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in California—worked as a fruit-picker and became very sympathetic toward workers affected by agricultural exploitation (Grapes of Wrath sum-up) Of Mice and Men (1937) Grapes of Wrath (Pulitzer Prize in 1940) East of Eden (1952) Nobel Prize winner Dust Bowl—1930-1936ish Dickinson (1830-1886) She lived in Amherst, Massachusetts. She was a scholar isolated from the world. She knew a lot of things from books instead of actual experiences Yeats. (1865-1939) He spent his time in London, where there was a lot of pollution. This inspired his work. He won the Nobel Prize of Literature. Wordsworth Literary movement he was associated with-Romantic Period Romantic Period: scientific discovery, nature provides self-fulfillment, (age of Enlightenment), new ways of expressing imaginations and feeling, didn’t rely on the “head” and reason, but rather the radical idea of Individual Freedom The World is too much with us talked about how the world was primitive and too much with us which was like the morals of this era. Tennyson (1809-1892) Langston Hughes (1902-1967) Literary movement he was associated with-Harlem Renaissance Harlem Renaissance-Black writers and artist flourished in Harlem like they never had before. Themes and Devices to have a working comprehension on: Women – In Of Mice and Men, women are thought of as useless troublemakers. Throughout the book Curley’s wife causes widespread controversy. Ex. – Lennie vs. Curley Grotesque – (what society deems inappropriate) Many people in the book are flawed in some way or have unnatural capabilities. Ex. – Lennie’s strength American Dream – The utopian dream that all people wish for.
Diction – Steinbeck uses dialog to show how uneducated the world was in the 1900s and how little people cared about speaking correct English. What devices does Steinbeck use to communicate these themes? (Allusions. mercy killing (Candy’s dog) Racial issues – Who is racially superior to others Ex.words that are what they sound like (buzz. freedom./uu Rhyme-same terminal sounds (man and fan) Repetition-repeating the same words (all he can do is eat and eat and eat) Poetry The Fish – Elizabeth Bishop Singapore – Mary Oliver The Highwayman – Alfred Noyes Oranges – Gary Soto . Color Symbolism – Steinbeck uses the color black to show that blacks’ are looked down on because of color and racial differences.uu/ Dactylic. trochaic. Crooks. strength.u/ Trochaic. crackle) Hyperbole-an exaggeration (I ate one million tacos) Simile-comparing by using “like” and “as” (I am as strong as an ox) Metaphor-comparing by using “is” (He is a pancake) Personification-giving an inanimate human-like characteristics (the clock moved its hands) Assonance-rhyme in the vowel sounds (breech and beach) Consonance-repetition of consonants for rhyming uses (dark deep dread) Alliteration-the repetition of the same sounds (stem and stern) Meter (iambic. He also uses profanity to show the corruption that went on in those days. diction. Ex. peace Silencing – The idea of who should be killed Ex. (Threatened to be lynched for saying a few words) Complex characterizations – Some characters in the book are well-developed and have both good and bad traits Ex. because his back is broken. Naming Choices – Steinbeck names Crooks. boom. He also uses the color gray to symbolize old and ready to be “silenced” like Candy’s dog. Cheating. Symbolism – The mouse in Of Mice and Men symbolizes that humans are like animals in the way that they are all weak and helpless. It is another way of expressing the grotesque characteristics of a person. Storms and diseases leave towns filled with carcasses and we can’t do anything about it. power. – Crooks is black and is looked down on. – Lennie’s death at the end of the book. naming choices…) Allusions – Steinbeck uses language to allude to the many uneducated people during the early 1900’s and to slavery. Poetry techniques Onomatopoeia. Lennie’s dream.Ex. – George Flaws inherent in human nature – All humans have flaws it just depends on what they are. dactylic): Iambic. He is elaborating on how Crooks has a crooked back which makes him grotesque. – Lying. anapestic. symbolism (specifically color symbolism). Stealing. etc./u Anapestic.
its head held up like a little periscope. Gingerly – carefully. Audacious. mockingly He spoke wryly. Yeats The World is Too Much With Us – William Wordsworth Tell the Truth but tell it Slant – Emily Dickinson I Never Saw a Moor – Emily Dickinson To a Mouse – Robert Burns The Lady of Shalott – Lord Tennyson Harlem – Langston Hughes Of Mice and Men Mottled – marked with blotches and spots of different colors or shades The sycamores had mottled. The rims of his eyes were red with sun glare. in light of all the death and destruction the world has endured since.continuing after death Emily's posthumous visit to the past in the middle of Act III provides the emotional climax of the play. "Why can't I stay for while just as I am?" Prosaic. unimaginative The prosaic turns suddenly wrenching when the Stage Manager casually fills us in on young Joe's future. everyday . The whole tone gave him a bit of a worn-out. combative The man was so pugnacious that he began a fight over absolutely nothing.The Lake Isle of Innisfree – W.keenly distressing to the mind The poignancy of the newsboy's fate is felt perhaps even more exquisitely today.B.dull. Plaintively. Raptly – absorbed with great attention Lennie watched every move George made raptly. quarrelsome. Wryly – cunningly. Quotidian. recumbent limbs and branches that arched over the pool. Periscope – submarine seeing glass A water snake slipped along the pool. Posthumous. thinking them far below him in status. Contemptuously – sarcastic. disliking Curly watched the two new workers contemptuously. too bold Note the audacious and surprising ways in which Wilder has structured his acts. Pugnacious – Eager and ready to fight. white. pleading Emily.unrestrained. just so he could let off a little violent energy.begging. Pantomime – an act of showing something without using words Lennie made an elaborate pantomime of innocence. intellectual quality. lively. as if he was afraid to rebruise himself. the bride with cold feet. Recumbent – leaning The sycamores had mottled. disagreeing. fascinated with the idea of becoming more like him. Our Town Poignancy. softly Her touched his wounds gingerly. white. plaintively asks her father. Morosely – gloomily George stared morosely at the water.daily. recumbent limbs and branches that arched over the pool. as if he didn't quite believe the words he was saying.
a device reminiscent of the collagist technique of newsreel and newspaper snippets employed by his contemporary. But. the quotidian business of the people of Grover's Corners attains a kind of grandeur. Vicariously. skepticism: You remain steadfast in your skepticism of his importance to American literature. you can recapture. reminiscent: Editor Webb offers sidebars about the geography and sociology of Grover's Corners. a sword in the stone miraculously appears. compelled: You were compelled to read it. relic: You dismissed the play as a corny relic of Americana.ability to subvert I was so mesmerized by its subversive power. submission Dukes and barons will retreat into submission. Relegated. fought their way through Gaul acquiring wealth. Lancelot’s love for Guinevere and vice-versa . They must have gone to the tournament.[note: here. King Arthur prophesied: Seers prophesied that Brutus would cause the death of both of his parents. vicariously. tournament: No one was here. so securely lodged was it within the stone and anvil. the author is saying that it is odd for something quotidian to achieve this Microcosm. delectable It was lumped in a tasting portion of slim. An old-fashioned writer? Thornton Wilder was a radical! futility: In just a few eloquent sentences he captures booth the capriciousness of life and the futility of war. it is indeed our town. then the “fall from Eden” occurred. and “The Lake Isle of Innisfree”? Is there also a “fall from Eden” in all of them? Towards the beginning of Arthur’s reign there was relative peace and they were in a “Golden Age”. anvil: None could budge it. Palatable. and other called him a witch. palatable volumes of American literature. Essays 1.anything that is viewed as a world in miniature Grover's Corners belongs to all of us. a microcosm of the human family.With the specter of mortality hovering. formidable: The Trojans. “The World is too much with us”. amateur: Or perhaps you saw one too many amateur productions that. which is not the same as its being sentimental. failed to persuade you of the play's greatness. and together we dissect. archbishop: He advised the Archbishop of Canterbury to summon all the nobles. Our Town. Capricious.delicious.delegated to You relegated the play to the kitsch bin along with Norman Rockwell and Frank Capra.felt or enjoyed through imagined participation in the experience of others Through the discoveries your students make. some of the exhilaration that accompanied your own discovery of the work long ago. Sentimental: Mitt is full of genuine sentiment. enchanter: The great enchanter Merlin arrived at our home one night bearing you in his arms. reign: We will kill anyone who tries to prevent Arthur's reign! derisively: some laughed derisively. the novelist John Dos Passos. radical: Thornton Wilder was challenging the potential of theater.fanciful or witty In just a few eloquent sentences he captures both the capriciousness of life and the futility of war. a variety of contemporary plays. who were formidable. dissect: My students read. How does the “Golden Age” archetype play out in the King Arthur stories. miraculously: When Arthur is fifteen. so warmed by its wisdom. Subversive. like nasty medicine force-fed for your own good. to put it kindly.
until finally everyone locks their doors at night. They have “fallen from Eden”. 6. In the Highwayman the theme of romantic love is based on how “cool” the person is. This love developed into something deeper in the end because she . 7. and caused the death of King Arthur and it led to the destruction of a kingdom. Emily’s occupation was being a scholar and a poet. he still possesses some of the qualities of a stage manager. “Oranges”. Then people start to lock their doors as thieves start to emerge. This is relating humans to mice. Burns argues that a mouse is not at fault for stealing food when it’s hungry. the god-teacher is the stage manager. Compare the real life of Emily Dickinson and the fictional Lady of Shalott. In Our Town.2. But then again. “They Lady of Shalott”. and is looked up to. 3. The Lake Isle of Innisfree doesn’t have a “fall from Eden”. 4. Uther Pendragon. 5. Of Mice and Men. But. The “fall from Eden” was when all of this was happening to the Earth. They both share a similarity of isolation. He is all-knowing which another character of a god teacher is also. The poem backs up the actions of mice by plausible arguments. Merlin is acknowledged as the god-teacher. Slim is powerful. Take a look at the God-Teacher figures in Our Town. Like Slim he is powerful. What is the relationship between “To a Mouse” and the title of Steinbeck’s novel? These two are related because the concept of humans is the same. What does a narrative poem do and which of the poems on your list are narratives? A narrative poem is a poem that tells a story. If the Lady of Shalott had read “I’ve never seen a Moor”. and there is no corruption like in The World is too much with us. the audience instead of teaching anyone who is in the plot. The Lake Isle of Innisfree is filled with harmony. because both creatures do the same actions and for the same reason. It has a conflict and a resolution. the town starts out without any fear of burglars and thieves and there is peace. Though he is not the typical sort of stage manager. the King Arthur stories and Our Town. Explore the theme of romantic love in “The Highwayman”. while the Lady of Shalott was a weaver. In the novel Steinbeck shows how humans are flawed by having a big conflict which reveals the true fallibility of normal humans. and the King Arthur stories. but is in its Golden Age the whole time. This is the main attribute which makes him a god-teacher. The “Golden Age” of The World is too much with us is when the world wasn’t being robbed of its resources. would she identify with the speaker or would she have a different opinion of the value of experience? I believe that the Lady of Shalott would think that the value of experience is much more important than it is made seem in “I’ve never seen a Moor”. He teaches us. it isn’t very important to have not experienced seeing a moor. yet it is almost physically impossible for a person to live their whole life without coming into contact with someone so Emily hasn’t lived in complete seclusion while the Lady of Shalott has. and when nature wasn’t being abused. The girl in the coach is the daughter of a rich family and she is attracted to the highwayman because of his looks and actions. I believe this because. why would a person risk their life for an experience it they didn’t think that it was important? Emily Dickinson just states it as a fact as if she doesn’t care about not experiencing it. and Ambrosias Aurelius. Compare and Contrast them. and like the Stage Manager he is knowledgeable. each ruled a long and illustrious reign. This is their “Golden Age”. In the King Arthur series. The 3 heroes: King Arthur. The god-teacher in Of Mice and Men is Slim. This impresses upon the point of how humans are quick to point out the faults in others but not in themselves. Of the poems we read there were only two narrative poems: The Lady of Shalott and The Highwayman. one thing sets him apart from everyone else: he raised 3 heroes. In Our Town. How are they the same? How are they different? Both Emily and the Lady of Shalott have many similarities and differences.
8. She thinks only of herself and she never shares anything and until she met Lymon. Miss Amelia is internally grotesque. and their relationship. while Cousin Lymon has a hunched back. you will need a full paragraph to describe the various aspects of it). and the narrator of “The World is too Much With Us. Later in Of Mice and Men. Miss Amelia. the lady in “The Lady of Shalott”. yet it is useless. Lancelot’s dream is to be with Queen Guinevere because he honors her more than all other women. He wished of going somewhere with fresh. In “Our Town”. Cousin Lymon. He hated his college because everyone treated him badly. The romantic love in “Oranges” is the kind of love which is developed during a person’s school year. They are bonded at a young age and are married very early. while The Lady of Shalott wishes to be with Lancelot. and the novella-the town. the narrator of “The Lake Isle of Innisfree. W. Curley’s wife and Candy in Of Mice and Men. He doesn’t have a hand. He loved Harlem because there was no segregation. In “Oranges” it is obvious that he is trying very hard to please the girl because he buys her candy and trades the cashier oranges to get the candy. Candy too shares the dream. Yeats dreams of going somewhere like “The Lake Isle of Innisfree”. bases his love of Guinevere on both her character and her looks. and so she too can gaze upon him. “Write a definition of the grotesque (because it is such a rich and complex idea. How are the inward and outer grotesque connected? The Fish is physically grotesque. There are many grotesque things in Steinbeck. Lennie and Cousin Lymon are physically grotesque. clean air. its skin hangs in strips. It is their “first love”. Lennie has a deformed head and his strength is unnatural. From the Ballad of the Sad Café we have Miss Amelia who is internally grotesque. She sacrifices her own life for him to see her. he went to Harlem again. Tim the Osler in the Highwayman dreams of having Bess as his wife. Langston Hughes wished for segregation to disappear. 5 hooks hang out of its mouth. Sir Lancelot however. He also wishes that humans didn’t have to be so complicated and selfish all the time.sacrificed herself for the highwayman. She . Bess’s dream is to be with the highwayman. William Wordsworth wishes the world to be more sophisticated with nature flourishing instead of decaying. she rejected the company of almost everyone.B. George. Pick at least two of these topics and write about how they are physically grotesque and how that is representative of a metaphorical or inner grotesque.” Lennie and George’s dream is too own land and tend rabbits on that land. and the people there were all blacks. Lancelot in the King Arthur stories. The second category of internal grotesqueness is about a person’s feelings and thoughts. We look at “The Ballad of the Sad Café” in order to understand the grotesque and how it functions in Steinbeck and in Elizabeth Bishop’s “The Fish”. almost all of the love is based on lust. Another character who is significantly grotesque is Candy (Of Mice and Men).” the narrator of “Harlem”. but not Tim the Osler. and Bess in “The Highwayman”. “The Fish”. Grotesqueness can be categorized into two main categories: physical grotesqueness and internal grotesqueness. Crooks’s dream was for it to be like it was when he was young when he lived with more blacks and where there was no segregation. Crooks. She sees Lancelot walking and is very attracted to him. Tim the Osler. Somehow she ends up loving Uther and they are married. He lived in England for most of his life and he had gotten tired of the polluted air. For this reason.” The word “grotesque” is basically human fallibility. Uther Pendragon wants Igraine and tricks her and kills her husband. 10. the house. The romantic love in “The Lady of Shalott” is about looks too. He’d rather have simplicity that works than complicity doesn’t work. He hates the highwayman because his dream is to be with Bess too. the Highwayman. Explore the idea of dreams of Lennie. 9. it’s infested with lice and it was battered and venerable. In the King Arthur stories. Use examples from at least two texts to illustrate your ideas. George and Emily’s love has to do with the many years they have gone to school together. King Arthur also loves a woman on first sight and marries her without paying heed to the prophecy.
Present Perfect Timeline Past Present Perfect Past Progressive Future Present Future Perfect Present . Verb Tenses • Base Form-walk • Present Participle-walking • Present Perfect-I have walked. • Use a colon also for time. yet. Beth. as you finish the sentence. nor. Until she met Lymon. between titles and subtitles. • Future progressive-I will be walking. I will eat it often. or ridicule that person. The way the above sentence is written. Beth. and Jean notified Terry and Sue. That sandwich is the best one on the menu. and Meg. • Confusing: I wrote to Anne. so). or. and. Grammar Commas: • Used to separate items in a series • Used to separate sentences joined by a conjunction • Used for direct address • Used after an introductory dependent clause • Used to set of an appositive Semicolons: • Use it between two independent clauses that aren't separated with a FANBOYS (for. and Jean notified Terry and Sue. and in Biblical references. formal statement. all of that was true. She is like the caricature of a human being. therefore. it seems as if the writer wrote to four people rather than three. When she married it ended so quickly that it shocked everyone in town. Then. How do you clear up the confusion? Correct version: I wrote to Anne.thinks of herself and she never shares a drink or anything else with anyone. This leads to depression and isolation which leads to the process of becoming grotesque both physically and characteristically. and Meg. people usually ignore. • Don't use a semi-colon unless the two clauses are closely related. The physical grotesque is usually what causes the inner grotesque because if someone is ugly. • Past Participle-walked • Past Progressive-I am walking. • Future-I will walk. but. • You can also use a colon before a long. • Future perfect-I will have walked. you figure out that Jean is the subject of a new clause. Colons: • Use to introduce a list or formally introduce a statement • Use a colon before a statement that explains or clarifies a preceding statement. • Past-I walked. She rejects anyone who calls them kin to her. • Use a semi-colon with two independent clauses joined by a conjunctive adverb. an address in a letter.
Principle Parts Base Form Lie lay rise Raise sit set hold become Present progressiveProgressive Present perfect Present I am walking. . Present participle (verbal. but they also describe. Subject: Tells whom or what the sentence is about. so they act like adjectives.: The librarian took from her desk a new edition of one of the classics. Ex. Present participles always end in -ing. Future progressive I will be walking. and any modifiers of the object Ex. Examples: Verb (not removable): Harry was feeling slightly more cheerful. removable): Feeling slightly more cheerful. participles are removable. I have walked. Clause: a word group that contains a verb and its subject and that is used as a sentence or as part of a sentence.: Noted for his intelligence. Harry helped himself to sausages and fried tomatoes. Predicate: tells something about the subject Prepositional Phrases: The object of the preposition. Independent Clause: a clause that expresses a complete thought and can stand by itself as a complete sentence Dependent Clause: a clause that doesn’t express a complete thought and cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence.: The boy. past participles are removable. Participles show action. which cannot be removed from a sentence. Unlike main verbs. so they act like verbs. scored a goal. put comma to separate from sentence.: The tired tourists climbed onto the crowded bus. Future I will walk. Unlike main verbs. Past Participle (have) lain (have) laid (have) risen (have) raised (have) sat (have) set (have) held (have) become Present Participle (is) lying (is) laying (is) rising (is) raising (is) sitting (is) setting (is) holding (is) becoming Participial Phrases A verbal ending in -ing or -ed used to describe. If a participial phrase. Past participles usually end in -ed. A verbal is a verb that also works like another part of speech. eating candy. Past perfect I had walked. Past I walked Future Past progressive Progressive I was walking. Ex. Ex. Past Lay laid rose raised sat set held became Future perfect I will have walked.Present I walk. which cannot be removed from a sentence. Jack received the most outstanding scholar award.
” (Steinbeck 34) Lennie said. Intransitive: a verb that expresses action (or tells something about the subject) without the action passing to a receiver. was invited to the NMFP. or idea. Ex. a much accomplished writer.Appositive Phrase Appositive: a noun or pronoun placed beside another noun or pronoun to identify or describe it. a much loved musician.” Lenny said this. place. thing. Hint: appositive phrases usually start with a. Leo.: The crowd moves across the field in an attempt to see the rock star get into her helicopter.: The audience attentively watched the latest production of The Trojan Women. Appositive phrase: consists of an appositive and its modifiers Ex. It is on page 34. Ex. received a perfect score on his English exam. Fred. or object. and the In text citations: “I ain’t done nothing wrong. Active and Passive Voice Active Voice: the subject does the verb Passive Voice: the subject doesn’t do the verb . Transitive and Intransitive Verbs Transitive: a verb that expresses an action directed toward a person. This is in Steinbeck’s novel. Ex. Better: “I ain’t done nothing wrong. an.