uses a 36-pin Centronics connector to connect to the printer. and LPT3. End (out of paper) + Select T 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 .

needs have gone beyond those provided by the original parallel port. Enhanced Parallel Port. Of course. To enable software to communicate with a printer. Used mostly by non-printer peripherals. Other devices. N Description O T EPP: Stands for Enhanced Parallel Port. and other features. data only flowed in one direction—to the printer (or other device). you need only identify the name of the port (LPT1. Designers needed a way to make the port faster. Used mostly by newer generation printers and scanners. such as CD-ROM drives. Both the parallel port and device must support IEEE 1284 for the higher speeds to be achieved. Provides faster throughput than Centronics. also require that you install driver software to enable the computer to communicate with the device. and Cables 159 O Parallel Port Pinouts PY . but the printer couldn’t send any information back to the CPU. Lesson 5: Ports. whereas ECP is used by newer generation printers. such as CD-ROM drives and network adapters. Connectors. O EPP (IEEE 1284) Standard Parallel Port. you might need to install or select printer driver software to enable applications to send the correct commands to the printer. and ECP (Extended Capability Port). Extended Capability Port. and Windows 2000 have built-in support for IEEE 1284. there may be a conflict with the sound card. very little configuration is involved with parallel ports. If you choose to install a second LPT port (LPT2). Also known as a Fast Parallel Port. Provides faster throughput than Centronics. C ECP: Stands for Extended Capability Port. which also uses IRQ 5. Used by non-printer devices. Windows 95. Both ECP and EPP provide throughput that is about 10 times faster than the Centronics standard provides. Newer generation parallel port standard that offers high throughput (approximately 10 times faster than the Centronics standard). Newer generation parallel port standard that provides high throughput (approximately 10 times faster than the Centronics standard).Configuration Typically. allow communication back and forth. Newer bidirectional ports are available and are known as EPP (Enhanced Parallel Port). In the original. Used by newer generation printers and scanners. Examples of non-printer devices include CD-ROM drives and network adapters. Parallel ports use IRQ 7 and I/O Address 378H for LPT1 and IRQ 5 and 278H for LPT2. for example) to which the printer is attached. Figure 5-11: Parallel port pinouts. such as CD-ROM drives and network adapters. EV Bidirectional A Unidirectional Bidirectional L Type Standard SPP ECP (IEEE 1284) -D As time has gone on. Windows 98. EPP is used primarily by non-printer peripherals. The ECP and EPP standards are defined in the IEEE 1284 standard.

the 1284 Type B connector which uses a 36 conductor.085 centerline Champ connector with bale locks. EV 160 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A USB standard: Stands for Universal Serial Bus. Intel. 2. Examine the parallel port modes available. USB Ports L -D Compaq. and telephony devices. mouse. These include the 1284 Type A connector which uses a 25 pin DB25 connector.The IEEE 1284 standard identifies three different types of connectors. printer.org/. joystick. Select Parallel Port Mode and press [Enter]. Microsoft. 6. 4. NEC. Universal Serial Bus Ports For more information on the USB standard. A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the keyboard. Select I/O Device Configuration and press [Enter]. 5. 0. visit http:// usb. PY TASK 5D-1: . O N Topic 5E O Exit without saving changes. Select Advanced. scanner. and the 1284 Type C connector which uses a 36 conductor. 3. Digital. Identifying Parallel Port Modes 1. 0. Note that some BIOSs may display different values and use different terminology. and Northern Telecom worked together to develop the USB standard (Universal Serial Bus). and as it is booting enter the BIOS setup program. IBM. It offers a new single-port connector standard to connect to common I/O devices. T C O Power off and power on the computer.050 centerline mini connector with clip latches.

CD/RW drives. and mice. -D Up to 127 devices can be connected to a USB port. keyboards. Ethernet cards. This can keep going until you reach 127 devices. Up to seven peripherals can be attached to each USB hub. a USB Hub. scanners. and Cables 161 C O PY . This can include a second hub with up to seven more peripherals connected. Connectors. and a PC Cardto-USB Adapter EV A L T Lesson 5: Ports. printers. external hard drives. digital cameras.Figure 5-12: USB ports on an ATX motherboard. Examples of devices you can connect to a USB port include modems. external floppy drives. Using USB hubs containing several USB sockets plugged into a PC or other device is used to do this. O N O A PCI-to-USB Adapter.

Figure 5-13: An internal PCI to USB adapter. to use power from the PC rather than requiring their own power cable. such as hand-held scanners or speakers. Devices that use a separate cable have a square Type B socket. L A EV USB Connectors 162 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D USB Cables All cables that are permanently attached to the device have a Type A plug. an external USB hub. Devices are plugged directly into a 4-pin socket on the PC or hub using a rectangular Type A socket.5 amps (500 milli-amps) of power through each port. and a PC Card to USB adapter. This allows low-power devices that normally need their own power adaptor to be powered through the cable.5 amps per port provide the most flexibility for other downstream devices. Through USB. Hubs may get all of their power from the USB bus (bus-powered). the PC automatically senses the power that’s required and delivers it to the device. N O T C O PY . or they may be powered from their own AC adaptor. Powered hubs with at least 0. This allows small devices. and the cable that connects them has a Type A and Type B plug. USB Power The USB bus distributes 0. O A 5-volt power supply is carried along with the USB signal.

Instead. or configure IRQ settings. N O T Lesson 5: Ports. Data flows bidirectionally to and from the host controller and subsidiary hub controllers. configured. This software manages the host controller. USB bandwidth supports devices such as external CD-ROM drives and tape units. used. eliminating the need for a sound card. The host controller and the controllers in USB hubs manage USB peripherals. EV Software to support USB is added to the operating system. Connectors. A lower communication rate of 187. determine if a serial or parallel port is available. To keep costs down. This is referred to as isochronous data transfer. Portions of the bus bandwidth are permanently reserved for specific peripherals. and I/O addresses. isochronous: Uses a single device for clocking and all other devices set their internal clocks to this one device. and detached while the host and other peripherals are in operation. This reduces the load on the PC’s CPU time and improves system performance. and PBX interfaces. A L USB manages connected peripherals in a host controller mounted on the PC’s system board or on a PCI card added to the system. and Cables 163 C O PY . It can also carry digital audio directly to loudspeakers equipped with digital-to-analog converters. ISDN. its range is limited to 5 meters between devices. DMA channels. you don’t need to install expansion cards in the PC and then reconfigure the system. With USB. O USB overcomes the speed limitations of traditional serial ports. You don’t need to install drivers.Figure 5-14: USB connectors. USB runs at 12 Mbps. saving space for those things which really need it. the bus allows peripherals to be attached. -D USB is user-friendly and finally provides real Plug and Play capabilities.5 KBps can be set up for lower-bitrate devices like keyboards and mice.

0 extends the capabilities to between 360 and 480Mbps. Performance is around 30 to 40 times over USB 1. keyboards. A Monitor with an Integrated 4-port USB Hub L EV A 164 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 5-15: A monitor with an integrated 4-port USB hub. Note that even though devices like this exist today. and game pads. The USB module responsible for bus protocol. Devices. such as mice. One large. It is used to expand the number of USB ports. USB Version 2. Existing USB peripherals operate with no change in a USB 2. USB 2. It is responsible for the bus protocol. digital camera and so on. providing a connection point for next-generation peripherals that complement higher-performance PCs. Port-switching hubs isolate all ports from each other so that one shorted device will not bring down the others. rather than the current four or five different connectors. which are not allowed under the specification. document scanner.0 specification regards them as extensions to the cable.0 system.1 devices.1. All USB devices co-exist in a USB 2. attaching to this device. This device would act as a hub with other smaller devices such as mouse. With current devices like this. O N O T C O PY .The USB interface contains two main modules.and backward-compatible with USB 1. the actual USB 1. Another type of USB hub is the port-switching hub. The second is the root hub. The first is the SIE (Serial Interface Engine).0 offers. This increased performance also allows a greater number of USB devices to share the available bus bandwidth. SIE: Serial Interface Engine. it is advisable to only use them to plug in small. root hub: The USB module used to expand the number of USB ports.0 specification improves performance to provide support for future classes of high-performance peripherals.1 capabilities. keyboard.0 The USB 2. don’t require the additional performance that USB 2. The higher speed of USB 2. such as a mouse or keyboard. and operate as USB 1. powered device—like a monitor or a printer—would be attached to this single USB port. up to the architectural limits of USB.0 greatly broadens the range of peripherals that can be attached to a PC. USB 2. USB 2.0 has led to the development of higher-performance peripherals that brings new applications to the PC. modem.0 system.0 is both forward. low-power USB devices. The ultimate goal of USB is a PC with a single USB port. and results in a seamless transition process for the end-user.

Windows will detect the USB controllers (the PCI to USB Universal Host Controller. An extension may lead to signal loss. Connectors. If it isn’t. If your BIOS doesn’t have USB support. The USB 1. • T USB Controllers as Displayed in Device Manager A L -D O N Lesson 5: Ports. but signal loss can still occur. or. and then enable it. However. things should go smoothly whenever you install a new USB device. you may need to upgrade it. and locate the area where you enable USB support. and the USB Root Hub) and install the necessary drivers. and have USB support enabled in the BIOS. you should run into few problems with USB ports.0 specification specifically states that extensions are not allowed. Due to their true Plug and Play nature. you can check for the Universal Serial Bus controllers in the Device Manager. The computer must have a USB port. Enabling USB support assigns an IRQ to the PCI USB host bus controller. To verify that this has been done. cables with internal repeaters should be available. enter the BIOS during the POST. and that you might run into when working with USB: • USB support must be enabled in the BIOS. and errors can occur. If it doesn’t. install a PCI to USB adapter card in the system. alternatively. and devices. USB may be enabled by default in the BIOS. hubs. Make sure that the USB cable doesn’t exceed 5 meters. and Cables 165 C O PY . In the future. here are some of the things you need to know. You will likely find USB support under the Input/Output Ports menu. Once you have a USB port.Troubleshooting USB Generally speaking. under Peripheral Setup. or under Advanced Options. • • O EV Figure 5-16: USB controllers as displayed in Device Manager. such as devices not functioning properly or not being detected. you can install a PCI to USB adapter card in the system.

which both natively support USB. If everything else is working properly. and you can find it on the Windows 95 OEM Service Release 2. You’re best off with Windows 98 or Windows 2000. PY . it’s always possible that your USB device simply experienced hardware failure. If in Device Manager. Then.INF file. and choose Install.• If a device can’t be seen. you can check the following. you have a bad port. browse to \Windows\Inf. and requires version B (OSR2) and supplemental USB support files. To check if the USB supplement has been installed in Windows 95. and should see and install both the USB host controller and the Root Hub. Isolate the problem by moving the device to another port. O • If you need to know how much power a device is using. right-click on the USB. You can’t download it from Microsoft’s Web site. and you should be able to find it in Device Manager. then the supplement hasn’t yet been installed. a port on your USB hub may be bad.or self-powered. and you’ve verified that there are no configuration errors or problems of that sort.INF file. is listed. Windows should then detect your USB device. If you don’t see this item. and then click Refresh. suspect the hardware. EV 166 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C Note that you can’t download the USB supplement from Microsoft’s Web site. run \tools\reskit\ diagnose off of the Windows 98 CD. If it’s detected in the different port. but not the Root Hub. Windows 95 provides limited USB support. • Of course. To try to alleviate this problem. It will tell you how much power a device is using.5 CDs. The supplement file is USBSUPP. • • If a USB device displays as an unknown device in Device Manager. and whether the device is bus. only the USB host controller. you may have a problem with the USB. Windows will then redetect hardware.1 and 2.EXE. remove the USB host controller from Device Manager. open Add/Remove Programs from Control Panel. and look for USB Supplement to OSR2. Your operating system may not support USB.

Draw a diagram that illustrates how you would accomplish this. PY USB Hub Configuration . and Cables 167 O T C O Don’t show this overhead before students complete the step. You have a computer with a single USB connector and you want to connect five USB peripheral devices to your system. Connectors. In your diagram. EV A L -D O N Lesson 5: Ports. include any other USB components you will need.TASK 5E-1: Connecting USB Devices 1.

The cable can be up to 4. refer to www.6 Gbits per second. was approved by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) in 1995. and one pair for device power. Cable power is specified to be from 8 V DC to 40 V DC at up to 1. These connectors are derived from the Nintendo GameBoy connector. This is about four times as fast as a 100BaseT Ethernet connection and much faster than the 12 Mbps provided by USB. The cable standard supports speeds of 100. These connectors are easy to use even when the user must blindly insert them into the back of machines. This is a unique and very important feature for a serial topology. but much faster.Topic 5F FireWire Ports For more information on FireWire. publish. IEEE 1394 uses a six-conductor cable which contains two pairs of wires for data transport. each signal pair is shielded and the entire cable is shielded. EV 168 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O IEEE: Pronounced “I-triple-E. 200. N O The backplane bus supports data-transfer speeds of 12. and mass-storage devices to PCs. Apple was later joined by Microsoft. or manual IDs to be set. and even higher speeds. This helps prevent shock to the user or contamination of the contacts by the user’s hands. FireWire was pioneered by Apple. or 50 Mbps. National Semiconductor. O PY FireWire.200 Mbps. video cameras. T C FireWire: A high-speed serial bus developed by Apple and Texas Instruments that allows for the connection of up to 63 devices. The 1394b specification plans to use a different coding and data-transfer scheme that will provide 800 Mbps per second. Field-tested by children of all ages. The design is similar to a standard 10BaseT Ethernet cable. FireWire Cables Apple currently receives a $1 royalty per FireWire port.5 amps.5. printers. As the standard evolves. TVs. There are no terminators required. . and 1. the IEEE specification 1394. FireWire has a higher bandwidth with faster data transfers than that provided by USB. this small and flexible connector is very durable. It is used to maintain a device’s physical layer continuity when the device is powered down or a malfunction occurs. and revise computing and telecommunication standard. engineers. and students of electronics and related fields whose technical and standards committees develop. Future speeds will include 800 Mbps. FireWire and USB are both hot-swappable serial interfaces.5 meters long. and Texas Instruments in the 1394 Trade Association. However.” Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. Philips. An organization of scientists.org/. This high speed makes IEEE 1394 a viable solution for connecting digital cameras. and 400 Megabits per second. 25. one for the backplane bus within the computer and another for the point-to-point interface between device and computer on the serial cable. new cable designs are expected to allow longer distances without repeaters and with more bandwidth. Two Levels of Interface There are two levels of interface in IEEE 1394. It also provides power for devices connected to the bus. Electrical contacts are inside the structure of the connector of an IEEE 1394 cable. IEEE 1394 is similar to USB in many ways. network cards.1394ta. 1. A simple bridge connects the two environments.

data being sent in one direction followed by acknowledgement to the requester. to digital audio and video hardware. The 1394 bus bridge isolates data traffic within each work area. Over 1. and Cables 169 C O PY . Devices can be connected in either a daisychain or tree topology. topology changes are automatically recognized. which views resources as registers or memory that can be accessed with processor-tomemory transactions. an IEEE 1394 system doesn’t need a serving host or a PC. Because isochronous transfers can only take up a maximum of 80 percent of the 1394 bus bandwidth. there is enough bandwidth left over for additional asynchronous transfers.000 bus segments may be connected by bridges. A digital camera can easily send pictures directly to a digital printer without a computer in between. FireWire uses memory-based addressing. The physical interface (PHY) is a mixed-signal device that connects to the other device’s PHY. Asynchronous transport is the traditional method of transmitting data between computers and peripherals. The data transmission is guaranteed. the PHY signalling interface is always powered. An additional feature is the ability of transactions at different speeds to occur on a single-device medium. IEEE 1394 bus bridges allow selected data to be passed from one bus segment to another. This makes for easy networking. and data is transported even if a PC in the chain is powered off. the PC might become just a very intelligent peer device. EV A L -D O N O IEEE 1394’s scalable architecture and flexible peer-to-peer topology make it ideal for connecting high-speed devices: everything from computers and hard drives. Using IEEE 1394. For example. thus providing a large growth potential. Therefore. Because the 1394 cable is powered. and retries are supported. T FireWire Connectors Lesson 5: Ports. Asynchronous data transfers place emphasis on delivery rather than timing. some devices can communicate at 100 Mbps while others communicate at 200 and 400 Mbps. Up to 63 channels of isochronous data can be transferred simultaneously on the 1394 bus. IEEE 1394 devices can be added to or removed from the bus while the bus is in full operation. This Plug and Play feature eliminates the need for address switches or other user intervention to reconfigure the bus. Upon altering the bus configuration. whereas the link is device-specific allowing IEEE 1394 to act as a peerto-peer system as opposed to USB’s client-server design. Isochronous data transfers operate in a broadcast manner. Connectors. rather than channel addressing.FireWire Chips Every IEEE 1394 connection contains two chips per device: a physical layer and a link layer semiconductor chip. All PHY chips use the same technology. where one or many 1394 devices can listen to the data being transmitted. Isochronous data transfer ensures that data flows at a preset rate so that an application can handle it in a timed way. FireWire supports both asynchronous and isochronous transport.

FireWire has become the preferred technology used for video capture. or USB devices. and CD-RW drives. Largely because of its support of isochronous data transfer. Used as a hard-disk interface. where it is known as iLink.Figure 5-17: FireWire connectors. without the need to power down the PC during installation. So far it is mainly used in digital camcorders. and Microsoft proposed an industry standard called Device Bay. it will probably catch on in higher-end applications like digital video editing. IDE. T C O PY . FireWire devices are hot-swappable. EV Connecting a FireWire Device 170 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A hot swap: To change out a device without needing to power down the PC during installation or remove the device. It combines the fast interface of IEEE 1394 and the USB interface. Intel. It can be just as fast as high-end SCSI. This is because two pieces of silicon instead of one are needed. It offers a bay slot to slide in peripherals such as hard disks or DVD-ROM players. IEEE 1394 dynamically assigns addresses and doesn’t require terminators. IEEE 1394 makes for trouble-free Plug and Play installations because there are no addresses or DMA channels to worry about. This will make it too expensive for low-speed peripherals. Other devices that use IEEE 1394 include ZIP drives. it offers several advantages over SCSI. Device Bay Compaq. scanners. However. L -D SCSI devices require a pre-assigned ID and both ends of the bus must be terminated. O N O IEEE 1394 peripherals will be more expensive than SCSI. and it is much easier to install.

O T Display this overhead when reviewing student answers. FireWire Configuration EV A L -D O Lesson 5: Ports. TASK 5F-1: Connecting FireWire Devices 1. In your diagram. Connectors.Figure 5-18: Connecting a FireWire device. N You have two PCs in separate work areas. Draw a diagram that illustrates how you would interconnect the two work areas so that each could use the other’s devices. each with FireWire capability. include any other FireWire components you will need. and Cables 171 C O PY .

O N O 5C Which IRQs are reserved for the serial ports? T C 5B Which IRQs do the PS/2 ports use? O PY . The Centronics parallel standard uses a 36-pin Centronics connector to connect to the printer and a DB-25 (25-pin) connector to connect to the PC. Describe the RS-232 standard. data rate. When troubleshooting PS/2 ports. 5A Identify two ways that data can be transmitted through I/O ports. but may include: RS-232 is a common serial communication standard that describes mechanical characteristics. signaling techniques. Which I/O addresses are reserved for COM1 and COM2? COM1 = 3F8H. Lesson Review Serially and in parallel. you examined the technical characteristics of ports commonly found on PCs. You learned how to physically identify them. and identify configurable settings for RS-232 ports.Summary In this lesson. and flow control. 5D Which IRQs are reserved for the LPT1 and LPT2 parallel ports? IRQ 7 for LPT1 and IRQ 5 for LPT2. and procedures that devices use to communicate over RS-232 lines. Describe the Centronics parallel standard. COM2 = 2F8H. Keyboard port uses IRQ 1. what’s the expected output voltage? +5 V DC. Which I/O addresses are reserved for the LPT1 and LPT2 parallel ports? 378H for LPT1 and 278H for LPT2. COM2 and COM4 use IRQ 3. how to configure them. and how to connect devices to them. Configurable settings include framing bits. Mouse port uses IRQ 12. functions of support circuits. L A EV 172 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Answers will vary. COM1 and COM3 use IRQ 4.

and up to 127 devices. 5F Describe the major characteristics of FireWire. supports up to 63 devices with a maximum bandwidth of 400 Mbps. also known as IEEE 1394 or iLink. EV A L -D O N Lesson 5: Ports. one or more hubs. Maximum bandwidth is 12 Mbps. Connectors.5E Describe the major characteristics of a USB system. FireWire. and Cables 173 O T C O PY . A USB system consists of three components: a host (computer).

EV 174 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

such as sound in. You will install a modem and configure it for use in the Windows 9x operating system. EIDE. 6D Identify the hardware and software characteristics that define the operation of a modem. IDE. These include ST-506/ST-412. and Ultra DMA. O N Identify and describe common display technologies used with IBM computers. You will identify their operational characteristics. sound out. ESDI. you will: 6A Identify the technical characteristics of drive controllers. These boards enable you to expand the functionality of your computer. you will compare the technical characteristics and operational features of common types of drive controllers. and how they interface with a CD-ROM drive. In this topic. O T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 175 C Objectives O Lesson Time 3 hours PY . and then finally with VGA displays (and its variants). you will examine the technical characteristics of a modem from both a hardware standpoint and a software standpoint. 6C Identify the operational characteristics of sound cards. 6B The MDA or Hercules monochrome displays soon gave way to CGA displays which quickly were replaced by EGA.Expansion Boards Overview This lesson focuses on expansion boards you will replace inside a PC. EV A L -D In this topic. LESSON 6 Data Files none To identify the internal expansion capabilities of a PC. In this topic. you will describe the role sound cards play in computing. SCSI.

The drive that occupies the end position on the ESDI chain must have a terminating resistor pack installed. For compatibility reasons. it was popular enough that the PC architecture is built around the ST-506 design. ESDI is still a popular choice for servers. The ST-506 interface. the PC’s BIOS will require you to set a drive type. Common Drive Interfaces ESDI EV An ESDI Installation of Two Drives 176 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A termination: The process of properly ending a chain of ESDI or SCSI disk drives by installing a terminating resistor. ESDI drives must also be properly terminated. the jumper that sets the drive select is the drive select jumper. A drive interface similar to the ST506 interface that provides increased performance over the ST-506. Drives are connected by two cables: a 34-pin data cable and a 20-pin control cable. A drive interface is a collection of electrical and logical interconnections between a hard drive and your computer. or Enhanced Small Device Interface. However. and SCSI. (The ESDI acronym is often pronounced as “ez-dee. However. IDE. ESDI drives must have jumpers set to designate their drive numbers (first or second on the chain). ESDI. C O ST-506/ST-412 PY All of the data on your hard drive must have a way to get to the processor and peripherals on your computer. but the most commonly used interfaces are ST-506/ST-412. O N O T ST-506 interface: A legacy drive interface still in use today. Pronounced “ez-dee. Due to its low speed. it has not been a popular choice for some time. Ultra DMA. is one of the oldest drive interfaces still in use. Many interfaces exist.Topic 6A Drive Controllers drive interface: A collection of electrical and logical connections between a hard drive and a PC. That is the role of the drive interface. This setting is described as the drive select. L -D ESDI: Stands for Enhanced Small Device Interface. it offers at least double the performance of the ST-506 interface. but is being supplanted by some of the newer interfaces. Also referred to as the ST-412 interface. later upgraded and renamed the ST-412 interface.” ESDI. . is similar to the ST-506 interface. When you are installing drives. These types are based on the ST-506 interface and operational parameters.”) ESDI controllers can generally support up to two drives each. newer drive and interface types use this same method. Other ESDI drives and the controller are not terminated.

network adapters. Because of this difference. the SCSI controller is not technically a controller.Figure 6-1: An ESDI installation of two drives. Other ESDI settings can include drive speed. (The SCSI acronym is often pronounced “scuzzy. so the performance enhancement can be significant. A drive controller that provides highperformance data transfer between the hard drive or other SCSI device and the other components of the computer. interface transfer rate. or spindle synchronization. SCSI has been used as the interface to scanners.” EV C Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 177 O PY . ESDI controllers will include large amounts of RAM-based cache and an intelligent cache controller. unless your controller contains its own BIOS chip. The SCSI adapter converts messages from the system’s bus to the SCSI bus and vice versa. ESDI drives require that you set the BIOS drive type in the same way that you would for an ST-506 drive. The others. SCSI A One of the most popular server drive interface choices is the SCSI. Reads and writes to this cache are faster than reads and writes to the actual disk. Manufacturers of ESDI drives and controllers have worked hard to get maximum performance from the ESDI interface. This interface provides high performance and the ability for one controller to control up to seven devices. are simply electrical connections between the computer and the disk drive. but rather an adapter. or Small Computer System Interface. like ST-506 and ESDI. Pronounced “scuzzy. chained on one cable. it applies to more than just disk drives. A SCSI adapter is most often called a host bus adapter. and even as a network topology itself. Often.”) L -D O N O T Because SCSI is a logical interface as well as an electrical interface. SCSI: Stands for Small Computer System Interface. monitors.

One of the functions of the SCSI host bus adapter is to give you the ability to boot from a SCSI drive without using the PC’s BIOS table. Newer SCSI devices support a feature called disconnect/reconnect. SCSI can achieve data transfer rates in the range of 40 MBps to 160 MBps or more. The cables typically use 50or 68-pin connectors. the host bus adapter reconnects to the first device to complete the command operation. High Density. Rather. the bus can operate at different speeds. the host bus adapter disconnects and moves on. Internal connectors can be High Density or Standard. 68-pin connectors are used for a 16-bit bus. At its lowest speeds and in an 8-bit implementation. arbitrate speeds and transfer modes. Internal cables are flat-ribbon cables. N O T SCSI does not use the computer’s built-in BIOS drive types. you will see diagrams of internal and external SCSI connectors. C O The SCSI specification can be implemented in 8-bit or 16-bit versions. Following. such as “Retrieve a piece of data from the disk. When it is ready. such as a tape drive.” but does not wait for the device to complete that command. . In its fastest implementations. 50-pin connectors are used for an 8-bit bus. resolve contentions. Additionally. You will also see a diagram of a generic SCSI drive chain.External and Internal SCSI Connectors and Cables EV 178 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O SCSI devices are connected by daisy-chained cable. An advantage of this feature is that a slow device. PY The SCSI connection can be described as an intelligent bus. and DB-25. SCSI transfers data at the rate of about 5 MB per second (MBps). This is possible because of the additional BIOS extensions (chip) on the host bus adapter. which are used by ST-506 or ESDI. as are 80-pin connectors for high-speed implementations of SCSI. Devices talk across the bus to manage access to the bus. most SCSI installations require you to set the computer’s built-in BIOS as if the hard drive were not installed in the system. 25-pin connectors are also used (often for Macintosh connections). With this feature. cannot dominate and slow the entire bus. as well as some examples of internal and external SCSI cables. Instead. the host bus adapter gives one of the devices a command. External connectors can be Centronics. Very High Density Centronics. and transfer data. giving commands or transferring data with other devices on the SCSI bus.

These IDs range from 0 to 7 (or 0 to 15 for Wide SCSI). that uniquely identifies them on the SCSI bus. with 7 often reserved for the host bus adapter and 0 the default for the primary hard disk drive. The higher the ID a Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 179 A L -D O O T C O PY . or SCSI ID. SCSI devices. must be configured with a number. including the host bus adapter itself.N Figure 6-2: External and internal SCSI connector diagrams. and internal and external SCSI cables. SCSI Drive Chain EV Figure 6-3: SCSI drive chain.

A terminator makes the cable appear to be infinite in length. so that faster devices like hard drives don’t dominate control of the bus. One of the most common uses for this is to create a single logical disk drive from multiple physical disk drives.1. O You can support more SCSI devices through the use of LUN (Logical Unit Numbers). such as tape drives higher priority.11. For example.15. such as Windows NT. Some systems. and NetWare servers.13.0 for narrow SCSI and 7. the primary hard drive will not work if it is set to another SCSI ID. T C LUN: Logical Unit Number is a unique identifier for subdevices assigned to a single SCSI ID.0. in a Sun Microsystems SPARC 1+ workstation running SunOS 4.5. Others require you to physically install a resistor pack or special terminating connector. You will need specific software to set up LUNs.6.12.3.2. The sequence of priority is 7. the primary hard drive must have the SCSI ID of 3.6.10.5. require that certain devices have certain SCSI IDs. Termination is the addition of a resistor or resistors to one or both ends of the bus to prevent signal reflections. Most non-UNIX systems do not have this requirement. the higher the priority it has on the bus if two devices try to gain control at the same time. Without extra configuration work.4. Some devices offer the ability to terminate the chain by setting a switch or jumper.2. . UNIX.14.1. especially UNIX systems. O N O The SCSI bus requires proper termination. This is typically seen in network servers. The SCSI bus requires that both ends of the bus are terminated. PY device has. You should try to give slower devices. A LUN is a unique sub-device identifier that enables you to have up to seven sub-devices per single SCSI ID. The host bus adapter generally takes care of terminating one end of the bus. the last device on the SCSI chain must also be terminated.8 for Wide SCSI.9.4.3. However.1.An External 50-pin Centronics Terminator EV A L 180 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 6-4: An external 50-pin Centronics terminator.1.

In addition to providing backward-compatibility with all SCSI (often called SCSI-I) devices. • Wide SCSI-II is an implementation of the SCSI bus with additional data lines. The standard SCSI bus uses eight data lines to move data in a parallel fashion. external devices only. Ultra2 Wide SCSI and Fast-40 refer to a 40-MHz bus with 80 MBps transfer rates. and Ultra3 SCSI and Fast-80 refer to an 80-MHz bus with 160 MBps transfer rates. when you see Wide SCSI. Typically. O T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 181 SCSI-III C O PY . the reference is to the 16-bit version (Fast/Wide throughput 20 MBps). It can provide higher transfer rates than earlier versions of SCSI. The SCSI Bus with Internal and External Devices Properly Terminated EV A L N SCSI-III. -D O The following illustrations show several SCSI implementations. as the 32-bit version proved to be too expensive for widespread acceptance and was withdrawn from the standard.SCSI-II SCSI-II is an improved version of the SCSI specification. with a throughput of 10 MBps. is the next generation of SCSI specifications. or Ultra SCSI. The SCSI-II bus operates at 10 MHz or faster speeds. provides increased throughput due to lowered overhead. Wide SCSI-II is available in 16– and 32–bit versions to increase the data transfer rate. and internal and external devices on the same bus. • Fast SCSI-II is an implementation of the SCSI bus that operates at twice the speed of the normal SCSI bus. Ultra Wide SCSI and Fast-20 refer to a 20-MHz bus with 40 MBps transfer rates. and solves many of the compatibility problems associated with early implementations of SCSI. This includes internal devices only. and can support 16 devices per channel (numbered 0 through 15). SCSI-II offers support for wide or fast connections.

The SCSI Bus with Several Internal SCSI Devices Connected EV A L The SCSI Bus with Several External Devices Connected 182 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 6-6: The SCSI bus with several internal SCSI devices connected and properly terminated.Figure 6-5: The SCSI bus with internal and external devices properly terminated. O N O T C O PY .

and a 68-pin LVD SCSI terminator. the device can identify noise and reject it. and one for the inverse of the data. one for data. if you add an LVD SCSI device to a single-ended SCSI chain. C O T N EV A L Figure 6-8: Internal 68-pin LVD SCSI cable. LVD: Stands for Low Voltage Differential. were damaged. Differential devices use two wires. However. Originally. differential devices were HVD (High Voltage Differential) devices. -D O Earlier SCSI devices were single-ended devices. A SCSI device that uses two wires. Noise is a problem with single-ended devices. one for data. and limits the maximum length of the SCSI chain to approximately 6 meters. the LVD SCSI device will function in the same way as a single-ended device. one for the actual data. These devices use low voltage and can be used on a single-ended SCSI chain. Low Voltage Differential (LVD) Internal 68-pin LVD SCSI Cable. A SCSI device that uses two wires. They can be used together with single-ended devices without the possibility of damaging any of the devices on the chain. Using these devices. These are differential devices that use less power than HVD SCSI devices.Figure 6-7: The SCSI bus with several external devices connected and properly terminated. To address this issue. and possibly also the HVD device. The maximum length of an LVD SCSI chain is 12 meters. and one for the inverse of data. A single-ended device uses a single wire for each bit of data. and a 68-pin LVD SCSI Terminator PY . HVD: Stands for High Voltage Differential. the single-ended devices on the chain. and one for the inverse of data. Not so with LVD (Low Voltage Differential) SCSI devices. However. also called just Differential. Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 183 O single-ended device: SCSI device that uses a single wire for each bit of data. These devices use high voltage and can’t be used on a single-ended SCSI chain. and you lose the advantage of using a differential device. SCSI-II introduced the ability to use differential devices. a SCSI chain could be up to 25 meters in length. By identifying the difference between the signals (of the data and the inverse of the data). if you accidentally plugged an HVD device into a single-ended SCSI chain.

Additionally. The IDE controller simply connects the proper wires from the system bus to the proper wires on the drive cable. plus a power connection. the other as the slave drive. The size limitation is stated as either 528 MB. Technically. because it is so simple to implement. at a lower cost. Drives are daisy-chained when a second drive exists on the IDE channel. The IDE interface is a simple disk interface. the actual size of the drive should be measured using a binary megabyte. T The IDE interface enables either one or two devices to be attached to the same controller. A drive interface that provides inexpensive. most of the intelligence has been transferred to the disk drive. the Micro Channel bus. This type of IDE interface is sometimes called the ATA. O N O IDE does not support CD-ROMs or hard drives larger than 528 or 504 MB. Other IDE interfaces exist for the 8-bit XT bus. or Integrated Drive Electronics. .576 (the exact number of bytes per MB). This configuration is most often accomplished with jumpers. many computer makers now include an IDE controller in their motherboard designs. One device must be configured as the master drive. and others. a decimal megabyte is defined as 10^6 or 1. Disk drives are attached to the IDE interface with a single cable.576.048. The IDE interface offers performance equal to or better than that of the ESDI interface. and is realistically the more accurate number. high-speed data transfer between the hard drive or other IDE device and the other components of the computer.000. interface.000. C O The acronym IDE is most often associated with the implementation designed to work with the ISA/AT bus. EV 184 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Manufacturers rate the capacity of their drives using a decimal megabyte. or AT Attachment.000. a binary megabyte is defined as 2^20 or 1. there are different varieties of IDE interfaces.IDE The IDE. 504 MB is derived by dividing 528. Technically.048. PY IDE drive interface: Stands for Integrated Drive Electronics. interface is another popular drive interface.000 bytes by 1. or as 504 MB.

The PIO Mode is set in the BIOS. the other computer must support the same sector translation method as the computer out of which you’re taking the hard drive. heads. is defined by Western Digital and is based on the ANSI ATA-2 specification. ECHS was developed by Seagate.4 GB. See the following table for the different PIO Modes and transfer rates. which is a new set of BIOS calls. you will lose the data on the disk if you move the drive. PY LBA: Logical Block Addressing is used to support increased capacity of IDE drives to over 504 MB. however.4 GB. up to 8. Today’s hard disks and BIOSs all support LBA and ECHS to accommodate the need for large disk capacity. It is originally set when you install an IDE or EIDE drive. .4 GB in size. A L It supports dual host interface controllers. Seagate calls their implementation of this specification Fast ATA or Fast ATA-2. hard drives can be up to 8. Some BIOS versions enable you to choose whether to use LBA mode. INT13 Extensions T O N O C To address the need for even larger hard-drive capacity. Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 185 O CHS: Cylinders. EIDE -D Enhanced IDE. LBA and ECHS are methods of sector translation (translating a hard drive’s logical geometry into physical geometry) that essentially give the BIOS incorrect information about the geometry of the drive so that larger hard-drive capacities can be supported. This is a problem mostly if one computer is significantly older than another. which allows up to four devices to connect. LBA was developed by Western Digital. Enables use of hard drives of up to 8. As mentioned earlier. Interrupt 13 (INT13) extensions were developed by Phoenix Technologies in 1994. sectors addressing.4 GB.4 GB.LBA and ECHS It’s possible to get around the 504 MB limitation of IDE drives through the use of LBA (Logical Block Addressing) or Extended CHS (ECHS). But you do want to check. or EIDE. the BIOS must include INT13 Extensions. Used to manually configure hard drives smaller than 504 MB. You will learn more about installing IDE and EIDE drives in the Storage Systems lesson. the operating system must support larger drives as well. while staying within BIOS limitations. additional device connections. It supports CD-ROM and tape drive connections in addition to hard drives. and always back up your data before moving a drive. both LBA and ECHS provide for the support of hard drives of up to 8. They differ only in the sector translation results they produce. Also referred to as EIDE. EIDE has three main advantages over IDE: • It breaks the 528 MB hard-drive size limitation by allowing up to 8 GB.024. EV PIO Mode The ATA and ATA-2 standards use the PIO Mode (Programmed Input/Output Mode) to indicate the speed of data transfer between two devices that use the computer’s processor as a part of the datapath. CDROMs. PIO Mode: Stands for Programmed Input/Output Mode. Indicates the speed of data transfer between two devices that use the computer’s processor as a part of the datapath. The cylinder value after translation never exceeds 1. • • Enhanced IDE: A drive interface based on the ANSI ATA-2 specification that provides support for larger hard drives. ECHS: Extended CHS. Otherwise. IDE allows only two devices. For the BIOS to support drives over 8. If you want to move a hard drive from one computer to another. With LBA or ECHS. and tape drives. Besides the BIOS extensions.

The additional 40 wires in this cable are ground wires.Standard ATA ATA ATA ATA-2 ATA-2 PIO Mode 0 1 2 3 4 Transfer Rate 3. It’s an extension of the ATA hard-disk interface. The first incarnation of Ultra DMA. support may be set automatically. is a newer and faster drive protocol for hard-drive data transfers on IDE drives. The next technology on the horizon for even higher speeds is Serial ATA. Ultra DMA is also called Ultra ATA. was Ultra DMA/66 (ATA-66). originally introduced by Intel and Quantum and supported by all leading hard-drive manufacturers. and Pentium III chips). and it requires a system bus on the system board that supports Ultra DMA (such as Pentium system boards). Alternatively. The next incarnation. O PY .1 MBps 16.3 MBps 5. was Ultra DMA/33 (ATA-33) with a transfer rate of 33. today. Ultra DMA drives use a special IDE cable. but will soon. The cable used for Ultra DMA/33 is a 40-wire. This chipset only supports Ultra DMA/33. in 2000. This cable has a black connector on one end. and a blue connector on the other. Also called Ultra ATA and Fast ATA-2. cannot actually transfer data at these maximum speeds. O N O T UDMA: Ultra DMA is a newer and faster drive technology for data transfers on IDE drives. with a transfer rate of 100 MB per second. This helps reduce the signal noise that results from the higher data transfer rates. and eventually up to 528 MB per second. This is because of improved timing margins and the integration of cyclical redundancy checks (CRCs).6 MBps Ultra DMA (UDMA) EV An Ultra DMA/33 Cable A L 186 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Ultra DMA requires an Ultra DMA-compatible hard drive. such as Intel’s 440BX AGPset (used with Pentium II and some Pentium III Xeon chips). 40-pin cable. with transfer rates of 160 MB per second. and it uses seven pins for grounding. Hard drives. Figure 6-9: An Ultra DMA/33 cable. Ultra DMA/100 (ATA-100) was introduced. Note that some system board chipsets don’t support Ultra DMA/66 or Ultra DMA/100. it has to be supported by the BIOS (which today’s BIOSs all provide).3 MBps 11. Provides for transfer speeds of up to 100 MBps. with a transfer rate of 66 MB per second. C UDMA (Ultra DMA). Then. Data integrity is also enhanced with Ultra DMA. and Fast ATA-2.3 MB per second. Typically.2 MBps 8. The cable used for Ultra DMA/66 and Ultra DMA/100 is an 80-wire. This is supported by chip sets such as Intel’s PIIX4 chip set. as does their 810 and 820 chipset. 40-pin cable. you can enable or disable Ultra DMA support in CMOS. and you can’t change the setting. introduced in 1996. introduced in 1998. Intel’s 840 chipset supports Ultra DMA/66 (used with some Pentium III Xeon chips.

may need to configure the adapter BIOS The SCSI bus can be used for devices other than hard drives. 8 devices are allowed. the specification also allows 7 logical devices per device through the use of LUNs. 34-pin control 3 meters maximum 2 (Specification allows 7. set drive select (indicate drive 1 or 2 on controller) The ST-506 and the ST-412 interfaces are limited to drives with fewer than 1. such as monitors. termination on the last drive. but one is the host bus adapter.5 KBps Power. set SCSI ID (0-7). 34-pin control 24 inches maximum 2 BIOS type. 50-pin cable (shielded if external) Maximum of 6 meters 7 (Actually. but few manufacturers have implemented the full specifications) BIOS type. for a total of 49) Set computer BIOS to indicate that no drive is installed.Interface Comparison You can use the information in the following tables to determine the type of drive that is best suited to your needs. 20-pin data. set drive select (indicate drive 1 or 2 on controller) ESDI implementations are usually heavily cached for maximum performance Up to 5 MBps Power. Type ST-506/ST-412 Characteristic Speed Cables required Cable length Devices per controller Required settings Description 52. printers. networks. termination on the last drive. and so forth Comparing Drive Interfaces (4 slides) ESDI Required settings Other considerations SCSI-I A EV L -D Speed Cables required Cable length Devices per controller Required settings Other considerations O N O Cable length Devices per controller T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 187 Speed Cables required C Other considerations O PY . 20-pin data. install termination on first and last devices on SCSI bus.024 cylinders Up to 3 MBps Power.

may need to configure the adapter BIOS SCSI-III Fast increases the clock rate of SCSI-I. 8 devices are allowed. install termination on first and last devices on SCSI bus. SCSI-III Wide uses a double-wide datapath. but one is the host bus adapter) Set computer BIOS to indicate that no drive is installed.5 meters for up to 3 devices. for a total of 49) Set computer BIOS to indicate that no drive is installed. 12 meters for Low Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI 7 (Actually.or 68-pin cable 1. but one is the host bus adapter. install termination on first and last devices on SCSI bus. set SCSI ID (0-15). 68-pin. 12 meters for Low Voltage Differential (LVD) SCSI 15 (Actually. set SCSI ID (0-7). maximum data transfer rates are realized with SCSI-II Fast/Wide implementations Up to 160 MBps Power. maximum data transfer rates are realized with SCSI-III Fast/Wide implementations 3-4 MBps Devices per controller Other considerations SCSI-III O -D A L EV IDE 188 A+ Certification: Core Hardware N Speed O Speed Cables required Cable length Devices per controller Required settings Other considerations T C Required settings O PY . 25 meters for High Voltage Differential (HVD) SCSI. the specification also allows 7 logical devices per device through the use of LUNs. or 80pin cable Maximum of 12 meters. SCSI-II Wide uses a double-wide datapath. 50-pin.Type SCSI-II Characteristic Speed Cables required Cable length Description Up to 20 MBps Power. 50. 3 meters for more than 3 devices. 16 devices are allowed. may need to configure the adapter BIOS SCSI-II Fast increases the clock rate of SCSI-I. 25 meters for High Voltage Differential (HVD) SCSI.

or 100 MBps Power. set drives to be master or slave. set drive type (often auto-detected) The IDE interface is a popular PC drive interface. 40-pin ribbon cable (IBM sometimes uses 44. 40-pin cable for Ultra DMA/66 and Ultra DMA/ 100 Maximum of 24 inches 2 Enable in BIOS (can be automatic). enable DMA support in operating system Ultra DMA drives are quickly becoming very popular due to the faster transfer speeds they offer.or 72-pin cables) Maximum of 24 inches 2 Set BIOS type based on emulation. 66. set drives to be master or slave The IDE interface is a popular PC drive interface.6 MBps Power. it is often built into the motherboard Up to 16. 80-wire. but the drive will run at EIDE’s speeds Other considerations EIDE Speed Cables required Other considerations Ultra DMA Speed Cables required EV A L -D Cable length Devices per controller Required settings Other considerations O N O T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 189 Cable length Devices per controller Required settings C O PY Cable length Devices per controller Required settings . it is often built into the motherboard 33.Type Characteristic Cables required Description Power. set drives to be master or slave. backward-compatible with EIDE motherboards or controllers. 40-pin ribbon cable (IBM sometimes uses 44.or 72-pin cables) Maximum of 24 inches 2 Set BIOS type based on emulation. special 40-pin IDE ribbon cable with one blue connector on one end and one black connector on the other end.

Display OV 6-15 as you review the answers. and up to seven sub-devices per single SCSI ID through the use of LUNs. What is used to break the 504 MB hard-drive size limitation of IDE drives. due to its high performance and ability to handle up to seven devices off a single host adapter. The IDE/EIDE interface is most appropriate for workstations because it is built into most desktop PCs.4 GB. T 4. Which interface is most appropriate for a network file server? C LBA and ECHS. Expect to find newer drives using Ultra DMA technology. and INT13 extensions enable support for drive sizes of up to 137 GB. Answers will vary. LBA and ECHS enable support for drive sizes of up to 8. evaluate the hard-drive storage technologies presented in this topic. EV 190 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N Which interface do you use for the hard drives in your company’s servers? Why? O The SCSI interface is most appropriate for a server. With the rest of the class. 2.TASK 6A-1: Discussing Drive Controllers 1. 5. O 3. and what maxiumum drive sizes can be supported? PY Which interface is most appropriate for a client workstation? Why? . as well as INT13 extensions.

just unscrew the slot cover. Let’s add a SCSI card to your system. students will install a SCSI host bus adapter. A L Setup: This task assumes you’re using an auto-terminating host adapter. -D O N Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 191 O 7. If not. These are short. Installing Hard Drive Controllers Most system boards come with IDE connections built-in. The first type of slot cover should be saved in case you remove the card later and need to cover the back of the machine again. C O PY . 0. turn the power off. In the Storage System lesson. 2. indicate where it would be correct to add terminators. on other systems. If the SCSI bus on your server has devices numbered 1. Remove the PCI slot’s matching cover. In this task. Given the following diagram of a SCSI drive chain. consult the host adapter documentation to ensure proper termination and SCSI ID configuration. they will attach a SCSI drive to the adapter. 2. On some systems. Locate an available PCI slot. Most don’t include SCSI connections. and the bottom two blanks as terminated. EV 3. but 0 or 7 will be used by the host bus adapter. Shut down the computer. and disconnect the power cord. 4. white slots with closely spaced pins. 3.6. 5. TASK 6A-2: Installing a SCSI Controller 1. and 6. you will need to press out the slot cover that has been perforated along the sides. what device numbers are available for additional peripherals? T Answers should show the top two blanks as not terminated. and 7. The other cover type can be thrown away as they cannot be reattached to the system.

7. Although the hardware is considered to be monochrome. which are the same types of signals used in the computer. When the computer boots. More colors might seem more important than high resolution when you want to display a realistic graphic image. and a video monitor that is compatible with that adapter. Colors/ Grays 4 O monitor: A display screen used to present output from a computer. HGC. • Number of different colors that can be displayed at one time. it can display characters of various intensity. The first IBM PC monochrome video display standard for text only. MDA is inexpensive and it produces a legible image.4. and VGA. Restart the computer. 5. including (but not limited to): Number of Characters 80 x 25 C Video Cards 192 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Character Box 9 x 14 Topic 6B PY . TTL: Monitor that uses transistortransistor logic signals. • Display modes. the higher the quality of the display image. • • Number of characters that can be displayed. notice that information about the SCSI host adapter is displayed. Types of Display Adapters L EV MDA: Stands for Monochrome Display Adapter. Insert the SCSI host adapter into the PCI slot. If you need to set the host adapter ID with jumpers or switches. developed in 1981. This standard provides a text-only display. 6. O display adapter: A PC expansion board that converts the images created in the computer to the electronic signals required by the monitor. A display might be monochrome (black and white. EGA. CGA. and underlined characters. locate the SCSI controller. N Resolution—the number of horizontal and vertical graphics dots (pixels) that the screen displays. Most of the common display options for IBM and IBM-compatible computers are described in the following sections. do so before inserting the card in the system. A -D • Scan rate. or how frequently the display image is refreshed. Mount the SCSI host adapter to the chassis. These items determine the video capabilities of the computer. They include MDA. characters in reverse video. A low scan rate is detected by the eye as a flicker. and then return to the Desktop. provides the minimum display configuration for IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers. for example) or it might be able to display millions of different colors. MDA connects to a TTL monitor. such as text only or graphics. For computers using a non-graphical operating system and applications. The TTL monitor uses transistor-transistor logic signals. Mode Text Resolution 720 x 350 T Video displays for IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers typically consist of two components: a display adapter that goes in an expansion bus slot. Monochrome Display Adapter (MDA) MDA. The greater the resolution. In Device Manager.

CGA’s low resolution can make it difficult to view text. It was able to produce highresolution graphics (720 x 348) as well as text on monochrome monitors. O 8x8 8x8 8x8 8x8 8x8 8 x 14 9 x 14 8x8 8x8 T Even though color cards eventually replaced the HGC. However. EGA has been made obsolete by the new VGA standards. The reason he developed this technology was so he could use his native Thai language alphabet on the PC when he wrote his doctoral thesis. which connects to the display adapter with a single phono-type plug. also developed in 1981. -D 16 16 16 4 2 40 x 25 80 x 25 40 x 25 80 x 25 O N Colors/ Grays Number of Characters Character Box EV A The EGA adapter can also be used with the IBM Enhanced Color Display monitor. It is also referred to as HGA (Hercules Graphics Adapter). developed a PC graphics display system. Typically. . was the first color graphics display configuration for IBM and IBM-compatible microcomputers. With the old monitors. and blue—the three basic colors that this monitor combines to make a total of 16 colors. It was extremely popular because it could display graphs and charts in that all-popular 1980s program. This type of monitor is not widely accepted because it has a low resolution. Van Suwannukul. An IBM video display standard that provided low-resolution text and graphics. RGB stands for red. CGA is compatible with software that supports MDA. the Hercules Graphics Card (HGC). The company went out of business when it was acquired by Guillemot Corporation. With this monitor. PY Hercules Graphics: A monochrome display adapter capable of producing both high-resolution monochrome graphics and text.Hercules Graphics Card (HGC) In 1982. Color Graphics Adapter (CGA) CGA. similar to the monochrome monitor. EGA: Stands for Enhanced Graphics Adapter. Text. EGA emulates CGA and MDA adapters. An early IBM video display standard that provided mediumresolution text and graphics. green. This standard displays 16 colors in text and graphics modes. which are popular with gamers. CGA can also drive a composite monitor. developed in 1984. the company went on to produce graphics accelerators. the EGA adapter can display 16 colors in a 640 x 350 resolution. Colors/ Grays 16 16 4 16 16 Mode Resolution 320 x 350 640 x 350 720 x 350 320 x 200 640 x 200 Number of Characters 40 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 40 x 25 80 x 25 Character Box Text Text Text Graphics Graphics Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 193 O CGA: Stands for Color Graphics Adapter. C Mode Text Text Graphics Graphics Graphics Resolution 320 x 200 640 x 200 160 x 200 320 x 200 640 x 200 Enhanced Graphics Adapter (EGA) L EGA. enables you to upgrade an adapter from MDA or CGA and use your old monochrome or RGB monitor. who founded Hercules Computer Technology. a television can be used as a composite monitor by adding a device called an RF (Radio Frequency) modulator. The RGB monitor uses TTL signals. is easier to read than CGA text. However. with an 8 x 14 character box. the IBM RGB monitor was used with this adapter. Lotus 1-2-3. and provides a higher resolution.

(An enhanced version of the VGA standard. Colors/ Grays Mode Text Text Text Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Graphics Resolution 360 x 400 720 x 400 720 x 400 320 x 200 640 x 200 320 x 200 640 x 200 640 x 350 640 x 350 640 x 480 640 x 480 320 x 200 O 16 16 16 4 2 16 16 4 16 2 16 256 T Number of Characters C VGA: Stands for Video Graphics Array. The minimum standard for PC video display. O N O PY Character Box 9 x 16 9 x 16 9 x 16 8x8 8x8 8x8 8x8 8 x 14 8 x 14 8 x 16 8 x 16 8x8 . SVGA cards are produced by various companies who each have different commands and ways of configuring the cards and monitors. VGA monitors must use the same scan rate as the video adapter that drives them. CGA. MDA. and EGA transmit digital signals to indicate the color or intensity to be displayed. CGA.Mode Graphics Graphics Resolution 640 x 350 640 x 350 Colors/ Grays 4 16 Number of Characters 80 x 25 80 x 25 Character Box 8 x 14 8 x 14 Video Graphics Array (VGA) VGA. uses an analog signal rather than a digital signal to control the display monitor. you need to purchase a monitor that is compatible with the display adapter that will drive it. can display 256 colors at a resolution of 800 x 600. and EGA. There is no SVGA or UVGA standard. Analog circuits lend themselves to large numbers of variations. which originated with IBM’s PS/2 models in 1987. developed in 1987. which make them ideal for color displays. called Super VGA. VGA can display up to 256 colors at 320 x 200 resolution.) VGA can emulate MDA. For this reason. Some monitor manufacturers have manufactured multiscan monitors that support multiple scan rates and automatically match themselves to the scan rate of the display adapter. L EV 194 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D 40 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 80 x 25 Super and Ultimate VGA SVGA and UVGA are higher-resolution versions of the VGA standard.

O T MIDI: Musical Instrument Digital Interface. 2. In your classroom. Examine the various video displays and adapters provided by your instructor. enter the command MODE CO40. and guitars. This command changes the display mode to 40 columns. Sound cards usually include built-in synthesizers as well to produce MIDI sounds. PY At the MS-DOS command prompt. examine the Display Adapter that is installed. Enter dir to see the new display mode. An interface that allows you to connect and control electronic musical devices such as electric keyboards (pianos). in which case the sound card will use 2 IRQs. Sends signals from the sound card to an external sound source. joysticks. . and microphones.TASK 6B-1: Examining Video Displays 1. Some older sound cards may also have an IDE channel on them. synthesizers. Identify why the display adapter supports display modes from older adapter types. synthesizers. 6. there might be only one type of display. Most users run Windows with a VGA or Super VGA display. speakers. Lets you attach a joystick or similar game controller to the sound card. and guitars. Topic 6C Sound Cards -D Sound cards convert digital signals to sound waves. Return to the Desktop. C Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 195 Return to Windows. Receives signals from the output of an external sound source. Windows runs only in a graphical mode. Sound cards include several connections as shown in Figure 6-10. and DMA channel 1. EV Port or Interface Mic In Speaker Out Line In Line Out CD Audio IDE Port Game Port A L Description Receive signal from an external microphone. O N sound card: An internal card used to convert digital signals to sound waves. emulating the 40-column mode that originated in the CGA adapter. The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) allows you to connect and control electronic musical devices such as electric keyboards (also known as electric pianos). The following table describes typical sound card connections. enter the command MODE CO80 to return to the 80-column mode originated by the MDA adapter. SoundBlaster from Creative Labs is the default standard to which other sound cards are usually designed. 4. You can either restart your computer in DOS mode or use the MS-DOS prompt from the Start menu. Connects an IDE CD-ROM drive to the sound card. O 3. I/O address 220. They are usually set to IRQ 5. 5. Today’s sound cards are configured through software. Receives digital audio from an audio CD. In Control Panel→System→Device Manager. but some of the older cards you might encounter might use jumpers. Sends signals to a speaker set or headphones. At the MS-DOS command prompt. For backward-compatibility. Includes several external ports for connecting electronic musical instruments.

or other card. O N O T C O PY . 1. disconnect the CD-ROM interface cable from the sound card. This connection allows you to play sounds from the CD-ROM or music CD. This could be an ISA.A Sound Card Figure 6-10: A sound card. Some sound cards are also the controller for the CD-ROM drive. or other audio devices. PCI. Remove the screw that mounts the sound card to the chassis. Insert the sound card into an available. 2. Remove the sound card from its slot and examine its slot connectors and on-board interfaces. 4. Power down the computer and disconnect any devices that are connected to the external ports on the sound card. 5. 6. These might include speakers. matching slot on the system board. Disconnect the CD audio connector from the sound card. 3. If necessary. microphones. TASK 6C-1: A L EV 196 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Replacing a Sound Card Setup: The computer is powered down and the enclosure has been removed.

External modems have LEDs that can be useful in seeing whether the modem is transmitting and receiving data. 9. Internal modems don’t have this feature. it needs to be turned back into a digital signal. Mount the sound card to the computer chassis using the appropriate mounting screw. connect the CD-ROM interface cable from the CD-ROM drive to the sound card’s IDE interface. which must then be turned into analog (like your voice on the phone lines) to go across the phone line. If necessary. This refers to the conversion of digital signals to analog and back to digital. Modem stands for MOdulator/DEModulator. Topic 6D Modem Cards Modems are used to enable computers to communicate with one another over standard telephone lines. Reconnect the external audio devices. The data starts out as digital information on the computer. 8. Most PCs have modems these days.7. Connect the CD audio cable to its interface on the sound card. especially if you are accessing the Internet and don’t have access to a direct connect line. These can be internal or external devices. C N O T EV Figure 6-11: Connecting a modem. although it is often simulated in software. A L -D O Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 197 O modem: Stands for MOdulator/ DEModulator. and then when it reaches the other system. . Connecting a Modem PY 10. A device that adapts a computer to an analog telephone line by converting digital pulses to audio frequencies and vice versa.

ITU Standard V. Since this method has great potential for errors. Serial data transmission includes start and stop bits in the data stream to indicate the beginning and end of each character. 198 A+ Certification: Core Hardware C asynchronous: A bit synchronization transmission technique that uses start and stop bits. When sending data. This is why many PCs are configured with eight data bits. it must be modulated. Some standards have bis or terbo version suffixes. Software modems are slower than hardware modems because of the overhead in translating code. They use a timing mechanism to regulate transmissions between systems.32 bis.42 bis. are defined by the ITU (International Telecommunications Union). rather than incorporating a controller chip on the card as the hardware modems do. .90. a parity bit is used for control. They leave the processing to the PC’s CPU. Bit-oriented protocol that supports variable length frames. V. Synchronous to 9600. resulting in a slower 33.34 bis. Several synchronous protocols have been defined. none for parity. Designates one system to be the controlling system and the other to be controlled.32 O Synchronous modems are less prone to errors. These include V.600 L A EV -D SDLC Synchronous Data Link Control HDLC High-level Data Link Control ITU Modem Standards Modem standards. T The data flow is controlled by the slower of the two systems. Asynchronous is 4800 PY Modern modems include fax and voice capabilities. BSC Binary Synchronous Communications O Protocol N bps 9. A disadvantage is that these modems are designed for Plug and Play operating systems only.Modems can also be hardware-based or software-based (often referred to as controller-less modems or Win-modems). Replaced by HDLC.42. and one stop bit (often referred to as 8-none-and-one).90. The main advantage of doing so is that they can be sold very inexpensively.34. or V dot modem standards. This includes technology that enables receiving data faster than 56 Kbps by bypassing modulation of the data. The following table describes some of the most popular ITU standards. V.32. and V. V. but not other operating systems. The frame only needs to be resent if the synch character doesn’t arrive at the prescribed point. Description Also known as bi-sync. This slower system interrupts the transmission whenever the buffers are full and it needs time to catch up. V. V. Developed for use in connecting IBM 360 mainframes and IBM 3270 terminals. Data is sent in frames that contain synch characters before each frame. O Notes Asynchronous (or async for short) modems are the most common type of modem.6 Kbps data rate. The most recent standard is V. Frames include header and trailer synch characters. Replaced by SDLC. This allows you to use your PC to send documents as faxes and to use your PC as a phone and answering machine. They are listed in the following table. Asynchronous and Synchronous Modems synchronous: Transmission of a bit stream of data where the transmitter and receiver are synchronized. these are French for second and third.

Reset.32 bis V. Dial using pulse (rotary dial). Answer. AT commands: The modem command set developed by the Hayes company for use on its modems and now used on most modems. Often used when you need to dial an access code for an outside line so that you wait for the dial tone. O The AT. This basically provides a data transmission rate of twice the speed you would normally achieve.800 (28. Returns you to the command mode. Disable call-waiting.90 bps 14. Five modem standards offering different levels of error correction and detection. Online.4 K) 28. The following table lists some of the most common commands. visit www.600 Notes Synchronous and Asynchronous 56. The AT command set is used by almost all PC modems. For example. or hang up. MNP Modem Standards PY Specifies standards for error checking Specifies standards for compression . Escape character sequence.600 (33.ITU Standard V. N The most basic command is AT. Each class offers different levels of error correction and detection.42 V.. they developed their modems to use this command set.34 V.400 (14. Repeats the last command. Since other companies wanted to be Hayes-compatible.34 bis V.modems. Repeat. O Command Description EV *70 Z A/ +++ O Attention used at the start of modem command lines. Pause (each comma is roughly 3 seconds by default). Dial using touchtone.com/ general/extendat. You can then adjust modem configuration. which includes data compression. The modem responds with OK to indicate that you are in command mode.8 K) 33. Most modems use the MNP Class 5 protocol. Often used after the escape character sequence to continue communication.6 K) 57.42 bis V.7165557300. Often used to redial.html.000 (56 K) C The MNP (Microcom Networking Protocol) defines classes 1 to 5 for modem standards. T AT Commands AT DT H A DP . For more information on the Extended AT Command Sets. A L -D Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 199 O MNP: Microcom Networking Protocol. 9.. or Attention commands are the modem commands set used on most modems. which alerts the modem that you want to communicate with your modem. Hayes originally developed it for its line of modems. Hang up or disconnect.

Upon completion. In this case. make sure your modem is connected to the computer and turned on. Follow the prompts. parity.Installing and Configuring a Modem Before you start with the configuration. Specifies the highest modem connection speed. Commands sent to the modem and modem settings sent by the modem are written to this file.TXT is created. O N O T Specifies the port on which the modem is installed. the Install New Modem Wizard will automatically start. You can also specify the modulation type if you are using a non-standard modem (such as a Bell or HST). If no modems are currently installed. click Add to begin the installation. it is configured here. You can also increase or decrease the Receive Buffers and Transmit Buffers settings to correct connection problems or get faster performance. This increases the speed of transmissions. Specifies whether to wait for a dial tone before dialing. Your modem is installed through the Control Panel→Modems utility. or to disconnect the call if the system remains idle for too long (limit set in minutes). Description Port Speaker Volume Maximum Speed Properties on the Connection tab Connection Preferences Call Preferences UART: Stands for Universal Asynchronous ReceiverTransmitter. A component that controls asynchronous serial communications. It is not necessary to have a phone cable plugged into a telephone line for configuration purposes. use the Control Panel→Modems utility. The file C:\WINDOWS\MODEM. **This dialog box contains options to enable error control and flow control.* Accesses the Advanced Connections Setting dialog box. Properties on the Properties tab Enabling the FIFO buffers in your modem configuration enables the UART on the modem. If you need other modem settings configured. Accesses the Advanced Port Settings dialog box. when you restart the system after installing it in a slot. You can also enable logging of modem errors by checking the Append To Log check box. otherwise. the wizard will automatically start. L EV 200 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Port Settings Advanced * If you need to configure your system to use a UART processor to increase the speed of serial connections. and stop bits. Select the modem. External modems use the computer’s UART. Specifies the volume of phone tones including the dial tone and dialing sounds. either allowing the wizard to auto-detect your modem or you specifying the modem manually. A computer has a UART to control serial ports. to cancel the call if it doesn’t complete the connection (limit set in seconds). If you have a Plug and Play modem. to achieve maximum transmisison speeds. and internal modems have their own UART. and then click Properties. the computer’s UART must be capable of handling the modem’s maximum transmission speed. you can use the Extra Settings text box to enter the modem string to do so. The options that can be configured are listed in the following tables. you can then configure the modem. Description Used to configure the data.** C O PY . To configure the modem.

In fact. 5. Disconnect external cables from the rear of the modem card. on-board I/O interfaces. matching slot. Mount the modem card to the chassis using the appropriate screw.02FF 03E8 . .02EF O T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 201 Examine the modem card’s slot connectors. you won’t be able to use the phone while you are connected through the modem.TASK 6D-1: Replacing an Internal Modem Setup: The computer is powered off and the enclosure has been removed. Remember that those devices with the same IRQ can’t be used at the same time even though you can configure multiple devices with the same IRQ. you would need a second phone line and number run to your location. you couldn’t have COM1 and COM3 or COM2 and COM4 in use at once. A N Reconnect any external cables to the rear of the modem card. So. 3.03FF 02F8 .03EF 02E8 . you can’t configure devices to share an IRQ at all. if Plug and Play is enabled. IRQs and I/O Addresses Let’s quickly review the default IRQs and I/O addresses associated with the COM ports. 6. be sure you put the wall jack line to the appropriate port and the phone cord to its port. 7. In this situation. Remove the screw that mounts the modem card to the chassis. 4. Remove the modem card. If there were phone cords connected to the modem. One phone line port goes to the wall jack and is usually indicated by a picture of a phone jack or the word “Wall” and the other port goes to a physical telephone so that you can use the wall jack for a regular phone when you aren’t using the modem. Insert the modem card into an available. Many modems also include custom configuration utilities. 2. C O PY 1. I/O Address 03F8 . and any jumper or DIP switch blocks. Port COM1 COM2 COM3 COM4 L -D IRQ O EV 04 03 04 03 The two Control Panel utilities on Windows 95 and Windows 98 systems used to configure the modem are Device Manager and Modem Configuration.

6. Click Finish. parity and stop bits. and call preferences. and then click Next. 2. 8. Notice that either Pulse or Tone dialing can be selected in this dialog box. and then close the Control Panel. Click Next. in the Location Information dialog box. 9. and then click Next. From the Ports list. if there is a modem already installed. 11. Click Advanced. you will need to click Add to start the wizard. Configuring a Remote Access Connection Through Dialup Networking On a Windows 95 or Windows NT Workstation computer. Power on your computer. This will often be COM2 since COM1 is usually taken by the existing modem or possibly the mouse. Check Don’t Detect My Modem. 7. Click Cancel to return to the previous screen. If no modems are installed. 3. You can find Dial-up Networking in the Accessories program group. the Install New Modem Wizard will start. you can determine whether to use hardware or software flow control and you can record a log file. including how long to wait before disconnecting and waiting for a dial tone before dialing.TASK 6D-2: Configuring a Modem in Windows 9x 1. 3. Select the modem you just installed. select an available COM port. 5. enter your area code and. 4. Select the Windows Setup tab. go to the Control Panel and double-click on Add/ Remove Programs. you must make sure that Dial-up Networking is installed. O N O T C O If prompted. Options include data bits. Display the Connection page and observe the Connection preferences available. Close all open Modem property windows. In the Advanced Connection Settings dialog box. Open the Control Panel→Modems utility. 2. PY . and then click Properties. Click Next. If it hasn’t been installed. L EV A 202 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 10. and then select Communications. then select Standard 28800 bps Modem in the Models list. 1. Before you can do this. if required. any access number required to access outside lines. The order of the steps in this task may vary depending on which version of Windows you’re using as well as on your system configuration. This dialog box might not be displayed depending on your system configuration. Verify that Standard Modem Types is selected in the Manufacturers list. you can use Dial-up Networking to create a connection that you will use to connect to the remote access server.

Dial-up Networking is installed by default during the operating system installation. 5. Double-click on the connection you created. L -D The setup procedure for Windows NT Workstation computers is almost identical. 8. To configure a remote access connection on a Windows 95 Workstation computer: 1. 7. After a short while. Click Details and check the Dial-Up Networking option. 5. If not. although the steps are slightly different. turned on. In the User Name text field. In the Make New Connection dialog box. Click Next. C O PY . 4. EV 3. It is recommended that you let the system detect your modem if it can. and your telephone cable is connected to the modem and your phone jack. Select Dial-up Networking from the Accessories program group. A 2. Verify that your country is properly selected in the Country Code drop-down list box. select your modem from the list. to establish the connection between the computer and the remote access server: 1. If you didn’t install a modem during the installation of the operating system or at a later time. Add a 9 and a comma before your telephone number if you need to dial 9 to reach an outside line. Establishing a Remote Access Connection Make sure your modem is connected. 2. Start the installation of a new connection by selecting Dial-up Networking from the Accessories program group. Click Next. A wizard then guides you through the connection creation process. enter the name of the user you want to connect as. O N O T 5. you will be prompted either to have the system detect your modem or to pick a modem from the list. 4. Click Finish. Click Connect. A dialog box displays telling you that the modem is dialing. You will most likely hear the modem dialing. A message box appears that tells you that you are connected and the speed and duration of your connection are displayed. and type a name for the connection in the Type A Name For The Computer You Are Dialing text field. enter the user’s remote access password. you can also see the server type and supported protocols for the connection. or you might use your company’s name if you have only one dial-in connection to your company’s network. 7. enter your area code and telephone number. In the Password text field. The information you provide is the same.4. 6. Verify that your modem is the modem listed in the Select A Modem dropdown list box. Click OK twice. Double-click on Make New Connection. Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 203 6. 3. If you’re using a Windows NT Workstation machine. In Dial-up Networking. a message tells you that the user name and password are being verified. Verify that the phone number in the Phone Number text field is correct. The new connection is displayed in the Dial-up Networking program group. This name might describe the location into which you are dialing. If you click the Details button.

including drive controllers. (Note: Windows NT users need to check the Send Plain Text Password and Non-Windows NT options. and you can browse and use the network resources. O Summary N O T Type the area code and phone number into the appropriate fields. 4. and modem cards. click Disconnect in the Connected To message box. and then accept the defaults in the remaining dialog boxes. Name the new connection Recon1. 5. sound cards. 3. 2. You are now connected to the network through the remote access server. If you have a number that students can dial in to. They can then test the connection after step 4 by dialing in. EV 204 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D In this lesson. You examined their technical characteristics and practiced physically replacing them in a PC. PY TASK 6D-3: . (Note: Windows NT users need to verify that PPP is selected.) Click Next.8. have them enter it in step 3. 6. and begin to create a new Dial-up Networking connection. Configuring a Dial-up Networking Connection 1. video cards. double-click on Dial-up Networking. To break the remote access connection. Click Next.) C O At the workstation. you examined the most common expansion boards in a PC. Click Finish when the new connection has been created. open My Computer.

1. Receives digital audio from an audio CD. 3. b. c. Connects an IDE CD-ROM drive to the sound card. This drive can transfer data at up to 20 MBps. Port or Interface Mic In Speaker Out Line In Line Out CD Audio IDE Port Game Port EV A L -D 6B Identify and briefly describe six common display technologies used with IBM computers. O N O T Lesson 6: Expansion Boards 205 C O PY . Description Receive signal from an external microphone. 6. This drive interface supports up to 16 devices per channel. UVGA: Ultimate VGA raises VGA resolution to 1. Receives signals from the output of an external sound source.Lesson Review 6A Match the type of hard drive controller or interface on the left with the definition on the right (each drive type corresponds to a single definition): e d c IDE ESDI SCSI-I a. It became virtually obsolete by VGA. Controllers for this type of drive are usually built into the motherboards of PCs. 5. Termination is required on both ends of the bus with this type of drive interface. Runs in 800 x 600 mode. but is a higher-resolution VGA card. Lets you attach a joystick or similar game controller to the sound card. It uses analog signals to generate up to 256 colors. EGA: The graphics display that enhanced the capabilities of CGA. 4. e. 6C Describe the purpose of each of the following sound card ports or interfaces.024 x 768. MDA: The original text-only display for IBM computers. This is not a standard. VGA: The most common display adapter for IBM-compatible computers until SVGA came along. Sends signals to a speaker set or headphones. CGA: The original graphics display for IBM computers. a b SCSI-II SCSI-III d. SVGA: Super VGA improves on VGA by adding VRAM to off-load video processing from the CPU to the video card. 2. Sends signals from the sound card to an external sound source. The maximum cable length for this type of drive is 3 meters.

A modem converts a computer’s digital signals to analog signals which can be sent over telephone lines. EV 206 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY . The analog signal is then converted back to a digital signal by the receiving system.6D Describe the operation of a modem.

you will identify the technical characteristics of fixed disk drives. you will examine various backup choices available for PCs. you will examine the characteristics that define various kinds of removable disk drives. LESSON 7 Data Files none Objectives To identify the technical characteristics of storage systems. You will also learn about backup policies and procedures. CD-ROM drives. O Identify the distinguishing characteristics of both IDE and SCSI fixed disk drives.Storage Systems Overview This lesson focuses on storage systems. EV A L -D In this topic. You will examine the BIOS settings for installed disks and you will learn how to replace fixed disks and install additional disk controllers. and others. You will learn how to replace removable disk drives and learn to identify which device is most appropriate for a particular application. T Lesson 7: Storage Systems 207 C O Lesson Time 5 hours PY . Since the data on your network is only as good as your most recent backup. You will examine the technical characteristics and functional operation of common storage devices. O Identify the technical characteristics of common removable media disk drives. you will: 7A 7B 7C Identify system backup policies and procedures. floppy disk drives. including hard-disk drives. N In this topic. in this topic.

Topic 7A
Fixed Disk Drives

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track: A storage channel on disk or tape. On disks, tracks are concentric circles (hard and floppy disks) or spirals (CDs and video discs). On tapes, they are parallel lines.

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sector: The smallest unit of storage read or written on a disk.

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Figure 7-1: A disk storage location can be specified by its side, track, and sector. Disks arrange information into concentric rings called tracks. Tracks are divided into pie-like slices called sectors. Some disks can be written to only on one side; others can be written to on both sides. A read/write head can be positioned over any track, and data is read (or written) as the sectors pass by.

Hard Disks
Hard drives, or fixed disks, are a type of storage device that provide fast access to large amounts of storage in a small, reasonably reliable physical package. Without them, most modern computing applications would be impossible.

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Disk Storage Locations

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In general, all sorts of disk storage share certain common elements. On all disks, physical differences in the surface of the disk are used to represent data. On floppy and hard disks, magnetism is used to encode data. On CD-ROM and optical disks, variations in how the disk surface reflects light are used to encode data.

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Disks are the most commonly used type of storage. There is a wide variety of different disk types, including many sizes and formats of floppy disks, hard disks, optical disks, CD-ROMs (Compact Disc Read-Only Memory), and removable hard disks (such as Syquest).

Hard disks are often composed of multiple disks. A cylinder consists of a track on the top side of the top-most disk, and all of the tracks beneath it, as shown in Figure 7-2. A cylinder represents all of the data that the read/write heads can access when they are in a certain position. (There is a separate read/write head for each side of each disk, but they all move together.)

Figure 7-2: A cylinder is a collection of tracks that can be read at the same time. Hard drives have been designed to meet users’ needs for speed and capacity. With the maturation of the technology, designers now add reliability to, and reduce the cost of, the design process. This constant redesign process has produced better drives, in many different types. However, even with differences, almost all hard drives operate the same way: data is stored as locations of magnetic flux, or change, on a disk of specially coated aluminum or glass. Hard disks can have one or more of these platters or disks. The information is read or written with a head, or small magnet, that floats on a cushion of air over the platter. The platter spins at a high rate, generally 5,400 or 7,200 revolutions per minute (rpm). The heads are moved across the platter by one of two technologies: older designs used a motor, called a stepper motor, that moved only in pre-defined increments, or steps. Newer designs use a voice-coil, similar to an audio speaker, to move the heads more precisely over the platter.

Writing Data to the Hard Disk
Hard disks spin at very fast speeds, and the read/write heads hover over the platters, very close to the surface so that they can read or write data. The platters are made of a rigid material, such as aluminum, that is coated with a magnetic material. To write data, the computer positions the head in a particular track. When the appropriate sector passes by, pulses of electricity are sent through a coil of wire in the head. This creates an electromagnetic field, which aligns magnetic particles on the disk surface. By alternating the flow of the current to the head, ones and zeroes can be encoded magnetically.

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cylinder: The aggregate of all tracks that reside in the same location on every disk surface. On multiple-platter disks, the cylinder is the sum total of every track with the same track number on every surface. On a floppy disk, a cylinder comprises the top and corresponding bottom track.

The data is encoded, or written, in circular tracks as the head floats over the rotating platter. Each platter has its own read/write head. The newer voice-coil designs allow cylinders to be written closer together so more data can be fit onto the same-sized platter.
Disk-drive Geometry

Figure 7-3: The physical components of a hard drive. Newer coatings, developed in recent years, as well as smoother platter surfaces, have enabled more data to be stored on a hard drive. A few years ago, drives with a couple of hundred megabytes were considered large. Now, disks capable of storing multiple gigabytes are commonly available.

Reading Data from the Hard Disk

inductance: A circuit or device in which a change in the current generates an electromotive force.

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head crash: When read/write heads bang against the surface of the disk.

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park: Read/write heads move over an unused section of the disk when the computer is powered off.

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To read data, the computer positions the head over the appropriate track. When the sector passes by, the magnetic particles on the disk create an electrical current in the head through a phenomenon known as inductance. In the head, the alternating patterns of magnetism on the disk translate into alternating flows of electrical current, which can be translated into ones and zeroes.

Avoiding Head Crash

You should never transport or jar a hard disk that is spinning, because you can easily cause a head crash. If the read/write heads bang against the surface of the disk, you might damage that part of the disk, and possibly the read/write heads as well. Most hard-disk drives automatically park over an unused section of the disk when the computer is switched off. Hard-disk drives are tightly sealed to prevent dust and other particles from entering the drive. A single dust particle is likely to be larger than the gap between the head and the disk platter. With the platter spinning, dust acts like sandpaper on the surface of the disk. For this reason, you should never break the seal on a hard-disk drive.

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Physical Characteristics
Physically, hard drives come in a number of designs. The terms form factor and height are used to describe the physical characteristics of hard drives that are mounted internally. External drives are most often simply internal drives mounted in a case that also has a power supply. • Form factor. The form factor of a drive refers to its width. This measurement is derived from the original IBM PC/XT case that had drive openings of 5 1/4 inches. Most drives today are actually smaller than their rated form factor and use spacers, or mounting brackets, to fit within the case. The 5 1/4-inch and 3 1/2-inch form factors are the most popular for desktop and deskside computer systems. Newer form factors, designed for use in laptops and notebooks, include 2 1/2-inch and even 1-inch designs. Height. Again, the height of the drive is a measurement derived from the original IBM PC/XT case. A device that would fill the height of the drive bay of the XT is considered to be a full-height device. Other heights include half-height and the newer 1-inch high drives.

You must match the form factor and height of a drive you purchase with the available openings in your computer.

Installing Hard Drives

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Prepare the new hard disk for use in the system.

Configuring Hard Drives

The first drive is referred to as the master drive. The second drive is referred to as the slave. If you have two IDE or EIDE devices on the same cable, one needs to be set to master and the other to slave. This allows both devices to properly communicate on a single channel. It also specifies the boot order of the drives. The master drive on the first IDE channel is the first IDE drive accessed when the system boots.

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You should configure the hard drive before you install it in the case. The drives are configured with jumpers. There is often a label on the drive with the jumper settings.

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master: The first IDE or EIDE device on a single IDE channel. If the device is the hard drive on the first IDE channel, the device can be formatted to be the boot disk. slave: The second IDE or EIDE device on a single IDE channel.

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If possible, place hard drives on a different channel than CD drives. This requires two IDE controllers. One or two hard drives should go on IDE 1, as master and slave, or single. If you have an IDE CD-ROM and a second CD drive (such as a rewriter, DVD, or just another CD-ROM), they should go on IDE 2 as master and slave.

Working with Hard Drives
Keep the following in mind when you are working with hard drives:

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The specific steps for setting up a hard disk in a system depend on the system and the type of hard disk you are installing; however, the main tasks are: 1. Physically install the hard disk into the computer.

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form factor: The physical size of a device as measured by outside dimensions. With regard to a disk drive, the form factor is the overall diameter of the platters and case, such as 3.5 inches or 5.25 inches, not the size in terms of storage capacity.

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Because of the delicate nature of hard disks, you need to be very careful when you are handling them. Do not bump or shake them unnecessarily, and do not transport them unless they are encased in protective packaging. When performance is a less-critical issue than cost, consider adding another hard disk to an existing controller board, rather than replacing the controller, disk, or computer.

TASK 7A-1:
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Examining Fixed Disk Drive Characteristics

Restart your computer and enter the BIOS setup utility.

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If your system uses a different BIOS than the one used to develop this course, you might not have all of these settings in your BIOS.

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Exit BIOS without saving changes.

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IDE Hard Drive Connections

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IDE and EIDE Drives
IDE drives connect to the computer through the IDE drive interface, which might be on a separate card, on the sound card, or more likely, built into the system board. Technically, there are different varieties of IDE interfaces. The acronym IDE is most often associated with the implementation designed to work with the ISA/AT bus. This type of IDE interface is sometimes called the ATA, or AT Attachment, interface. Other IDE interfaces exist for the 8-bit XT bus, the Micro Channel bus, and others. Disk drives are attached to the IDE interface with a single cable, plus a power connection. Drives are daisy-chained when a second drive exists on the IDE channel.

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Cylinders Heads Sectors CHS Capacity Maximum LBA Capacity PIO Mode Ultra DMA Mode

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Examine the settings for your hard-disk drive and record them in the following table:

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Locate the settings for the hard drive. These might be on a different screen than the one that first appears. Select Primary Master and press [Enter].

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Figure 7-4: An IDE hard-disk drive.

EIDE is the most common drive type found in systems today. Also, quickly gaining in importance are Ultra DMA drives. Ultra DMA is an extension of the ATA disk interface. EIDE has distinct advantages over IDE: • It supports dual host interface controllers, which allows up to four devices to connect; IDE allows only two devices. It supports CD-ROM and tape-drive connections in addition to hard drives. SCSI interfaces and drives are still faster than EIDE. This is due mainly to SCSI use of faster mechanical and electrical components.

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Installing IDE Hard Drives
When you install a hard drive, you should place the drive in an available bay in your system. High-speed drives generate a lot of heat, so if possible, keep them away from other components. Since power supplies have magnetic fields around them, keep drives away from there. The best place for a drive is near the front of the machine, away from other components. The installation of specific disks varies with the type of disk and system. For most IDE hard disks, you need to complete five basic steps:
Lesson 7: Storage Systems 213

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Next, you need to set or verify the drive type. This is most often set to User. The heads and sectors should have been auto-detected, so leave them alone. The PIO Mode should have been set to 3. Finally, disable block mode (so you don’t waste disk space).

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Most BIOS today can auto-detect the hard drive. It uses the DriveID command to configure the hard drive in BIOS. For IDE hard drives, you will probably then be prompted to choose between LBA (the default for large drives), Normal (for operating systems that don’t use the BIOS), or Large (for drives that support ECHS).

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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 1. 2.

If IDE support is not embedded on the system board, configure and install an IDE controller (expansion) board. Configure and install the hard disk. Attach cables to the installed disk. Set the CMOS disk type. When needed, complete the controller board and disk configuration. Locate an available bay. You might need to install drive rails or a mounting bracket if the bay is a larger size than the drive.

More specifically, you will need to:

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If you are adding a second drive, use a connector on the ribbon cable that is still open. There are usually two connectors per cable with one being at the end and one in the middle. Plug the keyed, 4-wire power connector from the power supply into the drive.

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If you install the ribbon cable backward, errors will occur and the drive won’t work. It might seem like the drive is dead.

Configuring and Installing the IDE Controller Board
The IDE controller resides on the actual IDE disk. If IDE support is not embedded on the system board, you need to configure an IDE controller board by identifying and setting IRQs and addresses as you would for any other expansion board. Likewise, these settings can be made by jumpers, switches, or software configuration utilities, or any combination, and some computers can autoconfigure the board. The following table describes some of the board settings that you might need to configure via jumpers. Setting

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Base Memory address

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Use the factory setting unless there is more than one controller board in the system; then, reset the second board to resolve addressing conflicts. If the controller board has ROM BIOS, you need to set this address. Verify that you are using an address that does not conflict with other devices such as VGA or network boards. Also, avoid using address ranges above E000h, because some system boards will not support these addresses. It is recommended that you provide separate DMA channels for all devices. Sharing a DMA channel can lead to problems. Use the factory setting when you are booting to a device attached to the controller. Unless the hard disk is a boot device, the actual IRQ setting does not matter. Record the IRQ setting, as you will need to specify it when you are loading the device driver.

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Attach the ribbon cable with the red stripe on Pin 1 (the pin closest to the power connector).

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Slide the drive onto the rails or into the bracket. The connectors need to be facing the rear of the system. When it is in, screw it in to hold it to the rails or bracket.

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When you physically install the controller board into the system, make sure that it is completely seated in the expansion slot. Otherwise it won’t work, and can potentially be damaged.

Configuring and Installing the IDE Drive
To configure the IDE disk, you need to specify the disk mode as single drive only, master, or slave. (Some controller boards will auto-configure the IDE bus.) • • •

When you are installing two IDE disks, configure the boot disk as master. When you are installing two IDE disks, configure the non-boot disk as slave.

Attaching Cables to the Installed Drive
Connect the power cable and the cable that connects the controller board hard disk. Make sure that you use a 40-pin cable, and verify that the cable is less than 0.5 meters long. Do not use floppy-disk drive cables for hard-disk connections, and do not reverse cables—always use the Pin 1 designations on the cable, controller, and disk, to properly orient the cable.

Most systems automatically recognize and configure a new hard disk and save those settings in the CMOS. Disk types are numbered according to the characteristics of the hard disk, such as number of cylinders and heads, capacity (in MB), and sectors per track. Check the hardware documentation for the IDE disk for these values so that you can determine which disk type to assign to the new hard disk. For some disks, you also need to determine write pre-compensation, which deals with the timing problems associated with the disparity of track sizes. (Cylinders near the center of the disk have shorter tracks than those near the edge of the disk.) Newer disks do not usually need to have write pre-compensation defined; when you do need to determine this value, divide the maximum number of cylinders by two. Setting the CMOS disk type is usually accomplished by one of the following methods: • Selecting a type from the list provided in the CMOS setup program. Avoid selecting a disk type that has more cylinders, heads, or RAM capacity than are present on the new disk, but select the highest number of cylinders possible to derive maximum use of the medium. •

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Defining a new type. If this option is available, you will see a type designation called User Defined. (This is often designated as Type 47, but the actual number designation depends on the system’s BIOS.) Choose the User Defined designation and supply the specific parameters for the new hard disk. Make sure that you label the hard disk with these parameters in case the CMOS battery fails and you need to restore the CMOS. Using auto-detection. On many systems, the BIOS will detect the hard disk’s type and supply the parameters to CMOS.

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Setting the CMOS Drive Type

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Lesson 7: Storage Systems 215

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When you are installing only one IDE disk, configure the disk as single drive only.

and then boot the system to verify that the drive was correctly installed. The cable connected to the drive is referred to as either the controller cable (because it connects the drive to the controller card) or the data cable (because it transfers data to the system). Verify that the IDE drive is set as master or single. TASK 7A-2: Replacing an IDE Hard-disk Drive 1. Observe the data cable connected to the drive. being sure to pull straight. If the system doesn’t boot. and BIOS configuration parameters for the disk itself. you will need access to the documentation or to a resource such as MicroHouse Technical Library or an Internet site. 8. Disconnect the power connector from the rear of the IDE drive. Make sure the colored stripe on the controller cable lines up with Pin 1 on the IDE drive. 3. Before you point out their error. such as IRQ. try troubleshooting the problem on your own before requesting assistance from your instructor. 4. Remove the screws that mount the IDE drive in the chassis bay. If you put the cable in backwards. 5. 9. 7. Mount the IDE drive to the chassis using the appropriate screws. it will usually fit. O PY . The red stripe on the cable is on Pin 1 of the drive. N O 2. 10. In the second part of the task. This connection is usually very tight. you will install an IDE hard drive in your computer. 6. A There is usually a label on the top of the drive that explains the jumper settings for the drive. DMA. you will remove an existing IDE hard drive from your computer. see if they can figure it out on their own. let’s re-install the IDE hard drive in your computer. This is usually located on the side closest to the power connection on the drive. For these systems. If there isn’t. L EV If students plug the data cable in backward. Plug in the external cables. Insert the IDE drive into its bay.Completing the Configuration Some IDE hard disks and controllers cannot be configured until after they have been installed into the computer. but the drive won’t work. Now. Settings that might be software-configurable include board-configuration parameters. T Let’s remove the IDE hard drive from your computer. the system won’t boot and displays dire-sounding messages. Base Memory. O Slide the IDE drive out of its bay. Connect the power connector to the rear of the IDE drive. or Base I/O address. Disconnect the controller cable from the rear of the IDE drive. Connect the controller cable to the rear of the IDE drive. run any software configuration programs necessary to complete the configuration process. so you might need to pull hard. C Objective: In the first part of this task. 216 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Examine the controller cable connectors and the jumper block for master/slave configuration on the rear of the drive.

6 MBps. 66. place it on a different channel. However. however. This enables DMA support. but you won’t get any improvement in speed. but you have to enable Ultra DMA support by running DMACHECK. The BIOS of another computer might not support LBA or Large (ECHS). Typically. To avoid losing the speed advantage of the Ultra DMA drive. you can purchase and install a separate controller. The Master/Slave setting should be used only when there is more than one hard disk in a system. the correct driver is installed automatically during installation of the Service Pack. you might run into problems. Note that Ultra DMA drives are backward-compatible with EIDE system boards and controllers. You can’t get Ultra DMA support by simply upgrading the BIOS and drivers. and set the value to Auto. Ultra DMA drives provide transfer rates of 33. the speed will also be limited to 16. you may also have to enable it in the BIOS. or 100 MBps. you likely won’t run into problems. You have to do this only if it’s not automatically detected and configured. you should only set the mode when you first install the disk. otherwise. restart the computer and enter the CMOS setup.EXE. In that case. we will also have to look at Ultra DMA drives. or vice versa). you will have to upgrade the system board. If you run an EIDE drive and an Ultra DMA drive off of the same channel on an Ultra DMA controller. The retail package of Windows 95 Release 2 actually does come with a driver for UDMA support. Microsoft’s QFE513 driver for Windows 95 (not supplied with the retail package of Windows 95 or Windows 95 Release 2). O In the context of IDE and EIDE drives. but this poses a risk of data loss. a disk-controller error will occur when you restart the computer. You can change the mode for a hard drive (from LBA to Large. not the downloadable version. a great improvement over traditional IDE or EIDE drives. if a system doesn’t currently support it.Troubleshooting IDE Hard Drives If you remove the second IDE hard disk from a computer with two IDE drives installed. make sure you have a working backup of all of the data on the disk before doing so. Ultra DMA Drives EV Ultra DMA also requires appropriate operating system device drivers. For the retail package of Windows 95 or Windows 95 Release 2. Note that this utility is included only with the CD-ROM version of the service pack. You can also run EIDE drives from an Ultra DMA system board or controller. If you do need to change it. Ultra DMA is an extension to the ATA disk interface. but it has known problems. If you need to move an IDE drive from one computer to another.6 MBps. If so. the data transfer rate will be limited to 16. Lesson 7: Storage Systems 217 A L -D To upgrade to Ultra DMA. N O T C O PY . especially if there is a great difference in age between the computers. verify that the disk that remains in the computer is set as single. and the Windows 98 and Windows 2000 drivers all support Ultra DMA. data on the hard drive would be lost if you install it in that system. and you have to enable DMA support. if you use an Ultra DMA drive on an EIDE system board or controller. after enabling DMA support in the OS. you will have to get and install Intel’s latest bus master DMA driver. Locate the channel to which the Ultra DMA hard drive is connected. and for Windows NT. For Windows NT with Service Pack 2 or 3. Alternatively. After you’ve enabled DMA support in the operating system. or might not be set up for it.

double-click on System. motherboard. and select the Device Manager tab. Expand Disk Drives. verify that Ultra DMA support has been enabled in the BIOS. and that the correct drivers have been installed. select Generic IDE DISK TYPEXX. 4. O N O T C Select the Settings tab. This is where you enable DMA support. and BIOS support Ultra DMA. L A EV 218 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 5. and BIOS all support Ultra DMA. 1. motherboard. Display the Windows 98 desktop. O PY . If required. Don’t select the DMA check box unless your drive. 2. Don’t do this unless your drive. Click Cancel twice and power down the computer. and click Properties. 3. Troubleshooting Ultra DMA Drives If you’re having trouble with an Ultra DMA drive.TASK 7A-3: Enabling DMA Support in Windows 98 Objective: To learn how to enable DMA support in Windows 98. Choose Start→ Settings→Control Panel. and locate the DMA check box. • • Verify that DMA support has been enabled in the operating system. check for these items: • Make sure you’re using an operating system that supports Ultra DMA.

Planning the SCSI Bus Creating and following a comprehensive installation plan is more likely to enable you to install the disk without encountering problems. Figure 7-5: A SCSI chain. For example. external. Attach cables to the installed disk. SCSI addressing. and mixed SCSI disk configurations are all terminated differently. Set the CMOS type to 0. Configure and install the hard disk. Some disks and controllers provide active termination. When needed. Proper termination is essential for the SCSI system to work correctly. If the system board does not have embedded SCSI support. • Termination. 3. or an Ultra DMA/33 cable on an Ultra DMA/66 drive. or SCSI. which is a feature that provides termination when it is required. complete the disk’s configuration and termination. configure and install the host bus adapter (HBA). 2. 4. as described in the following table. Installing SCSI Disk Drives A SCSI Chain 1. EV A L -D O N Lesson 7: Storage Systems 219 O T C O PY The setup and installation of SCSI disks varies for the type of SCSI disk involved. such as an IDE cable. it’s easy to use the wrong cable. Internal. Not Installed. and cabling. so no physical intervention is needed when you add devices to or remove devices from the bus. The following is a general procedure for physically installing a SCSI hard disk: . Plans should include how to handle termination. 5. 6. Plan the SCSI bus.• Verify that you’re using the correct Ultra DMA cable. so you should check with the manufacturer for specific setup instructions before you attempt to install a SCSI disk.

and DMA channel. L A EV 220 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D You should sketch the layout of the SCSI bus to assist you in configuring the boards and disks. you might need to use software to configure the disks. is set up correctly for the specific hardware setup. This keeps the faster devices from dominating control of the bus. Do not use HVD devices on single-ended chains. Configure the controller’s IRQ. you will need to configure and install one into the computer. On some disks. • O Also. Termination should be on the HBA and on the external cabinet itself. Usually. you will also need to set jumpers. Configuring and Installing the SCSI Drive To configure the SCSI disk. instead of the last disk. Configuring and Installing the HBA If the system does not have an embedded HBA. Termination should be on the last internal disk and on the external cabinet. by following the vendor’s recommendations. Make sure that you have the right type and number of cables for the installation. To configure an HBA: 1. Do not use floppy-disk drive cables for hard-disk connections. For external devices. PY . and firmware that you are using because this information can help you fully describe future problems to the HBA and disk manufacturers. physically install it into the computer or external cabinet. Base I/O address. use impedancematched cables to minimize potential problems. software. or the disks might be self-configuring. 3. When you physically install the HBA into the system. Make sure that all SCSI IDs are set correctly by using jumpers or software configuration utilities. Set termination according to your SCSI bus plan. and do not reverse cables—always use the Pin 1 designations on the cable. make sure that it is completely seated in the slot. as necessary. set the SCSI address and termination according to your SCSI bus plan. Set the SCSI address according to your SCSI bus plan.Configuration Internal (multiple disks inside the PC) External (multiple disks in a separate cabinet) Description Termination should be on the HBA and on the last disk in the SCSI chain. make sure that the terminating power. where 0 is the lowest priority device (such as the primary or first hard disk) and 6 is the highest priority device (such as a CD-ROM or tape drive). and disk to properly orient the cable. Base Memory address. No termination is needed on the HBA because you are using both ports (internal and external). 2. When the hard disk is configured. O N O • T Addressing. For other disks. Verify that the connectors are correct for each component. remaining devices use 0 through 6. This sketch can also assist you in troubleshooting problems that might arise later. C Terminating power can be supplied by the HBA or by the disks themselves. Record the specific revision levels of hardware. This enables you to chain more disks without reconfiguring the termination scheme. Mixed (multiple disks in the PC and in an external cabinet) Cabling. controller. which ensures stable current for the data signals on the bus. the HBA uses the ID 7.

3. C O PY For the system to be able to recognize and use the new hard disk. Power on the computer. Troubleshooting SCSI Hard Drives Keep the following points in mind as you troubleshoot SCSI hard drives: Lesson 7: Storage Systems 221 A Use the menu in the SCSI BIOS utility to examine the configuration of your host adapter card and the SCSI drive you installed. Refer to documentation or the label on the drive to determine how to set the drive ID. Remove the SCSI adapter and drive. Use the menu in the SCSI BIOS utility to format the SCSI drive you installed. 4. no other CMOS settings are necessary.Attaching Cables to the Installed Drive Connect the power cable and the cable that connects the hard disk to the HBA. set the disk type to 0. Setting the CMOS Drive Type Completing the Drive’s Configuration and Termination Some SCSI hard disks cannot be configured until after they have been installed into the computer. refer to the documentation. Again. 5. or SCSI. For these systems. Terminate the hard drive you’re installing. 2. Set the SCSI ID of the hard drive you’re installing to 0. Insert the SCSI drive into its bay. EV 10. N O T O If you don’t have documentation. Not Installed. run any software configuration programs necessary to complete the addressing and termination process. 7. 9. you need to identify the disk for the CMOS. For external disk subsystems. use impedance-matched cable to provide stability for the SCSI bus. 11. there is usually a label on the drive. L -D Connect the SCSI controller cable between the SCSI host adapter and the SCSI drive. Exit the SCSI BIOS utility and shut down the computer. BIOS handles any other setup and operation issues. or you might be able to find the information on the Internet. 6. 12. Press [Ctrl]A at the SCSI BIOS message. For SCSI hard disks. 8. Connect the power connector to the rear of the SCSI drive. . Mount the SCSI drive to the chassis using the appropriate screws. TASK 7A-4: Installing a SCSI Drive 1. This is a low-level format.

When a SCSI system is booted or reset. causing a delay during POST.• • The vast majority (up to 95 percent) of problems with SCSI disks are due to incorrect ID settings and improper termination. Some 386 system boards cannot support 16-bit memory transfers. To make floppy disks more tolerant (than O If you are installing an additional SCSI hard drive into a computer where only one connector is available on the SCSI cable and the cable itself is terminated. by using jumper settings or software configuration. or run it past power supplies. O • SCSI disks are usually shipped with the parity jumper setting enabled. Because floppy disks can be removed from the computer and easily carried. Check with the system manufacturer to verify that 16-bit memory transfers are supported. you must configure the BIOS to Enabled. • • SCSI cables should be handled carefully to minimize problems. Of course. but because most laptops and notebook computers cannot normally use these devices. it is made of a floppy material. PY . • • • Verify that all SCSI devices have unique SCSI ID numbers. You can attach up to seven daisy-chained SCSI devices and still use the printer port if you have a parallel-to-SCSI adapter that supports this piggyback configuration. the lower data rate can be an acceptable trade-off for increased functionality. O T C • SCSI buses can be connected through parallel printer ports and PC Card connections. and disable it if it is not required for the system. Verify that your system configuration requires this setting to be enabled. run long lengths of it next to metal. such as mylar. Removable Media Disk Drives A L EV 222 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Topic 7B Removable Media Disk Drives It is often necessary to share files with other people. enabling portable computers to take advantage of SCSI technology. the limitations of the printer port reduce the normal data transfer rate for SCSI devices. Another use for removable disks is to provide a second copy or backup of important files. so you will need to use ESDI instead of SCSI with these systems. N If you intend for a SCSI disk to be bootable after you install it. Floppy Disk Drives Floppy disks are similar to hard disks. One way to do this is to use removable disks. except that the material on which data is recorded is not hard. SCSI controllers generally need to renew all SCSI device connections before activating the devices. they are not as well protected as hard disks. remove and replace the cable with one that has multiple connectors. Read/write heads record data on floppy disks similar to the way they do on hard disks. Do not roll SCSI cable on itself.

only smaller. a double-sided disk with 80 tracks. and bytes that can be stored in a sector. sectors per track. The most commonly used type of floppy disk today is the 3 1/2-inch disk. To provide a reasonable degree of protection for floppy disks. The following table shows common floppy-disk sizes and formats. Lesson 7: Storage Systems 223 O PY .880 1.5 3. data is not packed as densely into a floppy disk as it is in a hard disk. The next type of disk to become widely used was the 5 1/4-inch format. For example. Three Floppy-disk Formats Figure 7-6: Three floppy-disk formats. Despite the trend toward smaller disks. and 512 bytes per sector has a total capacity of 2 x 80 x 36 x 512.hard disks) of dust and scratches. Divide this by 1. they had an 8-inch diameter and a soft vinyl cover. Early floppy disks were large. or 2. in which they are stored when not in use.5/1400 and 5. which has a hard plastic cover. Storage Capacity EV The amount of data that can be stored in a disk is determined by the number of sides. tracks per side. Disk Size (inches) 3. which was essentially the same as the 8-inch format. These two types of disks come with a special envelope.024 to get the number of kilobytes.5 A L -D O Sides Tracks per Side 80 80 80 Sectors per Track 36 18 9 Bytes per Sector 512 512 512 N 2. The 3 1/2-inch disks do not need to be stored in an envelope when they are not in use because the metal shutter adequately protects the disk from normal amounts of airborne particles. which is 2. they are contained inside a tight-fitting square sheath of vinyl or hard plastic. 36 sectors. the storage capacity of floppy disks has increased dramatically over the years. they make up in portability. and their total capacity in kilobytes. and a metal shutter that closes to protect the inner disk from dust when the disk is not inside a drive mechanism.440 720 Total Capacity in Kilobytes O 2 1 2 T Sectors per Cluster 2 2 2 C Point out to students that the two formats they’re most likely to encounter are the 3.880.949. What floppy disks lack in storage capacity.120 bytes.25/ 1200 formats.5 3.

Disconnect the power connector from the rear of the disk drive.25 5. TASK 7B-1: Replacing a Floppy-disk Drive 1. Slide the disk drive out of its bay. 5.25 5. Examine the controller cable connectors and power cable connector on the rear of the drive.5-inch floppy-disk drive.5-inch Floppy-disk Drive L A EV 224 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 7-7: Connectors for a typical 3. 6. 3.25 Sides 2 2 2 1 1 Tracks per Side 80 40 40 40 40 Sectors per Track 15 9 8 9 8 Bytes per Sector 512 512 512 512 512 Total Capacity in Kilobytes 1.25 5.Disk Size (inches) 5. Disconnect the controller cable from the rear of the disk drive. Remove the screws that mount the disk drive in the chassis bay.200 360 320 180 160 Sectors per Cluster 1 2 2 1 1 Connectors for a Typical 3. 4. O N O T C O PY .25 5. Insert the disk drive into its bay. 2. Notice that this data cable and power cable are different than those used on the hard drives.

A compact disc stores vast amounts (about 682 MB) of information in a convenient. it’s not necessary to perform CMOS configuration. You can install an ATAPI drive as if it were just another EIDE drive. The data is read by a low-power laser beam. permanent medium. and to publish books. 10. CDs are usually produced in units of thousands. Most manufacturers use the ISO standard 9960 or the High Sierra subset of that standard. MPEG-2 provides video resolution of 720 x 480 and 1. Binary 1s and 0s are differentiated by the degree of reflectivity of the surface.280 x 720 at 60 frames per second. but in addition require a MPEG decoder (Movie Picture Experts Group decoder) to decode MPEG files used with DVDs. Start the system and verify that the disk drive was properly installed. This group has developed MPEG digital video compression standards and file formats. writable CDs are gaining popularity. sandwiched in a glass or plastic disc. The costs associated with CD-ROM creation are decreasing with the advent of desktop CD recorders. or nondepression areas. or CDs. Connect the power connector to the rear of the disk drive. such as collections of data. A AT Attachment Packet Interface (ATAPI) is an extension to EIDE that enables support for CD-ROM drives (including CD-R and CD-RW drives). L C Lesson 7: Storage Systems 225 O PY . Two MPEG standards exist: MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. They are digital video compression standards and file formats that were developed by the Movie Picture Experts Group. The depressions. or collections of graphics. -D O N O T ATAPI: AT Attachment Packet Interface. Although they are slower to use than hard disks.” This disc is then copied in large quantities by a CD publisher. with each copy costing up to $1. ATAPI drives can be set up as master or slave drives (through jumpers). most CDs are sold with information already recorded on them. Currently. All configuration is handled automatically. An extension to EIDE that enables support for CD-ROM and tape drives. However. Mount the disk drive to the chassis using the appropriate screws. are “mastered. ATAPI EV DVD drives also use ATAPI. CDs have become popular as a way to provide access to large amounts of information. and can run off the primary or secondary controller. With ATAPI drives. CD-ROM. 9. CDs have many uses: they are used to distribute software and information. Data on a CD-ROM is stored as a series of microscopic depressions in a metal substrate. CD-ROM Drives CD-ROM (which stands for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory) is an optical disc storage technology well suited for distribution of large amounts of information. MPEG decoder: MPEG stands for Movie Picture Experts Group. including MPEG-1 and MPEG-2. MPEG-1 provides video resolution of 352 x 240 at 30 frames per second. 8. enabling them to be searched easily by using keywords. or pits. Most CDs are indexed. Connect the controller cable to the rear of the disk drive.7. and provide common file formats. reflect differently than the lands. as well as tape drives on an IDE controller. magazines.

A common interface for SCSI CD-ROM drives and other devices. Check with the hardware vendors for known incompatibilities. Keep the following in mind when you are using CD resources: • • Connectors for a Typical CD-ROM Drive A L EV 226 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 7-8: Connectors for a typical CD-ROM drive. CD-ROM drives often provide driver software for the operating systems that need them. Other operating systems. C • Some older CD-ROM drives require that the disc be placed in a disc caddy. Windows NT. OS/2 2. called the Advanced SCSI Programming Interface. and others— inherently support CD-ROM drives.Using CD-ROMs Some operating systems—such as UNIX. and some versions of NetWare.x. or protective plastic container. such as DOS. before they can be inserted into the drive. require additional software in order to use CD-ROM drives. You may want to consider purchasing additional caddies for storage purposes. you might see a performance loss.SYS. . has been developed. Third-party driver software is also available. An example of such a driver is Adaptec’s ASPIDSK. DOS/ Windows. O Practical Issues PY Many CD-ROM drives use the SCSI interface to connect to the host system. O N O If you put a SCSI CD-ROM on the same controller as a hard disk. or ASPI. This enables use of a single ASPI device driver for multiple SCSI devices. T CD-ROM drives are connected to a host computer by using a SCSI bus or an IDE bus.

Those that were available (such as the Bernoulli boxes). C O PY . Slide the CD-ROM drive out of its bay. Make sure the colored stripe on the controller cable lines up with Pin 1 on the drive. Setup: In the first part of the task. EV Removable cartridge drives have been available for a long time. Syquest and SuperDisk soon followed with their own versions of removable disk drives. Disconnect the audio cable from the rear of the CD-ROM drive. Their current offerings include: Lesson 7: Storage Systems 227 A Other Removable Drives L -D Connect the controller cable to the rear of the CD-ROM drive. were prone to many problems and were quite expensive. 3. 9. 7. 8. Disconnect the power connector from the rear of the CD-ROM drive. this task is setting the drive to master/single in preparation for the next task in which you will add an IDE device to the chain. 2. As storage prices came down. 4. but back in the 1980s there were few options to choose from. 11. Connect the power connector to the rear of the CD-ROM drive. 6. The first popular version of these was the Zip drive. Syquest Drive Syquest came up with the idea of removable hard disk cartridges back in 1982. and storage needs rose. 1. Verify that the CD-ROM drive is set as master/single. a new generation of removable drives came on the scene. Disconnect the controller cable from the rear of the CD-ROM drive. O T Remove the screws that mount the CD-ROM drive in the chassis bay. N Examine the controller cable connectors and the jumper block for master/slave configuration on the rear of the drive. you will install an IDE CD-ROM drive in your computer. In the second part of the task. 5. O Mount the CD-ROM drive to the chassis using the appropriate screws. 10. you will remove an existing IDE CD-ROM hard drive from your computer. Connect the audio cable to the audio out connector at the rear of the CD-ROM drive. Insert the CD-ROM drive into its bay.TASK 7B-2: Replacing an IDE CD-ROM Drive Objective: In addition to learning how to replace an IDE CD-ROM drive.

Macs can only use the SCSI version.5 ms seek time and 2. O N Another Iomega product. O Jaz Drive T Iomega’s Zip disks are slightly larger and twice as thick as regular 3. and notebook (for four specific models). It uses parallel port or SCSI interfaces with Macs using only SCSI. .490 tracks. They are formatted at the factory in a servo pattern with 2. SCSI. or IDE CD-ROM drive. SuperDisk is available with parallel port.4 second transfer rate. The 2 GB drive can also read 1 GB cartridges. Verify that the device is set as slave. and SCSI. SCSI-to-parallel. Mount the device to the chassis using the appropriate screws. USB. and SCSI-to-PCMCIA. Connection options now include parallel.8 MB per second A 230 MB cartridge for PCs and Macs. Insert the device into an available bay. Seek time is 12 ms and average transfer rate is 3.44 MB disks (which have only 135 tracks). Interface choices include parallel port. L EV Remind students that each IDE channel operates at the speed of the slowest device on the channel. The speeds are equivalent to most hard disks. 1.SparQ SyJet EzFlyer Zip Drive SuperDisk Drives Imation Corporation’s SuperDisk uses super-high-density 3. A 1. Zip disk drive. The SuperDisk Drive can also read regular 3. internal ATAPI. The average access time is 10 ms.5-inch 1.5-inch disks. 2. It comes in Ultra SCSI PCI. Therefore. The current version is 250 MB. SCSI. The Zip drive can only read Zip disks. you should install only hard drives on the primary channel and only slower devices on the secondary channel.5-inch disks. Examine the controller cable connectors and the jumper block for master/slave configuration on the rear of the device. and PCMCIA connections. you can use any available IDE device. such as a SuperDisk drive. C O PY A 1 GB cartridge for PCs with a parallel port or EIDE interface.5 GB cartridge for PCs and Macs. internal. The transfer rate is about the same as for a hard drive. this is backwards-compatible and can read 100 MB cartridges. This means that you can store 120 MB of data per disk. 3. the Jaz drive comes in 1 GB and 2 GB versions. USB. It has a 13. EIDE. The original Zip disk was 100 MB and connected through the parallel port. A 228 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D TASK 7B-3: Installing an IDE Drive as a Slave Setup: For this task. SCSI ISA.

Connect the power connector to the rear of the IDE drive. • • • • Does the system give you the performance and reliability you need? Is the system flexible and easy to use? In the event of a disaster. Examine the master and slave devices. or additional disk drives. You can also choose to use optical drives.4. These options are popular for network backup and high-end workstations with many gigabytes of storage. or you can purchase third-party backup products. Backup Considerations O T Types of Backup Media EV Magnetic tape is still the most popular backup media. Make sure the colored stripe on the controller cable lines up with Pin 1 on the drive. A week’s worth of changes and additions to files or to a database can have greater value than the entire system on which it is stored. 6. QIC cartridges are a popular choice. you only had a choice between reel-to-reel tapes. you might still use floppy disks to store an extra copy of important data files. Connect the free connector on the controller cable leading from the secondary IDE port to the rear of the device. The loss of any of this information can be devastating to a company. Therefore. it is essential that companies back up this information. and very expensive DAT recorders. the value of the information kept on these systems increases dramatically. Lesson 7: Storage Systems 229 C O Topic 7C PY . Although you can use floppy disks to back up your system. These are most commonly found as described in the following table. Many organizations have developed backup software to address this need. the costs of the DAT recorders and media are within the range of most IT budgets. Power on the system and access the BIOS. A few years ago. Backup Systems Consider the value of the data stored on your PC. recordable CD-ROMs. A L Backup Media -D O When you plan the implementation of a backup system. Today. will the recovery be complete? How fast can the system be up and running again? There are more and more choices every year when it comes to backup media. you might consider using Iomega’s Jaz or Zip disks. this is not feasible given the size of today’s systems. you should consider the following questions: • What backup media will you use? N You can use the backup utilities included with the operating system. Exit the BIOS and restart your system. QIC cartridges. 7. For workstation backups. As companies use PCs for more and more of their business communications and data storage. 5. However.

These are usually connected to your system through a SCSI adapter. Let’s examine the drives and tapes in more detail. The term DAT. O PY . Oldest.to large-size networks. Many other manufacturers purchase raw drives from Exabyte and integrate them into internal or external 8 mm tape drives. usually used in smaller networks and stand-alone PCs Tape Drives Quarter-inch Cartridge 4 mm DAT L DAT: Stands for Digital Audio Tape. most standardized. O Two of the biggest detractions to QIC technology are cost and speed. you will need a tape drive or other device. 8 mm (Exabyte) The 8 mm tape format was originally developed by Exabyte. Capacities for 4 mm tapes range from 1 GB to 4 GB and more. QIC drives are inexpensive. C In order to back up your systems. 1/2-inch cartridges Original width was 1/4-inch. the 4 mm DAT tape format offers higher storage capacities at a lower cost than does QIC technology. DAT cartridges are quite small compared with QIC cartridges. QIC drives are available for most computer platforms. The tape drive you use will determine the type of media you use to back up to. N QIC: Stands for Quarter-inch cartridge.Media DAT (Digital Audio Tape) DLT (Digital Linear Tape) QIC (Quarter-inch Cartridge) Maximum Storage Sizes At least 1 GB. most standardized backup tape technology. This will probably only be a problem for larger installations with a large variety of computing equipment. Backup tape format that offers higher storage capacity at a lower cost than QIC technology. Most of the drives designed to read the higher-capacity cartridges can also read the lower-capacity cartridges. Quarter-inch cartridge drives are slow. available in 3 1/2-inch (Traven) or 5 1/4-inch cartridges. available for most computer platforms. They are especially vulnerable to heat and moisture. the tapes wear more quickly than do QIC tapes. having about the slowest transfer rates of any of the tape technologies. up to 25 GB Description Used in many different size networks. Capacity is from 1 GB to 4 GB and up. or Digital Audio Tape. 4 mm tape drives are not always compatible: tapes from one drive might not be readable in another drive. to be wrapped around the spinning read/write head. and larger sizes. Due to lack of strict standards. Because the tape is pulled out of the cartridge during operation. is often used to describe 4 mm tape technology. the cartridges are expensive when dollars per megabyte is considered. A EV 230 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Originally adapted from the audio market. QIC cartridges are available in 60 MB. O T Quarter-inch cartridge (QIC) technology is among the oldest. 150 MB. which continues to be the only manufacturer of 8 mm drives. This arrangement ensures compatibility between 8 mm drives. up to 12 GB At least 10 GB. 4 mm tape. and most reliable of the tape technologies. and therefore. DAT tapes are considered to be less reliable than QIC tapes. up to 12 GB At least 40 MB. about the size of an audio tape Used mainly in mid. are much easier to store and use. however. 250 MB. 525 MB.

25 MB to 5 MB per second range. Current storage capacity is up to 50 GB. Currently. holding 10 to 35 GB of data. Procedural Backup Policy • • • • • • • • • • Assignment of backup administration—Who is responsible for performing the backup? Backup set—The number of tapes (or other media) required to complete a backup. Backup methods—The structure of how backup media are rotated in and out of the backup schedule. DLT Digital Linear Tape (DLT) was developed by DEC who sold this technology to Quantum. Data identification—Labeling backup media and storing it in the safest possible location. The tape is a half-inch cartridge with a single hub. Some considerations include: • Hardware—Choosing the appropriate hardware for your environment.These 8 mm tape drives offer storage capabilities between 2. The 8 mm tape drives are popular in the UNIX and workstation industry. O When you plan your backup methods. Data testing—Occasional testing of backup data. DLT transfer rates are in the 1. Lesson 7: Storage Systems 231 O Procedural Backup Policy PY . holds up to 50 GB. Another DLT format. There are 128 or 208 linear tracks. EV A L -D When the backup is performed—Evaluating the best time to run the backup. Recovery operation plan—Laying out a specific plan for the complete recovery of lost data. the drives and tapes are more expensive than 4 mm units. depending on your needs. These drives have only recently become popular with network administrators as the amount of data on LANs has grown. They are often considered more reliable than 4 mm drives. The forecast is for DLT to soon hold up to 500 GB with up to 40 MB per second transfer rates. it is important to establish a policy and to set up procedures to be followed. Maintenance schedule—Hardware and media maintenance (or replacement). Super DLT. O Backup types—Choosing the appropriate backup method for your organization. T C DLT: Stands for Digital Linear Tape. Backup tape technology developed by DEC.2 GB and 10 GB per cartridge. The tape cartridges are only slightly larger than DAT tapes. however. N Backup frequency—Evaluating the cost of potential data losses and establishing an acceptable minimum backup frequency.

one for Wednesdays. and label the monthly tapes with the name of the month. However. however. EV A L 232 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 7-9: The grandfather backup method. backups are usually taken care of for you by your system administrator. you might need to perform your own backups in between their backups. Depending on your needs. and one for Thursdays. label the weekly tapes with number 1 through 4 for each Friday. if they don’t back up often enough for your needs. Every Friday during the month. The Grandfather Backup Method Label each of the daily backup sets with the name of the day of the week. These backup sets are re-used on the same day the following week. these Friday backup sets are re-used in the same order. One backup set is designated for Mondays.Rotation Method and Backup Types In a network environment. a new backup set is used. O N O T C A common. The next month. one for Tuesdays. these monthly backup sets can be re-used the following year or kept as a permanent record and replaced with new backup sets. secure backup rotation method is the grandfather method. Everybody’s backup schedule varies. you use a new backup set. O PY Rotation Methods . At the end of each month. Different criteria help to determine the best strategy for backing up data. it is a good idea to maintain a minimum daily backup to update new and changed data.

five media sets are used. Description All information is backed up. eight. This doubles the backup history with each media set used (two. Media set B is used every fourth day. Media set C is used every eighth day. You should archive media sets as needed. regardless of whether it has been backed up before New files and files that were created or modified since the last full or incremental backup are backed up. you might save the E set each month for a permanent archive. and eight media sets are required for a weekly rotation.Another backup rotation method in use at some companies is the Tower of Hanoi method. Five media sets is the minimum required when performing a daily rotation. Media set E is alternated with media set D. or 16 days until the media set is overwritten). The tape sets you pull for archive will be based on your company needs. For example. Media set A is used every other day (two days apart). You can apply this rotation method to a daily or weekly rotation schedule. such as sets A and B). In this method. four. Backup Types Backup Type Full A EV Incremental Differential L The following table describes the different backup types supported by some backup utilities. All files that were created or modified since the last full backup are backed up. Media set D is used every sixteenth day. This enables you to have media sets with most recent versions of files (those media sets used most frequently. Label each of the media sets with a letter or number (media set 1 or A). -D O N Relative Time to Back Up Data O Lesson 7: Storage Systems 233 T C O PY . The Tower of Hanoi Backup Method Figure 7-10: The Tower of Hanoi backup method.

be aware that a full backup takes the longest amount of time. A L EV 234 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D In the long run. Any differential backups following an incremental backup would not back up all of the modified files since the last full backup because the archive bit was cleared with the incremental backup. you should not mix incremental and differential backups. because you will need only one media set to restore data. Differential backups count on the archive bit not being cleared. you must restore the last full backup plus every incremental backup since the last full backup (in the same order they were backed up). Each differential backup following the last full backup will take an increasing amount of time. This process can be become very time-consuming. any time that you need to perform a full restore. If you choose to perform full backups every time you back up your data. and you would need only two media sets to perform a full restore. it is also the method that allows the fastest full restores. On the other hand. it might be more advantageous to perform differential backups. measured in relative time. combined with a regularly scheduled full backup. Because differential backups are based on the last backup that cleared the archive bit. O N Although an incremental backup combined with a regularly scheduled full backup is usually the fastest type of backup to perform. because all new or modified files since the last full backup are included. Backup Types and Their Backup and Restore Time Requirements The following table summarizes each of the three backup schemes and describes how long a full backup and full restore will take for each scheme. O T C O PY .Figure 7-11: Relative time to back up data.

This process can be time-consuming. preferably in a locked. overall. PY . you should consider moving at least one full backup per week to an offsite location. 2. shorter than full backup. L How many tape sets are required when using the grandfather rotation method? -D O It is advisable to keep backup media in a safe location. you will have to involve a third party in delivering the media back to your location. one set for each Friday of the month (five because some months could contain five Fridays). when you need to restore data. Consider how critical your data is when you decide how often to move backups offsite. and 3 Differential Tapes 1 and 5 Tapes 1 and 3 TASK 7C-1: 1. Many companies offer this service and store your tapes in a locked and fire-safe area. but longer than an incremental backup. Discussing Backup Strategies EV A One set each for Monday through Thursday (four). fire-safe room. the following table compares the number of tapes required to restore data. but longer than full backup. When Restoring Full week All data up to Day 3 Full 1 tape from Day 5 1 tape from Day 3 Incremental All 5 tapes Tapes 1.Backup Type Full backup only Incremental backup with full backup Differential backup with full backup Relative Time Necessary to Perform a Full Backup Longest Shortest Time increases each day. N O Storage T Lesson 7: Storage Systems 235 C O Using Figure 7-11. for a total of 10. and one month end set (for the last day of the month). The necessary tapes and amount of time for restoring data depends on what is being restored and the type of back up that was used. In addition. A disadvantage of offsite storage is that. Relative Time Necessary to Perform a Full Restore Shortest Longest Shorter than an incremental backup.

O 7A Contrast IDE and SCSI fixed disks. The second device in the drive chain is the slave and is controlled by the first device in the drive chain. T C O PY Full—All information is backed up. How many tape sets are required when using the Tower of Hanoi rotation method? This method requires five sets because the rotation schedule is based on rotating sets A through E. additional drives and cartridges (such as Iomega Jaz and Zip disks). removable media disk drives. optical drives. 7C List some of the backup media choices available today. and tape backup systems. Differential—All files created or modified since the last full backup are backed up and the archive bit isn’t cleared. You also learned how to install storage devices and how to implement a backup strategy. DLT. SCSI disks are typically used on high-end workstations and server-class machines. Incremental—New files and files created or modified since the last full or incremental backup are backed up and the archive bit is cleared. 3. Summary Lesson Review L EV A 236 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Most PCs have two IDE controllers—a primary and a secondary. N O In this lesson. recordable CDs. and QIC). 7B Describe the master/slave relationship.2. IDE devices are typically used in consumer-level PCs. you learned to identify and describe the technical characteristics of fixed disk drives. You can install a maximum of two devices on each controller. The master device is the first device on the drive chain and is the controlling device. Magnetic tape (including reel-to-reel. SCSI controllers can support up to either seven devices or 15 devices on a single controller (depending on the SCSI standard employed on the controller). . List and describe backup types. DAT.

including keyboards. microphones. You will learn how to configure a monitor’s color depth. and TV tuners. speakers. such as the keyboard and mouse. you will examine the technical characteristics of keyboards and mice. Finally.Peripheral Devices Overview This lesson focuses on peripheral devices. EV A L -D In this topic. and printers. such as the monitors and printers. monitors. T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 237 To identify the technical characteristics of common peripheral devices. You will learn how to troubleshoot a keyboard and how to clean a mouse to keep it functioning properly. 3D image. N In this topic. you will examine the most common devices. as well as distinctive features of scanners. You will also describe the phases of electrostatic photographic (EP) print process. LESSON 8 Data Files none Objectives 8B 8C Review general guidelines for troubleshooting other peripheral input/ output devices. resolution. you will learn how to connect a printer to a computer. Along the way. you will examine the technical characteristics of monitors and printers. mice. You will investigate general troubleshooting guidelines for other peripheral input/output devices. as well as distinctive features of common peripherals. still/video capture. O 8A Identify the technical characteristics of the most common types of input devices. Then you will take a look at other devices that are commonly found on PCs today. First. DVD. CD-R/CD-RW. and refresh rate. digital cameras. you will: C O Lesson Time 3 hours PY . O Identify the technical characteristics of the most common types of output devices. you will study general troubleshooting techniques and solutions to device-specific problems. multi-function machines.

com is only one of many excellent resources on the Internet. When the [Caps Lock] key is pressed. A is 65. The IBM keyboard has a special scan code for every key on the keyboard. and C is 67 in both ASCII and ANSI. The A key sends the same scan code every time it is pressed. In the early days. B is 66. and while it is down. recognizing the special key. For example. and special character codes refer to ASCII numbers. even if the [Shift] key or the [Ctrl] key is held down at the same time. then sends a signal back to the keyboard telling the keyboard to turn the Caps Lock LED light on. Keyboards and mice are now the standard input devices for personal computers.PCGuide. The keyboard BIOS is the brains of the keyboard. When the key is released. If the A key is held down for an extended period of time. it is treated just like any other key by the keyboard. another code is sent to the BIOS chip to let it know that the key is up. the A key is pressed and released.Topic 8A Primary Input Devices Keyboard Function The site www. Programming language looks at text as a series of ACSII codes. the scan code for the A key will be repeatedly sent at specific intervals to the BIOS. or anything related to them. Technology changes so fast you must constantly upgrade your knowledge and resources. Most keyboards in use today are IBM Enhanced AT-style keyboards. it is the BIOS that tells the computer you entered a lowercase A. When a key is pressed. The BIOS. user input involved physically rewiring early electronic computers. this scan code is sent through the keyboard cable to a special keyboard BIOS chip. If you let the [Shift] key up and then press and release the A key again. The following information describes Enhanced AT keyboards. The scan code for the key is sent to the BIOS. Later computers could accept input on cards and paper tape. Original AT keyboards had only 10 function keys in a group at the left side of the keyboard. as well as some special and foreign characters. IBM AT-style keyboards do not use ASCII or ANSI. the BIOS figures out that you want an uppercase A. . Older XT (EXtended Technology) keyboards appeared in 1983 and are not compatible with modern computers. symbols selection options. not 12 function keys across the top of the keyboard like the Enhanced AT keyboards in use now. This chip looks at the keys that have just been pressed and sends the proper ASCII code to the computer for processing. Keyboards are manufactured using two different techniques: AT-style Keyboard EV 238 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY Computers need your input before they can do anything useful. Character maps. Typematic Repeat Rate determines how many times a second the scan code for the key being held down is sent. The delay between the time the key is pushed down and when the repeated codes begin can also be set through the Control Panel. This rate can be controlled by the keyboard BIOS and can be altered by the user through the Keyboard Control Panel. ASCII (American Standard Code for Information Interchange) and ANSI (American National Standards Institute) have produced well-known number codes for each character in the English language. Some keyboards have added special keys dedicated to specific Windows 95 or Internet functions. with one number representing each letter. If the [Shift] key is pressed down.

The second method uses rubber or plastic membranes. deliberate typist. A slower Repeat Rate setting gives the user finer control over the number of letters that appear when a key is held down.• The first method uses coiled metal springs to push the key up after the user has depressed it and made the electrical contact that tells the computer which key has been pressed. Many complaints and problems related to keyboards may be remedied by adjusting keyboard settings in the Control Panel. C Figure 8-1: Keyboard Control Panel. Most keyboards require electric current that has a maximum load of 300mA. When a key is pressed. The compressed rubber bump then bounces back into its original shape and pushes the key up into its starting position. • Keyboards need a force of about 100 grams to press the key down. Control Panel Accessibility Options A L -D O N Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 239 O T O Keyboard Control Panel Settings PY . Setting Repeat Delay to a longer time can prevent double letters from appearing if the user is a slower. and a conductive material on the membrane completes a circuit that lets the keyboard know which key was pressed. The Cursor Blink Rate can be adjusted to the user’s preference. EV The Repeat Delay setting adjusts how long the keyboard waits before it sends repeat copies of the key being held down. This power comes to the keyboard through the cable from the main computer power supply. a bump in the rubber membrane is pressed down.

concentrated. O N O T C O PY . which can cause more trouble than you already had. Apply just enough cleaner to a cloth to make it moist. not the mouse port. All three options may be fine-tuned to a user’s specific needs. and particles. after it has dried completely. Some harsh solvents may melt the plastic keys or remove the letter symbols from the key caps. [Num Lock]. instead of having to hold several keys down at the same time. Alcohol may remove the letters on some makes of keyboards. A small brush can loosen some material so it can be vacuumed out. Do not spray cleaner directly on the keyboard. and plug it into the keyboard port. Take care lining up the pins so the plug enters its socket smoothly and easily. Remember to reconnect the keyboard. The StickyKeys setting in the Accessibility Options for the keyboard lets users press key combinations one key at a time. Cotton-tipped sticks dipped in alcohol can clean grime between the keys.Figure 8-2: Control Panel Accessibility Options. and [Scroll Lock] are set. Vacuum the keyboard to remove any loose dust. all-purpose cleaner works well. Do not use compressed air because the powerful air current can force debris under the keys. Clean the computer keyboard with a mild glass cleaner or isopropyl alcohol. A L EV 240 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Preventative Maintenance Disconnect the keyboard from the computer before you attempt any major cleaning. Removing selected options can return a keyboard to normal behavior. or soak the cloth so cleaner drips down between the keys. Give the cleaner time to dissolve the dirt. The ToggleKeys setting gives an audible signal when keys are pressed while [Caps Lock]. For heavier dirt. before you turn the computer on again. a diluted. so test a cleaner before applying it to the whole keyboard. The FilterKeys setting can be adjusted to ignore common keyboarding errors. crumbs. and then rub the keys gently with the cloth. Compressed air might be tried if something is already stuck under the keys and won’t come loose any other way.

Check all the keys and remove any items that might be holding a key down. Reboot the machine. and then let the keyboard dry for two or three days. Repairs The first repair should always be to disconnect the keyboard. and the good keyboard works on the original computer. O T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 241 C O PY . 2. the problem is in the keyboard. if the user insists that the keyboard be repaired. The keyboard will last much longer if it is kept clean and safe from spills. you are free to try a risky technique. • • Cause: The user spilled a can of soda all over the face of the keyboard. so the problem is probably a poor connection where you plug the keyboard into the system board. N Problem: The computer reports a keyboard error during the boot process. The screen says Keyboard Stuck Key Detected Press <F1> for Setup. If this does not fix the problem. Since it is useless. the computer may ask that you press the [F1] function key to learn why the keyboard is not working. while a decent keyboard can be purchased for less than that. Unless the keyboard is customized or unique. Make sure the cord has no major twists or bends in it. rather than repair it. • • EV A L -D Solution: Shut down the computer. here are some problems and solutions: 1. pet hair. Try soaking and rinsing the keyboard in clean water. Make sure it is plugged into the keyboard port. O Cause: Keyboards rarely fail. not the mouse port. Your labor and materials might cost the company more than a replacement keyboard. Repair shops often charge $40 or more just to look at an item. However. It just keeps beeping. <ESC> to boot.Dirty hands. Disconnect and reconnect the keyboard securely. it is usually cost-effective to replace the bad keyboard. If the bad keyboard also fails on the other computer. swap the bad keyboard with a good keyboard from another computer. clean it. get all the water out that you can. Solution: Unplug the keyboard. food. and spilled drinks are among the common causes of keyboard problems. Since the keyboard isn’t working. dust. Problem: The keyboard doesn’t work. or a key is stuck down or has something holding it down. If the keyboard is still bad. Sometimes this works. Rinse it several times. just appreciate the humor of the situation. and reconnect it.

3. but what is typed doesn’t match what is shown on the screen. • Cause: Some keyboards can be programmed to produce special letters. symbols. also called a PS/2style connector. Problem: The keyboard works. 4. while new keyboards use a smaller 6-pin mini-DIN connector. Often a new keyboard with the correct connector can be purchased for about the price of an adapter. you can buy an adapter that will allow you to plug the new keyboard into the old port on the system board. 6-pin mini-DIN. Name Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 O -D Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 O CLK DATA No connection GND +5 V N Name Following is the function of the pins in the 6-pin mini-DIN keyboard connector. • Cause: Older keyboards use a large 5-pin DIN connector. Standard Keyboard Connectors: 5-pin DIN. 6-pin Mini-DIN Figure 8-3: Standard keyboard connectors: 5-pin DIN. or combinations of letters when certain keys are pressed. Following is the function of the pins in the 5-pin DIN keyboard connector. Description Line for serial data transmission Electrical ground Power source Clock signal for timing A DATA No connection GND +5 V CLK No connection L EV • Solution: Because the keyboards are the same except for the connector. Problem: The new keyboard won’t plug into the same port as the old keyboard. 242 A+ Certification: Core Hardware T C Description Clock signal for timing Line for serial data transmission Electrical ground Power source O PY .

you may want to simply replace the keyboard. Keyboards for children or users with special needs may have enlarged or specially constructed keys. so this step is only done out of desperation. Natural or ergonomic keyboards usually split the keyboard in half so each hand can comfortably use its own set of keys. so neither of these procedures are recommended. Removing the wrong set of screws can send 101 springs flying around the room. EV Computer programs simulate a keyboard on the screen which may be activated by touch or a special light source. rather than the standard PS/2 port.• 5. is easily switched to a Dvorak keyboard layout on a special keyboard. and USB boards require a USB port. At this point. The chance of doing this without breaking a key or causing more damage is very small. Figure 8-4: Remote control keyboard. • • Cause: Unknown. A standard QWERTY keyboard layout. Solution: It is possible to pry up and remove each key on the keyboard and thoroughly clean all the switches and oil the posts that hold the keys in place. Check the user’s manual for instructions specific to the keyboard. Another step that usually destroys the keyboard is to remove the cover and look for broken wires or bad connections. Wireless keyboards may use radio or infrared light to communicate with the computer. Dvorak keyboards re-arrange the keys into a more natural arrangement that makes faster typing possible. Solution: De-program the keyboard. Problem: The keyboard won’t work even though I have tried everything up to this point. Foreign language boards have a variety of different keys. A L -D O N Dvorak Keyboard Layout O A huge variety of keyboards are available. named after the keys on the upper-left row. C Alternatives T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 243 O Remote Control Keyboard PY .

and compare your results to your lab partner’s. C O PY . Record the error message and any warning sounds the computer made. 4. Power up the lab computer. 3. Mouse The mouse. 5. L A EV Mouse 244 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 7. the answers might include “Keyboard error” or “No keyboard present. O Carefully disconnect the keyboard from the back of the computer. properly power down the computer. invented by Douglas Engelbart of Stanford Research Center in 1963. TASK 8A-1: Checking the Keyboard 1. When you are satisfied that the keyboard is working correctly. 8. 2. 6. Check that the keyboard is functioning properly by pressing any of the keys in any dialog box or application. frees the user from strict keyboard input and makes computers accessible to a much wider audience.Figure 8-5: Dvorak keyboard layout. Note what response the computer gave because of the missing keyboard. Carefully reconnect the keyboard to the computer. Because each BIOS is different. Power down the computer. and pioneered by Xerox in the 1970s. N O T Setup: The lab computer must be operational and has been powered down.” Some machines may report an error number specific to that machine. Power up the computer.

Combining the information from both rollers. -D [Alt]-clicked (clicked while the [Alt] key on the keyboard is held down). the computer determines what icon or graphic the user was pointing at. The mechanism for detecting motion is a combination of optics and electronics. Used in other combinations. The number of times the light beam is broken is proportional to the distance the mouse travels. The motion-detecting rollers are connected to small disks that have evenly spaced slots cut in them. EV Mouse buttons are simple switches that maintain contact as long at the button is held down. The rate that the light beam is broken tells the computer how fast the mouse is going. the computer detects the direction and amount of motion by electrical signals sent through the mouse cord. When the user clicks one of the buttons on the mouse. [Ctrl]-clicked (clicked while the [Ctrl] key on the keyboard is held down). it may have specific actions programmed to run if a mouse button is: T C O PY . An icon may have specific actions programmed to run if the mouse moves the pointer into its area. the slots repeatedly break a light beam going from an LED to a photo-detector. and—while holding the button down—moving the mouse (press and drag). O N O If a mouse button is pressed while the pointer is in its area. One roller holds the mouse in place against two other rollers that are at right angles to each other. • • • • • • • • Down. or over its area. Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 245 A L The user can drag an icon by pointing at it. or center (if available) mouse button. Function A mouse or some other point-and-click device is a requirement for Graphical User Interfaces (GUIs. The icon can be programmed to respond differently if the button used is the left.) When the user moves the mouse. right. the computer can tell how fast and in what direction the user is moving the mouse. Double-clicked (clicked two times with a short time span between clicks). Up. holding the mouse button down. and redraws a pointer that mimics that motion on the screen. if anything. and then performs the action that the icon has associated with a mouse click. One of these rotates when the mouse’s motion has a vertical component to its direction. [Shift]-clicked (clicked while the [Shift] key on the keyboard is held down).Figure 8-6: Mouse. The computer knows the position of the pointer relative to other objects drawn on the screen. out of its area. Clicked (pressed and released). and the other rotates when the mouse’s motion has a horizontal component to its direction. Most mice have a rubber-coated steel ball that rotates as the mouse is moved over a smooth surface. As these disks spin.

The World Wide Web (WWW).and left-handed users. it is offered as an option for your mouse. one click on an object would select it. In older Windows programs. you can switch the behavior of the right and left mouse buttons to adjust for right. EV 246 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Mouse Properties L -D O Figure 8-7: Buttons tab in the Mouse Control Panel. Since many users prefer the WWW procedure. Buttons Tab in the Mouse Control Panel On the Buttons tab in the Mouse Control Panel.Settings Many times. so a slow speed may be needed. allows you to point at an item to select it and click the item once to open it. New users may have trouble clicking the mouse two times quickly. The speed for two clicks to be recognized as a double-click can be increased or decreased as needed. on the other hand. problems and concerns about the mouse can be alleviated by reviewing the mouse settings in the Control Panel and adjusting them to fit the user’s needs. N O T C O PY . and a doubleclick would open it or cause some action to happen.

Maintenance The mouse should be cleaned periodically to get rid of the lint and grime that collects on the rollers and on the ball. Common and Not-socommon Mouse Pointers Figure 8-9: Common and not-so-common mouse pointers. the ball cover is turned clockwise in the direction of the arrow. Turn the computer off and disconnect the mouse from the computer. If you are doing detailed graphics where you need very fine control over the position of the mouse pointer. In a Microsoft mouse. You may also adjust the pointer to move proportionally faster as you increase the speed of the mouse. and then examine the three axles. soapy water. Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 247 EV A L N O T C O PY . rinse. -D O The motion of the mouse pointer on the screen is controlled by the motion of the mouse. Shake any loose material out of the mouse case. The Mouse Control Panel also lets the user select the style of cursors they want. and dry it completely with a lint-free cloth. Your ball cover may need to be turned counterclockwise. Turn the mouse upside down and twist the restraining collar until the collar comes off and the mouse ball can be removed. Remove any lint that may have built up at the ends of the axles. you would choose to slow the motion down.Figure 8-8: Mouse properties. or with your fingernail. the pointer can automatically appear over the default command button when you open a dialog box. Sometimes setting the mouse pointer style back to Windows Standard and adjusting the settings so the mouse is behaving as the user expects it to is all the repair that is needed. one-quarter turn. Often the center part of the axles will be covered with a sticky grime that you can scrape loose with a cotton-tipped swab dipped in alcohol. Finally. Wash the ball in warm.

many different varieties of mice and mice substitutes are available. The screw may be hidden behind the serial number label. Problem: The new mouse won’t plug into the same port as the old mouse. The following are a small sample of the devices that can replace a standard mouse. Keeping the pad clean reduces the build-up of debris inside the mouse. If your computer has a USB port. If the pad has a cloth texture. L A EV Bus Mouse with Interface Card 248 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Alternatives Because every Windows-based application is designed assuming that the user has a mouse. you can remove dirt and hair by applying and removing adhesive disk labels or using a lint brush. is usually cheaper to replace than repair. Some mice are designed for the serial port but labeled PS/2-compatible. T C • Cause: Enough debris has worked its way inside the mouse case to block the LED. O The mouse. Carefully remove any lint or dust around the slotted disks. You may buy an adapter specifically designed to allow compatible serial port mice to be plugged into a PS/2 port. and the bad mouse fails to work on the second machine. check for poor connections and other obvious problems with the cord. you know the problem is in the mouse. While the cover is off. If the good mouse works on the original machine. Adapters for attaching PS/2 mice through a USB port are available. like the keyboard. 1. a new mouse with the correct connector can be purchased for about the price of an adapter. This process will keep the mouse working smoothly and will cure most problems before they get serious. O • N • O Solution: Unscrew the mouse case cover. wipe it off with a damp cloth. you can install a mouse with the USB-style connector. • 2. If a port is broken. Often. To make sure that it is the mouse that has a problem. also called a PS/2-style connector. a bus mouse may be used. If the mouse pad is dirty.Shake out all the debris you scraped off the axles. Replace and secure the mouse ball. while newer PS/2 mice use a smaller 6-pin mini-DIN connector. Even a gentle nudge can knock the LED out of alignment. Clean off the outer case if it needs it. PY Repair . so this repair is risky and is used as a last resort when nothing else works. Problem: The mouse doesn’t work. exchange the bad mouse with a good mouse that works on a second machine. Cause: Older serial mice use a large 9-pin D connector that connects to the serial port on the back of the computer. Solution: A mouse designed for a serial port and one designed for a PS/2-port function differently. The mouse connects to an interface card rather than the serial port or the PS/2 port.

EV Figure 8-12: Trackball. A L O Figure 8-11: USB adapter for PS/2-style mouse. Rotating the ball moves the pointer on the screen. C USB Adapter for PS/2-style Mouse Trackball trackball: A mouse alternative with a ball mounted on top of a stationary base. and on new Macintosh computers. Most computers had only two serial ports. T -D USB ports are now standard on new computers. Having a dedicated card for the mouse freed up a serial port for an external modem or other serial device. USB mice are even required. Converters will allow users who must use the USB port for a mouse to adapt their favorite PS/2 mouse or a specially designed pointing device for use on their new computers. and tying one up with a mouse could cause problems for some users. Older computers without a PS/2 port dedicated to a mouse responded to mice attached to the serial port.Figure 8-10: Bus mouse with interface card. A bus mouse comes with its own interface card. N Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 249 O O PY .

Joystick Figure 8-14: Finger pad. Figure 8-15: Mouth-control mouse substitute. A joystick performs the same functions as a mouse. A L Mouth-control Mouse Substitute EV 250 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D A touch pad or finger pad uses the motion of your finger across the surface of the pad to control the motion of the pointer. Miniature joysticks are built into some portable computers. Buttons are built into the pad case. PY . Triggers on the joystick are the equivalent of mouse buttons. A trackball is like a mouse lying on its back. Instead of moving the mouse to move the ball. Mouse buttons are built into the trackball case.A common alternative to a mouse is a trackball. O Figure 8-13: Joystick. O N O Finger Pad T C joystick: A type of hand controller often used in computer games to control the action. Some portables come with a pad instead of a mouse or joystick. The position of the pointer is controlled by moving the stick back and forth or side to side. but this input device is favored by some game players. you move the ball directly with your thumb or fingers. although you can still alternatively use a mouse or joystick. touch pad: A stationary device that you slide your finger over to move the mouse pointer on the screen.

Special-needs users have an endless variety of options. Following is the function of the pins in the 9-pin D mouse connector. Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 L Name -D EV DATA No connection GND +5 V CLK No connection A O Request to Send: Positive voltage source for mouse Description Line for serial data transmission Electrical ground Power source Clock signal for timing N O T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 251 C O PY Common Mouse Connectors: 9-pin D and 6-pin Mini-DIN . Virtual reality sites provide enhanced input from gloves the user wears to full body suits that respond to every movement of the user. including a mouthcontrolled joystick with buttons operated by the user’s breath. Figure 8-16: Common mouse connectors: 9-pin D and 6-pin mini-DIN. Other button styles are controlled by the user’s feet or slight head motion. Pin Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Name No connection RD TD DTR Signal ground No connection RTS No connection No connection Description Serial data from mouse to host Serial data from host to mouse: Negative voltage source for mouse Data Terminal Ready: Positive voltage source for mouse and reset/detection Electrical ground Following is the function of the pins in the PS/2 6-pin mini-DIN mouse and keyboard connector. Light pens are pointed at the screen and control the motion of the pointer.

Remove the mouse ball from the cavity. O N Reconnect the cable to the computer. have the student clean the mouse ball with soap and water. The EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) could show up to 640 x 350 pixels. and we’ll look at each type in detail. 5. 8. O None of these procedures take much physical strength. the monochrome standard of MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) was replaced by CGA (Color Graphics Adapter). Clean the cavity and the mouse ball with the proper available materials. 3. 7. O PY . C Check for foreign materials. Replace the ball carefully into the cavity. The first computer monitors could display up to 80 characters per line and 25 lines of text in bright green or white on a black background. CRT-based Monitors The original personal computers were designed to use televisions as video displays. If none is available. Different types of monitors and printers are available in today’s market. 10. Remove the mouse cable from its connection at the rear of the computer. 2. Replace the securing collar. Monitors of this vintage used digital video signals—TTL for transistor-to-transistor logic—and are completely incompatible with today’s computers. Inspect the cable and the connector for wear. cleanliness.TASK 8A-2: Cleaning the Mouse Setup: The lab computer must be functioning and capable of using the mouse. L A EV 252 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Topic 8B Primary Output Devices Another category of peripheral devices are primary output devices. T 6. Some mouse ball cleaning materials would be useful here. confirm with the instructor that you are doing it correctly. including monitors and printers. As demand for color graphics increased. but televisions are limited to about 40 characters per line. If it is difficult to remove the cover or ball from the mouse. 4. or build-up of grime in the cavity and on the mouse ball. Turn the mouse upside down and remove the securing collar from the mouse case. 1. Power up the computer and manipulate the mouse to assure proper functioning. which could show from two to 16 colors at resolutions from 160 x 200 to 640 x 200 pixels (picture elements or unique dots on the screen). Cleaning materials for the ball and cavity should be made available for this task. 9. dry it with a paper towel. and use compressed air to clean out the cavity.

SVGA (Super VGA) is the current standard and is still evolving. The computer output you see on the monitor screen is the result of a carefully controlled stream of electrons hitting the phosphorous coating on the screen and making parts of it glow. The red. the electron stream must return and start it glowing again so the image remains on the screen. a green. which uses three continuous signals—one each for red. Because the phosphorous glows for only a fraction of a second. the red. the switch was made to analog color. green. and blue dots are so close together that your eye cannot see the individual colors. O N O T EV Figure 8-18: How color monitors work. and blue. Function Most televisions and regular computer monitors are based on a CRT (cathode ray tube). green. the three electron guns spray the electrons from left to right across the screen to get a scan line glowing. Then the guns aim a little lower and scan from left to right again. The data from the video card determines the intensity of each of the three electron beams at every point on the screen. Color monitors have three guns shooting independent streams of electrons at tiny colored phosphors on the screen that produce red. so the video output controls the brightness and color of every dot on the screen. or a blue area within it.Starting with IBM’s VGA (Video Graphics Array) standard. The whole visible spectrum can be produced using combinations of red. A L Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 253 O cathode ray tube: Displays images using phosphorous dots with a scanned electron beam. and each dot has a red. CRT Display Figure 8-17: CRT display. How Color Monitors Work PY . The guns repeat this until the stream reaches the bottom of the screen. green. green. C -D To keep the screen glowing with a constant image. and blue. The screen is divided into rows of dots. or blue dots. and blue blend to make a single color. then they jump back to the top and start over. green.

L EV A Horizontal Scan 254 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Because the red. The image on the screen must be refreshed constantly. however. giving 16 million possible color combinations for each dot. or vertical refresh rate. Monitors using the aperture grill may have a brighter display with a sharper image. The RAMDAC (Random Access Memory Digital-Analog Converter) on the video card reads the bytes of video data in the card’s memory and converts the digital data in memory to continuous analog signals that tell the monitor what to display. it is difficult for the electron beam to always hit the center of the right dot. A monitor with a dot pitch of 0. and omnisync monitors also adapt their scan rates to different situations. A second rate that can indicate the quality of a monitor is the horizontal scan rate. One way to keep the beam from hitting the wrong dot is to use a metal sheet with a tiny hole for each trio of adjacent red. Multisync. but have digital controls with a menu—rather than knobs to turn on the front of the screen—to adjust the picture’s brightness and contrast. and blue dots on the screen. they reduce flicker. but wires used to stabilize the strips form very thin horizontal lines on the screen image. as well as the correct power supply voltages to display the desired screen. and select the appropriate horizontal and vertical deflection circuits. This is referred to as the vertical frequency. . but the actual resolution also depends on the video card. frame rate. vertical scan rate. If phosphors are made so they glow longer. and is measured in thousands of lines per second. Instead of using a shadow mask. other monitors use very thin vertical strips of metal to block the stray electrons from hitting the wrong dots on the tube.Modern monitors use analog input. and blue electron beams can vary continuously from the minimum to the maximum allowed. and blue dots are so small. A television screen has a dot pitch in the range of 0. The dot size determines the maximum resolution of pixels per inch a CRT can display. a moving image is smeared because the screen image can’t change fast enough to keep up with the motion. green. This rate describes the number of lines that can be painted horizontally in one second.40 mm. green. green. Digital monitors still require analog signals from the video card. O N O Monitor specifications can give you an idea of the quality of the monitor. Monitors refresh the entire screen from 60 to 75 times per second or 60 Hz to 75 Hz. or KHz.25 mm will look better than a similar monitor with a dot pitch of 0. A higher horizontal scan rate means the ability to run higher resolutions. These strips form an aperture grill. autosync. the smoother the image will be and the finer the detail that can be shown. which means the intensity of the signals that control the red. The closer the dots are together. although looking at it is often the best way to make a decision. T C O PY The color information for each visible pixel on the screen—which may be composed of several of the physical dots just mentioned—is stored in the video memory. the computer settings. which is why TVs make poor monitors. This grill is a shadow mask. Dot pitch indicates the distance between groups of red. Practically speaking. most video cards and monitors can display 256 different levels of each color. and even the quality of the video cable. Auto-scan monitors detect the scan rates needed to produce the resolution set by the user. pixel: The smallest discrete element on a video display. green. and blue dots.70 mm. panasync. it keeps stray electrons from bleeding over into other colored dots.

non-interlaced: A monitor that doesn’t use interlacing. features 0. Most monitors produce a focused. It produces less flickering. Televisions have a full-screen refresh rate of 30 frames per second. with a 16-inch viewable area. If the maximum horizontal scan rate is 70 KHz. A dot pitch of 0. Interlaced monitors and televisions refresh every other line in each vertical pass down the screen. the 70 KHz horizontal scan frequency and 85 Hz refresh produce a flicker-free image. look at typical sales data for a monitor: “This 17-inch monitor. Vertical and horizontal lines should be straight at the edges of the screen as well as the center. interlaced: A monitor that builds an image by displaying evennumbered scan lines and then odd numbered scan lines. while non-interlaced monitors refresh every line on the screen every time. or 325 mm wide and 249 mm wide.280 x 1. the monitor can refresh the screen 65 time per second at the 1. which makes the image flicker too much for most computer uses. A L Working with these numbers.024 horizontal lines to scan every time the screen is refreshed. even when higher-resolution graphics are displayed. and there are 1. you can use the Pythagorean Theorem. EV Multiscan and multisync monitors are able to function at a variety of refresh rates.024 resolution.280 pixels across the screen.160 dots on a horizontal line. C Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 255 O PY .28 mm dot pitch with 1280 x 1024 maximum non-interlaced resolution. -D O To relate these concepts to—and dig the truth from—monitor specifications. At a resolution of 1.024 x 768. c2= a2 + b2. Noninterlaced monitors with high refresh rates are generally better. the sales data refers to the refresh rate of a lower resolution.8 inches wide by 9.28 mm means a maximum of 325/. Since a vertical refresh rate of 70 Hz or higher is desired. sharp image at the center of the screen.6 inches high. Better monitors are also just as focused and sharp at the edges of the screen. we find that the actual viewing area is just 12.Figure 8-19: Horizontal scan.28 = 1. The screen ratio of width to height should be 4:3 so circles will be round and images will be in proper proportion.” N O Monitor Quality T If you would like to verify the viewable area size. This is a little below the stated maximum of 1.

while pins 1. A L 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 RED GREEN BLUE ID2 GND RGND GGND BGND KEY SGND ID0 ID1 or SDA HSYNC or CSYNC VSYNC ID3 or SCL O Colors Mono—no graphics Mono—with graphics 2 16 Pin Number Name EV -D The following tables summarize the numerical data that is used to describe monitors and their displays. and colors should be represented accurately. Figure 8-20: DB 15-pin high-density VGA connector. Glare should be at a minimum. 13. 12. Monitor Specifications DB 15-pin High-density VGA Connector The DB 15 high-density VGA connector is the most common connector for PC monitors. and 14 send information to the monitor. 3. 2. If the user does a lot of word processing. and monitors can become dimmer over time. 11. Pins 4. Video MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter) HGC (Hercules Graphics Card) CGA (Color Graphics Adapter) CGA O N Year 1970s 1982 1981 T C Description Red Video Green Video Blue Video Monitor ID Bit 2 Ground Red Ground Green Ground Blue Ground Key (No pin) Sync Ground Monitor ID Bit 0 Monitor ID Bit 1 Horizontal Sync (or Composite Sync) Vertical Sync Monitor ID Bit 3 Type Digital (TTL) Digital (TTL) Digital (TTL) Video Standards 256 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Resolution 720 x 350 720 x 350 640 x 200 160 x 200 PY . black text on a white background should be clear and easy to read. and 15 receive information from the monitor. The user should choose a monitor that has more than enough brightness to use in his or her particular setting.The brightness of monitors varies from model to model. The following diagram shows the pin numbering for the connector at the video card.

For example.280 x 1.000 Aspect Ratio O The following table lists the number of pixels for common screen resolutions.0 Common Name for Color Depth Standard VGA 256-Color Mode High Color True Color 16 256 65.536 16. determines how many different colors can be displayed.024 1. so 8 bits or one byte can represent. at most.Video EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter) VGA (Video Graphics Array) VGA 8514/A XGA (Extended Graphics Array) XGA TI 34010 SVGA (Super VGA) Year 1984 1987 Colors 16 16 256 256 256 65.0 3.310. The aspect ratio is found by reducing the fraction of the number of pixels across the screen over the number of pixels down the screen. The memory is calculated by multiplying the number of pixels displayed by the number of bytes used to represent the color of each pixel.000 307. L EV 4-Bit 8-Bit 16-Bit 24-Bit A Color Depth Number of Displayed Colors -D O Bytes of Storage Per Pixel 0. T Video Resolutions Color Depth The color depth.600 x 1. For example.200 N 8:5 4:3 4:3 4:3 5:4 4:3 Resolution 320 x 200 640 x 480 800 x 600 1.0 2.216 The colors that a video card can display depends on the resolution and the color depth. Most software expects a 4:3 ratio. For example. as well as its memory.5 1.536 256 16 million 16 million 16 million 16 million Type Digital (TTL) Analog Resolution 640 x 350 640 x 480 320 x 200 1. The following table summarizes the video memory required to display some of the common resolutions and color depths.720 1.024 x 768 800 x 600 1. or the number of bits used to store the color of a pixel. 8 bits may store decimal values from 0 to 255.024 x 768 1. 256 different colors. and the display will look distorted if other ratios are used.280 x 1. The aspect ratio is the ratio of width to height.432 1.777.600 x 1. 320 x 200 has an aspect ratio of 320/200 = 8:5.024 x 768 800 x 600 1.024 x 768 1.920.024 1.024 x 768 1.000 786. 800 x 600 Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 257 C O Analog Analog Analog PY 1987 1990 Analog Interlaced .200 480.200 Number of Pixels 64.

Resolution Video Memory Requirements 640 x 480 800 x 600 1.600 x 1.024 x 768 1. 2.000 bytes. the higher the resolution. aggravating screen savers.200 Number of Colors 256 (1 byte/pixel) High Color (2 bytes/pixel) True Color (3 bytes/pixel) True Color Memory Relative Screen Sizes Display Control Panel EV 258 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Figure 8-21: Relative screen sizes.440. 1.true color requires a minimum of 800*600*3 = 1. and obnoxious wallpaper are all settings that can be changed in the Display Control Panel. For a given card. and more than the minimum memory is used.5. Settings Many monitor problems are the result of unwanted settings. color of the fonts. this resolution and color requires 2 MB of video memory. O N O T C O PY 0. Problems with the size of the icons. Because video memory generally comes in 0. the smaller number of colors that the card can handle. 4. and 8 MB configurations.5 MB 2 MB 4 MB 8 MB .

Any scheme may then be modified to suit the user’s needs. No monitor is perfect. Windows supplies color schemes that coordinate the appearance of all the window’s elements. there may be a series of controls on a front panel or knobs on the back of the case to adjust some of the distortion problems shown in Figure 8-23. EV Depending on the price range and quality of the monitor. O N O Monitor Distortions Monitor Test Patterns Figure 8-23: Monitor distortions. and often fixing one type of distortion will increase other problems.Figure 8-22: Display Control Panel. A L -D T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 259 C O PY .

but will now bother the user every time he or she looks at the screen. Do not spray the case directly because of the danger of electric shock. • • To clean and maintain the case: • Turn the monitor off. Wipe the monitor until the glass is dry. Do not spray a cleaner directly on the screen because excess fluid may leak into the monitor case and cause a shock. You may use special monitor wipes with cleaner embedded in treated paper towels or clothes dryer anti-static sheets. Do not remove the cover of the monitor for any reason because of the danger of deadly shocks. L A EV 260 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D To clean the monitor screen: • Turn the monitor off. O T C O PY .Figure 8-24: Monitor test patterns. Keep objects that might block the flow of air through the vents away from the monitor. O Maintenance N Many companies make test patterns that are designed to help make the fine adjustments needed to get a perfect display. • Clean the monitor screen by spraying a glass cleaner on a lint-free cloth. vacuum as much dust and lint as you can from the vents in the case to maintain sufficient cooling air flow. Patterns tend to bring to light flaws in the monitor that were never noticed before. Wipe the case with the cloth to remove fingerprints and general grime. If needed. • • • • • • Spray a gentle cleaner onto a lint-free cloth.

brightness. . Monitors retain high voltages even after having been turned off and unplugged. causing ghost images. If your monitor is on for eight hours a day. Problem: Color blotches or other color or distortion problems. the problem may be inside the monitor. N • Cause: Bad connections inside the monitor or at the cable connection to the computer or video source. Monitor Repair Monitors store high-voltage electricity on large capacitors for long periods of time after the monitor is turned off and unplugged. five days a week. size. O Solution: Remove and re-attach all the cables. Sources include refrigerator magnets. The 20.000 volts are combined with enough current to kill you. If problem persists. If you want to repair the inner workings of a monitor. but all monitors automatically go through a degaussing cycle each time they are allowed to cool down. 3. it is cost-effective to buy a new monitor unless the old monitor was originally of extremely high quality.000 to 15. T degauss: Remove magnetism from a device. The 120 V from the wall outlet are present in parts of the monitor. • 2. 1. Often. and are then turned on.000 hours of use. Cause: Magnetization of CRT. get the special safety training needed to do it safely—training that is beyond the scope of this course. • • EV A L -D • Cause: Signals can reflect in a cable that is not terminated correctly. C Do not attempt to perform work inside a monitor unless you have been trained to do so. Chances are you will replace the monitor because of technical advances before it naturally fails. even when it is turned off. all the repairs in the following list can be done without taking the cover off the monitor or sticking anything inside the cover. Problem: Ghosts. Placing the monitor in an area with subdued lighting will prolong its life because the brightness levels can be lower. The CRT tube can implode and spray you with shards of glass. Monitors last longer in a cool. dry. Problem: Intermittent changes in color. this works out to be about seven years. loudspeakers. turn the monitor on. or position. Solution: Locate and eliminate sources of magnetic fields. A highly magnetized screen may require several on-off cycles to clear itself. wait 30 minutes. For this reason. and even other monitors. shadows. Some monitors have a button that triggers degaussing. To degauss the screen and remove color distortions and blotches. other appliances. turn if off.• Never spill anything into the monitor. Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 261 O PY The CRT in a monitor will lose half of its brightness at a given setting after 10. you will run into monitor-related problems. dust-free environment that allows adequate ventilation. and turn it on and off again. Degaussing (de-magnetizing) should be the first thing attempted whenever color purity problems are detected. or streaks adjacent to vertical edges in the picture. their causes and solutions are outlined in the following section. O At times. Commercial degaussers may be needed in extreme situations. Repair shops may charge $50 or more to look at a monitor and make an estimate. • Solution: Remove any extension cables and ensure remaining cable is good quality. If problem remains. replace the cables. Some of these possible problems.

T 5. hold a magnet just close enough to the screen to cause a slight distortion. Be careful that shipping or transporting the monitor does not introduce more problems. A surge protector or Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) may smooth out the current to eliminate some interference. or electrical wiring. but the magnetic fields from the UPS may also cause monitor problems. Leaving the monitor on all the time causes more problems than the process of turning it off and then turning it back on. 6. snowy. AC or DC wall adapters. so a monitor that is turned off is the ultimate screen saver. Problem: Wiggling. If all external and software adjustments fail to solve the problem. fluorescent lamps. power lines. Powerful magnets held too close to the screen can cause permanent distortions and damage the mask or aperture grill. or plug it into a line filter. Problem: The monitor still doesn’t work. PCs and monitors that meet the EPA’s (Environmental Protection Agency) standards for saving energy display the Energy Star logo. as well as power lines or electrical wiring behind walls. ceiling fans. Screen savers now are entertainment. rippling. or shimmering images.• To see the effect of magnets. Cause: Electromagnetic interference (EMI) from nearby equipment— including and especially—other monitors. • • O N Solution: The monitor is set to go into standby mode after an amount of time determined in the Display Control Panel. swimming. Power cords and printer cables next to the video connection can cause problems. and that most popular screen savers do not decrease the wear on the CRT. O Cause: Energy Star-compliant monitors can be put into standby mode to save power and reduce wear and tear on the CRT. Try plugging the monitor into an outlet on a different circuit. Technical advances in CRT design have practically eliminated burned-in images that screen savers are meant to prevent. 4. The offending equipment might include a TV or other monitor. O PY . Cause: Unknown. • • • • • L EV 262 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Most experts agree that screen savers are no longer necessary with today’s monitors. wireless telephones. C Solution: Relocate the monitor or offending equipment. motorized appliances. Shielding is difficult and expensive. Problem: Monitor keeps turning off after periods of inactivity. not CRT-saving utilities. Solution: Try the monitor on a different computer to be sure the problem is in the monitor. audio equipment. Adjust the time to meet the user’s needs. and even a well-packed monitor can be destroyed by a drop of only a few inches. Monitors are sensitive to being moved. consider buying a new monitor or taking the monitor in for repair by a trained specialist who has the proper equipment to work safely with monitors.

with high screen resolution and high color capability. A L -D T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 263 C O PY . O Glasses Display Projector EV Figure 8-26: Glasses display. Projectors can fill a wall with an image of the computer display. but the price is dropping rapidly as they become more popular. lightweight alternative to traditional CRT (cathode ray tube) monitors. LCDs consume much less energy than CRTs and do not emit electromagnetic radiations as CRTs do. LCD: A Liquid Crystal Display is a monitor constructed of a liquid crystal solution between two sheets of polarized material. O N Figure 8-25: Comparison of LCD and CRT monitor design. and the user must sit directly in front of the LCD screen to see the display properly. Comparison of LCD and CRT Monitor Design Virtual reality games and special purpose imaging needs led to the development of glasses that substitute for a monitor.Alternatives LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) flat-panel displays are a compact. LCDs have two disadvantages: they are not as bright as CRT monitors. LCDs now come in large-screen sizes of 17 inches and more. LCD displays are more expensive than CRT monitors.

Figure 8-27: Projector. and Refresh Rate C TASK 8B-1: O PY . If the screen becomes permanently scrambled. 2. Resolution. Change the settings back to normal and reboot. Select the Settings tab. T Configuring a Monitor’s Color Depth. O Setup: The computer is on and the operating system has loaded completely. press the [F8] function key during the boot-up process and open the computer in Safe Mode. EV 264 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N Right-click on the Desktop and choose Properties. You may also reach the same screen by opening the Display Control Panel from the Settings option in the Start menu. 1. as shown in the following graphic.

and the original settings will take effect. the capabilities of the monitor. 9. . Close all open windows and dialog boxes. you may have the option to choose a refresh rate that the monitor cannot handle. select a refresh rate. do nothing for 15 seconds. O Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 265 T C O Click Advanced. Click Apply to test the new settings. only settings that your monitor can handle will be displayed.3. 6. If the screen is unreadable. However. 4. The depths available are dependent on the memory on the video card. Try other settings following the same pattern. 10. If available. do nothing for 15 seconds. -D O N EV 8. 11. and the original settings will take effect. if someone has switched monitors without updating the settings. PY 5. A L 7. select a color depth. Changing the resolution may cause changes to the color depth. and then select the Adapter tab as shown in the following graphic. An incorrect refresh rate scrambles the picture on the screen. Ideally. Follow the screen prompts and examine the effect of the changes you entered. If the screen is unreadable. select a resolution. and the current screen resolution. Click OK to close the Advanced Settings dialog box. Follow the screen prompts and examine the effect of the changes you entered. The resolutions available are dependent on the memory on the video card and the capabilities of the monitor. In the Screen Area field. Click Apply to test the new settings. In the Colors field. The options shown on the Adapter tab vary according to the display adapter installed.

If the page does not print correctly. Print a test page from the Printers Control Panel. Windows has an online troubleshooting guide to help you.Printers Often it is necessary to have a hard copy of your data. Open the Printers Control Panel and select the printer with the problem. If the test page will not print. If the test page still refuses to print. the problem is in the printer. Printer-specific problems will be covered in later sections. disconnect and reconnect all the cables. • • O N Problem: Nothing will print from any application. O PY . or raw data for graphics. Check that there is paper in the tray and that there isn’t a printer jam (paper stuck inside of the printer). the Resume button has to be held down until the Resume light starts to flash. thus. • L EV A 266 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Most printers can print a built-in test page even when they are not connected to the computer. Page Setup specifications in the application that is trying to print may not match the printer’s capabilities or the user’s expectations. The following list is a step-by-step approach to isolate possible printer problems. the user has more font options than just those stored in printer ROM. The printer driver—which converts printing requests from Windows into the raw data that the printer can understand—may be faulty or outdated. If the test page prints correctly. There may be something physically wrong with your printer. This is where printers come in. Check your printer manual for instructions. Since you don’t want to waste ink by printing test pages by accident. If the test page looks good. turn off all the power to the computer and the printer. The printer settings made in the Printers Control Panel may contain unwanted values. Print a test page to see if the printer hardware is working. there is a button that will start a test page printing. you will learn general solutions that will work with all types of printers. Printer ROM stores the bit-mapped patterns for the different letters. Other printers require that a specific button be held down when the power is turned on. as well as organization and logic. that the ink cartridges have ink or the printer cartridge has toner. There is usually feedback from the printer to the computer if there is a paper jam or if it is out of paper. The data sent to a printer from a computer may be ASCII codes for letters. the problem is not with the connecting cables or with the print driver. O Solving problems with printers requires imagination and skill. 1. On one HP printer. Just • • 2. Macs and Mac-compatible PCs using ImageWriters print the entire page of text as if it were one large graphic. make sure the printer has power. On the General tab. the printer control buttons you need to push to start the test page are usually obscure and inconvenient. T General Printer Troubleshooting C Printing problems can come from many different sources. the problem is not with the printing mechanics but somewhere before the printer in the chain from the application to the printer. Before narrowing problem-solving and repair techniques down to a particular type of printer. and restart both the computer and the printer. like a clogged inkjet printhead or stripped gear in a laser printer.

but the test page under printer control still looks good. Check the print driver. Download the latest drivers for the printer. If you still can’t print a test page from the Printers Control Panel. -D O N O Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 267 T C O PY . • Try the printer cable on another printer you know is working correctly. 3. Make sure the printer is online if that is an option. replace or repair the cable. you may have a problem with the parallel connector on the system board. The files can become corrupted and outdated. Test Page Dialog Box Figure 8-28: Test Page dialog box. EV A L Problem: The printer works. but not as effıciently as. If the good printer works. you definitely have a perplexing problem. Make sure all the options match your system setup.rebooting the system can chase some printing gremlins away. Interface cards can be inserted that offer additional parallel connections for your printer. If the test page fails to print on the good printer with the good cable. or in the manner the user would like. try replacing the problem printer with a good printer. The installation can be accomplished in the Printers Control Panel. the problem is before the cable connection to the printer. uninstall the printer. the problem is between the cable connection and the electronics inside the problem printer. If the problem moves with the cable. If the cable is good. If the newly installed printer still fails to print. and re-install it using the new drivers. • • Print drivers are the software responsible for sending the raw print data to the computer.

Advanced Printer Options for an Apple Laser IIg Figure 8-29: Advanced printer options for an Apple Laser IIg. O N O T C O PY . Check that these settings are correct before attempting to repair the printer. Page Setup Options from Microsoft Word EV A L 268 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 8-30: Page Setup options from Microsoft Word. • Most applications have a Page Setup dialog box that is customized for the application. In the Printers Control Panel. Check that these settings are appropriate for the printer. the Advanced Settings tab sets general print parameters. While this is not an error. the user may prefer to have it start printing immediately.1. • A printer that seems to be very slow to start printing a large document may be sending the entire document to spool or storage file before it starts to print.

DC power supply. • • 3. fusing assembly. and what it probably is. Most printers have some way to let you know that something is wrong. toner. Belts and gear trains are used to move the printhead back and forth. but will bring the quality down. FRU: Stands for field replaceable unit. Check that the chips are seated in their sockets and that all the connections look good before replacing anything. transfer corona assembly. Most printers have three types of problems: processor. The laser printer has several FRUs (field replaceable units). Jammed paper and debris can keep the sensors from reporting accurately. • Laser Printer Function -D O Laser printers print a page at a time using a combination of electrostatic charges. EV A L C Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 269 O PY . and where the printhead is on the bar. N O T How a Laser Printer Works laser printer: A type of printer that forms images on paper by using a laser beam and an electrophotographic drum. high-voltage power supply. Sensors can be mechanical switches or optical sensors that tell if the printer is out of paper. Term used in reference to laser printers. Produces high-quality output. • The RAM. In more sophisticated printers. and refers to printer components that can be replaced as part of maintenance procedures. Some printers will use a combination of flashing Power and Resume lights to alert you. Jammed bits of paper and dirt can inhibit the function of these things. and to move paper through the printer. laser scanning assembly. Check your manual to determine your printer’s method of communication. sensor. Worn parts. and laser light. paper transport assembly. Sometimes the message will be printed on a sheet of paper. Look for problems at the leading edge of the paper as it moves through the printer. won’t keep the printer from working. it may be a little screen where messages appear.2. like rollers and paper guides. and mechanical. ROM. and the formatter board. Error messages. Paper jams usually occur where the paper is picked up from the paper tray. including the toner cartridge. and microprocessors in the printer may go bad and need replacement.

Transferring. A L EV 270 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Charging or Conditioning. The following information shows how the major FRUs relate to the printing process. These drums depend on electrostatic charges to hold toner that is moved over to paper during the transfer step. 2. 4. Electrostatic Photographic (EP): Describes the type of drum used in laser printers. 5. Writing. 6. These units are usually not repaired because the repair expense is greater than replacement costs. The transfer corona wire charges the paper with a positive charge. The Electrostatic Photographic (EP) drum is cleaned with a rubber blade. Toner is attracted to the areas of the drum that were hit by the laser light. The paper runs through the fusing assembly that is heated to 350 degrees F.Figure 8-31: How a laser printer works. A laser beam writes to the EP drum causing portions of the drum to become almost positively charged. The fuser’s high temperature and pressure fuse or melt the toner into the paper. Developing. The EP drum turns as the paper runs beneath it and loses its toner to the paper. O This is the process the laser printer uses to produce the finished printed page: 1. the field replaceable units can be pulled out and replaced easily without any tools beyond a screwdriver and a pair of pliers. 3. The EP drum is given a negative charge of about -600 volts by the primary corona wire. In a service-friendly laser printer. Cleaning. Fusing. N O T C O PY .

also known as the fuser. The paper transport assembly moves the paper through the printer. The spots that are hit by laser light lose the charge and attract the toner. and 4. The laser scanning assembly contains the laser which. shines its light on certain parts of the printer drum. they will melt into a sticky blob because of the fuser’s temperature. which holds the charge until it is hit by light. replaceable unit that helps in steps 1. Before you attempt to repair a problem. N O The fusing assembly. toner: An electrically charged dry ink substance used in laser printers. in step 3. It is the high. melting them onto the paper. the toner is attracted to the drum in a pattern that matches the printer page. T C fuser: The laser printer device that uses two rollers to heat toner particles. The cartridge includes the cleaning blade which scrapes used toner—a fine black powder—off the photosensitive print drum. O Advanced Printing Options for a Laser Printer PY .The EP toner cartridge is a single. It is a series of motors and rollers that makes sure the right area of the paper is under the print drum to receive the toner from the drum in step 4. positive charge on the paper that pulls the toner off the photosensitive drum. make sure it cannot be resolved by changing one of the settings. Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 271 A L -D O The quality of the printed output is affected by options selected in the Printer Control Panel. The pattern made by the laser on the drum attracts toner as the drum is rotated. The transfer corona assembly charges the paper with a positive charge as it moves through the printer in step 5. If you use transparency sheets not meant for laser printers. The charging corona wiring inside the cartridge adds a powerful. as described in step 6. there is a halogen lamp which heats up to about 350 degrees F. Settings EV Figure 8-32: Advanced printing options for a laser printer. 2. corona wire: The wire in the corona assembly that charges the paper. When the drum rotates. In the process of fusing. negative electronic charge to the print drum. applies pressure and heat to the paper to seal the toner particles to the paper. The fuser is very hot and will burn you if you touch it. A formatter board assembly built into laser printers processes all the data received from the computer and coordinates the steps needed to produce the finished page.

Solution: Poor-quality paper may not accept a charge from the transfer corona. Problem: Repeat horizontal lines or white spaces. and all other culprits should be kept away from the printer. O Laser printers contain chemicals. Gently removing the toner cartridge and rocking it from side to side can often coax several hundred more usable copies out of an old cartridge. Problem: Repeat vertical lines or white spaces. • Solution: The heat from the fuser melts the toner into the paper. Clean all the rollers before attempting to replace any of them. A warped or worn fuser roller or a scratched print drum are possibilities. the image will be distorted. The fuser requires adequate ventilation so it won’t overheat the printer. Problem: Low-quality image. you might not have to immediately replace the toner cartridge. Problem: Smeared output. so treat the printer gently. a faulty primary corona or high-voltage power supply will not give the print drum the charge it needs to create a distinct image. If the fuser is not hot enough. The ozone filter should be replaced during maintenance. A good cleaning can fix many problems. Cause: One of the rollers in the paper path has a problem. or if the power supply that charges the corona has a problem. • • L A EV 272 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 3. Another thing to consider is that the drum and toner often do not age well. To find out how to adjust print density. The corona wire in the cartridge may be cleaned with a special brush supplied with the printer. the toner will not melt into the paper and will rub off. Along that line. so buying many cartridges in advance is not a good idea. Cause: Might be in any of the steps because they all involve creating an image. so the transfer will not take place. Cause: Problem with the charge wires or the drum. • • 4. This setting is independent of all other computer settings and should be checked from time to time. it could scratch a circle around the drum so it would not attract toner. Good paper will not be charged enough if the transfer corona is dirty or faulty. • • O N • Cause: A fuser problem. or output rubs off the paper. and high-temperature areas that can hurt you. Solution: Compare the distance between repetitions of the lines to the circumferences of the rollers to find which may have the problem. check your printer’s documentation.Maintenance Laser printer print density is user-adjustable. Also. pet hair. debris. If the fuser roller is uneven or the paper path has a problem. or if the paper has too much texture. Some of the exposed wires are very thin and can be damaged easily. liquids. Dust. high voltages. T C O PY . When you receive a message that toner is low. very dry or very damp paper will take on poor electrical qualities and will affect the print quality. Make sure the printer is off and the parts are cool before you attempt to work on the machine. Solution: If debris was caught between the wipe blade and drum. Repair 1. If a portion of either the primary or transfer corona is covered with dust or 2.

With a color printer. Each thermal printhead has about 300 to 600 nozzles that shoot blobs of ink holding about eight to 10 picolitres (10-12 liters) that create dots about 60 microns (10-6 meters) in diameter. which forces ink out the nozzle and heats it to create a bubble that bursts and shoots ink onto the paper. The paper advances after every row until the page is covered. the element cools. and a vertical defect will appear in the printed image. printing one row. The basic price of an inkjet is low compared to a laser printer. The major appeal of inkjets over laser printers is that an inkjet can print color while a comparably priced laser prints black-and-white. and more ink is sucked into the nozzle when the bubble collapses.bits of paper. The amount of ink shot onto the page is determined by the driver software that controls where and when each nozzle deposits ink. The heat is turned off. liquid ink is forced out of carefully aimed nozzles onto the paper. The printhead can produce at least 300 distinct dots per inch (dpi) using less that 1/5000th of a second for each dot. several dots wide. the cost of the print cartridges is quite high (per copy) compared to laser printers. Inkjet Function Inkjet—also known as bubble jet—technology has been developing since the late 1970s. and yellow inks are combined with black ink to form all the colors in the image. inkjet printer: Printer that forms images by spraying ink on paper. magenta. Some printers claim a resolution of 1200 dpi or more and produce almost photographic-quality images. however. Some inkjet printers use thermal technology. A L -D O N Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 273 O T C O How an Inkjet Printer Works PY . cyan. The printhead moves back and forth across the paper. Three-color inkjet printers are now so inexpensive that they are thrown in free with some computer package deals. EV In the inkjet printer. it will not send out an even charge as the paper goes by. Figure 8-33: How an inkjet printer works. of the image at a time.

Piezo-electric technology uses a piezo crystal that flexes when current flows through it. magenta. this technology can be faster than thermal technology. rather than having small dots of different colors side by side that the eye sees as different colors. a resolution of 1440 x 720 dpi is possible. and black ink. The best print quality results in much slower printing speeds than normal or draft quality. yellow. . Some cartridges have cyan. but an entire industry now makes refill packages. When a cartridge runs out of ink. If the printhead makes two passes. you can replace it or refill it. The quality of the paper has the greatest effect on the appearance of the printed image. and yellow reservoirs. C O PY Piezo-electric technology: Inkjet printing technology that uses a piezo crystal that flexes when current flows through it. Maintenance Inkjet printers usually have cartridges that combine the printhead and the ink reservoir. and uses a great deal more ink that can leave cheap paper feeling soggy. so if one O N Advanced Settings in the Printers Control Panel for an Inkjet Printer O T The choice of paper is critical for quality output from inkjet printers.Inkjet technology is changing quickly. Inkjet printers will not offer their photographic-quality output unless you specify that you are using a coated matte or glossy photo paper. adding light cyan and light yellow to the standard four colors. Settings EV A L 274 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 8-34: Advanced settings in the Printer’s Control Panel for an inkjet printer. Piezo-electric technology uses cyan. magenta. Manufacturers prefer that you replace it. This changes the shape of the crystal and thus forces a drop of ink out of the nozzle and onto the paper. Special inks that dry quickly and are absorbed before they spread give excellent results. but offers greater control over the size and form of the dots. Printers can now combine 29 ink drops in a single drop so the color is produced by layering the inks. Because there is no heating and cooling cycle. When current flows to the crystal. it changes shape just enough to force a drop of ink out of the nozzle and onto the paper. New printers use six ink colors to improve the image quality.

This physical impact is responsible for the printer’s ability to print multiple-layer forms. Dot patterns are created by a set of pins that strike an inked ribbon. Small vacuums can be used to remove dust. because they can print on a continuous roll of paper. The impact of the pin transfers ink from the ribbon to the printed page. you have to replace the entire cartridge and throw the remaining colored ink away. O Dot-matrix printers are still used today. Repair Most problems unique to an inkjet can be solved by replacing the print cartridge and using good-quality paper. The pins shoot out of the printhead and strike an ink-coated ribbon.color runs out. C dot-matrix printer: Forms images out of dots on paper. in spite of their slow speed and low quality. Dot-matrix Function N EV Figure 8-35: How a dot-matrix printer works. Many printers have automatic self-cleaning cycles to keep dried ink from clogging the printhead. The dot matrix printhead has a vertical column of small pins that are controlled by an electromagnet. Except for very high-end models. as well as cleaning cycles you can trigger from utility programs that come with the printer. it may be more cost-effective to replace rather than repair the printer. as well as multi-part forms that use carbon or NCR (no carbon required) paper. but compressed air and powerful vacuums can create ESD problems. It’s not recommended that you keep the printer clean and free of dust. The carriage rod that the printhead slides back and forth on should not be cleaned or lubricated because the cleaners and oils usually cause more problems than any dried ink or dust. T A L -D O Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 275 O How a Dot-matrix Printer Works PY . Strong cleaners and alcohol can damage the printer and should not be used.

After a set of pins has fired. Repair Dot-matrix printers are known to be rugged and dependable. EV A L 276 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 8-36: Advanced Options for a dot-matrix printer. This improves dotmatrix print quality. an electromagnet pulls them back in. • Cause: A pin in the printhead is stuck. Do not lubricate the printhead as part of preventative maintenance. The two common head styles contain nine and 24 pins. Physically blocking the motion of the printhead can damage the gears and belts that control its motion.Settings The print setting options found in a printer’s properties differ from printer to printer. Problem: Horizontal lines appear in the print so parts of characters are missing. Most repairs are limited to the printhead. This connects the dots to form sharper and clearer letters. the printhead moves a fraction of an inch across the page. Term used for dotmatrix printers that use two or more passes over a line of text. well-inked ribbon in the printer when it is in use. Print quality is increased by decreasing the size of the pins and increasing the number of pins in the printhead. Maintenance Keep a fresh. NLQ (Near Letter Quality) dot-matrix printers use two or more passes over a line of text to increase the number of dots used per letter. O N O T C Advanced Options for a Dot-matrix Printer O PY NLQ: Stands for Near Letter Quality. The dots created on the page become the printed text or graphics. which may be hot after a long period of use. Keep the mechanical parts of the printer free from dust and debris. Make sure the selected options are applicable and address the user’s needs. and another set of pins is fired. 1. The ink contains the lubricants needed to keep the pins moving freely in the printhead. . Never move the paper while printing because a printer pin may be caught by the paper and bent.

so variations in the temperature setting can control the quantity of each colored ink added to every location on the paper. use good-quality paper for the best-looking output. 3. Problem: Flecks and smudges on the paper. rather than just stuck. • • Other Kinds of Printers Solid-ink printers use wax sticks that are melted. T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 277 Cause: The printer adjustment for paper thickness is set to an incorrect value. This technology is excellent for making transparencies. EV Thermal wax is very similar to dye-sublimation but uses plastic films covered with colored wax. Also. If the new ribbon does not advance. A heating element boils away a tiny dot of the ink that diffuses into a specially manufactured paper’s surface where it mixes with other ink to form a colored area. but this is only done as the last resort before buying a new printhead because this step often causes permanent damage to the head. A printer uses a specific temperature to activate the colors on one layer at a time.• 2. these printers are usually kept in isolated areas and shared over the network. Because of the danger from melted wax. The ink is on large rolls of film. the pin may be bent. is a major challenge. . magenta. The time and effort to repair a ribbon cartridge is rarely costeffective. magenta. If the problem remains. Dye-sublimation printers are special devices widely used in demanding graphic arts and photographic applications. C O PY Solution: Attempts to repair a printhead can damage it beyond hope. A L Thermo autochrome uses special paper that has cyan. getting all the yellow on the page first. You can open the printhead and look at the pins. The temperature controls the amount of ink added to the paper. the problem may be in the gears in the printer that cause the ribbon to move. Make sure they are clean and lubricated. A heater melts dots of the wax onto a special thermal paper. • • Cause: The ribbon is not aligned correctly. or is over-inked. try a different ribbon. Ultraviolet light fixes the color before the next layer is heated. Problem: Poor print quality. Solution: Reposition the ribbon. -D O N O Solution: Set the thickness to match the paper you are using. Remove any visible grime. then cyan. Try cleaning the printhead with a lubricant like WD-40 or alcohol. Getting 24 microscopic pins back into line. and finally black. not feeding correctly. The paper requires four different passes. If this fails. and yellow layers. along with their springs. The colored wax is squirted onto a drum that then transfers the ink to the paper one page at a time.

and enable you to attach the printer as one of the devices attached to a USB hub. Refer to Lesson 5 for more detailed information on parallel ports. Printers that are attached to a network (by either attaching the printer to a networked computer. Printers that are attached directly to a port on a stand-alone computer can only be accessed from the PC to which they are attached (although it’s possible to share a printer attached in this manner with one or more other computers via a switching device). b. printer-sharing. if you need to connect multiple USB devices. a network file server. A high-voltage negative charge is applied to the drum. you must create a connection between the printer and the computer. you can do so by getting a USB-to-parallel adapter cable. O N O T C O PY . USB printers have become available. along with file sharing. The most common way to connect a printer directly to a computer is by connecting the printer to the computer’s parallel port using a parallel cable. More recently. Fusing Connecting Printers EV A L 278 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D To be able to print. and want to attach it to a USB port. Serial port and infrared port connections are also possible. You can do this by either directly attaching the printer to a computer’s parallel port. These offer faster data transfer rates compared to parallel connections. or USB port.TASK 8B-2: Identifying the Phases of the EP Print Process 1. Refer to Lesson 5 for more detailed information on USB ports. Heated rollers bond the toner to the paper. c. d. as it’s not necessary to buy a separate printer for every user of the network. which converts the parallel signal to a USB signal. a. Cleaning Charging/conditioning Writing Developing e e. The 25-pin male connector of the parallel cable attaches to the computer’s parallel port and the Centronics connector of the parallel cable attaches to the printer. was one of the main reasons to have a network. but not as common. d a f c Toner is attracted to the neutral parts of the drum. Network-attached printers bring down the cost of operations. The data transfer rate for a parallel connection is 150 KB. or directly to the network cable) can be accessed by any computer on the network. Positively charged paper pulls the toner off the drum. Identify the description on the left with its matching term on the right. If you have a parallel printer. or by connecting the printer to a network. In the early days of networking. The laser is turned on and off as it sweeps across the drum. Transferring b f. which is slow compared to USB and network connections. Light erases the image on the drum.

you would select Network Printer here. the 25-pin male end of the cable plugs into the computer’s parallel port. you will see one of the following scenarios: Printers that are attached to a networked computer’s local port. In the first dialog box that appears. This type of connection provides the fastest throughput and easiest way to share a printer on a network. 2. . If you only have one or a few printers available. If your printer were a network printer. and assigning a printer name and port. EV A L C Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 279 O To add a printer to a Windows computer. make sure that all students can see the procedure involved in connecting a printer. and click Next. T If you have a printer available for each student. even if you don’t have a printer. and plug in and turn on the printer. connect the parallel cable to the correct ports on the printer and the computer. After you’ve installed the printer. 4. and double-click on Add Printer. the printer has to be equipped with a network interface card (NIC) appropriate for the topology used in the network (for example. or routed to a print queue on the server before being sent to the printer. This wizard guides you through the steps of specifying the type of printer you want to use. click Next. The Centronics end of the cable plugs into the port on the printer. You will still be able to add the printer in Windows. 3. Data going to a networked printer is either sent directly to the printer. You can also specify whether you want to use the printer as the default printer. you will use the Add Printer Wizard. O N If you have a printer available to you. PY In a network. or printers that are attached directly to the network cable. If you don’t have a printer available to you. verify that Local Printer is selected. printers that are attached directly to a network file server’s local port. Choose Start→Settings→Printers.TASK 8B-3: Connecting and Adding a Local Printer with the Add Printer Wizard O 1. your instructor will ensure that you will be able to follow the procedure for connecting a printer. all students will be able to perform this task. To be able to attach a printer directly to the network cable. Ethernet or Token Ring). you can configure it through the printer’s properties. -D In the next dialog box.

specify that you want to use this printer as the default printer by clicking on the Yes radio button. In the next dialog box. select the port you want to use. . locate the printer you installed. this is LPT1. If another printer was already installed. and click Next. 10. and click Next. Close the Printers folder. If this is the first printer. Typically. and click Finish. A test page won’t be sent to the printer. select No and click Finish. Your instructor will provide you with manufacturer and printer information. If necessary. Click Next. select the appropriate printer. 8. The check mark indicates that the printer is the default printer. O N O T C O PY Enter a name for the printer into the Printer Name text field. Click OK again. If you don’t have a printer. click OK and provide the path to the Windows 98 cab files or to the Windows 98 CD-ROM. verify that Yes (Recommended) is selected. In the list of manufacturers on the left. In the Printers folder. A L EV 280 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D If you have a printer. select the appropriate printer manufacturer.5. 7. A test page will print after the printer installation is complete. 11. Advise students of the appropriate printer manufacturer and printer. it will automatically be created as the default printer. 9. 6. In the list of printers on the right.

which can be flat or three-dimensional. the better quality of the resulting image. PY In addition to the input/output devices we looked at in the previous topics. a computer-readable format. the higher the resolution. Lower-end models will typically skimp in this area. O Figure 8-37: Flatbed scanner. using plastic components to reduce costs. they take up less desk space and may have special functions: • Handheld scanners are inexpensive. and so on. pages from books and magazines. A • L Other scanners are smaller than the flatbed. The image sensor moves across the material to scan it. such as a book or other object. Film scanners are used for negatives and slides. digital cameras. which is easy to use but slow. T C Sheetfed scanners are for reflective material. and—with the right attachments—transparent photographic film. manually operated. microphones. to save the user from manually putting each sheet of paper into the scanner. N Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 281 O O Scanner scanner: A device that can convert printed images into a computer readable format. DVD players.Topic 8C Other Input/Output Devices Scanner A scanner captures graphic images and printed text and then converts them to digital form for editing and manipulation in a PC. Scanning areas vary by model. a connector can hook the scanner directly to the printer. They are capable of capturing color pictures. Some devices have automatic document feeders. The image is recorded pixel by pixel. and have a limited scanning width. . Let’s take a look at these in more detail. Photo scanners scan printed photographs and may also be equipped to handle negatives and slides. such as scanners. such as documents. A high-end scanner will use high-quality glass optics that are color-corrected and coated for minimum diffusion. other input/output devices are available and commonly in use today. still/video capture devices. which are fed past the image sensor. The scanner reflects light off an image or object and converts it into 0s and 1s. -D Flatbed scanners are the most versatile and popular format. they usually have holders to help load the film. speakers. generally. They have a flat surface to hold material. EV • • Interface with the computer may be accomplished by: • Parallel port. documents.

prices drop. Printing on special transfer sheets for application to fabric.• • SCSI port. this is important for scans of high resolution. Some printers accept digital files on memory cards directly. SCSI cable. Infrared. touched-up. External drive. recolored and labeled with image-editing software. • • • • • • • Serial cable. adapters hold small memory cards. and consumers become more computer and Web knowledgeable. Output options include: • Viewing on the monitor. L A EV Video Capture 282 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The digital file may then be resized. • • • • • Printing on special photographic paper. adapters hold small memory cards. which does not use cables but is slow and requires a power source. Importing into documents. USB port. which is much faster than serial or parallel cable. USB cable. This method is also significantly faster than a serial connection. Posting on the Web. thanks to its Plug and Play capability. which is time-consuming and requires a power source. Digital Cameras Digital Camera Figure 8-38: Digital camera. PC Card. which is faster than a serial connection. which is very flexible and easy to use. which transfers data more quickly than the parallel. the image is captured digitally and stored as a file on a floppy disk or removable memory card. O T C O PY Digital cameras are increasingly popular as their quality improves. which uses a high-speed bus cable system. Attaching to email. N Downloading to the hard drive is accomplished by: • Floppy-disk drive. O Parallel cable. it is slower than SCSI. . which requires installation and software. Still/Video Capture Desktop digital cameras capture still or video images directly through the PC. Unlike film cameras.

C Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 283 Figure 8-39: Video capture. it offers good image quality and frame rates. O PY . The viewer sees the left image on the display while the right lens is closed. the user views data on the screen and can manipulate it with a high degree of accuracy. or USB port. which is more expensive and offers a higher frame rate (24 to 30 frames per second). which captures a video source—from a camcorder. Because this happens a minimum of 120 times per second. the way you see in the real world—with both eyes. parallel. and videoconferencing. or DVD player—and turns it into a photo or video on the PC. laser disc. T 3D Glasses These cameras include: • Plug and Play still camera. easy to install. still photography. and provides high -quality images. 3D Image EV 3D imaging provides realistic three-dimensional images through stereo viewing on systems ranging from PC screens to large-screen projections. Using a special eye-wear receiver. which is inexpensive. Network camera. emailing videos and images. which is part of a small group of cameras which connect directly to a network or deliver images through a modem without using a computer. Stereo viewing enables the viewer to see left. then the right image on the display is viewed while the left lens is closed. TV. This device provides live video broadcasting through the Web. Some styles may be mounted on a portable computer. A L -D O N O • Video capture device. It is usually connected through a serial.and righteye views virtually simultaneously. the viewer perceives left and right views simultaneously.• • Video digitizer. The high price is offset by the fact that a computer is not necessary to support the network camera. Using a network connection or phone line.

Lightweight. Long battery life. and worn over eyeglasses. DVDs are able to store more information than CDs because they use a shorter wavelength laser which can read smaller. Automatic bright mode. Large field of view.Figure 8-40: 3D glasses. write. 3D viewing applications include: • • • • • Virtual environmental design CAD/CAM/CAE Animation Global information mapping Virtual prototyping • • • • • • • Screen refresh in stereo mode to provide flicker-free operation. comfortable. a DVD uses patterns of tiny pits on the disc’s surface to represent data. the DVD has a second. such as the Digital Video Disc (DVD). ghost-free color display. opaque layer. or observe a nonstereo monitor without removing eyewear. more densely packed pits. O N O Some important considerations with this type of system include: • Sharp. which is then read by a laser beam. with a simple cable to connect the emitter to the monitor. high-resolution. bright image with realistic. which holds additional information. A data-storage medium that can store more information than compact discs. inexpensive storage media. T C O PY . Like a CD. Receiver using infrared signal. lack of connecting cables allows for multiple users and freedom of movement. EV DVD: Stands for Digital Video Disc. Also. 284 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A DVD Player L -D DVD Technology constantly strives to store very large amounts of data on single. where user can easily read. Plug and Play.

manipulate. until you reach a quality that is limited by the sound card and the source. Most reports say that each component is slightly lower in quality than if it were purchased individually. Multi-function machines often combine the capabilities of a scanner. a copier. It then sends the sound data to be converted to an analog sound signal for the speakers. specially shielded speaker cabinets are used for sound systems that will be placed near monitors. C O PY . as they could become scratched. Always keep them in a protective cover when not in use. a printer. Computers can store. CD-RW (CD Re-Writeable) drives record on CDs that may be rewritten many times. If one component fails. while sending the video data to the video controller card for the monitor. CD-R/CD-RW Microphones Speakers Multi-function Machines EV The increase in small home offices has brought about a demand for compact machines that perform several functions. and touch only the edges of the DVD disc when you handle it. the CDs can be recorded on only once. others use smaller desktop speakers. L -D Microphones change sound energy into electrical energy that sound cards turn into digital information. most users are willing to accept these conditions in exchange for ease of use and the compact size. which would render them unusable. The PCI controller card decodes the information stored on the disc and separates it into sound and video data. and play back this digital information. CD-R (CD Recordable) drives can play CDs as well as record them. The price of a CD-RW has dropped from thousands of dollars to below $200 in the last few years. CD-ROM drives will have new capabilities and higher speeds than those in existence today. the entire machine must be repaired or replaced. and a fax machine. like DVDs. N O T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 285 Be careful when working with DVDs. O CD players are now a requirement for computer systems because almost all software is sold on CD-ROMs. the better the sound. As new technologies come on the market.Figure 8-41: DVD player. A While some users hook their computer up to a stereo system. The better the speakers. Microphones are useless without functioning sound cards. Because the price is usually quite reasonable. Because speakers contain large electromagnets.

Troubleshooting Peripheral Devices Each device in this section has its own unique set of problems. This might be through infrared or radio. Pressing the ON button is also a critical step in the process. On the other hand. confirm that it could work on the system if there were no problems. Check the system requirements before you attempt to attach the equipment. as well as wires and fiber-optics. Place the cables where interference from appliances and other wiring won’t be a problem. Dead or almost dead batteries are a major problem for portable devices. L EV A 286 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D 3. Keep the distance and environment limitations of radio and infrared communications in mind when you place the peripheral. • • 4. • • • • Operating system Microprocessor type and speed Memory requirements Hard-disk space CD-ROM speed Monitor resolution and color capabilities Color printer Modem Internet connection Available port Special application software Peripherals must have a source of power to function. speakers. Connect the peripheral to the proper port. If you are asked to repair a peripheral. It can fill the whole screen or just one corner. • Use the correct cables with the correct connectors and the correct wires attached to the pins in the connectors. O N O Sound card. Peripherals require some way to communicate with the computer. must be turned on before the device will work. too. Keep the length of the cables below the maximum allowed length.TV Tuners Expansion cards can be attached to your video cable or an antenna and convert the TV signals into a picture you can see on your monitor. Specifications often include: • • • • • • • • • • • • 2. Software that comes with the card allows you to record your favorite shows until you fill up your hard drive. one set of general guidelines applies to almost all computer peripherals. and microphone T C O PY . Following is a summary: 1. Surge protectors protect equipment. which happens very quickly. Many broken peripherals have been magically cured as soon as the power was turned on or they were plugged in. but they. Just because one end attaches to the computer and the other to the device doesn’t mean it is the correct cable for the job.

Optimal settings may depend on the speed of your computer. Reboot the system before making any major changes or repairs. music. Check that the computer agrees that the port you are using is free of conflicts and is available for use. For each peripheral device in the following table. A single broken pin can cost more to repair than some of the peripherals cost to begin with. and many other considerations. All peripherals require some type of software support to function fully. Lets you save data files. and video on a CD. volume settings set too low make the microphone or speaker appear not to be working. Lets you capture real-time video and play the clips back on your computer. updated software from the Internet. systems can crash or malfunction through no fault of your own or the attached equipment. or write to the manufacturer for the latest software version. O N • In spite of software manufacturers’ claims. it is possible to attach the peripheral to the wrong port. Combines the capabilities of a printer. As you upgrade your computer. scanner. • • 6. Even Plug and Play devices may have settings that need to be adjusted before they can function at their best. fax. Because there is a limited number of designs for ports and cables. Never force a cable into a socket. Set all options and values as directed during the installation process. O For example. Lets you watch TV programs on your computer’s monitor. Identifying the Function of Various Peripheral Devices 1.• • • • 5. and copier into a single device. Lets you convert paper documents and pictures into electronic documents and images. Turning everything off and starting all over can sometimes fix the problem. EV Digital camera Video capture device TV tuner Multi-function machine CD-R/CD-RW A Microphone Speaker Scanner L Peripheral Device -D TASK 8C-1: Primary Function Lets you capture sound and save it as a file on your computer. T Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 287 C O PY . indicate its primary function. • • • 7. Install the required support software. Usually the support comes with the device. you may need to download compatible. Never connect or disconnect devices while the power is turned on. available memory. Lets you hear sounds played on your computer. Lets you snap pictures and save them as images on your computer.

you examined the most common peripheral devices found on PCs today. and USB versions. bus. and various other special-purpose devices. indicate the main advantage it has over other printers. you learned to identify the technical characteristics of keyboards. PS/2. so a variety of mouse connections that can bypass or avoid any resource conflicts or port shortages are available. In particular. L -D The monitor refresh rate must match the display adapter’s refresh rate. however. printers. looking at the laser could damage your eyes. Ink could splatter in your eyes. most monitors are said to be multisyncing. that is. Touch any number of hot parts inside the printer. Today. the main disadvantage it has compared to the other printers. mice. For each of the printer types in the following table. O Describe the connectors that may be used for mice. Newer keyboards have 12 function keys. Lesson Review 8A Compare the keyboard layout and connectors of older keyboards to new keyboards available today. You learned general troubleshooting techniques as well as how to solve some of the problems found in specific devices. Early monitors had a fixed refresh rate. Printer Type Dot-matrix Inkjet O 8B Describe the relationship between the display adapter refresh rate and the monitor refresh rate. PY . Older keyboards had only 10 function keys. they will automatically adjust to the refresh rate produced by the display adapter. Why are so many options available? T Slow with low quality Supplies are expensive Disadvantage EV Laser Print multilayered forms Inexpensive printer with color capabilities High quality with low cost per copy A Color expensive and initial cost is high 288 A+ Certification: Core Hardware C O Safety Hazard Touching a hot printhead.Summary In this lesson. Older keyboards use a 5-pin DIN connector while newer keyboards use a smaller 6-pin PS/2 connector. monitors. and a possible safety hazard. N Advantage Standard mice are available in serial. Most computers are useless without a functional mouse. as well as keys dedicated to Windows functions and/or Internet functions.

Additionally. What questions and suggestions might you make until you find more details about the new equipment? . and then rebooted? PY 8C A user has tried unsuccessfully to install a peripheral you have never heard of. and expects you to troubleshoot over the phone.What are common ways to connect printers? Common ways to connect printers include parallel port and network connections. EV A L -D O N Lesson 8: Peripheral Devices 289 O T C O Answers will vary. but might include: Does the computer system meet the minimum requirements for the peripheral? Does the new device have a functional power source? Are the proper cables connected to the appropriate ports on both the device and the computer? Has all the software that came with the device been installed? Has the entire setup been turned off. you can connect printers via the USB port. serial port. or infrared port.

EV 290 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

the portable has distinctive features. PC Cards. EV A L In this topic. you will identify the internal system components. You will identify types of batteries. While both portable and desktop systems share similar components. you will examine the PC Card architecture and define the technical characteristics of PC Cards. LESSON 9 Data Files none Objectives 9A To acquire skills for servicing and maintaining portable systems. In this topic. you will examine the methods for using and managing power to a portable system. the spread of the Internet and intranets. displays. common power states. In this topic. The expanding market will require repair and replacement services of up to $1 billion. This lesson focuses on the technology you will find in portable systems. 9C Describe the technical characteristics of common battery systems and identify power management standards. and peripherals that are unique to portable systems. and falling prices in portable computers. -D PC Cards expand the technical functions of the portable computer. you will: Identify the unique components found on portable computers. input devices. You will examine those unique components that distinguish a portable from a desktop. 9B Examine the technical characteristics of PC Cards. including displays. and methods for conserving power.Portable Computing Overview Portable computers are becoming more and more popular. O N O Lesson 9: Portable Computing 291 T C O Lesson Time 2 hours PY . and battery power systems. This trend is driven by an increasingly mobile working population.

This feature—which makes the computer available almost anytime and anywhere—unfortunately presents its own set of problems. in some cases. or retiring a portable. The average cost to repair a portable computer.400. its construction is different enough to make repairs and upgrades difficult.Topic 9A Components of Portable Systems portable systems Portability Concerns A L EV 292 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 9-1: Portable computer. input devices. you are obligated to follow your company’s guidelines and municipal regulations regarding disposal of electronic equipment and parts. and small size. However. O N O A Portable Computer T The unique feature of a portable computer is its portability. self-contained power source. repairing. Although a portable has components and functions that are similar to a desktop’s. including the cost of repairs. In general. you will identify the internal system components. displays. In troubleshooting. except swapping components may be more difficult or impossible. the logic and reasoning used to isolate and define problems in desktop systems also apply to portables. in its travels to different settings. The keyboard. C O PY The portable computer is not just a small desktop in a case. and LCD are particularly susceptible to damage. The leading causes of damage are being dropped and liquid spills. lost productivity and worker downtime. and peripherals that are unique to portable systems. In this topic. made possible by its lightweight. the portable computer is subjected to much wear and tear. hard-disk drive. can range up to $1. You will be challenged by the confined space—especially the height—which sacrifices convenience and limits accessibility and flexibility. The nature of the technology. dictates the system’s design. in striving for lightness and compactness. .

It weighs less than five pounds. For these reasons. CD-ROM drive. including large screen. however. multimedia capabilities. Sub-notebook. and slower peripherals. modem. and they are expensive to replace or to keep as backups. smaller hard drive. such as a college student or sales representative might require. Manufacturers are attempting to increase its functionality while maintaining its convenient size.5 pounds and usually has the most features. determined by the general uses of each: • Desktop replacement. Notebook. To keep weight down. and printer. It is used primarily as a satellite to a network or desktop system. Batteries limit the length of time users can work on the computer. It usually costs less than a desktop replacement because it has fewer features. The sub-notebook is built primarily for inputting text and retrieving data from a remote computer. large hard drive. It is expensive. T C O PY . it generally weighs over 6. many users rely on an AC adapter in place of the battery whenever regular electric power is available. it can serve as both a desktop and a portable without many compromises. slower processor. it has a minimum of features including a small display and small keyboard. Battery life tends to be good. Types of Portables • • EV A L -D O N Lesson 9: Portable Computing 293 O Portable computers can use battery power for all their functions.Types Portable computers currently fall into three categories. It usually has a smaller display. the ultra-light weighs in at less than three pounds. The largest of the portables.

and is designed based on Intel’s advanced. Using DC controllers. different CPU packaging is used for processors for portable systems. power can be conserved. T C O Tape Carrier Package (TCP): CPU packaging used for portable computer processors. It has 3.org. or 120 MHz.23 V. A DC controller enables stepping down a higher input voltage to a lower output voltage. As an example. Core voltage is 2.3 million transistors. solder balls are used rather than metal leads found in PGA packaging. L EV An excellent source for detailed processor information is www. This mobile processor runs at 75 MHz. The Intel Mobile Pentium has two on-chip 8 KB Level 1 caches. All of the packaging types address the need for lightweight. Sockets and slots used in portable computers include the BGA socket.9 V. You will find this processor in older Pentium portable computers. This processor is packaged in a TCP package. The Intel Mobile Pentium processor features SL Enhanced Power Management. and Mini-Cartridges. Chips produced with this packaging weigh less than one gram and are thinner than a dime. DC Controllers Three Examples of BGA Packaging Courtesy of XeTel Corporation. • Intel Mobile Pentium MMX. such as portable computers. which is essential for batterypowered devices. Output voltages are programmable. It operates at a core (internal) voltage of 2. and the data bus is 64-bit. which drains the battery and produces a noticeable amount of heat.45 V. O Figure 9-2: Three examples of BGA packaging. 100 MHz. small footprint processors. DC controllers are used in portable computers. PY . The CPU is 32-bit. and clock control. Micro PGA and Micro PGA2.Processor Packaging Due to the limited space in portable systems. and an input voltage of 20 V to an output voltage of 18 V.3 V. Has a small footprint and is produced using a process called tapeautomating bonding. To help with this problem. Mobile Module Connector 1 (MMC-1). O N Ball Grid Array (BGA): CPU packaging used for portable computer processors. low-voltage BiCMOS silicone technology. and an external voltage of 3. including System Management Mode (SMM). as it draws a considerable amount of power. In this design. Mini cartridge Connector. Although being surpassed by the Pentium II. Ball Grid Array (BGA) and BGA2 (BGA and BGA2 packaging uses solder balls rather than the metal leads found in PGA packaging). Photo by Robert Lawrence. Also known as the “Tillamook.” this processor is often found in mobile units. Linear Technologies’ LTC1771 DC/DC controller enables stepping down an input voltage of 2.8 V to an output voltage of 1. Examples of mobile CPU packaging include Tape Carrier Package (TCP). Has a small footprint to accommodate the space restrictions of portable computers. and Mobile Module Connector 2 (MMC-2). and 150 MHz. Processor Pentium processors you will encounter in portable computers include: • Intel Mobile Pentium (with voltage reduction). Micro PGA socket.sandpile. 133 MHz. A 294 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The processor can be problematic.

Both use a 64-bit data bus.3 V. These processors feature a 512 KB L2 cache. O N C Lesson 9: Portable Computing 295 O Intel Mobile Pentium MMX Processor PY it is still used. The Intel Mobile Pentium MMX can operate at 133. on-die: Integrated onto a processor chip. . The earlier Intel Mobile Celeron runs at speeds ranging from 266 MHz to 466 MHz. External voltage is 3. and its external voltage is 2. • Intel Mobile Celeron. Internal voltage for regular voltage models is 1. or Micro-PGA2. 266. and 300 MHz. and an on-die 128 KB L2 cache. Deep Sleep: Drastically reduced power mode entered into after certain conditions (such as prolonged inactivity) have been met. It has two on-die 16 KB L1 caches. These processors are packaged in a Mini-Cartridge package. and support for MMX. and uses Quick Start and Deep Sleep modes for low power dissipation. and Streaming SIMD extensions. This processor is available in a low-voltage configuration at 400 and 500 MHz. Two Intel Mobile Celeron processor types exist. Internal voltage is between 1.35 V. The later Intel Mobile Celeron processor runs at speeds ranging from 400 MHz to 700 MHz. Its internal voltage is 2. The Intel Mobile Pentium MMX has two on-die 16 KB Level 1 caches. and is offered in PGA and BGA packaging. where limited heat production is an important consideration.5 V.3 V. and Dual Independent Bus (DIB) architecture. and its external voltage is 3. Internal voltage is between 1. support for MMX technology. It also features an integrated math coprocessor. A L -D Figure 9-3: Intel Mobile Pentium MMX processor.5 V to 1.45 V. and an integrated 256 KB cache.• EV Intel Mobile Pentium II. It has two on-die 16 KB L1 caches. It also supports Quick Start and Deep Sleep modes for low power dissipation. 150. It supports MMX. and for lowvoltage models. and the data bus is 64-bit. The latest Intel Mobile Pentium II uses a 64-bit data bus. The CPU is 32-bit. and the external voltage is 2. It has two integrated 16 KB L1 caches. and runs at speeds from 233 MHz to 400 MHz. and uses low-voltage CMOS silicone technology.6 V. The Intel Mobile Pentium with MMX is socketcompatible with the Intel Mobile Pentium if it’s packaged in a TCP package. especially in ultra-lights.5 V. Packaging is either Ball Grid Array 2 (BGA 2). it is 1.5 V and 1. O T Quick Start: Power-saving mode supported by many Intel Mobile processors.9 V. or a Mini-Cartridge package. It features an integrated math coprocessor. and Quick Start and Deep Sleep modes for low power dissipation. It is packed in either a BGA package. and one on-die 128 KB L2 cache.9 V. and 166 MHz. Another model of the Mobile Pentium II processor runs at 233. It features an integrated math coprocessor.

the processor runs at its highest speed and normal internal voltage. rather than redesigning the system. 300 MHz.9 V/2. 600 MHz. 650 MHz. 500 MHz. 550 MHz. The remaining SpeedStep increments are: 800 or 650 MHz. or Micro-PGA 64-bit BGA2. and 150 MHz 133 MHz.3 V Two on-die 16 KB L1 1.9 V/3.5 V to 1.5 V Two on-die 16 KB L1. or Mini -Cartridge Intel Mobile Pentium MMX Intel Mobile Celeron (earlier models) L EV A 296 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Intel Mobile Celeron (later models) Intel Mobile Pentium II PY CPU Packaging TCP . lower cost. and a Battery Optimized Mode.5 V Two on-die 16 KB L1. When in Maximized Performance Mode. The Intel Mobile Pentium III uses a technology called SpeedStep which offers two performance modes: a Maximized Performance Mode. and power efficiency. 150 MHz.6 V. Finally. O Intel Mobile Pentium III. 333 MHz. 366 MHz. 750 or 600 MHz. and 700 MHz 233 MHz. the processor runs at its designated speed using an internal voltage of 1. In Battery Optimized Mode. Processor Intel Mobile Pentium O Clock Speeds 75 MHz. It is used by some manufacturers to create a newer model by removing an older. Maximized Performance Mode. and 600 or 500 MHz. For example. 450 MHz. and an on-die 128 KB L2 1. and one on-die 256 KB L2 cache. 266 MHz. 700 or 550 MHz. and features an integrated math coprocessor.5 V to 1. or 120 MHz. 300 MHz. and 466 MHz 400 MHz. The Intel Mobile Pentium III uses a 64-bit data bus.35 V to 2.3 V Two on-die 16 KB L1. the 850 MHz processor runs at 700 MHz in Battery Optimized Mode. It supports MMX technology. and Battery Optimized Mode.3 V for the Intel Mobile Pentium III. and an on-die 256 or 512 KB L2 C • AMD K6-2.35 V. In Maximized Performance Mode. and an on-die 128 KB L2 1. or Micro-PGA2 64-bit BGA.9 V/2. 100 MHz. 133 MHz. and 400 MHz Data Bus Width 64-bit T Internal/ External Voltage Cache Two on-die 8 KB L1 2. and 166 MHz 266 MHz.• SpeedStep: Technology that enables two different performance modes. When in Battery Optimized Mode. 333 MHz. and runs at speeds ranging from 500 to 850 MHz. O N 64-bit TCP 64-bit BGA.3 V 2. slower CPU and replacing it with the K6-2. This chip is packaged in BGA2 and Micro-PGA2 packaging.6 V/3. and Streaming SIMD extensions. It has two on-die 16 KB L1 caches. the processor runs at a reduced speed and a reduced internal voltage. it uses Quick Start and Deep Sleep modes for low power dissipation.45 V/3. This desktop processor is used in some portables due to its compatibility with system boards. the processor runs at a reduced speed and an internal voltage of 1. External voltage is 3. 433 MHz.

The hard drive for a portable is generally smaller than a desktop hard drive.5 mm for ultra-lights to 12. Portable hard drives run more slowly than those used in desktops. and 850 MHz Data Bus Width 64-bit Internal/ External Voltage 1. and systems can get hot. making them shock-proof but resistant to adaptation. which are a power drain. MicroPGA2 Generally. Manufacturers attempt to make systems that don’t become too hot to touch. 3V Cache Two on-die 16 KB L1. and an on-die 256 KB L2 CPU Packaging BGA2. A L -D C Lesson 9: Portable Computing 297 O PY .5 to 9.35 V/3. averaging 4200 rpms. which can rapidly drain batteries and overheat. processors are not upgradeable by the user. Older portables may contain variations on desktop processors. Heights range from 8. Storage capacity of portable hard drives is up to 25 GB.Processor Intel Mobile Pentium III Clock Speeds 500 MHz.5-inch platters and measures approximately 4 inches in length. 550 MHz.6 V or 1. If the system becomes too hot to touch. 800 MHz. the overheating may be caused by a desktop processor. Most of them are soldered onto the system board. 600 MHz. to 17 to 19 mm for larger desktop replacements.5 to 7 mm for subnotebooks and slim notebooks. It usually has 2. O N O Storage Systems T Hard Drive for a Portable EV Figure 9-4: Hard drive for a portable. 750 MHz. 700 MHz. Processors produce heat. 650 MHz. although they may avoid fans.

or tape drive. C O PY . O T Figure 9-5: Parallel port portable hard drive. to add a Zip. getting into the system. however. memory that works in an IBM ThinkPad may not be compatible with a Toshiba Tecra. and attaching it to the connector. taking out the old. much as you would see in larger systems. Not only may the hard drive be replaced by another hard drive. A portable hard drive may be attached to the parallel port. Parallel Port Portable Hard Drive • • PCMCIA: Stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association.Many hard drives. For example. and the increments in which it can be added. a pass-through connection allows a printer to still function off the port. for example. snapping in the new. Most portables. N If the hard drive is difficult to access or upgrade. Because the memory is manufactured in smaller quantities than standard SIMMs and DIMMs. PCMCIA slot for a hard-disk drive card. An association of organizations that establishes standards for PC Cards. -D O Interchange floppy disk or CD-ROM drive with a second removable hard drive. The system will prescribe the type of memory required. the total memory it can support. are replaceable. memory for portables is more expensive and may be hard to find for obscure makes and models. removable storage can be added in several ways: • Existing port. This requires finding the right size. Jaz. require proprietary memory that is custom designed for each system. Memory EV Custom Memory for Portable Systems 298 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L Some portables may use either SIMM (Single In-line Memory Module) or DIMM (Dual In-line Memory Module) memory. especially on newer portables. but other types of drives may be substituted as well.

and updates quickly. it may be more economical to buy a new portable than to wait for repairs. or very diluted alcohol. leaving dots stuck in one color (usually red. Be sure to avoid ammonia-based products and abrasive cleaners. T passive matrix: An LCD relying on persistence to maintain the state of pixels between scans. and enhancing power efficiency. The display is frequently not covered under warranty and is difficult to replace other than through the manufacturer. The pixels at each junction darken when powered by the transistors. The AM has one transistor for each pixel. while less expensive and less powerhungry than the active display. active matrix: An LCD in which transistors actively maintain the state of pixels between scans. Use a soft. L -D The active display or active matrix (AM) is often called a TFT (Thin-film Transistor). LCDs are covered with a thin sheet of plastic. If a replacement is needed immediately. pixel size. O O The portable uses a Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) because it requires less power than the CRT monitor and can be configured into a flat panel. A C Lesson 9: Portable Computing 299 Figure 9-6: Custom memory for portable systems. Wires forming a matrix interconnect the rows and columns. an AM display can discharge a battery in a couple of hours. requiring fast motion on the screen. This is more noticeable when the screen is all one color but should not be distracting during a normal display. has a wider viewing angle. all those transistors require power. Recent LCDs produce images which are comparable to the CRT. increasing contrast. and another along the left side with one transistor for each row of pixels. some transistors may be defective. Due to the large number—hundreds of thousands—of pixels. such as video games. is often limited to 256 colors and has a much poorer image than a CRT. or blue or black). one along the top edge with one transistor for each column of pixels. The passive display has two groups of transistors. It is the best display presently available and compares favorably to a CRT. The passive display is not suited for video presentations or other tasks. N The LCD is one of the most expensive parts of a portable and is the most fragile.Display EV The passive display or passive matrix. O PY . In addition. type of display. it creates a very clean image. and resolution. mild detergent. lint-free cloth dampened with distilled water. The quality of the image will depend on the size. so clean them gently. green. lens cleaner. Improvements have included dividing the display into sections. This dual scan image is drawn line by line and can be up to five times slower than a CRT display.

Some small portables have a full-size keyboard that can be unfolded when the portable is opened. It points accurately and allows the user to move the pointer without moving the fingers from the keyboard. it generally uses one of the following: Trackpad EV 300 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Trackpad. The trackpad is an electromagnetically sensitive pad that tracks the movement of a finger to move the mouse pointer. Most portables feature an embedded keypad with 85 to 88 keys. which then moves the mouse pointer on the screen to match the motion of the finger over the trackpad. not carrying ease. including conference rooms and libraries. AST. O Pointing Device PY . as well as a vertical movement of 2 to 3 mm. Keying should be quiet. Mouse clicks can be simulated by tapping the pad. A distance of 3/4 inch from the center of one key to the center of the next is recommended. and function keys may be reduced in size. Trackpads may be built into the design of the computer or added as an accessory. Some keys do double-duty. as many portables are used in public places. The upper layer contains vertical electrode strips while the lower layer is composed of horizontal electrode strips. While the portable can accept an external mouse or other pointing device. Some typists find that it interferes with striking the neighboring keys. This pointing device was originally used on Toshiba. A finger near the intersection of two electrodes changes the capacitance between them because a finger has very different electrical properties from those of the air. is important. and IBM notebook computers. this input device contains a two-layer grid of electrodes which are connected to an integrated circuit (IC) mounted under the pad. The trackpoint is a small. It is known for its accuracy and lack of interference with keystrokes. T • C • Trackball. Space at the forward edge of the portable may provide a palmrest. some users have noticed that dampness will cause the pointer to jump. The trackball is a small ball that moves the mouse pointer when it is rolled in various directions. in addition. Sometimes called a touch pad.Keyboard The keyboard for a portable will. be smaller than a desktop’s. eraser-shaped button on the keyboard that works like a very short joystick. It is being surpassed in popularity because it takes more room on the keyboard and requires cleaning. L -D O N • O Trackpoint. The touch pad sends this position information to the computer. Capacitance from each of the horizontal electrodes to each of the vertical electrodes is measured by the IC. of necessity. It is possible to connect a full-size keyboard to the portable when typing ease. Accidentally touching the pad while typing will make the pointer move unexpectedly.

Some peripherals that use low power and are very compact are sold specifically to portable owners. if they can be attached to its serial. parallel. The solutions for portables include the PC Card and the docking station. Peripherals A L Most computer users expand their system’s productivity and flexibility with peripherals such as scanners. lightweight computing. but an alternative approach is available.Figure 9-7: Trackpad. PC Card slots in portable computers accept miniature peripherals such as modems or network cards specifically designed for low-power. or USB ports. video. The portable computer user cannot add expansion cards inside the computer. mouse. printer. -D O N O Printer Designed for Portable Computers EV T Lesson 9: Portable Computing 301 C O PY . as well as ports. The portable will accept the same type of peripherals as a desktop. network connections. of course adding to the weight and bulk of the computer. keyboard. The desktop user opens the case and adds expansion cards inside the computer using available ISA or PCI slots to provide any needed connections for new peripherals. external drives. video cameras and modems.

and connectors for peripheral devices. Similar to a docking station. T C O PY . also known as a multiport. so you must purchase one that is made specifically for your type of portable computer. and other peripherals. printer. is used when the portable becomes a desktop replacement at a permanent location. The docking station.Figure 9-8: Printer designed for portable computers. The portable acts like the brains of a desktop computer and can access a desktop’s larger monitor. Docking Stations port replicator: Device that contains typical PC ports to enable users of portable computers to travel between multiple locations and attach to non-portable peripherals such as monitors and printers. The portable slides into the station and makes contact through the docking port. and a connection is made through the port replicator port on the portable. The docking station typically contains slots for expansion cards. The difference between a port replicator and a docking station is that a port replicator does not offer the ability to add expansion cards. EV 302 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Figure 9-9: Docking stations. mouse. but does not provide slots for expansion cards. docking station: A desktop unit that portable computers connect to. Port replicators contain standard desktop expansion cards. There is no standard for docking stations. A port replicator contains typical PC ports and enables users of portable computers to travel between multiple locations and easily connect at each location to non-portable peripherals. bays for storage devices. and thus the devices attached to the port replicator. To connect to the port replicator. you slide the portable computer into the replicator. keyboard. the portable computer may be attached to a docking station that makes use of a special connection on the back of the portable and gives the portable control over regular desktoptype peripherals and expansion cards. Port replicators are offered by the manufacturers of portable computers for specific portable computer models. and ports for other desktop peripherals. Similar to docking stations are port replicators. additional drives. heavy-duty peripherals are constantly required. such as monitors and printers. O N O If full-power.

PDAs often A PDAs were first introduced in 1980 by Psion. and take notes on the go. and the Newton. and storing and playing audio files. This type of portable computer serves the needs of users who travel a lot. Newer models also include the ability to browse the Web via wireless access. fast access times. spreadsheet. The movements of the stylus on the screen are recognized and converted into digital signals. The user uses a device called a stylus. L -D Another category of portable computer is the PDA (Personal Digital Assistant). Another name for PDA is palmtop. and “writes” information on a touch-sensitive screen that is integrated into the PDA. such as voice recording. send and receive email. the vtech Helio. O T PDA: A personal digital assistant is a very small computer that can be handheld. a processor. the Pocket PC. that is shaped like a pen. almost exclusively IDE Built-in trackpoint or trackpad. the WinCE HPC. They consist of a display/ input area (which can be monochrome or color). get email. Other PDA manufacturers include HP. such as word processing. Some examples of available PDAs are the Palm Pilot. with the Newton MessagePad. and typically you can install other applications. and they have dramatically risen in popularity in the last few years. This type of screen uses handwriting recognition to transfer the written information into the PDA. maintain a to-do list. Today’s most popular PDA is the Palm Pilot by 3Com.5” and 5. Psion. and financial management applications. use a calculator. the Handspring Visor. Some models even support audio functions. send faxes. and take notes on the go. Some can also function as cellular phones and pagers.25” bays for permanent devices Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) EV Information is usually entered into a PDA via a pen-based interface rather than a keyboard (which takes up too much space). and Sony. and RAM. O N C Lesson 9: Portable Computing 303 O PY . and revolutionized in 1993 by Apple Computer.TASK 9A-1: Comparing Portable and Desktop Computers 1. send and receive faxes. Common uses for PDAs include the ability to keep an electronic calendar and address book. many of them not weighing more than 7 or 8 oz. Component Display Hard-disk drive Pointing device Expansion Removable media Portable LCD technology Typically smaller and slower. uses IDE and SCSI External mouse connectivity Internal ISA and PCI buses Usually multiple 3. For each of the components listed in the table. Casio. These devices are small and handheld. stylus: Pen-shaped device used to enter information into a PDA. and who need some computing power when even using a laptop or notebook computer isn’t feasible. Often used to keep an electronic calendar and address book. describe how it differs from a typical desktop equivalent. external mouse connectivity PC Cards and docking stations Usually one bay where you can swap multiple media devices Desktop CRT technology Large capacity.

Other handwriting recognition systems are also available. This enables the user to keep information synchronized between all of their computing devices. or to recharge batteries if they’re rechargeable. Essentially. they look and act like miniature laptop computers. to-do list. Reviewing Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) What are the main characteristics of a PDA? PDAs are handheld. RAM in a PDA typically ranges from 4 MB to 32 MB. or an infrared port or special docking station. as well as the ability to add application software. the operating system will advise you when you need to change or recharge batteries. they use a pen-based input system using handwriting recognition. or via a special docking station. Memory requirements vary from one PDA to another. paging. and Microsoft’s Pocket PC (a scaled down version of Windows 95/98). Other available PDA operating systems include the PalmOS by Palm Computing. you can easily lose all of your stored information. . or HPCs. In addition to the keyboard. Typically. These are referred to as Handheld PCs. 3. Some models enable you to add memory. Typically.A L EV 304 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D TASK 9A-2: 1. a user may enter a new address into their address book on their desktop PC. and they can then transfer the information from the PC to the PDA. How do you synchronize data between a PDA and a regular PC? Either via a serial cable or infrared connection. and lightweight. Note that it’s extremely important to keep spare batteries on hand and to change batteries as they run down. Newer PDAs also support Web browsing. use the Graffıti handwriting recognition system that uses a simplified alphabet to make data input easier for the user. Although pen-based devices are probably more popular. and the type of functionality supported by the PDA. O PDAs use various types of batteries as their power source. The user will have to learn this system to correctly enter information into the PDA. For example. EPOC by Symbian. and use audio capabilities. these devices also use a flat screen similar to that of a laptop or notebook computer. It provides a simplified alphabet the user uses to input data into a PDA. N O PDAs typically have an interface the user can use to transfer information between their PDA and their organizer application on their regular PC (desktop or portable). 2. What types of functions can you perform using a PDA? Typical functionality includes a calendar. If the batteries run completely out. calculator. and cell-phone functionality. and depend largely on the operating system. O PY Graffiti: A handwriting system used by PDAs. although keyboard systems are also available. keyboard-based devices also exist. and email and fax capability. address book. T C Microsoft has written its CE operating system for both keyboard-based and penbased devices. These devices use small keyboards (that sometimes fold out) for data input. This synchronization takes place either via a serial cable connection. so that they can easily be carried around.

A thinner card can be used in a thicker slot. The cards were originally designed just to add memory to portable computers. The cards are self-configuring so you do not have to set any jumpers or switches or use software programs to configure the card. but a thicker card can’t be used in a thinner slot. . the software elements of the PCMCIA specification. they differ only in thickness. O PC Cards have become very popular with the rise in portable computing and the demand for access to standard peripherals. so they work with all the versions of Windows that function on your portable. for example. Each is about 75 mm long and 55 mm wide. PC Cards are interchangeable and independent of the operating system. -D O N C O PC Card Interface You can learn more about PC Cards at www.com/. The first cards were Plug and Play devices which used a 16-bit socket and a 68-pin connector. this procedure is called hot-swapping. Additionally. PCMCIA also defines the standards for Socket Services and Card Services. This is because the power and ground contact pins are the longest contacts. With these cards. and video cameras. A Type I slot can hold one Type I card. The alliance defines the standards for the PC Card. PCMCIA is a group of 500 organizations founded in 1989 which establishes standards for these cards that are sometimes called PCMCIA cards. T PC Card A Representation of the PC Card Connection Figure 9-10: PC Card. PY The Personal Computer Memory Card International Association (PCMCIA) is an alliance of members who promote interchangeability and compatibility among portable computers. Ethernet adapters. A Type II slot can hold one Type II card or two Type I cards. including modems. Types of PC Cards PC Cards currently come in three types. which offers additional memory and peripherals to portable computers. SCSI adapters. A Type III slot can hold one Type III card or a Type I and Type II card. These credit card-sized devices connect to and draw power from the portable through a male/female 68-pin arrangement.pc-card. the user can access the same devices that a desktop system would use. EV Figure 9-11: A representation of the PC Card connection. preserving data integrity.Topic 9B PC Cards PC Card: The credit card-sized devices which are used in portables instead of desktop expansion cards. You will find the Lesson 9: Portable Computing 305 A L These cards can be inserted and removed while the system is still running. sound cards. ensuring that disconnect signals disengage first.

NIC. I/O devices such as data/fax modems. and SCSI connections. This software management interface also works in conjunction with upper-level software. such as hardware drivers. • Card Services automatically assigns system resources when Socket Services has identified that a PC Card has been inserted. Socket Services: Device driver software for PC Card. Each card has features that fit the needs of different applications: • • Type II cards: 5. PY Type I cards: 3. They also manage hot-swapping and pass changes in events to higher-level drivers written for specific cards. These two layers of software detect and support a PC Card when it is inserted into the portable. To remove a PC Card.PC Card slots on either the right or left side of the portable. LAN adapters. These slots have two rows of sockets and are typically used for memory. It can be built into the BIOS or added through software. This software comes with the PC and with the cards. Card and Socket Services are loaded into memory. EV External Drive Connected to a Portable Through a PC Card 306 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A Card Services: Assigns resources for PC Cards and detects when a card is inserted or removed.5 mm thick. • Socket Services interacts with the BIOS to identify the number of sockets available. Socket Services works with Card Services above it. such as antennas for wireless applications.3 mm thick. typically you have to push on a lever that protrudes next to the PC Card slot. Card Services manages system resources required by the PC Card like IRQs. . These slots have one row of sockets and are used primarily to add memory. These cards usually have a pop-out connector for an RJ-11 or RJ-45 connector. This pushes the card out of the slot somewhat and you can then pull the card out the rest of the way. and also communicates directly with the PC Card’s controller chips. At startup on a portable computer.0 mm thick. it also detects when a PC Card is inserted or removed. When the system is turned on. These slots have three rows of sockets and are most commonly used to install hard-disk drives or support adapters for external CD-ROM. Figure 9-12: PC Card with an external port. memory. such as RAM and ROM. To insert a PC Card. L -D O N O T PC Card with an External Port C • O • Type III cards: 10. Extended cards allow the addition of components which must remain outside the system. and I/O addresses. and tape drives. DVD. slide it into the appropriate slot until it is firmly in place. that may need to be loaded to work with the PC Card.

This new bus was designed by the PCMCIA to enable portable computers to connect to real-time multimedia devices such as video cameras. T Zoomed Video (ZV): A connection between a PC Card and the host system that allows the card to write video data directly to the VGA controller. The data is transferred with no buffering requirements because it is transferred over the ZV bus and not the system bus. More recently PC Card slots have adopted the CardBus standard. • A fourth type of PC Card (16 mm thick) is evolving from Toshiba. The following are some important advances over the original standards. • • EV A L Zoomed Video (ZV) is a connection between a PC Card and host system that allows the card to write video data directly to the VGA controller. The bus mastering option allows the card to communicate directly with other cards on the bus without going through the CPU. The CardBus operates at speeds up to 33 MHz.Figure 9-13: External drive connected to a portable through a PC Card. O N O New technologies are changing the abilities and characteristics of PC Cards. New computers are using the CardBus technology. which allows faster data throughput and 32-bit access rather than 16-bit. This improves performance because the CPU is free to do other things. CardBus has advanced power-management features that allow the computer to take advantage of CardBus cards designed to idle or turn off in order to increase battery life. C Lesson 9: Portable Computing 307 O PY . but it has not been officially standardized. -D CardBus allows PC Cards and hosts to use 32-bit bus mastering and to operate at speeds up to 33 MHz.

Interface for Using PC Cards on Desktops Identifying PC Card Characteristics and Uses -D PC Card Type I Type II O 1. e. For each of the PC Cards listed in the following table. LAN. portables naturally can also be powered by traditional power sources. C O PY .0 mm 10.g. modem.3 mm 5. but will often use it where wall outlets are readily available. and external disk drives Rotating mass storage devices like hard drives Type III L A Topic 9C Power Management Although one of the great assets of a portable computer is the ability to run it using battery power.Figure 9-14: Interface for using PC cards on desktops. You won’t always be using your portable computer on an airplane. complete the missing information: Thickness Primary Use ROM or RAM memory I/0 devices. Adapters that allow the cards to function in desktop computers add to the card’s flexibility and therefore to its value. Any portable computer you buy will come with an AC adapter to convert the outlet’s AC EV 308 A+ Certification: Core Hardware N 3. or on the road.5 mm TASK 9B-1: O T PC Cards can be a major investment in spite of their small size.

Most batteries will typically last anywhere from two to six hours.000 charge/recharge cycles. NiMH: Environmentally friendly battery for portable computers. batteries. You can typically also purchase a car adapter for your portable computer. It uses nickel and metal hydride plates with potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. on some newer models. It doesn’t hold a charge as well as NiCad when not in use. through your car’s 12 V power outlet. will have an internal means of converting the AC power to DC. The management system may also detect when the computer isn’t being used and put it in a suspend mode to conserve power. The portable computer has methods for managing power. The NiCad lasts 700 to 1. It is more expensive and has a shorter charge/recharge life (400 to 500 cycles) than NiCad. in this case. • NiMH (Nickel Metal-Hydride). you will have to buy a new one. Freedom from the wall outlet means depending on another source of power. Several types of batteries are used: • NiCad (Nickel Cadmium). The weight and expense of backup batteries make choosing the right battery an important decision. Its major problem is a so-called memory effect in which the battery seems to remember how full it was when you last charged it. to be able to power it. or. It uses a nickel and cadmium plate and potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. -D O N Types of Batteries NiCad: Portable computer battery made of nickel and cadmium with a three to four hour life. It has a relatively short life of three to four hours and recharging can take up to 12 hours. This rechargeable battery is environmentally friendly because it doesn’t contain heavy metals which can be toxic. but it does provide up to 50 percent more power than NiCads for the same weight and doesn’t suffer from memory effect. The original standard of portables is the heaviest and least expensive. which reports the reserve power of the battery. To avoid problems from this effect. and charge its battery. NiCad batteries should be completely drained periodically to maintain the longest charge. and it doesn’t go past that point the next time. If an AC adapter fails. usually a software battery monitor. Batteries EV Battery life is a major factor in judging a portable’s value for the user. although this varies depending on how you are using the computer.power to the DC power the computer requires. A L O Lesson 9: Portable Computing 309 T C O Variety of Portable Computer Batteries PY . Figure 9-15: Variety of portable computer batteries. Conserving the battery’s power and extending its life are much preferable to replacing the battery.

• Suspend to RAM. Even the best batteries will die after an hour or two if the portable has many power-hungry features. batteries like Li-Ion and NiMH with liquids for electrolytes must be in protective steel cans that restrict possible shapes. provides a light. It lasts about 400 charge/recharge cycles. • • O Advanced Power Management (APM) is an application programming interface (API) from Intel and Microsoft for battery-powered computers. It provides several power-saving options. Slowing the processor. Suspend to disk. and has grown in popularity to become the widely used battery technology in new portables. It uses a carbon membrane that absorbs oxygen. but does not waste energy trying to process data at an unnecessarily high rate. turns on more slowly than suspending to RAM. The system. T C O PY • . The system is immediately accessible by using certain keystrokes. Lithium. Introduced in 1998. including shutting off the display or hard drive. and can’t be overcharged. Because it is expensive. a lightweight metal. and potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte. follow the directions supplied with the battery. holds a charge well. Because different types of batteries require different recharging techniques. • Zinc Air: Portable computer battery that uses a carbon membrane that absorbs oxygen. the newer battery technologies would appear to be clearly the battery of choice if money were no object. The system writes data to disk and shuts off completely. suspending to disk. but it uses a jelly-like material as an electrolyte instead of liquid. Also known as Sleep Mode or Instant On. it is usually found on higher-end systems. Environmental regulations must be followed when disposing of batteries. N Advanced Power Management O Given their longer life and lighter weight. To prevent any leakage. such as a large display. and slowing the processor. Li-Ion. The system is on but not involved in heavy-duty calculations. Lithium Polymer. no power is used. This jelly characteristic allows lithium polymer cells to be manufactured in various shapes and sizes for custom requirements. Also known as Hibernate. while not needing to be rebooted. A rechargeable battery technology that provides more charge per pound than Nickel Cadmium or Nickel Metal-Hydride and does not suffer from the memory effect. Li-Ion batteries hold twice as much power as NiCad for about half the weight and provides higher power for heavy-duty requirements. suspending to RAM. L EV 310 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Advanced Power Management (APM): Application programming interface (API) for batterypowered computers that provides several powersaving options. a zinc plate. This method uses a small amount of power. The processor slows down to a point where it can still handle the user’s needs. It was introduced in portable computers in 1993.• Li-Ion: Portable computer lithium battery with a long life. The system writes data to memory and shuts everything down while keeping the data alive with a minute amount of power from the battery. this rechargeable battery is similar to Li-Ion in power rating. Lithium Polymer: Portable computer battery using a jelly-like material. so data could be lost if the battery dies. Zinc Air. so no data can be lost. long-life battery.

hardware latency (how long the system takes to come back up). Power-saving interface that has six separate power-saving states (S0 through S5). If AC is available. These include power use (how much power is being supplied to the system). . There is some variation in the details of how different makes and models of computers actually enforce the different states. CPU context. and system context (what CPU and memory information is retained). and the computer looks to be turned off in all the sleep states. but must always first go back to state S0 and be fully on before transitioning to another sleep state. must power up everything Long O T 2 seconds or more CPU context and system cache contents are lost Only system memory is retained. The following table summarizes the states and their effect on the computer. ACPI (Advanced Configuration and Power Interface). Lesson 9: Portable Computing 311 A L N Long. If the power is turned off with the computer in the hibernate state. and chip set context are lost Operating system context. ACPI: Stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface.Symbol S0 S1 State Fully on and operational Sleep Power Use Full power Slight reduction. while if it is using battery power. the emphasis is on performance. Some devices. If the computer is using AC power. This power management system defines several properties for each state. the computer can recover and resume operation because the hibernation file stores the information the system needs to return to the condition before hibernation started. the computer operates using AC power and also uses it to recharge the battery. software resumption (where the software is started from when the system restarts). cache contents. has six states. can wake a system from a sleeping state. processor and bus clocks off Processor loses all power so data in its cache is lost Processor and some system chips lose power Software Resumption Not stopped Control restarts where left off Starts from processor’s restart vector Starts from processor’s restart vector Hardware Latency Not stopped 2 seconds System Context Not stopped All retained S2 Deeper sleep S3 Much deeper sleep 2 seconds or more S4 Hibernate Power to all devices turned off O Restarts from saved software file S5 Shut down -D Power off Must reboot EV A system cannot switch between sleep states directly. More and more of the computer is shut down as the numbers get higher. States S1 to S4 are called sleeping states. System Power Policy determines when the computer switches to the different states. however. like a modem with an incoming call. If the other sleep states are used. you must reboot the computer if power is lost because information about the state before going to sleep was in RAM and has been lost. the emphasis is on conservation. With each state. more computer components are turned off to increase power savings. No computation is being done. is maintained in a hibernate file (an image of memory) None retained C O PY The latest power management system.

Answers will vary. Lesson Review 9A List the components found on a portable system that aren’t typically found on a desktop system. network adapter. You also learned about the PC Card interface and methods of providing a power source to portables. AC adapter. heavy.Smart batteries have built-in circuit boards that give the computer an accurate estimate of how much battery time is left. contains toxic metals Don’t hold a charge well when not in use. and modem. infrared port. inexpensive. long life Disadvantage NiMH Li-Ion Summary L A EV 312 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D In this lesson. but may include: SCSI controller. shorter charge/recharge life T C O PY . TASK 9C-1: Identifying Battery Power Characteristics 1. more expensive than NiCad. and rechargeable battery. trackpad. O N O Short life if not charged and discharged properly. You examined their technical characteristics. integrated LCD display. TV tuner. some processors have a built-in ability to slow down and reduce power consumption under certain conditions. To help conserve power independently of the APM. Trackpoint. lasts 700-1000 charge/ recharge cycles 50% longer life than NiCad. shorter charge/recharge life Expensive. docking connector. For each type of battery shown in the following table. lightweight. and their weaknesses. their strengths. identify an advantage and a disadvantage. Battery Type NiCad Advantage Holds charge very well. found only on high-end systems. you learned about portable systems and the unique components that distinguish them from desktop systems. 9B List some devices you can connect via a PC Card. environmentally friendly Holds a charge well when not in use. PC Card slot.

and what are some of the procedures used to conserve power? A set of batteries will supply the power for two to six hours of computing. and processors can slow down to conserve power. depending on the tasks you are doing. The more the portable conserves power. EV A L -D O N Lesson 9: Portable Computing 313 O T C O PY .9C Why is power management so important with portable computers. Portables can enter different levels of sleep states to conserve power. the longer you can keep working.

EV 314 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

You will then learn about the hardware devices and software entities commonly found on networks. EV A L The seven layers of the OSI model of networks organize the function and responsibilities of the components that make up the network. All computer networks. you will study the components in Layers 1 to 4 in detail. Network. Lastly. Application. you will identify the characteristics of Internet bandwidth technologies and look at some common problems that can occur on the network. LESSON 10 Data Files none 10A Learn about the general characteristics of computer networks. Transport. In this topic. and to recognize these common attributes in a variety of different network scenarios.Networking Overview The Internet is an interconnected network of networks. and Physical are the seven layers in the model. O N O To understand the basic components that comprise a network. Session. you will learn how networks—the building blocks of the Internet—are classified based on geographical boundaries and the characteristics of different network topologies. and protocols work together to build a functional network. In this topic. 10B Gain an understanding of the purpose of each layer of the OSI Model. you will: T Lesson 10: Networking 315 Objectives C O Lesson Time 2 hours PY . no matter how large or small. In this lesson. you will learn to identify and classify those characteristics. share certain characteristics. Presentation. 10C Learn how connection devices. Data Link. -D You will examine the importance of the individual layers of the OSI model. media.

Any computer that uses the resources of a server. The following table lists some of the common hardware and software components you will find on virtually any computer network. Most organizations use networks because a network makes it easy to share these valuable resources among its users.Topic 10A Network Concepts A computer network is a collection of hardware and software that enables a group of computers to communicate with each other. like files or mail messages. For example. while servers are often high-end machines that may serve no other purpose than to manage resources. Server computers run network server software. and an email server organizes email. Client computers run network client software. computer network: A collection of hardware and software that enables a group of computers to communicate with each other. Component Server Client A -D O Shared resources can be data. like printers or modems. Each computer on the network is called a node. C O PY Network Terminology . like a word processor or spreadsheet program. But any computer network includes certain basic components. the word server refers to the actual computer. two-node home setup to the vast number of computers on the Internet. software applications. server: A computer on a network that manages resources for other computers on the network. In some cases. Client may refer to the computer or the software running on it. EV client: A computer on a network that makes use of the resources managed by a server. or hardware. Client machines are usually single-user personal computers or workstations. a Web server sends out Web pages. Computer networks are everywhere—from a simple. Common Network Components 316 A+ Certification: Core Hardware N Definition A Simple Computer Network Figure 10-1: A simple computer network. Here’s a quick run-down on the common denominators that define computer networks. An email client retrieves messages from an email server for a user. and enables network users to share resources. a file server stores files. A client is a computer on a network that makes use of the resources managed by a server. L A server is a computer on a network that manages resources for other computers on the network. Any computer that makes resources available to other computers on the network. O T node: A generic term for any computer on a network. regardless of which operating system you’re using. and sometimes it refers to the software that performs the server function on the computer.

Resources Network adapter Network protocol Network topology At the most basic level. and protocols the network can use. thousands of large networks containing thousands of computers can combine using telecommunications technology. O N EV Figure 10-2: Network scope. and a segment of cable. A network interface card that enables two computers to send and receive data over the network medium. T network scope: The effective coverage area of a network. and long-distance cable connections to form the vast global network known as the Internet. you can make a network out of two computers. and hardware provided by network servers for use by network clients. A specialized electronic language that enables network computers to communicate. two adapter cards. applications. There are two major divisions of network scope—Local Area Networks and Wide Area Networks. At the other end of the scale. The data. satellite transmissions.Component Media Definition The physical means of communication between network computers. The physical layout of a network. Network Scope O Network scope refers to the extent to which a network provides coverage. This often includes specifications for the types of media. C Network Scope Types of Network Scopes A L -D O Lesson 10: Networking 317 PY . The network medium is often a specialized cable or other media such as infrared transmission or radio signals. adapters. such as local area network or wide area network.

and use devices like printers that are connected to the LAN. WANs can be enormous. In a WAN. A Wide Area Network (WAN) can span large geographic areas like countries and continents. secure repository. It provides its subscribers with standard network services such as Internet access and email. Here are some of the ones you might encounter: • A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) is a mini-WAN or a giant LAN that’s typically confined to a single municipality. America Online (AOL) is a VAN. A computer network contained in a clearly defined geographic area. high reliability. and also offers additional features such as private AOL chat rooms. -D MAN: Stands for Metropolitan Area Network. SANs are useful to firms that need extremely large data storage capacity. A LAN can only be as large as the physical limitations of the cabling you use. Computers on a MAN are linked using high-speed media like fiber-optics or dedicated digital lines. Computer users can send email and set up chat sessions over the LAN. A computer network that spans large geographic areas like countries and continents. or specialized high-speed telephone lines. companies normally share the links or lease capacity from a public carrier such as a telecommunications company. message boards. more specialized scopes used to describe networks. Usually the computers linked together in a LAN are workstations or personal computers that can access data on computers on the same LAN.• LAN: Stands for Local Area Network. O PY A Local Area Network (LAN) consists of any number of computers that are linked directly together and that are housed in a clearly defined geographic area. Two computers in neighboring buildings that communicate through a satellite link would be on a WAN. highspeed media. • O N O T Note that the key characteristic of a LAN or a WAN is not how big it is. which varies depending upon the cabling type. These media are expensive. . A computer network consisting of large-capacity storage devices. But WAN technologies are essential to link all the computers in a multi-site or multi-national enterprise in a reliable way. such as in a single building or single campus. A company might use a private MAN to link several different office buildings together within the same city. A Value-Added Network (VAN) is a public network utility that provides both network access and additional proprietary services that are available only to its users. for example. C WAN: Stands for Wide Area Network. • EV VAN: Stands for Value-Added Network. the Internet is the ultimate WAN. and news summaries. A computer network confined to a single municipality that uses highspeed media like fiber-optics or dedicated digital lines. WANs often contain two or more LANs. There are other. A computer network that provides services above and beyond the transmission of data. at least some of the connections rely on long-distance communications media such as satellite links. For example. and fast retrieval. • A Storage Area Network (SAN) is a specialized LAN that links several network servers that are dedicated to storing large amounts of data in a centralized. but rather the technologies used to connect the computers. long-distance fiber-optic cable. such as in a single building or single campus. The servers in the SAN manage large banks of hard disks or tape drives and are connected to each other by reliable. 318 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L SAN: Stands for Storage Area Network.

which manages access to modems or other types of communication links. However. EWN: Stands for Enterprise-Wide Network. • • C • In addition to providing basic network services. as well as storing and forwarding email messages. T • • • • • Database server. -D O • Communications server. Apple Computer’s OSX ServerWorks with the MacOS system to network Macintosh computers. NetWare cannot function as a desktop operating system. which provides a wide variety of information to the public Internet or to private intranets (private. NetWare does require DOS on the boot drive. Mail server. Network Operating Systems Lesson 10: Networking 319 PY . internal Internet-type networks). Novell’s NetWare is also a self-contained system that functions only as a NOS. There are several different network operating systems that today’s networks are built on: • Microsoft’s Windows 2000 Server and its predecessor. are completely self-contained network operating systems that may also be used to run just a single client machine. too. no matter what operating system they run or where they’re located. N O • LANtastic is not independent and requires DOS to function. Some of these dedicated functions include: • Print server. some network servers can serve specialized functions. NOS: Stands for network operating system. A computer network that links all the computers in an organization. Applications server. Windows NT Server. The UNIX family of operating systems. which stores large databases and runs database applications. including Linux. which provides access to email services. Computer software that manages all the resources accessible over the network. One piece of the network operating system resides in each client machine and another resides in each server. O NetWare is the only operating system in this list that can’t also be used as a desktop operating system. which is dedicated to managing network printers and print jobs. The EWN will probably incorporate several different LANs and WANs. EV A L Internet or Web server. are completely self-contained network operating systems that may also be used to run just a single client machine. Server and Network Operating Systems A network operating system (NOS) refers to the software that manages all the resources accessible over the network. a generalized term for any server that runs an application for access across a network.• An Enterprise-Wide Network (EWN) is any private network that connects all of an organization’s computers. LAN Server is not independent and must be combined with IBM OS/2 to function.

As Windows became more powerful. Windows 9x. control peripherals. which supports more than one program running concurrently. Software programs now allow Macs and PCs to imitate each other so both machines can run both PC and Mac software. • Client Operating Systems • L EV 320 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D Operating systems can be grouped by their capability to do more than one thing at a time. • • • Multiprocessing. and Windows 2000 Professional. Early PCs did not have the power to make use of UNIX. Software that runs under the MacOS will not function in Windows. and communicate with other computers. so it was used in workstations.x. portable. O UNIX is an operating system developed by Bell Labs in the early 1970s. Multithreading. Because UNIX is run on many of the servers connected to the Internet. Many operating systems have built-in networking capability. Windows NT Workstation. controlling their machines by mouse clicks rather than text instructions. PY . UNIX was low in cost. which supports different parts of a single program running concurrently. The hardware differences between Macintosh and IBM-compatible PCs are significant. Internet users and administrators need to be familiar with the restrictions and requirements that UNIX/Linux places on filenames and notation. runs on many platforms. which supports running a program on more than one CPU. which supports two or more users running programs at the same time. Also referred to as desktop operating system. There are several different operating systems that today’s personal computers use: • Windows was originally a graphical user interface (GUI) developed by Microsoft that allowed users to send commands to the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS). The MacOS is popular because of its innovative use of graphics and its userfriendly controls. and powerful. networking capabilities were built into the basic system. flexible. Later versions of Windows became independent operating systems. usually a personal computer. Multitasking. For example: • Multi-user.Workstation and Client Operating Systems An operating system (OS) refers to the software on a node. C O OS: Stands for operating system. that lets it run applications. N O T The Apple Macintosh Operating System is designed specifically for Macintosh computers. and is a popular alternative to the Windows’ operating system. Linux—an implementation of UNIX developed initially by Linus Torvald—is free. Because UNIX was written in the programming language C. it could be run on any computer that could run C programs. Client operating systems include Windows 3.

given proper access rights. You don’t need a centralized server. Most networks can be categorized as one of two types—peer-to-peer networks and client-server networks: O N -D network model: A description of the amount of centralized control found on a network.TASK 10A-1: Identifying Operating System Applicability 1. Examples include client-server and peer-to-peer. any computer can act as both a server and a client. although you will need to have some networking knowledge and expertise in order to maintain and troubleshoot the network. For each operating system listed in the following table. indicate whether it’s most suitable as a client operating system or as a network operating system. L O A Peer-to-peer Network T Lesson 10: Networking 321 C O PY .x/Windows for Workgroups Windows 95/98 Windows NT Workstation Windows NT Server Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Server NetWare Linux MacOS Mac OS X Server Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Network Operating System No No No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Network Models A network model refers to the degree of centralized control that’s built into the network. and share access to expensive peripherals such as a CD-ROM drive tower or a color laser printer. share information. Peer-to-Peer Architecture EV A In a peer-to-peer network. Client Operating System MS-DOS Windows 3. peer-to-peer network: A network where all computers connected to the network can act as a provider (server) or consumer (client) of network resources. and you don’t need a centralized administrative staff. Any computer can share resources with another. and any computer can use the resources of another. Creating a peer-to-peer network—by linking two or three computers in your home office—can be a simple and relatively inexpensive way to add storage space.

putting the biggest hard disk on the file server. • It’s harder to optimize your computer hardware needs. You can implement a peer-to-peer network with any Windows. a simple peer-to-peer network can be a great solution for a small office. L EV 322 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D • Nonetheless. they can’t be very big. Security isn’t centralized. O • N O Peer-to-peer networks have a few limitations: • For practical reasons. you can concentrate the hardware resources where they’re needed—for example. Each shared resource on a network computer is linked to a user account that exists on that computer. because each computer needs to be available to support the needs of the local user as well as users who connect to it across the network. maintained. With a more centralized network. controlling. you will probably also need to provide each user with some additional training to give them the skills they need to manage their portion of the network. administering a decentralized network becomes too complicated. or departmental workgroup’s networking needs. Lots of different people are responsible for maintaining. T C O PY . which makes the network harder to administer and less secure. home office. duplicate user accounts. You must either coordinate multiple. Generally. or is protected by a single password.Figure 10-3: A peer-to-peer network. once you get beyond 10 computer users. Macintosh. and administering different parts of the network. or UNIX/Linux computers. or make sure passwords are set. These tasks may be done inconsistently. and protected appropriately.

• • • EV You can use any Windows NT Server/2000 Server. you will need to invest time. Generally. monitor. using a dedicated. or UNIX/Linux to create a client-server network. and training to create and maintain the central server and to develop a qualified administrative staff. the network servers are not used as clients. Figure 10-4: A client-server network. and back up. they are dedicated to their network services and are usually physically secured by being locked in a server room to prevent casual access. at least one centralized server manages shared resources and security for the other network users and computers. O N Lesson 10: Networking 323 O T C O A Client-server Network PY . money. specially trained team.Client-Server Architecture In the client-server network model. A L -D Here are some of the advantages of client-server networks: • You can concentrate your resources on optimizing the computer that will be used as a server so that it can meet the processing and storage needs of the network users. or expand. and one or more computers act primarily as consumers of network resources (clients). Centralizing security makes security more consistent and protects the network better. This network model enables you to administer your resources centrally. Clientserver networks can scale. This provides more consistency and reliability. Macintosh. • You can support many more users than in a peer-to-peer network. client-server network: A network where one or more computers act primarily as providers of network resources (servers). to support thousands or even millions of users. With a client-server network. Storing data centrally makes it easier to secure. Novell NetWare.

provides all processing power and resources to all other network nodes. They are not independent clients and can’t function at all if they’re detached from the network. powerful. This can be a powerful network server running an operating system like Windows 2000 or UNIX. they are also potentially difficult to administer and monitor. -D O N Figure 10-5: A combination network.Combination Networks As the name implies. As a matter of fact. all the resources and processing power exist on a large. most large networks today are likely to have some peer resource-sharing existing alongside the centralized system. A Combination Network These networks can be very flexible. Users work at dumb terminals that have no processing power of their own. central computer. However. The terminals only permit the user to perform a specified set of tasks. A Hierarchical Network EV 324 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L hierarchical network: A network where one or more central computers. In this scheme. proprietary operating systems provided by the computer manufacturer). combination—or hybrid—networks combine both clientserver and peer-to-peer network elements. O T C O PY . Hierarchical Networks Less common in today’s PC computing landscape are the completely centralized networks known as hierarchical networks. or a dedicated mainframe (mainframes usually run specialized. such as a mainframe.

you can support hundreds of nodes efficiently. indicating how each network model meets the corresponding need. Complete the following table. Centralized security. Each node manages its own resources. Recommended for 10 users or fewer. ATM terminals have very limited.Figure 10-6: A hierarchical network. L EV O 1. Recommended for hundreds or even thousands of users. Client-Server N Because administration is performed centrally. TASK 10A-2: Comparing the Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Network Models Ease of administration Scalability Number of users Resources Security -D Need Peer-to-Peer A Administration becomes more difficult as the number of nodes increases. Can be expanded as needs dictate. pre-programmed functionality which doesn’t permit any general work. All the information entered at the ATM is processed at a central server to ensure that only authorized persons can use the ATM and that all the transactions are posted promptly and accurately. All resources are managed centrally. Each node is responsible for its own security. Limited growth potential. A bank’s network of Automated Teller Machines (ATMs) is a hierarchical network you are familiar with. O Lesson 10: Networking 325 T C O PY .

Another example is two computers connected directly to each other to use file-transfer software such as LapLink. All of these topologies will be defined in this topic. A connection scheme indicates how many devices are connected to a transmission media segment or an individual cable. Each network has a connection scheme that describes. An example of a multipoint connection is a star. Topologies use either a point-to-point or multipoint connection scheme. N O point-to-point connection scheme: Two devices are connected by a single communication channel. in general terms. In networks that use media cable. which describes the network’s entire physical structure. Star Topology EV The star configuration is often combined with bus or ring topologies to make a star-bus (Ethernet hubs) or star-ring (MSAUs or Token Ring) network.Network Topologies A network topology refers to the layout of the transmission medium and devices on a network. Each network also subscribes to at least one physical topology. Ask students to reread earlier concepts as necessary. Physical topologies include: physical topology: A network’s entire physical configuration. 326 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O multipoint connection scheme: Connection of three or more devices by a communication channel. T C O PY Students may encounter terms that aren’t defined until later in the lesson. . or cellular topology network. bus. the topology defines the cable’s actual physical configuration. the transmission media layout. Physical Topology network topology: The layout of the transmission medium and devices on a network. An example of a point-topoint connection is a printer or modem connected to your computer. or the Microsoft Windows direct cable connection. MacLink Plus.

You may add and remove nodes from a star topology network easily. transmits data to all nodes on the network. the bus is a series of wire segments. Each segment runs from the network interface card on one computer to the network interface card on the next computer down the line. multiport repeater. sometimes called a backbone. However. A break or faulty piece of cable anywhere on the segment prevents all of the computers on the segment from being able to communicate. concentrator. and if a computer fails. The network cards on the first and last computer on the bus are connected to only one other card.• EV A L Figure 10-7: Star topology. A topology for a LAN where a single main bus cable. concentrator. or hub. . it will not affect the rest of the network. O N O Bus Topology -D T bus topology: A physical topology where a single main cable called the bus or backbone carries all network data. so a terminator is attached to each end of the cable to substitute for computers in the line. More cabling is required because a separate cable must run from each node to the hub or central computer. Signals travel from the nodes to the central computer which then sends the signals to other nodes on the network. the entire network fails. or hub. if the hub or central computer fails. the card needs two connections. In many bus networks. C Lesson 10: Networking 327 O PY Star. A topology for a LAN where all nodes are connected individually to a central computer. Nodes connect directly to the bus. To function properly. Every node on a bus network has a direct connection to the main bus cable. • Bus. star topology: A LAN physical topology where all nodes individually connect to a central computer or other device such as a multiport repeater.

so no other machine can send signals that might interfere or conflict with the signal from the machine with the token. it can’t transmit data until it does hold the token. and nodes relay information around the loop in a round-robin manner. • Ring. This topology is used by a Token Ring network. Only the machine holding the token can transmit data over the network. O T C O PY . where a packet called a token is passed from station to station. A topology for a LAN where all the nodes are connected in a continuous loop with no end points and no terminators.EV token: A device used in ring networks to ensure that only one node transmits data at any one time. If a node on the ring goes down. no other stations on the ring are affected. If a node doesn’t hold the token. O N Ring Topology Figure 10-8: Bus topology. 328 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D ring topology: A physical topology where all nodes are connected in a continuous loop. Workstations relay signals around the loop in a round-robin fashion.

EV Figure 10-10: Mesh topology. O Lesson 10: Networking 329 PY . A partial mesh topology has only some of the nodes fully connected. permanent pointto-point communication paths. one to each existing computer in the mesh. Adding a new node to a full mesh topology of five computers requires installing an additional five cables. Full mesh is expensive to set up and modify. A full mesh topology occurs when every node on the network has a separate wire connecting it to every other node on the network. T C N O Mesh Topology mesh topology: A physical topology where each node has a direct connection to all other nodes on the network. It provides each device with a point-to-point connection to every other device in the network. providing dedicated. all remaining nodes can continue communicating. Hybrid Topology A L -D O Figure 10-9: Ring topology. while other nodes are connected to just one of the nodes on the full mesh portion of the network. • Mesh. A full mesh topology is redundant because if any one node of connection fails.

EV 330 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L O T C O PY . Very fault tolerant. TASK 10A-3: -D Comparing Fault Tolerance of Different Network Topologies 1. A defective hub can bring down all the workstations connected to that hub. Figure 10-11: Hybrid topology.• hybrid topology: A physical topology where two or more of the basic physical topologies. ring. Hybrid. A topology for a LAN that combines two or more different topologies. Extremely fault tolerant because every node has a path to every other node. and mesh. For each network topology. Topology Bus Star Ring Mesh O N Degree of Fault Tolerance A single break in the cable can bring the whole network down. such as bus. describe the extent to which it offers fault tolerance—the ability to ignore or overcome problems. are combined. because removing a node from the ring does not affect the ring. star.

however. Most commonly. You can find more information about IrDA standards at www. The wizard will guide you through the device installation steps. infrared technology is used to connect printers to computers (typically portable computers. Infrared communication uses line-of-sight technology. Infrared communications are supported under Windows 2000. Instead. With infrared communications. unless you’re installing a Plug and Play device. you will first need to run the Add Infrared Device Wizard.6 Kbps. in which case port assignments will be made automatically. Click OK. which you’ll access by using the Add New Hardware Wizard in the Control Panel and specifying that you want to install an infrared device. data is sent over a beam of light. and the distance between the devices must be minimal (no more than approximately three to nine feet). With the example of a printer.6 Kbps (slow IrDA) to 4 Mbps on newer devices (fast IrDA). Open the Infrared Monitor by double-clicking on the Infrared icon in Control Panel. there is no physical connection between the devices that communicate over the infrared link. 3. to be able to communicate over an infrared connection. such as laptops or palmtops).org. Infrared devices use infrared tranceivers that are compliant with the Infrared Data Association’s (IrDA) standards. Using the Infrared Monitor to Enable Infrared Communications Lesson 10: Networking 331 PY . In addition. you will have to follow these steps to enable infrared communications: 1. Windows 98. Note that you can also assign an IR port to a virtual serial port or a virtual parallel port. C O T fast IrDA: Infrared standard that uses a transfer speed of 4 Mbps. Once you’ve run the wizard. you will have to decide which ports (COM and LPT) to assign to the infrared port. Select the Options tab. using line-of sight technology. but it can also be used to connect workstations in a network.Infrared Communications Another way to connect network devices is by using infrared technology. Check Enable Infrared Communication. During the installation. 4.irda. you will also have to enable and configure it in Windows. the computer’s infrared port must be in the line of sight of the printer’s infrared port and the two must be positioned relatively close to each other. -D O N EV A L O infrared: Technology that uses a beam of light to transmit data. 2. To do so. rather than cables. Data transfer speed ranges from 9. and Windows CE. slow IrDA: Infrared standard that uses a transfer speed of 9. the actual communication is more like a serial communication regardless of the port assignment.

You can use and configure the Infrared Monitor in Windows to obtain status information on infrared devices that come into range. The model does not change how computers work. and modems. T C O PY . and bad or incompatible drivers. organized way to look at network communications. the devices being too far away from each other. N You’re now ready to send and receive files. print files to IrDA-compliant printers and access a network over an infrared connection. A model that describes network communications as consisting of seven layers that work together to provide network services.EV OSI model: Stands for Open System Interconnection. and when communication is interrupted. O Problems you might encounter could be caused by device failure. but it does help humans picture how the networking hardware and software cooperate. mice. Other devices that use infrared communications include keyboards. O Figure 10-12: Using the Infrared Monitor to enable Infrared communications. 332 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A The OSI Model L -D Topic 10B Introduction to the OSI Model The OSI (Open System Interconnection) model of networking provides a standard. an object being in the line of sight.

Figure 10-13: OSI model.

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Control is passed from one layer to the next. Communication begins with the Application layer on one end (for example, a user opening an application and typing a request). The communication is passed through each of the seven layers down to the Physical layer (which is the actual transmission of bits). On the receiving end, control passes back up the hierarchy.

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Responsible for program-to-program communication Manages data representation conversions Responsible for establishing and maintaining communications channels Responsible for end-to-end integrity of data transmission Routes data from one node to another Responsible for physically passing data from one node to another Manages putting data onto the network media and taking the data off

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Originally the ISO (International Organization for Standardization), which developed the model, hoped that different computer makers around the world would incorporate the details included in the model so all systems from all vendors would be able to communicate with each other. The seven layers had seven sets of standards which tried to isolate problems to certain layers. People working on some aspect of network design could assume that the layers above and below their area of development followed the OSI standards, and would make sure their work followed OSI standards so it would have worldwide compatibility. The following table summarizes the seven layers in the OSI model.

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Layer 1: The Physical Layer
The Physical layer is responsible for passing bits onto and receiving them from the connecting medium. This layer has no understanding of the meaning of the bits, but treats them as voltages, currents, or flashes of light passing through copper, radio waves, fiber-optic, or some other medium. The Physical layer deals with the functional electrical and mechanical characteristics of the signals and signaling methods.

The Physical Layer

Figure 10-14: The Physical layer.

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Data Link layer: A layer of the OSI model that manages node-to-node transmission. Also referred to as Layer 2 of the OSI model.

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The standards developed for this layer, and the devices that function on this layer, have to solve several problems. How do you transmit strings of zeros and ones at faster speeds over longer distances? How do you transmit a long series of just zeros that can be detected at the other end?

Layer 2: The Data Link Layer
The Data Link layer is responsible for node-to-node validity and integrity of the transmission. The Data Link layer detects and may correct errors in data packets caused by problems in the Physical layer. The Physical layer is responsible for sending signals through a medium as reliably as possible. The Data Link layer examines the signals and determines if the transmitted data is accurate.

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Physical layer: A layer of the OSI model that provides rules for the transmission of bits over the network medium. Also referred to as Layer 1 of the OSI model.

Figure 10-15: The Data Link layer.

Layer 3: The Network Layer

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The Network layer establishes the route between the sending and receiving stations. The Network layer, the Data Link layer, and the Physical layer are all technology-dependent and have to work together. The Network layer establishes the communication path between two nodes on the network, the Data Link layer ensures the data sent through that path is accurate, and the Physical layer places the proper electrical signals on the media that make up the path.

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The standards developed for this layer, and the devices that function on this layer, have to solve several problems. How do you frame a long string of bits so it is clear where each message begins and ends? How do you detect an error in a corrupted message, or confirm that the data is accurate? How do you tell the sender to retransmit the corrupted message so the error can be corrected? How do you control the flow of messages to prevent overwhelming the physical capabilities of the receiving computer?

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Network layer: A layer of the OSI model that provides internetworking for the communication sessions. Also referred to as Layer 3 of the OSI model.

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This layer has its own set of problems. How can a link in the network carry several messages at the same time, keep the messages separate, and deliver them to the proper end node on the network? How can a node address a message so it goes to the intended end node, and how can the sending node determine the best path to use to send a message to another node on another network? The OSI standards and hardware at the Network level try to solve these problems.

Layer 4: The Transport Layer
The Transport layer is responsible for overall end-to-end validity and integrity of the transmission. The Transport layer works with the three layers below it to make sure the final file or message is complete and accurate. For example, the Physical layer puts bits on the wire, the Data Link makes sure the data packets a node receives are accurate, the Network layer sets up the path of communication between the sending and receiving node, and the Transport layer examines all the packets and makes sure that they can be reassembled into the complete, exact message that was sent. The Transport layer is network technology-independent and deals with the quality of the service provided by the bottom three layers, not the actual operation of the layers.

The Transport Layer

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Transport layer: A layer of the OSI model that provides end-to-end management of the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 4 of the OSI model.

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Figure 10-16: The Network layer.

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Figure 10-17: The Transport layer.

Layer 5: The Session Layer

The Session layer creates, maintains, and terminates communication sessions in an orderly manner. It also marks significant parts of the transmitted data with checkpoints to allow for fast recovery in the event of a connection failure.
Session layer: A layer of the OSI model that initiates and manages the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 5 of the OSI model.

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An error on the Network level can instruct the Data Link level to send a packet of data to the wrong address. The packet arrives and is exactly what was sent, thanks to the Data Link layer, but it is in the wrong place. The Transport layer has to resolve this problem. The chances of sending data over a network and never getting an error are very small. The more time and money spent on equipment and error checking, the smaller the chance of an undetected error slipping through the system. The Transport layer is a practical compromise between the quest for perfection and the cost of perfection.

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Figure 10-18: The Session layer.

Layer 6: The Presentation Layer
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Presentation layer: A layer of the OSI model that provides conversion of codes and formats for the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 6 of the OSI model.

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The Session layer provides guidelines for operating in two-way alternate mode (TWA), when two nodes take turns sending messages to each other, and in twoway simultaneous mode (TWS), when both nodes can send and receive at the same time. This layer also provides guidelines for setting checkpoints so that if a transmission is interrupted, it can resume from an intermediate point, rather than starting from the beginning again.

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Figure 10-19: The Presentation layer.

The time spent to compress a file might speed up the overall time needed to transfer a file sent over a slow connection, while the compression process might take up more time than is saved when the file is sent over a high-speed connection. The Presentation layer also makes sure that the receiving computer can understand the encoding of the message.

Layer 7: The Application Layer

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Application layer: A layer of the OSI model that provides the starting point of the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 7 of the OSI model.

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Figure 10-20: The Application layer.

A Network in Action

A Network in Action

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As mentioned previously, the protocols in the OSI model layers communicate with each other to complete tasks. It is similar to sending a letter to a friend. The communications involved in that transaction extend well beyond you and your friend. For example, when you place the stamped and addressed letter in your mailbox, you communicate to the postal carrier that you want the letter taken to the post office for sorting and eventual delivery to your friend. The postal carrier’s placement of the letter in a bin at the post office communicates to the postal clerk that the letter needs to be sorted. Several other transactions need to occur before your letter reaches its destination.

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it is not unusual for some components to span more than one layer of the OSI model to accomplish the communication task at hand. -D O Figure 10-22 depicts a simple exchange in which a network node requests a file from a file server. shown in relationship to the layers of the OSI model. As shown here. Lesson 10: Networking 341 A L N O T C O PY . File Transfer and the OSI Model EV Figure 10-22: Components in a simple exchange between a workstation and a file server.Figure 10-21: A network in action. Network components are shown in relation to the OSI reference model.

Other than speed differences. Only your testing can ensure that OSI-compliant systems are truly compatible for your environment. F. the OSI model enables the upper layers to work independently of the lower layers. should be able to remain in place without modification. your application should work as well over an Ethernet network as over a Token Ring or ARCNet network. G.A. on their own. It directs the request to the communication protocol for transmission on the network. on a workstation to switch from an Ethernet to a Token Ring network. For users. An application running on the workstation requests a file that is stored on the network. B. The communication protocol determines the best route through the network and passes the request to the LAN driver. PY . C. The LAN driver copies the request into frames (bundles that can be moved across the network) and sends the frames to the network adapter for transmission. The network operating system will use the layers of the network to transfer the requested file from a network hard disk to the workstation. in theory. The ISO’s publications describe the specifics of each layer in great detail. along with instructions that the message should be delivered to the file server. Even so. and the drivers that implement them. the networks should work identically because the OSI model enables the components (the implementations of a layer or layers) to work independently. T The communication protocol verifies that the message was received intact. However. The file server’s LAN driver takes the message out of the frames and sends a confirmation to the workstation that it has received the frames. variations exist between network implementations that purportedly follow the OSI model. you should have to switch only the network interface card (which takes care of the Physical and some of the Data Link functions) and some of the drivers (to take care of the remainder of the Data Link layer). L By separating the tasks necessary for network access into a number of distinct layers. C The file server’s network interface board receives the frames and passes them to its LAN driver. The workstation’s network interface board transmits the frames across the network. The rest of the layers. and it passes the message to the network operating system. I. this translates (at least theoretically) to network transparency. Redirection software on the workstation determines that the request is for network services. Due to layering. H. D. Again. O E. EV 342 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D O N The Benefits of the OSI Model O The network operating system receives the request and acts on it. the ISO’s detailed specifications go a long way toward ensuring compatibility.

5 IEEE 802. A L -D C Lesson 10: Networking 343 O PY . Match the OSI layer on the left with its description on the right. The IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers) is an international professional association for electrical and electronics engineers that sets standards for telecommunications and computing applications. d. Manages error and flow control. Token Bus—Defines the MAC layer for bus networks that use a token-passing mechanism (Token Bus networks).11 EV High-level Interface—Standards related to network management. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has accepted the IEEE 802 series of Local Area Network (LAN) standards under ISO 8802.2 System O N O T IEEE 802 Standards The term 802 came from the committee convening Feb (2) of 1980 (80). Allows different computers to establish a virtual conversation. Manufacturers who follow these standards help make network communication reliable between different makes and models of computing devices. This is the basis of the Ethernet standard.7 IEEE 802. Places network data on the media. Fiber-optic LANs. e. c e g a d b f Application layer Presentation layer Session layer Transport layer Network layer Data Link layer Physical layer a. Integrated Data and Voice Networks.8 IEEE 802. Routes the data from one node to another. The IEEE divides this layer into two sublayers—the Data Link Control (DLC) layer and the Media Access Control (MAC) layer. Metropolitan Area Networks.6 IEEE 802. Broadband LANs. Network Architecture Standards IEEE 802. Token Ring—Defines the MAC layer for Token Ring networks. Wireless Networks.TASK 10B-1: Identifying the Role of Each Layer in the OSI Model 1. Determines how the data is represented. b.3 IEEE 802.9 IEEE 802. Logical Link Control—General standard for the Data Link layer in the OSI Reference Model. g.4 IEEE 802. Arranges data into chunks called packets. c. Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detect (CSMA/CD)— Defines the MAC layer for bus networks that use CSMA/CD. f. Responsible for program-to-program communication.10 IEEE 802. Security.1 IEEE 802. The IEEE 802 standards include: Standard IEEE 802.

This cable is thinner and more flexible than that used for the 10Base5 standard. Any unused connection must have a 50 ohm terminator. Uses RJ-45 connectors. Ethernet is a Local Area Network (LAN) protocol—developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976—that uses a bus or star topology. and an open technology that anyone can incorporate in their hardware and software. 10BaseT standard (also called twisted-pair Ethernet) uses a twisted-pair cable with maximum lengths of 100 meters. Also called thick Ethernet. Ethernet Description • Ethernet Standards EV 10Base2: Ethernet standard that uses 50 ohm coaxial cable (RG-58 A/U). Cables in the 10BaseT system connect with RJ-45 connectors. ensuring a large market for competitively priced Ethernet equipment. A star topology is common with 12 or more computers connected directly to a hub or concentrator. Ethernet is easy to use. and Thicknet. Cables in the 10Base2 system connect with BNC connectors. The IEEE 802 standards splits the second layer of the OSI model. they are as compatible as possible. which specify the access method used.While the IEEE 802 standards and the OSI model do not match perfectly. • 10Base2 standard (also called Thinnet) uses 50 ohm coaxial cable (RG-58 A/U) with maximum lengths of 185 meters. 10Base5 is also called thick Ethernet. Thickwire. The name derives from the fact that the maximum data transfer speed is 10 Mbps.3 standard is based on the original Ethernet specifications. T C Ethernet: The most widely used LAN access method. Also called twisted-pair Ethernet. or Thicknet. Transfer speed is 10 Mbps. The standard was first published in 1985.3 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) Access Method and Physical Layer Specifications.3 standard. The 10Base2 system operates at 10 Mbps. with the formal title of “IEEE 802. The cable is thinner and more flexible than the coaxial cable used for the 10Base2 or 10Base5 standards. • O 10Base5 is the original cabling standard for Ethernet that uses coaxial cables. which makes it a worldwide networking standard. into two sub-layers: the LLC (Logical Link Control) and MAC (Media Access Control). The 10BaseT system operates at 10 Mbps. 344 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D 10Base5: Ethernet standard that uses coaxial cable and supports transfer speeds of 10 Mbps. The network interface card (NIC) in a computer requires a T-connector where you can attach two cables to adjacent computers. The vast majority of computer vendors today equip their products with 10/100 Mbps (million bits per second) Ethernet attachments. which is defined by the IEEE 802.” The IEEE standard has since been adopted by the ISO. N There are currently several Ethernet standards in use: O Ethernet is by far the most popular LAN technology in use today.3. the Data Link layer. Also called Thinnet. All of this theory and talk about standards becomes more applicable when you realize that the standards are describing two of the common network architectures used to link PCs. L 10BaseT: Ethernet standard that uses twisted-pair cable. O PY . it uses baseband transmission. Thickwire. and the maximum length of cables is 500 meters. reliable. Operates at 10 Mbps. This makes it possible to network all manner of computers with an Ethernet LAN. All Ethernet equipment since 1985 is built according to IEEE 802. The LLC provides a common interface to the MAC layers. The Ethernet and Token Ring will now be described in detail. Uses BNC connectors. The IEEE 802. The RG-58 A/U cable is both less expensive and easier to place.

a station listens to data traffic on the channel. Both computers stop transmitting and retransmit at a random point in the future. Uses two pairs of twisted-pair wire. C EV Figure 10-23: Ethernet collision. The IEEE determines the first 24 bits of the address by assigning a different Organizationally Unique Identifier (OUI) to every company that makes Ethernet cards. Computers transmit when the channel is free.3 Committee in 1998. 100BaseT4 (four pairs of normal-quality twisted-pair wires) and 100BaseFL (fiber-optic cables).3z) was ratified by the IEEE 802. 48-bit address assigned to it by the manufacturer of the card. 2. a collision occurs and is detected (by the Collision Detection mechanism).000 megabits) per second. If two computers transmit at the same time. The company then uses another 24 bits to assign a different number to every card it manufactures. including 100BaseT (two pairs of high-quality twisted-pair wires). The 48-bit address is called the MAC (Media Access Control) address and is different for every Ethernet card in the world. and 100BaseFL (uses fiber-optic cables). the 100BaseT standard is IEEE 802. Gigabit Ethernet supports data rates of 1 gigabit (1. The first gigabit Ethernet standard (802. A set of media access control rules embedded in each Ethernet interface that allow multiple computers to fairly arbitrate access to the shared Ethernet channel. Other implementations include 100Base T4 (uses four pairs of twisted-pair wires). Officially. • Ethernet Function A real-life Ethernet network system consists of three basic elements: 1. . O Every computer on an Ethernet network has embedded in its circuits a Media Access Control (MAC) mechanism that uses a system called Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD) to ensure that all computers on the network can have an equal chance to transmit data over the wires. the computer is free to transmit a frame or packet of data. Every Ethernet network interface card has a unique. There are several different cabling schemes that can be used with 100BaseT. Also called 100BaseT. L -D O N In this system. If two computers start to transmit data at the same time. An Ethernet transmission consists of a standardized set of bits used to carry data over the system. The physical medium used to carry Ethernet signals between computers.3u. System that enables dealing with packet collisions in an Ethernet network. When there is no traffic. T CSMA/CD: Stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. the Collision Detect portion of CSMA/CD stops both transmissions and assigns a random time to each computer for checking to see if it can send. Ethernet relies exclusively on the MAC address to Lesson 10: Networking 345 A O Gigabit Ethernet: Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates of 1 gigabit per second. Ethernet Collision PY Fast Ethernet: Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates of 100 Mbps. 3.• Fast Ethernet (100BaseT) supports data transfer rates of 100 Mbps.

Token Ring is a type of computer network in which all computers are connected in a continuous loop (ring topology). An MSAU is similar to a hub. 16 Mbps. Token Ring Token Ring EV 346 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O Token Ring networks use Multi Station Access Units (MSAUs). you might suspect an incorrect dip switch setting on a NIC. Only one token exists on any Token Ring network.identify the receiving and sending nodes. you will have to replace all of the network cards in the entire network. LLC (Logical Link Control) is the Ethernet portion of the Data Link layer that connects the network software in Layer 3 to the Media Access Control (MAC) sub-layer. To fit in the OSI model for networks. That means that if you want to upgrade a ring from. If regular ports on an MSAU fail. IEEE 802. the network is not affected. with 8 port-to-connect stations. stations connected to that MSAU won’t be able to communicate. A token is a special bit pattern that is sent around the loop from computer to computer. The computer then releases the token so another node on the network can send its frame. . Implementations of 1 GB Token Ring are also available (IEEE 802. for example.5t). Transmission speeds for Token Ring can be 4 Mbps. All computers on a Token Ring network send messages over the same cable. so some system had to be developed to keep two computers from using the cable at the same time. if a Ring In or Ring Out port fails. N All stations on a Token Ring network must transmit at the same speed. and a Ring In and a Ring Out port to daisy-chain MSAUs. to connect network stations. 4 Mbps to 16 Mbps. It captures the token.5v). which keeps all other computers from attempting to send frames. Some Token Ring cards have dip switches to set the speed.5. otherwise the ring won’t work at all. O T C O PY Token Ring: A computer network connected in a loop configuration so that only the computer holding the token can communicate. which then connects to the bottom Physical layer of the OSI model. also referred to as MAUs. and the IEEE wrote standards for it in IEEE 802. However. The computer with the token then sends a frame around the loop until the destination computer grabs the frames. it must wait until it can catch the token. If you’re ring doesn’t work at all. or 100 Mbps (High Speed Token Ring. This network protocol was developed by IBM. Before a computer can send a frame.

Inc. C Lesson 10: Networking 347 O PY . O T A AppleTalk: Apple computer’s network protocol. Until the late 1980s. but its popularity has decreased since then. AppleTalk supports Apple’s proprietary LocalTalk cabling scheme.5 Mbps. With the proper additional hardware. and least expensive LAN technologies. as well as Ethernet and IBM Token Ring.5 Mbps. N O ARCNet: Connects up to 255 nodes in a star topology at a transmission rate of 2. ARCNet can connect up to 255 nodes in a star topology using twisted-pair or coax cable and originally could transmit data at a rate of 2. simplest. a 235 Kbps (kilobyte per second) Local Area Network. a 10 Mbps Local Area Network. and VAX computers can connect to an AppleTalk network. and EtherTalk. ARCNet AppleTalk EV AppleTalk is a Local Area Network protocol developed by Apple Computer. in 1985 and is built into all Macintosh computers and Apple LaserWriters. L -D ARCNet (Attached Resource Computer Network) is a network developed by the DataPoint Corporation in 1968 and is one of the oldest. Like a Token Ring network. ARCNet Plus has a data transfer rate of 20 Mbps. ARCNet had about as large a marketshare as Ethernet among small businesses. ARCNet is a Data Link protocol and functions at the Physical and Data Link layers of the OSI model (1 and 2). ARCNet passes a token to control access to the network.Figure 10-24: Token Ring. UNIX. Current implementations include LocalTalk. PCs.

5 IEEE 802.11 Network Connection Devices Hubs EV A A Hub L hub: A central connecting device in a network that joins communication lines together in a star configuration. IEEE 802. Match each IEEE 802 standard with its corresponding description. IEEE 802. IEEE 802. a hub is the center device that all the nodes connect to. h. The hub must have enough ports to accommodate all the nodes in the star.TASK 10B-2: Identifying IEEE 802 Standards 1. Different types of hubs can provide different functions. f. IEEE 802.4 e.8 IEEE 802. N Network Connectivity O Topic 10C T C O PY . IEEE 802. Figure 10-25: A hub. O Many devices can connect computers to networks. h d b c e g k j a i f Fiber-optic LANs Token Bus Logical Link Control Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Token Ring Broadband Wireless Security High-level Interface Standards Integrated Data and Voice Metropolitan Area Networks a.6 IEEE 802. In a network using the star topology. g.2 c. IEEE 802. IEEE 802.1 b. i.9 j. The following classifications that are listed help organize some of the devices. and networks to networks.7 IEEE 802. 348 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D A hub is an electronic device that connects several computers or networks together.3 d. even though several items do not fit neatly into any one category.10 k.

Also referred to as active hubs. or regenerate signals in any way. Bridges build and maintain address tables of the nodes on the network to speed up the flow of data. regenerates and amplifies the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal that might otherwise deteriorate over a long distance. A bridge allows a message to cross from one network to another if it is addressed to the other side. which makes the traffic flow more efficient. even if they are different types of networks using different communication protocols. The functions of an intelligent hub can also be performed by the group of specialized devices described in the follolwing sections. An intelligent hub can provide bridging. A passive hub does not process. O active hub: A connecting unit that regenerates the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal. passive hub: Connecting units that add nothing to the data passing through them. bridge: An electronic device that controls the flow of information between LAN segments or networks. It can be the center of a star network. even if they are different types of networks using different communication protocols. and even more complex functions such as network management and LAN emulation. All the signals that come into an active hub are regenerated and sent out to all the nodes on the network. and switching. Also referred to as a multiport repeater. O O EV A bridge controls the flow of information between LAN segments or networks. • An intelligent hub is a central connecting device in a network that provides intelligent functions as well as forwarding signals. LAN switches are really multiport bridges that can switch at full wire speed.• A passive hub simply forwards network messages. Local messages are not sent across to the second network. Active hubs are also called multiport repeaters. routing. • C N -D Figure 10-26: A repeater. Lesson 10: Networking 349 PY . multiport repeater: A connecting unit that regenerates the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal. or repeater. T A L Bridges Bridges with more than two ports (multiport bridges) perform a switching function. An active hub. Also referred to as an active hub. A Repeater intelligent hub: A connecting device that forwards signals and provides other functionality such as routing and bridging. Adding an active hub allows computers on the network to be physically farther apart. modify. repeater: A communications device that amplifies or regenerates the data signal in order to extend the transmission distance.

it examines the destination node address for that data unit. if the bridge shown in Figure 10-27 receives a data unit from Segment 1. The decision to use one or the other should be based on network needs and environment. chooses a path based on current traffic and number of other routers. If the data unit is destined for a node on another segment. traffic local to a particular segment is confined only to that segment. Bridges can Filter Intersegment Traffic Figure 10-27: Bridges can filter inter-segment traffic. the data unit has already found its way to the correct network segment. a bridge can’t determine the most efficient datapath like a router can.For example. A router can also be used to balance traffic and filter traffic for security and management purposes. there are important differences aside from whether you transmit data between segments or networks. EV 350 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Routers A router determines the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another. A router first stores the electronic message. A router functions much like a bridge. Specially designed routers can handle several different protocols. and finally sends the message along that path. You can use bridges when you need to restrict traffic across network segments. It requires more time to determine a datapath. and then examines all possible paths to the destination address. so its processing speed (the time it takes to forward data blocks. However. however. Software on a server can make it function like a router. internetwork traffic is allowed to pass through the bridge. . or packets) is typically slower than a bridge’s. O N O T C O PY In this scheme. the bridge ignores the data unit. then the bridge forwards the data unit to the next segment. however. A L router: A device that determines the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another and forwards the message along that path. A router is more intelligent than a bridge. If the data unit is destined for a node on Segment 1. next reads the network destination address stored in the message.

relaying data transmissions between networks. it works like a bridge and forwards the data to the next segment by using a physical address. a CSU/DSU connects to a router or remote bridge. ASCII and EBCDIC) File systems and directory structures C Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit Sometimes public service organizations require their customers to use Channel Service Units/Digital Service Units (CSU/DSU) in the interest of safety. depending on which function is needed. you can use a brouter for networks on which there is mixed-protocol traffic and for networks that use protocols that do not support routing. A L O gateway: A computer that performs protocol conversion between different types of networks or applications. A gateway allows different makes and models of computers on completely different networks to communicate with each other.Brouters A brouter is a communication device that functions as both a bridge and a router. Common Gateway Types Lesson 10: Networking 351 PY brouter: A communication device that functions as both a bridge and a router. By using one of these organizations. Combines the functions of CSU and DSU in one device. A mail gateway converts messages containing email to the protocol needed by the receiving station. It readies digital signals and guarantees that they have sufficient strength and the proper format to be transmitted over digital WAN links. depending on which function is needed. keeping marketing users out of the R&D intranet). For example. Both units are parts of a data communications equipment (DCE) device and are collectively referred to as a CSU/DSU. Typically. Because of this ability. Gateway Type Protocol Format Address T Connects Networks That Use Different Protocols Encoding schemes (for example. When it encounters a data unit that uses a protocol with which it is unfamiliar. Gateways A gateway is a protocol converter that supports communication between networks that use different protocols. Some common gateway types are described in the following table. A CSU/DSU operates like a modem. EV Firewalls Firewalls control access between networks—both inbound traffic (entering your network) and outbound traffic (leaving your network). you can connect to their media and save yourself the installation and maintenance of your own. you might choose to use a public or private service organization for your transmission media needs. it is a digital-to-digital device rather than digital-to-analog. The units are designed to shield network users from electric voltages as well as electrical interference. -D O Because the installation and upkeep of large quantities of transmission media can become very costly. You can also configure firewalls to prevent access to other intranets within your company (for example. such as NetBEUI. however. A gateway completely converts a message in one protocol to a message in a second protocol that is used on the destination network. Firewalls can be used to prevent unauthorized access between intranets and the Internet or an extranet (an intranet external to your intranet). N O CSU/DSU: Stands for Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit. . The CSU terminates a digital circuit. They also ready data for transmission by adhering to any network rules. firewall: A method for keeping a network secure. a gateway might connect PCs on a LAN to a mainframe. The DSU terminates a data circuit to the Data Terminal Equipment and converts customer transmission data into a bipolar format. A brouter functions like a router.

com—Cisco’s home page T Because new products appear daily. A combination is most effective because each component provides access control at different levels. All-in-One Solutions Many companies combine the software and hardware capabilities of several network connection devices into one physical box. Firewalls contain packet-filtering routers. circuit gateways. allowing access only to work-related sites). This device includes an 8-port hub. built-in modem.ibm. application gateways. This reduces both the cost and the complexity of the network connections. • • • www. two network adapter cards.networking. and embedded operating system all in one box. O N OSI Model and Connection Devices O www. Relevant sites include: C An example of a multi-function network appliance is the Intel InBusiness Small Office Network. optional mirroring. and the Internet. the Internet is the best source of current information on network connection devices. printers.intel.Controlling inbound access protects servers and resources on your intranet from access by unauthorized Internet users. or a combination of these components. It connects PCs and provides shared access to files. 13GB of storage space.cisco. POP3 client email.com—Intel’s home page www.com—IBM networking page Figure 10-28 summarizes where the different connection devices fit into the OSI model. Controlling outbound access can be used to limit your users’ access to Internet resources (for example. OSI Model and Connection Devices EV A L 352 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 10-28: OSI model and connection devices. O PY . firewall software.

several sets of twistedpair wires are wrapped in one protective outer layer.TASK 10C-1: Identifying the Purpose of Common Connection Devices 1. d. EV A C Lesson 10: Networking 353 O PY . f. Many different types are available. e.to 26. This type of cabling is inexpensive. d a f b e c Repeater Hub Bridge Router Brouter Gateway a.gauge wires twisted around one another. Twisted-pair cable that has two unshielded wires twisted around each other. b. Twisted Pair L -D Twisted-pair cable consists of two independently insulated 22. Connects several computers together at a central point. let’s take a look at the media used to communicate between systems. c. In LAN cables. Because shielding is omitted. Determines the best path for sending data. Network Media Next. UTP: Stands for unshielded twisted-pair. The wires are twisted around each other to minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable. Routes one protocol while bridging another. Match the connection device on the left with its functional description on the right. Twisted-pair is the least expensive type of LAN cable. but electrical interference can be a problem. One wire carries the signal while the other wire is grounded and absorbs signal interference. the O N O T twisted-pair cable: A thin-diameter wire (22 to 26 gauge) commonly used for telephone and network cabling. UTP (unshielded twisted-pair) cable has two unshielded wires twisted around each other. Connects dissimilar networks. Extends the maximum length of a network by amplifying signals. Divides network into segments to increase performance.

Twisted-pair RJ-45 Connectors on Twisted-pair Cables EV 354 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Figure 10-30: RJ-45 connectors on twisted-pair cables. Twisted-pair cable that is wrapped in a metal sheath. This reduces the possibility of problems caused by electrical interference. RJ-45s. O N O RJ-45: Stands for Registered Jack45.price is low. which look like oversized modular phone connectors. are slightly wider than RJ-11 connectors and used for connecting telephone equipment. O Figure 10-29: Twisted-pair cable. PY . Connector with eight wires that is used to connect computers onto Local Area Networks that use twistedpair cabling. T C RJ-45 (Registered Jack-45) is an eight-wire connector used to connect computers onto Local Area Networks that use twisted-pair cables. STP: Stands for shielded twistedpair. STP (shielded twisted-pair) cable is a twisted-pair cable that is wrapped in a metal sheath to provide extra protection from external interfering signals. The 10BaseT and 100BaseT Ethernet standards are based on twisted-pair cables. but electrical interference can cause a problem.

100BaseT. and 10BaseT networking. Cat-5 can be used for Token Ring. Coax cable is more expensive than standard phone wires. Cat-5: Stands for Category 5. C -D BNC connectors (British Naval Connector) or (Bayonet Nut Connector) are used to join coaxial cables like RG-58 A/U into a network. It contains an insulated solid or stranded wire surrounded by a solid or braided metallic shield. Cable TV companies now use the same coax cable that brings cable stations into a home to bring in a high-speed Internet connection. 100BaseT. and 10BaseT networking. O N O A L EV Figure 10-32: BNC connectors. T-connectors are female devices for connecting two cables to a network interface card (NIC). but it can carry much more data and is more resistant to interference. and a BNC barrel connector allows two cables to be connected. Type of cabling that consists of four twisted-pairs of copper wire terminated by RJ-45 connectors. . Can be used for Token Ring. wrapped in a plastic cover. T Figure 10-31: Coaxial cable. BNC Connectors Lesson 10: Networking 355 PY As standards for twisted-pair cabling developed. Category 5 is the most recent standard for highquality. 10Base5 and 10Base2 are the Ethernet networking standards that use coaxial cable. Coaxial Coaxial cable consists of a single conductor which is surrounded by insulation and a conductive shield. while cable categories with a higher number support a higher transmission rate. O coaxial cable: A high-capacity cable used in communications and video. 1000BaseT.Cat-5 (Category 5) describes network cabling that consists of four twisted-pairs of copper wire terminated by RJ-45 connectors. Cable categories with lower numbers have a lower data transmission rate. reliable cable. Coaxial Cable BNC connector: The type of connector most commonly used to join coax cables in a network. Each cable end has a male BNC connector with a center pin connected to the center cable conductor and a metal tube connected to the outer cable shield. 1000BaseT. The shield is usually a braided wire that is connected to an electrical ground and prevents the cable from picking up or emitting electrical noise. commonly called coax. A rotating ring outside the tube locks the cable to any female connector. they were given category numbers. with a heavy protective covering over the shield.

Substrate layer of glass (in some fibers) surrounds the cladding. while protecting the relatively fragile primary coating and the underlying fiber. • • • • Primary buffer coating surrounds all the other layers and provides the first layer of mechanical protection. does not carry light. Secondary buffer coating surrounds the primary buffer coating. O N O T C O PY . The huge bandwidth of fiber-optic cables makes up for the fact that they are more fragile than wire cables. it can carry much more data than wire cables over longer distances at high speed. and confines it to the core. Fiber-optic cable carries pulses of laser light which are encoded with digital signals. Computers in the future may use fiber-optics and light circuits rather than metal wires and electrical circuits. is not affected by electrical interference and gives off no electromagnetic radiation. bends the light. which carry electrical signals through metal wires. and many predict it will be the medium of choice in the near future. which carries digital signals in light waves through bundles of glass or clear plastic threads no thicker than a human hair. A Single Fiber-optic Strand EV Fiber-optic Cable with Many Conductors 356 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D Figure 10-33: A single fiber-optic strand. ranging from 50 micrometers (µm) to 1.Fiber-optic All fiber-optic cable consists of a number of substructures including: • fiber-optic cable: A cable that transfers pulses of light instead of electrical signals. more expensive to install. Twisted-pair and coax cable. Fiber-optic cable.000 µm in diameter. Core of glass. are subject to electrical interference and give off electromagnetic radiation that can be tapped by remote-sensing equipment. and more difficult to maintain. and adds to the diameter and strength of the fiber. Even though fiber-optic cable is much thinner and lighter than metal wire. Cladding surrounds the core. Phone companies are replacing traditional copper wire with fiber-optic cable. carries the light.

and can be used for voice. O N Wireless C Dish Used in Wireless Communication EV A L O Lesson 10: Networking 357 PY . data. cellular technology. FDDI networks are token-passing networks and support data rates of up to 100 Mbps. O FDDI (Fiber Distributed Data Interface) is a set of ANSI protocols for sending digital data over fiber-optic cable. T FDDI: Stands for Fiber Distributed Data Interface.” wireless communication: Data transmission that does not require a physical cable. and images. satellites. Wireless modems connect computers to the wireless data networks. video. Pronounced “fuddy” or “fiddy. Sometimes wireless networks can interconnect with regular computer networks. -D Wireless communication refers to networks that are not connected by wires.Figure 10-34: Fiber-optic cable with many conductors. spread spectrum. Additional FDDI protocols standardize voice transmission and higher data rates. Infrared light is also considered a wireless medium. and microwave towers. FDDI networks are typically used as backbones for Wide Area Networks. An ANSI standard token-passing network that uses fiberoptical cabling and transmits at 100 Mbps up to 10 kilometers. Wireless communications are enabled by packet radio.

This technology offers data transfer rates of up to 19. Originally designed for cable TV. 358 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A MMDS: Stands for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service or Microwave Multipoint Distribution Service. A datatransmission technology that uses cellular channels to send data. LMDS (Local Multipoint Distribution Service) is an extremely fast digital wireless transmission system that requires line of sight between transmitter and receiving antenna. CDPD (Cellular Digital Packet Data) is a data transmission technology that uses unused cellular channels (in the 800 to 900 MHz range) to transmit data in packets. A digital wireless transmission system. MMDS (Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service or Microwave Multipoint Distribution Service) is a digital wireless transmission system. LMDS transmitters can bring a high-speed connection from a network to any building in sight. A fast digital wireless transmission system that requires line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. In large cities and areas where installing copper or fiber-optic cable is too expensive. which can be from one to four miles apart. The sending and receiving stations must be visible to each other. MMDS now can provide data and Internet services to subscribers. EV LMDS: Stands for Local Multipoint Distribution Service. L -D CDPD: Stands for Cellular Digital Packet Data. and the distance separating may be up to 30 miles. and better error correction than using modems on an analog cellular channel. quicker call setup.Figure 10-35: Dish used in wireless communication. O N O T C O PY .2 Kbps.

but cards with electronics specific to Token Ring and other networks follow a similar pattern. A transmission medium. interconnects all the adapters in the network. network cards. BNC. Twisted-pair cabling with a maximum length of 100 meters. A typical Ethernet NIC fits into either an ISA or PCI slot on the computer’s system board. L -D Typical Ethernet Network Interface Cards O Network adapters provide services at the Data Link layer of the network (OSI Layer 2) and connect directly to the cable carrying the electronic signal throughout the network (OSI Layer 1). The media through which it will connect to the network may be twisted-pair and/or coaxial cable and/or fiber-optic cable. and NICs (network interface cards). such as twisted-pair. Sometimes the adapter is built into the system board circuits. or network interface card. It can send and receive data at 10 Mbps and/or 100 Mbps. Coaxial cabling with a maximum length of 185 meters. T C network adapter: A printed circuit board that plugs into both the clients (personal computers or workstations) and servers and controls the exchange of data between them. Lesson 10: Networking 359 A O NIC with RJ-45. Also referred to as network boards. Ethernet Standard 10Base5 10Base2 10BaseT Description of Cabling Used Coaxial cabling with a maximum length of 500 meters. and AUI Connectors PY . and sometimes it is a separate printed circuit board that is inserted into a slot on the system board. Most NICs are designed for a particular network and medium. There are network adapters that can connect a computer to the network through the parallel port. and portable computers have a special PC Card that connects them to a network. Network Adapters N O EV Figure 10-36: NIC with RJ-45. A network adapter is commonly called a NIC. The most common adapters will connect a computer to an Ethernet or Token Ring network. provide a brief description of the type of cabling used for each Ethernet standard. BNC and AUI connectors.TASK 10C-2: Identifying Network Cabling 1. More expensive cards have more built-in flexibility and can communicate at both speeds over a variety of media. coax cable or fiber-optic cable. The following description is limited to cards designed to connect to an Ethernet network. In the following table.

Wireless cards go into slots on the system board and have an antenna built-in. A T-connector is usually attached to the BNC connector on the interface card. depending on the environment. A wireless interface card has no jack or sockets to plug cables into because it transmits data using radio waves. 10BaseT uses only two of the four possible twisted-pairs in the cables that plug into the RJ-45 socket. and EPROMs that have programs or data recorded on them. If the card supports 10BaseF or 10BaseFL. 4. VF-45 Connectors for Fiber-optic Network Cables EV A L 360 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure 10-37: VF-45 connectors for fiber-optic network cables.transceiver: Device built into NICs that enables sending and receiving data over the network cable. Newer and more expensive cards may have built-in electronics that use the same RJ-45 to support other Ethernet standards. The twistedpair cables usually go to a hub or repeater. or 5 cable. Advances in technology. If the card supports 10Base2 (thin Ethernet). such as ROMs. Connects to an external transceiver that then connects to a one-half-inch thick coaxial cable. The electronics on the card determine what media the card will connect to. NICs have an internal. Fiber-optic cable can handle more data over longer distances than coax or twisted-pairs. Maximum distances range from 30 feet to 200 feet. 100BaseT4 supports 100 Mbps on four pairs of wires in Category 3. This cable runs from the computer to a hub or repeater. PROMs. If the card supports the original 10Base5 (thick Ethernet) Ethernet standard. are bringing down the price and making fiber-optic networks easier to install. the card will have a socket to which a fiber-optic cable is attached. T C O firmware: A combination of software and hardware. rather than to another computer. Cards that support 10BaseT have an RJ-45 connector that uses unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cables. O N O AUI: Stands for Attachment Unit Interface. like the VF-45 connector. Every card has a permanent. integrated transceiver built into the board that lets it send and receive data over the network cable. Computers in the middle of the network have cables from two other computers connected to each side of the T. 100BaseTX supports 100 Mbps through two pairs of wires in Category 5 (high-speed) twisted cable. RJ-45 can attach up to eight wires or four twistedpairs bundled in one cable to the computer. Computers at the end of the network bus need a terminator attached to the unused side of the T. Used with 10Base5 (Thicknet). unique Ethernet address burned into a PROM on the card. The cards also have software to support the Medium Access Control (MAC) data link protocol built into firmware on the card. PY . A receiver must be installed as a connection to a standard Ethernet configuration for the computer to be on the network. it will have a BNC connector. it will have a 15-pin AUI (Attachment Unit Interface) that connects to an external transceiver that then connects with a one-half-inch thick coax cable.

PCMCIA cards the size of credit cards allow portable computers to join an Ethernet network. configure the NIC according to the manufacturer’s instructions. PC Card. you will need to set jumpers or DIP switches on the card to configure its IRQ. If Windows 98 detects your NIC. 4. and I/O settings. you will be prompted to insert your NIC’s drivers disk. and parallel port network adapter. right-click on My Computer and choose Properties. 7. PC Card. USB Adapter. TASK 10C-3: Installing a Network Interface Card 1. If your NIC isn’t Plug and Play. EISA. 5. If necessary. 2. its drivers disk. 8. EV A When you see the Windows 98 desktop. Turn the computer’s power off. 3. Consult the NIC configuration manual for instructions specific to your card. DMA. Locate an available expansion slot (ISA. Click Device Manager. L -D O N O Setup: You’ve been provided with a network interface card (NIC). T Lesson 10: Networking 361 C O PY . Turn on the power. and the NIC configuration manual.Other Ethernet Adapters Ethernet adapters can communicate with the computer through the USB port and the parallel port. Insert the NIC into the slot. or PCI) that matches your NIC. and Parallel Port Network Adapter Figure 10-38: USB adapter. but can’t locate suitable drivers. 6. Secure the NIC’s mounting plate to the computer chassis.

where both parties can speak at the same time (though that may get confusing). Expand Network Adapters. a device can either send or receive data. consult your NIC’s configuration manual for troubleshooting steps. but only in one direction at a time. but not do both at the same time. O N 10. To ensure successful communication in a full duplex Ethernet network. O T C O PY . In full duplex communications.9. but only in one direction at a time. In other words. L -D Data on a network can be transmitted using half duplex. This is analogous to communications via a CB radio. Half Duplex and Full Duplex Communications EV full duplex: Communication type in which communication can occur in two directions at the same time. If not. Close all open dialog boxes. 11. This is analogous to having a telephone conversation. 362 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A half duplex: Communication type in which communication can occur in two directions. or full duplex communications. Half duplex means that it’s possible to transfer data in two directions. data can be sent and received over the network medium at the same time. CSMA/CD is typically used to deal with data transmission collisions. Confirm that your network adapter is configured correctly. greatly increasing communication speeds.

N O UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is an alternate transport that does not guarantee delivery. but the address of a destination network.1. which means that all messages contain not only the address of the destination station. These classes are implemented by using varying portions of the four bytes of the IP address to identify networks and hosts. the data being sent. For example. check out www. The protocol suite used to connect hosts on the Internet and other networks. In contrast. IP address: A unique 4-byte number that identifies a node on a TCP/ IP network. or 32 bits.0. InterNIC. In Windows. a major part of the TCP/IP suite.Network Protocols Now that you have a NIC and network medium.. That is the role of a network protocol. this address scheme is running out of possible addresses. Because the Internet is one huge TCP/IP network.0. the Caribbean and sub-Saharan Africa are assigned by the ARIN (American Registry for Internet Numbers). . A datagram has the addresses of its source and destination.231. A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required. UDP is used for real-time audio and video traffic where lost packets are simply ignored because the sound or video contained in the last packet is useless after a certain point in time. as well as fields that define the length of the datagram and whether the datagram is or can be fragmented. Networks using the TCP/IP protocol route messages based on the IP address of the destination node. which ensures that the complete message is received correctly at the other end.76. The European and Asian counterparts of ARIN are Researux IP Europeens (RIPE) and Asia Pacific Network Information Center (APNIC). TCP/IP is a routable protocol. -D O IP (Internet Protocol). To help humans cope with the numbers. also called datagrams. For example. which manages domain names. each of the four bytes is written in its decimal equivalent and separated by periods. such as 128. specifies the format of packets. and the addressing scheme. This allows TCP/IP messages to be sent to multiple networks within an organization or around the world on the Internet.protocols. This scheme can create trillions of addresses for every individual on the planet. TCP/IP TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) is the suite of communications protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet and is now the global standard for communications. The Internet was designed to support classes of IP addresses. PY For detailed information on all networking-related protocols. EV An IP address is made up of 4 bytes. including two Transport protocols. every computer on the Internet must have a unique IP address.com. IP addresses in North and South America. the TCP/IP stack or set of protocols is put into use by the Winsock DLL (Dynamic Link Library). you need a way for computers to communicate. IP depends on TCP to make a connection between the sender and the source and to make sure that all the packets in the IP format are received correctly. T C TCP/IP: Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. This was previously handled by Network Solutions. IP addresses are commonly written in dotted decimal format. an organization founded in 1997 to dispense IP addresses. Because of the popularity of the Internet. • • TCP provides transport functions. O UDP: Stands for User Datagram Protocol. A new scheme defined by the Internet Engineering Task Force is called IPng (IP Next Generation) or IPv6. a Class A IP address uses only the first byte of the IP address to identify the network address and the remaining three bytes to identify hosts.139. TCP/IP is built into the UNIX operating system and almost all other network operating systems support TCP/IP. and uses 16 bytes instead of just 4 bytes. Inc. To avoid duplication. a Class B IP address uses the first two bytes Lesson 10: Networking 363 A L An IP address identifies a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. A typical IP address has the form 145. TCP/IP uses several protocols. error checking.

It is up to the ISP to make sure that they do not assign an IP address taken from their list of possible addresses to two clients at the same time.host to 223.net.of the IP address to identify the network and the remaining two bytes to identify hosts. a Class A IP address supports only a small number of network addresses and a large number of hosts.net.host This range of addresses is reserved for multicasts and is not supported for host addressing by Microsoft This range of addresses is reserved for experimental purposes and is not supported for host addressing by Microsoft.host to 127.host. Thus. but not as many hosts as a Class A. and C for host addressing. while a Class B IP address supports a larger number of network addresses.host. The following table explains the rules for calculating the network addresses for each network class. . C 128 to 191 192 to 223 224 to 239 240 to 255 Address Class A Value of Highorder Bit(s) in First Byte First bit must be 0 Range of Values for First Byte in Binary 00000001-01111111 Note: A value of 0 for the network address is not permitted 10000000-10111111 Range of Values for First Byte in Decimal C D L EV 364 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A -D E O First 5 bits must be 11110 The IP address does not have to be permanent.net.net. A through E. Microsoft TCP/IP supports only classes A. the decimal value of the first byte can be used to identify the class of IP address. Since the first few bits of an address are specified by the InterNIC. B. The first bit(s) of the first byte of the IP address are specific for each address class. The MAC address is permanent and never can be changed. The Internet was designed to support five classes of IP addresses.net. PY The number of bits reserved for the network and host IDs is different for classes A. Users who dial into an Internet service provider (ISP) may receive a different IP address every time they sign on.net. An IP address assigned by an ISP stays the same throughout a user’s session until sign-off.host. and C. Compare the IP address to the MAC address which is built into every Ethernet card when it is manufactured.host 128. N O B First 2 bits must be 10 First 3 bits must be 110 First 4 bits must be 1110 T 1 to 127 (127 is reserved for testing purposes) 11000000-11011111 11100000-11101111 11110000-11110111 O Example 1.net.host. Some users and systems have a single IP address assigned to every computer on the network that does not change from day to day.host 192. B.net.host to 191.

such as Ethernet. You can use the default subnet mask when your network does not require subnetting. O Avoiding physical limitations. B. subnet mask: Distinguishes the host portion of an IP address from the network portion. you will use the second byte of available host addresses as a part of the network address. .Each network segment requires its own unique network address. which results in decreased CPU load. Note that hosts must always listen to broadcast messages to figure out whether the broadcast is meant for them or not. Note that highorder bits within each mask define a subnet. as the route from an Internet host to a registered IP address in the internal network stays the same. L -D Decreasing CPU load. In your internal network. network segments are called subnets if each network segment’s address must be derived from a single IP network address.) Use the borrowed bits to create subnetwork addresses. if your network has multiple physical segments. and FDDI. based on how many bits are used in the subnet address and how many subnets are required. In the TCP/IP environment. (A subnet mask distinguishes the host portion of the IP address from the network portion. The fewer hosts on the network. Additionally. The Internet will see the first byte as the network address. • C • • • Helping with troubleshooting by minimizing the impact of a subnet problem on other subnets. Subnet masking enables you to restructure how each IP address in your organization is divided between the network portion and the host portion. Congestion is reduced if hosts communicate mostly with other hosts on the same segment. it is more properly called segmenting because there’s no need to subdivide a single network address. You can add routers and create subnets if you’ve reached the physical limitations of your network. There are many reasons for subnetting or segmenting your network. subnet masking: Lets you restructure how each IP address in your organization is divided between the network portion and the host portion of the address. Token Ring. Increasing security by limiting sensitive network traffic to one network. requiring less bandwidth on the segment. The process of subdividing a single network address to allow for unique network addresses on each subnet is called subnetting. N O T O subnetting: The process of subdividing a single network address to allow for unique network addresses on a subnet. you will use subnet masking. then you may assign any unique network address to each network segment and use the default subnet mask for the appropriate IP address class. just as each street in your town requires its own unique street name. such as maximum cable lengths or exceeding the maximum number of computers on a segment. To subnet. the network’s structure won’t be visible outside of an organization’s network. EV A • Connecting different topologies. The following table shows the appropriate decimal subnet mask for each IP address class (A. To be able to assign unique network addresses to each network in your organization. They include: • Reducing traffic by dividing a large network into smaller segments using routers. together via routers. the fewer broadcasts. Although you will commonly hear this procedure described as subnetting. and C). Each segment then has fewer hosts. you must create multiple network addresses from the single Internet IP address. If your network doesn’t connect to the Internet. use a custom subnet mask to borrow bits from the host portion of the network address. Lesson 10: Networking 365 PY subnet: A network segment that derives its address from a single IP address. which uses CPU resources. This situation often occurs if your company’s network IP address is assigned by the InterNIC. You can then use the additional network address this process creates and add more hosts to the network as needed.

A EV NetBIOS: An API that sends data from the Session layer to the Transport layer. A NetWare communications protocol used to route messages from one node to another. The default networking protocol for the Windows desktop operating system. including Ethernet and Token Ring LANs.255. O PY IPX/SPX . Originally NetBEUI and NetBIOS were joined in a single protocol. 2. click Add.255. but because of the separation in operation from NetBEUI. Novell NetWare can work on different kinds of LANs. select Protocol. The IPX packets contain the network addresses of the sending and destination nodes. In the Network dialog box. NetBIOS names can be turned into IP addresses for TCP/IP networks through lookups in LMHOSTS file or through a WINS server. IPX routes datagrams from one node to another.0.255. so the packets can be routed from one network to another. and then click Add. 3. C IPX/SPX was originally developed for Novell NetWare-based networks. NetBIOS now works at the Session Layer 5 of the OSI model. NetBEUI (NetBios Enhanced User Interface) is supported automatically by all versions of Windows. Originally NetBIOS was designed to work with NetBEUI in Layer 4. but now they are separated. Right-click on Network Neighborhood and choose Properties. O NetBEUI T SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) is the usual Transport Layer 4 protocol that works with IPX in Layer 3 to guarantee that the packets sent out by IPX can be accurately assembled into the entire message by the destination node.Address Class Class A Class B Class C Default Subnet Mask 255. This separation is important because NetBEUI is not routable. NetBEUI is at the same OSI layer (Transport) as the TCP/IP and IPX/SPX protocols. while the last two protocols are routable.0.0 255.0 255. 4. SPX is responsible for error recovery if packets are lost on the network. In the Select Network Protocol dialog box. NetBIOS can also use TCP/IP and SPX/IPX.0 IPX: Stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange. • Network Protocols L NetBEUI: Stands for NetBios Enhanced User Interface.0. • IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) works at the Network Layer 3 of the OSI model. and does not guarantee delivery of the complete message. 366 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D NetBIOS is an API that can send data down from Session Layer 5 to different Transport protocols in Layer 4. select Microsoft from the list of Manufacturers and select TCP/IP from the list of Network Protocols. All NetBIOS computers have a unique 15-character name which they broadcast over the network to other machines so the Network Neighborhood program can catalog and display them. The NetWare communications protocol used to control the transport of messages across a network. O N SPX: Stands for Sequenced Packet Exchange. TASK 10C-4: Installing the TCP/IP Protocol and Assigning an IP Address 1. In the Select Network Component Type dialog box.

O N O bandwidth: The maximum amount of data that can be sent across the network cable per second. if still necessary. non-working hubs.0 is the default subnet mask for a class C IP address. for example. Click OK until you’re prompted to restart the computer. Save your changes. 255. from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps in an Ethernet network. interference. O 10.10. Transmission requests may time-out.255. All devices on a network share the total available bandwidth and the maximum cannot be exceeded. Bandwidth is the maximum amount of data that can be sent across the network cable per second. In the Subnet Mask address field. When prompted. Common Network Problems Some of the problems you may encounter in a network may include reduced performance due to reduced bandwidth. restart your computer. If it’s caused by heavy usage. Although collisions will always happen in an Ethernet network. and then. such as a bad NIC that is “jabbering” (sending messages continuously). and users will notice a decrease in performance. Select the TCP/IP protocol for the adapter installed in your computer and click Properties. You can use network or protocol analyzers to identify where the loss of bandwidth is happening. You can identify problem areas A L -D T Lesson 10: Networking 367 12. into which IP address class the IP address of 192168. For TCP/IP to work properly. You can do this by changing the network’s speed. Another possible cause of data loss is packet collisions (in Ethernet networks). you can simply replace the device (such as a bad NIC). C 11. When you see the Windows 98 desktop. If it’s caused by a malfunctioning device. the better throughput you will have in your network.5. such as defective NICs. you must specify an IP address and subnet mask. 9. 6. The more bandwidth is available. excessive collisions can lead to data loss. 7. type 255. Reduced bandwidth is typically a result of too much traffic on the network cable. As more and more transmissions are sent. To do this. you can increase the available bandwidth. software may freeze.0. physically damaged cabling.168. and so on. missing terminators. supply the path to your Windows 98 installation media. If prompted. then restart the computer. or because of a malfunctioning device.10 falls. Select Specify an IP Address. and network slowdown. you will have to replace NICs. hubs. upgrading only the high-traffic segments. the available bandwidth is no longer sufficient to handle all transmissions effectively and efficiently.255. PY . This can be a result of increased traffic due to increased user activity. Another possible solution is to separate high-traffic network segments from low-traffic network segments.1. loss of data. On the Configuration tab. and observe the IP Address and Subnet Mask fields. EV Loss of data typically occurs due to malfunctioning equipment. In the IP Address field. confirm that TCP/IP is installed. right-click on Network Neighborhood and choose Properties. type 192.255. 8. or from 4 Mbps to 16 Mbps in a Token Ring network.255.1. and potentially the network cabling.

but this would be the likely case only if the slowdown is gradual. symptom. You then learned about the seven layers of the OSI model and how they interact. and you identified common network problems. c. or solution on the right with the network problem on the left. and located their layers in the OSI model. In the event of a sudden decrease in network performance. as discussed earlier. You also studied. you may also want to look at upgrading server hardware and distributing functions to several servers. Excessive signal collisions. C O TASK 10C-5: PY . breaking the network up into separate network segments can reduce the incidence of collisions. Match the cause. If the light is on continuously. b. as described earlier. Identifying Common Network Problems 1. the hardware devices and software entities commonly found on networks. a server provides resources to clients. Lesson Review 10A What are the distinguishing features of a peer-to-peer and client-server network? In a peer-to-peer network all computers are equal. What type of cable is used for infrared communications? Infrared communications don’t use cables.by using a network analyzer. This may be caused by excessive traffic on the network. you likely have a cable fault or network misconfiguration.6 Kbps to 4 Mbps. you learned how networks are classified based on geographical boundaries and the characteristics of different network topologies. A sudden decrease in network performance. a Loss of data Summary L A EV 368 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D In this lesson. Upgrade the network from 10 Mbps to 100 Mbps. You then learned how to install the TCP/IP protocol on a Windows 98 machine. O N O T b c Network slowdown Decreased bandwidth a. In a client-server network. Data is transmitted over a beam of light at speed from 9. in detail. Also. you should suspect a hardware problem. If the network slowdown is gradual. Network slowdown means that users notice that the network has suddenly become slow. and also by checking the collision light on hubs.

Answers might include: Three connection devices are the hub. loss of data. Architecture describes how components in the system behave and interrelate. bridge. and network slowdown.10B Describe the purpose of network architecture and the OSI model. Application. 10CList three network connection devices. List the OSI layers and describe how they communicate. Presentation. Data Link. layers request services from and provide services to corresponding layers in another set of protocols. Session. and router. the OSI model is a means for demonstrating architecture. and three network protocols. A layer requests services from layers beneath it while providing services to the layers above. EV A L -D O N Lesson 10: Networking 369 O T C O PY . Identify three common types of network problems. Network. three types of media. Also. and fiber-optic cable. Three media are twisted-pair. and Physical. Transport. coaxial cable. Decreased bandwidth.

EV 370 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

which in turn influences the productivity of your company.Customer Satisfaction Importance of Customer Satisfaction You are a representative of your profession as well as your company. The way you conduct yourself professionally directly influences the satisfaction of your customer. These personal traits are highly valued in a PC repair technician: Trait How You Demonstrate It Be non-judgmental about your customer’s level of computer competence. stating the limits of your knowledge. choice of hardware. when necessary. Instill confidence and credibility in your customers by demonstrating your skills and. APPENDIX A Figure A-1: You are a representative of your profession as well as your company. Professional Manner EV What is your mission statement? Think about the professional you want to be. What do you expect of yourself? What traits do you expect of a service provider? A good rule to follow is to treat your customer the way you would want to be treated under similar circumstances. and environmental conditions. Acceptance Competence A L -D O N Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 371 O T C O PY . personal traits.

or on-site. as confidential. An unethical practice may become so routine that it is falsely assumed to be acceptable behavior. The issues involved are complex and ever-changing in the relatively young computer industry. Tell the truth about needed repairs. Dependability Flexibility Honesty Patience Punctuality Professional Appearance Professional Behavior L A EV 372 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D The following list describes some facets of professional behavior that will help you: • Accountability. apply what you have previously learned. Be aware of the corporate culture. Know your company’s policies concerning confidential information and follow them. try alternate solutions. You may be asked to remove your shoes or put on a hard hat. don’t make promises you can’t keep. When on-site. or training. work efficiently and accurately. Be patient with angry customers. and special education—are regulated by state laws concerning the confidentiality of their consumers. Work around the customer’s time and space demands. refer to your supervisor or follow your company’s procedure. social work. On-site work may take you into many settings. any information you learn about your customer’s business. T C O PY . be honest about your level of expertise and make professional referrals when appropriate. baffling equipment. Learn your company’s policies and adhere to them. find out where the recycling bin is for printer test-run paper. from muffler repair shops to executive offices. N O Your work environment may be in a repair shop. use titles such as Dr. Whatever the situation. All companies have personal information about their employees. keep your promises or let the customer know of any changes. • O Be sure to keep your work area neat. business-like appearance. address your customer as “sir” or “ma’am”. think on your feet. ask where to dispose of materials. and admit your mistakes.. Be aware of your company’s policy on accepting gifts or samples. Mr. call if you will be detained. unavoidable delays. you will want to present a neat. and frustrating policies and procedures. Ethical conduct.Trait Courtesy How You Demonstrate It Be polite and friendly on the phone and in person. make follow-up calls as promised. Treat. at a help desk. and respond accordingly. be prepared with the right equipment. computer-illiterate customers. Be there when you say you will. and on socializing with customers. Many corporations have sensitive information about the development of their products or services. promptly admit your errors. • Confidentiality. Be on time. clean. ask for help when you need it. Many fields—including medicine. Clean up after yourself. You have an obligation to take responsibility for the ethical conduct within your delivery of service.. and time estimates. Don’t pile materials on your co-worker’s books and files. costs. a customer who doesn’t know a multimeter from a mizzenmast may chase after you with the anti-static bag you left behind. ask permission before entering your customer’s personal space. In questions of conflict of interest between your company and the customer. or Ms. with last names. competence. Take responsibility for your actions. Do not misrepresent your credentials.

You need to go back and get the right cartridge. You are responsible for upholding the law by complying with the license agreement. fundamental fairness.• Pirating. You will rank the urgency of your customers’ needs. Ms.” “Call the office if you have any problems. concerns the legal issues surrounding the distribution and use of software. You brought the wrong cartridge because the customer told you the incorrect model number. Trait Demonstrated Dependability.. You will recommend whether your customer should repair or replace equipment. let’s run a selftest to see if the printer is okay. You need a new printer.” “Could I take a minute to show you what I did? Maybe we can prevent this from happening in the future. You will often need to set priorities and make judgment calls. Base your decisions on common courtesy. Punctuality Competence T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 373 C • Setting priorities. Nice to meet you.” “We have a little problem here.” O L N Situation Less Effective Response More Effective Response O Courtesy Patience Flexibility The following table provides example of personal traits demonstrated in a particular situation.. or pirating. O PY — Fines . The printer is functioning smoothly. I’m ___ from __. Learn your company’s policies and adhere to them. A “Sorry. “Where’s the printer?” “I don’t know when I’ll be back to finish the job.” EV You replace the cartridge.” “First. The Federal Copyright Act of 1976 protects the rights of the holder of the copyright. Software copyright infringement. a site license allows for multiple use at one facility. Usually a backup copy of software is allowed. I need to go back to the shop for a different part.” -D “Don’t you even know what kind of printer you have? Now I’ll have to waste time.” “Hi. but printer still doesn’t work. __. and keeping promises.” “I can probably have this done by noon. Be familiar with your company’s policies and follow them. Pirating carries serious penalties and risks: — Imprisonment — Corrupted files — Virus-infected disks — Lack of technical support — Lack of upgrades You meet the customer for the first time. I need to call my next customer and let them know when I’ll be there.

Their sense of urgency is about deadlines and production. from novice to expert.” “Let’s see what we can do to get you back online. the customer is the bread-and-butter of your business.” “I’d be willing to follow up on that if you want to give me the details. If not. I’ll let you know ASAP. they may display frustration and anger. Remember. A sincere apology may be in order. Studies show that a customer who complains may be more valuable than the one who says nothing and silently moves on. as well as investigating the complaint. Rudeness is never an option. using the communication and problemsolving techniques listed in the following section. Challenge yourself to find the positive in every situation. let the customer know that you are working for a timely solution to the problem. and it cost me two hundred bucks!” 374 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Since the customer is your reason for being a service technician. it’s not about you. Keep your focus on: “This is a person who needs my help. However. Customer Satisfaction L A -D Your goal is to achieve and maintain customer satisfaction by providing good service at a reasonable cost in a timely fashion. The following table provides some example scenarios that identify customer needs. and you may become the target of anger or frustration.Customer Needs Is the customer always right? No. beliefs. be sure to look beyond the immediate differences. The satisfied customer is the one who continues to do business with your company. gender. Customer Says “I’ve got a fleet of trucks out there waiting for manifests!” O N O Your customers call because they need help. Whatever the circumstances. He or she may be emotionally charged by the equipment problem. The customer will have varying levels of computer experience. How can I provide it?” Treat all customers as you would like to be treated. Ask yourself: “What is my job here? What are my obligations to the customer? What are my obligations to my employer?” You and the customer bring your own individual differences in values. and communication styles. it’s about their need to get back online as quickly as possible. The complaining customer may continue to do business with you. The dissatisfied customer will take his or her business elsewhere. age. the customer deserves your acceptance and respect. Your Response “I estimate you’ll be back in business in an hour.” “The last guy I talked to didn’t know what he was doing. Be patient and honest. PY Need Urgency Respect Satisfaction Respect . the customer may be flat-out wrong at times.” T C EV “They should have sent a man out to fix this. Response to Urgency Your best response is to be supportive. personality. providing useful feedback for your company. and they usually need it yesterday.

” “My term paper is due at 5:00 tomorrow!” “How do I know it’s not going to break down again. What do satisfied customers translate to for your company? Increased business opportunities through repeat and possibly expanded contacts. higher profit margins. -D Repeat business is the backbone of your company. Poor customer service translates into plunging profits. and missed opportunities. It may save you having to bring your computer into the shop. You can work more efficiently because you have already established a business relationship. I don’t know much about computers.” “Let’s try a few things over the phone. As you increase customer satisfaction. satisfactory or otherwise. O T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 375 C O PY . Would it help if we wrote down the steps?” Need Respect Urgency Satisfaction Better Business What does combining your technical skills with good customer relations translate to for your customers? Customer satisfaction. Repeat Business Ease for Technician • • • • • • How to get a visitor pass The company’s dress code The physical layout of the plant The people involved The level of technical support you can expect The equipment you are dealing with EV A When you are on-site. O N Research shows that the Better Business Bureau handled over 3 million customer complaints in 1999. Sorry. the customer has power—to do business with you. The customer also has the power to spread the word about the service provided by your company. or to take that business elsewhere. regardless of size. You will want to be part of developing and maintaining corporate accounts.. so I kept pushing buttons. because you are familiar with the territory. which can include more income.Customer Says “I didn’t know what to do.” “Let’s take a minute to go through the procedure.. Your company may have incentives for the repair technician or for the customer. and greater employment opportunities. as soon as you leave?” Your Response “Let’s back up a bit and try to figure out the original problem. to the tune of billions of dollars. you may already know: • Where to park L Repeat business gives you a sense of ease. you may see the benefits of improved productivity. falling productivity. Remember. You don’t have to start over every time.

O PY Let’s look at the communication skills you will need to develop. non-verbal characteristics—such as tone of voice—will add meaning to your message and help you interpret your customer’s concerns. Eye Contact You and your customer will make. maintain. O N O T C Body language communicates more than actual words. When attention is directed to the problem at hand. which indicates disinterest. These are of great importance. Communication Skills Non-verbal Clues L A EV 376 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure A-2: Body language communicates more than actual words. and break eye contact as you talk with each other. Even when you are talking on the phone.Working on the help desk requires you to visualize what the customer is describing. you will be familiar with the equipment and have access to records. . You will want to avoid staring directly at your customer—a form of invading personal space—or letting your gaze wander. Studies show that up to seventy percent of a message is conveyed through actions. eye contact may be minimal. Your work will go more smoothly if you have previously dealt with this customer.

attentive. and risky.. If a situation escalates and your customer becomes agitated. sitting in the office chair. especially if upset or angry.Gestures and Facial Expression Gestures–such as nodding. you may be from one and one-half to four feet away from your customer. -D O Messages are conveyed by body position. while sharp or jabbing gestures usually mean anger. friendly gestures indicate being open to the conversation. as well as those of your customer. You may be working in close quarters. Depending on the circumstances. Non-verbal Encouragement Encourage your customer to continue with “Mm-hmm” and a slight nod of your head. ask permission before you move into your customer’s personal space—for example. fear. It may be difficult to keep from jumping in with a question or a “Yes. which are conveyed non-verbally. Your silence may help your customer to collect his or her thoughts.” Resist the temptation by writing down your thoughts to refer to later. A Tone of Voice L You can set the pace of a conversation. your customer will believe the message in your face rather than what you say. or uncertainty. Other forms of touching are generally unnecessary. pointing. implying lack of assurance instead of competence. Broad.” Holding one’s arms across the chest says “I’m closed to what you are saying.” You are alert. If the customer backs up. if there is a mismatch. you may gently step up the pace to indicate your need to move on.” Watch your body’s signals. try lowering your volume to re-establish a sense of calm. you’re too close. as it allows you time to formulate your response. Your expression must match the content of your words. or measuring the air—help expand the spoken message. inappropriate. A rise in your voice at the end of a sentence makes it sound like a question. Touch A firm handshake is appreciated and may be expected in some business dealings. you may ask him or her to slow down so that you can get all the information. but. Listen for factual data and be alert for feelings and attitudes. Slouching indicates “I’m bored with this conversation. You convey that you are listening and want to know more. but do not participate actively in the conversation. sarcasm. Passive Listening Your message is: “I’m listening. If your customer’s agitation escalates. boredom. The variety. intensity. A pause may be more valuable than an immediate answer. Listen to your customer’s tone. and accepting. N O Positioning and Posture T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 377 C O PY .. Volume—loudness or softness—colors the spoken message. Tell me more. You and your customer read each other’s faces to gain insight into the spoken words. Respect your customer’s personal space. Timing EV The tone of voice indicates many internal moods: excitement. When a customer is having difficulty ending a call to the help desk. and meaning of facial expressions are almost endless.

The following table lists some examples of non-verbal communication. so try them out in a situation outside your job. Yes-no questions further limit information exchange and can be used when you need to “cut to the chase. With practice. A firm. Open-ended questions can elicit a lot of information. Nodding your head. clarify what you have heard and direct the conversation. Non-verbal Cue Tone of voice Passive listening Non-verbal encouragement Posture Eye contact Gesture Touch Positioning Facial expression Example Speaking calmly and quietly when your customer becomes agitated. Stand with your arms at your side. listen actively to elicit as much information as you can.” Helpful question styles: • Open-ended: “What happened after you pressed [Ctrl][Alt][Delete]?” • • Close-ended: “What kind of a printer do you have. Avoid making unneccessary hand movements. you will use active listening skills more easily and creatively.. 1 1/2 to 4 feet is recommended. saying “mm-hmmm” to encourage your customer to continue. Close-ended questions limit the amount of information by giving a choice of answers.? What happened?” • Accusations: “What did you do that for?” O Questions N When your customer is describing the problem. Raising your eyebrows when a customer tells you something you didn’t expect.. Place distance between technician and customer. friendly handshake when you meet a customer for the first time. Looking at your customer when he or she asks you a question. Observing your customer’s words and body language without verbally responding. These techniques may feel awkward at first. laser or inkjet?” Yes-no: “Are you on a network?” What if the answer to your open-ended question is “I don’t know” or “I’m not sure”? Go down the list—using close-ended and then yes-no—until you reach the customer’s level of expertise. O Active Listening T C O PY . L EV A 378 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Ask questions to gain information. Less helpful question styles: • Confusing multiple questions: “What did you do next? Did you try.

. during the save.” • “You must be worried about the cost. During the conversation.” • • “It sounds like.” not “I.” . Is that accurate?” “What happens when you try to open the presentation?” EV N Empathy Paraphrase Skill Demonstrated Yes-no question Close-ended question Open-ended question O Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 379 T C O PY • “You’re afraid you’ll lose business while your computer is down. Use statements. or after you saved your data?” “You must really be nervous right now. and don’t add or change anything.Empathy Let your customer know that you perceive and support what he or she is feeling.. You can begin the conversation by summarizing your understanding of the problem and then checking for clarification. You Say A L -D Outline the main points of your conversation to summarize what has been said. Helpful starters include: • “You’re saying that.” Helpful responses include: • “This delay is frustrating for you. and to relay that the message is important. Bring closure by summing up the work performed..” Summarization Helpful starters include: • “Let’s see what we have so far.” “I’m hearing you say... using “you.” Less helpful responses include: • “I know how you’re feeling.” • “I can identify. restate the responsibilities and timeline..” • • “Let’s go over our plan. O “Is your computer back up and running?” “Did the power go off before you saved. you can re-establish the focus by listing the important facts..” Paraphrasing Restate what the customer says in your own words to make sure that you interpreted correctly. If a follow-up plan is needed.. not questions. to bring order to the customer’s thoughts.” “Why don’t we back up a minute and go through that again?” The following table lists some examples of active listening skills. Try to be specific in naming the emotion and link it to the customer.” “You’re saying that the computer was in the process of writing to the disk when the power went off.

” “It sounds like a big responsibility. and I’ll bring some recovery software that may rescue your presentation. Conflict resolution techniques can help you make a difference in customer satisfaction. your job is to relieve some of the stress.” • “That’s not what I said!” Reflecting Feelings You can acknowledge what the customer is feeling without necessarily accepting the display of emotion. right. As the customer realizes that you are not going to argue. or many things.” Skill Demonstrated Summarization Conflict Resolution • • • Missed deadlines Unforeseen delays Unexpected repair costs Agreeing with Perception L A EV 380 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Helpful phrases: • “I can understand why you would think that.” Less helpful phrases: • “But.” “You sound unsure.” • • “I can understand your anger. not all your interactions will be ideal. As a service provider. N Your customer may direct anger and frustration to you. Your customer may be under stress for a number of reasons: • Limited productivity O You aim for customer satisfaction. let’s make sure of our game plan. Check the customer’s non-verbal messages.You Say “Before I come over. PY . don’t take the attack personally. “We usually work with Sharon”—then you know you are doing something. Remember. don’t apologize for it or try to take it away. and don’t counter-attack. and many times your interactions will go smoothly. The feeling belongs to the customer. he or she may see a safe place to begin to solve the problem. You may be greeted with: “Are we glad to see you!” When a customer specifically requests you—as in. O T C Unfortunately. You won’t do anything more on the computer. including tone of voice and facial expression. Be accurate and specific in naming the feeling.” O You can agree with the customer’s perception of a situation without necessarily agreeing with what is said.” • • “I see what you’re getting at.. Helpful responses include: • “I’m sensing your frustration..

” “Calm down. which ultimately rests with the customer. Brainstorm some ideas. Agree with perception Agree with perception Respect feelings Respect feelings Form alliance Form alliance Find solution O T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 381 Finding a Solution C Less helpful phrases include: • “I think you should.” “There’s nothing to get excited about..” EV “I can understand what you’re saying.?” “These are our options. Give a sense of unity by using “we” instead of “you” or “I.” The following table differentiates some less helpful responses from their more helpful equivalents.... “Yeah...Less helpful responses include: • • “I’m sorry you’re angry.” “It sounds like you’re under a tight deadline.” “I guarantee my way will work.” “You sound really frustrated.” L Less Helpful Response -D More Helpful Response O “I’ve only got one pair of hands!” “I’m sorry you feel that way. Your job is to facilitate the decision-making.” Forming an Alliance Helpful phrases include: • “Where are we heading with this?” • • “Would it help us if.” • “That’s your choice. the problem-solving process can move forward. Be sure to follow through with any commitments you make.” “I hear your urgency.” .” “If I were you. Be careful about giving advice or solutions too early or too often in the process.?” “Does this sound like a reasonable possibility?” A N Reason Together you and your customer can work out a specific plan for working through the problem.” O PY Your customer needs to know that you are an ally.” Helpful phrases include: • “What has worked before?” • • • • “What resources are available right now?” “Does this sound like something we could try?” “I’ll leave it up to you.” “It’s your money you’re throwing away.. not an enemy.. When the customer knows that you share the concerns.” “Why don’t we..” “Let’s see if this works.” Less helpful phrases: “Call me if you have any problems.. but.

” More Helpful Response “Let’s go over our plan of action. you may be the customer’s first contact with your company. a satisfied customer is your goal. and be familiar with your company’s customer service policies. Follow those guidelines in filling out necessary forms. ” Reason Find solution Service Calls Type of Call L A EV 382 A+ Certification: Core Hardware -D Figure A-3: Whether you provide technical support over the phone or in person. The Initial Call Your company has established a procedure for taking customer calls. Each setting brings its own set of challenges. Simple troubleshooting over the phone will help determine the next step: using the help desk. Be sure you present yourself professionally. a satisfied customer is your goal. Service calls follow the same basic format. bringing the computer into the shop.Less Helpful Response “Trust me. The environment will dictate differences in the way you handle certain aspects of the job. or an on-site visit. PY . O N O T C O Whether you provide technical support over the phone or in person. Remember. it’ll never fly.

O N O T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 383 C Timing O Non-verbal Encouragement PY . You will find it helpful to make diagrams and take notes as you go along. However. The following table demonstrates skills and appropriate responses. L -D Use open-ended. Repeat what you have heard to check for accuracy. Listen for agitation. Tone of Voice Now. ears. they are on your territory. you should take notes. and hands. closeended. He demands immediate action. let’s examine active listening skills. Your conflict resolution skills will be useful in de-escalating a situation and helping your customer achieve satisfaction. including a credit for the first repair. Listen for anger or frustration. a dissatisfied customer’s actions and words can influence other patrons in the shop. prepare to use your Active Listening skills.Help Desk Your communication skills will be of prime importance here as you guide your customer through the troubleshooting process. You are able to speak face-to-face with them and walk through the problem together. and yes-no questions as you determine the customer’s level of expertise. Situation The customer begins to describe problem The customer hesitates The customer begins to talk faster The customer’s voice rises in pitch Communication Skill Passive Listening Non-verbal Cues Allow information to flow without interruption. First. Name the emotion to let the customer know that you are an ally. EV A When customers come to you. Use a gentle “Mm-hmm” or “Uh-huh” to let the customer know you are listening. Situation The customer has difficulty describing problem The customer expresses anger or impatience The customer describes problem in own words The customer rambles on Communication Skill Questions Active Listening Empathy Paraphrase Summarize Repair Shop Consider the following scenario: A plumber brings his printer into the shop for the second time in a week. prepare to use your Active Listening skills. Bring focus to the call by outlining the main points. You are in effect teaching the customer to be your eyes. let’s examine non-verbal clues. Your conflict resolution techniques can defuse the incident. He is angry that he has had to take time off from work again and that his invoices won’t go out at the end of the month.

you will need to be even more aware of the personal traits valued in a service technician. Admit to the customer that you would rather take the time to research and get help than make a costly mistake based on guesswork. during the on-site visit. determine how long the office will be unavailable and adjust your schedule accordingly. Let’s talk to my supervisor together. As the balance of power shifts slightly. call your next customer to explain the situation and make alternate arrangements. the customer continues to yank on mouse cord A service call is taking longer than you anticipated The customer’s first language is not English Flexibility O Situation Personal Trait O A L Customer Interaction As you provide technical support. the customer may be your best source of information about the technical problem.” “For my part.Customer’s Remarks “You guys don’t know anything!” “This is the second time this week I’ve had to drop everything and come in here!” “How am I supposed to get my invoices out?” “So. C O PY “We are going to take care of this right now. you will interact with the customer as well as the equipment.” Forming an Alliance Finding a Solution On-Site -D The customer needs to use the office where you are working The equipment presents a problem that is new to you After several repairs. Ask if someone is available to help interpret.” “This is frustrating for you. The following table demonstrates traits and possible actions during an on-site visit. You are not expected to be chatty. diagrams. Show the customer the damage in a nonthreatening way. Your Action Service other workstations if possible. I will talk to Accounting and get back to you by tomorrow. use gestures. • Introduce yourself. 384 A+ Certification: Core Hardware N Honesty Patience Punctuality Flexibility T Like the repair shop. I’m supposed to pay for this twice?” Conflict Resolution Skill Agreeing with Perception Reflecting Feeling Your Response “I can understand why you think that. Moreover. Take time to: • Greet the customer. Discuss the time over-run with your current customer. however. EV Establishing Rapport It will be well worth your time to establish a friendly alliance with your customer. and demonstrations to communicate. the on-site visit takes you to the customer’s turf. be aware of your interactions with the customer. suggest a more ergonomic rearrangement of workstation.” .

Warning: If the customer becomes defensive. Make a general remark. Remember the personal trait of acceptance. Asking questions and learning what you can. chances are good you can make it work again. the customer may feel less need to impress you if you acknowledge his or her skills.. rather than the person. Your actions can include: T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 385 C O PY Responding to Customer’s Technical Level . audio files cannot be heard if there is no sound card. If it has never worked correctly. Helpful phrases include: • • • “It might help if we. on the other hand. O N Sincerely complimenting the customer’s expertise. listen and watch for his or her technical level. Pinning down the time the problem appeared will help you isolate the cause. For example. such as “Let’s see what we can do to get you up and running.” “Is the green light on?” • • • • Recognizing the customer’s knowledge by using technical jargon. Make an effort to find an area of strength and comment on that. O Your customer. there may be a flaw or incompatibility that you need to isolate. unless asked to use first names. Concentrate on any changes that occurred between the time it last operated correctly and the time the problem was noticed. the customer may have helpful suggestions. If the equipment has functioned properly in the past. Because it is in the customer’s best interest to solve the problem as quickly and efficiently as possible. Letting the customer know that you are working together. may reveal a discomfort level. For example. Use an organized. change your questions to focus on the equipment.” As you communicate with the customer. rather than malfunctions of equipment or software.” “Let’s take this one step at a time. Adjust your questions and use of technical jargon to match your customer’s expertise and understanding. common-sense approach to isolate the source of a problem and find the solution. Suggest a cooperative solution.. The customer may lack training and be fearful of appearing foolish. change “What have you done?” to try to solve the problem?” to “What attempt has been made to solve the problem?” EV Question A What is the nature of the problem? Has the equipment ever worked correctly? When did you first notice the problem? L -D Description of Problem Information You Are Seeking Many reported problems are based on false expectations of the user. you should enlist his or her help. Fill out initial forms. may be a know-it-all who tries to take charge or play games to trip you up. and treat this as a learning experience. such as lack of eye contact. Be sure to adjust your questions and use of technical jargon to match the customer’s level. such as commenting on the weather.• • • • Use the customer’s title and last name. His or her non-verbal cues.

find the solution used then. and organized. clear. than problem repetition. Moving the computer very carefully from one office to another may cause connections to fail if the computer is on a different branch of the network. Include a rationale so the customer understands the reasoning. Installing new items can introduce conflicts. Focus On Customer “When did you first notice the problem?” “Have you ever had this problem before?” “What have you done to try to solve the problem?” “Did you install or remove any software or hardware just before you noticed the problem?” O Pace your explanation to match the customer’s rate of understanding. Installing and removing hardware and software are major sources of problems. Often attempts to fix a problem introduce an unrelated set of changes that can mask the cause of the original problem. Cables and cards can work loose during a move. determine the cause of the previous occurrence. Ask for feedback. so knowing the exact version of all software is crucial. Be aware of any resistance to receiving help or making changes. Suggest that the customer write the procedure down. and try it again. and removing old items can also destroy files needed by current items.Question Have you ever had this problem before? What attempt has been made to try to solve the problem? Information You Are Seeking If the problem has happened before. T Focus On Equipment “When did the problem first occur?” “Has the problem ever occurred before?” “What attempt has been made to solve the problem?” “Was any software or hardware installed just before the problem appeared?” C O Did you install or remove any software or hardware just before you noticed the problem? Did you change the physical setup before you noticed the problem? PY . You might need to undo any previous attempts to fix the problem before you can isolate its cause. What software are you using? Teaching the Customer • • • • • • • • • • Be concise. A L EV -D The following table provides some examples for moving the focus away from the customer and toward the equipment. N When you offer to give information: • Make sure the customer has the time and interest. in human and economic terms. Software is constantly being upgraded. and sometimes wires are reconnected incorrectly. Walk the customer through the procedure. Summarize the essential points. You have the opportunity to demonstrate excellence in support when you take the time to teach your customer about the equipment you are servicing. Problem prevention is less costly. Check for understanding by asking questions. you are obligated to consider the economic health of your customer’s organization. 386 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O As part of providing quality customer service. Adjust your use of technical jargon to match the customer’s vocabulary.

Review any plans you have made for future service or follow-up. Tell customer you are referring. This may prove to be an invaluable reference for you in the future. Ending Follow-up A N O Task Unfortunately.” Keep customer informed of changes or delays. Thank the customer for doing business with your company. when to expect call. keep your customer informed of any changes or delays. Be sure to let the customer know that you are directing the problem to a person with more experience and resources. Making Referrals Ending Be sure to track any referrals you made to other technicians. refer to a co-worker or to the next level of support. Record-keeping can help you keep track of the kinds of problems you encounter and the solutions used. Area Forms L Task -D Follow-up O In wrapping up your service call. Be accountable for your follow-up plan. Route documentation. When a problem is beyond the scope of your expertise. summarize the important points with your customer. Say “thank you. Track referrals.Focus On Customer “Did you change the physical setup before you noticed the problem?” “What software are you using?” Focus On Equipment “Was there any physical change to the setup before the problem appeared?” “What software is being used?” Finishing the Service Call When you have completed the technical aspects of the service call. Refer to co-worker or next level of support. You and your customer are both busy people. be sure to clean your work area. wrap up business as efficiently as possible. not every problem is remedied immediately. Making Referrals EV Complete accurately and promptly. Summarize important points and review plans. Get necessary signatures. Be accountable for follow-up plan. Clean up. Inform your customer of the procedure and when to expect a call from the support person. Inform customer of procedure. T Appendix A: Customer Satisfaction 387 C Complete all forms accurately and promptly. and route your documentation according to your company’s procedures. At an on-site visit. The following table summarizes the tasks to be completed when finishing a service call. Task Get signature. O Forms PY .

EV 388 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

Analytical Engine Charles Babbage’s vision of a mechanical calculator that would follow programmed instructions to perform any mathematical operations. Transfer speed is 10 Mbps. adapter A device that allows one system to connect to and work with another. network adapters (NICs). O abacus An early calculating instrument that uses sliding beads in columns that are divided in two by a center bar. but they are still called adapters. Uses BNC connectors. Also called Thinnet. more computer components are turned off to increase power savings. Application layer A layer of the OSI model that provides the starting point of the communication session. N 8008 Introduced by Intel in 1972. the term often refers to devices which are more accurately called controllers.GLOSSARY EV active hub A connecting unit that regenerates the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal. Also called twisted-pair Ethernet. AGP Stands for Accelerated Graphics Port. -D A active matrix An LCD in which transistors actively maintain the state of pixels between scans. Advanced Power Management (APM) Application programming interface (API) for battery-powered computers that provides several power-saving options. AppleTalk Apple computer’s network protocol. Operates at 10 Mbps. Power-saving interface that has six separate power-saving states (S0 through S5). the 8008 was the first microprocessor to be supported by a high-level language compiler. O 10BaseT Ethernet standard that uses twisted-pair cable. . display adapters (video cards). Uses RJ-45 connectors. Architecture that is based on the PCI architecture and is designed specifically to speed up 3D graphics. The engine could store results for use later. C Glossary 389 10Base5 Ethernet standard that uses coaxial cable and supports transfer speeds of 10 Mbps. An adapter is often a simple circuit that converts one set of signals to another. however. Also referred to as Layer 7 of the OSI model. or cards. O PY 10Base2 Ethernet standard that uses 50 ohm coaxial cable (RG-58 A/U). L ACPI Stands for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface. T adapter card Add-on boards. Also called thick Ethernet. Also referred to as a multiport repeater. For example. or Thicknet. that provide special functions for customizing or extending a computer’s capability. and look up values in tables and call on standard subroutines. Thickwire. and SCSI host adapters perform extensive processing. With each state.

depending on which function is needed. even if they are different types of networks using different communication protocols. Ball Grid Array (BGA) CPU packaging used for portable computer processors. BIOS Stands for Basic Input/Output System. Low-level software that acts as the interface between the hardware and the operating system in a computer. Not to be confused with data rate. and executing that code.GLOSSARY Base Memory address The memory address of any memory that might be on the adapter card. Connects to an external transceiver that then connects to a one-half-inch thick coaxial cable. In this design. BNC connector The type of connector most commonly used to join coax cables in a network. branch prediction The process of the CPU trying to anticipate which code will be used next. An extension to EIDE that enables support for CD-ROM and tape drives. Used with 10Base5 (Thicknet). brouter A communication device that functions as both a bridge and a router. bridge An electronic device that controls the flow of information between LAN segments or networks. or Thomas de Colmar. N asynchronous A bit synchronization transmission technique that uses start and stop bits. based on past history. bandwidth The maximum amount of data that can be sent across the network cable per second. France. EV 390 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O Arithmometer Charles Xavier Thomas of Colmar. O ARCNet Connects up to 255 nodes in a star topology at a transmission rate of 2. A L ATAPI AT Attachment Packet Interface. PY application software High-level programs that are written to run on specific operating systems and that provide specific functionality such as word processing. established the industry of manufacturing calculating machines when he started production of the Arithmometer. Has a small footprint to accommodate the space restrictions of portable computers. graphics creation. AUI Stands for Attachment Unit Interface. O asynchronous transmission Transmitter embeds clocking pulses in the data line. -D AT commands The modem command set developed by the Hayes company for use on its modems and now used on most modems. or database management. solder balls are used rather than metal leads found in PGA packaging. bit A single binary digit having a value of 0 or 1.5 Mbps. T C baud rate The number of signal changes that a data transmission line makes in one second. .

and one or more computers act primarily as consumers of network resources (clients). cache Dedicated high-speed memory for storing recently used instructions and data. O chipset The set of chips on the system board that support the CPU and other basic functions.GLOSSARY byte A group of 8 bits. Cat-5 Stands for Category 5. CMOS Stands for Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor and pronounced “seemoss. and PCI. T C Glossary 391 bus master Takes control of the bus away from the CPU to transfer data directly to RAM or other devices. Type of cabling that consists of four twisted-pairs of copper wire terminated by RJ-45 connectors. L -D O N O bus topology A physical topology where a single main cable called the bus or backbone carries all network data. These are processors that don’t require instructions to be of a fixed length. Examples include ISA. CGA Stands for Color Graphics Adapter. client A computer on a network that makes use of the resources managed by a server. PY bus The collection of wires that connect an interface card and the microprocessor. and that allow for more complicated functions to be executed in one instruction. EISA. and 10BaseT networking. Can be used for Token Ring. clock speed The frequency at which the system board and CPU operate. 100BaseT. 1000BaseT. Nodes connect directly to the bus. heads. CMOS RAM A special type of memory that stores information about the computer’s setup. A data-transmission technology that uses cellular channels to send data. Used to manually configure hard drives smaller than 504 MB. CHS Cylinders. Centronics Parallel port standard that uses a 36-pin connector to connect to the printer. . client-server network A network where one or more computers act primarily as providers of network resources (servers). Card Services Assigns resources for PC Cards and detects when a card is inserted or removed. A cathode ray tube Displays images using phosphorous dots with a scanned electron beam. EV CDPD Stands for Cellular Digital Packet Data. An IBM video display standard that provided low-resolution text and graphics. CISC Stands for Complex Instruction Set Computer. and a DB-25 connector to connect to the PC. sectors addressing.” The most widely used type of integrated circuit for digital processors and memories. and the rules that describe how data should be transferred through the connection. Virtually everything is configured through CMOS today.

Current is measured in amperes (amps). Combines the functions of CSU and DSU in one device. Also referred to as Layer 2 of the OSI model. Backup tape format that offers higher storage capacity at a lower cost than QIC technology. datapath The number of bits wide or the number of channels in the bus. If two computers transmit at the same time. . The DSU terminates a data circuit to the Data Terminal Equipment and converts customer transmission data into a bipolar format. commonly called coax. System that enables dealing with packet collisions in an Ethernet network. N corona wire The wire in the corona assembly that charges the paper. PY coaxial cable A high-capacity cable used in communications and video. The main chip on the system board. and mathematical and logical equations. Capacity is from 1 GB to 4 GB and up. Not to be confused with baud rate. the cylinder is the sum total of every track with the same track number on every surface. On a floppy disk. The CSU terminates a digital circuit. the CPU performs software instructions.GLOSSARY crosstalk Interference caused by “leaks” from a nearby communication channel. Computers transmit when the channel is free. Both computers stop transmitting and retransmit at a random point in the future. wrapped in a plastic cover. O L A EV 392 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O conventional memory In a PC. a collision occurs and is detected (by the Collision Detection mechanism). cylinder The aggregate of all tracks that reside in the same location on every disk surface. It contains an insulated solid or stranded wire surrounded by a solid or braided metallic shield. C current The amount of electricity moving through a conductive material such as a wire. T computer network A collection of hardware and software that enables a group of computers to communicate with each other. CSU/DSU Stands for Channel Service Unit/Data Service Unit. Data Link layer A layer of the OSI model that manages node-to-node transmission. -D CPU Stands for Central Processing Unit. a cylinder comprises the top and corresponding bottom track. data rate The number of bits of data that are transmitted per second. Deep Sleep Drastically reduced power mode entered into after certain conditions (such as prolonged inactivity) have been met. On multiple-platter disks. the first 640 K of memory. CSMA/CD Stands for Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection. DAT Stands for Digital Audio Tape. O collateral injuries Injury caused by involuntary muscle movement.

DIN Stands for Deutsche Industrie Norm. Used with older CPUs. These are usually rocker switches (like light switches) to turn on or off. N dot-matrix printer Forms images out of dots on paper. through the 80286. and a lower internal (also called core) voltage for processors. . A group of memory chips that transfer information 64 bits at a time. and one from the processor to L2 cache. drive interface A collection of electrical and logical connections between a hard drive and a PC. Specialized circuitry or a dedicated microprocessor that transfers data from adapters to memory without using the CPU. the parts that were completed functioned perfectly. L EV direct glare Results when a light source is exposed directly to the eye. O DRAM Short for Dynamic RAM. 1 was the first successful automatic calculator. DLT Stands for Digital Linear Tape. Dot patterns are created by a set of pins that strike an inked ribbon. -D A DIP switch Switches on a card used to configure hardware settings. Difference Engine Charles Babbage’s Difference Engine No. PY degauss Remove magnetism from a device. additional drives. O docking station A desktop unit that portable computers connect to. A type of RAM that needs to be refreshed. DIMM Short for Dual In-line Memory Module. one down each side of the CPU package.GLOSSARY DIB Dual Independent Bus is the architecture used in Pentium processors. A type of connector with 5 pins. DIP Dual Inline Packages are CPU packaging designs that feature two rows of pins. Current storage capacity is up to 50 GB. and ports for other desktop peripherals. Port replicators contain standard desktop expansion cards. display adapter A PC expansion board that converts the images created in the computer to the electronic signals required by the monitor. driver Software that enables the operating system and a peripheral device to communicate with each other. This design is also called splitrail.000 parts were never assembled into a finished engine. This architecture uses two buses—one from the processor to main memory. Backup tape technology developed by DEC. T C Glossary 393 O DMA Stands for Direct Memory Access. This increases throughput. Also referred to as device driver. dual-voltage Design that enables use of a higher external voltage (also called I/O voltage). Although the 12. DVD Stands for Digital Video Disc. A datastorage medium that can store more information than compact discs.

S. -D EDSAC The Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Computer was a well-engineered machine built by Maurice Wilkes and colleagues at the University of Cambridge Mathematics Lab in 1949 and was a productive tool for mathematicians. C electrical power The energy delivered by a flow of electrons. it acts like a regular ROM chip. O PY ECC An Error Correct Code is a type of memory that corrects errors on the fly. ECP Stands for Extended Capability Port. CD-ROMs. EDO RAM Stands for Extended Data Output RAM. and tape drives. EGA Stands for Enhanced Graphics Adapter. Electrostatic Photographic (EP) Describes the type of drum used in laser printers. Used mostly by newer generation printers and scanners. O EV 394 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L O T electricity The flow of electrons through a material or through a vacuum. N EDVAC The Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer was the first computer to use stored programs. EEPROM Stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory. Also referred to as EIDE.4 GB. Power is the mathematical product of voltage and current and is measured in watts.000 vacuum tubes would perform 5. These drums depend on electrostatic charges to hold toner that is moved over to paper during the transfer step. electrons Negatively charged sub-atomic particles that carry energy with them when they move from one place to another. When the EEPROM is programmed.GLOSSARY ECHS Extended CHS. Army by J. A memory chip that is programmed and erased electrically. . A type of DRAM that enables a memory address to hold data for multiple reads. Newer generation parallel port standard that provides high throughput (approximately 10 times faster than the Centronics standard). ENIAC Electronic Numerical Integrator And Computer was developed for the U. Enables use of hard drives of up to 8. EISA bus Extended Industry Standard Architecture is a PC bus standard that extends the 16-bit ISA bus (AT bus) to 32 bits and provides bus mastering. An early IBM video display standard that provided medium-resolution text and graphics. additional device connections. ENIAC was programmed by plugging in cords and setting thousands of switches to direct how 18.000 calculations per second. Enhanced IDE A drive interface based on the ANSI ATA-2 specification that provides support for larger hard drives. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia.

Newer generation parallel port standard that offers high throughput (approximately 10 times faster than the Centronics standard). . A computer network that links all the computers in an organization. Flash ROM Memory that stores data similarly to EEPROM. ESDI Stands for Enhanced Small Device Interface. which takes multiple simple instructions and combines them into a longer internal instruction word format. Uses two pairs of twisted-pair wire. O PY EPIC Stands for Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing. A re-usable memory chip that is programmed electrically and erased by exposure to ultraviolet light. ESD Electrostatic discharge is sparks (electrons) that jump from an electrically charged object to an approaching conductive object. When the EPROM is programmed. C Fast Ethernet Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates of 100 Mbps. but uses a super-voltage charge to erase a block of data.” -D L EV A Ethernet The most widely used LAN access method. A drive interface similar to the ST-506 interface that provides increased performance over the ST-506. Ergonomics The study of people in their working environments. O fiber-optic cable A cable that transfers pulses of light instead of electrical signals. FireWire A high-speed serial bus developed by Apple and Texas Instruments that allows for the connection of up to 63 devices. Used mostly by non-printer peripherals. firmware Software stored in memory chips that retain data whether or not power to the computer is on.GLOSSARY EPROM Stands for Erasable Programmable ReadOnly Memory. Glossary 395 N FDDI Stands for Fiber Distributed Data Interface. it acts like a regular ROM chip. such as CD-ROM drives and network adapters. footcandle A unit of measure of the intensity of light falling on a surface. and 100BaseFL (uses fiber-optic cables). which is defined by the IEEE 802. A new processor design that resembles Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW).3 standard. Other implementations include 100Base T4 (uses four pairs of twisted-pair wires). fast IrDA Infrared standard that uses a transfer speed of 4 Mbps.” O T EPP Stands for Enhanced Parallel Port. Pronounced “ez-dee. Pronounced “fuddy” or “fiddy. firewall A method for keeping a network secure. EWN Stands for Enterprise-Wide Network. exception interrupt An interrupt used by the processor to handle errors. An ANSI standard token-passing network that uses fiber-optical cabling and transmits at 100 Mbps up to 10 kilometers. Also called 100BaseT. Can only be erased and rewritten a few times.

Gigabit Ethernet Ethernet standard that supports transfer rates of 1 gigabit per second. but only in one direction at a time. full duplex Communication type in which communication can occur in two directions at the same time. It provides a simplified alphabet the user uses to input data into a PDA.024 MB. N -D A L EV 396 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O T head crash When read/write heads bang against the surface of the disk. such as a mainframe. equivalent to 1.GLOSSARY framing The process of using start. gigabyte A means of measuring file or disk size. Hercules Graphics A monochrome display adapter capable of producing both high-resolution monochrome graphics and text. melting them onto the paper. Graffiti A handwriting system used by PDAs. and parity bits to verify asynchronous transmission. PY form factor The size and shape of AT system boards. . instead of typing text commands at the keyboard. hub A central connecting device in a network that joins communication lines together in a star configuration. keeping the air around the processor cool. such as a keystroke or mouse movement. and refers to printer components that can be replaced as part of maintenance procedures. provides all processing power and resources to all other network nodes. half duplex Communication type in which communication can occur in two directions. FRU Stands for field replaceable unit. Cool air is blown by a fan onto the device’s metal elements. C O handshaking Signals transmitted back and forth over a communications network that establish a valid connection between two stations. heat sink A device attached to a processor that addresses the problem of overheating processors. O gateway A computer that performs protocol conversion between different types of networks or applications. Term used in reference to laser printers. hardware interrupt An interrupt caused by some action of a hardware device. Abbreviated as GB. GUI A graphical user interface is a means of communicating with an operating system by using a mouse or other device to work with pictorial screen elements. hierarchical network A network where one or more central computers. stop. hot swap To change out a device without needing to power down the PC during installation or remove the device. fuser The laser printer device that uses two rollers to heat toner particles.

publish. O integrated circuit Now usually called just a “chip. and so on) used to identify and signal a peripheral device like a serial port. rather than cables. O I/O address On PCs. A drive interface that provides inexpensive. and one for the inverse of data. infrared Technology that uses a beam of light to transmit data. interlaced A monitor that builds an image by displaying even-numbered scan lines and then odd numbered scan lines. interface card A means of connecting devices to the system board so that they can communicate with the microprocessor.” Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers. or sound card. star. 2A0. parallel port. . IRQ Stands for Interrupt Request Line. An organization of scientists. one for data. engineers. Also referred to as input/output port.GLOSSARY -D IDE drive interface Stands for Integrated Drive Electronics. T C Glossary 397 hybrid topology A physical topology where two or more of the basic physical topologies. A IEEE Pronounced “I-triple-E. are combined. IP address A unique 4-byte number that identifies a node on a TCP/IP network. using line-of sight technology. ring. such as 128. L O N I/O port A place on a computer where you can plug in peripheral devices. and revise computing and telecommunication standard.0. interrupt A signal that gets the attention of the CPU and is usually generated when I/O is required. intelligent hub A connecting device that forwards signals and provides other functionality such as routing and bridging. ISA bus Industry Standard Architecture bus is an expansion bus commonly used in PCs.0. A hardware interrupt on a PC. IP addresses are commonly written in dotted decimal format. A SCSI device that uses two wires. inkjet printer Printer that forms images by spraying ink on paper. and students of electronics and related fields whose technical and standards committees develop.1. A NetWare communications protocol used to route messages from one node to another. or port.” the first integrated circuit was fabricated in 1958 by Texas Instruments inventor Jack Kilby. PY HVD Stands for High Voltage Differential. EV inductance A circuit or device in which a change in the current generates an electromotive force. IPX Stands for Internetwork Packet Exchange. a three-digit hexadecimal number (2AB. and mesh. high-speed data transfer between the hard drive or other IDE device and the other components of the computer. such as bus. These devices use high voltage and can’t be used on a single-ended SCSI chain.

GLOSSARY

N

kilobyte A means of measuring file or disk size, equivalent to 1,024 bytes. Abbreviated as KB.

-D

LAN Stands for Local Area Network. A computer network contained in a clearly defined geographic area, such as in a single building or single campus.

O

laser printer A type of printer that forms images on paper by using a laser beam and an electrophotographic drum. Produces high-quality output.

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EV

LBA Logical Block Addressing is used to support increased capacity of IDE drives to over 504 MB, up to 8.4 GB. Some BIOS versions enable you to choose whether to use LBA mode. LCD A Liquid Crystal Display is a monitor constructed of a liquid crystal solution between two sheets of polarized material.

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398

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

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keyed component A component whose connector is designed such that connecting cables can only be attached in one way.

Lithium Polymer Portable computer battery using a jelly-like material. LMDS Stands for Local Multipoint Distribution Service. A fast digital wireless transmission system that requires line of sight between the transmitter and the receiver. load Power consumption of a device. LUN Logical Unit Number is a unique identifier for sub-devices assigned to a single SCSI ID. LVD Stands for Low Voltage Differential. A SCSI device that uses two wires, one for data, and one for the inverse of data. These devices use low voltage and can be used on a single-ended SCSI chain. magnetic core memory Memory that stores binary data (0 or 1) in the orientation of magnetic charges in ferrite cores about 1/16th-inch diameter. MAN Stands for Metropolitan Area Network. A computer network confined to a single municipality that uses high-speed media like fiber-optics or dedicated digital lines.

C

jumper A small plug placed over pins (or removed from pins) to configure hardware settings.

O

joystick A type of hand controller often used in computer games to control the action.

line conditioner A device that reduces noise and some power problems, mainly implemented because of its ability to reduce electromagnetic interference (EMI) and radio frequency interference (RFI).

PY

isochronous Uses a single device for clocking and all other devices set their internal clocks to this one device.

Li-Ion Portable computer lithium battery with a long life.

GLOSSARY

-D

megabyte A means of measuring file or disk size, equivalent to 1,024 KB. Abbreviated as MB. memory Internal storage areas of the computer.

A

mesh topology A physical topology where each node has a direct connection to all other nodes on the network, providing dedicated, permanent point-to-point communication paths.

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Micro Channel Architecture bus A proprietary 32-bit bus from IBM that was used in PS/2, RS/6000, and certain ES/9370 models. microprocessor A complete central processing unit on a single chip.

O

MDA Stands for Monochrome Display Adapter. The first IBM PC monochrome video display standard for text only.

MMX A set of additional instructions to support multimedia functions and beyond. MNP Microcom Networking Protocol. Five modem standards offering different levels of error correction and detection. modem Stands for MOdulator/DEModulator. A device that adapts a computer to an analog telephone line by converting digital pulses to audio frequencies and vice versa. monitor A display screen used to present output from a computer. motherboard A common name for the system board, the main circuit board in a personal computer.

N

math coprocessor A mathematical circuit that performs highspeed floating point operations. It is generally built into the CPU chip. In older PCs, such as the 386SX and 486SX, the math coprocessor was an optional and separate chip.

MMDS Stands for Multichannel Multipoint Distribution Service or Microwave Multipoint Distribution Service. A digital wireless transmission system.

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C
Glossary 399

master The first IDE or EIDE device on a single IDE channel. If the device is the hard drive on the first IDE channel, the device can be formatted to be the boot disk.

MIPS Millions of Instructions Per Second. The execution speed of a computer; for example, 0.7 MIPS is 700,000 instructions per second.

O

mini-DIN Another term for a PS/2 port.

PY

Mark I A programmable, electromechanical calculator that combined 78 adding machines to perform three calculations per second. It was designed by Howard Aiken, built by IBM, and installed at Harvard in 1944.

MIDI Musical Instrument Digital Interface. An interface that allows you to connect and control electronic musical devices such as electric keyboards (pianos), synthesizers, and guitars.

GLOSSARY

-D

multiport repeater A connecting unit that regenerates the data bits in order to maintain a strong signal. Also referred to as an active hub. Napier’s Bones In 1617, the Scotsman John Napier designed a set of rectangular rods with numbers etched on them that let the users do multiplication by adding the numbers on properly positioned rods. NetBEUI Stands for NetBios Enhanced User Interface. The default networking protocol for the Windows desktop operating system. NetBIOS An API that sends data from the Session layer to the Transport layer.

O

multipoint connection scheme Connection of three or more devices by a communication channel.

N

multimeter Electronic test equipment that can perform multiple tasks. Typically one capable of measuring voltage, current, and resistance. More sophisticated modern digital multimeters also measure capacitance, inductance, current gain of transistors, and anything else that can be measured electronically.

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EV

A

400

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

O

network model A description of the amount of centralized control found on a network. Examples include client-server and peer-to-peer. network scope The effective coverage area of a network, such as local area network or wide area network. network topology The layout of the transmission medium and devices on a network. nibble A group of 4 bits. An 8-bit byte is written as 2 nibbles to make it easier to read. NiCad Portable computer battery made of nickel and cadmium with a three to four hour life. NiMH Environmentally friendly battery for portable computers. NLQ Stands for Near Letter Quality. Term used for dot-matrix printers that use two or more passes over a line of text. This improves dot-matrix print quality. node A generic term for any computer on a network.

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MSDS Material safety data sheets are technical bulletins designed to give users and emergency personnel information about the proper procedures of storage and handling of a hazardous substance.

Network layer A layer of the OSI model that provides internetworking for the communication sessions. Also referred to as Layer 3 of the OSI model.

O

PY

MPEG decoder MPEG stands for Movie Picture Experts Group. This group has developed MPEG digital video compression standards and file formats, including MPEG-1 and MPEG-2.

network adapter A printed circuit board that plugs into both the clients (personal computers or workstations) and servers and controls the exchange of data between them. Also referred to as network boards, network cards, and NICs (network interface cards).

GLOSSARY

L

out-of-order completion Technology that enables superscalar processors to re-assemble the results of instructions that were finished out of order into the correct order. This way, correct program execution is assured. overdrive chip Chip that enables you to upgrade a computer’s performance simply by replacing the original processor with a new (overdrive) processor on the older system board.

-D

OSI model Stands for Open System Interconnection. A model that describes network communications as consisting of seven layers that work together to provide network services.

EV

A

parallel transmission Data is sent several bits at once. parity bit An extra bit attached to a byte, character, or word used to detect errors in transmission.

O

PC Card The credit card-sized devices which are used in portables instead of desktop expansion cards. PCI bus Peripheral Component Interconnect bus is a peripheral bus commonly used in PCs that provides a high-speed datapath between the CPU and peripheral devices. PCMCIA Stands for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association. An association of organizations that establishes standards for PC Cards.

N

OS An operating system is a type of system software that provides the basic interface between the user and the computer components.

PC Personal computers are stand-alone, singleuser desktop, or smaller, computers that can function independently. PC used to refer to any personal computer, but now refers to personal computers that follow the original design by IBM, use Intel or compatible chips, and usually have some version of Windows as an operating system. PCs are sometimes called IBM Compatibles.

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online UPS A UPS that supplies power from a battery at all times. The battery is recharged from the regular electrical supply.

passive matrix An LCD relying on persistence to maintain the state of pixels between scans.

C
Glossary 401

on-die Integrated onto a processor chip.

passive hub Connecting units that add nothing to the data passing through them.

O

NOS Stands for network operating system. Computer software that manages all the resources accessible over the network.

Pascaline machine A calculating machine that could add and subtract, developed in 1642 by French mathematician Blaise Pascal.

PY

non-interlaced A monitor that doesn’t use interlacing. It produces less flickering.

park Read/write heads move over an unused section of the disk when the computer is powered off.

GLOSSARY

Physical layer A layer of the OSI model that provides rules for the transmission of bits over the network medium. Also referred to as Layer 1 of the OSI model.

O

N

physical topology A network’s entire physical configuration. Piezo-electric technology Inkjet printing technology that uses a piezo crystal that flexes when current flows through it. This changes the shape of the crystal and thus forces a drop of ink out of the nozzle and onto the paper. pinout A diagram of wire termination to connector pins. PIO Mode Stands for Programmed Input/Output Mode. Indicates the speed of data transfer between two devices that use the computer’s processor as a part of the datapath. pixel The smallest discrete element on a video display.

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EV

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402

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

O

PGA A Pin Grid Array is a type of CPU packaging design on which pins are distributed evenly in parallel rows on the entire bottom of a square chip.

T

POST Stands for Power-On Self Test. A series of built-in diagnostics that are performed when the computer is first started. Proprietary codes are generated (POST codes) that indicate test results. power supply The component that supplies power to the computer and converts alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC). Presentation layer A layer of the OSI model that provides conversion of codes and formats for the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 6 of the OSI model. printed circuit board A very thin plate which has chips and other electrical components on it. PROM Stands for Programmable Read-Only Memory. A memory chip that can be programmed once. After it’s programmed, it acts like a regular ROM chip.

C

peer-to-peer network A network where all computers connected to the network can act as a provider (server) or consumer (client) of network resources.

port replicator Device that contains typical PC ports to enable users of portable computers to travel between multiple locations and attach to non-portable peripherals such as monitors and printers. Similar to a docking station, but does not provide slots for expansion cards.

O

point-to-point connection scheme Two devices are connected by a single communication channel.

PY

PDA A personal digital assistant is a very small computer that can be handheld. Often used to keep an electronic calendar and address book, get email, send faxes, and take notes on the go.

Plug and Play Method to have the operating system automatically configure adapter settings. Also written as PnP.

GLOSSARY
protected mode In PCs, starting with the 286, an operational state that allows the computer to address all of its memory. It also prevents an errant program from entering into the memory boundary of another. In a 386 and higher machine, it provides access to 32-bit instructions and sophisticated memory management modes. PS/2 port A round 6-pin port used to connect keyboards and mice to PCs. QIC Stands for Quarter-inch cartridge. Oldest, most standardized backup tape technology, available for most computer platforms. Quick Start Power-saving mode supported by many Intel Mobile processors. RAM Random Access Memory integrated circuit is a chip that functions as the computer’s primary temporary storage place for data. RDRAM Stands for Rambus Dynamic Random Access Memory. A new memory architecture by Rambus, Inc. that supports speeds of up to 800 Mhz.

repetitive strain injury Involves damage to muscles, tendons, and nerves caused by overuse or misuse. resistance The opposition to the flow of electric current through a material. Resistance is calculated by dividing the voltage by the current and is measured in ohms (Ω).

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real mode An operational state in Intel CPU chips (starting with the 286) in which the computer functions like the first Intel CPU chip (8086/8088), which is limited to accessing 1 MB of memory. DOS applications run in real mode, unless they have been enhanced with a DOS extender that allows them to use more memory.

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reflective glare Created by a monitor screen’s mirror-like surface.

O

RIMM Stands for Rambus In-line Memory Module. A memory module for RDRAM. Supports from one to 16 direct RDRAM devices in Rambus channel. Used primarily as main memory on a system board. ring topology A physical topology where all nodes are connected in a continuous loop, and nodes relay information around the loop in a round-robin manner. RISC Stands for Reduced Instruction Set Computer. These are processors that require instructions to be of a fixed length, making their instructions simpler, and fewer, than CISC, but more instructions are required to carry out a single function. RJ-45 Stands for Registered Jack-45. Connector with eight wires that is used to connect computers onto Local Area Networks that use twisted-pair cabling.

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Glossary 403

O

repeater A communications device that amplifies or regenerates the data signal in order to extend the transmission distance. Also referred to as active hubs.

PY

register renaming Technology that uses multiple sets of registers in the processor to provide multiple execution paths.

GLOSSARY

-D

scanner A device that can convert printed images into a computer readable format. SCSI Stands for Small Computer System Interface. A drive controller that provides high-performance data transfer between the hard drive or other SCSI device and the other components of the computer. Pronounced “scuzzy.” SDRAM Stands for Synchronous DRAM. Memory that has a clock that is coordinated with the system clock to synchronize the memory chip’s input and output signals.

O

SAN Stands for Storage Area Network. A computer network consisting of large-capacity storage devices.

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EV

404

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

O

RS-232 Serial communication standard that describes how to connect computer terminals to modems.

T

router A device that determines the best path for a data packet to be sent from one network to another and forwards the message along that path.

semiconductor A solid-state substance that can be electrically altered. Certain elements in nature, such as silicon, perform like semiconductors when chemically combined with other elements. A semiconductor is halfway between a conductor and an insulator. serial transmission Data is sent and received one bit at a time over a single wire. server A computer on a network that manages resources for other computers on the network. Session layer A layer of the OSI model that initiates and manages the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 5 of the OSI model. SIE Serial Interface Engine. The USB module responsible for bus protocol. SIMD Single Instruction Multiple Data is a processing technique that allows a single instruction to work on multiple pieces of data. SIMM Short for Single In-line Memory Module. A group of memory chips that transfer information 32 bits at a time.

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root hub The USB module used to expand the number of USB ports.

sector The smallest unit of storage read or written on a disk.

PY

ROM A special type of memory that is permanent. It stores programs necessary to boot the computer and to diagnose problems.

SECC Stands for Single Edge Contact Cartridge. Type of CPU packaging that refers to a design where the processor is located on a circuit board that is inserted into a slot on the system board.

GLOSSARY

slave The second IDE or EIDE device on a single IDE channel. slow IrDA Infrared standard that uses a transfer speed of 9.6 Kbps. Socket Services Device driver software for PC Card. software A set of electronic instructions for processing data. software interrupt An interrupt caused by an instruction in a software program. soldered Components soldered to a circuit board are held in place by solid metal connections created when a drop of melted solder (lead, tin, and silver combination) placed on the connection cools into a solid dot of metal. sound card An internal card used to convert digital signals to sound waves. Includes several external ports for connecting electronic musical instruments, joysticks, speakers, and microphones.

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speculative execution The process of the CPU trying to guess which instruction will be used next, and executing one or more instructions as a result of the guess.

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SRAM Short for Static RAM. A type of RAM that doesn’t need to be refreshed. ST-506 interface A legacy drive interface still in use today. Also referred to as the ST-412 interface. standby UPS SUPS are UPSs that supply power from a battery when power problems are detected. Sometimes referred to as standby power supply (SPS). star topology A LAN physical topology where all nodes individually connect to a central computer or other device such as a multiport repeater, concentrator, or hub. static electricity A stationary electrical charge that is the result of intentional charging or of friction in low-humidity environments.

N

SPX Stands for Sequenced Packet Exchange. The NetWare communications protocol used to control the transport of messages across a network.

O

T

SPGA Stands for Staggered Pin Grid Array. This CPU packaging design staggers pins so that more pins will fit on the same amount of surface.

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Glossary 405

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single-ended device SCSI device that uses a single wire for each bit of data.

SpeedStep Technology that enables two different performance modes, Maximized Performance Mode, and Battery Optimized Mode. In Maximized Performance Mode, the processor runs at its highest speed and normal internal voltage. In Battery Optimized Mode, the processor runs at a reduced speed and a reduced internal voltage.

O synchronous transmission Keeps the receiver’s clock synchronized with the transmitter’s clock. Twistedpair cable that is wrapped in a metal sheath. Chips produced with this packaging weigh less than one gram and are thinner than a dime. The protocol suite used to connect hosts on the Internet and other networks. it can’t transmit data until it does hold the token. system software Low-level programs that provide the most basic functionality. A L subnetting The process of subdividing a single network address to allow for unique network addresses on a subnet. -D subnet masking Lets you restructure how each IP address in your organization is divided between the network portion and the host portion of the address. that improved Pascal’s design to include multiplication and division. C STP Stands for shielded twisted-pair. using the U and V pipelines. PY Stepped Reckoner A mechanical calculator developed by the German. superpipelining The ability of the CPU chip to overlap the execution steps (fetch. Only two prototypes were produced. synchronous Transmission of a bit stream of data where the transmitter and receiver are synchronized. token A device used in ring networks to ensure that only one node transmits data at any one time. T stylus Pen-shaped device used to enter information into a PDA. TCP/IP Stands for Transmission Control Protocol/ Internet Protocol. Gottfried von Leibniz. superscalar Technology that enables the CPU to execute two instructions simultaneously. O N EV 406 A+ Certification: Core Hardware O subnet A network segment that derives its address from a single IP address. Tape Carrier Package (TCP) CPU packaging used for portable computer processors. execute. If a node doesn’t hold the token. Has a small footprint and is produced using a process called tapeautomating bonding.GLOSSARY subnet mask Distinguishes the host portion of an IP address from the network portion. termination The process of properly ending a chain of ESDI or SCSI disk drives by installing a terminating resistor. and write) of four instructions. such as operating systems. system board The main circuit board in a personal computer. decode.45 V. Core voltage is 2. Token Ring A computer network connected in a loop configuration so that only the computer holding the token can communicate. This reduces the possibility of problems caused by electrical interference. .

GLOSSARY

track A storage channel on disk or tape. On disks, tracks are concentric circles (hard and floppy disks) or spirals (CDs and video discs). On tapes, they are parallel lines. trackball A mouse alternative with a ball mounted on top of a stationary base. Rotating the ball moves the pointer on the screen. transceiver Device built into NICs that enables sending and receiving data over the network cable. transistor A device containing semiconductor material that can amplify a signal or open and close a circuit. In computers, transistors function as an electronic switch. Transport layer A layer of the OSI model that provides end-to-end management of the communication session. Also referred to as Layer 4 of the OSI model. triboelectric generation The use of friction between different materials to generate an electrostatic charge on the materials.

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TSR Terminate and Stay Resident; a program that always stays in memory. TTL Monitor that uses transistor-transistor logic signals.

O

UDMA Ultra DMA is a newer and faster drive technology for data transfers on IDE drives. Also called Ultra ATA and Fast ATA-2. Provides for transfer speeds of up to 100 MBps. UDP Stands for User Datagram Protocol. A protocol within the TCP/IP protocol suite that is used in place of TCP when a reliable delivery is not required. UMB Upper Memory Block is an unused blockin the upper memory area (640 KB to 1 MB). UNIVAC The Universal Automatic Computer was completed in 1951 by Eckert and Mauchly for the U.S. Bureau of the Census. It was the first commercial computer in the United States and could handle both numerical and alphabetical information.

N

O

T

C
Glossary 407

O

touch pad A stationary device that you slide your finger over to move the mouse pointer on the screen.

UART Stands for Universal Asynchronous Receiver-Transmitter. A component that controls asynchronous serial communications. A computer has a UART to control serial ports, and internal modems have their own UART. External modems use the computer’s UART. In this case, to achieve maximum transmisison speeds, the computer’s UART must be capable of handling the modem’s maximum transmission speed.

PY

toner An electrically charged dry ink substance used in laser printers.

twisted-pair cable A thin-diameter wire (22 to 26 gauge) commonly used for telephone and network cabling. The wires are twisted around each other to minimize interference from other twisted pairs in the cable.

GLOSSARY

VGA Stands for Video Graphics Array. The minimum standard for PC video display, which originated with IBM’s PS/2 models in 1987. virtual machine The ability of a CPU to perform as multiple 8086 CPUs. Under direction of a control program, each virtual machine runs as a stand-alone 8086 running its own operating system and applications; thus, DOS, UNIX, and other operating systems can be running simultaneously. All virtual machines are multitasked together. VL-Bus Stands for VESA Local-Bus. A peripheral bus from VESA that was primarily used in 486s and provides a high-speed datapath between the CPU and peripherals.

-D

O

VAN Stands for Value-Added Network. A computer network that provides services above and beyond the transmission of data.

N

vacuum tube A sealed glass or metal container that controls a flow of electrons through a vacuum.

L

A

EV

408

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

O

UTP Stands for unshielded twisted-pair. Twistedpair cable that has two unshielded wires twisted around each other. This type of cabling is inexpensive, but electrical interference can be a problem.

T

WAN Stands for Wide Area Network. A computer network that spans large geographic areas like countries and continents. wireless communication Data transmission that does not require a physical cable. WRAM Stands for Window RAM. Developed by Samsung Electronics, this type of RAM is optimized for display adapters. ZIF socket A Zero Insertion Force socket is a type of processor socket that uses a lever to tighten or loosen the pin connections between the processor chip and the socket. Zinc Air Portable computer battery that uses a carbon membrane that absorbs oxygen. Zoomed Video (ZV) A connection between a PC Card and the host system that allows the card to write video data directly to the VGA controller.

C

USB standard Stands for Universal Serial Bus. A hardware interface for low-speed peripherals such as the keyboard, mouse, joystick, scanner, printer, and telephony devices.

VRAM Stands for Video RAM. These chips have two access paths to a single memory address, to improve performance. One path is used for reads, the other for writes.

O

voltage Electric potential or potential difference, expressed in volts.

PY

UPS An uninterruptible power supply is a device intended to save computer components from damage due to power problems such as failures, spikes, and sags.

VLSI Stands for Very Large-Scale Integration. The process of placing thousands of electronic components on a single chip.

INDEX
3D images, 283-284

A
abacus, 2-4 active matrix, 299 adapter card, 125-128 adapters, 125 Color Graphics, 193 display, 192-195 Enhanced Graphics, 193-194 Ethernet, 361 Monochrome Display, 192 network, 359-362 Plug and Play, 139-140 switchless ISA, 132-133 Advanced Power Management See: APM Analytical Engine, 2-4 APM, 310-312 AppleTalk, 347 application software, 26 ARCNet, 347 Arithmometer, 2-4 asynchronous transmission, 151 ATAPI, 225

B

backup, 232 4 mm DAT0, 230 8 mm tape, 230-231 DLT, 231 grandfather method, 232-233 media, 229-231 policy, 231 QIC, 230 rotation methods, 232-233 storage, 235-236 systems, 229 tape drives, 230 Tower of Hanoi method, 232-233 types, 233-234 bandwidth, 367-368 Base Memory addresses, 127 baud rate, 151

EV

A

L

-D

Binary Number System, 12-15 BIOS, 80-83, 213 boot process, 80-81 configuring ROM BIOS, 83-84 NetBIOS, 366 Plug and Play, 140 bits, 18 framing, 151 parity, 118 BNC connectors, 355-356 boot process, 80-81 branch prediction, 91 bridges, 349-350 brouters, 351 bus, 23-24, 125-128, 142-143 8-bit, 128-130 AGP, 143 configuring, 131-132 EISA, 133-135 external width, 98 internal width, 98 ISA, 130-133 Micro Channel Architecture, 136-138 PCI, 138-139 SCSI, 219-220 VL-Bus, 142 bytes, 18

C

cache, 89 Card Services, 305-308 Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection See: CSMA/CD CD-Recordable/Re-Writeables, 285 CD-ROM drives, 225-227 practical issues, 226 using, 226 Central Processing Units See: CPUs CGA, 193

Channel Service Unit/Digital Service Unit See: CSU/DSU characteristics, 211 chemical hazards, 54-55 material safety data sheet (MSDS), 54-55 chipset, 20-21 client-server networks, 323 clients, 316-321 clock speed, 97, 106 CMOS, 82-83, 105-106 error codes, 82-83 setting drive type, 215, 221 CMOS RAM, 22-23 coaxial cable, 355-356 collateral injuries, 51-54 Color Graphics Adapter See: CGA Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor See: CMOS Complex Instruction Set Computer See: CISC connection schemes multipoint, 326-330 point-to-point, 326-330 conventional memory, 86-87 corona wire, 269-271 CPUs, 85 286, 86-87 386, 87-88 486, 89 8086, 86 8088, 86 comparing, 97 Intel, 85-86 Pentium, 90 protected mode, 86-87 real mode, 86-87 crosstalk, 147 CSCI, 85 CSMA/CD, 345-346 CSU/DSU, 351 current

O

N

O

T

C

O

PY
Index 409

INDEX

D
data rate, 151 sychronizing, 150 transmitting, 146-148 datapath, 105-106 Decimal Number System, 10-12 degauss, 261-262 Device Bay, 170-171 dial-up networking remote access, 202-204 Difference Engine, 2-4 digital cameras, 282 DIMM, 22-23, 120 DIP, 101 DIP switch, 128-130 DIP switches, 115-116, 128-130 Direct Memory Acces See: DMA disk drives, 208-212 floppy, 222-223 other removables, 227-229 removable media, 222-225 SCSI, 219-221 Syquest, 227-228 display adapter, 192-195 DMA, 127-128 docking station, 301-302 dot-matrix printers functions, 275-276 maintaining, 276 repairing, 276-277 settings, 276 variations, 277 DRAM, 22-23, 117-118 drive interfaces, 176 comparing, 187-191 Enhanced IDE, 185 ESDI, 176-177

ECC, 118-119 ECHS, 185 EDSAC, 5-6 EDVAC, 5-6 EEPROM, 29 EGA, 193-194 EIDE drives, 212-216 EISA bus, 133-135 configuring, 134-135 electrical power, 41 electricity, 40-42 current, 40-41 electrons, 40 energy, 41 ESD, 46-51 hazards, 51-54 measuring, 43-46 power, 41 static, 46-47 voltage, 40, 44 electronic computers EDSAC, 5-6 EDVAC, 5-6 ENIAC, 5-6 key technologies, 9 Mark I, 4-10 UNIVAC, 5-6 electrons, 40

EV

A

L

-D

O

N

O

410

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

T
F

E

C
FDDI, 356-357

O

PY

alternating current (AC), 40-41 direct current (DC), 40-41 measuring, 44 cylinders, 208-209

IDE, 184 SCSI, 177-180 SCSI-II, 181 SCSI-III, 181-183 ST-506/ST-412, 176 drive power connectors, 75 driver, 27 Dual Independent Bus (DIB), 92 Dual Inline Package See: DIP DVD players, 284-285

electrostatic discharge See: ESD Electrostatic Photographic See: EP Enhanced Graphics Adapter See: EGA Enhanced IDE, 185 Enhanced Small Device Interface See: ESDI ENIAC, 5-6 EP, 269-271 EPROM, 29 ergonomics, 57-58, 59-60, 61, 62 chair placement, 58-59 keyboard placement, 60 monitor placement, 61 mouse placement, 60 posture, 59-60 work environment, 62 Error Correct Code See: ECC ESD, 46-51 preventing, 48-49 safe workstation, 49-50 ESDI, 176-177 termination, 176-177 Ethernet 10BASE2, 344-345 10BASE5, 344-345 10BASET, 344-345 Fast Ethernet, 344-345 functions, 345-346 Gigabit Ethernet, 344-345 NICs, 359-360 other adapters, 361 Extended CHS See: ECHS Extended Industry Standard Architecture See: EISA

INDEX
Fiber Distributed Data Interface See: FDDI fiber-optic cable, 356-357 fire prevention, 65 extinguishers, 65-67 procedures, 67-69 firewalls, 351-352 FireWire, 168-172 cables, 168-169 chips, 169-170 hot swap, 170-171 firmware, 28-30 floppy disks, 222-223 storage capacity, 223-224 form factor, 211 framing, 151 full duplex communication, 362 fuser, 269-271 chemical, 54-55 electrical, 51-54 of using PCs, 57-65 HBA, 220 installing, 220 head crash, 210 heat sinks, 99-100 Hercules Graphics Card See: HGC Hexadecimal Number System, 15-18 HGC, 193 hierarchical networks, 324-325 host systems, 125 hot swap, 170-171 hot-swap, 305 hubs, 348-349 active, 348-349 intelligent, 348-349 passive, 348-349 keyboards, 238-244, 300 mouse, 244-252 Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers See: IEEE INT13, 185 integrated circuits, 7-8 Integrated Drive Electronics See: IDE interface, 23-24 card, 23-24 Internetwork Packet eXchange See: IPX Interrupt 13 See: INT13 interrupts, 125-126 exception, 125-126 hardware, 125-126 software, 125-126 IP address, 363-366 IPX, 366 IRQ, 125-126, 156, 201-202 ISA bus, 130-133 switchless adapters, 132-133 isochronous, 162-164

G
gateways, 351 GB, 18-19 gigabytes GB, 18-19 grandfather method, 232-233 graphical user interface See: GUI GUI, 26

-D

O

I

H

half duplex communication, 362 handshaking, 152 hard disks, 208-209 attaching cables, 215 configuring, 216 reading from, 210 writing to, 209-210 hard drive installing controllers, 191-192 hard drives, 211 configuring, 211 installing, 211 SCSI, 221-222 hazards

I/O addresses, 127, 156, 201-202 I/O devices, 281-287 I/O port, 146 IDE, 184 controller boards, 214-215 drive interface, 184 drives, 212-216, 217 enhanced, 185 installing hard drives, 213-214 troubleshooting, 217 IEEE, 168-172, 343-348 interfaces, 168 inductance, 210 Industry Standard Architecture See: ISA infrared communications, 331-332 inkjet printers functions, 273-274 maintaining, 274-275 repairing, 275 settings, 274 input devices, 238

N

O

L

A

EV

T

C
J K

Jaz drive, 228 jumper, 128-130 jumpers, 214-215

KB, 18-19 keyboards functions, 238-244 maintaining, 240-241 repairing, 241-243 settings, 239-240 variations, 243-244 keyed component, 74-76 kilobytes See: KB

O

PY
Index 411

INDEX
L
LAN, 317-319 laser printers functions, 269-271 maintaining, 272 repairing, 272-273 settings, 271 lasers, 55-56 hazards, 55-56 LBA, 185, 213 LCD, 263-264 Li-Ion, 309-310 line conditioners, 79 Liquid Crystal Display See: LCD Lithium Polymer, 309-310 Local Area Network See: LAN Logical Block Addressing See: LBA CMOS RAM, 22-23 conventional, 86-87 DIMM, 22-23, 120 DRAM, 22-23, 117-118 ECC, 118-119 EDO-RAM, 117-118 EEPROM, 29 EPROM, 29 magnetic core, 6-7 portable systems, 298-299 PROM, 29 RAM, 7-8, 22-23, 117-118 RDRAM, 117-118 RIMM, 120 ROM, 22-23, 28-30, 116 SDRAM, 117-118 SIMM, 22-23, 119 SRAM, 22-23, 117-118 VRAM, 117-118 WRAM, 117-118 Micro Channel Architecture bus, 136-138 configuring, 137 microphones, 285 microprocessors 8008, 7-8 MIDI, 195-197 Million Instructions Per Second See: MIPS mini-DIN, 148-149 MIPS, 97 modems, 197-201 asynchronous, 198 AT commands, 199 configuring, 200 installing, 200 ITU standards, 198-199 MNP standards, 199 synchronous, 198 monitor, 192-195 monitors CRT-based, 252-265 direct glare, 61 functions, 253-255 maintaining, 260-261 quality, 255-256 reflective glare, 61 repairing, 261-262 settings, 258-260 specifications, 256-258 variations, 263-264 Monochrome Display Adapter See: MDA motherboard, 20-21 mouse, 244-252 functions, 245 maintaining, 247-248 repairing, 248 settings, 246-247 variations, 248-251 MPEG decoder, 225 MSDS, 54-55 multi-function machines, 285 multimeter analog, 43-46 digital, 43-46 Musical Instrument Digital Interface See: MIDI

magnetic core memory, 6-7 Mark I, 4-10 master drives, 211 material safety data sheet See: MSDS math coprocessors, 89 MB, 18-19 MDA, 192 mechanical computers, 2-4 abacus, 2-4 Analytical Engine, 2-4 Arithmometer, 2-4 Difference Engine, 2-4 Napier’s Bones, 2-4 Pascaline machine, 2-4 Stepped Reckoner, 2-4 megabytes MB, 18-19 memory, 22-23, 116-119 addressable, 98-99 chip packages, 119-120

-D

O

M

N

O

EV

412

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

A

L

T
N

C

Napier’s Bones, 2-4 NetBEUI, 366 NetBIOS, 366 NetBios Enhanced User Interface See: NetBEUI network model, 321-325 Network Operating System See: NOS networks, 316-321, 340-342, 348-353 adapters, 359-362 client-server, 323 combining, 324 common problems, 367-368 hierarchical, 324-325 IEEE standards, 343-348 LAN, 317-319 media, 353-359 models, 321-325

O

PY

INDEX
multi-function devices, 352 peer-to-peer, 321-322 physical topology, 326-330 protocols, 363-367 scope, 317-319 Token Ring, 346-347 topologies, 326-330 WAN, 317-319 nibbles, 18 NiCad, 309-310 NiMH, 309-310 nodes, 316-321 NOS, 319 number systems, 10-12 binary systems, 12-15 computer values, 18-19 decimal system, 10-12 hexadecimal system, 15-18

P
parallel ports, 157-160 Centronics, 157-160 configuring, 159 parallel transmission, 146-148 parity bit, 118 park, 210 Pascaline machine, 2-4 passive matrix, 299 PC Cards, 305-308 interface, 305 swapping, 305-308 types, 305-308 PCI bus, 138-139 PCMCIA, 305 PCs components, 19-24 disposing of equipment, 69-71 early models, 9 enclosure styles, 106-107 hazards of servicing, 51 precautions when using, 57-65 re-using equipment, 70 reclaiming equipment, 70 recycling equipment, 70-71 safety issues, 51-57 PCV, 20-21 peer-to-peer networks, 321-322 Peripheral Component Interconnect See: PCI Personal Computer Memory Card International Association See: PCMCIA personal computers See: PCs PGA, 101 physical topology bus, 326-330 hybrid, 326-330 mesh, 326-330 ring, 326-330 star, 326-330

O
Ohm’s Law, 41-42 online UPS, 79 operating system See: OS OS, 26, 320 client, 320 workstation, 320 OSI model, 332-343 Application layer, 339-340 benefits, 342 connection devices, 352 Data Link layer, 334-335 Network layer, 335-336 Physical layer, 334 Presentation layer, 338-339 Session layer, 337-338 Transport layer, 336-337 out-of-order completion, 92 output devices, 252 monitors, 252-265 printers, 266-278 overdrive chips, 102-105

Pin Grid Array See: PGA pinout, 148-149 pinouts null-modem, 156-157 PIO Mode, 185-186 Plug and Play, 80-81 adapters, 139-140 BIOS, 140 devices, 140 operating systems, 140-142 portable systems batteries, 309-310 concerns, 292 DC controllers, 294 displays, 299 hard drives, 297-298 keyboards, 300 memory, 298-299 packaging, 294 peripherals, 301-302 pointers, 300-301 processors, 294-297 types, 293 POST, 80-81 error codes, 81-82 power APM, 310-312 batteries, 309-310 managing, 308-312 power supply, 74-76 converting AC to DC, 74-75 preventing problems, 78-79 replacing, 76 servicing, 76-77 Power-On Self Test See: POST printed circuit board See: PCV printers, 266-278 connecting to a computer, 278-280 dot-matrix, 275-276 inkjet, 273-274 laser printers, 269-271

EV

A

L

-D

O

N

O

T

C

O

PY
Index 413

INDEX
other kinds of, 277 troubleshooting, 266-269 processors, 294-297 386DX, 88 386SL, 88 386SX, 88 486, 89 beyond original Pentium, 92 Celeron, 93 Merced, 96-97 microprocessors, 21-22 mobile, 97 next generation, 96 Pentium, 90 Pentium II, 93 Pentium III, 93-94 Pentium III Xeon, 94-95 Pentium MMX, 93 Pentium Pro, 92 servicing, 100 Programmed Input/Output Mode See: PIO Mode PROM, 29 PS/2 ports, 148-149 keyboard, 149 mouse, 149 ROM, 22-23, 28-30, 116 EEPROM, 29 EPROM, 29 programmable, 116-117 PROM, 29 root hub, 162-164 routers, 350 RS-232 circuit functions, 155-156 communicating, 156 mechanical characteristics, 154-155 signaling techniques, 155 standards, 154 RSI, 57-58 vision, 63 serial transmission, 146-148 servers, 316-321 SIE, 162-164 SIMM, 22-23, 119 Single Edge Contact Cartridge See: SECC slave drives, 211 slots, 102-105 Small Computer System Interface See: SCSI Socket Services, 305-308 sockets, 102-105 software, 25-28 application, 26 driver, 27 system, 26 soldered, 20-21 sound cards, 195-197 speakers, 285 speculative execution, 91 SPX, 366 SRAM, 22-23, 117-118 standby UPS (SUPS), 78 static electricity, 46-47 creating, 47-48 Stepped Reckoner, 2-4 SuperDisk drive, 228 superpipelining, 91 superscalar technology, 91 synchronous transmission, 151 system board, 20-21 system boards, 105-111 AT, 105-106 ATX, 110 baby AT, 108-109 components, 112-115 form factors, 107 full-size AT, 107-108 LPX, 109 NLX, 110-111 servicing, 115-116 XT, 105-106 system software, 26

S

R

radiation, 64 RAM, 7-8, 22-23, 117-118 Reduced Instruction Set Computer See: RISC register renaming, 91 remote access configuring, 202-204 establishing a connection, 203-204 repeaters, 348-349 multiport, 348-349 Repetitive Strain Injury See: RSI resistance, 41-42 measuring, 44 RIMM, 120 RISC, 85

scanners, 281-282 SCSI, 177-180 attaching cables, 221 drives, 219-221 HVD, 183 installing drives, 219-221 installing the drive, 220-221 LVD, 183 planning the bus, 219-220 setting CMOS, 221 single-ended devices, 183 troubleshooting, 221-222 SCSI-II, 181 Fast, 181 Wide, 181 SCSI-III, 181-183 Also See: Ultra SCSI SECC, 102 semiconductors, 41-42 Sequenced Packet Exchange See: SPX serial connections null-modem, 156-157 Serial Interface Engine See: SIE serial ports, 150-153 COM, 151

EV

414

A+ Certification: Core Hardware

A

L

-D

O

N

O

T

C

O

PY

218218--219219 USB. 217 input devices. 40 measuring. 194 SVGA. 30-31 circuit board repair kit. 269-271 tools. 326-330 rings. 5-6 VGA. 78-79 online. 30 networking toolkit. 346-347 toner. 353-355 Universal Serial Bus See: USB Upper Memory Block See: UMB UPS. 32 hardware. 228 Zoomed Video See: ZV ZV. 6-7. 164 V vacuum tubes. 232-233 transistors. 217-218 troubleshooting. 165-166 version 2. 346-347 Token Ring. 194 UVGA. 286-287 printers.0. 266-269 SCSI. 282-283 Video Graphics Array See: VGA virtual machines. 305-308 N Index 415 O T C O PY . 357-358 Z Zinc Air. 162 troubleshooting. 281-287 IDE. 79 standby. 309-310 Zip drive. 181-183 UMB. 221-222 Ultra DMA (UDMA) drives. 87-88 voltage. 353-355 UTP. 41-42 Transmission Control Protocl/Internet Protocol See: TCP/IP triboelectric generation. 5-6 -D O W WAN. 78 USB. 286 twisted-pair cable.INDEX T TCP/IP. 353-355 STP. 194 video captures still captures. 127 uninterruptible power supply See: UPS UNIVAC. 44 A L EV U Ultra DMA (UDMA). 363-366 termination. 33-35 Tower of Hanoi method. 217-218 drives. 176-177. 47-48 troubleshooting I/O devices. 31-32 software. 317-319 Wide Area Network See: WAN wireless communication. 286-287 output devices. 186. 160-168 cables. 160-168 power. 30-31 basic toolkit. 219-220 token. 165-166 TV tuners. 218-219 Ultra SCSI. 162-164 ports. 30-33 additional.

EV 416 A+ Certification: Core Hardware A L -D O N O T C O PY .

EV L -D O N O T C A O PY .

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