Universitatea Hyperion, Bucuresti Facultatea de Litere si Limbi Straine

ENGLISH HISTORY AND CIVILIZATION

Religion in England

Badea Adelina An II, Semestrul II

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Anglo-Saxon Christianity. Anglo-Saxon paganism and Norse paganism. and History of the Church of England Christianity was first introduced through the Romans (English mythology links the introduction of Christianity to England to the Glastonbury legend of Joseph of Arimathea. atheist humanism. the Bahá'í Faith. The only religion that was created in England is the neopagan Wicca. and secularism. Buddhism. Roman polytheism. The Anglican Church of England is the established church of England holding a special constitutional position for the United Kingdom. Sikhism.Religion in England From Wikipedia. particularly Celtic polytheism. Christianity Further information: Early Insular Christianity. Hinduism. including Stonehenge. Westminster Abbey. the Rastafari movement and Neopaganism. After Christianity.[1] Many of England's most notable buildings and monuments are religious in nature. There are also organisations which promote irreligion. seat of the (Anglican) Bishop of London. In the past. see 2 . the Angel of the North. Judaism. the free encyclopedia St Paul's Cathedral. religions with the most adherents are Islam. Christianity is the most widely practiced and declared religion in England. The festivals of Christmas and Easter are still widely commemorated in the country. various other religions (usually "pagan") have been important in the country. St Paul's Cathedral and Canterbury Cathedral.

who is regarded by convention as the head of the worldwide communion of Anglican Churches (see Anglican Communion). the first Romanesque building in England.(something the Roman Catholic Church does not accept). the era of St. The arrival of the Anglo-Saxons introduced Anglo-Saxon polytheism to what is now England. Later the influence of the Reformation resulted in the Church of England adopting its distinctive reformed Catholic position known as Anglicanism. and in 1042 brought masons to work on Westminster Abbey. Christianity was re-introduced into England through missionaries from Scotland and from Continental Europe. After a fire damaged Canterbury Cathedral in 1174 Norman masons introduced the new Gothic architecture. and Norman influences affected late Anglo-Saxon architecture. British Monarch is formally Supreme Governor of the Church of England. Augustine (the first Archbishop of Canterbury) and the Celtic Christian missionaries in the north (notably St. Today. Roman Catholicism Main article: Catholic Church in England and Wales 3 . The Romano-British population after the withdrawal of the Roman legions was mostly Christian. but its spiritual leader is the Archbishop of Canterbury. the Church in England split from Rome over the issue of the divorce of King Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon. Edward the Confessor was brought up in Normandy. Hundreds of parish churches were built and the first great English cathedrals. Anglicanism In 1536. under the authority of Parliament. In practice the Church of England is governed by the General Synod. Around 1191 Wells Cathedral and Lincoln Cathedral brought in the English Gothic style.also the legend of Saint Lucius). The Synod of Whitby in 664 ultimately led to the English Church being fully part of Roman Catholicism. The split led to the emergence of a separate ecclesiastical authority. Early English Christian documents surviving from this time include the 7th-century illuminated Lindisfarne Gospels and the historical accounts written by the Venerable Bede. but has been a distinct Anglican church since the settlement under Elizabeth I (with some disruption during the 17th-century Commonwealth period). Cuthbert). Archaeological evidence for Christian communities begins to appear in the 3rd and 4th centuries. England has many early cathedrals. most notably York Minster (1080). Pope Innocent III placed the kingdom of England under an interdict for seven years between 1208 and 1215 after King John refused to accept the pope's appointee as Archbishop of Canterbury. The cruciform churches of Norman architecture often had deep chancels and a square crossing tower which has remained a feature of English ecclesiastical architecture. Aidan and St. the Church of England is the established church in England. Norman nobles and bishops had influence before the Norman Conquest of 1066. Durham Cathedral (1093) and Salisbury Cathedral (1220). It regards itself as in continuity with the pre-Reformation state Catholic church.

500. near St Paul's Cathedral. although the persecution was not violent as they had experienced in the recent past. but developed as a separate denomination after John Wesley's death. establishing communities in cities and towns up and down the country such as London and Liverpool. In 1850. Salvation Army The Salvation Army dates back to 1865. Many of the Catholic nobles and gentry who had preserved on their lands among their tenants small pockets of Catholicism had followed James II into exile. 4 . The is also a growing number of independent. Pentecostal Pentecostal churches are continuing to grow and. the Catholic Church in England and Wales re-established a hierarchy. The Methodist revival was started in England by a group of men including John Wesley and his younger brother Charles as a movement within the Church of England. while the bulk of the large outflow of emigration from Ireland was headed to the United States. Apostolic Church.The English Church was heavily influenced by Rome from the arrival of St Augustine of Canterbury who arrived in AD 588. • • • Assemblies of God in Great Britain are part of the World Assemblies of God Fellowship. This process of Catholic Emancipation met violent opposition in the Gordon Riots of 1780 in London. in public life. In the late 18th and early 19th century most restrictions on Catholic participation in public life were relaxed under acts such as the Papists Act 1778. Its international headquarters are still in London. thousands of poor Irish people also moved to England. in terms of church attendance.[2] There are three main denomination of Pentecostal churches. as once in Stuart times. are now third after the Church of England and the Roman Catholic Church. for instance under the Popery Act 1698. when it was founded in East London by William and Catherine Booth. meaning that only very few such Catholic communities survived. in the military or professions. Elim Pentecostal Church. In the 1840s and 1850s. and others at last conformed to Anglicanism. charismatic churches that encourage Pentecostal practices at part of their worship. The civil rights of adherents to Roman Catholicism were severely curtailed. thus giving Catholicism a huge numerical boost. such as Kingsgate Community Church in Peterborough which started with 9 people in 1988 and now has a congregation in excess of 1. especially during the Great Irish Famine. and there was no longer. any Catholic presence at court. that affected adherents in England and Wales. Roman Catholic Relief Act 1791 and Catholic Relief Act 1829. The early years of the UK were difficult for English adherents of the Roman Catholic Church. Methodism A strong tradition of Methodism developed from the 18th century onwards. until the final break with Roman control at the accession of Queen Elizabeth I in 1558.

in Gunnersbury. worshipping in the Imperial Russian Embassy in London. commenced in 1997 in traditional Russian architectural style. the Russian Orthodox Moscow Patriarchate's diocese for Great Britain and Ireland. In 1882. Scotland and Ireland as well as Malta. on London Street in the City. each focused on its own church. Wales.Eastern Orthodox Churches Construction of the Cathedral of the Dormition of the Most-Holy Mother of God and the Holy Royal Martyrs (Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia).[3] It is the most numerous Russian Orthodox group in the country. World War II and its aftermath also saw a large expansion amongst the Orthodox Communities. A Greek Orthodox community already existed at the time the UK was formed. Russian Orthodox Church There are various Russian Orthodox groups in England. it was another 130 years until an autonomous community was set up in Finsbury Park in London. There are also the Russian Orthodox Church Outside Russia churches as well as some churches and communities belonging to the Patriarchal Exarchate for Orthodox Parishes of Russian Tradition in Western Europe's Episcopal Vicariate in the UK. it is the diocese of the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople that covers England. in 1837. The first new church was built in 1850. St Sophia Cathedral was constructed in London. Manchester and Liverpool. in order to cope with the growing influx of Orthodox immigrants. there were large Orthodox communities in London. archbishop then metropolitan bishop of the diocese of the Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh. By the outbreak of World War I. based in London and led by His Eminence Gregorios. Created in 1932. 5 . Greek Orthodox Church Most Greek Orthodox Church parishes fall under the jurisdiction of the Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain. In 1962. Metropolitan Anthony (Bloom) of Sourozh founded and was for many years bishop. However.[4] the Archbishop of Thyateira and Great Britain.

Today. there are also the Serbian Orthodox Church and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church[disambiguation needed] all in London as well as a noncanonical Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in Manchester. which is canonically part of the Coptic Orthodox Church. there is one Patriarchal Exarchate at Stevenage. twenty-five places (including University Chaplaincies) where the Divine Liturgy is celebrated on a less regular basis. 6 . Saints Saint George is recognised as the patron saint of England. there are eighty-one churches and other places where worship is regularly offered. Mennonite There is one Mennonite congregation in England. Scotland and North England. Most British converts belong to the British Orthodox Church. George's Cathedral in London and a number of parishes across England. and South Wales. In addition. was built in 1870. However. Antiochian Orthodox Church The Antiochian Orthodox Church have the St.[6] Other Eastern Orthodox Churches As well as the Russian and Greek Orthodox churches. although prior to Edward III. which today has 23 congregations in England. The Coptic Orthodox Church in the United Kingdom is divided into three main parishes: Ireland. Hertfordshire. founded in 1783. and two monasteries. [5] As is traditional within the Orthodox Church. There is also the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in London. Oriental Orthodoxy All Coptic Orthodox parishes fall under the jurisdiction of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Pope of Alexandria. St Edmund was recognised as England's patron saint. the Wood Green Mennonite Church in London. It is an enlarged version of St Theodore's church in Constantinople and is a Grade II Listed building. four chapels (including that of the Archdiocese). and the flag of England consists of the cross of St George. Liverpool. In addition to these.[7] Other Countess of Huntingdon's Connexion is a small society of evangelical churches. Saint Alban is venerated by some as England's first Christian martyr. The Greek Orthodox Church of St Nicholas in Toxteth. There is also the Armenian Apostolic Church in London. the bishops have a considerable degree of autonomy within the Archdiocese. there are seven churches bearing the title of Cathedral in London as well as in Birmingham (the Dormition of the Mother of God and St Andrew) and Leicester. the Midlands and its affiliated areas.

4% 71.902 Luton 14. where they form 3. there were 2. Slough. the eighth-century King of Mercia (one of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms existing at that time).54 million Muslims live in England and Wales.389 London Borough of Newham 24.674 City of Bradford 16. where they make up 8. There are also large numbers of Muslims in Birmingham.963 Birmingham 14. Islam today is the largest non-Christian religion in England with 40% of Muslims living in London. Arabic ‫ )ابن سينا‬and Averroes (Ibn Rushd.1% 32.4 million Muslims in the United Kingdom as a whole in 2009. Luton. there is among the pilgrims wending their way to Canterbury.)ابن رشد‬Ibn Sina's canon of medicine was a standard text for medical students well into the 17th century. Leicester and the mill towns of Northern England. Arabic ‫ . In the Prologue to the Canterbury Tales. It is thought that they were minted to facilitate trade with the expanding Islamic empire in Spain.293 Blackburn with Darwen 19.3% 139.3% 59. to have coins minted with an Islamic inscription on them—copies of coins issued by the near-contemporary Muslim ruler Al-Mansur. Although Islam is generally thought of as being a recent arrival to the country.1% 75. 1.771 London Borough of Hackney 13. there has been contact with Muslims for many centuries. Avicenna (Ibn Sina. a 'Doctour of Phisyk' whose learning included Razi.3% of the population.6% 26. when Chaucer was writing.[9] Muslim scholarship was well-known among the learned in England by 1386. Manchester.8% 27. Bradford. The local authorities with a Muslim population greater than 10% are: • • • • • • • • London Borough of Tower Hamlets 36.5% of the population. An early example would be the decision of Offa.188 London Borough of Waltham Forest 15.Islam Further information: Islam in England According to the 2001 census.908 7 .4% 26. According to research by The Times.

the presence of the Jewish culture and Jews in England today is one of the largest in the world.897 London Borough of Brent 12. There have been three waves of migration of Hindus to England since then.312 Notable mosques include the Baitul Futuh Mosque.906 London Borough of Haringey 11.8% 21. by 2000.371 Metropolitan Borough of Oldham 11.346 London Borough of Camden 11. Al-Rahma mosque. Al Mahdi Mosque. but. from 1290 to 1656.3% 32.885 London Borough of Ealing 10. Finsbury Park Mosque.who have either converted from another faith or been an English Hindu from birth.0% 30.039 Leicester 11.033 Kirklees 10.290 London Borough of Redbridge 11. Hindu migration was minuscule and largely temporary. small Hindu communities of every ethnicity could be found in England. Before India's Independence in 1947.3% 31. East London Mosque. Judaism did not officially exist in England due to an outright expulsion in 1290 and official restrictions that were not lifted until 1656 (though historical records show that some Jews did come back to England during the early part of the 17th century prior to the lifting of the restriction).4% 15. Initially. Darul Barakaat Mosque. Sikhism Further information: Sikhism in England 8 . London Markaz and Markazi mosque. The second wave of Hindu migration occurred in the 1970s after the expulsion of Gujarati Hindus from Uganda.988 Slough 13.3% 24.487 City of Westminster 11. Hindu immigration was limited to Punjabi and Gujarati Hindus. Hinduism Further information: Hinduism in England Early Hindus in England were mostly students during the 19th century. However.1% 39. Now.6% 22.4% 11. The last wave of migration of Hindus has been taking place since the 1990s with refugees from Sri Lanka and professionals from India. Birmingham Central Mosque.9% 28. England is also host to a large immigrant community of Sri Lankan Hindus who are mostly Tamils.• • • • • • • • • • • Pendle 13.1% 24. Judaism Further information: History of the Jews in England Until the 20th century Judaism was the only noticeable non-Christian religion having first appeared in historical records during the Norman Conquest of 1066.there is becoming an increasing number of English Western Hindus in England. London Central Mosque. In fact.

thousands forced to flee the region in fear of losing their lives. and Sri Lanka. under Roman rule the Britons continued to worship native Celtic deities. These new arrivals mostly settled in London. The tradition of study resulted in the foundation of the Pali Text Society. The founding of a temple to Claudius at Camulodunum was one of the impositions that led to the revolt of Boudica. all of which are considered to be pagan.[14] and in 61 they vainly defended their sacred groves from destruction by the Romans on the island of Mona (Anglesey). the Celtic priestly caste who were believed to originate in Britain. this mass immigration was caused by Idi Amin's persecution of ethnic groups in Uganda. but often conflated with their Roman equivalents. Formerly major in England These faiths. Celtic polytheism During the Iron Age. Birmingham and West Yorkshire. such as the significance of the number 3. It was mostly of men from the Punjab seeking work in industries like foundries and textiles. The rate of growth was slow but steady through the century. like Mars Rigonemetos at Nettleham. have all been predominant in the regions that later made up England. Thousands of Sikhs from East Africa soon followed. It is difficult to gauge precisely to what extent earlier native beliefs survived.[citation needed] Buddhism Further information: Buddhism in England The earliest Buddhist influence on England came through the UK's imperial connections with South East Asia. Certain northern European ritual traits remain in archaeological records. which undertook the task of translating the Pali Canon of Buddhist texts into English. Celtic polytheism was the predominant religion in the area now known as England. at Putney in London. In 1924 London's Buddhist Society was founded. especially at military sites[citation needed].The first Sikh Gurdwara (temple) was not established until 1911. and the 1950s saw the development of interest in Zen Buddhism. though were all made extinct through Christianisation. and in 1926 the Theravadin London Buddhist Vihara.[15] However. and as a result the early connections were with the Theravada traditions of Burma. the importance of the head and of water sources such as springs. Worship of the Emperor is widely recorded.[13] were outlawed by Claudius. such as Ancasta. Roman polytheism Roman polytheism was introduced to England when the Roman Empire invaded and occupied the area. However. the differences in the votive offerings made at Bath before and after the Roman conquest suggest there was only partial continuity[citation needed]. Thailand. The first Sikh migration came in the 1950s. The druids. 9 .

while most Roman Catholic churches date from Victorian times or are of more recent construction (curiously.Roman Catholic Westminster Central Hall . Retrieved 2008-09-05. chapels of ease.Islamic Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha . Besides its spiritual importance.Eastern cults such as Mithraism also grew in popularity towards the end of the occupation.Church of England Stanmore and Canons Park Synagogue . ^ The Triumph of the Moon . Ronald Hutton 2. immigrants from the European continent arrived. Later. The Temple of Mithras is one example of the popularity of mystery religions amongst the rich urban classes.Methodist York Minster . bringing Anglo-Saxon paganism.Jewish Birmingham Central Mosque .Hindu Salisbury Cathedral.Jewish Victoria Park Mosque . Bournville . mosques and temples.Baptist Neasden Temple . Germanic paganism In the Dark Ages.Church of England References 1. whose construction took most of the twentieth century). bringing with them Norse paganism. a subset of Germanic paganism with them. Russian Orthodox Diocese of Sourozh. chapels.Church of England Westminster Cathedral . in Liverpool the ultra-modern design Roman Catholic cathedral was actually completed before the more traditional design of the Anglican cathedral.Sikh Metropolitan Tabernacle .Islamic Brompton Oratory . after most of the Anglo-Saxon peoples had converted to Christianity. Notable places of worship The varied religious and ethnic history of England has left a wide range of religious buildings . ^ 'Fringe' Church winning the believers Timesonline.Roman Catholic Canterbury Cathedral . Archived from the original on 23 June 2008. 19 December 2006 3.Church of England Finsbury Park Mosque .Roman Catholic St Paul's Cathedral . Notable places of worship include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bevis Marks Synagogue .C of E Serbian Orthodox Church of St Lazar. 10 . cathedrals.Serbian Orthodox St Chad's Cathedral . Vikings from Scandinavia arrived. ^ "Welcome". synagogues.Islamic Westminster Abbey . As a result of the Reformation.churches. the ancient cathedrals remained in the possession of the then-established churches. the religious architecture includes buildings of importance to the tourism industry and local pride.A History of Modern Pagan Witchcraft.

8. accessed. Orthodox Research Institute. ^ "Who are the Mennonites?". Retrieved 2008-09-05.org accessed 6 January 2009 12. "The Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain and Orthodoxy in the British Isles". Claudius 12. 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18. 7. ^ "Current Hierarchs of the Archdiocese of Great Britain". ^ Julius Caesar. London Mennonite Centre. Retrieved 2008-09-05. 5. ^ http://www. ^ Archbishop Gregorios of Thyateira & Great Britain (2000-04-21).13 14. ^ Tacitus.5 15.world Largest Mosque in western Europe 9. Retrieved 2008-09[dead link] 05. 6. Missions and Clergy". ^ The Bahá'í Faith in Cumbria bci.co. 6 January 2009 13. Annals 14. Greek Orthodox Church of Antioch Deanery of the United Kingdom and Ireland. ^ "Parishes.guardian. Archdiocese of Thyateira and Great Britain. ^ Suetonius. "First Public Mentions of the Bahá'í Faith". Commentarii de Bello Gallico 6. Retrieved 2008-09-05.4. 2008. ^ Gold imitation dinar of Offa. ^ Welcome to the Bahá'ís of Cornwall website of Cornish Bahais.30 11 . British Museum 10. 11. ^ Bahá'í Information Office (United Kingdom) (1989).uk/uk/2003/oct/02/religion.

Questions and answers: 1. 4. Archaeological evidence for Christian communities begins to appear in the 3rd and 4th centuries. What kind of Orthodox Churches are there in England? There are: Russian Orthodox Churches. Who introduced Christianity in England? When? Christianity was first introduced through the Romans . 2. What is the Anglicanism? In 1536. synagogues. Which religion is the most widely practiced in England? Christianity is the most widely practiced and declared religion in England. the Bahá'í Faith. atheist humanism. 3. Which religion was the only one created in England? The only religion that was created in England is the neopagan Wicca. Which faiths were practiced in the regions that later made up England? The faiths practiced in the regions that later made up England were Celtic polytheism. Roman polytheism and Germanic paganism. The split led to the emergence of a separate ecclesiastical authority. 12 . 7. 10. Saint Alban is venerated by some as England's first Christian martyr. Ukrainian Orthodox Churches as well as a noncanonical Belarusian Autocephalous Orthodox Church in Manchester. Antiochian Orthodox Churches. and the flag of England consists of the cross of St George. 9. Sikhism. see also the legend of Saint Lucius. Elim Pentecostal Church. religions with the most adherents are Islam. The Romano-British population after the withdrawal of the Roman legions was mostly Christian. chapels of ease. Serbian Orthodox Churches. Later the influence of the Reformation resulted in the Church of England adopting its distinctive reformed Catholic position known as Anglicanism. 8. Greek Orthodox Churches. St Edmund was recognised as England's patron saint. Judaism. Hinduism. Apostolic Church. There are also organisations which promote irreligion. the Church in England split from Rome over the issue of the divorce of King Henry VIII from Catherine of Aragon. However. Are there any other religions practiced in England? After Christianity.English mythology links the introduction of Christianity to England to the Glastonbury legend of Joseph of Arimathea. the Rastafari movement and Neopaganism. 5. What kind of places of worship can you find in England? There is a wide range of religious buildings in England: churches. Buddhism. mosques and temples. Which are the main denomination of Pentecostal churches? There are three main denomination of Pentecostal churches: Assemblies of God in Great Britain are part of the World Assemblies of God Fellowship. Who is the patron saint of England? Saint George is recognised as the patron saint of England. cathedrals. chapels. although prior to Edward III. and secularism. 6.

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