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PLANS and the STRUCTURE of BEHAVIOR .

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PLANS AND THE STRUCTURE OF BEHAVIOR GEORGE A. RINEHART AND WINSTON. Harvard University University of Pennsylvania PRIBRAM. . EUGENE GALANTER. KARL H. INC. MILLER. Stanford University HOLT.

150. 3 ' 1960 Copyright by Holt. Inc. Rinehart and Winston. 1615141312111 6789 071 Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 60-7982 Printed in the United States of America ISBN: 0-03-010075-5 © . IH c.

Seymour Perlin. Many of them found or made the time to reply to us. California. Roman Jakob- James Jenkins. Helen Peak. Ralph Tyler. Jerome Frank. But the Center is a great deal more than an institution. an entire insti- tution was involved in a supporting role. An early draft of the manuscript was sent to some of our friends. it is a collection of scholars and scientists drawn from all the different branches of the behavioral sciences. Of course. Those who read some of the preliminary drafts and tried to save us from our mistakes included Cora Dubois. The Director of the Center. won our deep and lasting affection by mak- ing available to us the time and facilities tion. In our case. this expression of our gratitude to them does not mean that they endorse the views expressed in the fol- lowing pages. Quine. son. a pleasant place to work. Many of those men and women spent time with us when we were confused and gave freely of their wisdom and experience. and Willard V. Charles Osgood.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS It is an ill-kept secret that many more it is people than the authors participate in the creation of every book. one of our most pleasant chores to acknowledge our debt to the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences in Stanford. Thomas Kuhn. Dr. Frank Barron. we needed for our collaboraand by giving us the freedom to exploit them. Frank Beach. some at great Acknowledgments vii .

Allen Newell. Burt Green. correcting our spelling In addition.A. Irwin. of course. E.and so we gratefully acknowledge the corrections and improvements suggested by Robert R. K. best kind of assistance in getting our words into print. viii Acknowledgments .M. and grammar as best they could. The fact that they criticized Herbert A.H. Taylor. icize the present one as well. Bush. we wish to express our thanks to the individuals. length. Simon. Duncan Luce. Katherine and Phyllis Ellis typed our visions and revisions quickly and accurately. publishers. an early version. January 1960 G. We Miller count ourselves particularly fortunate to have had the very J. Frederick C. and journals who gave us permission to reprint passages from their articles or books. R. Francis W. and Donald W.P.G. does not deprive them of their right to critFrick. Noam Chomsky.

and the Execution of Plans Instincts 59 73 5. Plans for Remembering Plans for Speaking 1 . Images and Plans 5 21 2. The Simulation 41 4. Values. Motor Skills and Habits 8i 7. Nondynamic Aspects of Personality 117 125 139 Contents ix 10. . The Integration of Plans 95 103 8. 6.1 CONTENTS Prologue 1 I . The Unit of Analysis of Psychological Processes 3. Intentions. Relinquishing the Plan 9.

The Formation of Plans 177 Speculations 14.12. Some Neuropsychological Epilogue 195 211 Index of Authors Index of Subjects 217 221 X Contents . Plans for Searching and Solving 159 13.

PLANS and the STRUCTURE of BEHAVIOR .

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I see before me trees.PROLOGUE As I sit at my desk. Prologue i . I know. beyond that the Coast Range. Behind me. Bovilding. beyond that the Pacific Ocean. men have Images. in which he explores some of the dimensions of our picture of man and the universe. 1956). beyond that some With these words the economist Kenneth E. blind He is not thinking here of simple visual images.^ He goes on to sketch some of the larger aspects of his own Image whereby he feels himself located in space and time and society and nature and his own short treatise entitled personal history. and beyond that the little campus of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. too. I know there is a vmidow. Meaningful messages change 1 Kenneth E. Boulding begins a The Image. however. I know where I am. His behavior depends upon the Image. dow. The Image is his knowledge of the world. more than I see. beyond them the trees and roof tops which mark the town of Palo Alto: beyond them the bare golden hills of the Hamilton Range. a win- beyond that the red roofs of the campus of Stanford University. although I am not looking in that direction. The Image (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

not entirely accidentally. And there because it apologize for putting there. The notion of a Plan that guides behavior is. political science. Although we could accept. and history. we reviewed once more the cybernetic literature on the analogies between brains and computers. tury and pubHc Images. And we had a general commitment to continue our own education. We We siderable appeal. To psychologists who like alternatives to nickel-inthe-slot. therefore. We thought we knew a part was missing. In this survey we were especially fortunate in having at our 2 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . It was just three years later. in spirit if not in detail. quite similar to the notion of a programs. during the academic year 1958-59. (It is so reasonable to insert between the stimulus is no particular need to was already there before psychology arrived. you are like a man who collects maps but never makes a trip. an Image has conindividual problems. that the present authors as- had our had some shared problems that dated back to a summer together at Harvard in 1956. it left an organism more in the role of a spectator than of a participant in the drama of hving. the argument that cognitive theorists made. sociology. at that same Center. eco- nomics. ) The Image became a part of the Image we were building for ourselves. between minds and accidentally. we slowly became convinced that Boulding and cognitive psychologists gen- — erally — had not told a complete story. Unless you can use your Image to do something. He pursues men's Images through biology. In order to motion. It seemed to us that a that Plan is needed in order to exploit the Image. our virritings. stimulus-response conceptions of man. It was in the course of that latter project that we came across The Image on the shelf of the Center's library. But as the year advanced and our Image grew. of personal and shared knowlwhich can best be described as a snapshot of a twentieth-cenat work. again not entirely program that guides an discover how to get the Image into electronic computer. sembled. and he weaves together a tapestry of private edge. mind Boulding wrote The Image during the close of summer of 1955 at the an academic year spent in California at the Center for Ad- vanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences.the Image. in our conversations and our arguments and and the response a little it wisdom.

Santa Monica. even smaller than it be a little turned out to be. and a debate simmering in our minds. was whether the cybernetic ideas have any relevance for psychology. much of it still unpublished. to discover Our fundamental concern. There must be some way was to phrase the new ideas so that they can contribute to and profit from the science of behavior that psychologists have created. or any of the other authors whose work we studied. that had obtained from Allen Newell. Shaw. to was be our intellectual diary for the year. its attendants. ported from the think-center in Santa Monica to the think-center in Stanford. But in spite of we refused to believe that ignorance of psychology a cybernetic prerequisite or even an ad- vantage. McCuUoch. Shannon. Minsky. and sponsored by the Social Science Research Unfortunately. Our only hope is that there really can be such a thing as creative misunderstanding. the electronic computer. ness or documentation that have since crept into all But in spite of those familiar academic vectors acting upon it. Ashby. Simon in the course of a Research Training Institute on the Simula- tion of Cognitive Processes held at RAND Corporation. however. It was to take It only a few days to write. and the research workers themselves had to be left behind. it has turned out Prologue 3 . but they should not be held responsible for our mistakes or embellishments. And as things became clearer. J. and Simon inspired California. von Neu- mann. Nor should Wiener. it soon became necessary for us to write the argument down in order to denly it remember what it was. animals. sudseemed necessary to make a book of the argument.disposal a large Miller mass of material. with none of the defensiveit. C. all we could do was try to understand the spirit of the work but doubtless there was conas simply and concretely as we could siderable distortion in the channel. Shaw. Without those supporting facilities. — us by their successes. and Herbert A. a Plan. MacKay. With an Image. however. It was to book. Chomsky. The men who have late often pioneered in this area have been remarkably innocent about psychology — the creatures whose behavior they want to simulike a all is seem more mathematician's dream than like living the evidence. It the search for that favorable in- tersection that directed the course of our year-long debate. July 1958. but those days stretched into months. when these materials were transCouncil. Newell.

That would be aU right— sober-sided colleagues deserve to be irritated — except that more is at stake than the authors' reputations. So. But a year is only a year long. 4 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . accept our apologies — and push ahead. we might have been able to argue our way through to a better-balanced composition. take a deep breath. gentle reader.r to be a spontaneous. if your anger starts to rise. If we had had more time together. It Some of the ideas we have used would be unfortunate if our style were to conceal the true merit of the arguments we try to present. are too good to lose. argumentative. personal kind of book that irritate should our sober-sided colleagues.

or perhaps as you habits. And it.— CHAPTER 1 IMAGES AND PLANS Consider as you lie how an ordinary day is put together. You do not need to. As you brush — Images and Plans 5 . You awaken. she may be there again day. flexible anticipations are usually sufficient. you may make a list of all the things you have to do. you construct a plan to to meet What you happen foreshadows what you expect to do. launch yourself into the day with no clear notion of going to do or how long it will take. The authors of this book believe that the plans you make are interesting and that they probably have some relation to how you actually spend your time during the day. and slowly about in a protective will be like in bed. novel or routine. We call them "plans" without mahce we recognize that you do not draw out long and elaborate blueprints for every moment of the day. move shell of it morning it you think about what the day will be hot. whether it of its Or you may what you are crowded or is empty. Roughsketchy. fill will be cold. there is nothing to- to the time. you may worry about fitting it all in. there is too much to do. you promised to see him. as you think what expect your day will hold. uniform or varied. your day has a structure own — it fits into the texture of your life. If you are compulsive. But.

two schools of we must begin with what we can see little as possible beyond that. and from that name you then proceed to elaborate the detailed actions involved in carrying out the plan. On the one to find the de- the stimulusre- response relation after the classical. to try to discover recurrent patterns of stimulation and response. — You imagine what your day cope with to say it. however. You think simply that today there will be time for it after lunch. to find some system for underIf we. As to the way in which this dependency should be described. and a science with invisible content is likely to become an invisible science. physiological pattern of the flex arc and use Pavlov's discoveries to explain how new reflexes can be formed through experience. After lunch.your teeth you decide that you will answer that pile of letters you have been neglecting. there are. you turn to the letters. The ancient subject matter of psychology the mind and its various manifestations is distressingly invisible. You plan your answer. drop it in a mailbox. Each of these subactivities runs off as the situation arises you did not need to enumerate them while you were planning the day. What we can — — hand are the optimists. find a stamp. That is enough. What does modem psychology have about images and plans? Presumably. the task of standing their behavior. you dictate or type or scribble a reply. They model thought. and we must postulate as movements and environmental events. seal the folded letter. All you need is the name of the activity that you plan for that segment of the day. You take one and read it. modem psychology is to make sense out of what people and animals do. who claim pendency simple and straightforward. You may need to check on some information. if you remember. as in most matters of modern psychology. in particular. We are therefore led to underline the fundamental importance of behavior and. This approach is too simple for all but the most extreme optimists. What an organism does depends on what happens around it. Most psychologists quickly realize that 6 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . is going to be and you make plans to Images and plans. as psychologists. come to this task with proper see are scientific caution. you address an envelope. You do not need to Ust the names of the people or to draft an outline of the contents of the letters.

a cognitive map. or mode.— behavior in general. yet which operate. Remembering. Images and Plans 7 . go together to build up an active. in Uterature. All incoming impulses of a certain kind. at a relatively low level. a particular refers to "Schema" response is possible only because it is related to other similar responses which have been serially organised. is repre- and They are any correlations between stimulation and response must be mediated by an organized representation of the environment. which must always be supposed to be operating in any well-adapted organic response. to understand a much greater variety of Once these "reinbecomes possible behaviors and to acknowlit edge the apparently purposive nature of behavior. and human behavior in particular. devious. philosophy. is not a chain of conditioned reflexes. a system of concepts and relations within which the organism is located. That of thought. 1932). Bartlett. art. science. p. history. a simulacrum. on a higher level. forcing" stimuli are included in the description. A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. describes it in this way: — or of past experiences. but as a unitary mass. all the experiences connected by a common interest: in sport. various types of cutaneous impulses and the like. an Image. That is. who uses the term "schema" for this internal representation. 201. Sir Frederic C. who think that living organisms are complicated. is one school Arrayed against the reflex theorists are the pessimists. and so on. a schema.^ 1 Frederic C. poorly designed for research purposes. not simply as individual members coming one after another. whenever there is any order or regularity of behavior. Bartlett. auditory. A human being and probably other animals as well builds up an internal representation. a model of the universe. and so on. organised setting: visual. an active organisation of past reactions. So the complicated slightly by incorporating some of the stimuli that occur after the response in addiis model tion to the stimuli that occur before the response. Determination by schemata is the most fundamental of all the ways in which we can be influenced by reactions and experiences which occurred some time in the past. They maintain that the effect an event will have upon behavior depends on sented in the organism's picture of quite sure that itself how its the event universe.

189-208. out of respect for Occam's Razor. one should not burden the science with unnecessary theoretical luggage. Psychological Re- view. which are allowed in. or a man. Indeed. sistent An unconditional proof that a completely con- account of behavior cannot be formulated more economically exist. has based his defense of cognitive organization almost entirely on his studies of the behavior of rats — surely one of the least promising areas in which to investiif gate intellectual accomplishments. that is to say. for example. indicating routes and paths and environmental relationships. The mediating or- The view that necessary has a surprisingly large ganization is. a theoretical concept and. If the description of a rodent's cognitive structure is necessary in order to understand its behavior. as an explanation for the behavior that can be observed to occur. Edward Tolman." or "an active organisation of past reactions. experimentally trained psychologists. the incoming impulses are usually worked over and elaborated in the central control room into a tentative. are not connected by just simple one-to-one switches to the outgoing responses. Perhaps he felt that he could win the argument with the simpler animal.: The crux of the argument. Necessary. Tolman's position was put most simply and directly in the following paragraph [The brain] is far more like a map control room than it is Hke an old-fashioned telephone exchange.. The stimuli. cognitivelike map of the environment. is whether anything so mysterious and inaccessible as "the organism's picture of itself and its universe. as every psychologist knows. or an ape. which finally determines what responses." etc. then it is just that much more important for understanding the be- havior of a dog. he would win it by default for the more compUcated ones. And it is this tentative map. the animal will finally release. of course. is really necessary. Cognitive maps in rats and men. 55. some mediating organization of experience is number of critics among hardheaded. Edward Tolman. For reasons that are not entirely clear. if 2 any. Rather. does not and until we are certain that simpler ideas have failed we should there are not rush to embrace more complicated ones. 8 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . the battle between these two schools of thought has generally been waged at the level of animal behavior.^ C. 1948. many psychologists who think the simple stimulus-re- sponse-reinforcement models provide an adequate description of everything a psychologist should concern himself with.

still indefinitely box located on — — large. to us that a great deal more goes on between and the response than can be accounted for by a simple statement about associative strengths. The Psychology of Learning (New York: Harper. Hilgard. cognitive theorists have assumed that their best course was 3 See. if he gets to the food-box at the end that is his concern. is that a great deal is left to be explained. K. Hebb. there is a criticism of the cognitive position that seems quite important and that has never. The pros and cons cannot be reviewed here the argument is long and other texts ^ exist in which an interested reader can pursue it so we shall simply announce that our theoretical preferences are all on the side of the cognitive theo- seems obvious the stimulus — — rists. In his concern with what goes on in Tolman has neglected to predict what the rat will So far as the theory is concerned the rat is left buried in thought. 2. Images and Plans g . The criticism is that the cognitive processes to Tolman and others have postulated are not. do. 4 E. Modern Learning Theory (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. or hypotheses. for example. sufficient if do the job they were supposed to do. so far as we know. What more is there to exThe answer. Life is complicated. either E. not the concern of the theory. or D.. you will not have explained anything about the animal's behavior. or abstraction. or W.: We since it ourselves are quite sympathetic to this kind of theorizing. leaves outstanding the question of the rat's abihty to leap Ap- parently. Tolman. the omniscient still theorist.* the rat's mind. Guthrie. Perhaps the cognitive theorists have not understood the force of this criticism. Estes et al. p. in fact. or cognition. in Tolman's theory. say the critics. The gap from knowledge to action looks smaller than the gap from stimulus to action yet the gap is still there. Nevertheless. leaps over that gap when he infers the rat's cognitive organization from its behavior. But that it. 1956). The Organization of Behavior (New York: Wiley. occasion in the rat realization. 172. 1954). It is so transparently clear to them that if a hungry rat knows where plain? to find food — if he has a cognitive map with the food- it he will go there and eat. but they do not occasion action. received an adequate answer. Guthrie has about as sharply as anyone made the point Signs. 1949). Even you admit these ghostly inner somethings. O. R. 1935). R. of course. or judgment. Theories of Learning (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. ed.

for example. and only that behavior of animals definitely appears to us intelligent which takes account from the beginning of the lay of the land. Alaska. of a bridge at Dyea. is that Kohler makes the standard cognitive assumption: once the animal has grasped the whole layout he will behave appropriately. has been sub- same kind of heckling. tion ID Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Many wish to raise here. Other psychologists have been less confident that they could tell the difference between behavior based on an understanding of the whole layout and behavior based on less cognitive processes. and proceeds to deal with it in a single. far from must ask for even carry around. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. It is unfair to single out Tolman and criticize him for leaving the cognitive representation paralytic. Only in the former case do we speak of insight. Hence follows this criterion of insight: the appearance of a complete solution with reference to the whole lay-out of the field. 1927).: : to show that the reflex theories are inadequate. The point we however. continuous. 169-170. three weeks ago. and one that does not. but is certainly not sufficient as an explanation of intelligent behavior. Something is needed to bridge the gap from knowledge to action. The road to the bridge for nine miles was blasted 5 Wolfgang Kohler. Kohler wrote distinguish sharply between the kind of We can behavior which from the very beginning arises out of a consideration of the structure of a situation. we heard Karl Lashley say this to him I attended the dedication. and definite course. more cognitive theory is needed than the cognitive theorists normally supply. years later. That respecting Occam's Razor. jected to the Wolfgang Kohler. In reporting his extremely per- ceptive study of the chimpanzees on Tenerife Island during the first World War. Again. they seem to have been quite unprepared when the same argument that things are even more complicated than they dared to imagine was used — — against them. the cognitive theorist more theoretical luggage to is to say. so there has been a long and rather of trial-and-error fruitless controversy over the relative merits and of insight as methods of learning. Yet. seems to have been ignored by Kohler. if Guthrie is right. the fact that grasping the whole layout may be necessary. pp.^ . . for example. Other cognitive theorists could equally well be cited. . The Mentality of Apes (translated from the second ediby Ella Winter.

It led to a magnificent steel bridge. JefFress. including the present authors. (New York: Images and Plans 1 . The neurological problem is in large part. Lewin's contribu- tions are so important that we will treat them in detail in Chapter 4. It applies to perceptual experience but seems to end there. we cannot fore. 1951). if not entirely. per- manent and apparently indestructible. . The field theory in its present form includes no hint of the way in which the field forces induce and control the pattern of efferent activity. it is dismiss them summarily by a paragraph in this introduc- tion. still maintain that they have not. Much de- tailed analysis of different psychological theories could be displayed show why the criticism and why cognitive theorists feel they have answered the their critics it.1 along a series of cliffs. At an earlier date we might have introduced the topic directly by announcing that we intended to discuss the will. the translation of the afferent pattern of impulses into the efferent pattern. But be- we will not pursue Our point action.® . was the early The work last serious attempt to make sense out of the will of Kurt Lewin and his students. In order to show what a psychology of will might be like. In a way. 230. of The second volume The Principles contains a long chapter ^ Lloyd A. ed. assimilated anonymously into the broader topic of motivation. But today the will seems to have disappeared from doubt it is No perfectly obvious to the reader that a modern version of psychological theory.. p. have been disturbed by a theoretical vacuum tween cognition and prolonged The present book is largely the record of — and frequently violent — conversations about how that vacuum might be filled. Cerebral Mechanisms in Behavior Wiley. Many to other voices could be added to this dialogue. . I feel that Professor Kohler's position is somewhat that of the bridge. through which only a couple of trails of bears led to indeterminate places. is that many psychologists. there- necessary to return to an earlier and more philosophical generation of psychologists. so let us consider briefly how he handled the topic. William James provides the sort of dis- cussion that was once an indispensable part of every psychology text. we have here an ancient puzzle. After the dedication cere- monies I walked across the bridge and was confronted with an impenetrable forest of shrubs and underbrush.

to be filled. The bridge James gives us between the ideo and the motor is nothing but a hyphen. "is ^ pleasant idea. If a person forms a clear image of a particular action. Introspectively. He then turns to the topic of "ideo-motor action. All of envisioned — a direct example of ideo-motor ac- which helps us not in the least." The first third of it is James's struggle the notion against theories based on "sensations of innervation" — that the innervation required to perform the appropriate action self is it- a part of the cognitive representation. The problem is to describe how actions are controlled by an organism's internal representation of its universe. but in many cases having an idea of an action is sufficient for action. 561. limited to covert tensions in the muscles." is If an idea can be maintained in attention. Most psychologists maintain that these action patterns are punctuated by goals and subgoals. the feeling of effort from our attempt to keep our attention focused on the untells us. there seems be no vacuum justified. We of wish to call attention to the fact that the organization does exist configuration 7 just as important a property of behavior as II it is William James. would made by Guthrie and Lashley were not But what of the more complicated cases of willing? What occurs when we arises force ourselves through some unpleasant task by "the slow dead heave of the will?" According to James." which provides the foundation for his explanation of all phenomena of will. freely ranging animal. 1890). James maintains instead it is that that the anticipation of the kinesthetic effects of the movement is represented in consciousness. (New York: Holt. Vol. that action tends to occur. therefore. The Principles of Psychology.— (106 pages) entitled "Will. The occurrence may be inhibited. but that does not concern us is for the moment. had he heard them. have felt that criticisms of the sort and James. we must be struck by the extent to which they are organized into patterns. If we consider what these actions are in the normal. to not represented in consciousness. 12 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . then the action that in the idea occurs automatically tion. p. "The essential achievement of the wHl. There seems to be no alternative but to strike out into the vacuum on our own." he to attend to a difficult object and hold it fast before the mind. If there is anything it is between the cognitive representation and the overt action.

X = AB = abcde. and e. consists of two parts. which we take to mean that a proper description of behavior must be made on all levels simultan£ously. Thus. a and clude all levels. That is to say. or what- What we must are provide. no doubt. however. is some way to map the cognitive representation into the appropriate pattern of activity. therefore. or level of description. Images and Plans "13 . The configurations of behavior. or in even larger units. that the molar units must be composed of molecular units. in turn. for example. or as a sequence of movements of limbs and other little parts. But how we to analyze this flowing pattern of action into manageable parts? The difficulty in analyzing the actions of an animal does not arise from any lack of ways to do it but from an embarrassment of riches. For example. The point. and the pattern of units at one level more molar. so smoothly as the creature runs.perception. This kind of organization of behavior is most obvious. behavior can be indicated only by giving the units at the next higher." Anyis one who asks which unit the correct size to use in describing be- havior seem more obvious when molar units are used. or as a se- quence of goal-directed actions. c. b. The implication is relatively clear. then (ab) (cde) may become confused with (abc)(de). A X= AB. ward ever. the molar pattern of and B. however." the big ones. and we can describe the same segment of behavior at any one of the three levels. however. But A. Otherwise. the configurational properties of the be- havior will be lost — if we state only abcde. Following Tolman. talks. in that order. tend to be pre- dominantly temporal — it is the sequence of motions that flows onflies. is that we do not want to pick one level and argue that it is somehow better than the others. Thus. d. We can describe an action as a sequence of muscle twitches. most psychologists distinguish the units by calling the little units from the big ones "molecular. and B consists of three. which may be a very dif- ferent thing. but that just how molar he should be in any particular analysis is something he will have to learn from experience and obis told that behavioral laws servation in research. we are trying to describe a process that is organized on several different levels. swims. "molar. the complete description must inconsists of X two parts.

The complete description of the utterance involves all these levels. of course. much less 8 The traditional method of parsing a sentence is the prototype of the kind of behavioral description we demand. solved. it has been made frequently by both linguists and psychologists. it. even to try would still not suffice." The sequence of phonemes may remain unchanged. in this sense of the term. however. common enough The meticu- if anyone were brave would not contain the structural features that characterize the molar units and those structural features must be inferred on the basis of a theory about behavior. Unfortunately. have always remained implicit and intuitive." We shall discuss Chomsky's method of representing verbal behavior in more detail in Chapter 11. the psychologist usually describes behavior or some aspect of behavior — — at a single level and leaves his colleagues to use their own sense to infer what happened at other levels. The suggestion that linguistic analysis provides a model for the description of all kinds of behavior is. Noam Chomsky. The kind of ambiguity that results when all levels are not known is suggested by the sentence. and a string of sentences makes up the utterance. which linguists refer to as "constituent analysis. It may be suggested that stretches of any kind of behavior may be organized in somewhat the same fashion" (p. for it — of describing behavior has almost never been recognized. but the two analyses (They) (are flying) (planes') and (They) (are) in into (flying planes) are very different utterances. 1957). the acoustic representations of the intended phonemes. even though the actual responses available to perception are merely the strings of phones. a psychologist. 106). observed that. Carroll. phrases in the proper sequence form a sentence. John B. "From linguistic theory we get the notion of a hierarchy of units from elemental units like the distinctive feature of a phoneme to large units like a sentence-type. morphemes are strung together to form phrases. no novelty. The individual phonemes are organized morphemes. "They are flying planes. For example. 1953). in Chapter 4 of his monograph. Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton. Our theories of behavior. in The Study of Language (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. provides a formal representation of this kind of description.* human Psychologists have seldom demonstrated any reluctance to infer the existence of such molar units as "words" or even "meanings" when they have dealt with verbal behavior. Exactly the same recognition of more molar units in nonverbal behavior deserves the same kind of multi-level description. (It is rather surprising to realize that after half a century of behaviorism this aspect of the problem lous recording of every muscle twitch. — 14 Plans and the Structure of Behavior .) verbal behavior.

" Or can be considered as a set of rules governing permissible substitu- 9 Many psychologists are familiar with the notion that behavior is hierarchically organized because they remember Clark Hull's use of the phrase "habit-family hierarchy. B. substitutable) responses according to their strengths. a and a list containing three items. 1954). 230-240. A. L. c. 1934. and e." must hasten to say. We first became acquainted with it through the work of Newell. 134-152. for example. The logic theory We We machine: A complex information processing system. 1° The tree and outline forms of representation are quite ancient and familiar. therefore. Peterson. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference. are talking about a hierarchy of levels of representation. Allen Newell and J. is A and B. Allen NeweU and Herbert A. that Hull's use of the term "hierarchy" and our present use of that term have almost nothing in common." The hier- archy can be represented in various ways. Simon. h. Los Angeles. Programming the logic theory machine. 1956. Also. but the use of list structures for representing such organizations is. a. Shaw. we believe. and Simon on the simulation of cognitive processes by computer programs. A is a list c. IT-2. We shall speak of ^ this fact as the "hierarchical organization of behavior. Images and Plans 15 . No. The concept of the habit-family hierarchy and maze learning. 41. Hull was talking about an ordering of alternative (interchangeable. Closer to the spirit of the present discussion is the system of behavioral episodes used by Roger G. containing two items. Or B it can be considered as a collection of lists: X it is a list containing the two items. The diagram of a hierarchy usually takes the form of a progressively outline tree. See. February 1957. to describe the molar behavior of children in their natural habitats. Vol. e. Shaw. Or it can be cast as an X. d. 33-54. Barker and Herbert F. b. relatively new. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. d. See. 61-79. C. The work of Barker and Wright is a noteworthy exception to our assertion that psychologists have not tried to describe the structural features of behavior. 3.: In those fortunate instances that do give us adequate descriptions of behavior and ethologists — instances quite — it provided almost entirely by linguists obvious that the behavior is is organ- ized simultaneously at several levels of complexity. C. Hull. in Midwest and Its Children (Evanston: Row. for example. Psychological Review. the arborizations indicating more molecular representations. Wright. This outline show^s the structure of the hypothetical example intro- duced on page 13. pp.

26. op. essentially the same as a program program has the sort of hierarchical character described above. For the present. Any complete description of behavior should be adequate it to serve as a set of instructions. where A occurs we can substitute ab. etc. and Herbert A. for an organism. the term will refer to a hierarchy of instructions. we can substitute for it AB. we shall keep the hst as short as possible. the time has come few terms for the special purposes of the present discussions. Plan. tics of should have the characteris- a plan that could guide the action described. Shaw. Psy12 It i6 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Newell. the reduction of Plans to nothing but pro- grams is still a scientific hypothesis and it is still in need of further if validation. Their success in this direction hypothesis that a hierarchical structure tion in is the basic form of organiza- human problem-solving. However. Elements of a theory of human problem solving. C. When we speak of a Plan in these pages. should be clearly recognized that. A Plan is is to be performed. if for a computer. and the capitaUzation is will indicate that this special in- terpretation any hierarchical process in the organism that can control the order in which a sequence of operations intended. and Simon point out.tions: Where X occurs. etc. however. especially the velopment of "information-processing languages" that are used to program high-speed digital computers to simulate human thought — which the present authors find most impressive and encouraging — argues strongly for the processes. See Allen Newell. that is.^^ 11 Chomsky. therefore. if the hierarchical nature of the organization of behavior to set aside a can be taken as axiomatic. Thus. cit. Shaw. Simon.^^ Each of these methods of presentation of a hierarchy has its special advantages in special situations. Because definitions make heavy reading. Now. comparing the sequence of operations executed by an organism and by a properly programmed computer is quite different from comparing computers with brains. as Newell. J. Shaw. and Simon have exphcitly and systematically used the hierarchical structure of Hsts in their de- A Plan is.. or electrical relays with synapses. p. we are reasonably confident that "program" could be substituted everywhere for "Plan" in the following pages. should be less confusing we regard a computer program that simulates certain features of an organism's behavior as a theory about the organismic Plan that generated the behavior.

we shall also use the term 'Tlan" to designate a rough sketch of some course of action. and the Strategy and Tactics. Simon. but they distinguish between such a plan and the program that enables a computer to use planning as one of its problem-solving techniques. 66-83. tactics. step by step. Models. although relatively rapid alternation between Plans may be possible. The State of the Social Sciences (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Minsky. term of course. 151-166. as well as the completely detailed specification of every detailed operation. however. Paris. Al- though not actually necessary. Shaw. D. pp. We shall say that a creature is executing a particular is Plan when it in fact that Plan controlling the sequence of operations he is carrying out. The Image of a great deal the accumulated. White.3. 1958. Lincoln Laboratory. J. Image. What we have It in mind when we use this is essentially the same kind of private repre- sentation that other cognitive theorists have demanded. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing. just the major topic headings in the outline. Other workers have used the term "machine" rather loosely to include both the Plan and the instrument that executes it. Now. see M. 1959 (in press). we wish to augment our terminology. See Allen Newell. Group Report 34—55. their uses and limitations. Herbert A. Shaw. 13 Newell. C. Simon and Allen Newell. in L. Images and Plans 17 . When an organism executes a Plan he proceeds through next. as well as Plans for guiding actions. 1956). The Image consists more than imagery. completing one part and then moving to the cially in The execution of a Plan need not result in overt action espeman.— Moreover. An organism may it probably does — store many Plans other than the ones is all happens to be executing at the moment. organized knowledge that the organism has about itself and its world. The molar units in the organization of behavior will be said to comprise the behavioral strategy. especially Section ni. A report on a general problem solving program. For example. we assume on intuitive grounds that only one Plan is executed at a time. 17 December 1956. L. Also. 65. and Herbert A. and Simon have also used "plan" to describe a general strategy before the details have been worked out. ^^ The concept of the hierarchical organizawas introduced earlier with the distinction between molar and molecular units of analysis. includes chological Review. the Execution. ed. it seems to be true that there are Plans for collecting or it is — transforming information. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. tion of behavior molecular units.. Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem.

or transforming information. so that to imply some sharp dichotomy between would be meaningful to ask. since is it must be part of a person's Image of him- self that able to execute such-and-such Plans. we have defined enough to be able to say that the central problem of this book is to explore the relation between the Image and the Plan. but they will not be Hsted here. — Changes — Changes in the Images can be effected only by executing Plans for gathering. Thus. storing. The transformation of — descriptions into instructions is. — Knowledge wise it must be incorporated into the Plan. we would ten a book to say Stimulus and response are physiological concepts reflexes. in the Plans can be effected only by information drawn from the Images. — The names that Plans have must comprise a part of the Image for human he beings. "Is such-and-such a process exclusively in the Plan or exclusively in the Image?" That the two points of view cannot be used in that way into mutually exclusive categories should to classify processes become apparent from such considerations as these — A Plan can be learned and so would be a part of the Image. borrowed from the discussion of But we have rejected the classical concept of the reflex arc as the fundamental pattern for the i8 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . images. been able In the course of prolonged debates the present authors heard themselves using cial many other terms to modify "Plan" in rather spe- ways. to say. or relations he has to master. for human beings. however. For the moment. since other- could not provide a basis for guiding behavior. New terms will be defined and developed as they are needed in the course of the argument that follows. If that were all we had it. however.: everything the organism has learned facts — his values as well as his — organized by whatever concepts. a simple verbal trick. it may seem it the two. Stated so. Psychologists who are accustomed to to think of their problem as the investigation of relations between Stimulus and Response are apt view the present undertaking in a parallel way — as an investigation scarcely have writ- of relations between a subjective stimulus and a subjective response. Images can form part of a Plan.

without the help of a that We are not likely to overthrow an old master it is new one.organization of to all behavior. to the task of finding a successor Images and Plans ig . we must turn next. To assume that a Plan some inner Image of a stimulus does nothing concepts with subjective equivalents and leaves master — albeit so a rather ghostly master — of the machinery of the mind. and consequently we do not feel a need extend the classic disjunction between stimulus and response a covert response to variables into the realm of Images is but parallel objective the reflex arc still and Plans.

CHAPTER 2

THE UNIT OF

ANALYSIS

Most psychologists take it for granted that a scientific account of must begin with the definition of fixed, something a psycholorecognizable, elementary units of behavior
the behavior of organisms

gist

can use as a biologist uses

cells,

or an astronomer uses stars, or

a physicist uses atoms, and so on. Given a simple unit, complicated

phenomena

are then describable as lawful

compounds. That

is

the

essence of the highly successful strategy called "scientific analysis."

The elementary

unit that modern, experimental psychologists
is

generally select for their analysis of behavior
tion of a reflex," B. F. Skinner
tells us, "is

the reflex. "The isola-

the demonstration of a
it

predictable uniformity in behavior. In
inevitable part of

some form or other

is

an

any science of behavior, ...
a fact.
It is

A

reflex is not, of

course, a theory.

It is

an analytical
^

unit,

which makes the

investigation of behavior possible."

Skinner

is

quite careful to define

a reflex as a unit of behavior that will yield orderly data: "The ap1 B. F. Skinner, Crofts, 1938), p. 9.

The Behavior

of

Organisms (New York: Appleton-Century-

The Unit

of Analysis

21

pearance of smooth curves in dynamic processes marks a unique
point in the progressive restriction of a preparation, and
it is

to this
^

uniquely determined entity that the term reflex
This somevs^hat odd approach to the reflex
ness of curves

may

be assigned."

— in terms of the

smootha

results

from Skinner's consistent attempt

to define

unit of behavior in terms of behavior itself instead of by reference to

concepts drawn from some other branch of science.

Although Skinner's approach absolves the psychologist of certain

burdensome
ology and

responsibilities
is

toward his biological colleagues, the fact
largely

remains that the reflex

a concept borrowed originally from physi-

made

to

seem psychologically substantial

by the

myth

of the reflex arc: stimulus -> receptor —> afferent nerve

nective fibers

—>

efferent nerve -» effector -^

—> conresponse. For many years
re-

aU those elementary textbooks of psychology that mentioned the
nervous system featured the traditional, simplified diagram of the
flex

arc in a very prominent position. You
tells

may

ignore a behaviorist

when he

you that the reflex

is

a fact, but you can scarcely ignore
a picture of
it.

a physiologist

when he draws you

You might

as well

deny the small intestines or sneer at the medulla oblongata as to doubt the reflex arc. Even the most obstinate opponent of physiological explanations in psychology can scarcely forget the bloody tissue

from which the
But
let

reflex

— even the reflex-sans-arc — originally grew.
and neurologists suddenly announced that

us suppose, by a wild and irresponsible flight of fancy,

that the physiologists

they had been mistaken, that there was no such fact as a reflex arc

and that the data on which the theory had been based were actually quite different from what had originally been supposed. What then

would psychologists say? Would they persist in talking about reflexes? Has the reflex concept been so tremendously helpful that
behaviorists could not afford to give
it

up, even

if its

biological basis

were demohshed?
vastly overrated
get

some reason to think that the reflex unit has been and that a good many psychologists would like to out from under it if they could. The reflex arc may have been helpThere
is is

ful in getting psychology started along scientific paths, but the suspi-

cion has been growing in recent years that the reflex idea
2 Ibid., p. 40.

too sim-

22

Plans and the Structure of Behavior

:

pie, the

element too elementary. For the most part, serious students

of behavior have

have had
that to

had to ignore the problem of units entirely. Or they modify their units so drastically for each new set of data speak of them as elementary would be the most unblushing
to

watching psychologists struggle under their burden of conditioning reflexes, Chomsky, the linguist and logician, recently
sophistry. After

summarized

their plight in the following

terms

The notions

of "stimulus," "response," "reinforcement" are

relatively well defined with respect to the bar-pressing experi-

ments and others similarly restricted. Before we can extend them to real-life behavior, however, certain difficulties must be faced. We must decide, first of all, whether any physical event to which the organism is capable of reacting is to be called a stimulus on a given occasion, or only one to which the organism in fact reacts; and correspondingly, we must decide whether any
part of behavior is to be called a response, or only one connected with stimuli in lawful ways. Questions of this sort pose something of a dilemma for the experimental psychologist. If he accepts the broad definitions, characterizing any physical event impinging on the organism as a stimulus and any part of the organism's behavior as a response, he must conclude that behavior has not been demonstrated to be lawful. In the present state of our knowledge, we must attribute an overwhelming influence on actual behavior to ill-defined factors of attention, set, volition, and caprice. If we accept the narrower definitions, then behavior is lawful by definition (if it consists of responses); but this fact is of limited significance, since most of what the animal does will simply not be considered behavior.^

Faced with the choice of being either vague or irrelevant, many psychologists have been restive and ill at ease with their borrowed terms. What went wrong? How was the reflex arc conceived originally, and

what purpose? Can we supplant the reflex arc with some theory of the reflex that is more suited to our current knowledge and interfor
ests?
Sir Charles Sherrington

and Ivan Petrovitch Pavlov are the two

men who
gist's

are probably

most responsible for confirming the psycholo-

Image of

man

as a bundle of S-R reflexes. Yet one

may

be per-

8 The passage quoted is from page 30 of Chomsky's review of B. F. Skinner, Verbal Behavior, in Language, 1959, 35, 26-58.

The Unit

of Analysis

23

Today we know is. additional data have come to light." that neural tive Moreover. The natural history of the nerve impulse.— mitted to speculate that neither of them would approve of the their concepts way have been extended by psychologists. represented his notion of a simple reflex and questioned whether it should be considered a reflex at all. on the other hand. graded responses have been shown to all be a preexcitable cells. of He expressed is considera- which the knee jerk the most fre- quently quoted example. Again and again he states that "the simple reflex is a useful fiction" useful for the study of the spinal preparation. is unidirectional and the response is characteristically graded according to the intensity of the stimulus. of the finer arborizations of the nerve The cerebral cortex. potent characteristic not only of synapses but also of tissue. and receptor tissues are spontaneously active irrespec- of environmental excitation. ciled? Sherrington resolved the differences How can these be recon- by supporting the neuron of discrete neural units doctrine: the nervous system is made up that have the properties of nerve trunks. intercalated between these units are discontinuities which he christened "synapses. 36. This spontaneous activity of course. Characteristically. as contrasted to the trans- mission of information about such states. ble doubt that a stretch reflex. altered by environmental events — but the change in spon- taneous activity may outlast the direct excitation by hours and even * George Bishop. man's claim to phylogenetic eminence. 1956. Reflex action. Physiological Reviews. 376-399. In his Integrative Action of the Nervous System (1906) Sherrington is particularly explicit in his qualifications and warnings about the reflex. ates largely "still oper- by means of connections characteristic of primitive is] neuropil [which the most appropriate * mechanism for the main- tenance of a continuous or steady state. The synapse was invented by Sherrington in order to explain the erties that differ- ences between the observed properties of nerve trunks and the prop- had to be inferred to describe the neural tissue that in- tervenes between receptor stimulation and effector response." and these to reflexes. the signals are of an all-or-none type. for example. Nerve trunks will transmit signals in either direction. 24 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . have the properties unique In recent years.

or testing. for. but it is a test of strength only. the distal stimulus is strong surmount the thresholds aU along is the arc. Furthermore. however. is involved in reflex ac- than the classical reflex arc makes any provision The only if conditions imposed upon the stimulus by the enough to classical chain of ele- ments are the criteria implicit in the thresholds of each element. a condition that it must be met. It is clear from examples such as reflex action this that the neural mechare- nism involved in flex arc or cannot be diagrammed as a simple even as a chain of stimulus-response connections.. trolled we know now to that the activity of receptors is con- by efferents leading them from the identical. central nervous sys- tem. A much more complex kind tion of monitoring. in the is more centrally located neuronal aggregate (as probably the case for muscle stretch). The retina) or in a test may occur in the receptor itself (e. In a sense. therethe incoming fore.days. then the response must occur. consider the events that control muscular contraction.g. assumed. As an example. that the central nervous mechanism must compare pattern of signals with the centrally originating "spindle control" signal pattern in order to determine contraction has made to the "spindle sensing" pattern. The action is test The Unit of Analysis 25 . described for mechanisms have also been the various sensory systems. And that the only meaningful must have encouraged psychologists to beUeve measurement of a reflex was its strength is (probabihty. what contribution the muscular The outcome is sensitive. or test. Moreover. only one of many different ways that the input can be tested. The test met before the response of this comparison. magnitude.) One third of the "motor" though not receptors. constitutes the stimulus (the psychophysicist's proximal stimulus) to which the organism represents the conditions which have to be win occur. Electrical nerve fibers that go to muscle actually end in spindles that are the stretch-sensitive fibers stimulation of these nerve of does not result in contraction of muscle. the threshold a kind of test. or latency). (Similar. too. the response of the effector de- pends upon the outcome of the ceived as an effort to and is most conveniently conmodify the outcome of the test. but the number signals per unit time that are recorded from the "sensory" nerves It is coming from the spindles is altered drastically. The threshold.

e. to respond the result of show an incongruity. The general patinput energies against if tern of reflex action..initiated by an "incongruity" between the is state of the organism and the state that being tested for. therefore. there is "feedback" from the result of the action to the testing phase. and we are confronted by a recursive loop. Thus. The TOTE unit Plans and the Structure of Behavior . and to continue to respond until the incongruity vanishes. and the action is persists until the in- congruity (i. the proximal stimulus) removed." namely. to represent this conception of reflex action — an alternative like Figis to the classical reflex arc — would have to look something The interpretation toward which the argument moves is one that has been called the "cybernetic hypothesis. The simplest kind of the test diagram ure 1. is to test the some criteria established in the is to organism. at which time the reflex is terminated. that the fundamental building block of the nervous system the feedback ^ '/ '^ 1 t^^L ^^ (Congruitij) > \ (Incongrui > Operate FIGURE 26 I.

we shall a terms. the reflex should be recognized as only one of task many possible actualiza- tions of a TOTE it pattern. a second level of abstraction that psycholo- 5 Norbert Wiener.— The development of a mathematical theory for servomechanisms. We shall discuss and control. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. in the example chosen. The Unit of Analysis 27 . why should we hope for better things from reflexes based on feedback loops? It is the reflex itself not merely the reflex arc ical theory — that has is failed. If we think of to energy^neural impulses. Sluckin. wedded to the physiological accounts of homeostatic mechaloop. Or it might represent a servomechanism. O. 2. The hypothesis of cybernetics. 1954). however. 1951. Wisdom. see W. the TOTE unit described in Figure 1 — might represent a simple reflex. information. moves toward popular ground. For more comprehensive discussion. in — of the 1 behavioral descriptions we shall need to make. What do we as the ele- hope to gain from such a reinterpretation? not the unit Obviously. There is. For a short review of the early development of this idea. 1-24. then the arrows must correspond to recogneurons. therefore. but else. it TOTE may unit — as we do of the reflex arc. the reflex we should use ment call it of behavior: the unit should be the feedback loop itself. Minds and Machines (London: Penguin. The next is to generalize the all TOTE unit so that will be useful in a majority — hopefully.^ nisms. and repairing the neurolog- underlying it is not likely to save the day. If we think of the Test-Operate-Test-Exit unit — for convenience. A little of the cybernetic story is reviewed in the next chapter. Cybernetics (New York: Wiley. if But simple afferent-ef- have been inadequate. for example nizable physical structures — flowing from one place another over the arrows. What Consider what the arrows in Figure could flow along them from one box to another? three alternatives: energy. That is to say. The argument. And reflexes based on ferent arcs would not turn the trick. see J. has stimulated widespread discussion and speculation about devices closely akin to Figure 1. might represent. in purely anatomical little describe reflexes. therefore. 1948). As a diagram of energy flow over discrete pathways. But what good is this alternative interpretation of the reflex? The psychologist was interested in reflexes because he thought they might provide the units he needed reflexes to describe behavior.

We can think of information as flowing from one place to another over the arrows. As you look up each page reference in turn. Or perhaps we should say that the arrow indicates only succession. This concept appears most frequently in the discussion of computing machines. What is information measurement? American Psychologist. 8. is extremely important for the ideas we shall discuss in the pages that follow. 3-11. information is transmitted over a channel to the extent that the output of the channel is correlated with the input. you proarrows and control is transferred from one list. According to the method of measuring information that has been developed by Norbert Wiener_ and by Claude Shannon. it imagine that you wanted book in order to look up a particular topic in a certain what the author had to say about it. 1957). A. we are concerned not with the particular structures or kinds of energy that are involved in producing the correlation but only with the fact that events at the two ends of the arrow are correlated. however. where the control of the machine's operations passes from one instruction to another. A fuller account has been given by Fred Attneave. as the machine proceeds to execute the list of instructions that comprise the program has been given. It is the notioii what flows over the arrows in Figure 1 is an intangible something called control.® We could therefore think of this second level of abstraction as the transmission of correlation over the arrows. You would open the book to the index and find the topic. Technology Press. but the drawing arrows from one page number 6 A short introduction to these ideas written for psychologists can be found in G. Applications of Information Theory to Psychology (New York: Holt. In that case. for it is is exactly what they mean when they draw an arrow leading from Stimulus to Response in their S-R diagrams or when they define a reflex as a correlation between S and R but refuse to talk about the neurological basis for that correlation. your to see list behavior can be described as under the control of that of numbers. Following the entry is a string of numbers. See also the highly readable account by Colin Cherry. The situation quite familiar to psychologists. But the idea is certainly not limited to^ computers! As a simple example drawn from more familiar activities.gists usually prefer. Miller. On Human Communication (Cambridge: 28 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . 1959). number to the next as ceed through the The transfer of control could be symbolized by to the next. 1953. A that third level of abstraction. successively.

Consequently. When represents Figure all 1 is used in the discussion of a simple reflex it three levels of description simultaneously. from the explanation provided by the reflex arc. Until then. however. the TOTE asserts simply that the operations an organism performs are constantly guided by the outcomes of various tests. At this abstract level of description we think of the test as a simple threshold that no longer required to some stimulus energy must exceed. least concrete. an explanation of behavior in fundamentally different and of reflex action in particular. which incorporates the important notion of feedback. the TOTE In will serve as a its description at only the third. For example. but before we can execute that operation we must have digits to work on. Here we are not concerned with a flow of energy or transmission of information from one page number are to the next but merely with the order in which the "instructions" are executed. level. a test must be built into it. When it is used to describe more complex consider only the transfer of we may want to information and control or in many inactivities. The present authors general." We may know full well how to extract square roots. Unless the test gives the appro- priate outcome. Stimulus and response must The Unit of Analysis 29 . at which point we shall indulge in some neuropsychological speculations. appropriate. The test phase can be regarded as any process for deis termining that the operational phase be clear though crude. the traditional concepts of stimulus and response must be redefined and reinterpreted to suit their new context. has been established. The operation of extracting square roots is simply irrelevant when we are dealing with words. coordinating unit is available. feel that the is TOTE unit. stances only the transfer of control. In order to ensure that an operation is relevant. that a Plan In the following pages we shall use the TOTE as a general deit scription of the control processes involved. control cannot be transferred to the operational phase. to we do not try to take the square root of "ratiocinate. however. In all cases. the exist- ence of a TOTE should indicate that an organizing. the implications may have for functional anatomy will remain more or less dormant until Chapter 14. however. weakest form.would have a meaning quite different from the two meanings mentioned previously.

the stimulus processes must be thought it of not as preceding the re- sponse but rather as guiding congruity. (2) a reinforcing feedback is coninvolved in a sidered to be a stimulus (e. or "drive reducing. coordinated act. is fre- or control (e.g.. on the average. but they have it is introduced to in a pecuhar way.. knowledge of results). to a successful elimination of the in- stimulus and response must be considered of feedback channel in the description as aspects of a feedback loop. instructions). however. whereas feedback in a TOTE has no such value (see Chapter 4). "The Reflex Arc Concept in Psychology. We might sum- marize it this way The stimulus is that phase of the forming coordination which represents the conditions which have to be met in bringing it to a successful issue. whereas feedback in a TOTE may be a stimulus. or information (e. That is to say. pellet of food). For example. which serves as instrument in effecting the successful coordination. a special kind of feedback that should not be identified with the feedback TOTE unit.." an article as valuable today for its wisdom and insight as it was in 1896." to the organism. whereas feedback in a TOTE is for the purpose of comparison and testing. That is to say: (1) a reinforcing feedback must strengthen something. When to a TOTE has been executed — the operations performed. The need of behavior is it for some kind well recognized by most reflex theorists. customary for them speak of certain consequences of a reflex action as strengthening. the reflex — such reinforcing consequences of action are a clear example of feedback. They are therefore strictly correlative and contemporaneous.^ Because stimulus and response are correlative and contemporaneous. Reinforcements are.: be seen as phases of the organized.g. or reinforcing. although ' This passage is from an article by John Dewey entitled. and (3) a reinforcing feedback quently considered to be valuable.g. and the exit made — the creature have attained a more desirable state. the test satisfied. the response is that phase of one and the same forming coordination which gives the key to meeting these conditions. 30 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . It may indeed appear may even be true. that the TOTE units that are completed successfully in a given situation tend to recur with increased probability.

the TOTE involves a much more general conception of feedback. Rather than treat aU these varieties as different units of analysis. Thus a it is possible to discuss TOTE in the language of reinforcements. observable actions. more exactly what we mean by the "incongruity" that the test phase is Let us see what — — looking for. The importance wish of this hypothesis to the general thesis of the book. rather than the incongruity. it The Unit of Analysis "31 . because we are going primarily in the feedback of control. such questions are not critical. Perhaps variations in the basic to regard the TOTE pattern will prove neces- sary. It is. Nevertheless. should not be overlooked. The concept of reinforcement represents arcs toward feedback loops. for example. is quite important to distinguish "positive" to be interested from "negative" feedback. and the operait tional phase represents what the organism does about — and what : the organism does may often involve overt. as providing the proximal stimulus? The answer is not profound : We do not want to bother to distinguish between TOTEs in which the operations are performed only when a difference is detected (and where the operations serve to diminish the difference) and TOTEs in which the operations are released only when no difference is detected. the responses. the test phase of the is TOTE involves the specification of whatever knowledge is to necessary for the comparison that be made. rephrases the problem posed in Chapter its 1 How is does a Plan relate the organism's Image of itself and actions. the behavior that the universe to the organism seen to generate? we must do in order to expand this proposal into is to say One of the first difficulties a small one something useful. however. Why not talk simply about the difference. Fig- ure 1. When the diagram is used to describe it servomecha- nisms. so for the purposes of the present discussion we shall continue diagram in Figure 1 as a hypothesis rather than a fact. we between Image and The TOTE represents the basic pattern in which our Plans are cast. an important step forward from reflex but bolder strides are needed if behavior theory is to advance beyond the description of simple conditioning experiments. to give of the relation in capsule. the account action. therefore.such a relation would not be necessary. but.

the second is to close it around the object. Since this method of retaining units. MacKay. 1956). the crouch prepares for the jump. in C. the for same pattern of description for the higher. 1958). the first phase is to open your hand. Al- though MacKay's scheme is quite ingenious. M. MacKay.^ who proposed to make the consequences of the operational phase in one component provide the input comparator of a second component. 9 D. effective or consummatory. ^° Woodworth refers to them as "two-phase motor units. the TOTE units may themselves be TOTE That is to TOTE pattern describes both strategic and tactical units of behavior. 36 £E. 1957). Automata Studies (Princeton: Princeton University Press. Thus the operational phase of a higher-order TOTE might itself consist of a string of other still TOTE other strings and each of these.® A second difficulty — this one rather more important — is the question of how we can integrate this TOTE we unit into the sort of hierarchical structure of behavior that insisted on in Chapter 1." The first phase is preparatory or mobilizing. M. components of say.seems simpler to treat them all as examples of a more general type of "incongruity-sensitive" mechanism. 32 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . S. Shannon and J. See Leon Festinger. we are persuaded that vtdll a somewhat different method of constructing the hierarchy ter serve a psychologist's descriptive purposes. pp. eds. the second. E. may contain of TOTEs. in turn. Woodworth has pointed out how frequently behavioral activities are organized in two stages. The epistemological problem for automata. then extend them forcefully. 8 The notion of an "incongruity-sensitive" mechanism appears to the to be related to Festinger's conceptions of "cognitive dissonance. each representing a progresto the of combining feedback sively higher degree of abstraction from the external reahty. How can the two concepts — feedback and hierarchy — be reconciled? One method components in a hierarchy has been described by D. you first flex the hips and knees. more tactical units may be confusing on first acquaint- ance. we shall consider an example. bet- A central notion of the method followed in these pages is that the operational units. Dynamics of Behavior (New York: Holt. McCarthy. 235-251. To grasp an object. we have A authors not Theory of Cognitive Dissonance (Evanston: Row. more strategic units as the lower." but attempted to explore or develop that possibility.. You must open your R. Woodworth. MacKay's suggestion leads to a string of such feedback components. and so on. To jump. Peterson. 10 Robert S. pp.

and when it has been completed the stimulation quate for the consummatory TOTE unit and the action : is executed. etc. is When the test indicates that the nail driven in. As a Plan. The diagram in Figure 3 should indicate that that when control is transferred to the TOTE we are calling "hammering. running. however. We could represent it by details. The two phases are quite different movements. Now. first the preparatory TOTE is unit ade- executed. hammering has two phases. does not is tell us. is is If stimulation correct for releasing the action. control to transferred elsewhere. as in walking. We should note well the construction of a "two-phase" TOTE unit out of two simpler TOTE units. as in Figure we ask about It however. hammering in Figure 2 as a simple items is certainly too sketchy. look at the box labeled "hammer. Consider hammering a nail as an Hammering Lifting Striking as a hierarchy FIGURE 2. list a tree." the is hammering continues is until the head of the nail flush with the surface of the work. drinking. as indicated in Figure When the pair of TOTE combined in Figure 4 are put of Analysis The Unit 33 . etc. You must draw back your arm before you can strike. of course. how we must unit indicate the test phase. knitting. find two TOTE each with units own test. long to go on hammering. we seem hierarchy there is have lost the hierarchical structure. lifting the hammer and sentation of then striking the 2." for its we 4. Many of these two-phase plans are repetitive the completion of the second phase in turn provides stimuli indicating that the execution of the first phase is again possible.mouth before you can bite. The recovered when we units. Hammering example. sweep- ing. or hierarchy. If nail. so an alternation between the two phases is set up. chewing. as in Figure 3. yet they are obviously executed as a single unit of action. the reprecontaining two for one thing. What the "stop rule"? For this.

Thus the compound of TOTE units unravels itself simply enough is itself It into a coordinated sequence of tests the underlying structure that organizes hierarchical. (Head sticks up. (Hammer is up. hammering is correct. (Hammer is up.) Test hammer. at which point control can be transferred elsewhere.) Test its hamflush And so on.) Lift hammer. (Head sticks up. and actions. Test Plan for hammering nails that If this description of Test Nail (Head flush) (Head sticks up) > JtlCLW init^i Hammering LJ^—t »v^ tr%^\ ^^ "B-* FIGURE 3. (Hammer is down.inside the operational phase in Figure 3. until the test of the nail reveals that head is with the surface of the work.) Test hammer. although and coordinates the behavior may seem 34 slightly absurd to analyze the motions involved in Plans and the Structure of Behavior . is down.) Test nail. (Hammer mer. the result is the hierarchical is shown in Figure 5. Test hammer. we should expect the sequence of events to run off in this order: Test nail. not sequential. as a TOTE unit hammer.) Strike nail.

1 s CO o H-^ O p< b^ 'T3 ^ o . s i 1 2 -^ <t) ^•2 1 Test •i^ O <i) •no Hammer s c o u ij) CO t^ « 05 •1^ CO <5> »i.1. 1 \ K S s o> e e o s h. s s i^ K.« CO ^ •t^ u a* CI •fo Tl o u 1J s s •r-a <u ns CO Q ^ -« o Q a Q) 00 fa* PE< . ^ Si.

er (d DWIlj ) > Lift Strike FIGURE 5.— >- Test Nail >^ (flush) (sticks up) I Hammer > (down) Test (np)^ Hammer > < Test Ham.m. The hierarchical Plan for hammering nails .

but It is it is better to amuse a several reader than to confuse him. which may in turn be comprised of subplans. In order to avoid loops we might insist that the basic test imply the disjunction of the subtests. A bird will take off. therepattern as it is fore. consist of a of — tional phase is purely formal and can be appreciated by simple counting: There are four arrows associated with Test. not the four-arrowed Test. brake with its wings. thrust its feet forward. Shaw. a loop will exist. a few wing strokes. Without such an explicit illustration it might not have been immediately obvious how these could yield hierarchical trees. Note that it is the operational phase of the TOTE that is ex- panded into a list of other TOTE units.: hammering a simple nail in this explicit way. A more realistic solution would accept the occurrence of loops as a signal that the Plan was not successful in producing the result for which the basic test was designed. own Plan. it is the operational phase that may be quite various and complex. can be embedded in the operational phase of a larger unit with its particular test-operate-test loop. and Simon to simulate human problem-solving will recognize how primitive and unelaborated these TOTE hierarchies really are. it would then be necessary to provide fvurther machinery for discovering and stopping such loops. 12 If we take seriously the suggested form of the TOTE. circles within circles More complicated Plans phase motor units" — Woodworth refers them as "poly— can be similarly described as TOTE units built to make is up of subplans that are themselves TOTE units. For example. each with its own test-operate-test loop. Anyone who has studied the hierarchically organized programs written by Newell. merely an illustration of how TOTE units. However. are conceived to be relatively fixed. The whole action is initiated as a unit. glide. controlled by a single Plan. the component it constructs must be the two-arrowed Operate.^ If we consider complex Plans the operation of one TOTE is itself a Hst of TOTE units— then some general properties of such systems become apparent 11 The reason that the TOTE of Figure 1 can be expanded only in its operaof course. but the basic test fails. the system may be easily trapped into loops. if the two-arrowed TOTE is used to construct some component of another TOTE. yet is its composed of several phases. or it may terminate in efferent TOTE hierarchies in which activity. there are two arrows associated with Operate. if the subtests in the expansion of an operational phase all pass. The Unit of Analysis 37 .^^ The tests that are available. Therefore. If we wish to preserve the TOTE build diagrammed in Figure 1. and there are two arrows associated with TOTE as a unit. list TOTEs. rigid restrictions such as these are probably unrealistic and justifiable only in terms of pedagogic simplification. each involving etc. and land on the limb. we cannot use it to up more complicated tests. The operational phase may.

it have a unique capacity for creating and manipulating sym- and when that versatiUty is used to assign names to TOTE units. because human Plans are so often verbal. That is environment provides stimuli that "release" the next stage It is of the animal's activity. to something of a philosophical question as whether we wish to believe in plans that exist somewhere outside of nervous systems. tions for — would be more helpful to say that the condiwhich we must test are an Image of the desired outcome. list of tests to When we have a clear Image of a desired outcome.— The hierarchical structure underlying behavior is taken into account in a way that can be simply described with the computer lan- guage developed by Newell. we can use it to provide the conditions for which we must test. — Planning can be thought of as constructing a perform. Shaw. A reader curious to see the idea 38 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . In lower animals it appears that the pattern of their behavior is normally constructed more or less fortuitously by the environment — only man cherishes the illusion of being master of his to say. so perhaps we should scale say merely that lower ani- mals appear to have more tactics than strategy. This design feature would account for the general degradation of information that occurs whenever a hu- man being is used as a communication channel. A reader familiar with the background out of which such a proposal as the TOTE hierarchy might grow may wish to jump directly to Chapter 4. becomes possible for him to use language in order to rearrange the symbols and to form new Plans. We have every reason to believe that abilities are man's verbal very intimately related to his planning abili- ties.) The operational phase can contain both tests and operations. In man we bols. when arranged (Perhaps in sequence. but first we shall sketch in some history. they can be communicated. and those tests. and Simon for processing lists. tests Therefore the execution of a Plan of any complexity must involve many more than actions. a fact of crucial importance in the evolution of our social adjustments to one another. And. the fate. provide a crude strategy for a posit sible Plan. As we ascend the evolutionary we find in mammals an in- creasing complexity in the kind of tests the animals can perform. Such matters deserve several separate chapters.

proper perspective on the intellectual landscape. however. will want to know something about the relevant discussions and experiin its ments that have educated the present authors. The Unit of Analysis 39 . Chapter 3 gives some of that material. along with references to books and articles that supply a great deal more.

.

"Everyone recognizes." ^ At least since 1 It is amusing that so many psychologists who abhor subjectivism and anthropomorphism unhesitatingly put telephone switchboards inside our heads.CHAPTER 3 THE SIMULATION OF PSYCHOLOGICAL PROCESSES A Rs. could take it as self-evident that the brain "acts as a The Simulation of Psychological Processes "41 ." he would say. for example. we would have to assume that there is a little man inside the head. If we were to take it seriously. a homunculus who can read maps and make decisions. to reflex theorist who is asked to abandon all his palpable S's and tele- surrender his network of S-R connections modeled after a to replace it phone switchboard. in his Principles of Behavior (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts). "that comparing the brain to a map control room is only a metaphor." he grumbles. Clark HuU. "can a tough-minded of such cognitive make sense out moonshine?" For years the reflex theorist's stock in trade has been his accusation that the cognitive theorist heart a vitahst that who could never produce a believable was at mechanism would accomplish what he claimed for the Hving brain. In 1943. is likely to feel he has been asked scientist walk on "How. and tangible Plans. by ghostly Images and to inair.

2 Arturo Rosenblueth." is a recent accomplishment. 10. Norbert Wiener. "automatic. Ross Ashby had also introduced the feedback mechanism as early as 1940 in his paper. the important adjective. then erally regarded "teleological" it kind of automatic switchboard" (p. Now at long machines complicated enough to do everything that cognitive theorists have been talking about. Priorities are uncertain because the ideas were part of the development of servomechanisms and were subject to security restrictions during the war. 1940. the argument has last there are lost its force. 18. reflex theorists have been winning arguments by insisting on mechanical models for living systems. purpose. Eventually. just a Today. But in 1892. 42 Plans and the Structure of Behavior .the time of Descartes. repeated on p. If entelechy was compatible with mechanism. suddenly. W. The telephone engineers who had to build and maintain those early switchboards that reflex theorists loved so well were dissatisfied with them because they required a human operator to make the connections. and was therefore surprising to realize that machines could strive toward goals. Wiener. the operator was replaced by more elaborate machinery. thus rendering reflex theory scientifically impeccable at last. 478—483. 1943. The reflex theorist is no longer the only psychologist who can summon up a tangible mechanism to make his claims sound more reasonable. Adaptiveness and equilibrium. However. Journal of Mental Science. he unblushingly provided a "clerk" who carried on the same valuable services in the brain as he would in a central telephone exchange. and Bigelow calculus it thinking. — shocked many psychologists by putting their very tough-minded reputations behind the assertion that machines with negative feed- back were teleological mechanisms. and teleology. and Julian Bigelow.^ At that time psychologists gen- and "unscientific" as synonymous. that the body is who invented reflex theory as part of his thesis machine. Today a cognitive theorist is also free to become a materialist in good standing if that is what he wants. Leibnitz dreamed of such a machine and tried to describe a thoughtstroller. think electronic might use to compute answers to problems that require Today such machines are operating in hundreds of laboratories. 86. of course. In 1943 Rosenblueth. Typical of the new freedom deriving from a deeper conception of what machines can be and do was the discovery that machines can behave purposively. Philosophy of Science. could collect information about the difference between their intentions and their performance and then work to reduce that difference. 384). Behavior. when Karl Pearson wrote The Grammar of Science. 18-24. Descartes was impressed by the clockwork figures that jumped out of the shrubbery to startle a how much more impressed he would be by a modem computer that spins out calculations at lightning speeds.

in both of them there exists a special apparatus for collecting information from the outer world at low energy levels.: entelechy could be admitted as a respectable concept in psychology. Once a teleological mech- anism could be nized that all built out of metal and glass. distinctions of func- with reference to reaching or maintaining an explicit analysis supplied end. Wiener stated the argument this way It is my thesis that the physical functioning of the living individual and the operation of some of the newer communication machines are precisely parallel in their analogous attempts to control entropy through feedback." detail the servomechanism distinctions involved in reaching toward a candle flame and then jerking away. their performed action on the outer world. one of the cornerstones of American functional psychology. As early as 1896 the philosopher-psychologist John Dewey had described in much is. Readings in the History of Psychology (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts. Miiflin. 1896. has been reprinted in Wayne Dennis. "that stimulus and response are not is. ed. though the language used to discuss them was somewhat new. Cannon and his associates during the 3 Norbert Wiener. pp. 357—370. * John Dewey. In both of them. of existence.." * The new terms and by the engineer- ing development were needed. but through the internal transforming powers of the apparatus. for example. The reflex arc The Simulation of Psychological Processes 43 . however.^ Such declarations seemed remarkable time to reflect. of the homeostatic mechanisms studied by Walter B. but teleological distinctions. Psychological Review. and not merely their intended action. 1954). Given a little however. is reported back to the central regulatory apparatus. The information is then turned into a new form available for the further stages of performance. an anticipation of Gestalt psychology. The Human Use of Human Beings (Boston: Houghton along. In both the animal and the machine this performance is made to be effective on the outer world. whether it be alive or dead. In both cases these external messages are not taken neat. before the importance of Dewey's insight could be fully appreciated. concept in psychology. 3. at first. that tion. psychologists recog- it was scientifically respectable to admit they had known it They had known. and for making it available in the operation of the individual or of the machine. Both of them have sensory receptors as one stage of their cycle of operation: that is. 26-27. or part played. This remarkable paper. and a criticism in advance of behaviorism. 1948). psychologists realized that these purposive machines were quite familiar. 'The fact he said.

Holt revived and elaborated in 1931. we know now that it can be accomplished in a variety of ways. 1929). Psychological Review. 318-336. Murchison. 8 W. Troland. 1928). 61. for he had borrowed the central idea from the mechanistic biologist Jacques Loeb. For the history of the circular reflexes. The Foundations of Experimental Psychology (Worcester: Clark University Press.^ And they had known about Edward Tolman.) Lotka illustrates his argument by the operation of a mechanical beetle that was able to avoid falling off table edges." ^ Even in 1939. Tolman could claim no priority. 44 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . in C. ed. The Fundamentals of Human Motivation (New York: Van . 46. B. (Reissued in 1956 by Dover Press as Elements of Mathematical Biology. Regard the behaving organism as a completely selfmaintaining robot.^ anticipated the duced the term name new respectability of teleology by at least two decades and who. Psychological Review. constructed of materials as unlike ourselves 5 L. Animal Drive and the Learning Process (New York: Holt. pp. who the sensory feedback. J.. in 1939. Prediction of vicarious trial and error by means of the schematic sowbug. however. who in 1928 intro- They had known about the "circular reflexes" that E. see Wayne Dennis. Another biologist who provided a clear and significant precybernetic account of teleological mechanisms was Alfred J. T. 45-127. See his Elements of Physical Biology (Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins. They had known about "retroflex" to L. 1925). 334—338. A note on the circular response hypothesis. 1931)." and he recom- mends the following to his readers . 1954. Crozier. Troland. That was something else the psychologists had known all along. 1939. Tolman.: 1920's. ^ E. The study of living organisms. taxic behavior. Nostrand. T. almost as a matter of course.® The idea of the biological servomechanism had been there all along but the me- — chanical actualization of the idea in inorganic hardware provided the kind of demonstration that could no longer be ignored. . Holt. propose teleological arrangements such as the for TOTE unit discussed in the preceding chapter — the parthat into ticular realization of the unit in tissue or in metal need not deter us. What is the source of this remarkable increase in confidence psychologists experience when their ideas can be translated machinery? Clark Hull has suggested that designing robots phylaxis against is a "pro- anthropomorphic subjectivism. Lotka. one of the earliest descriptions of a machine that would exhibit purposive. Loeb's theory of tropisms was. 6 Edwin B. had described a perfectly respectable feedback mechanism that he called the "schematic sowbug. Dennis traces the circular response back to David Hartley in 1749. and he expresses his scorn for thinkers who call a system teleological only so long as they are ignorant of its workings. in 1890. C. Today we can.

the distinction failed because both organisms and machines can demonstrate the operation of a purposeful entelechy. accomplished by mechanistic means. see Walter M. the modern vitalists have retreated from purpose to memory. For a sophisticated defense of the idea that maintaining information in an organism is not. organizing." "entelechy. but not for the reason Hull gives. According to Elsasser's view.not necessary to attempt the soluproblems connected with the design of such a creature. it is relatively easy to realize that the iJitroduction of an entelechy would not really solve the problem of design of a robot because there would still remain the problem of designing the entelechy itself. could not operate purposefully. to consider the various general problems in behavior dynamics which must be solved in the design of a truly self-maintaining robot. however. vitalism is not dead. Elsasser. This passage expresses Hull's distaste for nineteenth-century vitalism in general. Machines are not the only way he has problems "squarely and without evasion. the stability of memory requires some nonphysical explanation. 27-28. Designing an entelechy is no trick at all for an electrical engineer." In the twentieth century it has become clear that Driesch was wrong. being nothing but machines. by removing all excuses for not facing them squarely and without evasion. The robot approach thus aids us in avoiding the very natural but childish tendency to choose easy though false solutions to our problems. however. a selfmaintaining robot that behaved like an organism would prove nothing unless its component parts were reduced to the extremely small size characteristic of biological systems. In fact. Therefore. 1958). spirit. . — — The Simulation of Psychological Processes 45 . and particularly for that purposeful. soul. 9 where the threat of subjectivism is Hull. an alternative first suggested by Henri Bergson. In order to find something distinctive about biological systems. pp. in general. psychologists are most likely to construct machines for just those functions whose objective character is least in doubt. The temptation to introduce an entelechy." Surely there is something more materialistic satisfaction and confidence than just his triumph over of facing his subjectivism. which is the core of the original problem all over again. or daemon into a robot is slight. Hull thought that the vitalistic distinction between animals and robots failed because animals. Passages such as this suggest that nothing less than the construction of a teleological chologist that there is machine would convince an experimental psynot something occult impUed by the terms to a psychologist's feeling of "goal.^ as it is may be." Indeed. . It has merely retreated. The Physical Foundation of Biology (New York: Pergamon.according to the laws of quantum mechanics incompatible with the microscopic sizes of the gene and the synapse." "expectation. however." "purpose. The current contention is that the stability of genetic and personal memory is. vital principle that Hans Driesch named "entelechy. In doing this tion of the detailed engineering . In spite of this resounding failure. It is a wholesome and revealing exercise. Principles of Behavior.

H. 5. 1929. T. Computahility and Unsolvability (New will be found in Martin York: McGraw-Hill. Bennett and L. 185-189. Journal of General Psychology.. then your understanding must be nearly perfect. The frequency with which these toys were described in the journals (and no one can guess how many more vanished unreported) bears eloquent testimony to the importance psychologists attach to having a credible mechanism to support their — theoretical speculations. 41. for example." Journal of General Psychology. Stephens. 212-218. 110 f.^^ The import of Turing's work for psychologists was that if they could describe exactly and unambiguously anything that a living organism did. The existence of the machine would be the test of the accuracy of the description. American Journal of Psychology. 1933. An electrochemical parallel to the conditioned reflex. M. 1931. 1938. 46 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Walton. A model of the synthesis of conditioned reflexes. Conditioning illustrated by an automatic mechanical device. 1937. 99-106. G. H. D. History suggests that create almost anything he can visualize clearly. G. If you understand how a thing works well enough to build your own. R. 422-431. Baernstein and C. 45. A. It seems to the present authors that the attempts to simulate psychological processes with machines are motivated in large meas- ure by the desire to test — or to demonstrate — the designer's under- standing of the theory he espouses. 17. The conditioned reflex. L. One consequence of taking Turing's theorem seriously is that it directs attention 10 toward the electronic computer as the right kind In 1946 E. The synthesis of intelligence its implications. 1958).^" They were not designed to perform any mentalistic function but merely to display the rather mechanical fact that a new connection was being formed. 59. D. 5. 1930. listed the following attempts to design robots that would learn: J. 13. L. Ellson. A mechanical explanation of the law of effect.. Ward. M. Bradner. A mechanical model of the conditioned reflex. B. 1935. then a computing machine could be built that would exhibit the same behavior with sufficient exactitude to confuse the observer.most remote. Ross. American Journal of Psychology. A mechanical synthesis of trial-and-error learning." yet numerous machines have been designed and built to demonstrate the phenomenon of conditioning or of conditioning aided by the law of effect. is seldom considered an example of "anthropomorphic subjectivism. American Journal of Psychology. 414^19. 173-192. Psychological Review. man can The creation of a model is proof of the clarity of the vision. 262-269. 339-342. in Mind and mechanism. 1946. Boring. Journal of General Psychology. Journal of General Psychol. 45. 11 An excellent introduction to Turing machines Davis. 1931. Rreuger and C. Hull. K. Hull. The germ of wisdom behind this intuition was made explicit by the mathematician A. 42. G. Turing in 1937. A new mechanical "learner. American Journal of Psychology. G.

267-288. But many psychologists. Another thing that Turing's theorem did — or should have done — was to focus attention on the adequacy of the description of behavior. Such a plan shall be called a strategy. whereas a computerlike mechanism in which random elements play a secondary role seems a more fruitful model for "planned" behavior. 2." as might be observed in the behavior of rats in a T-maze. deterministic and stochastic. Galanter.^^ Although the work on stochastic models is being actively pursued by mathematical psychologists. 1958. If in building a all the characteristics of machine is to simulate the behavior of a so that the moth flying toward a flies. the beast gets there so long as 12 we say that is we do how its trajectory "equivalent" to that of utilization Manfred Kochen and Eugene H. A machine cannot be expected to simulate something that has never been described — it can be held responsible only for those aspects of behavior that an observer has recorded. it will not be reviewed here. Saul Gorn. Information and Control. 22&-259. In a sense. 1. however. an electronic computer can be used to study stochastic models as well as deterministic ones. computer models are describing seem to compete with each other for the Kochen and Galanter. we shall concentrate on deterministic automata. On the mechanical stimulation of habit-forming and learning. 1959. for exanaple. It differs mainly in degree from a relatively "stochastic decision-making procedure. The Simulation of Psychological Processes 47 . The acquisition and of information in problem solving and thinking.of machine to simulate human behavior. it is assumed that the choices are made according to a plan. impressed by the haphazard unpredictability of behavior generally. Information and Control. feel intuitively that models based on random processes offer better prospects than the computers do. The latter type of behavior seems best described by certain kinds of stochastic processes. No simulation is complete and no simulation preserves behavior. light we use wheels machine not care rolls rather than the simulation considered adequate up to trans- formations of locomotion. and so the two kinds of machines. Of course. see. argue that more appropriate than stochastic models for human choice behavior: Ignoring the question of whether or not a "conscious" plan guides the decision-making procedure at each trial. psychologist's attention. since we are concerned here primarily with planned behavior.

did not even need to observe the task was merely to simulate — The computer same time scale. A woman — who broke a valuable vase make an "exact duplicate" The situation is took the pieces to a potter. but the psychologist's record of mercy of the person who decides what aspects of the behavior are worth recording and simuthe behavior. The extent to which an organism and a machine can be inter- changed without altering specified aspects of the situation is the extent to which the simulation is successful. human behavior were inter- A theorist could embody his ideas in a program of instruc- 48 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . The simulator his critics must. contexts with- out alteration of the truth value of the propositions in which they it is the truth value that must remain invariant. Since it is necessary to simulate only the record of the animal's itself. is A and simulation invariant with the behavior being simulated only up to some group of allowable transformations. is mere window dressing. A successful model does not have to look like the organism it simulates the fact that clever modelers can make a mechanical mouse look like a mouse. agree in advance on the aspects of the behavior that are to remain the same from organism to machine. asked — and was rightfully distressed him to when he duplicated every chip and shard. This agreement is normally established by requiring the machine behavior per is. But even that is acceptable only when we allow a shift from three to two dimensions of movement. The computer's those aspects of the to compute — experimental situation that students of ested in. In the case of a successful model.the moth. theorist A therefore. In that case. not the se. at the lating. for example. perhaps. or a mechanical moth look like a turtle. We say that "bachelor" and "unmarried are interchangeable in (nearly) man" all are synon- ymous because they occur. behavior. to simulate. the thing that must remain invari- ant is the aspect of the organism's behavior that the experimenter chose to record. not the animal the big. fast digital computers that II began to evolve after World War could be used — they did not need to scurry around the room like a rat in a maze or resemble the three pints of brain matter they were supposed to imitate. in the concept of synonymy. most familiar.

rather than psychological. 1938). Neural-Analog Netzvorks and the Brain-Model Princeton University. While the computers and the programming art how best to use them. The speculations about neural nets were widely publicized and seem to have had a stimulating effect on neurology and neurophysiology. A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity. even- were expanding. it sounds very simple. to the association areas of the brain. and when "stimuli" were presented the computer would. there was a good deal more talk than work. see also the several selections McCarthy. Automata Studies (Princeton: Princeton University Press. and unambiguously in a finite number of words could be realized by such nets. interest is in the use of Our present 13 computers as automata to Warren S. Mathematical Biophysics (Chicago: University of Chicago Press.. eds. For several years. 1943. see M. the computer were analogous to the neural impulses. see Nicholas Rashevsky. simulation.D. possible We is have every reason to expect great strides forward in this field. the memory were analogous on. 1954. ' in C. This rection seemed especially promising because of a long list of analogies: the open-or-shut relay was analogous to the all-or-none neuron. McCulloch and Walter Pitts. This formalization madi computer and so on and seemed promising because Mccircuits of the some very sophisticated analyses of neurological functions and properties even before they were simulated by computers. the theorists discussed tually. 1958). 5. like an organism. The first direction these discussions took was di- toward neurological. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. the mercury delay lines were analogous to the reverberating electrical pulses in the circuits in the nervous system. however. Writing the kind of complicated programs that are necessary in order to simulate a of time human being requires a tremendous investment and ingenuity. The Simulation of Psychological Processes 49 . they showed that their neural nets comprised a Turing machine. however. The Computer and the Brain (New Haven: Yale University Press. tliesis. 1956). It not. L. operate upon the input information according to the instructions it had been given in order to generate a "response. 115— 133. E." That is to say. For some of the more recent work. Shannon and J. for simulation. Problem. The neurological direction also Culloch and Pitts had invented a formal representation of neural nets and used it to establish that any function that could be described logically." In tions. strictly. see John von Neumann. For some of the earlier work. Ph. Minsky. And for perspective. the principle.program could be stored in the "memory" of the computer. the kind of theory we are interested in here.

pp. is He says My reality — that is hypothesis then its that thought models. Psychological Review. H. L. 3. 1947. Programming pattern recognition. But how was a computer to have an image? His answer was that an image is a form of symbol and that thought consists of building and modifying such symbols by processing the information from the sense organs." "sense-data. Craik was struggling with the problem of how the Image could be represented in a computer. p. Pitts and W. using a large digital computer. Dinneen. Vol. One of the early at- tempts to use computer simulation in order to understand psychological (rather . No. H. EfPorts in this direction lagged somewhat behind the neurological and seem some of it to have been of at least two different kinds. Selfridge. Some of the psychological theorizing aimed the computer at the Image. Donald M. O. 1956. The perceptron A probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain. The cell assembly: Mark II. D. 15 Some of the relevant contributions to a neurological theory of perception were: W. ibid. J. than neurological) processes was made by the British psychologist Kenneth Craik. or parallels. 1* K. and W. G. 1957.: illustrate the operation of various psychological theories. McCuUoch. G. Los Angeles. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference. J. 64. 57. pp. 386—408. March 1955. aimed two until late in the 1950's did these Consider the Image-inspired theories first. The fact that we are in this book more interested in the Plan : 50 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . 242-252." and that this symsame kind as that which is familiar to us in mechanical devices which aid thought and calculation. 1943). 9. 94-100. L.. G. 1949). Craik's untimely death prevented him from following up these and the work that pursued the problem of image formation and recognition by computers was largely cast in neurological rather than psychological terms. W. Haibt. W. pp.. Craik. 127147. MacKay picked up the ideas. Duda. 65. O. 80-93. Rochester. Rosenblatt. The Organization of Behavior (New York: Wiley." "the self. Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics. N. and the computer at the Plan. This list is fax from complete. ibid. How we know universals: The perception of auditory and visual forms. P. who was convinced that thought depends on images.^^ However. Hebb. Generalization of pattern recognition in a self-organizing system. M. F. to the extent that a computer symboUzes and processes information. Psychological Review. it is thinking. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. 86-91. Test on a cell assembly theory of the action of the brain. Not lines grow together. 91-93. P. essential feature is not "the mind. Clark and B. 1958. S. PGIT-2. largely of the bolism In the terms we have introduced here. Milner. The Nature of Explanation (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press." nor propositions but symbolism. A. Holland. Pattern recognition and modem computers. Farley.

IS H. H. British Journal for the Philosophy of Science. 1959 (in press). Eugene Galanter and W. 1958. however.^^ They have programmed a computer to prove theorems in plane geometry and equipped the machine to draw diagrams experimentally. in 1956. A. 1951. Different evaluations do indeed modify a person's ior. 63. did not seem grips with the to come to problem of motivation. American Journal of Psychology. i'^ Eugene Galanter and Murray Gerstenhaber. to point out the importance of motivation and to propose a theory for determining which Images would serve as models for thinking. Psychologists seem to have been that the same kind of problems of pattern the behavioral level as at the level of somewhat slower to recognize and organization exist at the Image. Paris. L. Intelligent behavior in problem-solving machines. 71. The the diagrams simplify tremendously the process of searching for a proof. The Simulation of Psychological Processes "51 . 1^ D. the most impressive is that by Gelernter and Rochester. On thought: The extrinsic theory. Some experiments on a simple thought-problem. MacKay. much as a student does.argument and carried it a step further when he pointed out that an Image could be constructed in a machine if the machine were able to remember the reactions it required to imitate its input. Rochester. 1956.^^ Image of Of all his problem and so lead to different forms of behav- work on machine imagery. Realization of a geometry proving machine. Mindlike behavior in artefacts. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing. S. Psychological Review. 105-121. 2. Gelernter. L. 2. Smith. M. A more control persuasive demonstration that Tolman's analogy to "a map room" need not involve a homunculus to read the maps could hardly be imagined. IBM Journal of Research and Development. clever as they were. but we mention them as part of the accumulating evidence that computer simulation will play an increasingly important role in the future development of both neurological and psychological theory. It remained for Galanter and Gerstenhaber. 1958. 336-345. 218-227. 359-366. The act of the difference between the replication might be guided by feedback incoming configuration and the internal replication would represent an error signal for the machine to reduce. Gelernter and N. Perhaps it was the in- than in the Image deprives us of an excuse to summarize these valuable and interesting contributions to perceptual theory. These theories. These acts of replication ^"^ — would then provide a basic "vocabulary" in terms of which the machine could describe its own experience (a notion not completely unlike Hebb's neurological "phase sequences").

20-36. p. however. Shannon. The Study of Language (Cambridge: Harvard University Press.terminable discussion of "trial-and-error" processes that fostered a general belief that relatively simple stochastic models would suffice and Frick tried to complicate this simple Markov processes to explain the sequential organization of behavior. machines with many parameters cannot be considered seriously. 1956. 149-167. The crux of the problem was not clear. C. "parsing" machine that we have already mentioned in Chapter One reason and to that linguists have been motivated to express their description of language in terms congenial to communication theory modern computers has been their interest in the possibility of mechanical translation. Bell System Technical Journal. 1952. However. until Noam Chomsky proved that any machine that tries to generate all the grammatical strings of words by proceeding. 1951. however. 52 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Three models for the description of language. Vol. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. IT-2. 27. Miller. Carroll. A. and G. 1948. Miller and Frederick C. 107). sequential organization of behavior could infinite number of internal states. 379—423. Finite Markov processes in psychology. Frick. A mathematical theory of communication. they would be adequate for simulating all other forms of behavior as well.^^ Their work represented a relatively obvious generalization of Claude Shannon's suggestion that Markov processes as theories. Markov himself had used his ideas to describe wrritten texts. American Journal of Psychology. ^^ Since the point of a theory is infinitely simplification. The only alternative seems to be one that respects the hierarchical structure of the sequence — the kind of 1. A. as a Markovian machine would. 20 Claude E. 17. from left to right. The actual creation of such a machine. Psychological Review. 56. Miller.^" nowhere be more important than for communication. Actually. will need to have an Surely. was prohibited by the fantastically large number of internal states that would be required in the machine for even the crudest approximations to actual behavior. The development of communication theory since 1948 has revolutionized our thinking in a dozen different 19 George A. 64. 311-324. so it seemed that if Markovian machines would generate grammatical English. Frick and G. See also F. 21 Noam Chomsky. Psychometrika. one word at a time in strict order. A statistical description of operant conditioning. 113-124. Statistical behavioristics and sequences of responses. In 1949 Miller picture by using could be used to explain the sequential organization of messages. 1953. 1949. the difficulties Involved in applying stochastic theory to sequences of responses that are patterned in a hierarchy of units had been noted earlier by John B.

its use to a computer as an automatic dictionary. ranging sciences. 1951). The current state of the world makes translation an important society. not enough one of the major bottlenecks in the implementation of the scheme. to exploit high speeds accomplish the humdrum task of searching through the vocabulary to find the possible equivalents in the target language. of course. 1955). A. But word-for- word substitutions. 1959). but at the present writing. the very large amount of information that has to be encoded for the computer has comprised. They will probably be overcome. there reason we cannot store a two-language dictionary is no and several hun- dred coded rules of grammar in a computer and tedious get a usable output. Machine Translation of Languages (New York: Wiley. On Translation (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Even without success. eds. mechanical translation is still not proceeding as a routine business anywhere many in the United States. there are certain lessons that we can draw from their experience that have enlightening implications for psychologists and problem for the survival of our linguists. N. The Simulation of Psychological Processes 53 . however.'^ The first step in this direction. Miller. etc. until very recently. D. but the attempt to use computers to translate messages from one language into another is particularly relevant is to to this discussion. In the Gist place. There is a journal devoted exclusively to the subject: Mechanical Translation. and we must hope the linguists and their programmers will soon succeed. Cambridge. In principle.-" all the way from electrical engineering to the social Most of the implications of that work lie outside the scope of the present book. George A. efficient But in practice. for de- taching or supplying affixes to roots. more precisely. do not intelligible translations. The machine must know something about the grammar as well as the vocabulary of the languages it is translating. ed. the actual coding of the dictionary and the phrasing of the rules pose and perplexing puzzles. But see also R.. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Mass. There just 22 is room in a computer for it to contain a full Cf. it must have a produce grammatical or even set of instructions for deciding among alternative translations. Or. 23 An introduction to the problem can be found in W. Boothe. for recognizing idioms. even between closely related languages. Locke and A. Brower. for rearranging the order of the words. Language and Communication (New York: McGraw- Hill.fields..

but the the better. criteria for the goodness of have yet to be devised." whereas the attempt to imitate the human being should be called a problem in "simulation. Mechanical Translation. 73-80. 3. even though it the most efficient method.^* prob- finally. our brains are still a great deal more complicated than the biggest computer ever built. 1956. say. The work did not arise from an attempt to understand 24 George A. "I want it to make it work any way can. it becomes obvious that there are two very the terms of our present discussion. Some psychological methods for evaluating the quality of translations. linguists. Miller and J." In the other attitude. the I programmer simpler it is. And. In some respects. 54 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . but with the kind of simulations now cal possible. failed. In one attitude. the different attitudes one can take toward the job. G. apparently. In the second place." To date. It has been suggested that the attempt discover an efficient way for the computer to do the task should be called a problem in "artificial intelligence. says. little effort has been made to approach the translation lem with the intent of simulating a human translator. Beebe-Center. there is nothing but a distressingly vague criterion multi-dimensional. he says.vocabulary and still be able to retrieve items from the memory as rapidly as they w^ould be needed for. but exactly made is quite difficult to say. ordinary speech rates. In Image of the average. but as psychologists. neurolo- — as students of the human being — we are bound to be more to interested in the latter." As citizens we should applaud the former attitude. In the science we have learned how to how the comparison is to be most successful branches of measure the discrepancies between fit our observations and our theories. and to for determining when the computer has succeeded is A translation and when it has who can say how much better one dimension must be in order counterbalance an some other dimension? Probably the evaluation should based upon the comparison of the machine's output with a probe inferiority in fessional translator's output. Mechanical translation inspiration for the illustrates a general class of non-numeri- problems toward which the computer has been directed. welleducated European or American adult must contain an amazing amount of knowledge all organized for fast access to attention. "I the make the computer do may gists not look like want to same way people do it.

W. Experiments in chess. 26 Seven centuries of work on mechanical methods to solve problems in logic are reviewed by Martin Gardner. Shaw. not just to replace him or defeat him. Simon. whose attractiveness is not solely a matter of showmanship. deV. Ulam. It has been principally the computer engiour computers neers. J. and Simon. are. 96-105. 320-335. June 1958. NeweU. Los Angeles. Programming a computer for playing chess. Chess-playing programs and the problem of complexity. and H. an example of dealing with a complex task by adaptation. op. 1959.-^ They are good problems. Some studies in machine learning using the game of checkers. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference. but from and from a desire to see just how good really are. and M. cit. in press). Lincoln Laboratory. Logic Machines and Diagrams (New York: McGraw-Hill. A. Shaw. Shannon. Stein. Minsky's psychology is generally quite sophisticated. 174-177. Samuel. Newell. see M. See also A. 17 December 1956."^ Inasmuch as most of the efforts have been on problems of "artificial intelligence" rather than in the simulation of human beings. A. who have tried to make comor develop the translation problem itself puters play chess. Yet same time these tasks are large and complicated enough to be interesting and to enable a machine to surprise us by its successes. 41. A. 1950. 2. C. 4. meet this need was the work of Newell. Minsky.-^ or prove theorems in logic. 1958). at the quite restricted and reason- and therefore does not overload the computer. The Simulation of Psychological Processes 55 . J. J. W^alden. though highly condensed survey of the artificial intelligence problem. Roberts. ably determinate. Bernstein and M. pp. Philosophical Magazine. and Herbert A. The chess machine. However. 101-108.. 2" Cf. 210-229. 198. Kister. and Allen NeweU. are C. W^ells. 1958. 1957. But what is needed. Computer versus chess player. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing (Paris. IBM Journal of Research and Development. P. about the right "size" for some sense not easily present-day machines to tackle. or to do problems in the prepositional calculus. the tasks that the engineers and mathematicians have selected to explore on the computer defined. 256-275. S.any new theories in neurology or psychology. in The Image that a computer must have in order is to play chess. 1959. Group Report 34-55. imaginative. Simon. March 1955. they contribute little but context to the psychological problem.^*^ or wrestle with some branch of mathematics. 3. C. E. Scientific American. plus a few mathematicians. Shaw. Journal of the Association for Computing Machinery. IBM Journal of Research and Development. is an attempt to simulate the human chess-player or logician. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. A. L. who have advanced the business of The first intensive effort to 25 Some of the publications on this task. Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem. from the psychologist's point of view. 28 For a broad. Gelernter and Rochester. L. Report on a general problem solving program.

H.— psychological simulation further and with greater success than any- one else. Cf. particularly in Chapter 13. Shaw. human problem solving in logic. Gelernter has developed FLPL. At the time this is written. two other new programming languages have been created around the idea of list structures: At the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. we shall comment simply that they have created them to use the an information-processing language that encomputer in a non-numerical manner. and provide extensions 29 30 of. been issued a new license Will the What will they do with it? new ideas be incorporated into existing theory? Or will it be easier to begin afresh? A major impetus behind the v^rriting of this book has been the conviction that these new ideas are compatible with. that confidence should no longer reserved exclusively for reflex Perhaps some of the more fanciful conjectures of the "men- now be seriously reconsidered. In Chapter 1. however. the increase in confi- dence that comes from the concrete actualization of an abstract idea — the kind of confidence a reflex theorist must have when he saw theorists. For the present. Their ac- plicable to a wide variety of situations. Shaw. It is impressive to see. and to experience. apways human beings solve problems in general. and at International Business Machines. 56 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . is however. that they feel are characteristic of the complishments have influenced the present authors in many ways what so not merely in terms of their specific solutions to innumerable technical problems but generally by their demonstration that many had so long described was finally coming to pass. John McCarthy has developed LISP. programs that enable a computer simulate the information processing done by are given the human subjects who same task to solve. famihar and established psychological principles. ^° Newell. neither of these newer programming languages has been described in publications. 13 in Since the development by Newell. 12. footnotes 10. and Simon have used their techniques to simulate chess. Today. Their (list language systematically exploits a hierarchical of organization that is structure) system uniquely suitable for writing heuristic proto grams for problem solving. and Simon of their informationprocessing language (IPL). however. Psychologists have to conjecture.-^ Later. talists" felt in the 1930's a machine that could be conditioned like a dog. L. we discuss their ideas in more ables detail. and trigonometry and have evolved a set of principles.

man viewed as a The Simulation of Psychological Processes 57 .the pages that follow the attempt will be principles are made to show what these and how they can be revised and elaborated in the hght of recent developments in our understanding of system for processing information.

.

Lewis reminds us that the acts people perform cannot be characterized simply by de- specifying the time-order of their parts scribe the — in the way we might The term "inand unique feature of the behavior of living systems.i In this passage from his Cams Lectures. INTENTIONS. the expected result of it. Values. p. Intentions. motions of a billiard ball or a falling stone.CHAPTER 4 VALUES. In speaking in these terms he is like any ordinary person who tries to say what makes his actions meaningful but he is quite unlike most experimental psychologists. Clarence Irving Lewis. ofit. C. AND THE EXECUTION OF PLANS have in common the character of being intended or But one act is distinguishable from another by the content of it. There is no obvious way in which we can say what act it is which is thought of or is done except by specifying this intent All acts willed. An Analysis of Knowledge and Valuation (La Salle. which is here spoken of as its intent. 367. 1946). and the Execution of Plans 59 .: Open Court. I. tent" is Lewis's way of trying to catch this elusive — 1 m.

which attracted the person's attention to When the occasion arose and the intentional act was consummated. D. dropping the letter into the mailbox should have the effect of strengthening the association between mailboxes and the response of reaching into the pocket for a letter to be mailed. Thereafter.^ Lewin used the concept are successful. reasoned Lewin. com- plete with valences created by intentions. he says. Just as eating reduces the positive valence of food. 6o Plans and the Structure of Behavior . in David Rapaport. the simpler theory is inadequate and a more complex representation of a space. Intention. the intention mail the letter created a positive the mailbox. A summary can be found in W. the fact is he had no further life interest in mailboxes. letter. of intention in order to combat an overly intends to mail a simple theory that actions are always strengthened whenever they He uses the example of someone who The first mailbox he passes reminds him of the action. And most have occurred can probably be traced to the influence of Kurt Lewin. so does the intention to mail the letter give the maflbox a positive valence. Just as hunger gives food a positive valence. Instead of accumulating habit strength.Intention went out of style as a psychological concept reflex when theory and its derivatives became the foundation clinic as a technical for our scientific theories of behavior. according to valence on it. And we agree that the associationistic doctrine described above can never provide an adequate explanation. The poor fellow should have made abortive responses toward three or four mailboxes before the strength of the association had diminished. will and need. According to classical theory. Chapter 5. 1938). Only rarely in the past twenty years term in a of the explicit uses that has the concept been used outside the psychological explanation. The present authors Intention does pose are in fundamental agreement with Lewin. Lewin. Therefore. An intention. Ellis. to him Now. the mailboxes he passes leave He does not even notice them. He in. Organization and Pathology of Thought (New York: Columbia University Press. so does mailing the letter reduce the quasi-need - and remove the Kurt Lewin. 1951). however. creates a quasi-need. But Lewin goes on to draw an interesting analogy that we want to reject. is required. drops the letter altogether cold. an interesting and important problem for psychology. the valence vanished and further mailboxes were ignored. A Source Book of Gestalt Psychology (New York: Humanities Press.

"Do you intend to see Smith. an additional requirement seems to be that the Plan be conscious. man has an ordinary intention? It means that that he has is the execution of a Plan "I and that I this intended action a part of intend to see Jones when get there" means I am already com- mitted to the execution of a Plan for traveling and that a part of this Plan involves seeing Jones. 1958). 1935.^ Criminal lawyers are constantly troubled over the distinction to between intention and motivation. either real or quasi. The legal confusions arise when to the lawyer begins to argue that Smith could not murder because he had no motive. It is this dynamic property of an intention that we feel is confusing. Philosophy of Science. Question: Is Smith guilty? is we he consider only the motives involved. Values. "Yes" would be a clear reply. for both of them knowingly undertook to execute a Plan culminating in murder. Psychology vs. What does ordinary it mean when an begun it. It is. he says will create an intention. 2. For example. a basic Freudian concept. too?" asks is about other parts of the Plan. Smith commits the murder. 356-380. C. For Lewin. Lewin and his associates would further confuse the issue by arguing that an intention will create a have intended 2 In common speech." This seems to be the position of E. People are reasonably precise in their use of "intent" in ordinary conversation. there is a complete parallel between the dynamics of intentions and the dynamics of any other kind of motivated behavior. Jones hires Smith kill someone. The term is used to refer to uncompleted parts of a Plan whose execution has already begun. positive valence There are simpler alternatives. But we consider their intentions. E. and we wish to reformulate it. Only a motive. then both parties are equally guilty. immediate experience. Tolman. The present authors are willing to tolerate "unconscious intentions. M. but he is caught and If confesses that he was hired kill. "No" little a ambiguous but probably means that it is part of my Plan to avoid Smith.from mailboxes. Intention (Oxford: Blackwell. of course. "I don't know" means that that part of the Plan has not been developed in detail and that when or it is yet developed it either may may not include Smith. and the Execution of Plans 6i . the employer guilty because was motivated to motive was merely but the gunman ( is is not guilty because his certainly a to earn money which if commendable motive in a capitalistic society). See also G. Anscombe. Intentions. to do it. And they do not use it to mean the that something is temporarily valuable or that they have any particular needs.

the later parts of it is When a Plan is initiated. these various avail- intentions. Ordinarily. the test evaluations a person has learned are available for use in the test phases of the Plan. As long as he able Plans form no part of his not using them. But that is by no means a is necessary condition for executing the TOTE. But as soon as the order to its execute a particular Plan has been given. the intent to execute clear. The question thus moves from why Plans are executed to a concern for which Plans are executed. This is not a facetious statement. When a Plan complex in — made up of a hierarchy of subparts — it may be that some of the is to say. he begins to speak of incompleted parts (insofar as he knows them) as things he intends to do. And to cope with this problem of choice we do indeed need some valuational concepts. so the phase of a Plan may draw extensively upon an Image. Plans are executed because people are alive. a normal. A value refers an Image. adult to a Plan. why should any Plan ever be executed? To answer the second question first. for so long as people are behaving. the operational phase of a TOTE should increase the value of the situation as indicated by the test phase. But have values no special influence on our Plans? If not. When a chain is initiated with no internal rep- resentation of the complete course of action. He has is acquired a skill for swinging golf clubs. the later parts of the chain are not intended. human being has constant access if to a tremendous variety of Plans that he might execute he chose to do so. whereas an intention refers Presumably. he there a book with a recipe for is making a knows how to get to Chicago. soTne Plan or other must be executed. parts have negative values associated with them. Just as the operational phase of a Plan test may lead to action. Thus. etc. The present authors take the position that a motive is com- prised of two independent parts: value to and intention. Therein resides a crucial difference between a chain of actions and a Plan of action. we assume that every phase in every TOTE unit can have some evaluation function associated with it. That order to achieve a positive result it may be necessary to do something 62 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . But where then are values? An evaluation is a form of empirical knowledge and so helps to form the person's Image. in the kitchen cake.motive.

we may example.) that. out of the dentist's office before in values When. has a negative evaluation. how- ever. When this happens. and the Execution of Plans 63 ." the word "need" should not be taken as expressing a dynamic or evaluative property associated. when we choose of a Plan and begin to execute we may of all unaware it some of the detailed tactics that will be needed to carry through. The intention to see a dentist vanishes only when a new Plan is executed — it does not gradually lose strength as the desire to see the dentist declines. can be attributed Values. therefore. Mailing the letter ness may be part of an utterly hateful busi- — any values. (Note. for an Image and a Plan. carries a larger positive evalua- tion than could be counteracted by any accumulation of negative units in values. by is itself. positive. actions that he considers to be undesirable. or neutral. If the negative values accumulate until they outweigh any conceivable positive value associated with the prototest. with mailboxes. or costs. It seems reasonable to think of the test phases of the more strategic portions of a — Plan as associated with overriding evaluations. Intentions. a person first who executing the Plan can rightly be described as intending. "I need a mailbox in order to mail this letter. it Of be course. we would be unaware the values associated with those unforeseen tactics until the Plan well along in its was execution. When we say. we walk the dental chair. discontinue the execution of the Plan. viously occur repeatedly in the lives of adult society Such actions beings ob- human — civilized would scarcely be possible without them yet they are unusually difficult to understand in terms of simple hedonism or simple reinforcement theory or any other psychological theory that makes no allowance for cognitive structure. At the root of the hierarchy we can imagine that there is a satisfied. that the intention may be invariant under these value trans- formations. An intended operation that will someday provide the anticipated positive value for an extensive Plan of action may be delayed almost indefinitely while a person continues to execute preparatory subplans leading to outcomes with negative evaluations. for we have been in some change must be inferred. either temporarily or permanently. necessarily. negative. then carrying out. TOTE when units may also represent a hierarchy of values. a hierarchy of kind of prototest that. from the TOTE more tactical positions. Thus.

In this renunciation of the dynamic properties of Plans. it is certainly an odd definition of "dynamic. he drops the matter with the comment that sometimes they are related and sometimes they are independent. is not located in our intentions. we hope." "tensions. or our Plans." 64 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . As William James says so clearly. that Solomon himself cannot put a if he does not have a mailbox. not in the Plan. Hence we persist in speaking of our position as a "renunciation of the djTiamic properties of Plans. The fundamental. or again. so long as it stays alive. of We are often given our choice among several different Plans. yet he did not resolve it. namely. forgive us our banalities. If clearly seen the difference is Having thus the concept of valence specific criteria that replaced.* how* In discussing this point with some of our colleagues we have encountered the reaction that we have not really renounced dynamic properties in the Plan. by the concept of must be met before the execution of a Plan can continue. must be represented in the Image. In we are about as planless as we can get. the psychobiological machine must continue to execute the successive steps in some Plan. underlying banality. will reduce unpleasant tensions. but rather that we have actually explained them. If so. important to distinguish such mechanical "needs" from dynamic or evaluative needs. The dynamic "motor" that pushes our behavior along its planned grooves needs. then there is no reason to expect that objects satisfying the criteria will always be valuable or that they will always satisfy They may. Levvdn was clearly aware of this problem. the stream of thought can never stop flowing. is the fact that once a biological machine starts to run. He says its quite exphcitly that the value of an object is not identical with of gold that valence. These "states." The "explanation" is simply that. it keeps running twenty-four hours a day until it dies." "goals. of course." As we understand it. The example he cites concerns a sum might represent a great value for one person without tempting it." if they exist at all. etc. It is our impression that this is not what most psychologists have meant when they used the term "dynamic. him to steal but for another person to steal. but the rejection of one necessarily sleep imphes the execution some other. "dynamic" is usually taken to mean that the organism is striving toward some state or object that. as we propose. when achieved. however.to the letter or to the mailbox — yet the simple mechanical fact would letter in a It is remain mailbox true. or our decisions to execute Plans — it is located in the nature of life itself. they may not. The reader will. it might have a strong valence prompting him between values and valences. for sometimes the obvious is hard to see.

and the Execution of Plans 65 . The parts of a Plan that is being executed have special access to consciousness and special ways of being remembered that are necessary for coordinating parts of different Plans and for coordinating with the Plans of other people. Or (who knows? may be somewhere in the frontal lobes of the brain. of interrupted tasks have. Particularly if it is a transient. Intentions. we should like to speak of the memory we use for the execution of our Plans as a kind of quick-access. and considerable thought may be required in order to use the behavioral stream for advancing several Plans simultaneously. received The studies are well some attention in the psychologknown." There may be several Plans. or Plan. temporary kind of Plan that will be used today and never again. "working several parts of a single memory. When a Plan has been transferred into the working memory we recognize the special status of its incompleted parts by calling them "intentions. when one Plan is interrupted by the requirements of some other Plan. as is Lewin's interpretareduced when the task is tion in terms of tension systems that are successfully completed. etc. tion. we should not lose sight of the fact that something important does happen to a Plan when the decision is made to execute it. It is brought into the focus of attentake on a and as we begin far in the Plan to execute it we number of menial but necessary tasks having to do with gathering data and remembering how we have progressed at any given instant. therefore. Usually the Plan will be competing with other Plans also in the process of execution." The recall and resumption ical laboratory. they both Values. Without committing ourselves to any specific machinery. In particular. largely as a result of Lewin's interest. all stored in working memory at the same time. special place we need some special place to store ) it it.ever. When we have decided to execute some particular Plan. Since both Lewin's tension system and our working memory are carefuUy considered explanations. It is taken out of dead storage and placed in control of a segment of our information-processing capacity. we must be able to remember the interrupted Plan in order to resume its execution when the opportunity arises. it is probably put into some special state or place where it can be remembered while it is being executed. The may be on a sheet of paper.

the two views do not quarrel with each other. For the present authors.— account for most of the observed phenomena and it is difficult to find clear points of contrast between them. not by the subject. Moreover. So far. tasks — Therefore. but it appears to us to be a point on which data might help. etc. the must be a little complicated. Now the predictions will be different. repetitious. will not usually be resumed and do not stand out in the subject's memory when he is later asked what tasks he performed. We are at least encouraged to see that our view is 66 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . We do not have experimental data with which to settle the point.") But there are a few points on which the two theories can be compared. that his task is to given amount of activity. Both views still agree. he can be interrupted before he reaches that number. First. This observation seems eminently reasonable from either Lewin's or our point of view. but not told of them on the any specific number. However. stringing beads. We say there should be no tendency to resume or recall the task. since a tension system The Lewinian view would predict that would remain undischarged because the task was interrupted. and hence they have no special representation in the subject's working memory. told he must put string. If he is told. we assume it is a well-known fact that interrupted tasks tend to be resumed and tend to be well remembered. and we shall concentrate on these. they can only be halted. Simple. the argument was that such tasks cannot be interrupted. it is recognized that even these continuous tasks can be is told interrupted if the subject in advance that the task calls for a for example. continuous tasks marking crosses on a sheet of paper. But suppose that the subject all given a pile of beads to string. interruption does not serve to continue or prolong a tension system. For Lewin. (This difficulty is enhanced by a wonderfully free and easy interpretation by Lewin of "tension system. the argument would be that such tasks require little or no record of what has been and what remains to be accomplished. since we predict that he will remember the task because he in order to keep his place. had to count and remember a number and Lewin predicts the same result beis cause the task is now interruptable. put thirty beads on a string. the bead-stringing should be more quickly resumed and more frequently recalled. since memory function is performed externally by the pile of beads.

wrriting letters would be called a "flexible" Plan. there more working memory involved in keeping track of inflexible become more elaborate and specific. In our terms. That is to say. We are not clear what the correct prediction is would have been for Lewin. it does not matter in which order the letters are written. a task that requires an inflexible Plan will be resumed and recalled more frequently after interruptions. we therefore would make a general prediction that. five different is He assem. each letter a separate task own tension system to be discharged. Values. because the completion of a task do. However. we "similar" to the interrupted one (the completion of the first three letters) is supposed to provide a "substitute consummation" to reduce the tension systems associated with the other letters. because such Plans tend to very little difference in their tendency to recall interrupted tasks better.bles the writing materials and begins.not just a rephrasing of Lewin's. it would make a difference. suppose a person intends to write letters to people. But further experiments could be helpful in settling the difference. because its parts can be performed in any order. since a fairly clear disagreement can be formulated. An interruption between letters leaves him with no memory problem. resume the task if he than between will is it make a differ- interrupted in the middle of a letter rather letters? In our view. Second. an equally valid conclusion might be that verbal instructions given at the time of interruption cannot change the extent to which working memory has already been devoted to the execution of the Plan. but he Interrupted before he finishes. with as to its On the one hand. so he would predict on the other hand. This advance information made is Plans. ence in his tendency to The question is. Usually. so long as external memory is not used. Third. in one experiment subjects were told on half the interrupted tasks that the tasks would be resumed and on the other half that they would not be resumed. there might be very little tendency resume under either condition. so the interrupted Plan is not assigned any special place in his working memory where it might remind him to finish the job. It was on the basis of this experiment that Zeigarnik con- cluded that the possibility of resumption had no effect on recall. Intentions. But. and the Execution of Plans 67 .

would not be consummation or a discharge of tension. as here described. of course. bit too intolerant of Professor Lewin." This observation takes on particular significance for us. perhaps.. These considerations have. Making a note is somehow a consummation. If an intention is is. It our observation is valid." Lewin wrote. op. 68 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . On the majority of points the present interpretation agrees with his predictions. Also. to seems probable us that an adult has several Plans of his own whose execution must be temporarily suspended during the experiment and that he might be reluctant to lose track of them for these little laboratory games. drifted rather far into the details of a particular line of research. The forgetting. a discharge. the result of a result of freeing our activities. p.Finally. His papers offer a challenge — both in theory and in observations. 111. but rather the working memory capacity for other planning in Zeigarnik's studies that adults was a general observation did not participate as enthusiastically as the children and that they did not It show as strong a tendency to recall the interrupted tasks. how is do? Forgetting intentions a could anyone forget what he intends commonplace occurrence. It is generally assumed that forgetting an intention is not the same as forgetting a 5 Rapaport. it seems probable to us that an adult would have learned how to make use of external memory devices for his Plans whenever possible. a man who has con- tributed so advance our understanding of the psychology of The excuse is that Lewin in his early work came very close to much to saying some of the same things this book is trying to say. the unfinished part of a Plan that to being executed. of course. according to the association theory should reinforce the coupling between the referent and the goal-presentation. cit. And the present authors may seem a the will. but the disagreements in theory have been emphasized in the hope of stimulating their resolution in the laboratory.^ "that even is making though a written note of an intention conducive it to forgetting it. and several psychologists have offered explanations. and so might not use his internal working memory in the same way a child would. "It is often observed. since in our view the use of external memory devices ordinarily lightens the load on our personal if memories.

Social psychologists who have considered the problems of persuasion have generally agreed that the best tech- niques involve some change in the audience's concepts or values. Usually. We could. forgetting an intention appears to have some active quaUty to it that is not involved in the kind of forgetting Ebbinghaus studied. on the repression of the intended act by other psychic forces that opposed it in some way. and thus for altering his behavior. examine the conditions that cause us to be unaware of the fact that we have changed our Plans. was on the dynamic or evaluative aspects of such forgetting. but planation. Altering the planner's Image is a major dynamic mechanism for altering his Plan. in turn. nondynamic conditions that to abandon a Plan and thus to forget an intention. is why one Plan was abandoned and is basic to another pursued instead. of course. we must say that Plans are that the Plan that gave abandoned when their execution begins to produce changes in the Image that are not as valuable as we had expected. If we try to translate Freud's dynamic explanation into the language of this essay. (This would be consistent with the Freudian view. The working memory may go awry. however. provides a clue to aspects Image that might not ordinarily be accessible to introspection. of course. We might lead one can easily imagine other. Freud's emphasis. of the — — close control over the Plans we try to execute. Thus we accept the notion that dynamic changes in exert especially in the evaluative aspects of the Image the Image unnoticed. ) it is not the only possible exis The diagnostic value of a forgotten intention that it so often underscores a change in Plan that might otherwise have gone • And the change in Plan. The classic work that emphasizes an active component in forgetting intentions. naturally.telephone number. therefore. although perhaps the same mechanism may occasionally be responsible. The question that all others. But we are here (as throughout most of this book) concerned more with the execution than with the formation of Plans. The most obvious thing it life to say about a forgotten intention is was not completed. To take an extreme 69 Values. Intentions. but presumably the conditions would be essentially those that psychoanalysts tell us produce repression. especially when the execution of the ex- task has been interrupted for some reason. and the Execution of Plans . is Freud's Psychopathology of Everyday Life.

In our enthusiasm for memorizing nonsense syllables we 70 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . You may change the Plan for any of a dozen reasons and then forget to incorporate into your new Plan a subplan for communicating to your friend about the change. plans are involved. Forgetting to tell somebody that you have changed your intentions is a very different process from forgetting your intentions. written down in one we follow repeatedly. and when the Plan detail. we are not bright enough or strong enough to execute the Plans in which they were embedded. First. Presumably we are constantly revising our Plans after we begin to execute them. both pleasant fault of his own and painful. first An applied mathematician may intend to solve a problem by does not have an inverse. When you have made to carry known your intentions. But a special problem arises with shared Plans. Two general consequences of the present argument are worth brief comment before closing the chapter. if it is complicated. or several consecutive subeasier task. then our working therefore memory has an We assume that intentions would be forgotten more frequently in the former situations than in the latter. the man whose appointment book is destroyed through no numerous Plans. Ordinarily we do not make any special note of these changes. inverting a matrix and them com- puting certain quantities. changes in your Plans must take into account what has been said. is when If the Plan the Plan if is is new or transient. other people may depend upon you them out.— ample. Not all Plans are feasible. their intentions. but not because etc. for purely mechanical reasons that Ebbinghaus would understand as well as we do. Remembering the Plan is most difficult when we try to will have lost track of do it without external crutches. he has repressed intentions or found potentially must be forgotten because dangerous. Thereafter. ceteris paribus. more research is doubt No many needed on the way people use external aids as memory devices to record their Plans. but he discovers that the particular matrix He will forget his intention to it compute the it quantities. Still another nondynamic reason for forgetting an intention might be that some preparatory step in the Plan leading up to the intended act proved to be impossible. and their progress in executing their Plans. but merely execute the new Plan as quickly as possible.

and the body It is so obvious that — together? Does a Plan supply the pattern for that essential connection of knowledge. For a being which did not assign comparative values. and such contemplation would not possess the significance of knowledge but only that of enjoying and suffering. A creature which did not enter into the process of reality to alter in some part the future content of it. p.*^ nected. listen to it As psychologists we should C.. provides less leaves it — lost and action? Certainly any psychology that that allows a reflex being to behave at random.: have overlooked the importance of some of these ancillary kinds of memory. Conversely. op. : In this short paragraph Lewis puts the problem of the present discussion. and for one which did not know. Lewis says only what is plainly open to common sense in the following comment Knowledge. and only such a being could assign values to anything beyond his own feelings. what we call an "effort of will" seems to be in large measure a kind of emphatic inner speech. more dominating. it would be impossible. probably most. This inner not some irrelevant epiphenomenon. or can in thought or overwhelmed by blind passion — never be completely satisfactory. deliberate action would be pointless. Values. in a very real sense is shouting it is is the Plan that running our information-processing equipment. And action. only an active being could have knowledge. action. could apprehend a world only in the sense of intuitive or esthetic contemplation. Memory of clinicians. effort the When we make a special inner speech gets louder. and evaluation are essentially conThe primary and pervasive significance of knowledge lies in its guidance of action knowing is for the sake of doing. is rooted in evaluation. the heart. I. that that knowing is for the sake of doing and doing is rooted in valuing but how? How in the name of all is psychological should we put the mind. Much. evaluation. for intentions should not be the private property Second. Intentions. more carefully. ^ Lewis. obviously. and the Execution of Plans "71 . cit. 1. of our planning goes on in terms of words.

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motivational aspects. For example. one might the fish driven to avoid sunburn. innate character of instinctive behavior. goal-directed. Statements about the stincts almost "dynamic" aspects of in- always conceal ignorance of the physiological processes involved. a young salmon has an instinct to go down river to the sea. striv- ing. Of course. Unfortunately. the favorite explanation for behavior during one generation and the favorite theoretical scapegoat during the next. Other definitions of instinct stress the inherited. But when the facts are examined more critically it turns out that the salmon has a photokinetic and phototropic response to the sunlight that strikes him in the shallow persist that water when his is skin pigment is thin. One could say that he is driven by an instinct to reach salt water. the driven quahty of instinctual behavior always seems to vanish when the behavior is analyzed closely.CHAPTER 5 INSTINCTS What all are instincts? Probably no concept in psychology has had a more checkered career than this one. Animals isolated from their Instincts 73 . unlearned. Some definitions of instinct have emphasized its conative. but that concept seems com- pletely superfluous. how^ever.

particularly in Europe. perhaps. The pres- ent authors have not read all of this material. inflexible. the entire performance from general strat- egy down through particular tactics to each individual twitch of a muscle could be programmed in advance. Yet the grossness of the copulatory behavior of a rat who has not had grooming experience demonstrates clearly that some practice of these instinctual tried conscientiously to decide anyone who has responses is necessary.kind at birth demonstrate characteristic patterns of activity that they could not have acquired through learning or imitation. that is inherited. But is it the is behavior. we mean that the that it cannot be changed depending upon its consequences for the organism. When we say a Plan is involuntary. but we have surveyed 74 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . but the Plan that prois vides the underlying structure to the actions innate. by defining an in- an inherited. the actions involved may be learned or unlearned. When we is say a Plan is inflexible. The new field of ethology has made available a rapidly growing collection of detailed observations against which any interpretation of instinct can be tested. And when we say a Plan we mean that the Plan does not have to be learned or discovered. In the purest case of instincts. In recent years. we have never heard of it. The position of the present authors less is it that the study of instinct would be much confusing if we said was the Plan. the specific pattern of muscular coordinations. but if such an instinct exists. there has been a revival of interest in the problem of instinct. the more carefully any particular species of animal is studied. one might expect to find that copulation is an instinctive kind of behavior. The small nugget of gold that has encourits aged psychologists stinct as to retain the concept of instinct in spite of notorious difficulties can be preserved. that unlearned? The difficulties with this definition are well known to which parts of an animal's behavior were learned and which parts were inherited. ogists many psychol- have abandoned the concept of instinct entirely. And in some sense it is. we mean component parts of the Plan cannot be inherited. After struggling mightily with this fractiona- tion of behavior into the innate versus the acquired. involuntary Plan. we think. not the be- havior. for example. the less one hears about instincts in that species. In rats. As Frank Beach once noted. rearranged or reordered.

however. somewhere in its little Image. result. a picture of mother." gosling's The "that" is defined at a critical period during the it first development when sees a moving is object. Those studies indicate that the test phase of a TOTE unit is innately associated with the appropriate operate phase. A gosling should follow its mother. about the recognition by the animal of the conditions appropriate for executing a Plan. The "follow that" Plan built-in test to characterize an ap- propriate "that. it test to see if a particular object is the object to be followed Second. The operational phase of this Plan. we were impressed by Tinbergen's attempt to integrate hier- the ethological research 1 on instinctual behavior in terms of a prise ethology thorough review of the history of the ideas and observations that comis available in W. the walking. moving object the some amusing But the important point is that the gosling must have. Thorpe's Learning and Instinct in Animals (Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Only consequences can then can or not. H. ethologists use a Most term invented by Konrad Lorenz — the innate releasis ing mechanism — to describe the fact that a Plan not executed until certain conditions are met. so the Plan develops in an adaptive way. The outcome of that survey was encouraging and some of the major points are worth sumFirst. 1956).^ we discovered that ethologists have much to say about the stimulus control of behavior. But until it has been hatched a gosling the operational phase of cannot know what its mother looks has no like.the more accessible secondary sources in order to determine whether is contemporary research cept of inherited Plans producing the kind of results that the con- had led us to expect. Therefore the test phase cannot be completely established until of the gosling initially later. the first large gosling sees happens to be an ethologist. A Instincts 75 . marizing here. of course. The phenomenon that has been called "imprinting" provides an interesting illustration of the relation between the test phase and an innate Plan. This first large moving object that a gosling normally sees If the goose. Many ingenious studies have been is conducted in order to determine exactly what perceptual pattern necessary for the release of a particular reaction. can be built into the gosling in advance.

bodily changes. there are several different actions he may make depending upon temporary boring. under the large heading of "reproductive young. by a thoroughly stereotyped motor pattern. We refer here exclusively to Tinbergen's behavioral descriptions. etc. There he selects his own territory. etc. the fighting pattern will be But there are several varieties of fighting: chasing. Or. instinct. Its reproductive instinct includes several different kinds The instinct is triggered by an increase in length of the which leads the stickleback to migrate to shallow water. The stickleback a small and very ag- gressive fish. at that time. etc. not his hierarchical system of neural centers. the reproductive behavis male stickleback. quivering. starts to build a nest. biting. testing mate- way Tinbergen develops and elab- orates his hierarchical description into ever smaller. threatening. begins to react to strangers by fighting. leading the female to the nest. and visual stimulation releases a typical pattern of behavior. He settles in. or 2 N. The consummatory acts of mating include the zigzag dance. is building the nest. etc.2 A hierarchy is such an important aspect of what we have been calhng a Plan that we could not help but feel encouraged. showing the entrance. The type that is released depends upon the actions of the invading male. Tinbergen. the consummatory acts in fighting are chasing. In this conditions: digging. units." A consummatory characterized. The Study of Instinct (Oxford: Oxford University Press. gluing. biting. threatening. fertilizing the eggs. days. etc. These are acts that can be recognized easily from direct observation of the animal's behavior. and caring for the Which one of these four will occur at any particular time depends upon the environmental conditions released. so they say. 76 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Chapter V. For readers who have mention ior of the not looked at Tinbergen's interesting book lately we can briefly one of his favorite examples." Tinbergen lists four subheads: fighting. mating. nest-building. And they usually have a "self-exhausting" character — they "satisfy" the animal. Thus. If another male stickleback invades the territory. fleeing.archy. more discrete The instinctive hierarchy is usually described by ethologists in act is terms of units called "consummatory acts. shows certain of behavior. In the case of the reproductive instinct of the male stickleback. if no other stickleback is present and the male rials. 1951).

although 110. dependent on changes in the outer world. flexible. and. one is struck by the fact that the higher levels in his description are not sequential. and a more on the or less variable however. that there act. Concatenations are ^ Ibid. tractions of individual muscles. a coordinated activity of several parts of the animal's body. Instincts 77 . into con- analyzed into movements of muscle groups and then. Tinbergen is explicit. which can in turn be finally. if the next act released by events that were not regularly caused by the preceding act. the taxis. Not until Tinbergen's description reaches the level of the consummatory acts does it take on the hierarchically organized sequence characteristic of a Plan. The alternative mechanism may is be either chaining. however. is entirely component. if the consequences of one act provide the situation needed to release the next. variability depends en- The centres of the higher levels do control purposive behavior which is adaptive with regard to the mechanisms it employs to attain the end. but merely classificatory. These consummatory acts would seem to correspond to the inflexible Plans we have been looking for. At the higher levels of the hierarchy the various flexibly components of the instinct can be rearranged rather depending upon the particular environmental circumstances that prevail. but those acts are themselves ordered in time by some other kind of mechanism.: change the conditions that initiated them. until at the level of the consummatory act we have to do wdth an entirely rigid component. chains are inflexible. stereotyped. the variability of which. or concatenation. Thus we are led to think of relatively discrete. give rise to increasingly simple and more stereotyped movements. moreover. is a hierarchical act organization within each is consummatory The consummatory it is much more complex than a reflex or a tropism. the fixed pattern.. innate Plans for organizing actions into a consummatory act. Tinbergen interprets this to mean that the instinctual it hierarchy becomes progressively less flexible as level of actual approaches the behavior it Now tirely seems that the degree of level considered. p. The lower levels.^ the In comparing Tinbergen's hierarchical description with hierarchical organization that we refer to here as a Plan.

Thus the larger to which are simply concatenated. both in isolation siders each of the and consummatory acts together. innate Plans are not flexible. though adaptive. intentional behavior — as if environment almost as if itself could serve as part of the animal's memory. on several Plans Of course. However. interchangeable in order. appear to be rigid. then the im- mediately preceding discussion of concatenations can be taken as a description of one way to carry on several Plans carefully at once. more "strategic" levels is. when a stickleback's nest-building it is interrupted by a fight.Plans units. is A evident third and about instinctive Plans that becomes that even the sim- when one reads the ethological reports plest animals are often very clever about carrying simultaneously. organisms are often so well adapted to their natural environments that a concatenation may the It is give the appearance of purposive. concatenated character quite different from the kind of flexibility that can be achieved by an final point intelligent human being. flexible. or could be to be a matter of metaphysical predilections. But some further examples may be interesting. he can left off. The digger wasp provides a 78 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . have known to the organism. return to later and take up where he because the nest to "remembers" where the interruption occurred. we shall not speak of when it is highly adapacts. so that concatenated behavior as part of a Plan even tive. but a simple concatenation is usually easy to distinguish. How far one is beyond the boundaries of an organism seems been. phrase it differ- ently. building the nest. Nevertheless. the Plan were not in the organism alone. Or. We shall try to confine our use of the term to Plans that either are. if one con- in Tinbergen's hierarchy of the reproductive instinct to represent a different Plan. may be flexible. It is always difficult. to distinguish behavior based on a Plan from behavior based on a chain. the sight of the partially built nest "releases" the next step in Thus the kind of flexibility that an animal achieves in the higher. analyzed illustration. but in the total constellation of organism willing to extend the concept of a Plan and environment together. still of a reactive. of course. appear be variable. fixed. and inflexible. the physical continuity of the environment itself can provide a kind of integration of instinctive For example. but the smaller units. which are chains and Plans.

Thus the hive follows a kind of public plan. to which each bee. however. when about away sume to lay an egg. even the queen. the female. The public plans of animals. the mating behavior of chimpanzees guided by releasers so complex that they yet. and complexity of the tests that can be used is to release the consummatory acts in- crease as we climb the phylogenetic scale. An even more common instance of coordinating must occur whenever two animals come together for mating. contributes Plans. are more properly called "adaptive concatenations" rather than Plans. A cell that has been started by one bee can be continued by any other bee. carries the caterpillar to the hole. The worker responds largely to proprioceptive tests. after which she closes the hole and leaves forever. Usually there are two or even three holes. shared plan for the hive. instinc- behavior in mammals has received relatively little many The description of instincts that seems to be currently accepted by ethologists has features that are congenial to the thesis of Instincts • 79 . she brings some moth larvae. variety. digs a hole. Then she may bring six it or seven caterpillars. this Plan for laying an egg is relatively simple and the it. as one might say. As ever. can attain sophistication only through demonstration. kills or paralyzes a caterpillar.According to Tinbergen's account of Baerends's research. releasers can be patiently discovered for each part of is But an interat esting feature that the digger wasp does not work on just one hole a time. The more one considers the virtues of releasers the more respect separate Plans into one social plan one feels for the tively flexibility they permit in the adaptations of a rela- simple biological system. Now. the organization of these tive how- more complicated patterns of study. For example. number through the releaser type of mechanism. The range. Another example is the behavior of the worker bee in the hive. The state of each of the various holes releases in her the action appropriate for that hole. deposits an egg on it and stows it in the hole. the environment helps her to tive remember what the next step in the adap- concatenation must be. into one larger. and does whatever is appropriate for the situation as it is perceived. or. or releasers. In this example. its When the egg hatches and the larva begins to con- food. each in a different phase of development. a its part by the execution of the individual of individual Plans are coordinated.

80 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . as on the Gestalten. Their work emphasizes that there are configurations. on the behavioral side of the organism as well perceptual side— an emphasis that is essential for any description or mere concatenaof instinct based on Plans rather than on chains tions of reflexes.this book.

or program. follows whenever for properly The machine has a routine near enough changing records. we not alter is built sequence of operations. It is is played by the machine is also a a program that controls the small stylus and. The routine for changing records into the machine. for no matter how will we curse the machine for failing to play the record its we want. The entire performance is obviously involuntary. the larger movements and audible movements and Habits 8i of the of the Motor Skills . when a particular button is arm is to the spindle or when pushed — the routine for changing the record is executed. There is even a "sense organ" that discriminates between ten-inch and twelveinch records. and it never guides the actions of any other machine. and there are effectors that push the next record into place and lower the tone arm gently into the groove of the record. simultaneously. it It is it a machine is with a routine.MOTOR SKILLS AND HABITS Consider for a moment the family record player. the record that program. However. locked in. Whenever the appropriate stimulus conditions are present the — for example. that triggered.

Communic ability program. which can follow an indefinite number of different patterns of movement. that can share them with other similar machines. What had seemed to be neglect of duty turned out to be selfless devotion to the common cause. either verbally or by exemplification. When challenged. But the record is a communicable It can be played on any one of a large class of different machines. so the authors were not completely surprised when one member began to disappear in the late afternoons to leam to fly. involuntary. of course. Plans play the central role in our educational processes. communicable have. For example. In the course of his explanations a number of examples were discussed that helped to shape the writing of this chapter. he explained that he was. are obviously more flexible than those that cannot. in fact. symbolic outline of its strategy through some such message as this the basic strategy in verbal correctly develop and elaborate the — 1 California tends to bring out unusual behavior. At the behavioral level. The description of the conditions under which various is skilled components will be triggered. Machines that can use communicable programs.: — diaphragm of the loudspeaker. Once fixed the Plan that controls a sequence of skilled actions becomes through overlearning. conducting research on a problem of concern to us all: how movements are integrated into larger units to comprise a smoothly running Plan of action. The new problem that we must consider when we move from instincts to habits and skflls concerns how learned Plans become automatized. or released. it will function in much the same way as an innate Plan in instinctive behavior. Another person. automatic. When an adult human being sets out to acquire some new skill. communicates more or less schematically what he is supposed to do. when a man learns to fly an airplane he begins by getting a communicable Plan from his instructor. But just having form does not mean that the learner can tactics on the first try to execute the Plan. he usually begins with a communicable program of instructions.^ The Plan is communicated or a rough. much the same in both cases. the chromosome is an example of a communicable program in biological form. Habits and that have skills are Plans that were originally voluntary but become relatively inflexible. is an extremely important property that a program — or a Plan — can Communicable programs are not limited to the mechanical world. 82 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . The fixed cycle of the record changer makes it far less flexible than the phonograph stylus.

must be fused together to form a skilled performance. In order to be able to execute the Plan by a smooth. a kind of complementarity between the teacher and It is easy for the teacher to describe the general strategy. implicit. be unable to land success- The separate motions. knows how but they are locked rather than explicit and communicable. so be prepared to take corrective measures with the throttle and elevators. holding the plane parallel to the runway with the opposite rudder. the aspiring aviator must find many small. the student still faces the major task of learning how is to do it. we is get a picture of the instructor tactical in his efforts to working from the strategic toward the communicate the Plan. is the strategy for landing airplanes. while the student Motor Skills and Habits 83 . these intercalated acts because he in.To land this plane you must level off at an altitude of about ten feet. The general strategy provided by the teacher says nothing about the activities of individual muscle groups — the instructor "knows" to fly. You must remember that at touch-down the control surfaces are less sensitive. the separate parts of the Plan. That may start the plane flying again. each of the muscular movements involved can be made in isolation. Thus. likely that seems someone could learn all the individual acts that are restill quired in order to execute the Plan and fully. but it is difficult for him to combine those tactical details into a larger motor unit. into a feedback mechanism that will effortlessly guide his movements to reduce the differences between his intended and his actual performance. In fact. it When skillfully elab- orated and executed It is a short paragraph utes. Given the description of what he is supposed to do. lower the wing on the windward side. And if there is a cross-wind. pull back on the elevators and touch down as you approach stalling speed. even under ideal weather conditions. intercalated acts not specified in the instructor's original description of the Plan. on the other hand. There the student. and any gust may increase your airspeed. to but difficult for him communicate the detailed tactics that should be used. For the student. but it is and craft safely back to and could be memorized in a few mindoubtful whether the person who memorized it could will serve to get pilot it land a plane. That earth. Then. after you have descended to about two feet. tacit. controlled motor unit.

then difficult to understand why. Open the throttle continuously so that it is completed by the time you count to five. As he pushed the forward to the panel he kept one finger of the hand on the extended. or feels. Since a learner must discover these little tricks that skill. Counting might work for some people. But the skill it is is simply a chain of reflexes. Unless there is method of chaining was not sat- some over-all pattern to the skill. Even when an act. terribly tense and terribly busy. when you reach three start to apply some right rudder. not building a hierarchical Plan. The instruction to count is an attempt to provide a tegration of the successive parts of the Plan and it is more detailed inbad teaching. a pattern that the instructor sees one way and the student sees differently.working from the it tactical toward the strategic in his efforts to carry out. be better "or worse than an- What would happen If skills if all the details of a sequence were worked j out by the coach and imposed with rigid insistence on the learner? were nothing but chains of reflexes. Telling to five is almost certain to interfere with his perform- ance of other parts of the Plan. each one hooked to the next. and when the extended finger hit the panel he bestudied it we — trick of his own that he Hked far gan to apply the right rudder. but for the entire sample that found a throttle throttle was a dismal failure he better. On take-off the throttle should be opened slowly so that rudder-control can be introduced smoothly to overcome the tendency of the plane to turn as a result of increased torque. the instructor's isfactory. in the preceding example. This simple device provided the feed- back that enabled him to convert a sequence of discrete acts into a coordinated unit of behavior. a detailed account of the correct sequence should be an efficient way to teach them. ceteris paribus. Probably 84 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . it instructor does recognize a possible intercalated his may actually own idiosyncratic be better pedagogy to tactics for carrying the let the student invent Plan into his muscles. why would one other? intercalation. The student him to count is. it the successive parts into a smoothly running that he is can connect might appear merely chaining one activity if to the next.

And on and on. The men who make this kind of analysis have developed certain general rules about how sequences of action can be formed to run off smoothly and most For example. The description of the task can be transformed in various ways in an attempt to find a sequence of motions that achieves the result efficiently." is specified. with fewest movements and in least time. On an a person what assembly line in a factory there say. and symmetrical. and we say that the peris to do. the development of skills involves the construction of a hierarchy of behavioral units. motion-study engineers are able to develop chains of responses that can be executed opposite with nearly maximal efficiency. each unit guided by its own Plan." "Carry washer to bolt. son "understands" the job that he In most natural situations. may be a task that consists of. alternative modes of Once a strategy has been developed. For the hand." etc. skill When to say." while at the same time the right hand is in- "Reach for bolt. Motions of the arms should be rapidly." "Release assembly. There must be a fixed position for all tools and materials. This fact is seldom recognized in the motion-study Motor Skills and Habits 85 . For each of these motions a fixed duration This is about as near as anyone can come to writing pro- grams for people that are as detailed as the programs we write for computing machines. people have time to develop the themselves. The at analysis of this task into "micromotions" will specify the exact time which each hand should left move and structions it should perform. But. structed to "Reach for lock washer. action become possible. the two hands should begin and complete their movements at exactly the same time. workers acquire the strategies possessed by the engineers object to being so tightly regimented is may not — they frequently and seem to feel that the boss trying to exploit them unfairly. Following these rules. that is when they form a Plan to guide the gross actions — even an inefficient Plan — they skill. let us assembling three washers on a the operation bolt.. unfortunately. etc. find for themselves the interposed elements that produce the Finding these elements is essentially a test of the adequacy of the strategy. the in- may read "Carry assembly to bin.the most intensive effort to specify exactly is with each movement must do the work of "motion study" experts." "Select and grasp washer.

however. Schlosberg. Then they would go through several discrete steps: look at the next letter in the material that was to be copied. see R. 86 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . S. and the learner had acquired dependable "letter habits. locate this letter in their image of the keyboard. the experienced typist read the text several words ahead of the letters he was typing at the moment. to put feedback loops around larger and larger segments of his behavior. the key ogist to collect data on. nents. strike the key. The final compomovements. and look to see if it was correct. People first memorized the positions of the different letters on the keyboard. one might say.. By then dependable "word habits" were developing. Woodworth and H. so that one could say he had developed "phrase habits.which is rather puzzling because the hierarchical character of skills was pointed out explicitly by Bryan and Harter at least as early as 1897. the time of occurrence of successive key-strokes and then collected data while people learned the "touch method" of typing. This sequence of stages in the acquisition of typing skill is familiar to anyone who has gone through it. At least. when they demonstrated the successive levels of skill involved in telegraphy. who has watched the units at one level of skill come smoothly together to form units at a higher level. it or point to ex- 2 For a short but representative summary. Holt. until eventu- ally a skilled typist can concentrate on the message and let the mus- cles take care of the execution of details. We have skill is assumed that the human being who is acquiring a new he is aware of the strategy that he aware of it in the sense that he can talk about is attempting to follow. Experimental Psychology (New York. feel around on the actual keyboard for the key corresponding to the remembered position. Probably most of the skills we have to acquire are much more fluid in their execution. 1954). is a rather special case. are very discrete and atomic.^ In 1908 Book wired a typewriter to record analysis." Further speed resulted when they began to anticipate the next letter and build up small subroutines to deal with familiar sequences like -ing and the. After a few hours of practice these components of the Plan began to fit together into skilled movements." He learns. 809813. Finally. rev. ed. pp. but these are correspondingly more difficult for a psychol- Typewriting.

— — if they did know how to express it: "Adjust the curvature of your bi- cycle's path in proportion to the ratio of your unbalance over the It is square of your speed.amples of it. to build not carried in the animal's memory. Any of the components could be taught at any time. Only the experimenter needs to know the total Plan. without memorizing verbal descriptions of what they are supposed to do. When we train an ani- mal to execute a series of responses in order to attain a is valued out- come. must be observed by a skillful performer if it were. Motor Skills and Habits 87 . It is quite possible. blindly. Many teachers impart no rule at but perit form to their service by running along beside the ^ bicycle. For example. in his left pocket or when we tell a golfer to keep his eye on the But for the most part we must rely upon until the pupil "catches on" inarticulate guiding or "gets a feel for it. Chapter 4 in that remarkable book emphasizes the importance of our inarticulate skills for all branches of knowledge and the extent to which we blindly accept a frame of reference that we cannot justify when we acquire a skill. of course. or later why it works. then to push the ball into a funnel. bicycle manucan communicate the strategy whereby a cyclist keeps his The underlying principle would not really be much help even balance. the strategy merely next. "Turn your handle bars in the direction you are falling. Personal Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. fortunately. if we wish to train an animal to press a lever in order to get a ball." almost impossible to understand. facturers Almost no one including physicists. and he accepts it understanding then all. not much less to do. we could build up the chain in many different ways. engineers." It is not necessary. holding up until the beginner "gets the idea. to build up skills without verbalizing the strategy." and demonstrating Animals acquire skills. 1958). as when we tell a skier to make a left turn by imagining that he is putting his right hand ball. few of us would ever be able to sit up in our cradles. Sometimes we can help a learner do the right thing for the wrong know explicitly the rules that — reason. the way a baby learns. Then when they are put together the consequences of one 3 The bicycle is borrowed from Michael Polanyi. of course. The animal is required up the smooth transitions that chain one action to the That was probably the goal of the motion-study experts. and after that to return to the food magazine to be fed." we tell the beginner.

are 1954. 61. 1954. or the move-rightrudder-when-extended-finger-touches-panel Plan for taking off turned over quired. 167-174. etc. but a rat's skills in this direction are difficult to : demonstrate in a laboratory situation. Cf. S. to is that men language communicate to the next. their Plans from expert to novice have and from job one generation The verbal Plans with which a beginner tackles a new — the — get is look-remember-hunt-hit-check Plan for typing. creatures. 1929) that rats that had learned a maze could still negotiate it even though Lashley had. Response factors in human learning. or in his mechanical substitute. Tolman and total have argued that rats are capable of mastering a its Plan as well as component parts. The temporal maze and kinaesthetic sensory processes in the white rat. The particular outcome in the long chain animal will not continue occurs when some his students occur on schedule. rats are so vastly inferior to human beings in their ability to remember elaborate Plans to see that it is difficult why psychologists have felt that valid gener- alizations about cognitive structure could be extended from rats to i men. Operational delineation of "what is learned" via the transposition experiment. 2. The with the next step. as in Hunter's temporal maze (see W. the rat has great difficulty. 235-244. The animal has number it of different components that enable critical test fails to it to perform had a larger Plan. 1920. however. 88 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . and each new segis released as it becomes appropriate.* In any case. the experimental equipment. Many psychologists are quite skillful at training animals to perform such long and elaborate stunts. Psychobiology. But we would argue that the animals seldom acquire the learned a as though total Plan. 61.^ 4 to the muscles that carry them out when the of the Plan is skill is ac- The verbal form a learner's crutch which The evidence indicates that rats. Probably we would choose build up the chain of responses backwards. see George Mandler. made it impossible for them to use the customary sequence of movements must mean that new motor tactics could be substituted into the same general strategy. s For a discussion of the integration and symbolization of overlearned responses. certainly the maze skill was not a learned chain of movements. the strategy is in the trainer. Donald T. Psychological Review. When the organization cannot be represented spatially.action ment to become the occasion for the next action. Hunter. of course. Psychological Review. A central feature of the difference. starting first with the to the approach food tray. by surgical operations. 1-17). and probably most other inarticulate much more proficient in mastering Plans when the Images that support them can be spatially organized. The well-known observation by Karl Lashley in his Brain Mechanisms and Intelligence (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Campbell. then with the ball down the funnel.

can then be represented in other Plans as if it were a unitary. If you put pressure on him to work fast in order to earn the money. until eventually is the typist is planning whole paragraphs or the aviator secure that planning whole trips. as resistant to change depending upon its outcome. The same procedure of welding these new units together to form still later discarded larger skilled units may repeat at the higher level. But the is carried out in a way in. Probably he will not be able to do it. The entire pattern of movements. man wires them in deUberately to serve his ov^ti purposes.when he learns to walk alone. as if it were innate. will build them with new habits." Offer him money to type a page with the word "the" always transcribed as "hte. and is communicable. he will certainly not be able to inhibit his usual Plan of action. of skiU frees the verbal One can say that the developplanner to work with larger units of the The implication of this attitude toward skills and habits is that is assumed to be capable of building up his own "instincts. for habits are not completely resistant to change. whereas the expert's version of the Plan tary. If he does. And when the Plan is highly man becomes almost as involuntary. and. you can replace enough and he money. If you take : the time. thus abandoning his usual Plan for typing. and finally e whenever he wants to write "the." then watch him work. efficient manner. involun- locked ment Plan. But one word of caution Do not let the offer stand too long. it h. inflexible. usually." Lower animals come with strategies wired in. by trying to reinstate letter habits instead of word and phrase habits. when the time comes to execute the Plan the subdivisions will be prepared to carry out orders in a rapid. Take a skilled typist. Your money is quite safe. habitual strategies of an expert. who for years has triggered off a muscular pattern for striking t. so there we recognize that they are the "same" Plan. that is voluntary. Let him practice up the action unit needed to wdn your set of inflexible strategies A good typist has constructed a with Motor Skills and Habits 89 . then overlearned. he will do it by slowing down. The verbahzed a sense in which beginner's plan strategies of a beginner may achieve the same reis sult as the involuntary. guided continually by perceptual feedback. independent act. flexible.

or the fact that his releasers are ginner cannot do so. continuous variation in the input to the machine will result in a correspondingly continuous variation in the magnitude of the processes that represent it inside the machine and in the output of the machine. moreover.most of the properties of instincts.g. represents the magnitudes with which it works by symbols corresponding to discretely different states of the machine. he can usually determine the conditions under which a releasing stimulus will be presented. a duration.^ The input to an aviator. The befalse start. human being just as the lower animal is for his instinctive acts. is usually of a continuously varying sort. Thus there is no simple resemblance between the input to a digital computer and the processes that represent that input inside the machine. 90 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Thus. for otherwise he would never make a "jump the gun. Once the subplan mastered and turned over to his muscles. a servomechanism. by a relay that is closed or open. etc. The Computer and the Brain (New Haven: Yale University Press. however." The human being's advantage lies in more complicated and that. on the other hand. e. an angle of rotation. it can operate as if it were a subprogram in an an- alogue computer. proportionate movements he is re- quired to make. because his Plans are formulated yet learr^ed verbally." The frequently the victim of releasers for his skilled acts. 1958). symbolically. or a dial that can assume any one of ten positions. digitally and he has not is how to translate these into the continuous. The construction of integrated strategies for skilled acts through long practice and repetition has a further consequence for the kind of planning that the adult human can do. The construction of these subplans enables a person to deal "digitally" with an "analogue" process. to for example. e. But note that this program.. See John von Neumann. for example. by a voltage. which looks so contin- 6 In the language of computing machines. a fact that nonpsychologists often recognize when is they speak of habitual actions as "instinctive. It would seem that the good flier must function as an analogue device. A trained athlete. of course. you are using a digital procedure. an analogue device is one in which the magnitudes involved in the computations are represented by physical quantities proportional to those magnitudes. waits for the starting his Plan for pletely gun before he begins execute running the race. A digital computer. whereas in the case of the animal's instinctive act the trigger is usually simple and is provided by an environment that is not under the animal's control. and the response he is supposed to make is often proportional to the magnitude of the input.g. If you multiply by vmting the numbers on paper.. If you multiply by using a slide rule. etc. you are using an analogue procedure. But he does not have his starting com- under volitional control.

Motor systems. Ruch. concerned wdth directly perceived stimuli. T. devoted to verbal elaborations.uous and appropriately analogue is itself at the lower levels in the hierarchy. 8 T. or errorrelatively slow transmission correcting. 1957). p. C. Chapter 5. may play the the difference between the strategic tactical levels of skilled role of the digital-to-analogue converter. Ruch commented that "slowness of voluntary movement is characteristic of cerebellar patients and of normal individuals executing unpracticed movements. ed. but to express to know how and and habitual Plans. form.. which has been considered the regulator and integrator of voluntary movements. Pavlov's well-known distinction between a first signal system. in S. 204. Motor Skills and Habits 91 . we see in analogue com- The development (It of a skill has an effect similar to providing a digital-to-analogue converter on the output of a digital computing machine. ed. See Brian Simon. Handbook of Experimental Psychology (New York: Wiley. and a second signal system. seems. The cerebellum. for example. Ruch suggests that "a timeprojecting into tension pattern of muscle contraction" "^ is instituted. C. we shall not explore that possibility here. circuits must cope with the rates that are possible over neural paths. but may also be true that the perceptual mechanism pro- vides an analogue-to-digital input for the higher mental processes. Psychology in the Soviet Union (Stanford: Stanford University Press. whereas the execution of the Plan at the lowest levels looks like the sort of process puters. and even wdthout focal awareness." ^ The problem for most theories of the neural basis of skilled movements is that the skilled movements run off so very rapidly that there is Uttle time for proprioceptive feedback from one movement before another must occur. be phrased in neurological terms that might sound a bit less offensive. In more accurately a discussion of the cere- bellum as a feedback mechanism. S. a relatively stable unit that can be represented by a single at the higher levels in the hierarchy. insofar as we understand it. 1951). Any simple conception in terms of feedback. Stevens. or verbal. of course.. symbol at the That is to say.) it When an action unit has become highly skilled first can be executed directly without being expressed in a digital.'^ A reader who resents such crudely mechanistic analogies and it is difficult hypotheses has the authors's sympathy. planning higher levels looks like the sort of information-processing we see in digital computers. The argument could. to parallel the present distinction between analogue and digital systems.

Such a circuit. But without a guess to guide him. 205. would provide the roughed-in its movement in advance of With proper scientific caution. The first thing we must know about any machine we might want to study is that it really is a machine. Given that then possible to analyze in proper scientific to spirit much guidance. A Plan. movements" some way. "rough-in" a movement and thus reduce the troublesome transients involved in the correction of movement by output-in- formed feedbacks. p. particularly we can consider Ruch's "instantaneous order" as an instruction generated by a digital device and issued to an analogue device for the execution of planned movements. and then he notes that for such "planning the nervous system would have to have of storing impulses for fixed delays. that the cerebellum is in that spirit that one ventures a guess a machine to provide analogue Plans for regis to say. 92 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . actual execution. presently unknown. the scientist may waste his beautifully precise descriptions on irrelevant It is aspects of the problem. so to speak. to summarize what we have said analogue levels of action until Chapter 14. The cerebral-cerebellar circuit may represent not so much an error-correcting device as a part of a mechanism by which an instantaneous order can be extended forward in time.the future. could. Ruch comments that such analbetween neural systems and servo systems are "essentially allegorical. either stored in or transferred to the cerebellum. that the cerebellum is that a critical component in a digital-to-analogue con- verter on the output of the neural system for processing information." Yet it is difficult to see how we can get along without them. ulating and integrating muscular coordinations. It will be 9 Ibid. and the second is a shrewd ogies guess as to what it is supposed to do. it is how the parts work accomplish their purpose.^ These suggestions correspond remarkably well archical Plans to the kind of hierif we have been considering here.. though uninformed as to the consequences. therefore. It may be well. In the chapters that follow there will be little discussion of the assumed that skills and habits can be represented digitally as a sort of motor vocabulary.

directed toward the environmental conditions that activate and guide them and organized hierarchically into action units with more than one level of complexity. though often covert. in We turn now more complicated behaviors which the ma- nipulation of symbols. The authors contend that these characteristics cannot be understood in terms of a theory of behavior based solely on chains of reflexes or simple S-R connections. some theoretical machinery to at least as elaborate as the TOTE hier- archies envisioned here would seem to be indispensable. Motor Skills and Habits 93 . becomes a critically important. component. especially verbal symbols.about instincts and skills : Both skills and instincts are on-going pat- terns of action.

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those acts that simultaneously advance the greatest number Thus. And she is collaborating all in a shared Plan to get her neighbor elected sheriff. How do we The Integration of Plans 95 . advance three Plans Psychologists recognize that people do things because several "motives" are working together. pick up the election posters at the and buy the week's groceries. Jones has a recurrent Plan for keeping her house running that she revises and executes daily. Mrs. and they have discussed the phenomhavior. Mrs. Plans (and more) running at With one time. She also has a nonrecurrent Plan to visit her sister in Baltimore. her problem is of these to perform of them. But they have done very enon in terms of "summation" and the "multiple causation of belittle to advance our understanding of it beyond the level any intelligent layman must achieve in order to get through a modern day in a modern city. get her hair done be- fore she leaves to see her sister. Jones print shop." etc.CHAPTER 7 THE INTEGRATION OF PLANS Most people in our culture try to carry on several Plans at the same time. One trip to town serves to at once. may decide to drive to town.

Jones chooses to run her errands of her Plan when she gets to town. The reader who would like to pursue the question further can find a rich source of data and ideas in Roger G. Given a satisfactory Plan and a statement of the flexibility and to substitutability of its subplans. we say that this part But she cannot permute the order of these with are executed solely for the purpose the subplan for driving to town. That part of the Plan is inflexible. Midwest and Its Children (Evanston: Row. Peterson. give us a convenient notation for such aspects as flexibility of Plans. Another is important dimension of freedom that should be analyzed of equivalent routes. the inter- changeability of subplans. but are not persuaded that anything less complex than a computer language could be developed. Mrs. but what we are thinking of here would be a more abstract and general sort of calculus something that would deal with instructions at about the same level of generality as that on which propositional logic deals with descriptive statements. — 96 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . presumably. ^ Such a language would. And we should have ways for deciding which combinations of Plans are most efficient (in some appropriately loose sense of "efficient"). and so is flexible. it does not particularly matter in what order Mrs.coordinate several Plans into the single stream of behavior that we have available? patible with How it do we judge whether some or new Plan it is com- what we are already doing whether will be impos- sible to assimilate into our other Plans? How are our multiple Plans related to the multiple roles we must play in society? How does the chil- ability to reconcile 'and coordinate different Plans develop in dren? clock? How It can we learn to relate all our Plans to the hands of the a general language specially would help a great deal if we had designed for talking about Plans. the substitution of subplans. etc. Barker and Herbert F. Wright. 1954). of course. and Simon are one solution. The three subplans can be permuted in order. ^ The information-processing languages developed by Newell. For example. We have given a smaU amount of thought to the problem. conditional and preparatory subplans. since only then would the next part of her Plan become relevant. Such preparatory or mobilizing subplans cannot be about with respect to freely moved the other subplans that they anticipate. we should then be able to generate like many alternative Plans that are also satisfactory. Shaw. Jones can drive to town over a variety The variety is limited only by the condition that they terminate when one of her three alternative destinations is reached. Some subplans of creating the conditions under which another subplan is relevant. or for driving home.

especially to the person concerned. He that his Plans conflict. Either Plan might be executed separately. The Integration of Plans 97 . is He knows something Plans wrong. In severe cases the result may be a "dual personality. for years physicists and the velocity of a particle could be measured simultaneously to any required degree of accuracy. that a is person who is is caught between con- fhcting Plans in a somewhat different situation caught between conflicting motives. whether or not two Plans are compatible. the mother it may happen that the pattern supplied by the mother conflicts with that supplied by the father. one from his mother and the other from his father. The discovery that two Plans are incompatible may require great intelligence and may completely re- sumed that the position vise the Image. But example. For may give a Plan that requires personal independ- ence. A great deal of work went into his project before he was able to convince himtext in the self that the Plan for writing a physics text could not be coordinated as- with the Plan for writing a novel. but cannot discover why. There is almost certain to be a large penumbra of confusion surrounding the incompatible Plans. Or. therefore. but cannot discover what it is." of conflicting Plans is The problem them is Plans are quite pervasive and the total most difficult when the two abandonment of either one of is impossible. whereas the father supplies a Plan that itarian. We see. the person seems to be deliberately frustrating himself. demands he be author- When he tries to execute both of these Plans simultaneously he cannot discover any acts that advance them both at the same time. whereas he from the person almost necessarily unaware may be painfully conscious of his incompatible desires. and often both Plans can be executed simultaneously. This kind of conflict common among neurotic ac- patients. A frequent example is provided by the person who has cepted two Plans of life. gent We once knew a very intelli- man who spent years trying to write an introductory physics form of a novel so that more people would read it. again.It is not always obvious. The two it may be isolated from one another in such a way that never occurs to the person to contrast one with the other. The man who discovered that the Plans for making these two measurements simultaneously were incompatible produced a revolution in our conception of the physical universe.

Smith must agree to clear away Brown must agree to put up the new swings. A public plan exists whenever a group of people try to cooperate to attain a result that they would not be willing or able to achieve alone. that mechanism will itself be of the same general form a TOTE hierarchy that we have described already. Each member takes upon himself the performance of some fragment of the public plan and incorporates that fragment into his individual. If the public plan is. should be noted in passing that the task of integrating several Plans into a single stream of behavior must be accomplished by the same organism that is forming and executing the several different Plans. If the person tries to free himself from the maternal pattern. to identify with one parent or the other. things can several people try to become when personal Plans. however. The new feature. the reluctant desertion of that Plan is accompanied by strong emotions. This fact introduces a degree of complexity that we shall try to discuss in later chapters. presumably. there ordinates them intelligently. we must have Plans that operate upon Plans. 98 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . If he tries to abandon the Plan supplied by edict his father. That is to say. and Cohen must agree to collect contributions from the neighbors to pay the old swings. there — — motor behavior. is that the "objects" that this coordinating TOTE hierarchy tests and operates upon are themselves TOTE hierarchies. so that neither Plan is executed. And. But if he comust be some kind of mechanism for doing it. or inaction may be the result. his rejection of the paternal guilt. Or he may struggle to free himself from one Plan or the other. vacillation.Indecision. may cause a crisis in conduct: moral In any situation where a successful Plan suddenly becomes useless. But more about this in Chapter It 8. for instance. as well as Plans that operate upon information to guide ings in the person's environment. then Jones must agree to get the materials and have them delivered. to build new swings on the community playground. but consider how much more difficult work together. The problem of action of coordinating several Plans into a single stream is difficult enough. his rejection of ma- ternal love may cause a crisis in character: ethical guilt. If successive Plans are merely concatenated by chance happenis no problem. when they try to execute a public plan based upon some public image.

and tties to sell the product at a profit. The concept of Plans of role is The Integration 99 . Taken separately. of course. each of the four men involved in the shared plan may and subdivide his part of the plan even further. There bate over the role of the government as a source of social plans. to the various subplans of these on-going enter- and people have time to acquire special skills and special knowledge about particular parts of the enterprise. There is a conse- quent permanence prises. the traditional de- associations rush to mind. unre- avoidable that much of the apparent direction is an unplanned sultant of innumerable individual Plans. one-shot affairs. The plan is not has been executed. Only as part of a larger. therefore. ganizations perform the discarded after it is once successfully performed. most business orsame task over and over. is and The plan to put new swings on the playground soon as it nonrecurrent. it will be discarded as On the other hand. We ticipating in just this kind of social planning." a hierarchy of plans analogous to the hierarchical Plans we have discussed in single individuals. The division of labor and of responsibility that is possible and efficient under these circumstances defines a set of social roles. Of course. repeatedly. mentioned. Should the state lay out our social plans for us in five-year ments. In large organizations. shared plan do they have any meaning. But when the situation begins to become at all is formidable as a government — long before anything so considered — the human planners will complex it is find their tasks impossible. At the tips of the limbs are many workers who carry out the tactics of their own subplans. or should install- we trust that some natural equilibrium will result from the interaction of our private Plans? In a simple situation a planner may be able to get all the alternatives in hand and collect enough information to make intelligent decisions. A manufacturer continually buys raw materials. whereas relatively enduring. none of these activities would make much sense. Americans spend a great deal of our time coordinating and parAs soon as "social planning" is is. At the trunk of the tree are a few people get helpers the who plan the strategy for the entire group. In this way we would find that the community had constructed a "tree. a host of for example. Some shared plans others are recurrent are temporary.for it. converts them into a finished product.

Social planning provides of plans an interesting area to study the nature and their execution. but then groups disappear and are never like they have become social groups with corresponding changes in the plans they execute. Individuals. he may be unable or unwilling to disclose it. ("Role" to tolerate is one of those wonderful concepts apparently able ber of alternative definitions. 100 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . frustrated. the Plan that must be executed by an individual is often prescribed in great detail because an attempt has been made to obtain optimal. based as they are on more quantitative than a figure of speech. in the second place. But many planless heard from again. may be constant uncertainty about the Plan that he is following. not just satisfactory. shared plans are such simon-pure is to say. In this respect groups are about 75 percent Image and 25 percent Plan. and the majority of the Plans we individually execute have their origins in our social commitments. A shared plan must be communicated to the members of it the group and hence can also be communicated to a scientific ob- server. outwhatever — the group may disband. When the plans that form their — finished. examples. as individuals.) different groups. much of our individual ac- And. so one any num- Each of us plays numerous roles in more should cause no trouble. social plans are inter- esting because they are the source of so tivity. performance from him. 90 per- cent plan and 10 percent image. outlawed. - no figures These percentages are reliable to no decimal places.indispensable to the sociologist and the social psychologist when they con- attempt to understand relatively complicated kinds of duct. human We will not survey role theory here. In the first place. on the other hand are a third source of interest in shared plans is their easy ac- cessibility. In the social conhowever. Sometimes swim in they may hold reunions to an ocean of emotion.Still computers. raison d'etre are taken away grovsm. In dealing with the privately planned actions of an individual there since text. That human institutions exist primarily for the purpose of executing plans that their members. but merely comment in passing that a person's role in any group should be defined in terms of the Plans that he is expected to execute in that group. In that case a variety of interesting problems can arise. completed. would be unable or unwilling to execute.

there might be need to worry about time. If little we had only a single Plan to consider. But when Plans compete. The Silent Language (New York: Doubleday.* Spatial considerations are obviously important because activities that often have characteristic places vant. March work through opinions that are attractive event that anyone should mistakenly assume that the science of administration will be a simple. we think we perceive the develop- ment of such a science and Simon have viewed to us. We must establish rules concerning priorities.Finally. The Integrativn of Plans loi . obvious system based on two or three axioms and intelligible to every successful businessman. and what they refer to as planning is only a part of what we would include in the complete process of constructing. we intend to pursue so where they are feasible and/or rele- Temporal considerations are slightly more subtle. mine many of the particular opportunities. Both space and time enter into our Plans in pervasive ways. all relevant and important. We should warn the reader that what we speak of here as a Plan is referred to by March and Simon as a program. perhaps. frustrations that will shape the person's The present authors are convinced that one of the most signif- icant arenas for the development and exploitation of a science of hu- man every planning is provided by the shared plans incorporated in nearly human institution. Survival to the individuals may hang in the balance. And they are important who participate in their execution. both individually and invite him to socially. it is our time that they compete for. public plans are interesting because they are often so terribly important. In so complex a wonderland we are grateful to be able to refer to the work of others. we examine the hst of 206 variables. Indeed. Simon. either temporarily or permanently. accomplishments. * See Edward T. Organizations (New York: Wiley. rules about when a Plan can be pursued and how long before it must be dropped. the execution of the Plan could take whatever length of time it required. for a comparison of our uses of time and space with their uses in other cultures. They are important for the social units that exe- cute them. 1959). Hall. that March and Simon require. March and Herbert A. coordinating.^ In the in the field of this business administration. since they deterand life. and executing Plans. 1958). for the execution of a 3 James G. The integration and coordination of plans. first We should not leave the topic without pointing out the signifi- cance of clocks and calendars for coordination. is an important aspect of the general problem of planning.

and Culture.more important Plan. are the most diligent servants of time. There are real penalties for being late and for not keeping commitments in time. M. is broader aspects. It is the way Americans In plan and. an indispensable aspect of the human mind. 102 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . planning not an American idiosyncracy. is decided to ignore this one. we are told. These words should re- mind us that planning may be a purely American characteristic. a function we have we have seen span whatever boundaries separate Americans from the digger wasp and It is not the fact that Americans plan that makes them different from their fellow men. Kluckhohn. at the most. A. or. Society. Essentially the American life Chapter 21. Planning the computing machine. five or ten. clocks and keys. Personality in Nature. a cautious reader should not overlook the Ameri- can origins of this book 5 Ibid. Promises to meet deadlines and appointments are taken very seriously. 342-357). and D. the respect Americans show for their shared plans that distinguish them from its men who live in other cultures. 172-173. pp. pp. Results must be obtained in the foreseeable future one or two years. not a universally human one. 2nd edition [New York: Knopf. When we attempt to coordinate our Plans with into its the Plans of others. His future is not very far ahead of him. useful as such warnings are. From this it can be surmised that the American thinks it is natural to quantify time. in C. Nonetheless.. It is we would argue. The American specifies how much time it will require to do every- — thing. 1955].^ Such is the verdict of an anthropologist. on the psychology of Plans. 1948]. become dimensions of everything we do. particularly. To fail to do so is unthinkable. But. of our lives. H. pp. Time and space. Schneider. 13-14) and by Florence Kluckhohn (see Dominant and variant value orientations. same opinion of the temporal aspects of was reached by Kurt Lewin (see Resolving Social Conflicts [New York: Harper. the clock comes own as the petty dictator must therefore be built into the test phases of almost every Plan to determine where and when any Plan will be relevant and feasible. Murray. Criteria of space and time The American never questions the fact that time should be planned and future events fitted into a schedule. He thinks that people should look forward to the future and not dwell too much on the past. Americans.

hypnosis. in fact. Some interests. In view of the difficulties so commonly encountered it is in persuad- ing other people to execute our plans. The problem of persuasion fascinated (or. of course. so striking a psychologists Relinquishing the Plan 103 . in other contexts. it is a full-time job just to keep him from hurting himself in our The situation is. but even that will usually not suffice to make a person execute the public plan with all the enthu- siasm and intelUgence he would lavish upon a Plan of his own. that there intent that is quite significant to note one situation where another person becomes fanatically tell on doing what we him. He becomes so cooperative.CHAPTER 8 RELINQUISHING THE PLAN The discussion you persuade people of public plans in the preceding chapter ignores : rather flagrantly a crucial problem of good administration to give How do up a segment of their lives in order to execute the common plan? Regular cash payments have proved to be a satisfactory method in our culture. seduction) has long some of our greatest psychologists. One of the seven wonders of psychology is that phenomenon as hypnosis has been neglected.

B. General Techniques of Hypnotism (New York: Gnine and Stratton.literally do not believe in it. as we concentrate on the task. Is there any reason to doubt him? is It is just as good a theory as any of the others that have been proposed. subvocally. Suppose that under ordinary conditions a waking person is con- stantly constructing and revising more or less coherent Plans for his own behavior. nosis is an actual trust effects. of course. Inner speech the made of. will is. The what the that trouble with such a theory. Now the trouble is we lack a good theory of hypnosis. kind of stuff our wills are emphasized by nearly aU behavioristic psychologists since J. but they have not worked with it and anyone who has. 104 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . therefore. based on a naive faith that the subject teUs us that he surrenders his wdll to means what he says when he the hypnotist. Suppose that some of these Plans are visualized. an act put on by a cooperative stooge. but consider it a hoax. but the more elaborate voluntary Plans is involve a self-conscious exploitation of language. we may imagine doing it and we repeat our verbal command to ourselves. in spite of its refew psychologists have any very good idea what hypnosis is or what to use it for. do not quite markable It is important to say at the outset. The present conception of hypIt is nosis is quite simple. The not only effect is to shift the focus of the difficulty. but that we lack a good theory of the will. Unfortunately. Let us begin with a flat-footed announcement of what the source of hypnotic of the reported phenomena must be and then proceed to examine some phenomena in detail. 1957). Watson. that most of our planned activity is represented subjectively iAndr6 M. etc. The majority of psychologists admit that hypphenomenon. that considerable reli- ance has been placed on the excellence of a recent review by Weitzenhoffer. When we will to do something. some are felt kinesthetically.^ His monograph defines the topic for the purposes of the pres- ent discussion. and thus arrive at the task of writing on the subject with an embarrassing lack of firsthand experience. that no one knows so we are scarcely any better off than before. And that is the point at which the arguments of the present book become relevant. It is a familiar fact. Two of the present authors have shared this suspicious attitude. WeitzenhofFer..

as any- for himself? This is something each of us accomplishes every night when we fall asleep. He would sit or lie down in a relaxed. and so he executes is The basic assumption here. He would make the room dark and quiet. ^ The person might try to stop thinking about his own Plans by He would giving his inner- speech machine something dull and stupid or concentrating on to do. So the question becomes of our lives : How does a person stop making Plans not always easy. with this exception his Plan is the voice he Ustens to for not his own. The hypnotist's version of the it. tening? It is assumed that a waking person hears the suggested Plans and then either incorporates them or rejects them in the planning he is doing for himself. like counting sheep some small detail. comfortable position. own Plan is the only one he has. He would try to create the same conditions under which he usually falls asleep. the subject capable of elaborating the Plan that the hypnotist gives him. The hypnotized person : is not really do- ing anything different. The subject gives up his inner speech to the hypnotist. as in other chapters. It is not sufficient to say merely that a hypnotized subject is Any person watching the pair of them at work would also be listening to the same Plans but would not feel the same compulsion to carry them out. But the hypnotist's Plan takes precedence over any Plans of his own. just as he would normally supply the tactics to elaborate some strategy of his own. but the hypnotist's. no possible translation from the hypnotist's version to his own. Of course. It would be interesting to see if cultural differences in sleeping habits were corwill attest. but one who has suffered from insomnia age to do it without too much difficulty. But a hypnotized subject has stopped making his Plans. all that he is must execute some Plan the time. Stopping is most of us manwould be natural to suppose that the same procedure would work when a person wanted to turn off his own inner speech in order to become hypnotized. and therefore there can be no question of coordination. try to discourage Relinquishing the Plan "105 . (These conditions which we consider necessary for sleep are not universally required. What is the difference between normal listening and hypnotized hslistening to Plans formulated for him by the hypnotist.as listening to ourselves talk. It related with differences in the induction of hypnosis.

Undoubtedly there than tized. in short. and so the operator's Plans begin to be played out on the subject's nervous system as though they were his own. a hypnotist must provide Plans. In this Plans offered by the hypnotist may be accepted as a wel- come skill relief from confusion. He would. crisis the it becomes overloaded and quits. And that is exactly what the stand- ard hypnotic procedures ask him to do. however. not just comments or descriptive statements. When conversation of a sort has been esio6 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . rather than from another person. because he finds that there a substitute Plan pro- vided by the operator's voice. In hypnosis. requires more is than do the standard methods. It is often necessary to address him several times before obtaining an answer. where he in relation to other objects in the room. and these Plans should be coordinated as well as possible with the subject's perceptions and movements in order to facilitate the illusion that they are coming from within. otherwise every student fell who became confused or asleep during a lecture would find himself hypno- In order to substitute his voice for the person's own. On this interesting point the present authors are perience and must rely on Weitzenhoffer. so that the subject's own planner becomes confused. Many light. etc. try to relax and stop talking to himself. First. of the tricks that good hypnotists use can be understood in this It should be fairly obvious by now that speech plays a critical it role in this conception of hypnosis and that might be quite disturbhandicapped by inex- ing to these ideas if a subject in a deep trance were fluent verbally. This technique. An alternative procedure for inducing hypnosis is for the oper- ator to give the subject difficult and conflicting instructions at a fairly rapid rate. in describing what a hypnotized person looks like he says The subject has a strong disinclination to talk. he does not fall asleep. Sometimes it is necessary to order him to answer questions. is however. more to the process of inducing hypnosis this description includes. Even then the subject often favors nods and shakes of the head over words. Instead of coasting to a halt. what is people will think of him.: himself from thinking fitfully of what is going to happen next. how long he has been here.

all Plans. etc.^ The fact that many hypnotized subjects hold complex conversations is puzzling. repeat suggestions and even hold complex conversations. although he is deeply asleep. the it subject's speech poses an impor- tant problem for further study. Relinquishing the Plan 107 . 2 Ibid. some wake up or their trance state lightens considerably. seems likely that the subject's lack of facial ex- also a symptom of his reluctance to Obviously. although various ad hoc explanations could be devised. His speech tends show a lack of sponbe low in volume and rather flat and expressionless. p. p. 3 Ibid. and slowly moving to anxietyprovoking questions. his ca- It is still necessary for him to supply tactics for 211. the minute they are made to talk. Is in a planning function while possible for him to use language he is in the trance? On the whole.: tablished. He says Many hypnotized subjects will readily answer questions. However. without coming out of the trance.. in discussing the various phenomena that can be demonstrated under hypnosis. This procedure is particularly important of course in therapeutic work. these descriptions are approximately had turned pressions is off his it inner speech what one would expect if the subject when he stopped making his own communicate. This often can be prevented by the simple expedient of giving suggestions. his name.. At other times the - speech of the subject can be best described as "thick.. to the effect that. Weitzenhoffer raises the problem of enabling a hypnotized subject to talk without awakening. Moreover. In therapy a much longer period should be spent asking relatively innocuous questions. the subject is usually found to to taneity and initiative. If the present view has any merit. to talk to you without awakening and to answer all of your questions. where anxiety-provoking questions must be asked sooner or later. and give further suggestions to the effect that he can do this wdthout waking. It is then that the subject or patient is most likely to become dehypnotized. prior to making the subject talk. Then ask him a few simple questions such as his age. a hypnotized subject does not relinquish pacity for planning. 353. he mumbles his answers and must be ordered to speak louder and more distinctly." Later. he will be able to hear your voice distinctly.

If the Plan containing these instructions were io8 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . But there must be still other planning functions that are performed more or less auto- matically as a kind of "housekeeping. or torpor. his orientation in space. generally recognized that hypnotic subjects differ wddely in the degree of hypnotism they can achieve. K his cessation of where he could not even work out we would expect to find him in a state of stupor. with some small degree of inis dependence.executing the strategy laid down by the hypnotist. so to speak. and they serve to settle various details once and for all without the necessity for fresh decisions These general-purpose routines ples. from a few sam- tary The normally awake person must have a more or less involunmechanism that takes care of his bodily posture. Differences among these various states of immobilization are subtle and will not be discussed here. let us assume that there are several different kinds of Plans that are normally executed in the waking state and that these can. such states have been observed and are called variplanning were to extend to the point the step-by-step details of the hypnotist's Plans. and they seem to have fairly high reliability. but It should also be noted that some subjects do not respond by acting out suggestions still when sit they are hypnotized. from which he could not be stirred. of course." They are. have very strong and vivid hallucinations which they observe more or less passively. Indeed. It is the capture of this planning function that marks the passage of a subject into a trance state. be given up individually. It is sufficient to know that im- mobilization can occur. It is necessary to give some account of these different levels in terms of the point of view taken here." the "Braid effect. then ously "animal hypnotism. Most important." the "plenary trance. his tonus. will become clearer on each new Plan. In order to account for the levels of hypnosis." etc. the kind of planning by inner speech that sets the voluntary strategy for so much that we do. as though the termination of self-planning were really complete. parts of every Plan we make. Several scaling proce- dures have been developed for measuring the depth of hypnosis. Those subjects who self -planning passively would seem begin to require fewer resources for than subjects who to act as if their hallucinations It is were true perceptions.

Another kind of Plan that automatically the storing of is it normally be executed more or less the tagging of our experience with verbal labels in and it is memory. "If the pain exceeds an amount X. it is possible to cripple this part of the machinery in two obvious ways. concerns how much pain we are willing to tolerate before we abandon a particularly painful Plan. no doubt. Since the tendency for subjects to collapse notist when they are told to relax special is so great. possible to go to that address When the label recalled and find the record of the experience. one in terms of storage and the other in terms of retrieval pro- The amnesias that are so easily produced in hypnosis. the subject would simply collapse. most dramatic effects in hypnosis. would from the suspension of "stop-rules. would seem cedures. and which frequently occur spontaneously in deep trances. the TOTE units must normally include somewhere in their test phase an implicit rule saying. to involve the suspension of those Plans that are necessary in order to store or retrieve information. in short. After going on as long as he could he finally stopped. what the person would say will to himself: keep the posture-plan working. Now. A hypnotized subject cannot do this and so may struggle with increasing tension. Presumably. however. it may be relevant to recall an incident rewho had recently gone through basic training In this connection lated by a psychologist he and the other trainees began running. so Relinquishing the Plan "109 . stop and transfer control to of the Some seem to result Y." At this point he was ordered to continue in the Army.terminated. the hypfall must give them a command not to out of their chairs. "1 can't go on any more. He says." Any device that is supposed to follow literally a given program of instructions must be told under what conditions it should begin and under what conditions it should give up. The labels serve the same function is as do addresses in a calculating machine." sis We think the anesthesias that are so familiar a feature of hypnotests can be understood as a result of the omission of these is when the subject no longer constructing his own Plans. A waking person who finds some planned action impossible will quickly stop and devise an alternative Plan. single-mindedly intent on executing the only Plan the hypnotist has provided. One of the most common stop-rules. He was told to run. puffing.

* The basic difference between the two types of images concerns the conditions under which they wall change. After a short period he lost all voluntary control. Such subjective Plans normally have remarkably little effect on perceptual images. W. * American Journal no Plans and the Structure of Behavior . He looked down and saw somebody's legs pumping away under him and was mildly surprised to notice that they were attached to so he his own body. plus the all any apparent amnesia for the painful that situation. etc. The suggestions that the subject cannot move tain parts of his body would seem to be exactly the reverse of the sug- gestions that he can continue to move them after he would normally in- have stopped. criteria of vividness have not proved satisfactory. 21. There has been much written by psychologists about how a person can tell his perceptual images from By and large. told to stop or until he fell on his face. C. good deal further on than he would voluntarily have And he had learned that it was safe to relinquish determining what was humanly possible. as weU. These are normally included as part of See. He had learned that his "physiological limit" was a set it. to his officers the task of What we when pain. for distinguishing between imagination and perception. If he there was a doctor who would immediately take care of him. endure surgery. of Psychology. 1910. it is the stop-for-pain rule can be relaxed or even eliminated. And began running again.. Thus imaginative image can be altered by an act of for changing the image into something else it seems likely that as children we must all learn a set of subplans for testing the plasticity of our images. Perky. However.running until he was fell. the psychological protection can be derived from any anesthetic. The his imaginative images. by creating a Plan and then executing the Plan. She demonstrated rather conclusively that images cannot be distinguished from perceptions on purely introspective grounds. will. accept as the limits of human endurance are usually well on the safe side of irreversible tissue damage. for example. It is also hkely that stop-rules can be changed in the opposite cer- direction. 422—452. Still another kind of ancillary Plan that can be suspended volves perceptual reality-testing. An experimental study of imagination. perceptual images can usually be modified by moving or adjusting the receptor organs themselves. without The change provide in the stop-rule. Under hypnosis. possible to bear children.

Grammatical skills are dis- cussed more fully in Chapter 11. or suggestions are Plans the hypnotist — made become dehypnotized. One virtue of this account that it makes it obvious why a per- Relinquishing the Plan 1 1 . inner speech. is to Plan. This stage of visual hallucinations should accompany is movements not used to test the image) that so characteristic of the deep hypnotic trance. Perhaps grammatical habits should also be put among the ancillary Plans. or fall asleep. by extending man's ability for instance. The major implication of this conception of hypnosis is not so much intimate connections that are implied phenomena as it is the among volition. must tremendously expand his consciousness of himself and his world over that available to. then language. that consciousness is in some essential way the capacity to make one's own Plans and that volition is the capacity to execute the explanation provided for hypnotic them.1 the test phase of all our TOTE units. (2) Posthypnotic well in advance for the subject by and carried unconsciously until the time when the test phase is satisfied and the Plan is executed. we would expect his brain waves to be like those of waking people. but no kind of love or transference situation is necessary to establish the phenomenon. In hypnosis. Thus we can proceed through a list of phenomena that are characteristic of hypnosis with- out finding any that seem to contradict the relatively simple hypothesis we have advanced. which seems to be the case. for to his subject A variety of other hypnotic phenomena seem to us to be intelligiexample ( 1 ) When a hypnotist stops talking : we should expect to see the subject lapse into quiet im- mobility. and normal. (3) Since the subject is awake. however. (5) Any drugs that would interfere with speech should make a person easier to hypnotize. the rules of formation and transformation of sentences may be so thoroughly habitual that they can be retained even when the subject has given up his usual. a chimpanzee. these reality-testing Plans can be temporarily suspended so that the subject is has vivid hallucinations which he the blank stare (eye unwilling to admit are not true perceptions. If so. (4) The subject must trust the hypnotist. It is not too improbable. waking consciousness. That is to say. we feel. spontaneous inner speech and is using his grammatical habits merely to implement and elaborate Plans provided by a hypnotist. ble in these terms.

Interpreted literally. For example.son cannot be hypnotized "against his will" and hypnotized so quickly when the hypnotist tells why he can be unhim to be. for complete planless- ness must be equivalent to death. Until psychologists of." procedures that have been used with military and political prisoners. the prisoner hears repeatedly a strong. and have died shortly thereafter. The first step. Whatever clear that to find oneself without it is any Plan at all is a serious matter. Of course. the subject endlessly in must develop a new set of concepts. or insufficient. therefore. that he could be forced to relinquish the planning function to another per- son? The question calls to mind the notorious "brain-washing. is to The object make him beheve what it is that only the Plans originating from his captor can be executed. He inkling of may be set the task of confessing. achieve a clear understanding of what "willingness" consists ever. at least it enables us 112 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . even the Plans dealing with his most personal bodily functions." or "thought control. It is amazing that such methods could ever fail. It does not seem to be an exaggeration to say these people die of planlessness. too. that man who can be controlled so completely by other people should be so stubborn when he is willing when he is unwilling. Is there any is way to gain similar control over him when he unwOling? Is there some way that a person's resistance could be overcome. must confess. These. have been isolated by their tribe. impossible. however. but given no that he be wrong. clear Plan offered by the thought reformer and corresponding to the former's own ideology. would be to make the person stop planning for himself. Destroying one Plan is only the prelude to building up another. but he does not have an Image that port the elaboration of the new Plan. Whatever he confesses will Through all of this frustration of every selfre- made Plan. his willingness of no avail. there are welldocumented cases of primitive people who have violated some taboo. amazement can be the only appropriate attitude. presumably. This might be achieved by deliberately frustrating every self-made Plan that he tries to execute. it is howelse. If such a diagnosis seems extravagant. Along with the surrender of his planning function. a prisoner to may be more than willing adopt the new Plan in order to avoid the terror if and humiliation will supis of his imprisonment. are presented ways he cannot ignore.

" invites the disaster of well defined planlessness. Or (2) the Plans that have guided his actions until recently are no longer relevant or almost always one of two kinds Either feasible. Nevertheless. the job is done. that they feel what a person becomes acutely mentally : ill his presenting complaints are ( 1 ) he cannot choose between two or more Plans whose execution would call for incompatible actions. such problems were discussed in Chapter 7. we must more psychological origins. anesthesia. His immobility is itself a part of the Plan he is executing. Plans are completely useless. by a How series of small strokes. in is terms of "goals. Or perhaps he completed the execution of his Plans. Whatever — he may be frustrated by success and left with no Plan for the remainder of his Relinquishing the Plan "113 . This is will comone of the two large categories of trouble that make people seek medical help for their psychological ills. the person's look for brain is apparently undamaged. Perhaps he on borrowed Plans determined by a loved one. If the goal — to earn a million dollars. unify the Armed Services. can it happen that someone finds himself suddenly without any Plans for dealing with an important segment of his life? Such a symptom might be a result of brain damage produced." Deep sleep. say. and he is ready living largely was — Plans — to die Or perhaps some haphazard stroke of fortune exploded him out of his usual rut and thrust him suddenly into a situation for which he is totally unprepared. Perhaps the complexities and ambiguities involved in the situation are too great for him to understand or to tolerate. When to do. by the boss and the source of these Plans is suddenly withdrav^m.to understand what a physician is talking about when he says a patient died because "he lost his will to Uve. some particular facet of his life has become planless. patients do come to the psychiatrist vdth the com- plaint that they are unable to decide pletely planless. but he man without Plans. The not a catatonic who immobile is a man without action. But if. concussion. The person who makes and to his life's Plans in terms of concrete specific objectives. where his previous but can only retire. as is usually the case. to climb Mt. by children. the plenary trance of hypnosis close to complete planlessness as sits — these is are probably as we can ever get. and his itself off planning mechanism turns before it produces anything that could be executed.

" that related to the extent to is. irrelevant. Gordon W. This simple point has been overlooked by many psychologists who seem to take it for granted that all behavior must be oriented toward explicit goals. if the person becomes planless rather suddenly. Whatever the mechanism. the realization that an enduring Plan must be changed at a strategic level can cause a considerable upheaval in the person's Image as well as in his Plans. 1955). A rule that most people seem to learn. As Gordon Allport has pointed out. appears more only tactics ^ which the Plans are pnmed. Or he may be frustrated by failure. to formu- and planning as if they were tasks that had to be finished. that is. not necessary. Allport. the smallest possible substitufirst. not to terminate living what are comes his reactions? Whenever an enduring Plan some guided action for any prolonged period of the useless. Personality (New Haven: Becoming: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Yale University Press. by the exhaustion of every It is possible Plan he can devise without the attainment of the goal. Plans that up large "investments" of special habits and skills. Moreover. marked mood swings come "emotional. tions of alternative tactical subplans are to be attempted and the change in strategy is to be postponed as long as possible. it is better to plan toward a kind of continual 'Taecoming" than toward a late final goal. to organize one's Plans in terms of frozen and brittle terminal states. whether are affected or entire strategies have to be abandoned.^ The problem is to sustain life. the way the person feels. investments that might be lost if the Plan is never executed again. Unlike good problems in science or matheis matics.life. — a Plan that has person's — belife characteristic reac- tions ensue: they are pathological only in the extreme case. enduring Plans. successful living to convert it not a "well-defined problem. is: are intended to span long periods of time build When in the execution plan is of a Plan is it is discovered that an intended sub- not relevant or not feasible. 114 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . however. the interpretation of the crease in "emotion." The are apt to occur: the person is said to be- activation appears to result directly from the in- suddenness in the alteration of Plans. for whatever reasons. Given that a person finds himself planless. probably when they are very young." and attempts into a well-defined problem by selecting explicit goals and subgoals can be an empty deception. or not feasible.

The person may go through is a brief stage where the irrelevance of his Plan crystal clear to him. these frag- H. is to reinstate the old Plan in spite of the transform no longer relevant or feasible. except for necessary modifications of tactics. may go unyears. in the absence of alternative tactics. if the regressive process has gone far enough. involuntary. A third possibility is to give up the life. The person may attempt to "act out" some early situation. may have become unconis When the larger Plan dropped. to continue to develop it." The seriousness and intensity of the acute episode probably depends upon how rapidly the tactics are abandoned. and execute it despite its inadequacy. A paranoid person may even be able to persuade is others that his Plans are feasible. Then the paranoid transformation sets in. According to Sullivan's scheme.*^ When the process has stabilized and the patient has not developed new tactics. In its most exis treme form.One fact that possible reaction it is it. or. S. for example. aided in their execu- hang on to as much of the general strategy as possible and consider making revisions only in the tactical branches of the Plan. In more severe forms. a patient regresses to earlier and simpler (parataxic and proing of tactics. or of the person's "style of scious." strategy. Paranoid reactions. Various habitual acts. is felt by the person as depression. he may be classified as a "simple schizophrenic. This transformation changes whatever part of the Image might interfere with the execution of the Plan. once an important part of the total Plan. as in agitated depression or in hebephrenia. The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry (New York: Norton. if the Plans are not obviously socially destructive detected for and are not too obviously irrelevant. he is said to suffer from a taxic) chronic depression. letting present persons symbolize earlier ones and attempting to impose on them the same strategy used earlier. A sudden extensive abandon- emotional excitation that. 1953). so that he tion. is. that the pruning of a plan. Relinquishing the Plan 115 . seems to produce modes of interaction and during this part of the process may show symptoms of agitation (unplanned action). the process second possibility is to A may be characterized as schizophrenic. Sullivan. this the paranoid reaction. but to hold on to the tactics.

to the Image instead Plan. may well form a part of the clinical pic- when very marked. be a threat to a person's Image of large segments of Plans. representation can have it. then." suffering How can we explain when an enduring Plan must be abandoned? Giving up use an existentialist term? to accept. The survival of autonomous islands of involuntary Plans ture of hysteria and." The patient may then develop Plans to cope with the anxiety (defense mechanisms) instead of developing new Plans to cope with reahty. The patient them or formulating his may have a very difficult time new Plans in such a way that getting the old tactics are once more relevant and useful. of catatonia. The person's knowledge of himself includes the fact that he is capable of executing the Plan. In extreme instances they w^ould constitute the stuff that compulsions and obses- made of. Both hysteria ritualistic patterns of and catatonia are characterized by habitual. some such assignment values to the symbols in the Image that represent Plans would probably be an aid in the decision to transfer some familiar Plan to a new situation. ii6 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . same notion somewhat difand usually is.ments. sions are rid of may now be inappropriate. useful Plans. For whatever reason. some positive (or negative) value associated with In fact. represented in the itself is Image. can to we account for the person's feeling of "com- mitment. Or. When this excitation can find no focus in either the Image or in action. Insofar as the Plan its symof boUzed in the Image. How. to express the his the Plan must affect the person's Image of himself in ways that are cult for diffi- him ferently. whether or intrinsic to the wholesale the it behavior that substitute for the development of new. the person experiences "anxiety. some value if Can itself? the execution of a given Plan acquire in and of Considerable argument has led the present authors tentatively to the position that psychological theory will be simpler values are of the restricted to the domain of knowledge. a decision that forms a crucial part of thinking and of problem-solving generally. the Plan itself may be. should they survive. abandonment more or less sudden realization that an enduring Plan must be changed at a strategic level is accompanied by a great deal of emotional excitation.

to the analysis of the first experimenters were dedicated Image. The red and circles are circucontrollable. and was not recognized that both are important and that they need to be linked by the sort of planning function described in these pages. This neglect may have been inherited from their experimental colleagues. or the basic laws of behavior clinician loves — the kind of differences among people that a is is were just experimental errors in the laboratory. it therefore But Image and behavior became competitors. and their favorite weapon was an inner sci- eye called "introspection. rather than on its ideas. Image lar. is a relatively stable structure. the behaviorists expanded the ence by focusing attention on the movements of an organism. On both sides of the argument the experimenters were search- ing for invariances that would characterize a generalized mind.CHAPTER 9 NONDYNAMIC ASPECTS OF PERSONALITY Psychologists who devote their intellectual lives to the search for significant dimensions of difference for short v^^ays — let us dub them "clinicians" — have not given much The attention to the differences in the people make Plans. red even when And behavior when 117 a re- Nondynamic Aspects of Personality . tilted. etc." Next.

These phrases relate to differences in the way people tackle a problem and carry it through. Consequently. values." We may even accuse each other of basic as. the Plan scription. the Plan. ences in our Images with such comments "His ideas are weird. the study of style has not prospered — it has been a less fruitful topic than. Plans and the Structure of Behavior ii8 . In any event. is another man's poison." etc. needs. that the variations are so great that psychologists have not to known how the catch them in their clinical and psychometric nets. for etc. In order to follow up this lead we might look at some of the obvious ways in which Plans can differ. principal differences one finds behavior of different attention on the and fish." "He doesn't speak our language. There sig- another domain. "John would have handled it differently. since only there does the kind of variation from one person to the next that is essenare to understand personality. valences. ments. birds. is One difficulty. the question is still purely rhetorical. so variable that to it A clinician wants people be different." "There is no accountdiffer- ing for tastes.sponse is properly under the control of a reinforcing stimulus. Some psychologists have come very close to this domain when they have discussed personality in terms of "style." "You never know what he will try next. no doubt. The when one examines the Image or the people involve their values and reinforcerats. Whereas is. of course." nificantly but it is not clear that all differences in style should be reduced to dif- ferences in the kinds of Plans people use. But individuality is perhaps more often captured by such phrases as. example. discouragingly stable is among members almost defies dedif- of similar cultures. and where we can find a rich source of clinical insights. where people differ greatly and from one another. Image values excepted." etc. the clinician has been forced to concentrate his he find tial if dynamic aspects of psychology. then try to see if we recognize these differences among the people we know. where the differences cannot easily be attributed to evaluative origins. is this we But restriction to the Image or to behavior necessary? In is the present context. drives. you cannot detect the differences among men." "Bill would have done it like this." "They never give up. but not that ferent. "One man's meat etc. Popular speech recognizes differences in values by such sayings as.

instead of it is possible to imi- using your own. Of course. During the initial stages of learning the maze. 169-186. that We shall not compete with The Lonely Crowd by trying to elaborate the difference in these men and women show charways they prefer to tackle problems: whereas men when given the chance tend to produce an analytic or abstract Plan for solving the problem." those this aspect of character on who act on borrowed Plans as "other-directed. others are limited next few seconds or minutes.A study by Walter Gruen. How meticulous you are is probably a highly stable feature detail of your planning. Some Plans incorporate events that are expected to occur to the months. Five studies of the relation between sex-role identification and achievement in problem solving. you are what is usually referred to as a compulsive person. even centuries in the future. 1958. (Technical Report 3. It is acteristic differences in the Span. 1959. 27. and might be possible experimentally some of these factors that determine Plan complexity. Yale University. to accept their Plans.^ pages. contract Nonr 609(20).^ 1 G. Journal of Personality. Behavioral correlates of some dimensions of the cognitive field. People were given a Rorschach ink-blot test and they were required to learn the correct path through a long and complicated stylus maze.) Departments of Industrial Administration and Psychology. another for the financial se- may be unwilling to develop Plans that extend Detail. but even wathin a single culture there are characteristic differences between individuals in the extent to which they worry about remote events. years. Alexander Milton. women more often begin by seeking help from others. the itself nature of the Plan and also the value of the Image which the it is Plan's execution will affect are both considerations in determining how far one it should go in "debugging" a Plan before to isolate executed. however. Whereas one person may make elaborate Plans curity of his grandchildren. If you must have every worked out. Some people sketch in only the general strategy of their Plans before they begin to execute them. . David Riesman has laid particular stress described those who act and has on their own Plans as "inner-directed. Because Plans are communicable tate others. NR 150-166. illustrates the kind of thing that can be done." worth noting. others will not decide to execute any Plan until they have elaborated the smallest tactics wdth a fine pen. There are large differences in the temporal scope of planning that will occur in different cultures. much beyond his evening meal. the people who had given many Nondynamic Aspects of Personality 119 .Source.

* Some people seem keep each Plan in a separate "whole responses" on the Rorschach were best able to organize sequences of correct moves in the maze into larger units. and although maze-learning is a reasonable test of planning only by the grace of reasonable assumption. No doubt in- telligence is involved here to a large extent. No. however. almost as rapidly as he can describe whereas the other must spend hours with penis and paper. Annual Review of Psychology (Palo Alto. pp. 267-281. * Although it may not be directly relevant. 1950. By recording how long each subject wanted to study the instructions before he started taking an ability test. the inflexible planner would have his time planned like a sequence of causeeffect relations. 3 One way to approach this aspect of personality has been illustrated by A. The former could rearrange his lists to suit his opportunities. a skill. 455-482). in C. Gruen's results encourage the present authors to believe that a person's interest in detail both in his Images and his Plans could be studied objectively. only form) and "large detail responses" on the Rorschach mastered the maze perfectly in the shortest time.^ Speed. but the latter The degree would be unable to strike while the iron was hot and would generally require considerable "lead-time" before he could incorporate any alternative subplans. Wells found consistent individual differences that could not be explained in terms of differences in general ability. The flexible planner might tend to think of lists of things he had to do. Cases XCVI-CII. 6. Stone (ed. Vol. Although a projective test provides a special approach to the study of personality. Luchins. Journal of Genetic Psychology. — — 120 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . nevertheless. Problem solving and thinking. Psychological Monographs. Planning Coordination. Annual Reviews. 248. some people are quicker than others. but that is not all there is Two people of equal intelligence might work out Plans in equiv- alent detail for coping with the same anticipated it situation.). yet one may cil arrive at his Plan immediately. Some people Plan more rapidly than to it. but the correlation is worth some empirical verification. a study by F. P. Taylor and Olga W. others. Instruction time in certain multiple-choice tests. A Plan is flexible to if the order of execution of its parts can be Plan. L. 1942. 1955.Flexibility. The person teristically who charac- devises inflexible Plans and then refuses to interrupt them is usually referred to as a rigid person. and as with to all skilled acts. S. Wells. Compare the review of this work and of other studies of individual differences in problem solving: Donald W. constructing it. McNemar. the people who had given many "formal responses" (no mention of movement or color. Subjects who had discovered a satisfactory Plan for solving a series of water-measuring problems differed in their ability to change it when an easier Plan became possible. As the learning progressed. Mechanization in problem solving. easily interchanged without affecting the feasibility of the which a person would favor flexible Plans is probably related to the amount of detail he characteristically demands. illustrates one way this aspect might be studied.

some people will become very upset if they lose track of how far they have progressed in the execution of some Plan. A ^ little is more than the familiar notions of persistence and be- satiation involved." in their willingness to let one Plan drop absent-mindedly as they pursue another.. to execute each Plan independently of all the others. Openness. or his life "flighty. A rich source of individual differences is connected with the location and kind of stop-orders a person will insert into his Plans. especially pp.compartment. They make intelligence three trips to town in one afternoon. Here we come very dynamic properties of the Image that will. incidentally. The kind of working memory when they are executing a Plan seems to represent a characteristic difference. the review by Kurt Lewin. one suspects that low may have something know whether is to is do with the isolation of one not the whole story. however. running from a calendar pad. unfortunately. another because no one agrees with him. Carmichael. 824 S. Again. Retrieval. Manual of Child Psychology (New York: W^iley. It Plan from ing his another. for example. even inquire). but intelligence would be instructive to the person own Plans also the person who has trouble coordinatwho has trouble coordinating his that people prefer to use Plans with those of other people. Some people are very cagey about announcing what their Plans are. that perseverance is not necessarily correlated with compulsiveness in the context of the present discussions. but others seem almost irresponsible. close to some of the nate the execution of the Plan. because one person may give up cause time is gone. whereas others feel quite free to describe to those if them to anybody who inquires (and. determine what kind of outcomes will termi- because he wants to avoid hurting himself. Behavior and development as a function of the total situation. another etc. An additional complication arises. 1946). whereas another person will keep in his own head everything he intends to do. One person will insist on writing things down. ed. Nondynamic Aspects of Personality 121 . 5 See. Also. of course. Notice. who do not we consider the fact that cute. each trip connected with the execution of a different Plan. some people freely describe Plans they will never exe- Stop-orders. in L. usually unconsciously.

It 122 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . The structure of Plans would then be able to stand as part of the description of a personality on an equal footing with the current descriptions of need structure. precision. similar to those proposed by C. And the traits would not be simple differences in the amount of some otherwise undefined facet of personality. G. or derivable from. evaluative overtones. may be too prejudiced to judge the many trait names have very dynamic connotations. Holt. Henry Chauncey. but would be attributable to. And so on. Professional students of personality could probably tidy up these ideas and organize in ways more appropriate to the work that has been done in this The present authors are inclined to say that what they are describing here are personality traits and that the theory of personality developed by Gordon Allport is as close to what we have in mind field. Allport. The sort of trait theory if that is what it should be called to which a student of Plans could subscribe would have to be shorn of trol one's environment or the trait of — — these dynamic. that there is no necessary connection between an interest in Plans and Allport's trait theory of personality. balance. has shown us an interesting personality test. 1937). them as anything else we are familiar with. the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. neatness. however. 6 Gordon W. that explores (among other things) the extent to which people like to plan their activities in advance. of the Educational Testing Service in Princeton. For example. the test was designed to get at basic personality difFerences.*^ In order to test the validity of this association. no doubt. Personality: A Psychological Interpretation (New York: should be apparent. "Order" can be considered as a need for cleanliness. or it can be described as the extensive use of environmental memory. one of which is the extent to which plans are used. but these should be sufficient to suggest what kind of differences in Plans one could look for in a study of personality. different structural aspects of the person's Plans.This list could be extended quite a bit further. This distinction would lead to a less evaluative kind of trait system than clinicians are accustomed to. In any case. Jung. New Jersey. Values are properly a part of the Image system. the reader is invited to take a sample of trait names and to see how many The authors have very easy to make them can be characterized in terms of Plans. as has been repeatedly argued in these pages. but they matter objectively. "dominance" can be either a need to con- communicating one's Plans to other people. and have concluded that it is the translation from trait name to some aspect of of tried this exercise planning in most cases.

anthropologists have had something to say about different attitudes toward time. culture and personality. is confining certain activities to Time much less important in other and plans are made and executed in a much more leisurely. but casual ob- servations by anthropologists and sociologists indicate that the dif- ferences are there waiting to be described. etc. more likely. the present authors will go a farther and point out that differences in Plans would seem to characterize different cultures as well as different personalities. and cannot understand ments.Neither one step is more fundamental or more important than the other. pen. disturbances that would not arise in another culture. The fact that Americans place so high a value on the faithful execution of shared plans may be part and parcel of that "stress of modern life" we hear so much about. A Persian businessman. informal way. An Arab will say that the future is known only to God and that it would be impertinent to plan how it will hap- American and cannot consider promises Americans will assume that other people will enforce stop-rules for them and that in matters of passion they do not have to control themselves. It seems to us possible that planning is one of the most important points of contact between those two equally extravagant concepts. Nondynamic Aspects of Personality 123 . Although anthropologists have not made any more systematic studies of planning than have psychologists. Our insistence on this point may be producing many character disorders. He will order machinery before he knows how he can pay for it. and he will pay for it before he makes any plans for how to use it. The American takes his elaborate system of timekeeping for granted. Latin And so on. Having wandered this far afield. or who fails to complete the execution of shared plans. we are told. There does not seem to be any sizeable body of anthropological literature that one might consider an adequate basis for analysis. other cultures may be better able to tolerate a person whose style of planning is unusual cultures than it is in ours. assumes every- one must conceive of time as he does. Or. runs his affairs in a planless state that would drive any to distraction. why people in other cultures are so unconcerned about keeping appointstart. finishing the jobs they certain hours of the day. is A Navajo bound to the present of future benefits as anything worth planning for.

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^ No one who knew these factors are important in determining how fast and how well a person will be able to commit a particular string of symbols to memory. McGeoch and Arthur L. 2. 1952). It has been ignored because the traditions of. opera1 The field of psychological research that we have in mind is reviewed in John A. The reason for returning to this weU-cultivated plot and trying to crowd in another crop is that an important aspect of the memorizing process seems to have been largely ignored. or strengthened. Plans for Remembering "125 . with the beneficent consequences of success. with the the experimental data would question meaningfulness or other sources of transfer of previous learning. first. later. how the connections between the parts of it become learned. and so that all on. with the facilitating or inhibiting effects arising from similarity among parts of the materials or between these materials and others. The Psychology of Human Learning (New York: Longmans Green.CHAPTER 10 PLANS FOR REMEMBERING to the study of memorization is to ask how on the nervous system. or imprinted. ed. or conditioned. Irion. The usual answers have to do with the amount The usual approach the material is engraved of practice. behaviorism and.

it wasn't easy. was just plain remembered the way it came. And he will usually be eager to say to fact. What he says not always wrong. Of course. It is the learner. the only part of the task that has any interest or appeal to most subjects concerns the discovery and use of a technique for solving the problem.tionism tended to prevent psychologists from speculating about symbolic processes inside the tion of the field in terms of memorizer and encouraged an organizawhat the experimenter. people really do not know what they are doing and lieve it is what they tell you. but how did he make sense out of the carefully chosen nonsense he was given? Well. MIB. Let us focus attention on him. But he finally worked out by thinking of 126 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . ZYQ. rather than the memorizer. sense syllables to wdll you what he did in order master the he In have quite a lot to say. This skepticism may indeed be justified in many But it cases. XAJ. If you ask a man who tell has just memorized his to first list of nonlist. on his and on his efforts to cope with it. seems foolish to refuse to listen to the is person under any circumable to understand stances. they are free to speculate about what the learner is doing and to ignore (for the mo- ment) what menter. Ordinarily the simplest to ask way to find out what a person is doing is him. however. but he did it. but the second one reminded him of "XAJerate. especially those dealing with emotions and motivations. was doing." So he had a kind of sentence. because for two or three bered trials through the Ust he rememit MIS instead of MIB. Now. More often what he says if would provide a valuable clue only we were what it meant. "BOF exagrates his misery because he is not sick." instead of the cryptic BOF. task." the third one turned into "MIBery. But psychologists have become very chary about asking just a waste of time to be- people what they are doing because. Since the present authors have here thrown operational and behavioral caution to the winds. you that he knew imagine a hypochondriac named BOF who continually complained about his health. that first nonsense syllable. BOF. they usually say. That MIBery-misery association wasn't too good. it. the experimenter is up to. and he could sense of them." and the fourth turned from ZYQ to "not sick. not the experi- who must be explained. He will say that he was trying connect things up and make had to connect them up.

a different story. or certainly idiosyncratic. but unspecified. associations. p. they believe that it is better to try to find out what a person is doing It than to assume he is doing what you want to study. 1954). long descriptions of the various ideas. .. Is it nothing the sort of data that psychologists ought to study most carefully? Data about the number of trials required to reach this or that criterion set by the experimenter is all may be far less valuable for understanding what memorization about. They make the learning task less uniform and introduce variability and unreliability into the quantitative results. and how can anyone make a science out of things no two of which behave the same way? It is much easier to think in terms of an average subject with normal. and connections that occurred to but chatter? Or is this him during the learning. there is because introspections are notoriously unreliable and because no assurance that these elaborate translations and groupings and associations by the memorizer are really any help at all. E wants to study the formation of ones. ed. We would expect the properly cautious student of human learning to 2 (New Robert S. spinning out went together. Besides. ." The fleeting thought a strange way to spell "sick" was just amusing . enough to fix the fourth syllable." Is there new associations. Woodworth and Harold Schlosberg. associations. Experimental Psychology York: Holt.: "mibery" as a that ZYQ was new word meaning "false misery. Plans for Remembering 127 . but E would like to be rid of them. most experimental psychologists toward these associative links that a memorizer spends so much of his time look- The is attitude of ing for illustrated by the following comment Such aids in memorizing are naturally regarded with much favor by O. images. not O's clever utilization of old some way to interpret this comment so that it does not mean that the experimenter has no interest in what his subject is trying to do? for would appear that the present authors hold a minority opinion. 708. Now the fifth and sixth syllables And so the subject chatters on. It may even be better to do so. rev. The tions principal reason this kind of report looks so hopeless to a is psychologist that every subject tells The associa- seem to be entirely random. too.

and that will be of no use to him later. although this approach may be parsiminous. It really has nothing to do with the more fundamental. Rote serial memorization is a complicated." it Now. same time he must adopt ways open to the a Plan to guide his memorizing. until the 128 out as the let- Plans and the Structure of Behavior . then to organize the words into sentences and/or images. fol- lowed by reinforcement or confirmation. ing the test period. The argument here is that such a skill could not run itself off successfully unless it were guided in its execution by a Plan of the sort we have been discussing. may be hopelessly complicated. There are a variety of subject for memorizing. All the talk the subject gives us that is just — talk. generate the nonsense at the syllables in the correct order. to organize the sentences and images into a story list the length of the demands such higher-order planning. On the one hand. has since 1885 made rote memorization one of the dreariest chapters ics not excepted — in — psychophysmore interest- experimental psychology. even. solid memory from the stimuli to the desired responses. Another is Plan the person can use sheer drill without any translation. when But executed. tricky thing and when it is mastered it represents a rather special skill. at this point for us to become of Plans that are involved in is rote memorization. the subject attempting to construct a Plan that will. that have no significance. builds up the excitatory potential for that correct response while all other response tendencies are inhibited or extinguished.tell us something like this is : "The most parsimonious theory of human learning that the continued repetition of a correct response. perlist rolls haps aided by rhythmic grouping. but at least A memorizer's task in the psychological laboratory is to learn how to produce a particular sequence of noises that he would never make ordinarily. What the subject is telling us when he reports all the wild and improbable connections he had to use is the way in which he developed a Plan to control his performance durto learn to do. he must choose a strategy for constructing the Plan for recall. One is to translate the nonsense syllables into words. The alternative apit is proach ing. probably unconscious process of laying trace that will lead reliably down a good. would be extremely easy confused between two different kinds it Now. if if necessary.

to him and if you let him arrange those words into sentences. slow heave of the will. Or he can play it tricks with imagery — imagin- ing each syllable at a different location in the room. him execute for generating the recall responses. The data that have been collected are extensive and various. A subject may. that Plan will not be achieved without intent to learn. that is to say. This proposition has provoked a certain amount of exploration by memory psychologists. (See Chapter 4 for a discussion of intention. do something similar to the performance described above. Unless a person has some kind of Plan for learning. nothing happens. but not invariably. it is and they should be investigated. In order to get the list memorized. at the nonsense syllables used in the example Plans for Remembering 129 . try to recall the four (Without glancing back. etc. then simply looking there and "reading" when it is needed. Subjects have read nonsense syllables hundreds of times and learned almost nothing about them if they were not aware would later be tested for recall. and only fools would attempt a simple generaUzation about them. The simple generaUzation of the present authors is this: An intention to learn means that the subject executes a Plan to form a Plan to guide recall. learn without intending and in that case he will The important thing is to have a Plan to later. the act follows by a steady." Given the intention. form fragments of a Plan for memorizto ing more or less absent-mindedly and incidentally. But first the impression of the present authors that the average person. without executing a metaplan for constructing a Plan that will guide recall. There are a variety of such strategies for learning.) The intention does not "stamp it in" or "strengthen" the associations — merely signifies that the person will search for associations that he already has. all as part of some unexplained game but without any suggestion that recall will be tested. when confronted with will a list of nonsense syllables for the time. If you ask a person what words are suggested syllables.ters of the alphabet do. then you will find that he has inadvertently learned a great deal of the material without intent to learn. ing that they of course. if you encourage him by other tricks to do all the things he would do in forming a Plan for reby various nonsense call. without anticipat- may become useful to. ordinarily. a subject must have that mysterious something called an that they "intent to learn.

four parts. The psychology of chess and of learning to play it. This fact tends to become obscured by the mechanical methods of presentation used in most experiments on rote learning. 1956. This procedure results in a hierarchical organization of the list.) For example. A more general discussion. not just the intent to execute that is important. 1907. It is the execution of the Plan. necessary. 1956. 42-46. When this hierarchical structure is complete is — when the Plan for recitation is constructed — the subject able to recite the syllables to in their correct order. 69. first how he we note that the translation into words is only the step in his campaign. Psychological Review. American Journal of Psychology.^ it. Comparisons of incidental and intentional learning with different orienting tasks. 4 The importance of a hierarchical organization in serial memorization has been pointed out in three articles by George A.* There difference between the would seem be no fundamental way his recitation is guided by a hierarchical 3 Irving J. Scientific American. and Human memory and the storage of information. Miller: The magical number seven. No. Cleveland. can be found in A. The natural. a suggestion that supports our speculations about the general importance of words in our Plans. 128-137. if The second is to group the words into phrases. 63. Saltzman. telephone numbers if bers later just as well as he would have he will recall the numyou had instructed him to — memorize them intentionally. notice whether the if you ask a person merely to numbers on a list suggest anything to him — birth dates. however. American Journal of Psychology. 81—97. each of which. naive. This suggests that a natural element of nonrecurrent Plans new or temporary. then. consists of words that suggest the nonsense syllables. people tend to master the material in chunks organized as units. The study of learning Plans should tell us something about people form Plans in general. 274- 277. 18. Moreover. The list turns out to have. say. Information and memory. first-impulse kind of response to the nonsense syllables is to translate them into how words. If we listen carefully to the list memorizer's explanation of reproduces a of nonsense syllables in the correct order. A. IT-2. each of which has its own smaller parts. as opposed to instinctive or habitual Plans — are words and phrases. 269-308. 130 Plans and the Structure of Behavior .— beginning of this chapter. perhaps. plus or minus two. 1956. 3. 1956. to group the phrases into stories or bizarre episodes. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. street addresses. Vol. because such methods do not enable the subject to spend his time as he wishes. 195.

Thus it is about Benton Underwood. and concentrate syllable with the next. ex- perienced memorizers do change their strategy for memorizing. nonsense syllables. less insecurity and anxiety about the more appreciation for the usefulness of rhythmic. The prompted. What he It is gives into words. If we organize them into groups and form associations between those groups. The largest number is of digits the average person if can remember after be sure that he will one presentation never 5 about seven. In the first place. directly upon connecting one The question change is raises a variety of problems. A suspicious attitude toward these organizing tricks is reinforced by the observation that experienced all memorizers of nonsense syllables say they can drop out lating the trans- and grouping and imagining. at least in part. 64. that twenty-four hours later the novice will remember still left the list a good deal better than will the more professional memorizer. and by general exhaustion with the effort involved in it doing the way we it described above. Interference and forgetting. or Plan. up first is the translation of the nonsense syllables which is what the novice spends most of his time doing. and the we want to fail. all his other intentional behavior is guided by Some questions of efficiency should be raised at this point.^ But we are with the fact of grouping and with questions it about the necessity for this extra labor. thus producing a kind of simple hierarchy.Plan and the way hierarchical Plans. 49-60. The matter needs careful ex- amination. but is the authors's impression that even the most syllables hardened subjects never give up the practice of grouping the into substrings. 1957. we must reduce J. by increasing familiarity with task. however. as opposed to semantic. grouping. also interesting to note. Psychological Review. The reason for seems to be related to the rather severe limitation of our span of apprehension. Isn't this just a makework proposition? The efficient solution should be to use as few new associations as possible. we simply add to the number of associations we need. Plans for Remembering 131 . number to four or five. Why do we bother to build up such elaborate hierarchies? Does this not add to what we already have to remember? A list of N words requires N— 1 associations if we learn them as a chain.

etc. Even lists as names of the months are organized into the four seasons. he effectively shortens the length of the the list. It is as though he is trying to reduce the list to number of units that can be held in mind simultaneously. Miller once tried to explain the informational economies of grouping and renaming in the following terms Since it is as easy to remember a lot of information (when the items are information ally rich) as it is to remember a little information (when the items are information ally impoverished). elements. it is economical to organize the material into rich chunks. at least in by an attempt capacity. it is as if we had to carry all our money in a purse that could contain only seven coins. longest unorganized that most of us ever learn is the alpha- and even there one suspects that hierarchical traces could be detected in a child's learning process. traces that vanish recitation is. 3. As the learner groups and renames the elements in the Hst to be memorized.*' make the best possible use of our mne- monic Because the particular tricks that each person will use to group and rename the materials he is attempting to remember are quite variable and idiosyncratic. things. when the by endless repetition. 129-137. 1956. In his attempts to solve them. since at that point there can be no serious problems in executing the Plan when the time comes to translate it into action. is a pervasive human to trait. transferred from a conscious. they pose formidable problems for the experimentalist. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. list The bet. 132 Plans and the Structure of Behavior .) that will easily group in consciousness at one time as a short as the new list to which we can attach a new label. ideas. items. there are all of the ^ George A. the experimentalist might very well turn into a clinician. Miller. however. and it is motivated. IT-2. thoughts. No. In addition. whether these coins are pennies or silver dollars. The process of organizing and reorganizing part. Human memory and the storage of information. chunks. Vol. To draw a rather farfetched analogy.: four or five symbols (words. It doesn't matter to the purse. for every subject must be individually studied and his performance interpreted in terms of the particular Plan that he constructed. lists. planned performance into "pure habit" so that the mouth can speak without guidance from above.

In each sentence are words. as every actor knows. In the love scene there are four attitudes to go through successively: affection. etc.problems of discovering what the subject's Plan really was when the subject himself is not very clear about it. In each line are one or more sen- tences. Only after that detailed look at each individual's strategy should we begin to recite the general features that characterize everyone. exploration. interest. there are about eight lines. and that your big scene is in Act III. But. then discovering that only a statistical theory will is fit the same the data. or planning. then there is the fight with Caspar. you will have imposed just such a hierarchical structure on your script and you will be able to move around in it without a slip. and finally the big love scene. Imagine that you are cast in a play and that you part. and first you talk to the maid about having cocktails ready for the guests. is The kind it is of memorization that we is are considering here a process that goes on in one nervous system at a time. kiss. and the only to way study to see what each individual doing. a pure example of looking for the wallet only where the light is good. And that is about as far as we can go. in each movement are muscle twitches. movements. there are always those deadly moments when someone skips ahead two pages. lumping everybody together and pretending they are doing thing. rather than nonsense syl- mazes. indifference. In Act III you are on at the curtain. that you are on in all four. But the alclinician's ternative. You first note that the play has four acts. thus Plans for Remembering 133 . by syllables because you do not need to search fol- for the translations into words and because the strings of words and large. in each in each phoneme are articulatory word are phonemes. The organizing. This is a great deal easier have the job of memorizing your than memorizing nonsense low. operations in memorization are to perhaps easier to see and recognize when the material lables. grammatical rules that you have already learned. be mem- orized consists of meaningful discourse. Your task during the performance will be greatly simplified by the fact that you are holding a conversation and that the other actors will be remem- bering the script too. When you have memorized your part and are ready for the opening night. ending with an embrace and a and expression of During the indifference part.

and the most exciting part of amateur calls. pp. devices ject's mnemonic devices. One evening we were "But exactly what orizing depends is entertaining a visiting colleague. Woodworth. "Belonging" as an aid to remembering was first discussed by E. Woodworth's discussion of memory describes numerous studies showing the importance of organizational factors in memorization and is probably the root source of the present authors' dissatisfaction with much of the contemporary work in this field. L. see Robert S. Remember first that ^ For a description of the work of Miiller and Schumann." we "Here a Plan that you can use for memorizing. As a result of this attitude almost nothing is known by psychologists about the remarkable feats of memory that are so easily performed when you have a word mnemonic Plan ready in advance. 134 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . but they sometimes facilitate to science. wonders whether the ture really was. Then the scramble begins lines spoken. The antagonistic attitude of experimental psychologists toward is mnemonic even more violent than their attitude toward their subassociations. of communication — so we shall lapse momentarily into a thoroughly unscientific vein. to get those missing acting. Experimental Psychology (New York: Holt.: leaving out essential facts that the audience must know in order to understand the play. resort to He may. somehow. 1938). 28-30. Columbia University. Schumann to reveal the to rhythmic structure of a memorized of "belonging. in fact. and our discussion turned to Plans. "How can you is say that mem- on Plans?" replied." ^) and by Thorndike learner show the importance When the items to be recalled are themselves familiar words. ble only for evil gypsies devices are immoral tricks suitaand stage magicians. a Plan?" he asked. Anecdotes do not contribute course. It is effects of skipping about during recitation and (One might not provide some objective evidence for what the hierarchical strucessentially the technique used by Miiller and list. if he knows any. "We'll show you. a social psychologist of broad interests. 1932). the is much freer to devise ingenious ways to solve his problem. Thus it is possible to revise elaborate the Plan even after the material has been memorized. Thorndike in The Fundamentals of Learning (New York: Teachers College. is except for the curtain often connected with this adventure of trying to cover everything without letting the audience know that the author did not write it that way.

you must form a ludicrous or bizarre association with the first word in your Hst. table. Here are the words: 1. seven eight is is heaven. 3. 4." "Really. it is only ten-thirty here. six are sticks. even though and remember the rhyme. you know. and after reading the word." we answered. firewood. glass. After the seventh Plans for Remembering 135 . my watch says and I'm sure I'll ruin your experiment." "Don't worry. 5. nine ten is a line. 7. and is a hen." one-thirty. we waited until he announced that he had the association. 10. we have no real stake in it. It took about five seconds on the average to form the connection. two is a shoe. "just remember the rhyme and then form the association. ashtray. a gate. 9. 6. : plied. I'm really tired. matchbook. 8." he regrip on his lapel. phonograph. picture. it'll never work. shoe.one is a bun. Now you have The second part works like this when we tell you a word. cigarette. five is a hive. 2. and so on wdth the ten words we recite to you." The words were read one at a time. "Just relax part of the Plan. lamp. "Have no fear. I'm awfuUy tired." We tightened our "You know. three is a tree. four is a door.

But without a Plan — of some sort. W. In tests of jects immediate memory. Turner. for example. Then we said. formed a image connecting the two words.^ They presented at their pairs of English words visual to their subjects. at 8 Wallace H. the subject will never be able to recite a long list. sub- seldom try any mnemonic tricks with only one presentation of the material. S. 136 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . and C." he said. It takes subjects some time and some effort to construct Plans that will work for the sort of materials that we like to use in psychologi- cal experiments. they do not have a ready-made Plan of the kind just described. Signal Corps Project No. After one trial through the list. December 1957. and Cornelius C." We proceeded to demonstrate that he could in fact name every word correctly. proceeding own pace. is it not reasonable to suppose that subjects in a memorization experiment would also try to develop a Plan? Of course. "absolutely no sweat.' "And what number is cigarette?" He laughed outright now. Perkins.word he said that he was sure the first six were already forgotten. C. who. we waited that he could collect himself mind. Up to 500 pairs. Wallace. and then a smile crossed his face. Stanley H. be damned. If so simple a Plan can reduce the difficulty of memorizing by a sists of piling discriminable amount. Turner. and then asked. But a minute or two so that we persevered." he said. 132C. there is little time to develop a Plan and little need for it. University of Pennsylvania. and ask any questions "What is number eight?" " came "I'll to He stared blankly. Institute for Cooperative Research. H. H. and then gave the correct answer. The list of paired associates was given only once. "It's lamp. Starting with lists of twentyfive pairs they worked up to lists of 700 pairs of words. Preliminary Studies of Human Information Storage. Then the subjects were given one member of each pair and asked to write the other. "Do you think that memorizing con- up increments of response strength that accumulate as the words are repeated?" The question was lost in his amazement. Perkins of the University of Pennsylvania have sociations is found that a person's capacity for forming as- practically unlimited. Wallace. the subjects were remembering about ninety -nine percent. "And there is no strain. since the material will never be seen again.

A new from A to B becomes merely one of many associations leading from A to something else. 72. American Journal of Psychology. 1-16. that is the real bottleneck in verbal learning. the subjects them by a Plan work sit at a mechanically had nothing it to do but there and form conlittle nections — and they did almost without error until both they and the experimenters ran out of patience. Irvin human paired associates there the first Rock has succeeded in demonstrating that in learning is no increment in associative strength until correct response occurs. the memorization of a every time a pair is of paired associates not delayed its if. In fact. 1959. The role of repetition in associative learning. Building the connections seems to be far simpler than finding them association leading later. Observations such as these suggest that is not storage. The association not formed until the trial on which the learner has time to consider the re- pair of items. but when more experienced they could work accurately with seconds per pair. Freed of the necessity to translate the items into familiar form. freed of the necessity to fixed pace. but they are not characteristic of ing. had been forgotten two or three days later. What is more.700 pairs it dropped to ninety-five percent. But what of the traditional picture of an association as something to be constructed slowly through frequent contiguity and strengthened repeatedly by reinforcement? Slowly waxing and verbal learn- waning associations may be useful to characterize a conditioned salivary reflex. not re- called. then it is formed and remembered throughout the it mainder of the learning. freed of the necessity to organize into a fixed sequence. Ordinarily the subjects used about twenty-five seconds they had become less than five to form the association. conveniently avail- able for the experiment. American Journal of Psychology. The time and effort that goes into a job of memorization is devoted to ensuring that there will be some way to get access to the particular association we want when ® Irvin Rock. Further evidence of one-trial associative learning. but retrieval. 186-193. 70. they were ordinary people. The subjects were not selected for their special abilities.^ is remains fully available list Thus. and that thereafter the association to the learner. Plans for Remembering 137 . Irvin Rock and Walter Heimer. 1957. subjects do not is even notice that a substitution has been made. a new pair is substituted in place.

The point of the metaphor li- simply that there a great deal more to a memory — either in a is brary or a cranium at a time. how do we build a house? 138 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Memorizing is much too complex analogy. If remain lost for years. In a large library filed it is sential to have books labeled by a code and a book is on a shelf according to that code. What do we do with it? Given that we can nail two boards together. Let — than the simple hooking of things together two available us imagine that this hooking operation and that it is as cheap and easy as it would have to be to support the discursive human intellect. to lie open to such a simple writes all The memorizer is is more hke a librarian who his own books and is his is own reading public. place schemes of reference them on the shelves in the correct places.the time comes is to revive it. but merely ensures that it may be possible to locate the book when its contents are relevant. In this view of the problem. moved accidentally to another shelf. the memes- orizer's task quite similar to a librarian's. enter cards into the central directory under two or three different — all that labor adds nothing to the information or entertainment contained in the book. it may The librarian must mark the volumes.

:

CHAPTER

11

PLANS FOR SPEAKING

How much
ous that

emphasis

to place

on language has always been

something of a problem for psychologists.

On

the one hand,

it is

obvi-

from other animals and that most of the differences have their origin in man's verbal behavior. It is difficult to realize the full extent to which our mental accomplishments as human beings are evoked in us by learning to speak. But, on
are quite different

men

the other hand, the suggestion that

men

are very different seems like

an anthropocentric retreat
val mysticism.

to

pre-Darwinian dogmatism and medie-

How

is it

possible to recognize man's unique accom-

plishments without violating the concept of evolutionary continuity

from animals

to

man?
dilemma

One
is to

solution to this

— and perhaps

it is

the simplest
so.

argue that words are just like other responses, only more

For

instance

The essence of words is that they summarize many past experiences into a manageable unit; that is, they produce or represent a temporal integration of many diverse experiences. The use of words as a tool of thinking or reasoning or problemsolving, therefore, means that a huge number of past experiPlans for Speaking

139

ences are being effective in determining present behavior. Language, or verbal mediating responses, represents an instance of extremely efficient central integration with which we, as educated human adults, are especially familiar. But language does not seem to introduce any really new psychological process; it may be thought of, rather, as an instrumental means or technique which enormously increases the speed and efficiency of processes already present to some extent in nonverbalizing animals.^

In short, language

is

nothing but an extremely complicated

in-

stance of behavioral processes that might better be studied in their

simpler manifestations in animals.

Some

psychologists, however,
it

carry this line of reasoning a step further and insist that
studied with animals.

must be

They argue

that unless you can phrase your that the

questions about

man

in such a

way

same questions could be

asked of animals, you have not gotten to the heart of your problem.

Thus, for example, they are willing to study brightness discrimination in

man

because the same experiment can be conducted with ani-

mals, but they will not ask a
of brightness because

man to estimate numerical magnitudes no one knows how that instruction could be given to a dumb beast. If words are needed to impart the instructions, so the argument runs, we cannot know whether the results are genis

erated by the subject's history of verbal conditioning or by the

stimulus magnitudes he

asked

to estimate.

Unless an inarticulate
is

animal can be used as the subject, the experiment
chology has only too recently escaped.

certain to run

aground on the treacherous shoals of introspection from which psyHenry W. Nissen, Axes of behavioral comparison, in A. Roe and G. G. eds.. Behavior and Evolution (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958). Similar sentiments have been expressed by many other American students of animal behavior. However, Russian psychologists have, by and large, been keenly aware of the extent to which speech supports novel psychological processes in human beings. See, for example, A. R. Luria and F. la. Yudovich, Speech and the Development of Mental Processes in the Child. (Trans., Joan Simon)
1

Simpson,

(London: Staples, 1959). Those authors write (p. 11-12) that, "Study of the mental processes as the product of his intercommunication with the environment, as the acquisition of common experiences transmitted by speech, has, therefore, become the most important principle of Soviet psychology which informs all research. Intercommunication with adults is of decisive importance because the acquisition of a language system involves a reorganisation the child's basic mental processes; the word thus becomes a tremendous of aU factor which forms mental activity, perfecting the reflection of reahty and creating new forms of attention, of memory and imagination, of thought and
child's
. . .

action."

140

Plans and the Structure of Behavior


The psychologists who make
this

argument

are, of course, a

small minority. But they are a tough-minded group

who

are hard at

work proving that psychology can be an experimental science. They know what data look like, they have high standards for what they will accept as evidence, and one violates their prejudices at one's own risk. In this matter, however, they have drawn the boundaries of scientific acceptability too narrowly. Consider their proposition "A psy:

chological process has not been fully, scientifically understood until
it

has been analyzed into component parts that can be studied experiis

mentally in animals." One feels intuitively that there

something

profoundly backward in such an approach to the study of
ing

man — noth-

we ask about animals would have

the slightest interest to anyone

except in terms of standards imposed by the articulate, discursive

man. The proposition is a challenge to search for exsearch for some problem of human significance that psychologists must understand, but one that cannot be studied experiintellect of

ceptions

— to

mentally in animals. Or, to phrase the challenge in terms of the preceding quotation,
is

there any

new and important

psychological proc-

ess that is introduced

by language and

that cannot be thought of as a

technique to increase the efficiency of inarticulate processes?

No

doubt there are

many

uniquely

human problems we might
knows he
just
is

choose, but the issues are illustrated sufficiently well by the problem
of death.

Man

is

the only animal that

going to

die.

Should this be considered as a

new and important
is it

psychological

process introduced by language? Or

an improvement on

nonverbal processes? A man can make his death a part of his Plans, as when he buys life insurance policies or draws a will, or he can even
devise and execute a Plan that intends his
casionally hear
it

own

death. Indeed,

we

oc-

said that a truly rational

man would commit
life,
it

suicide
ad-

immediately. But whatever one's evaluation of

must be
and

mitted that the expectation of death provides a persistent theme in our
art

and

literature,

that
it

it

creates our estate-planning

life-in-

surance industry, that

motivates us to support our medical and
it is

public health authorities, that

the foundation for

much

of our

religion, that the fear of death is to the old

what

lust is to the

young

in short, the anticipation of death influences our behavior in

pervasive ways.

In order to

understand

human

behavior and

many human

Plans for Speaking

141

institutions, therefore,

it is

necessary to

know something about

the

way men
chological

look forward to their

own

deaths and prepare for the Hfe

they anticipate after death. But in order to study this important psy-

phenomenon we must, according
it

to the proposition

we

are

"component parts that can be studied experimentally in animals." Could we impart to a rat the knowledge that his death is inevitable? We can teach an animal to recognize certain
considering, reduce
to

signs and to perform certain tricks, but the knowledge that

all

living
antici-

creatures are mortal seems to be reserved for

man

alone.

The

pation of death cannot be studied with animals; therefore, according
to the proposition,

the effects on behavior of the anticipation of
scientifically.^

death cannot be studied

The boundaries

of science

must be broader than that! In the past, whenever psychologists have encountered methodological
strictures

against

studying

something that interested
Presumably,
will persist in asking

them,

it

was the

stricture they gave up, not their interest.

that attitude will continue

and psychologists

questions about

human

beings that would not be appropriate or even

intelligible if directed

toward animals. Let us hope
a

so, for

human
The

speech has provided

man with

new mechanism
all

of evolution that in

a few brief centuries has set him apart from
the obvious facts. Almost nothing

other animals.

jealous guardian of Darwinian continuity merely blinds himself to

we

could say about the psychologi-

" Which may help to explain why the matter has been so neglected by psychologists. (See I. E. Alexander, R. S. Colley, and A. M. Alderstein, Is death a matter of indifference? Journal of Psychology, 1957, 43, 277-283). The anticipation of death is something of a special problem for healthy-minded reflex theorists in any case. With a purely inductive conception of knowledge, it must be

difficult to understand how the conditioning provided by 25,000 dawns could lead to anything but the conviction of immortality. It might be explained away in terms of the conditioning provided by the deaths of acquaintances, were it not for the fact that our society shields us so carefully from the emotionally disturbing sight of a dead body. (See D. O Hebb and W. R. Thompson, The social significance of animal studies, in G. Lindzey, ed.. Handbook of Social Psychology, Vol. 1 [Cambridge: Addison-Wesley, 1954], p. 557.) Most of our acquaintances disappear sooner or later, but in modern societies we do not see them die except war, catastrophe, or the like. Where could anything in unusual circumstances so morbid as the anticipation of one's own death take root and grow until it became one of the fundamental truths of our mental life? (See Sylvia Anthony, The Child's Discovery of Death [New York: Harcourt, Brace, 1940].) In neglecting this problem, psychologists conform to a general taboo on death that must be alnaost as strong in our society today as was the taboo on sex during the Victorian era. (See S. Freud, Beyond the Pleasure Principle [London: Hogarth Press, 1950].)

142

Plans and the Structure of Behavior

until we come to more molar units organized by a relatively is to strategic part of the Plan. the capacity to share in and profit from the experience of others. swift. of course. but by careful analysis and investigation we are often able to discover the principles underlying them and to formulate verbal instructions for communicating the skills to someone else. Skills are normally tacit. however. These coordinations comprise the sub- matter of physiological phonetics and of phonology — although in their study is fascinating. they do not raise psychological issues of the type we are considering in these pages. instead of considering let how speech used to accomplish other things. the Image we construct extends much farther than the bounds of our own experience and incorporates the conclusions of the great thinkers and explorers who have preceded us and have helped to shape our conception of the universe and of ourselves. To explore these matters with the attention they deserve." Plans for Speaking 143 . let us move up into the level that might loosely be termed "grammatical. living and dead. But we also benefit from communicable Plans as well as from communicable Images. A project of more reasonable proportions fulfills for a scientist to con- sider concerns the description of the speech skill itself. move upward more the hierarchical organization of the speech therefore. would require a general psychology a far more ambitious project than the present authors of knowledge — are prepared to undertake. of course. are the marvelously delicate. At the motor extremities of the speech act. teeth. That is is to say.cal importance of language could be too extravagant — the specula- tions in Chapter 8 about the mechanism of hypnosis should suggest how all crucial the present authors consider speech to be in controlling the psychological processes in a human being. That say. obtain from our capacity to repis The most important benefit we resent things and events in verbal form. and velum. As a consequence. and synchronized movements of the tongue. us consider in this chapter how linguistically acceptable sequences of sounds are themselves planned and executed. ject lips. divorced from the cultural role that the skill or the content that the skill may enable us to convey. Let us skill. Our cultural heritage includes knowing hoiu as well as knowing ivhat.

(The agreement not accidental. But as the words that replace it arrive. is to say.) The linguist own ideas were whose ideas we shall exof our ploit is Noam Chomsky. 1957). since many stimulated by his example. and the ideas are presented summarily in his monograph. it welcomes them successively and calls them right if they agree with it. is is organized. for nonverbal as well as for verbal planning. therefore. Our selection is based upon the fact that this linguist seems to agree so well with our own ideas about how human behavior in general. We have a Plan for the sentence. is the next word in the sentence chosen exclusively on the basis of preceding words? is it chosen on the basis of words that will follow as well as words that have preceded it? Certainly introspection tells us definite expectations about we have very what we are going to say our choice of words depends upon much more than the history of our utterance. we shall select the work of a single linguist and follow it slavishly. 1955).^ From considerations of grammar and syntax we hope to be able to gather some impression of how complicated the planning device must be in order to generate grammatical sentences. the anticipatory intention. A.: We propose. * Noam Chomsky. nor are they competent. to summarize hnguistic science. an absolutely distinct state of consciousness. and yet how much of it consists of definite sensorial images. William James described it far better than we can — And has the reader never asked himself what kind of a mental fact is his intention of saying a thing before he has said it? It is an entirely definite intention. distinct from all other intentions. the divination is there no more. not merely in speech. to wander briefly into the domain of modem linguistics. Syntactic Structures (The Hague: Mouton. it rejects them and calls them v^ong if they s An excellent introduction to the problems and methods of linguistics can be found in H. Sentences must be uttered one word at a time. either of words or of things? Hardly anything! Linger. and as we execute it we have relatively clear impressions of what we are going to say. The authors do not desire. 144 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Syntactic Structures. Does that fact imply that they form a simple chain? That Or. This result should provide a sort of lower bound for the complexity of the human planning equipment in general.^ Instead. Gleason. now. and the words and things come into the mind. An Introduction to Descriptive Linguistics (New York: Holt.

since the Ustener to need this probabilistic. The Principles of Psychology. 253. Before trying to invent some elaborate. Some of the structural. Hockett. A Manual of Phonology. Bell System Technical Journal. he must make probabilistic inferences about its future developments. The listener can know only the past words of the sentence. "Markovian" equipment anyhow. one should first ex- plore the simpler possibilities. such a grammar would permit a very simple cor- respondence between language-as-the-talker-generates-it and language-as-the-listener-receives-it. is not always as simple as we seems sw^illiam James. I (New York: Holt. Memoir 11. 6 The use of Markov processes to describe the message source is taken from C. Miller. aspects of these message sources are described by Noam Chomsky and George A. as every psychologist knows too well. to ignore our in- and to pretend that the next word in our utterance will depend only upon the words that have led up to it. Finite state languages. 1958. unfortunately. or nonstochastic. but not upon any Plan for the words that may follow it. must be determined in a general particular words that way even before it is differentiated into the we are going to utter. One may admit that a good third of our psychic life consists in these rapid premonitory perspective views of schemes of thought not yet articulate. nonanticipatory grammar would be exceedingly simple and. One might argue that.do not.^ Moreover. and yet what can we say about it without using words that belong to the later mental facts that replace it? The intention to say so and so is the only name it can receive. it seems. E. It has therefore a nature of its own of the most positive sort. A trospections.= James is describing a state of consciousness associated with an in- tention to execute a Plan. The Plan of the sentence. Let us try. to forget the discussion of Plans. A mathematical theory of communication. 1890). Plans for Speaking "145 . it would be economical to let him use it when he stops hstening and starts talking. But Hfe. 1955." we would immediately know a great deal about the level of complexity of the sentence generator itself. Indiana University Publications in Anthropology and Linguistics. therefore. 1. 91-112. p. Shannon. 27. all Introspection is a fickle mistress. Vol. since the mathematics of those systems has been carefully studied under the general topic of "Markov processes. anticipatory device for thinking about everything simultaneously. 379^23. Information and Control. 1948. These ideas were made the basis of a grammatical theory by Charles F.

The other grammatical constructions that such a message source like to learn to could not produce. 1951. Repeated by N.. That is to say. In order to incorporate the ability to generate a particular one of these strings of words into our planner 2^°° different would be required the planner would have to hear the string at least once. American Jour- nal of Psychology. 50-64.think it should be. R. in K. Thus there seems no alternative but to insist that a child must hear 2^°° sentences before he can speak and understand Enghsh. and P. In order of the rules of this left-to-right variety that to appreciate how ridiculous this condition is. seems reasonable assume that each of 2^°° different sequences would leave the system in a different internal state. Longrange constraints in the statistical structure of printed English. G. That is about 10^° sentences. say. Bell System Technical Journal. 146 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . you must choose the internal states that — to create one — of your continuation from the all set {Y}. "Having produced the words X up to this point. 68. Proceedings of the First Stanford Symposium on Mathematical Methods in the Social Sciences (Stanford: Stanford University Press. 1960 [in press]). 1955. that purely historical models of the sentence source are too simple to account for try the facts." In order for a child to learn would be required for the generation of perfectly acceptable sentences of twenty words or less. Karlin. recall the fact that 7 Eugene Galanter and George A. Licklider. E. Information theorists us that English sentences carry about five bits per word on the average. 650-653. Miller. it One line is to show illustrates would be impossible to learn a language in that way. our leftto-right generator has no grammatical rules other than the ones that say. or hear instances of it from which the rule would be derived.^ so 2^°° different strings It we can to guess that there must be about learn these twenty words long that we should how to cope with. Some comments on stochastic models and psychological theories. Shannon. Burton and J. eds. See C. he would have to hear the rule. s This is a conservative estimate based on Shannon's data for letters. Arrow. The difficulties are instructive to anyone who would to use simple stochastic chains of behavioral events as a general dedissuade one from scription of human behavior/ to There are two lines of argument calculated that using a left-to-right model of the sentence planner. Suppose that we would nize all how to generate and recog- grammatical sentences up tell some fixed length. C. It turns out that introspection is right. Suppes. J. S. twenty words. 30. Prediction and entropy of printed EngUsh.

It is like learning the number system by memorizing all possible sequences of digits. If the rules for generat- ing sentences were represented in this form in somebody's brain. and perfect retention of every string of twenty words after one presentation! Just a little calculation produce sentences according is and that will convince anyone that the number of internal states needed in a left-to-right system explodes before the system is capable of dealing with anything as complicated as a natural language. The model says something like this: Memorize verbatim all grammatical sentences and segments of sentences of 20 words or less in length. etc. If we raise the length to. the task of learning the language becomes progressively more inconceivable and in the limit. The counterexample for left-to-right grammars consists of showdng that sentences can be grammatically embedded Plans for Speaking 147 . To memorize the infinite number of grammatical sentences is to by-pass the problem of grammar there completely.. and then make longer utterances by fitting together 20 set it — we had to — these 20-word segments in all possible ways. The model finite is so unnatural that one is encouraged to search for a counterexample.15 child would have to X 10" seconds per century. when we demand that a child must memorize all sentences of every length. a proof that a Markovian word generator with a number of internal states could not produce the set of all gram- matical sentences. the hear about 3 X 10-" sentences per second in all order to be exposed to to the information necessary for the planner to these left-to-right rules of grammar.there are only about 3. and that some other kind of sentence generator must be used. 30 or 40 words. We set the upper limit at length somewhere but there are many grammatical sentences longer than 20 words that the Markovian process could not generate and. the notion reaches the extremes of absurdity. say. eating. conversely. would be grammatical sentences longer than 20 words that he would not be able to recognize. In short. the system we have imagined would not generate the set of sentences that native speakers of English recognize as grammatical. on the assumption of a childhood 100 years long with no interruptions for sleeping. the Markovian process would generate many strings longer than 20 words that would not be grammatical sentences. Even if there were time to learn it all.

"This is the rat that the cat that the dog that the cow tossed worried killed. In more abbreviated notawe have S = aXa'. etc.inside other sentences. that grammatical sentences must be generated by human beings who have a limited span of immediate memory. "This is the rat that the cat killed. an indefinitely long sequence of these nested dependencies. "The man who And so said I X is here. then X = bYb'." One more step in the nursery rhyme produces "This is the malt that the rat that the cat that the dog that the cow tossed worried killed ate. the left-to-right sentence generator must have an indefinitely large memory. Vol. there are psychological limits.) The problem is. Now. however. or it quit. 113-124. Yngve illustrates the problem with The House that Jack Built: "This is the dog that the cow tossed" and "This is the cat that the dog worried" can be combined into a single sentence. so the not system must be unable to will form certain grammatical sentences. IT-2." and grammar has clearly run riot. then will rain. Information and Control.^ Consider the sentence. English to construct grammar permits us that militates against them. but it is only human weakness. either and or are related and are separated by Y. In the first. that is.E." a sentence with one dependency (cow tossed) nested inside another (dog worried). 3. an indefinitely large number of internal states. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society (in press). that we canleft-to-right. In short. "Either Y.D. No. ^° Q. not grammar. yet they are generally avoided in ordinary usage." the triple compound becomes. four dependencies nested in tliis fashion are totally unintelligible. in A model and an hypothesis about language structure. In the third if and then are and are separated by Z. Note that in each case there a grammatical man and related tion. 1956. of course. "This is the cat that the dog that the cow tossed worried. Chomsky. X the sentence. On certain formal properties of grammars.. however. (Such sentences are hard to understand. dependency extending across the sentence to be inserted. so that the sentence Plan is when executed we obtain S = ahcZc'h'a'." Let Y be the sentence. pp. in biological systems or elsewhere. 10 Victor Yngve has noted. IRE Transacon Information Theory. In order to avoid such difficulties. Since there can be an indefinitely large num- ber of nested dependencies (no rule of of grammar prohibits them). s N. is are related and are separated by X. if we add a third sentence. we do not construct tions 148 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . But indefinitely large memories are not currently left-to-right available. In the second." is we can continue indefinitely." Now we can substitute for "If Z. Three models for the description of language. although there is no grammatical rule that limits the number of nested dependencies in an English sentence. not generate such sentences with a purely historical. then Y = cZc'. Chains of words suffice. Sentences with several nested dependencies are not ungrammatical. 1959. And so on. all which must be remembered in the right order and simultaneously. type of message source. 137-167.

for future elaborations presently unspecified: "This is the cow that tossed the dog that worried the cat that killed the rat that ate the malt that lay in the house that Jack buUt. we would write as (Fl) S >NP + VP.Without laboring the point further. ball. The result is diagrammed in Figure 6. but we wish to keep this example as simple as possible. Elaborating the tactical details of the Plan in the order they are needed serves to minimize the demands on the speaker's temporary memory. so suppose we use F2 first and obtain Figure 7. Let us imagine a scheme in which the whole sentence is manipulated as a unit and it is gradually de- veloped according to a Plan — from the inside out. it Now turn the grammatical machine loose and see what it pro- The an S tell it only thing it can do with S is to apply rule Fl to it. whereas the open-ended construction can be understood by small children. so to speak. us symbolize the whole sentence by the letter rules of the One of the first grammar will be that S can be rewritten as as a NP + VP. (In a complete grammar. we leave them open. Let S. the. To expand the noun phrase (F2) and to and a noun. so to speak. Plans for Speaking 149 . we might write > T + Noun. > hit. (F5) (F6) boy. leads one to a conviction that whenever possible the sentence is planned so that it can be tactically elaborated in the order in which it will be uttered. we might expand either NP or VP. expand the verb phrase into a verb and a noun phrase we into an article NP might write ( F3 ) VP ways to > Verb + NP.) We have enough English grammar to complete the illustration. there would have to be several and VP. sentences in the nested form. In order to get started." Consideration of why the nested construction is so cumbersome. let us assume that a message source can know something about what it is going to say as well as about what it has already said. of course. feed it — to speak. so let us add a few rules about vocabulary: alternative expand NP (F4) T Noun Verb > > SL. Next. where we This rule can think of NP noun phrase and VP as a verb phrase. the future of the sentence is stored in immediate memory in as brief and strategic a form as possible. stick. We continue in this way duces. where the arrow indicates that the symbol S can be rewritten as NP + VP in the derivation of the eventual utterance.

NP FIGURE 6. + Noun The result of By rule F2. + VP By rule Fl. two steps in the formation of a sentence T + Noun Verb + NP T FIGURE 8. + Noun Analysis of a sentence into its immediate constituents . First step in the formation of a sentence VP By rule Fl. T FIGURE 7.

The other complaint.: until finally this point we have produced the structure shown in Figure we are ready to use the vocabulary rules and so T + Noun + Verb + T + Noun 8." "I is have gone" becomes haven't gone. One of the simplest examples is the transformation that carries : "John ate the apple" is transformed into "The apple was eaten by John. The machine is not very eloquent. At turn into any one of a small variety of different sentences A boy hit the ball. that the number of rules required must not be too great to be learned in a finite childhood. it will be clear that active constructions into passive constructions the permutation involved cannot be accomplished by the simpler type of rules. however. Such rules can settle the future and the past simultaneously and leave the growing tip of the sentence in the middle. These more complicated rules are rules of transformation. rather than at the extreme right. is still not met. Chomsky has discussed these in some detail and we shall not pursue them here. and so It on. only a few rules are needed to generate some sentences in the example above. All that is needed are rules of the form aXa and X > bXb and X > cXc. The stick hit a boy. Another "I "I common "I transformation is negation: "I will go" becomes won't go. but that proves nothing. It is sufficient for us that some very great economies can be effected in the statement of the grammar if we permit ourselves to use a slightly more complicated kind of rule that enables us to rearrange as weU as to rewrite. The ball hit a ball. Of course. rather than rules of formation. etc. but then. can be shown that sentence generators of this type have no trouble at all vidth the nested dependencies that are so embarrassing for the left-to-right planner." can go" becomes "I can't go. it is not a very elaborate machine." The negation carried by Plans for Speaking 151 ." If the formal properties of this transformation are examined. Not until one begins to work seriously at the task of constructing an English grammar using only rules of this type does it become apparent what the problems are. Thus S > it is possible to answer one line of argument used against simple Mar- kovian sources.

and perhaps 100. The genbecomes bac. L. suffice to suggest the These examples should nature of the gram- matical transformations that we use to rearrange our simpler state- ments. less of to grammatical sentences. which acts as an affix — bad reputation for irregularity.." in which form "I don't it can yield either the I negation or the question. The patient could interchange "yes" and "no." Since there is no auxiliary to which -n't can be affixed. Lenkoski. 409^13. two negative transformations are not quite the same as none at all. "Opposite speech" in a schizophrenic patient. but which follows rather simply from a transformational form of grammar." which then becomes "I do go.^^ Notice that the transformation required to produce questions has the eral formula for the transformation go" becomes "Will I is "I will go?" and I "I same problem. into the endless variety With such a theory it should be possible tion. either go" or "Do go?" We therefore. Thus. 52. But the rule cannot and therefore it is necessary to introduce the do transformation here as in the case of negation. to go" can become "I do go. all negative statements made as positive assertions has been described by J. and L. 1956." of course.on the auxiliary verb." etc. therefore. But he would say. do a fairly good job of speaking English grammatically with less than 100 rules of forma- than 100 transformations. On top of that we have a system of transformations that operate upon the kernel strings to combine them or per- mute them. without altering the structure of the rest of the sentence. that the do transformation has a rather general role play in the grammar of English. D." thus revealing the double transformation of negation becomes "I don't go. — — — 152 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . "I Then see. "I do go" "I go" rather than "I go. the word do is introduced in order to carry it a practice that has earned do a very -n't.000 rules for 11 An interesting case of "opposite speech" all positive statements made in negative form. can go" becomes "Can I go?" that abc and "I have gone" becomes "Have gone?" apply directly to the sentence "I go. "A boy hit a stick" (Chomsky calls these "kernel strings"). Ameen. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology. complex. is that we have a rather simple system for generating sentences like. etc. The general picture them with and or or and that enable us in compound sentences. of sentence generators that emerges from this analysis. apparently. for the do is left as a trace of the affix it had been introduced to carry." In grammar. Laffal. Other transformations include those that combine two sentences into one by joining various ways to build up long. But notice what happens when there is no auxihary verb: "I go" becomes "I don't go.

" but a different means' "Those apples are good only for cooking. the recognized as ambiguous by speakers of English. Thereprovide two different Plans for generating it it. were not represented cognitively. If speaking were a game. For example. it Note that the person must be aware of the underlying structure of the sentence in order to understand or to know how to apply various transformations to structure structure if it if it it. yet they may have quite different mnemonic anywhere An adequate theory should. grammar must to According planes one Plan is a variant form of "Flying planes are it is dangerous. of the most interesting features of Chomsky's analysis is that provides for ambiguities. There by is a great deal about sentence generation left unexplained this theory of tell grammar. it When the ambiguity noticed becomes a rich source of humor." and according to the other Plan is related to "Flying dangerous. then he can apply a passive transformation to so obtain "Apples are being cooked and by them." But if the person has in mind the structure (They) [(are) (cooking apples)]. provide for both Plans. then grammar would us what moves were legal. two who have memorized same way.vocabulary and pronunciation." Most people are blissfully unaware of how is many sentences are ambiguous in this way. a kind of grammatical pun. but not what moves were wise. Plans for Speaking 153 . and not just the terminal string of words organized by the hierarchy. a string of symbols may recite them in exactly the Plans. ability of the The is reproduce this kind of ambiguity strong evidence for the adequacy of the grammatical formulation. hopefully. however. "They are cooking apples" has one means "My friends are cooking apples. we would not know which transformations and we would not be able to recognize the ingrammar to ambiguity of the utterance. is At the present time." If the person has in mind the structure: (They) [{are cookit ing) (apples)]. far this kind of test of a theory's adequacy can be One wonders how people extended beyond the purely linguistic domain. no theory of verbal learning near this level of sophistication. could be applied to trinsic it. If the complete hiearchy. not for eating. For example. then the passive is transformation not relevant. "Flying planes can be is dangerous" fore. Even a child should be able that to master much One it after ten or fifteen years of constant practice.

154 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . JefFress. sev- eral alternative theories (that grammars) can be compared. reasonable intuitive agreement can be reached about acceptable and unacceptable sequences of responses. Plans. even down to the temporal coordination of muscular contractions in such a movement as reaching and grasping.. pp. The material is plentiful relatively limited in type. in Lloyd A.: We cannot yet say how a talker selects the content of his utterances. but that seems unlikely. but all skilled acts seem to involve the same problems of serial ordering. This human is ability may be unique to human speech. Analysis of the nervous mechanisms underlying order in the more primitive acts may contribute ultimately to the solution of even the physiology of logic. These patterns are the unare the laws of thought. is far advanced over any other area of behavand so provides a glimpse of what other behavtheories may look like eventually. 121-122. the order of words in the sentence.^^ This raises the question of whether Lashley. 12 Karl S. There is a series of hierarchies of organization. not by psychologists) ioral description ioral I have devoted so much time to discussion of the problem of syntax not only because language is one of the most important products of human cerebral action. ed. Lashley. But even within the relatively that people are able to construct narrow scope of syntactics it is clear and carry out very complicated Plans at a relatively rapid pace. Not only speech. Karl Lashley once remarked the scientific description of verbal behavior (by linguists. or the present authors. who wrote that "the forms of a person's thoughts are controlled by inexorable laws of pattern of which he is unconscious. easily described in writing. the rational order of paragraphs in a discourse. A way and to study of grammatical systems a particularly interesting approach the study of human it is is. With all these advantages. would endorse the ancient argument that the laws of grammar and whether they would support the more modern version advanced by Benjamin Lee Whorf. Cerebral The problem of serial order in behavior. but also because the problems raised by the organization of language seem to me to be characteristic of almost all other cerebral activity. of course. the order of sentences in the paragraph. etc. the order of vocal movements in pronouncing the words. 1951). The Hixon Symposium (New York: WUey. Mechanisms in Behavior.

however. or organizing Images raises so cal problems. Whorf. p. for making love. each many different psychologi- unique and special for each unique and special all. that no simple generalizations can cover them The way language enters into each of these situations can be de- termined only by studying the situations. Carroll. and Reality. for asking questions. so a speaker's thought processes the specu- cannot be in any way unique on that account. or that your thought to the conjugations grammar are the laws main forever shackeled native tongue. York: W^iley and the Technology Press. The reasons for playing that game. (New Plans for Speaking 155 . Thought. for mak- ing Plans. specifies only the legal moves in the social game communication." ^^ The question raises issues that extend far beyond the proper bounds of this it — discussion. not be deduced from Let us close this chapter with a summary attempt to bring these linguistic observations closer to the general thesis of the present vol- ume: 13 B. canits rules." It is way or the other with respect to the "Whorfian hypothe- not only English grammar that is built around hierarchical Plans and their various transformations — the grammar of every lanif guage is constructed in that way. but perhaps is possible to clarify the situation some- what by saying that the position advocated here does not commit the authors one sis. use of language. must reand declensions of your How language is used for giving instructions. The grammatical Plan. 252. Moreover. Language. for descriptions. nearly all of ior is similarly organized. for solving problems. meaning that the grammar of a language was only one example of a general pattern of control that could be exemplified in We many other realms of behavior. lations of the present authors are correct. J. L. 1956). man's behav- might speak metaphorically of a general grammar of behavior. B. But to say that the is formal structure of the laws of grammar the laws of thought is similar to the structure of very different from saying that the laws of of thought. as we have of said before. especially those of a different linguistic family. ed.perceived intricate systematizations of his readily own language shown enough by a candid comparison and contrast with other languages.

acquired after many years of practice. to say. That is to say. many fails substantive." straight. it may be necessary to perform transformations upon it. when and the operation of finding a noun phrase is begun. and the motor Plan is complete.^* 1* One way to conceive of it is to think The test phase of the able alternatives TOTE would presumably consist of a from which the choice would be made according Plans and the Structure of Behavior list of accept- to the evalua- 1 56 . until eventually all the subtests has a noun phrase quired to do that. The fails and so sends the system off and subsubtests are satisfied and the system returns to the main test. semantic decisions to Plan. That is must be another level of Plan that operates on the motor Plan. it must be guided by a distinct Plan. let us "grammar The grammar Plan has been the central concern of that this chapter. Like any is to skill. the pronunciation of a sentence in a normal manner is a skilled act. There be are. That say. Plan for every separate distinct sentence we The hier- archy of the Plan for some particular sentence corresponds with the way felt that sentence would be "parsed.First. We have encountered this notion already in Chapter 10. In order to keep the two Plan.. etc. of course. Given a complete motor Plan for a kernel string. so further elaboration of the grammar Plan would be rewhether to generate one. a process which generates the motor Plan itself. where we considered a Plan for generating a Plan to recall a memorized passage. refer to this as the "motor Plan" for the sentence." This reduces it to a question of test of whether has a noun phrase and a verb phrase. however. The object operates upon it is tested for its "sentencehood. there must be a utter. made in the operation of the grammar the test for a noun phrase require evaluation functions." The test phases of the TOTE and what can units in this Plan involve comparisons of the uttered sounds movements with the auditory and proprioceptive Images of they should be. Its structure is the hierarchy of grammatical rules of formation it and transformation. there is a process more difficult to understand. The situation here call this the is analogous. which now passes. Questions of selection. the system must have some way of determining which kind of noun phrase to select. of course. And the ultimate operational phase of the sentence Plan involves the movements of the speech musculature. We Behind the motor Plan. separate.

But or are all our verbally acquired that comment is about as helpful as the remark that both animals and men are constructed of atoms. But in the discussion of memorizing and even more clearly in the discussion of speaking we have found it necessary to believe that a motor Plan could be constructed very quickly and acquired after long hours of practice are on efficiently. Plans for Speaking 157 .a that an Image of the result it which the sentence should produce. — not by rote. skills foreshadowed by processes observable in lower animals? To the extent that language relies upon TOTE hierarchies and we have seen TOTE hierarchies in animals. or it new psymay be a here men and animals an equal footing. S. But here our speculations encounter larger issues that cannot be discussed intelligibly without a considerable develop- ment the of the properties of the Image and the question of meaning. supplies criteria that must be met before the tests are passed. Woodworth. there is nothing new here except a greater degree of complexity. casual greetings and for the composition of a sonnet — criteria imposed by the Image un- doubtedly exercise control over the rate at which the motor Plan can be fashioned. In particular. For moment it is sufficient to see verbal skills in the skills. But how this aspect of the process might function would be completely different for. Some hint as to how this might work is given by the observation that in word association studies there is a strong tendency for the subject's reply to fall in the same syntactic category as the stimulus word. say. we might ask: Is the capacity to use Plans to construct Plans to guide behavior a chological process? skill A motor Plan may be instinctive. or of the information should convey. Experimental Psychology (New York: Holt. Something more is involved here than the usual discussions of insight versus trial-and-error — tion function supplied by the Image and the time available for making the choice. A more interesting question con- cerns the possibility that some new configuration of these basic com- ponents may have emerged. 347-348. 1938). See R. reference as other hierarchically organized same frame of and to communi- cate the opinion that a system organized along these lines could speak gramatically — and might even be able to find something to say. a development that the authors are not inclined to enter into here. but by the operation of a higher-level Plan its that had the motor Plan as object. this leave Where does this chapter? us with respect to the problem that opened Does language introduce new psychological processes. pp.

plishments. then to retreat into his greater man may indeed have complexity to explain his unique accomhere the key to an evolutionary legs. If not. Perhaps some of the apes.motor Plan could be insightfully selected by an organism that could not execute a Plan to construct a motor Plan. If so. even some of the higher mammals. we may have breakthrough as important as the development of lungs and 158 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . might have the rudiments of this higher-level planning ability.

there are some places of relatively high probability and look there first. as every carpenter knows. only then do are the conditions appropriate for initiating the next part of the Plan. many kinds of preparatory TOTE unit.CHAPTER 12 PLANS FOR SEARCHING AND SOLVING Any Plan complicated enough steps that are executed for to be Interesting will include no other reason than to pave the Chapter 2 these were referred way for what we really want to do. this preparatory subplan consists of examining one object after another until something satisfactorily matches our consary preparatory phase to cept of a hammer. of course. In to as the preparatory phases of the Plan tory phase leading — raising the hammer was a preparait up to striking. If these do not produce we Plans for Searching and Solving "159 . that tests for was the striking phase that changed the conditions involved in ac- the continuing or terminating the execution of the There are. How Plan that we conduct we a search of this kind? Is there some kind it. complished the work. of we follow? Certainly. In its simplest form. is. subplans. A neces- hammering. is the (frequently aggravating) subplan for locating a hammer.

trans. Duncker who emphasized the discovery of the heuristic methods that people use. For some problems it is known that no algorithm exists and only heuristic methods are possible (e. No. Lees. Eventually it same place two occurs to us we start off in one room and search it from one end to the other.g. His How to Solve It (Princeton: Princeton University Press. systematic Plans cient. finding the maximum of a function). 1954). asking for help. L. Plans are sometimes called "algorithms. For some problems algorithms are known that are very efficient (e. we follow it is If we try- try to short-cut the systematic Plan by guessing. but tended result.. etc. Or we ask somebody if he knows where it is. we can go to the hardware store and buy a new hammer. Polya.. is sure to work. inch by inch. The correct be systematic. Or we go next door and borrow one. even the most thoroughly systematic search. will sometimes fail to produce the One danger searched for in executing search routines is that the object no longer in the house.. On problem-solving. There is an item on an intelligence test that asks how you would find a ball that was lost somewhere in an open field. then the old one is certain to reappear. Systematic the ball is in the field. but may take too long. showing that a particular logical proposition is not a theorem of quantification theory). Psychological Monographs. For some problems algorithms are may hammer — — Cand — — that are not practical (e." can be dull and People do not always use systematic Plans for searching because7 in spite of the intelligence test. S. and this work was continued in Mathematics Plausible Reasoning. Among psychologists it was principally K. will not not exist." it ^ A systematic Plan.may wander look in the that aimlessly about. a field usually referred to as the theory of recursive functions.. it the intelligent. 1945.. 2 vols. ineffi- The alternative is to be unsystematic — in a clever way.g. The study of algorithms effective computational procedures is an active branch of modern mathematics. So we should answer field is any systematic procedure for covering every inch of the If without looking in the same place twice. poking into corners. Computability and Unsolvability (New York: McGraw-Hill. If the is 1 The recent revival of interest in heuristic seems to the art of discovery stem largely from the work of the mathematician G. systematic Plan for searching will lead you over eventually.g. known i6o Plans and the Structure of Behavior . or cost too it much. An algorithm is defined intuitively as any completely mechanical procedure for computing an answer in a finite number of steps. it last. then move on to the next room. If all else fails. Duncker. A heuristic Plan may in- be cheap and quick. See K. ing to remember where to we saw the Plan is said be "heuristic. etc. when possible. often returning to or three times. 1945) attempts to state the heuristic maxims of mathematical discovery. 1958). A good introduction to the theory can be found in Martin Davis. (Princeton: Princeton University Press. exploring all possible continuations of a chess position). 270.

or Ehrlich all is as "searching" for a cure for syphilis. or a method. that is being executed. Plans for searching for an object in the physical environment are usually rather simple. either to confirm or infirm occur unless we have little a clear rule for determining Such searches cannot when the Image is exist. That given is to say. or before it the search will be halted and tion does not exist. will some particular event occurs. we would not consider examples of searching at all. etc. For example. or an image. presumed us to set to be infirmed because the object does not We know we are surprisingly about these stop-rules or the conditions that cause them as we do. etc. the intelligent thing to do is to incorporate a stop-rule in the search Plan. What makes It is us decide that the thing looking for does not exist? probability of discovery reasonable to suppose that both the utility of the object are and the involved in setting the stop-order.. Since we are never absolutely certain in advance that the object can be found. we say that we "search" through our memory for name. us. The search Plan holds a special interest for however. or an insight. because it serves as a model for many other cognitive first processes that. until an object is discovered that satisfies the test or until the stop-rule is effective. for a We speak of Edison testing thousands of substances in his electric light as "searching" for a effort to make an good filament. not In order to be explicit about the kind of search that is involved in solving problems. ing on the Image. a variety of such stop-rules will be built into the test Many searches are instituted solely for the purpose of checkit. as well as the kind of Plan. There searcher's "set. or an association. at glance. These tasks have the formal characteristics of search except that the object sought located in spatial coordinates. if not found after some fixed time. or some number of operations. be assumed that the object in quesall (The suspension of stop-orders during hypnosis cases of has already been discussed in Chapter 8. let us consider a problem that psychologists have Plans for Searching and Solving i6i .produce it — we have embarked on the object is an impossible task. systematic or heuristic. human Plans for searching." plus tors is a perceptual test that defines the an operational phase for orienting the receptoward another object where the perceptual test can be repeated. an answer.) In phases. Or we "search" the solution to a problem.

black things (9) White circles (15) White things (16) Black things (17) Circles (18) Squares 162 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . and that two values of each dimension are there are 2x2x2 = 8 different objects that have it. etc. however. white things (8) Small. black circle (4) Large. some may be red and others green. he has attained the correct concept (that until read the experimenter's mind ) possible. the eight objects might be as follows: (1) Large. A concept something like. All of the possible combinations are laid out neatly for the subject to see." or. white things (6) Large. "All the large. For example." etc. white square (7) Small. green ones. and color. some may be large and others small. some may have borders and others not. but no one has considered that condition is vi^orth studying. He is told that some of the objects are examples of a "concept" and that the others are not. Subjects are lection of objects that differ shown a col- from one another in several respects. black square The various hypotheses that the subject could hold about the concept. shape. The concept could. white circle (6) Small. be a random sample from the set of objects. until him whether or not that object is and the an example he has subject continues to ask about the various objects is.. some may be circular and others triangular. The The subject can point to one of the objects tell experimenter will of the concept. might be the following: (1) Large circles (2) Large squares (3) Small circles (10) White squares (H) Black circles (12) Black squares (13) Large things (14) Small things (4) Small squares (5) Large. white circle (2) Large. imagine that there are three dimensions of variation. of course. studied rather extensively in the laboratory. black circle (8) Small. black square 3 ) Large. to be classified as instances of the concept or as not instances of If the dimensions were size. white square ( (5) Small. black things (7) Small. In that case. "All the ones with borders. For example.

- he could hold about the particular concept the experimenter has Each time he learns about the status of a new object. jects. problems. The legendary monkeys who typed at random until they accidentally produced all the books in the British Museum ~ could be hired to help the author. A "communication analysis" of concept learning. 184-197. formation about the world they The concept duce of a set of^alterjiative hypotheses that is might be the solution of the problem a very useful one. Whitfield. 175-182. he resize of the set of possible duces the hypotheses that are compatible is with the information he has received. The subject for the correct one. 45. since it enables us to re- many problems bit strained to a similar form — how to search most effi- ciently through a large set of possibilities. PsycJiological Bulletin. A modern account of problem solving. Hovland. The instructions that are given to the subject and perhaps some instructions he assumes without being told will determine the — — exact set of hypotheses that he is searching through. whose task would then be This insight seems to have occurred independently to Hovland and Whitabout the same time. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. for example. concept attainment can be modeled after tion the search process is a familiar one to psychologists. 1952. The experimenter to see in interested what order he all will ask about the objects be able to use to study the information he has. Transmission of information concerning concepts through positive and negative instances." or "everything except large circles. is It can be described as a search problem in almost the same terms as were used above for perceptual search searching through a set of possible solutions alternative solutions he is searching through The are not the objects he sees. but the set of possible hypotheses selected. Johnson. Carl I. See J. W. Carl I. can get a — it is difficult to all process of selecting one out of Sometimes the analogy vvrriting a book as a the possible ways 100. 59. 1953." or we might have still other hypotheses. The more general concepthat thinking. such as "all the ob- "none of the objects. of course." etc. 1951. 201-229. 461-472. see. and how well he will The experiment enables us some of the heuristic Plans people will use for gathering inlive in. is This concept-learning task commonly employed in experi- mental studies of thinking." or disjunctions of the form "either large circles or small squares. An experiment in problem solving. 3. 1944. the review by Donald M.Obviously. Hovland and Walter Weiss. problem solving. Jotirnal of Experimental Psychology. Plans for Searching and Solving 163 . 41. Psychological Review.000 words think of could be strung together. for a discussion of search and of plans of action field at — — in problem solving.

a systematic Plan for solvguaranteed to work but it is not a very — popular approach. No subject would want to try it. This ver- sion of the Plan looks to the experimenter beit cause the subject asks him relatively few questions. The actual behavior of subjects in this situation is quite different. In executing the Plan he makes no remember anything or to understand anything — he plods systematically ahead. and it is an algorithm. Another systematic Plan. Then the subjects could take the first hypothesis on the list and begin systematically to ask about the objects until he finds one that contradicts the hypothesis. symbolically. would be write down all the possible hypotheses and then to test them all to simultaneously. again. but trivially different is only sionally from the preceding Plan. Plans. day after day. at which point he could go on to the next hypothesis and start all over asking about the objects the entire set of obis testing. When he can proceed all the way through jects without finding one that contradicts the hypothesis he effort to then he knows that the hypothesis must be correct. but without pencil and paper it is almost certain to fail — the cognitive strain is too great. After asking whether an object is an example of the concept. somewhat more intelligent.simply to read all they wrote and select the book he wanted. others want to manipulate the objects. This version has occabeen attempted. as all we did in the example above. But in such a notion. rather than either and the reason we don't is that we systematic or random. use heuristic. it spite of the psychological artificiality of provides a valuable formal tool for the analysis and understanding of problems and puzzles. This ing the problem. to group them perceptually this way 164 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . Some people tackle the problem verbally. the subject would then relate the answer to each hypothesis in turn — hypotheses that failed would be crossed off the much more efficient list. Nobody has ever been known to use it in any of the hundreds of experiments that have been done with thousands of subjects. A down systematic approach to learning a concept would be to write the possible hypotheses about the concept. until a hyis pothesis checks out. is The rea- son this description seems unnatural that we don't attack the prob- lem of making a book in that way. and no experimenter would have the patience to let him.

Then find heuristic strategies that their subjects used. An Jerome interesting S. this strategy would be an algorithm if no limit were placed on the number of instances about which the subject could inquire.^ They were able jects to distinguish among some subsame object several times. red circle without border. S. and generally indicated that they had no good use for the information they were collecting. When subjects are put under pressure to find a concept in the smallest possible number of questions.) The cognitive strain is greatly reduced at only a slight penalty in extra objects examined. Edna Heidbreder. 3 Eugenia Hanfmann. and George Austin demon- strates that a subject's Plan for concept-learning and analyzed. they may try to keep track of the entire set of hypotheses through which they are really searching. 1947. Austin. 1941. If the to it.. then size has nothing Next. but it enables a person to explore the various hypotheses with a heuristic Plan that almost automatically keeps track of the information he has received. The people who do this tend to abandon it on repeated tests with more concepts. 1956). repeat the the test for color. then you know that size is important. 9. locate a positive instance of the concept.few can alternate between the abstract and the perceptual Most people devise rather elaborate mnemonic Plans for remembering which objects are in which class. This procedure is etc. An interesting Plan that many subjects developed was the following. 24. Character and Personality. a strategies. repeated their questions about the another object that is just like the positive one in all respects but one. for example. his own tricks. Goodnow. * See. Journal of Psychology. A Study of Thinking (New York: Wiley. Plans for Searching and Solving 165 . positive or negative. A study of personal patterns in an intellectual performance. Jacqueline Goodnow. aspects are exhausted.^ for discovering the concept.* Each person has his own style. 315-325. The attainment of concepts. then find the small. and important study of concept attainment by can be discovered several different Bruner. sampled at random. then for borders. red circle without border and ask about do with it. J. 93—138. For example. If the first positive object is a large. is positive. Bruner. 5 J. and G. until not the most efficient one imaginable. then for shape. If the answer answer is negative. III: The process. (As a matter of fact. First. his own heuristic Plan and that.

that there are many different heuristic Plans a subject may use. Imagine that we are given the letters EIMT and that the problem is to spell an English word with these letters.1^ have settled two aspects with only one question. and they If the result is is ^'^ •^o* known to ^£. they would not bother to consider such possible solutions as TMIE. All involve the risk of failure. It is obvious that few normal people tackle problems. In this way we would be certain to discover TIME and MITE and ITEM and EMIT and any other solutions the anagram may have. For example. The important point to note. then both of those aspects are an example of the conbe irrelevant. they do not know which is aspect of the two important. they would i66 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . if no English words beginning tendency for vowels and they began with T. the ap- implications of his information straight. of changing aspects of a positive instance. but we could certainly do it that way. We can systematically work through all the 4! = 24 orderings of these four letters. even problems as simple as an anagram. however. When the pressure however. In the case of an anagram. other subjects can frequently succeed by gambling. Or they might rely upon — their feelings about the probabilities of letter pairs to guide them. 1 . is still they change two aspects and are told that the result cept. negative. but more authoritative test would be to look for each string of letters in the Oxford English Dictionary. with a systematic Plan. It would be dull work and it would be slow. since they know that there are TM — . They would probably try to exploit the consonants to alternate in English. the whole procedure might better occupy the time of a computing machine than of an adult man. plied. A more expensive.Subjects with mathematical or logical training are especially likely to try this heroic Plan. the Plan will sometimes work. however. With a little bit of luck. As another example of the important difference between systematic and heuristic Plans. but some are more risky than others. if we could mechanize the dictionary test. it is For problems of any degree of complexity because the person cannot keep all is almost certain to fail. As a matter of fact. people might work backwards guess some English word and then see if the letters can spell it. consider an anagram. but now they change two or three at a time. as beIf They use the Plan fore. relying on our knowledge of the English vocabulary to provide the test.

Science and Method. or hunches. who have reflected on the heuristic art a great deal more than most of us. but in constructing those that are useful. Dover. The mathematician A. that one's intuitive feeUngs. etc. 1952). For most problems the only Plans we have are heuristic. They would probably not bother to ending in I. York: Plans for Searching and Solving "167 .: next form TI or TE. pp. Discovery is discernment. do not generate the solution at all. in fact. sist in Discovery consists precisely in not constructing useless combinations. and much of the study of thinking can be reduced rather tions generally to the study of the heuristic Plans people use for generating proposed solutions that are worth testing. and one is then forced to adopt some exhaustive Plan for permuting the letters systematically until a word turns up. Maitland. But usually these various bits of information about where it is worth while to look for the solution will be valuable and will produce correct solu- more quickly. But the notion mathematicians. Some English words end in I. note that test any words most of these heuristic rules are fallible. the number of hypotheses that would need to be systematically explored usually makes them impractical. Poincare wrote What. especially in longer anagrams with unique solutions. TM can occur in such words as posTMan. M. through a large we find one that solves the to a may seem odd and somewhat novel person who has taken his heuristic Plans for granted and to consider the who has never is bothered multitude of alternatives he doesn't need to reject familiar to because he doesn't even think of them. Now. selection. For example. which are an infinitely small minority. It can easily happen. That can be done by anyone. 50-51. and the combinations that could be so formed would be infinite in number.® Exhaustive Plans can be used to solve some mathematical problems. The idea problem that problem-solving can be represented as searching set of possibilities until at first. and the greater part of them would be absolutely devoid of interest. is mathematical discovery? It does not conmaking new combinations with mathematical entities that are already known. Turing illustrated the inefficiency of systematic Plans several years ago — he considered the number (New of c Henri Poincare. but unless the problem is simple. trans. Consonants and vowels do not always alternate. F.

On thought: the extrinsic theory. and Herbert A. 9 A Study of Thinking by Bruner. but most of us more than we reahze. they surmised. We think and an operational phase alternating until the operaup something that passes the test. Personal Knowledge (Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Thus ficient — — techniques for searching is. Gerstenhaber.789. Shaw.^ The reduction of thinking and problem-solving to a matter of efcombinations. Solving a problem is a matter of turning up a lot of likely hypotheses until either one satisfies the test or the stop-rule is applied.000. 218-227. 126.arrangements that would have tematically solving a to be looked at in the process of sys- common puzzle consisting of sliding squares to be arranged in a particular way. ^ In a similar spirit.888. See also E. Simon. Shaw. Working at the speed of modern electronic computers. of course. 63. Psychological Review. Newell. The number was 20. for a discussion of the relations among payofFs. it would take. achievements. 1956. Working continuously day and night and inspecting one position per minute the process would take four million years.922. Polyani. hundreds of thousands of years of computation if the machine used a systematic "British Museum algorithm. Empirical explorations of the logic theory machine: A case study in heuristic. Galanter and M." ^ Obviously. they must have worked heuristically. and the subject's strategies in solving problems. i68 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . 218-230. It is fairly obvious that without a little discernment and selec- tion live among the alternatives we are willing to consider. p. and Austin suggests several ways to do psychological research on the economic analysis of the costs and values of different strategies for processing information in thinking and problem-solving. A heuristic is a way of exercising discernment — but it always runs the risk that the solution will be discarded inadvertently along with the millions of apparently useless we arrive at a typically human dilemma slow and sure. we will not long enough to solve anything. quite attractive to anythis one who takes the general thesis of of a test phase tions turn book seriously. Whitehead and Russell did not proceed in that fashion. C. and Simon have considered the set of all possible sequences of expressions in prepositional logic and tried to estimate what fraction of them were proofs of theorems in the second chapter of Whitehead and Russell's Principia Mathematica. Proceedings of the Western Joint Computer Conference (Los Angeles: February 1957). J. 1958). 8 Allen Newell. or fast and risky? All of us are cognitive gamblers some more than others. 7 Quoted in M. problem complexity. Goodnow.

(Of course. we are once on them. How to Solve It. Plans for Searching and Solving 169 . therefore. For example. a level of complexity we have met before in discussing remembering and speaking. an invention. These metaplans — Plans for forming other Plans — will be discussed in the next chapter. For the moment. whose discussion of heuristic is one of the oldest to be preserved. clusively that It is The aim some clearly of a "problem to prove" stated assertion is show con- either true or false. the search for a path is more confronted by the necessity to think of one Plan as testing and operating upon another Plan. But whereas the search for an unknown is satisfied when a particular hypothesis or number is selected. a concept. along with some of the techniques available for studying the properties of these complicated systems. we want "Cited in Polya. but can a to prove" also "problem If be formulated that way? be proved. we think of a "problem to prove" as involving a clear stateis ment then of what given and a clear statement of what is to we can consider the solution of the problem to depend upon dis- covering a path other. so it is scarcely an innova- tion to point out that the search for a path to connect just a two things is more complicated version of the search for any other kind of unknown.D. to pursue the question of the pp. is to or the value of x. however.But is the search process an adequate model for everything that call thinking and problem-solving? Some people would argue that it is not. and the Greek mathematician Pappus. ^° The aim of a "problem to find" is to locate we would normally an object — a hammer. —a sequence of steps is to — that X leads from one to the When the problem establish that A (the given) imphes C (to be proved). In short. B may sequence of two or more steps. test them. we must search for some such that A imphes X and we find one. also involve a X implies C. evaluate them. obvious that a "problem to find" involves a search. there is a distinction between "problems to find" and "problems to prove" that goes back at least to 300 A. we must have some way to generate alternative Plans and then to operate really a search for a Plan. 141-147. We search through a large set of X until B.) Pappus discussed the solution of "problems to prove" in just these terms. that provides a path: A to B to C. In the more complex kinds of problem-solving.

therefore. all of which pass. be tolerated before the execution of the Plan is etc." The time. What we would is some way to apply the stop-order only when we are to be a loop really was not — and that if 170 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . But we also know that sometimes our stop-orders are issued too soon that what appeared persisted a bit like. The way a chemist sulphur may involve several steps and much The way a mathematician tests to see if he has determined the correct value of x may be similarly tedious. If there is any single caution that should be emphasized more than the others when considering search as the paradigm of problem-solving. or so many operations. We can get caught looking for a solution if that we would not be able to recognize search paradigm for problem-solving. When we we must remember what he is use the that it includes cases where the person cannot recognize for. test of a search tests to see if he has TOTE need not be simple. or so much fatigue. the problem is said to be "well defined. we had it. And the question of whether a particular Plan leads erable to a valid proof can require a consid- amount of skill and judgment. Exactly the same the thinker who cannot recognize the solution to his problem. There is one feature of any search process that is absolutely indispensable is — the searcher must be able to recognize the thing he No stranger because the problem of identification the appointment afflicts looking for. which fails again. etc. it is this: There are important problems whose solutions cannot be identified in a finite number of steps. sending the system into a series of TOTEs. we had longer the Plan would have worked. so that no satisfactory test is possible. The prototest may fail. looking and important example of a problem for which no test exists is the following: We have spoken (see Chapter 2) of the possibility of a TOTE hierarchy falling into a 'loop" of tests. If a satisfactory test exists.. will halted. doubt everyone has had the experience of going to meet a perfect was forgotten when helpless impotence was made. The test phase may be extremely complex and the ability to perform it adequately is not always a trivial matter.— search process as a paradigm for thinking and problem-solving. thus returning the system to the prototest. sending the system into the same series of TOTEs again. In this situation it is necessary to have a stop-order to break up the interesting An loop — only so much time.

fortunately. But at first it is not clear what the problem is or what would have to be satisfied by any solution. is a person settles for one or the other. Then we may begin to suspect that is. or ask for help. then will stop. the very act of discussing seems The psychological aspects aspects that have been studied primarily by Levvin satiation. many ways to compromise with reality. I to We can say. but not to apply really are not. a concept that will identify every good banker finally settles for a concept that will work 19 times out of 20. For a review of this work. or throw a tantrum. or lower our self-imposed standards. especially pp. After searching unsuccessfully for a pen." The problem then determine N as a function of the importance of the problem.. it is not obvious that the search paradigm way ^1 to discuss Indeed. Chapter 16. That is to say. being slightly puzzled fails to give the when it sometimes intended outcome. There an important kind is of thinking that goes on at this stage — the stage in which the problem the to it becomes defined best — and it. and people probably revise the Image as often as they give up the Plan.really in a loop. but not stopping to worry much to do. doing what is habitual and customary. ed. Half a loaf loaf. see Leonard Carmichael. "I will try to do I it in this way and if. After searching unsuccessfully for a Plan that will integrate two incompatible Plans into one. level of aspiration and his students. The "halting problem" is unsolvable. better than no There are. we settle for a pencil. after is N have not succeeded. The only thing we can do is to could perform on our Plans that would adopt an arbitrary criterion that reflects the value to us of the out- come. 823832. — of the halting problem involve persistence. Maiiiial of Child Psychology (New York: Wiley. But no such test exists. about the failures because there are too many other things still Then circumstances conspire against us and we find ourselves caught failing where we must succeed where we cannot withdraw — from the field. An alternative to the stop-rule is a modification of the conditions that are imposed in the test phase. ^^ years. it when we merely appear to be but we would like to have some test that we tell us in advance whether they would work in a finite number of steps or whether they would fall into a loop and go on forever without success. In ordinary affairs we usually muddle ahead. After searching unsuccessfully for a risk. we face a test problem. 1946). Plans for Searching and Solving 171 .

Minsky discusses in rather general terms a "character generator" that classifies situations and keeps a record of which heuristic methods have been successful with which classes of problems. Frequently the problem may become well defined and the test for a solution become obvious at just about the same instant that the solution for it is found. L. without any assurance that they are taking us nearer to the definition or the solution of a problem. we still use heuristic tricks. if form a part of it. or. fiddling with a to few examples.lend to it remember how defined. clearer Image Given an adequate test required to define the problem should. The statement it. Lincoln Laboratory. Group Report 34-55. or. M. trying imagine what rid of. of course. 17 December 1956. it feedback. — 172 Plans and the Structure of Behavior .^^ We may revise it several times. but we frequently use them without any Image. the test any solution can be found that will meet the test. We Image of the situation. that is solution can be found. but never being certain precisely are trying to construct a better missing or what we could get what we are searching for. of the problem about it. learn more and build a richer. It is a little like trying to develop a good filing system without knowing exactly what the file will be used for. trying to clarify the Image in order to discover a test that will define the problem. the is not sure there really its a problem. a degree of clarity and objectivity that makes it difficult to ineffably confused we are before a problem is well search about. as we learn more about what must go into state in the thus deliberately reverting to a confused or novel form. the exists. What we have called "building an Image of the problem situation" may correspond to the development of a useful classification scheme in Minsky's discussion in which case the analogy to a filing system would be quite appropriate. During the period when we are fumbling about. it. it back together again in a more useful would be quite wrong to believe that all problems are given in a well-defined form and that thinking consists merely of hope of putting It 12 In his Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Whereas the is subject in a psychological experiment has the problem explained to him and can be reasonably average person is confident that a solution exists. if if there is. exploring a hunch. is revised repeatedly as we struggle with of it. There a great deal more uncertainty in an actual problem-solving situa- tion than there is in its laboratory counterpart. gambling that We we might get a good idea if we spent some time on this or that. that any simple test for exists.

We predict that object X will we inquire about se- be called a positive instance of the concept. for encourages us to look at the same processes of them. and so it in order to test the prediction. We predict the hammer will be found in the workshop. some people argue is that once the problem has been well-defined the "real" thinking is all over — that carrying out the search for a solution it is just a mechanical exercise in which that possible to be efficient or ingenious. so we execute them in order test the prediction. of course. In fact. there are several. For example. to it happens to be false. cit.. then test the prediction by looking there. to predict we might is have discussed them as attempts what going happen. The opinion is extreme. because of the test of the prediction provides us with a confirmation or infirmation the Image that supported the prediction. is Galanter and Gerstenhaber comment that "imaginal thinking less neither more nor than constructing an image or model of the environment. p. or a Plan. rather than in terms of forming a Plan to discover the solution. op. We predict that such and such a quence of steps will generate a proof. 219. in a different way and so enriches our understanding to The prediction paradigm for thinking and problem-solving tends direct our attention more to the Image than to the Plan. they argue. but it makes us remember many people represent their problems in terms of clarifying their Image. Plans for Searching and Solving 173 . It to should be apparent that this substitution of is prediction for search merely a new way of discussing the TOTE units involved. The answer to this is unfortunately. but not creative. instead of discussing every problem as a search for an just as well to object. the test phase remains the same. Is there an alternative to the search paradigm of thinking? Of course. the it substitution has heuristic value. enough truth in it make us pause.searching through a set of alternatives for one that wOl work. or a concept. But there argument is that. Once the Image is correct." 13 According to this view. running ^^ the model faster than the environment. but the operate phase is now called "predicting" instead of "searching." Nevertheless. the Plan will follow directly. and predicting that the environment will behave as the model does. the elements with which the problem-solver seems to work are Galanter and Gerstenhaber.

his perception of the situation after he does something. the main source of trouble in problem from the inadequacy of the Image of the more information. In other words. so that we must be quite circumspect about the predictions we decide solving problems arises situation. his if he takes a particular course of action. is the part that deals with the formation An ordinary person almost never approaches a problem and exhaustively unless he has been specifically much more natural for him to visualize what is and what ought to be and to focus on the gap between them than to visualize some huge set of alternative possibilities through which he must search. to probe for the places where our knowledge is thin and our understanding weak. In order to verify an Image as it develops. 174 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . It is According to the prediction paradigm. the information we need is not "given" with some guarantee that it is relevant or important we have to dig for it. etc. Thus we see there are at least two ways to represent the information-processing that goes on during thinking and problem-solving. the phenomenological aspects of problem-solving are more frequently connected with alternative Images than with alternative Plans.his perceptual imagination image of what the situation will be like image of the situation before he does anything. and the decision to execute a particular Plan will depend upon the payoff function defined by these utilities. his image of some ideal situation that he might hope to attain. systematically educated to do so. Moreover. to destroy old Images in order to replace them by new. We may not have the leisure to collect all the information we could use and we may need to settle for an Image that is only approximate. It is necessary to collect — to test. And each of these images must have some evaluation on a utility scale. to attempt various organizations. to transfer Images from more familiar situations. The process of making predictions may itself involve considerable time and expense. Descriptions of problem-solving and thinking that place the emphasis on the Image frequently correspond better to our personal intuitions about what is going on the imaginal part of the process is much more — accessible to awareness than of a Plan. it is necessary to make predictions and to test them. and even then the data we gather may be useless once we achieve a stable cognitive structure.

we will want to find a solution with as few applications as possible. If the various pos- a test is expensive to apply. alternative hypotheses are seldom "given" in the sense that we need merely point to the one we want — usually they must be We can- generated according to rules. be discussed in terms of the TOTE schema. In the context of this book. The process of generating potential solutions may itself involve considerable time and expense. however. however. perhaps infinite. In the next chapter. For as our Images become more accurate and more elaborate and more useful. diffi- sometimes the other. not dismiss the task of searching efficiently as a mere mechanical exercise suitable only for second-rate thinkers. In few situations are w^e completely free to examining exhaustively and systematically permutations of atomic elements.: All of these comments can be paralleled in the search paradigm The main source of trouble in solving problems arises from the fact that the set of alternatives and the acceptable solutions start sible may be extremely large. Both can. Moreover. This emphasis. we will become able to define more and more problems to translate them from the domain of mere difficulties into the domain of practical problems. the authors believe. late heuristic we shall consider how to people formu- Plans to search for the answer to well-defined problems. should not be understood authors wish to reject the vast mean that the domain of ill-defined problems or to deny the critical importance of refining our Images. Sometimes one of these representations culty lies in the construction of a better will be more helpful. depending upon whether the heart of the Image or the elaboration of a better Plan. therefore. may be scattered haphazardly so that all they are hard to find. to make them into something we can solve instead of something we must ignore or overpower or circumvent. — Plans for Searching and Solving • 175 . we must concentrate our attention principally upon the latter kind of problem.

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Habits and skills are most frequently acquired by imitation or verbal instruction from another person. Sometimes we may borrow a new Plan from someone else. But we do not often create a completely new Plan. When we speak we usually some- not completely predictable. but even when we it help to originate a new shared Plan re- we usually try to form to along lines already familiar. We change them around a little bit each time we use them. although they may develop inadvertently as we attempt to cope with the pattern of events around us. but the novelty of what to well-established we say is always subject grammatical Plans that we of Plans The Formation "177 .CHAPTER 13 THE FORMATION OF PLANS Where do Plans come from? Probably the major source of new is old Plans. but they are basically the same old Plans with minor variations. Plans for membering attempt thing that is exploit familiar situations and previously try to say established associations. Shared Plans are normally communicated to us as participants. Consider the origins of the Plans we have discussed: Instincts are inherited Plans and so are not created by the individual who Plans executes them.

rather than with a direct Plan for uttering the successive integers." The analogy could be improved. but the computer will be unable to handle any numbers whose logarithms it has not been given explicitly. They 178 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . a set of rules for generating N + 1 from N. And so is the Plan for counting. But as the numbers begin to get large it is likely that we work in terms of a metaplan. any other motor skill.a are not at liberty to revise. not created. they had a few hats and only the pattern for When we mean say that most Plans are remembered. could get along without them. If the table is used. and when there to generate is time to use them they can be projected into an infinite variety of unforeseen situations. This attitude toward the question of where we get our Plans re: sembles the attitude of Boston matrons toward their hats "My dear. but the computer will be able to "create" the logarithms of numbers it has not seen before. If the formula is used the process will be slower. There are interesting questions here concerning the mental economies involved — how frequently must a Plan be used before memorize it? is it it is worth our while to directly rather than to remember a Plan for reconstructing A kind of low-level creativity to displayed by any system complex enough puter to have mataplans. Often a metaplan that stored — metaplan from which a large number of different Plans can be generated as they are needed. at least through the first few hundred integers. is many others. we do not down to is that the Plan stored in memory ready it is for execution the very last muscle twitch. For example. metaplans: They are easily stored. The ad- vantages of having Plans Plans is so great that no intelli- gent automaton. however. the Plan for reciting the alphabet probably stored — memorized — directly. a decision make must be made whether to store a table of logarithms in the computer's mem- ory or to give the computer a formula for calculating logarithms as they are needed. in using an electronic comcalculations involving logarithms. we don't get our hats. if we have them. When do we store Plans directly and when do we like store Plans for is generating Plans? For example. Even in thinking and problem-solving we are continually executing Plans tediously mastered at school. the logarithm will be rapidly found if it is in the table. Therein lies a great advantage of formulas. living or dead. sets of rules.

If the proof is a path leading from the expres- was to be proved. There as a third level of planning that we discover as soon we think of the procedures that the mathematician used in order to generate the proof. therefore. Thus. of heuristic sions that were given to the expression that the mathematician teachers. psychologists. the proof is also a Plan. such as finding a proof of a mathematical expression. they permit men to be creative in significant in a wide variety of situations. etc. The Formation of Plaris 179 . computer engineers. The proof is a sequence of those mathematical expressions and will characteristically have its own hierarchical structure. We have to see clearly what the data are. we must understand the problem. As we noted in Chapter 12. usually a heuristic Plan. and so on ad infinitum? Or is heuristic the end of the line? It seems that heuristic Plans ar6 as far as one can go in this regression. and note the are involved. So we must have a heuristic Plan for generating a proof Plan for transforming a mathematical Plan for performing certain computations. Consider some well-defined problem. A plausible account of heuristic Plans. And it is a metaplan because? the out objects it — operates on are themselves Plans. searches are generally conducted according to some kind of Plan. and what the un- known thing is that we are searching for. for the methods used to discover new heuristic Plans would themselves be heuristic Plans. levels of metaplanning that The expression is itself a Plan that can be used to carry some particular arithmetic operations it has its own hierarchical organization and can be analyzed in much the same way a sentence can be parsed. Hoiu phases in the heuristic process to Solve It.: not only permit the electronic computer to seem creative in a trivial way with ways logarithms. — — who may someday be able to specify hierarchical Is it possible for all organizations for generating heuristics? to Plans have metaplans that write 'em. In his popular text. what conditions are imposed. But the system cannot is stop there. then had to explore a great variety of possible paths in order to find this one. Polya distinguishes four — First. Does it stop there? Is it necessary to add the students mathematicians. will provide the general outlines within which a theory of thinking about well-defined problems can eventually be constructed.

A suggestion that points toward an essential common point is: Look at the unknown and try to think of a familiar problem that has the same or a similar unknown. Usually there are related problems 1 many G. which calculations. How to Solve It (Princeton: Princeton University Press." ^ it may occur suddenly. Or. as a 'Ibright Polya presents the heuristic devices that mathematicians use in the form of questions. checking. but in the discussion of well-defined problems been accomplished. As Polya describes it We have a plan when we know. that something creative must happen. 1945). it is indispensable. If this does not suggest a plan. of course. or at least know in outline. important for the student problems. a kind of dialogue between a teacher and a student. The fourth phase for future use. The first is es- in Chapter 12 as the construction in order to establish a test for the solution of the problem. in a flash. Third. The way from understanding the problem to conceiving a plan may be long and tortuous. ing. in the second phase. the actual formation of a Plan. we must carry out our plan of the solution. 8. and although it may be costly or require much to we assume that it can be performed in a straightforward manis ner. discussing. we should look back what we have described of a clear Image of the situation sentially at the completed solution. the second of these is most critical. The first question to ask is whether you know of a related and the problem is to choose the right one. we must devise a plan that will guide the solution and connect the data to the unknown. The third skill. perhaps even improving Obviously. computations. after apparently unsuccessful trials and a period of hesitation.: Second. In fact. the main achievement in the solution of a problem is to conceive the idea of a plan. This idea may emerge gradually. idea. checking — — each step as we go. is we assume that it has already what we have described as the execution of a Plan. i8o Plans and the Structure of Behavior . reviewit. Polya. or constructions we have to perform in order to obtain the unknown. p. for it is it who wants develop his ability to solve facilitates storing the method However. can you restate the problem? If you cannot solve problem. — Fourth.

) Working backwards is one of many — — heuristic aU good problem-solvers. If we now reverse the whole process. we would have the desired result.the proposed problem. Perhaps we could work backwards. and then pouring the remaining one quart into the small pail. This heuristic principle said to have been described first by Plato is to concentrate on the unknown and to try to see what could have led to it. A critic of the present argument would have the right at this point to register a number of protests. We are not making much progress working forwards from the given conditions to the desired result. into the large Or we could get five quarts by filling the larger nine-quart pail and then pouring off as much as we can into the smaller. a fournot immediately ap- quart pail and a nine-quart pail? The answer parent. What related problem can solve? We could get eight it quarts by twice filling the small pail and emptying pail. perhaps you can solve some related problem. we reach something that we know how to do. But the desired amount is six quarts. we have our plan for measuring out the six quarts. four-quart pail. we would have the condition we need. From what antecedent container were filled condition could this be derived? If the large and we could pour out three quarts. And so. discarding four quarts twice with the small pail. His complaints might run something like this: (1) Metaplans that generate metaplans that to methods known The Formation of Plans i8i . and how difficult it is to find the right path in the opposite direction. What is the situation we are trying to reach? Imagine six quarts of water in the large pail. From what antecedent could this be derived? We could measure one quart by filling the nine-quart pail. Can you decompose can work backwards it into several simpler problems? Perhaps you — from what antecedent could the desired result is be derived? Each of these heuristic devices discussed by Polya in terms of specific examples. by working backwards. Consider this puzzle: exactly six quarts of water How can you bring up from the is river when you have we only two containers. (The principle is perhaps most apparent when we note how easy it is to run a multiple-T maze from the goal box to the start. From what antecedent condition could this be derived? If the small pail already held one quart. it works not only in solving water-measuring problems but in a great variety of other problems as well.

translate the description into a computer program. There must be hundreds of parameters floating around in this kind of theory and nobody will ever be able to untangle them. Simon. 61-79. No benign and parthat account. Computer engineers have only just begun to explore the possibilities of self-programming automata we can look forward to many new discoveries as they learn more and more about what Norbert Wiener calls "the problems of organthe that — — ized complexity. see if it reacts the same way organisms Now that we know how to write such programs ^ — especially since work of Newell. 182 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . run the program on a computer. IT-2. for simonious deity has issued us an insurance policy against complexity. These are good criticisms and they must be met. 1956. The logic theory machine: A complex information processing system. there is no need to become discouraged on within the past decade or so electronic engineers have begun to develop computing machines that are big enough and fast enough to serve as models for testing complicated theories. A good scientist can draw an elephant with three parameters. Vol." 2 The earliest description of the use of list structures to develop flexible information-processing languages in order to simulate cognitive processes with heuristic programs seems to be in the paper by AUen Newell and Herbert A. (2) These rough. 3. and with four he can tie a knot in its tail. IRE Transactions on Information Theory. heuristic rules of thumb. (3) Even if we took this approach seriously. and Simon we can begin to test ideas would probably have seemed impossibly complicated to an earlier generation of psychologists. Shaw. there is no way to put it to the test of experimentation.still more Plans are far too complicated. these probes and questions. The evidence for it is not even simple introspection the argument is based on what must lie behind introspection. The answer the first it to one is clear enough : If the description is valid. these maxims and proverbs can be used only by people with enough intelligence to understand them and see how to apply them. However. and do. It violates all the rules of the behavioristic tradition and threatens to set psychology back at least N generate — years (where N measures the intensity of the critic's emotional response). They cannot be seriously proposed as unambiguous components of a scientific theory. No. then the fact that is very complicated cannot be helped. Describe the theory carefully.

III-23. in Abraham A. of course. Without a good artist could create. M. the machine would have to provide an intelligent description of what it was trying to do. Marvin Minsky. program simply wUl not work. Lincoln Laboratory. there is a list of twenty-one different heuristic methods that Moles has been able to distinguish and exemplify in the historical development of science * and technology. The proposal should include all and problem-solving discovered does not It the heuristic rules men have originate with the present authors. noting the extent to which language guides our problem-solving efforts. In most cases. the heuristic devices that thinkers say they are using can be translated into programs that reproduce the results obtained by the person. as well. Minsky. just as the student does. has suggested that one way to develop a theory of heuristic would be to design or evolve a language through which the machine can be given heuristic suggestions which it can try to realize in a variety of reasonable ways. coherent theory. With this test available.* We would then be able to communicate with the machine in much the same way Polya communicates vvdth his students. however. Group Report 34-55. The Formation of Plans 183 . the discussions of heuristic schemes have been little more than catalogues of useful tricks. for otherwise it would be difficult to know what suggestions to make. therefore.The to the possibility of using electronic If computers gives us an answer second criticism. then believe that the heuristic device we have every reason to was a true description of his pro- cedure in solving the problem. the If the heuristic method is ambiguous. Heuristic Aspects of the Artificial Intelligence Problem. for it appears implicitly in almost every sub- jective description of the problem-solving process. has a long and distinguished history. Moles.^ Only recently have workers begun to explore the possibility that the catalogue might be converted into a supply of heuristic methods no discover. Of course. L. p. Then we could take the machine apart and see how it worked — an analysis to which few 3 For example. heuristic rules of thumb can indeed be proposed that a theory of thinking as elements of a serious theory of thinking. Massachusetts 17 December 1956. Institute of Technology. its But the machine would slowly accumulate own private catalogue of heuristic tricks. 1957). La Creation Scientifique (Ren^ Kister: Geneva. no scientist could no technician could invent.

of give some more concrete description Let us consider chess and the how heuristic Plans can be realized in actual machines." never to be opened again. verbal information provides set of instructions for constructing. a machine to perform a response of the As he points to out. even before considering the third complaint. and perhaps that is also the best way to let the machines evolve. then choose one that led to a checkmate of the opposing king. we should.. One's all thought." "Do not attack the opposing position until your own position is developed. which the is broadly same as the present authors'. If we want to develop a self-programming automaton. therefore. Yet the fact that students of heuristic talk about such schemes mean off that they are able to carry Our critic should not be put by appeals to authority or by evidence that computers are both impressive and fashionable. way a computer might use heurisfirst tic Plans in order to play that game. 184 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . But necessary. In Minsky's view. out of parts available there. general-purpose machine linguistic signals. "Try make sure your King to control the is four center safe before you attack.students are willing to submit. to would presumably know how heuristic do so." ^ head. even the fastest electronic computers we have would be unable It is to execute that exhaustive Plan in a reasonable period of time. a machine that uses language as we do would have that. III-18. is to compute possible continuations from a given position." etc. maybe we should let it learn does not the way we do." or "Always or maxims as. Unfortunately. them out. therefore. Talk about self-programming machines could create an impression that all of psychology's problems have been locked tightly in a box labeled "Plan Generator. in its an organism with "a desired kind. Children acquire their store of methods by listening to verbal suggestions and then trying to execute them. How can these heuristic principles be used to control will what the machine do? 6 Ibid. In order to meet the criticism head-on. perhaps. If such a to construct a machine was Plan by working backwards. contain a fairly powerful. p. they include such squares. what heuristic Plans do we have for playing chess? These can be found in any chess manual for beginners. for example. to use heuristic Plans. under the direction of could construct a told to try it variety of special-purpose machines.

machine not. and finally. A. If if so. the machine will consider the Pawn structure. and H. The next thing the machine will do changes. C. must be analyzed in terms of aU six goals.Newell. in addition to the description of their own work. Chess-playing problems and the problem of complexity. and (6) promotion of Pawns. then will propose moves that may prevent the opponent from making these two key moves. Shaw.g. The evaluation cannot be limited to a single goal. Can it move Pawns into the center? If so. and Simon have analyzed the traditional chess heuristics into six independent "goals": (1 ) King safety. the will protect them. because the machine always tries to achieve them in that same order. The value of a move for center control is obtained by counting the number of blocks there are to making the two key Pawn moves. when the When the move generator has proposed something to do. to not. adding defenders to the Queen 4 or the King 4 squares. That not. If will try to defend if so. or removing some block to moving the Queen's Pawn or the King's Pawn). however. Shaw. or lose a piece. This article contains. examine certain continuations until no further exchanges are possible. J. (2) material balance. and note the * Allen Newell. etc. first the machine it. 320-335. then Pawn to King 4. machine turns to development. for a that move would look very good to the center-control Plan might utterly destroy the King's position.. IBM Journal of Research and Development." This ordering of the goals is significant. (3) center control. the check up on the possible exthe make sure that its pieces are adequately protected. then to attacking the King. it will is to go on to the next goal. The proposal must be evaluated to see if it really achieves the desired results. it will first propose moving Pawn to Queen 4. (5) King-side attack. moves that are relevant to that goal. if Associated with each of the goals is a set of rules for generating machine applies the center-control heuristic. will look to see if its King is safe. an account of the history of the problem beginning with Shannon's paper in 1949 (see footnote 25 in Chapter 3). 1958. is a vector. its machine will turn next it is to center control. if none of those goals leads to a good move. then propose moves that prepare for making these moves (e. done. the machine does not automatically accept it. For example. The component representing material balance will assign the conventional numerical values to the pieces. Simon. The proposed move The value of a move The Formation of Plans 185 . 2. is to it say. of course. (4) development.

the other for evaluating them. save the best if move discovered up to this point and. In order to avoid the possibility that no conceivable move would meet the criterion. routines used to generate and evaluate the that would take us too far we should examine the moves in more detail. and Simon have programmed.rial change in material. pause long enough to try Shaw. A critic who still doubts that heuristic rules can be incorporated into completely deterministic programs suitable for guiding the behavior of an automaton will have to pursue his doubts into the original articles themselves.) different goals. and lend pages. but the one that seems simplest and nearest to the spirit of their work has two major subplans. and is to set Simon suggest that the simplest choice procedure an accept- ance level arbitrarily (a mechanical 'level of aspiration") and simply to take the first acceptable move. and Simon program in the language used it in the present book tion. And so the evaluation proceeds through the Now. There are far too to select the one with highest many proposals possible. should. Shaw. one for generating the moves. There may be an even better move possible. The prototest could i86 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . the thing it cannot do: It cannot wait until all the possible proposals have been made and evaluated in order value. (The evaluation of moves with respect to matebalance is exceedingly complex and involves numerous other heuristic principles. when the machine has found a move that all the different move may still not be made. the time-limit expires before an acceptable that move has been found. Newell. the less explicit notions about information- processing that we have applied to psychological questions in these There are several ways that to play chess. but there is one heuristic goals approve. credibility to. There are several different ways it could proceed. We to express the Newell. make the best one was found. Thus. a stop-order can also be imposed. In order to be completely concrete. — not because adds anything to their descrip- but simply to make clear that their work does indeed illustrate. all of TOTE hierarchies could be organized them using the heuristics that Newell. the machine has the problem of making a choice among the moves after they have been evaluated. however. but from the main argument of this book. Shaw.

'' They used the heuristic programming techniques developed by of the One in a geometry ^ H. then the operational phase of it X will be executed. and Nathaniel Rochester. There are many other heuristic devices that we might most interesting is the use of a "diagramming heuristic" program written by H. Intelligent behavior in problem-solving machines. the phase. If tests. however. Minsky. and Simon program. L. permit any of the six individual evaluation routines to reject a proposed move if it tested out too badly with respect to that particular goal — that decision would make so it is it difficult for the machine to offer sacrifices. but merely to illustrate that their heuristic programs do not discuss. if it seemed desirable. when that has been answered. not our present purpose to offer alternatives to the Newell. The idea seems to have originated at the Dartmouth Summer Research Project on Artificial Intelligence in 1956. that wise. Marvin L. Gelemter and N. "If you do not have a move. has two has six tests. IBM Journal of Research and Development. confute or conflict with the idea of Plans presented here. Rochester. Shaw. all probably wiser to postpone any rejections until the result of are collected six evaluation routines and compared with similar evaluations of other moves. all of the intuitive why not try to X?" where X is one of the six goals." is executed. has associated with operational phases which are difficult the more or less elaborate according to how question is to answer. and each question. operational "Who plays next?" If the machine is to play. of the form. The Formation of Plans 187 . This also has six one for each of the goals. Eventually a legal move is selected and then it transferred to the evaluation routine. 2. no move has been selected. Gelemter and N. for example. "How does King?" or "How does it it affect the safety of the affect the balance of material?" etc. Each of these can elaborated. particularly in discussion among John McCarthy. "Is move?" The operational phase of the move generator form. L. 336—345.. however.be the question. and will Amateur chess-players are not always frequently reject a move because of some its glaring disadvantage later — only to discover compensating advantages It is when they study the games of a master. We could. In the case of center control. is him from moving P-Q4?" and so on. that the best "Make a move. however. Rochester. will consist of a string of tests "Have you tried P-Q4?" "Have you tried P-K4?" "Have you tried to prevent be further control parts. 1958. This operation "What move?" and.

then draw it. however. then con- struct figures to help him prove those ancillary problems. it can set these up as if hypotheses and inquire whether. that these systems become extremely complicated. The ways which he exploits this Image of the problem are quite interesting and complex. "If the figure has an axis of symmetry and it is not drawn. It is they are true. There is. a kind of backhanded comfort to be found in that fact. to the construction of a proof. they will contribute certainly true." Or. and it is a challenging task to try to convert them into explicit rules that can be programmed for a machine. The more carefully we analyze the information-processing that must go on in order to solve even the simplest problems. The rules would be such things as. and Simon in order to etry problems in the make a computer tackle geom- same fashion as a high-school student. In this situation the will human geometer draw a figure that contains the essential conditions of the problem and then study the figure until he develops some Plan for the proof. Most scientific advances have reduced man's universe. try to restate the problem or analyze in it into steps that create new problems. determine by measuring on the diagram whether they are corresponding parts of apparently congruent triangles. the more respect the reduction of his cognitive processes to — we gain for this beautiful piece of biological equipment. most important.— Newell. crushing blow. given fickle dignity. as our critic pointed out. "If two line segments or angles are to be proved equal. subjected his brain to the endocrines and his mind unconscious forces of lust machine operations would seem to be the final. following standard heuristic methods. Shaw. i88 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . At least we can take comfort in the fact that we are too compUcated to reduce to simple machines. He may check with other figures in order to make sure he is not trapped by some accidental property of the one figure he has used." When the that certain things are equal or machine discovers by measurement proportional. Or he may. moved him out to the of the center of the him apes for cousins. Thus far the human brain seems to be the most amazing computing machine ever devised nothing else we know even approaches it. Geomet- ric proofs are typically rather discover long and it is almost impossible to them by any exhaustive procedure of trying all possible sequences of transformations.

These two are quite general methods described by Newell. 1945.Before we try to meet our critic's final objection. trans. but do not see it.^ They refer to them as "means-ends analysis" and the "planning method. Duncker. little etc. have and what ator want will The difference I D. Shaw. Duncker. find some transformation that reduces the difference. and Herbert A. The Formation of Plans "189 . but I do not know how. What is the difference?" And so the means-ends analysis continues. The important advance over Duncker's work. L." The former attempts to analyze a problem into a sequence of subproblems. and then apply see if you know any way to transform it. Paris. The new problem is to get from A' to B. search again for a is way to reduce the difference. and Simon and tested for their effectiveness in enabling a computer to solve problems in logic. If no way is known. How can I reduce D? Oper- T reduce D. The means-ends analysis runs something like this: First. No. From his analysis of the situation and of the goal. achievement of any goal the achievement of a set of easier Its success will depend upon how shrewdly the measure of is difference defined and the transformations are selected. S. chess.. Lees. important. Shaw. J. it is No 8 doubt obvious that any method we can discover for Allen Newell. Simon. the heuristic I works something like this: "I is want to get from A I to B. Psychological Monographs. is to be completely explicit in terms of a computer program. the person locates a source of difficulty that he then attempts to remove. the problem gets a easier to solve. Proceedings of the International Conference on Information Processing. some of the complicating factors in the situa- Undoubtedly there are many other heuristics that we use to solve problems. 9 What Newell. What to get? the difference between is what it.^ The argument attempts to make progress by substituting for the goals. Report on a general problem-solving program. Then try the first step again — the new version of the given into the desired solution. and powerful. and trigonometry. Shaw. Intuitively. but these two are certainly ubiquitous. On problem-solving. then try to reduce the difference between them. but do not I know how. however. and Simon call "means-ends analysis" is similar to the theory of productive thinking described by K. of course. See K. Each time the difference reduced. C. If not. let us consider two more heuristic methods. how to apply Transform A so that operator T will apply to Now apply operator T and get a new object A'. 270. 1959 (in press). and the latter attempts to find a plan by ignoring tion. see if you know any way to transform the given into the desired solution.

progressively "warmer" as we get we solve each successive component of the problem. regardless of their connectives. is whether or not the neglect of the details changed the problem so to use the much that the solution of the simple problem was irrelevant. When we proceed in this way we are free to decide in which order to search for each aspect. 190 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . and Simon consists in omitting certain solved by This usually simplifies the task and the simplified problem may be some familiar plan. then search through that smaller set of Plans for one that will also handle attribute B. be characterized by several simultaneous attributes. for ex- ample. in which order to eliminate the differences. for example. However. thus changing into another. we can search for a set of Plans that will take care of attribute A. In solving a problem in the propositional calculus. delete. That if a situation differs from the goal with respect to both attribute attribute B. If correct solutions are literally scattered at random through the set of possible solutions. The critical feature. in most situations where men have is still been successful in solving problems. In the language of children's games. excellent play even an when an actor accidentally changes a few of it Shakespeare's lines. The logical operators that add. the machine can decide to ignore differences logical connectives among the and the order of symbols and to look only at what the symbols are and how they are grouped. Hamlet. Shaw. details of the problem. then previous search through one part of the solutions can be of no aid to the subsequent search through the remainder. A and we can try to factor the problem into two parts. A second very general system of heuristic used by Newell.breaking up a big problem into smaller problems will tremendously simplify the solution. Most heuristic methods involve some way information already acquired. The steps required to get the right symbols correctly grouped then serve as a possible strategy for a complete proof. of course. complicated problem. the successful solutions he in a neighborhood of successful solutions. This approach is valuable when the solution can is to say. but very similar. or regroup symbols are then applied to the abstracted propositions. first Instead of looking for a Plan to remove both differences simultaneously. The plan used to solve the simple prob- lem is then used as the strategy for solving the original.

Once they have succeeded. however. when we try to find ways settle to settle disputes between nations by thinking how we might similar disputes between individuals. in this loose sense. ambiguous. Certainly. Complicated information-processing according is to heuristic principles not only conceivable — it has actually been accomplished. or dimensions. one general enough to deal with a wide range of well-defined problems in essentially the same way. The general concept of biological evolution is a good one. Shaw. solution can suggest a Plan for solving the original problem. it is possible to explore the neighborhood of any relatively successful — — solution to see If if a better one turns up near by. for example. get into situations When we where the modification of any slight detail of a correct solution changes it into an incorrect solution as in opening a combination lock. to the status of a logues." such as those offered by Polya heuristic "theory" of thinking. we can no longer think that any- one who is postulates complicated information-processing by an organ- ism appealing to mysterious. or unscientific principles. Shaw. and their computer programs vsdll indeed have risen above the level of heuristic "cataothers. This is the sort of heuristic we use.play. and Simon in their development of a general problem-solving program. a set of possible solutions are. even though the sequence of development of different species may in some instances require revision in the light of future evidence. When the best solution is in a neighborhood of good solutions. After studying this pioneering it is work by Newell. If the simplified problem by ignoring one or problem can be solved. With luck. it may be possible its to simplify the two of the attributes the steps in entirely. and Simon quite difficult to recapture one's innocent respect for parsimony in psychological theories. — the steps involved in solving the problem posed by a particular diagram may Means-ends analysis and the planning method are two of the most powerful heuristic methods used by Newell. vitaHstic. clustered together in a space defined by the attributes. Another example is the use of the diagram heuristic by Gelernter and Rochester provide a Plan suitable for proving the general theorem. of Plans The Formation 191 . the steps that led to a successful region in the smaller space may still lead to a successful region in the larger space. for example we are usually unsuccessful. of the problem.

He may by now have into methods can be incorporated It is ma- must still feel that the behavioral evidence can never be collected for really testing these ideas. 1-154. to suspect it is not necessary metaphysical booby traps in every psychological process more compUcated than a conditioned reflex. that he should doing. what he is looking for. Henceforth. The work of Newell. because they would make it impossible to say any- about thoughts. Shaw. the person talk while he is is working. If a serious complaint. Claparede. human or divine. feelings — thinking aloud requires merely that the comment on what he out. and many others. images. properly organized. if true. what objects or relations catch his attention. and Simon shows in detail how the processes of solving problems can be compounded out of more elementary processes that can be executed by machines. people must be this complicated. 24. finally granted that heuristic we still have hanging over our heads the third complaint by our patient chines. But is it true? Certainly. Archives de Psychologie. etc. Claparede. then it will be Impossible to study thinking at the level of complexity required for programming computers or for understanding the neurology and physiology of the brain. of this work is clear progress in dealing with the problems of organized complexity. then impossible." Unlike the usual introspective or retrospective methods that require a subject to analyze his experience into meaningless mental contents sensations. what his intentions are. esses.— demonstrated on existing computers. psychology must be would certainly be im- portant to prove. is But. Duncker." perhaps. and if things this complicated cannot be studied experimentally. The most valuable approach seems to be the "thinking aloud" method used by Binet. while all needed. 1° As Claparede pointed E. But are such Spartan strictures necessary? They would protect us from thing at all long. 1934. It is scientific a complaint that. no ghostly assistance from an undefined source. La genese de I'hypothese. violent disputes about "imageless thoughts. if one interprets "scientific" to mean that all of a subject's verbal reports must be ignored. 192 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . but he critic. but that is a high price to pay for con- sonance. And it shows that those elementary proc- can in fact solve complex problems.

April. Newell." He then proceeds to do which may lead on to unforeseen consequences that prevent his ever returning to do A. it can provide a tremendous amount of information about the detailed process of thought. so he will have to get rid of some (an late a theory that will predict his behavior. Simon in an invited address before the Eastern Psychological Association in Atlantic City. He looks at the hst of transleft formations until he finds one that gets rid of things to the of the main connective. A.^^ derive one logical expression application of the "planning method"). But when the method is used intelligently and conscientiously. or slow them down. but before I — A I have to prepare for it by doing B. Shaw. The Formation of Plans 193 . one that will solve the problem in the same manner as the subject. The subject will say. and Simon have found that the subject's description of what he is doing is exactly the kind of data they need to formu- They ask a subject to from another by the application of a given set of transformation rules. Since thinking aloud permits more of the person's thought procit esses to project through the plane of perception. the task was considering. It is actually easier to simulate the person's spoken thoughts than to simulate only the decisions that appear in his behavior. essential step in the thought processes leading to B. in effect. the referents for some of the utterances are not clear. would we had not recorded the things the subject said he actually did. so he would like to apply that. because the proposition he wants to transform has 11 H. along with the things he be hopeless. The subject talks about the task as he does it. The problem is not so much to collect the data as it is to know what to do with them. Nevertheless. He may look at the two expressions he is given and say that the one he has to start with has too many propositions to the left of the main connective. But if it must consider A. it may make the process sound more coherent and orderly than it would otherwise be. "I want to do A. 1959. the subject may fall silent at just the critical moment when the experimenter would most hke to know what he is doing.method has many shortcomings the task of talking may inhibit the thought processes. helps to limit the variety of conceivable descriptions to a handful that are reasonably accurate. then do B. If we are to develop an adequate heuristic description. But then he realizes that he cannot. the consideration of A was an can do JB.

There is always a variety of alternative Plans that could have led the subject to exhibit the same behavior. The subject may say. or the metaplan. one human being 194 Plans and the Structure of Behavior ." In fact. "Use number 8 next." changed in order to apply the transformation that will shorten the left side. Ob- we can never know whether or not we have the theory for any domain of inquiry.. chunk of observed behavior. the job get that connective works only for "or. It is tempting to say that a successful theory "predicts the subis ject's verbal behavior. In this endeavor."and" in So. The Plan. or ments was following such-and-such a metaplan for generating Plans this is a hypothetical statement. important to reduce as far as possible. whereas the rule he wants is to to apply he says.g. the interest lies in the subject's Plan. for aU its notorious short- is still the least ambiguous of aU the channels open from to another. the best we can hope to do is to select the simplest one compatible with all the facts. He looks for a transformation that turns "and" expressions into "or" expressions and elects to try it as his first step. because this kind of ambiguity it is is such a pervasive feature it of behavioral analysis. When the psychologist says that his subject in these experiPlan. no one yet much interested in the of verbal behavior as behavior. because language. his doing method is to make the propositions connectives in guiding the choice of that he more important than the transformations). its favor. impossible to see how the subject's strategy can be inferred. therefore. But. and to predict if would mention the left-shortening transformation before he the only that the experimenter records is adopted the connective-changing transformation. was using a it is particular clear that to solve the problem. represents the psychologist's theory about that viously. not in his specific actions. yet these differences are ignored when testing the adequacy of the theory. But datum the bald fact that the subthe connective-changing ject's first choice of a transformation it is was transformation." or. Now. it." or any of a variety of equivalent verbal behaviors. it is possible to find a fairly is simple set of heuristic methods to describe what this subject (e. the subject's verbal report has one great recom- mendation in comings. but only in the meaning what is said. "Let's try that one again. Obviously.

Kurt Goldstein has widely publicized the fact that they Some Neuropsychological Speculations 195 ." "Milk drink." The child amuses us with is to his operational is to "A knife is to cut." Each concept is defined by the concrete operations that it customarily evokes. Children. Or. are not the only ones who produce definitions objects. the child is building up TOTE units by associating a perceptual Image used in the test phase with an action pattern used in the operational phase of the unit. initially at least. for the child simply to be able to It is not enough from other the name the object or to distinguish it He must know what actions can be released when test phase indicates the object is now at hand. however. to put it in our present language. is to dig. The number of these TOTE units that a child must learn is enormous and he probably learns them." "A book read. The child is learning what to do with things. by following this simple verbal formula that associates a subject with a predicate.CHAPTER 14 SOME NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL SPECULATIONS "A hole definitions. of this type.

The present authors determined to follow tradition and to look in neurophysiology. to use less dualistic terms. there seems to be good evidence for the age-old belief that the brain has something to do with the mind. But if unable to use to he is given the object. obviously.— can appear patient is after certain types of brain damage. Or. but other Plans normally initiated by the object are left intact. suggests that way that some of the simplest The patient processes of retrieving stored information cannot be performed. Or the de- may have lost the ability to recall a Plan by internal. it up to. upon external memory In any case. According to Goldstein's interpretation." The injury crete to the brain leaves the patient vsdth a simpler. The procedure of looking back and forth between the two fields is not only ancient and honorable it is always fun and occasionally useful. when is behavioral in phenomena are carved at their joints. 1941. more contheoretical is way of dealing with his world.^ The unfortunate confronted with a knife. the child. "It is to cut with. 1 Kurt Goldstein and Martin Scheerer." thus echoing it. A psychological analysis that can stand up solved by to the neurological evidence is certainly better than one that can not. Abstract and concrete behavior: an experimental study with special tests. 329. He may even say. more in keeping with the proposals the brain can be damaged in such a made in this book. 196 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . he knows He is how that He may indicate that he recognizes it by making the gestures imitate its use. Another. each time there is a new idea in psychology. No. suggests a corresponding insight and vice versa. or with a picture of a knife. but retained the ability to execute all other naming Plans. is in the phrase "stand its definition. Psychological problems may not be making measurements on the brain. Psychological Monographs. verbal processes and be completely dependent vices. supply the name. this behavior on the part of the patient indicates an impairment of the "abstract attitude." since consider- able prejudice can be involved in In any case. The catch. Goldstein's famous analysis of the abstract-concrete dimension of mental life of looking at the one way symptoms he describes in the patients. will correspond to the there will be some sense which the analysis way the brain put together. but some more modest aim may be accomplished. may have patient lost the ability to execute the Plans involved in objects.

modern. Depending upon what kind of instructions it is given it may act like any one of an infinite variety of different computing machines that might have been built with the particular instructions locked in and unchangeable. people must have programs. the brain nervous system through the same theoretical spectacles. It may have all it kinds of fascinating data stored in its from the outside. this chapter reports a The arguments revolved around a three-way analogy: The relamind is analogous to the relation of a program to a computer. the computer will do no processing of inin the formation. The relation between computers and brains was a battle the authors fought with one another until the exasperation became unbearable. After a decade of cybernetics you might think the translation from one of these languages into the other would be fairly simple. By taking the analogy beand computer with complete sincerity is one driven to man must way for much of the trouble in reaching an agreement about the the brain works was that two of the authors stubbornly persisted in trying to talk about it in terms appropriate to the dry hardware of modern digital computers. Now. also. -Question What is X? Of these three systems. In the hope of communicating the few of the ideas that However. It will not begin to act like a computmg machine until it is given some instructions. whereas the third was equally persistent in using language appropriate to the wet software that lives inside the skull. fident that they have discovered the one best line to pursue. One reason Some Neuropsychological Speculations 197 . it is not yet a true computing machine. as soon as someone suggests that people are like computing machines and we hear that said every day it should become clear memory or being fed into \ — — that if the suggestion is true. and both are analogous to the relation of X to the brain. but without a program nothing can happen. the authors feel somewhat less than conwere considered. When a large. In was never far from the focus of discussion. but that was not the case. general-purpose computer is turned on morning and sits there warming up. the tween 2 man have a Plan. That is to say. A computer must have a program.^ flavor of the arguments. the one we know most about is the comtion of a Plan to the : puter. then the man must have somewhere avail- able an organized set of instructions that he attempts to execute. But without the instructions. If a man is like a computer.at the fact. Innumer- able alternative interpretations of the available neuropsychological data were invented and discarded. purring through its magnetic drums and scratching its multivibrators. or program.

explores some of the virtues of cognition in general.. human be- The preceding pages try to describe the results of that search in psychological terms.. what ferred the pattern to be transto build elec- from computers to brains? There are many ways most machines seem to involve a memory where both the program and the data and any intermediate results and the final answer can all be stored with facilities for transferring information into it and out of it. darkened room. shifting. etc. "Pandemonium: a Paradigm for Learning. in Hierarchies in Pattern Recognition (Group Report 54-9. an equally plausible alternative would be to allow different parts of the brain to perform computations at the same time.^ etc. At the London Symposium on Mechanization of Thought Processes in 1958 Oliver Self ridge of the Lincoln Laboratory gave a talk entitled. The instruction that is temporarily in the processing unit can be said to be the one that the computer is "attending to" at the moment. and a processing unit where the tronic computers. crudest terms. or a focus of attention. Now we are interested to see what results the same attitude might produce in neurology.r search literally for the source of instructions that guide havior." in which he described a hierarchical organization of parallel computers that could learn to recognize patterns and illustrated its operation in terms of a machine that would learn to recognize manually keyed Morse code. the center of attention does not go wandering around through the memory itself. addition. as a beam of Hght might scan a. so it executes the instruction and goes on to the next instruction. Note that the center of attention is a fiLxed place and that symbols are shifted into and out of it from the memory.. Lincoln Laboratory. or whatever 3 it is that corresponds to a computer's proc- We have considered only the possibility that the nervous system performs one operation at a time. but at least it is we know that it vsdll brain that correspond. The computer begins by taking the first instrucon the program and moving it from the memory to the processing Whatever instruction is in the processing unit has control over what the machine will do. work.^ Is it possible to locate parts of the No doubt there is nothing necessary about this patfamiliar and tern for computers. etc. 1959). Pandemonium as a model of human 198 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . to these parts of a computer? To look for some particu- lar place in the brain to represent a locus of consciousness. how- ever crudely. with tremendous speed and blind persistence until an instruction tells it to stop. is In the broadest. tion unit. 9 October. but — — — actual operations of comparison. multiplication. are performed. Ulric Neisser. Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

G. a conceptual operation that always reflects a conviction that when two things live close together they probably cooperate with each other. and you would be able to interpret somehow as proof that you were right. And it would tell another part of the brain into which an instruction could be transferred when the time arrived for the execution of that instruction. Roe and G. A fourfold an internal core vs. 140-164. Chapter 7. It is wonderful to see how can blossom when they are given a little affection. then. the brain is divided into parts. What does the neurologist have this discussion? In the broadest." * for the different sense modalities and a posterior "association ^ The evidence on which these divisions are based has been summarized by Karl Pribram. 1958). pp. Behavior and Evolution (New Haven: Yale University Press. is that the cerebral cortex provides the some One notion. Regardless of what con- sciousness for may is. each of these can be divided into two parts. be. Some Neuropsychological Speculations 199 ." The external portion is divided into projection system? area. The primary projection areas could provide short-term storage for images would be operated upon by programs stored in the adjacent as- And so on.. But the metaphor — that a focus of activity moves about in the it brain carrying consciousness with from place to place — seems just to look as ad hoc in the light of available evidence. alternative is a naive and impossible oversimplification. scramble them up. to contribute to once again. the computer analogy would say some particular place that could be used to store programs and us to look for data. however. assign them in either order evidence to serve either as the memory or as the processing unit. eds. even the most optimistic theorist feels the need for evidence. that the limbic areas somewhere house the processing unit. in A. and that the cere- bellum that is a digital-to-analogue converter in the output system. these analogies Eventually. draw two at random. an external portion. however. After several months of discussion. crudest terms. The internal core is made up of limbic systems and a frontal "associdivision of the f orebrain : can be made first into ation area. Comparative neurology and the evolution of behavior. sociation areas. that to serve as the memory.essing unit. what pattern can be discerned in the organization of the brain? JLike Caesar's Gaul. the present authors were almost (but not quite) convinced that you could put the names of parts of the brain on slips of paper. Simpson. for exmemory unit. ample.

^ The reader who has come this far through the present text should react with interest to this division of the brain into an internal part that handles sequences of acts and an external part that handles dis- crimination. along with their closely related subcortical centers. that the internal core is primarily concerned in mechanisms necessary to the performance of behavior sequences vv^hile the external portion is related to informational processes necessary in discriminative behavior. which is the "association area" in the inner core sys- tem. There are problems with is schema. tify the internal (i. Thus we seemed to face a dilemma. involved in our organized system of facts and values "discrimi- nation").e. as if they performed the functions of a processing unit in a computer. consistency would demand that evaluation must be mediated by the external portion of the forebrain. almost inevitable that one should iden- core as the part of the brain involved in planning "sequences") and the external portion as the part of the brain (i..These divisions are based on neuroanatomical evidence. as a "working memory" where various Plans could be tempothis rarily stored (or. Once the present it is distinction has been drawn between the Plan and the Image. and of the frontal lobe. One it difficulty the disposition of different motivational processes. that the external portion serves propagation of patterns of signals. Thus.. regenerated) while awaiting execution.e. p. 200 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . The matter is quite important. which took some careful analysis of the behavioral evidence to resolve. Since has been argued in these pages that values are part of the Image. perhaps. Concerning the major division into an internal core and an external portion. current research on the limbic areas the part of the inner core that might govern the execution of the — Plan — suggests that they are involved in motivational processes in a most intimate fashion. 143. one begins to think of the internal core as a place that governs the execution of Plans. However. Pribram comments as follows: [It is assumed] that the internal core is primarily related to changes in central nervous system excitability. but they also indicate relatively consistent differences in the kinds of psychological functions that they serve. 5 Ibid. of course. so let us pursue it here and now. of the limbic portions of the internal core..

Should the present authors be embarrassed and revise their opinion about the relegation of dynamic factors to the Image on the basis of such evidence? Not at all. 1. D. Some Neuropsychological Speculations "201 . The trouble stems effects normal behavior have from the fact that a result wide variety of seemingly unrelated on behavior when at- these regions are stimulated electrically or are surgically destroyed. 1958).'' (2) concerned with "memory. The limbic system with respect to self-preservation and the preservation of the species. they were neglected until recently. pp. motivation and emotion being conceived as primitive. "B. that the limbic systems are concerned vvath primitive motivational-emotional processes? For one thing. Goats have been made to drink few drops of concentrated table salt solution into the third ventricle. Research Publication. mechanism. 1958. Take. In spite of a great deal of research. of course. however. Association for Research in Nervous and Mental Disease. can be advanced. 244-257. "visceral" reactions. This is the its salinity kind of "motivational" process one finds situ- ated in the internal core.Analysis of the functions of the limbic systems of the forebrain has been one of the outstanding achievements of neurophysiology during the 1950's. The thirst homeostat is a Plan. they drink until a sufficient amount of water is absorbed from the gut through the for example. homeostatic central core of the nervous system mechanisms are abundant in the and are located especially around the third and fourth ventricles of the rostral end of the neuraxis. the thirst large quantities of water by injecting a vascular system and into the cerebrospinal fluid to return to normal. The osmoreceptors in this region of the brain are activated and the goats continue to drink water until an equilibrium is reached. Two different points of view have been adopted in the various (1) The comprise the substrate concerned with motivational and emotional tempts to explain the observed behavior: limbic systems behavior. Psychological defects produced by temporal lobe excision. MacLean. instinctual. 1-11. and because they are difficult to get at surgically. a relatively simple. innate TOTE unit. the functions that these structures serve in eluded precise specification. Chapter VIII. to support What sort of evidence is there for the first view. in The Brain and Human Behavior." ^ The limbic systems are primarily Clinical and experimental observations both of these interpretations. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases. XXXVI (Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. That is to say. These systems are located deep in the center of the brain. G p. Milner.

more appropriate than a statement distinction cial here. The evaluative factors involved in such choices as these must be mediated somehow in the external portion of the forebrain. one which does not have concentrated In the normal animal the number of swallows of water salt solution in its third ventricle taken is determined by the amount of water the body needs. once they have been initiated. How the number can be predetermined is not clear." since that might be mispre- understood as meaning that the animal pronounced the names of integers subvocally as it drank — and is compared with some determined number that depends upon the body's water balance. We might think of the in- when formation about how-many-swallows-are-needed-as-a-function-of-howmuch-water-deprivation-has-been-endured as forming a part of the Image. There- fore. before the TOTE unit for drinking is set up for execution. or for capitalism over com- munism. the present authors are not disconcerted to discover that lesions in the limbic systems of the central core disrupt the execution of such behavior. activated. a stored relationship. off until the incongruities that activated them are The organism will continue activities that tend to complete the ior. The cru- made in Chapter 4 between values and intentions is What would really be surprising would be to discover that a lesion in the central core could cause a man to reverse. ity for What terminates the TOTE unit activ- drinking in this case? Presumably the number of swallows is recorded — we hesitate to say "counted. Bilateral sur- Image can be illustrated 202 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . but presumably it depends upon previous experience in some way. This distinction between the automatic execution of TOTE units concerned with tions in the vital functions and the evaluation of these same funcby an actual case. and the — — drinking will terminate long before there has been time for any dilution of the cerebrospinal fluid. the run themselves resolved. his preference for Rembrandt over Picasso.As elsewhere. TOTE phases. which must be drawn upon." TOTE sequence: i. After each swallow the is amount of drinking that has been done compared with the predetermined amount that is to be done and the two are equal the TOTE unit is terminated. say. the organism will show "intentional behavA statement that the animal "intends to quench its thirst" seems that the animal values water.e..

She rushed to the table." but when no candy was offered she did not pursue the matter. Was she like a piece of rare. "No. other patients already seated at a long table. If for events prior to their surgical operation is apparently if normal. the doors to the common room were opened and she saw the swered. was examined at lunch time. In fact. and began to stuff food into her to the mouth with both hands. eating lunch. Such a patient can be directed to a grocery store where he can purchase the items on a wiritten hst without having to refer to that list any oftener than would a person was in the task. Somehow the lesion had disrupted the normal relation between the evaluation of an obbetween Image and ject and the execution of Plans for obtaining it Plan tion — — a fact that we interpret as further evidence for a clear separashall return shortly. A few minutes later when the examination was completed. the two aspects of motivated behavior. even after they were pointedly con- trasted with her recent behavior at the table. when you return he will not be able to continue where he left off. But you are called away for ten or fifteen minutes in the middle of administering some test to such a patient.gical ablation of certain parts of the limbic systems characteristically result in excessive eating and obesity. he will not even recall that there or that he Some Neuropsychological Speculations 203 . The same nega- answers were obtained again." Would she steak? "No. Just how the lesion could have such an effect is a topic to which we What systems in second view. that the limlarge lesion in the limbic bic systems are concerned with memory? A man (more extensive than that described in the patient above) can produce a very odd type of memory loss. On this test of immediate memory they are practically as efficient as they were before the lesion occurred. Moreover. She was immediately recalled tive examin- ing room and the questions about food were repeated." Would she like a piece of chocolate candy? She an"Um-humm. who had gained more than one hundred pounds. He will not recall where he was any task had ever seen you before. they are unable to carry out a sequence of memory orders. juicy hungry? She answered. Patients with lesions in this part of the internal core of the forebrain are able to repeat correctly a series of digits that they have just heard for the first time. sort of evidence is there for the between value and intention. their distracted. pushed others aside. One patient.

If the location of the lesion the animal will eat continuously as though stop. The of the first It kind of effect we have already lunch time. preferences turbed. the patient can carry on quite well. and maternal behavior. impossible for him to (Interestingly enough. until some- thing in the environment sets off a habitual reaction. Either the test will not indicate that the operational test will phase should occur. the animal will starve to death in is the presence of food. is He douses if When he offered another lighted match he may reach it. Unless given new in- wander about aimlessly street. Given an external Plan written out on a sheet of paper. this peculiar defect of memory would not seem have anything in common with the disturbed thirst and hunger mechanism mentioned above.) will still prefer peanuts to lab among foods are not dischow and prefer lab chow to When whiskers a normal baboon it is it time he will grab and put handed a lighted match for the first into his mouth and perhaps set his his snout in a water trough. Neurobehavioral studies conducted on animals support this notion that the limbic systems of the internal core of the forebrain play an essential role in the execution of Plans. monkeys feces. but rather acts. Chapter 10). afire in the process. but he it will stop before he grabs it. mating. or the nate. fighting. it is shifted slightly. or he does take he will fling into the trough or out of the cage. a mere concatenation of discrete On to the surface. Ablation and stimulation kinds of effects of various structures within these systems interfere with feeding. for it.with an intact brain. such as waiting for a red light to change before he crosses a is His behavior is not organized into a Plan. seems to involve a failure of met in the patient at some sort in the test phase it TOTE unit. fleeing. If a lesion is not indicate that should termi- made in one spot. But once he has completed the shopping he does not recall what he is supposed to do with his purchases and he is completely incapable of finding his structions at this point he will way home. depending on which of the major divisions of the limbic systems is experimentally involved. Two are obtained. If he has had an ablation of the amyg- daloid complex — one of the major subdivisions of the limbic systems Plans and the Structure of Behavior 204 . Yet this patient's behavior illustrates perfectly what would happen if a person were unable to formulate Plans for remembering (cf.

1956. will be displayed by these operated animals under circumstances in which normal animals show no such behavior. therefore.^ And the effects of such lesions on fleeing can also be understood. can be interpreted as a disruption of the phase of different TOTE And TOTE units that are already established may get their testing fails. Green. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. 49. sexual activity. H. de Groot. Rinencephalic lesions and behavior in cats: an analysis of the Kliiver-Bucy syndrome with particular reference to normal and abnormal sexual behavior. on this inability to impose new tests on a comes from electrophysiological studies of cortical conditioning.he reaches for the first match he will continue to reach for subsequent matches. to occur when only the auditory stimulus is given. firing his whiskers. and each time he will complete the entire sequence of putting it into his mouth. And once conditioned avoidance has been established it is very easily extinguished perhaps the animal is — unable to terminate other to TOTE units in which he is engaged in time make the conditioned response. after several Interesting sidehght An TOTE unit paired auditory-visual presentations.^" Interference with the test phase of various TOTE units is only 8 J. 8. D. In a similar fashion. 201. Some Neuropsychological Speculations 205 . and J. 10 F. 1956. D. Electrographic studies of the formation of temporary connections in the brain. The electrical activity produced in the visual cortex under ordinary circumstances by visual stimulation can be conditioned. 381-394. test An units. The animals develop a conditioned avoidance reaction only with great difficulty: they apparently cannot establish the conditioned stimulus as part of the test phase of the avoidance behavior. 9 L. 1957. 108. The test phase of the TOTE unit differently. and dousing his snout. Behavioral changes associated with ablation of the amygdaloid complex in monkeys. routines "jammed. The only selective ablation that is is known to inter- fere wdth this conditioning process that of the limbic structures we have been considering. Jasper. Journal of Comparative Neurology. Morrell and H. If — he behaves quite which initiates the actions of oral exploration cannot be modified in the Hght of experience. Weiskrantz. once it has been initiated.^ efPect of lesions in this part of the limbic systems. C. 505-545. Clemente. EEG and Clinical Neurophysiology." so that the test always passes or always experience in the situation does not enable the operated animal to learn new testing procedures to substitute for the ones he has.

S. 77-88. can be surmised about units is A tween little how the hierarchical relation be- TOTE accomplished in the nervous system. eventually. as a result of conditioning. go back to pick up another and return it to the nest. or hears. carry it part way to the nest. an activity that is quite common among normal rodents when they become hungry.^^ still strevsni all over the nest and. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology. she up one baby rat and carry it to the nest. In order to execute a plan any complexity at all it is necessary to keep track of where in the the hierarchical structure plan one has gotten. A second kind of symptom appears as damage to the hierarchical relation between of TOTE units. This behavior does not appear when the mother has had a surgical operation to remove the cingulate cortex another of the major subdivisions of the limbic systems. drop it in favor of another which may be carried to the nest — only to be removed on subsequent trips. 1955. The hippocampus could perform this "gating" func11 J. However. etc. When a normal mother rat is faced with a will pick which her brood has been strewn around the cage.. 87. his "attention" is focused on some environmental event. until all the youngsters are situation in safely back in the nest. It is tempting to speculate that the hippocampus normally protects the amygdala from all incoming information except that appropriate for the TOTE unit currently in control. The amyg- dala seems to be necessary to the test phase of many innate TOTE units. The surgically operated mother will pick up an infant. 2o6 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . are Similar disorganization occurs when these operated animals try to hoard food. Under normal conditions the electrical activity recorded from the amygdaloid complex changes only when the animal is startled or when. of What happens when is TOTEs is disrupted nicely illustrated by the behavior of a mother rat with limbic lesions. The function of the median cerebral cortex in maternal behavior of rats.one of two kinds of symptoms that are produced by lesions in the limbic systems. the electrical activity recorded from the amygdala changes whenever the animal touches. when the hippocampus still another subdivision of the limbic systems is inactivated by ablation — — or by massive electrical stimulation. Stamm. or catches sight of any environmental event. After half an hour of this the left to baby rats are die.

tion via the reticular formation in the internal core of the brain stem,

which, in turn,

is

known

to

influence the receptors, the afferent path-

ways

into the central nervous system,

and the

activities of the entire

external portion of the forebrain. timately involved in the

successive steps in the

Thus the hippocampus may be inbusiness of keeping the brain at work on the Plan and preventing it from being shunted
If so, it

haphazardly about by every fluctuation in the environment.^-

would

fit

very nicely into our conception of

how

the hierarchy of

TOTEs

(within the operational phases of their proto-TOTEs) can be

established.

The
organ of

frontal "association areas," sometimes referred to as "the
civilization," are intimately

connected with the limbic

sys-

tems
ing

to

form

the internal core of the forebrain. This

most forward

portion of the primate frontal lobe appears to us to serve as a "work-

memory" where Plans can be

retained temporarily

when

they are

being formed, or transformed, or executed. This speculation appears
to

be consistent with the fact that animals with lesions in the frontal

lobes have difficulty with the delayed-reaction

and the
is

delayed-alter-

nation

tests.

Both of these tasks require the animal

to follow

an

inter-

nally stored Plan of action.

The

behavioral evidence
it is

compUcated,

however, and

it

may

well be that

the transformation of Plans,

rather than merely the storage of them, for which the frontal lobes
are required.

The

effects of frontal ablation or

lobotomy on

man

are surpris-

ingly subtle. Very
deficits at all.

few of the usual psychometric
that frequently shows a deficit
is

tests

turn up any

One

the Porteus maze,

a pencil-and-paper labyrinth that would
ning.
It

seem

to require

some planplanning

should not be
to

difficult to devise

many more

tests of

use them on these patients. Clinical observations of their behavior would encourage us, at least in some cases, to expect
ability

and

that such tests

would succeed in diagnosing the patient's difficulties. Such a patient is apt to "fall apart" when some minor detail goes awry in the Plan he is executing. If he is preparing dinner when the trouble occurs, he may not be readily capable of reshuffling the parts of the
12 M. A. B. Brazier, ed., The Central Nervous System and Behavior, Transactions of the Second Conference, February 22-25, 1959, Josiah Macy, Jr., Founda-

tion.

Some Neuropsychological

Speculations

207

Plan. Segments of the Plan

may

simply be omitted

— the

vegetables
if

are served

raw

— or

the whole dinner

may

be

lost.

Even

these

speculations prove to be

wrong

in detail, the notion that the frontal

"association areas" are intimately linked to the limbic systems in the
is worth pursuing. Clinical and laboratory observations that investigate how rather than what behavior is changed by the frontal lesions have hardly begun.

transformation and execution of Plans

One

fairly obvious

consequence of looking

at the relation of brain

and behavior in the way proposed here is that we need a much more elaborate and precise theory than we have about an organism's Plans before we can predict what any particular lesion may do to him.
Overly simple indicators, such as the strength, rate, or latency of

some

isolated

movement

pattern, will only delude us into thinking

The ethologists are few students of behavior who have been willing to look for the Plan behind the actions and to describe it literally in the kind of flow diagrams that an engineer would need in order to construct a machine to perform the same functions. Given such a detailed specification of what is guiding the muscle twitches it may then be possible
the processes are simpler than they really are.

among

the

which the behavior can be disrupted by lesions in certain parts of the brain. To hope for relations between brain structures and crude, ad hoc, statistical indicants of some
to see certain critical points at

loosely defined abstraction called "response" is apt to be very mis-

leading.

The problem

of specifying

what
to

constitutes a "stimulus" for

an organism has long been recognized
clear that the

be more

difficult

than
it

it

ap-

pears on the surface; the chapters in this book must

make

equally

mechanism
simple as
it

that generates any "sequence of responses"

may not be as

may at first seem.

One of the most interesting aspects of brain function, therefore, is how Plans are constructed in the first place, how they are formed. The present discussion has been confined to the more limited task of
describing

how

Plans must be executed. These speculations

may

throw some light on the functions of the limbic systems. But the authors are not sure where or how the brain might generate Plans.

When
fit

a familiar Plan
situation,

is

remembered and only
find that its selection

slightly modified to

a

new

we might

depended somehow

upon the

posterior "association areas" in the external portion of the

208

Plans and the Structure of Behavior

forebrain

— selecting a Plan from memory
and the Image, in
turn,

is

closely related to using
to

the Image,

would seem

be mediated by the

external portion. Perhaps the decision to execute a particular Plan
is

equivalent to transferring control from the posterior "association

areas" to the frontal "association areas." Perhaps.

These speculations about the functions of the central nervous system take on a kind of finality and solidity when they are committed to paper that they did not have so long as they remained conversational.

The authors know how fuzzy
is

marvelous organ

their own Image of this and how oversimplified or arbitrary these state-

ments must appear. Yet the notions of a reflex telephone system with an enigmatic switchboard, or inhibitions and excitations rippling
majestically over the surface of the brain, or
little

homunculi inside

the pineal glands of little homunculi inside the pineal glands of little homunculi ad infinituTn, or empty black boxes that absorb S's and emit
R's, are so

thoroughly unsatisfactory that, although the present ideas

may

be wrong, they are likely to be a great deal less wrong than the

metaphors many psychologists have used heretofore. Anybody who tries to do the research needed to put this approach to test will discover things that he would not otherwise have thought to look for.

Some

"N euro-psychological

Speculations

209

EPILOGUE

As our debate progressed and our conception of Plans became grew on us that we were developing a point of view toward large parts of psychology. We then began to wonder how we might best characterize our position so as to contrast it with others more traditional and more familiar. The question puzzled us. We did not feel that we were behaviorists, at least not in the sense J. B. Watson defined the term, yet we were much more concerned in that debate and in these pages, at least with what people did than with what they knew. Our emphasis was upon processes lying immediately
clearer, a conviction

behind action, but not with action
sense Wilhelm
attention to

itself.

On

the other hand,

we

did

not consider ourselves introspective psychologists, at least not in the

Wundt

defined the term, yet

we were
to

willing to

pay

what people

told us about their ideas

and

their Plans.

How does
this

one characterize a position that seems
suddenly occurred to us that
stopped laughing
the position

be such a mixture

of elements usually considered incompatible?

Deep in the middle of

dilemma

it

we were
to

subjective beseriously

haviorists.
if

When we

we began

wonder

that

was not exactly

we had argued

ourselves into. At

least the

name

suggested the shocking inconsistency of our position.

Epilogue

211

the fuzzy description of the role of images in complex thinking does a fuzzy kind of justice to our introspecMost early theorists attempted a synthesis.. 218-219. synthesizing went out of vogue during the "behavioral revolution. because of a lack of empirical evidence. Such tions. Two extremes must be avoided.As a matter of fact. Our aim develop a synthetic theory. Galanter and M. IE. we recognized that we had been drifting in that direction for several years. Our ultimate aim is to try again the development of a synthetic theory. Even so. 212 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . trial-and-error. These classes of theories have been termed variously (a) S-R. Pribram. or sign and (b) image or model theories.^ existence." made this comment: As a picious if rule." and now most psychologists espouse either an S-R theory or a cognitive theory. Again we note the theme — how to pull together two conceptions that is still to were both necessary yet apparently incompatible. 63. the extreme behaviorist has become overly sus- the psychological concepts derived from behavioral observation too closely resemble those derived introspectively (the "mental"). when the two classes of concepts are so distinct that no relation between them is recognizable. . in the course of reviewing the interrelations of psychology and the neurological disciplines for "Project A. image theories rarely give more than a sUpshod account of how the image comes into its full-blown theories. But the point is that the need for reconciliation has bothered us for some time. 1956. however. the behaviorally derived concept is apt to be trivial. confusion results. association. pp. But now we think that a clear description the extrinsic theory. . On thought: Psychological Review. . and in addition. Galanter had struggled with the same problem in a discussion of thinking: Classical theories of thinking fall into two general (and oversimplified) categories. It is difficult to specify the behavioral manifestation or identification of an image. In 1957. are indistinguishable from those derived from introspection.. for example. The position accepted here is that behaviorally derived concepts are to be compared with those derived introspectively. . Gerstenhaber. When the behaviorally derived concepts. We hope that in these pages we have hit some sort of happy compromise between these two extremes and that we can both distinguish and compare the Plan with the Behavior.

We as well talk about a black whiteness. But almost every behaviorist has smuggled into his system some kinds of invisible gimmicks it. At first the seemed to be the men of action. a subjective behaviorist whether he admits it or not. It is also a process that is enacted. at least since Brentano's Act first competed with Wundt's Content. Psychologists who have been content to describe the mind as though as "intervening variables" really talking about tacit behavior. Description in various ramifications Epilogue 213 . But the correction they should have supplied was somewhere lost in the rituals and taboos are tion until they differed who of objectivity. then he is. you cannot make any sense talked about out of behavior unless you do. Every- are as "objective" as John Locke's ideas used to body does for the simple reason that J. Watson himself which is certainly a kind of subjective behavior. Why is not be subjective behaviorists? The objection. however. one that we seem to forget and rediscover thing. not mind. nothing but a description of its own experience have scarcely noticed how sedentary they seem to others. of course. able B. Of and so pretend that we are what would that accomplish? If a behaviorist is willing to introspect on what he would do if he found himself in the predicament that his rats are in. is more than a an object. it scarcely our modern ear to hear behavior called an object for description. stimuli. in every generation of psychologists. a substance that exists. in our opinion. or a square circle. We or have a choice in our approach We can choose its to describe it. is whether or not we have glimpsed an important aspect of human intelligence. Even more. that "subjective" and "behaviorism" do not go together. they too slipped into a tradition of descrip- object they described jars from their colleagues only in the fact that the was behavior. Eventually. we can choose to re-enact it. Life to it. Description is of course important. especially to those behaviorists more concerned vdth actions and results. it is essential to science that we have accurate descriptions available. — internal responses. or whatnot — that seem to be. drives. What matters to us far more than a name. but it we name could call our Plans by some such operationally accept- were. "covert speech. in turn. But there is an- other ingredient required.of the role of Plans will is the link that will hold the two together — that might make subjective behaviorism possible. Indeed." course.

and only then. but clarification behind application. of the atmosphere is — but a description correct more than anything else. is the traditional approach of the And just as description depends upon an Image. or simulate.— the traditional approach of the scientist. on a large scale. however. the model is an engineer's pre-enactment of his structure. re-enactments based upon it should closely resemble the natural phenomenon that was described. Re-enactment has Uved on the technological borders of pure the planetarium is an astronomer's rescience for a long time enactment of the solar system. 214 Plans and the Structure of Behavior . And as the understanding of these complex systems grows. has given scientists the tools required to re-enact. re-enactment depends upon a Plan. Re-enactment has been artist. There is stOl much that needs to be clarified in new application of the artist's ancient attitude. The development of modern computing machines. the processes they want to study. and accurate. wiQ psychologists have will not lag far bridged the gap between the Image and Behavior. the wind tunnel is an aeronautical re-enact- — ment If it has usually played a supporting role. The program for a computer that re-enacts a process is becoming just as acceptable a theory of that process as would be the equations describing this it. re-enactment is emerging as a scientific alternative in its own right. Now. the need to distinguish between introspectively derived and behaviorally derived concepts should decline until eventually both our experience and our behavior will be understood in the same terms. Then.

INDEXES .

.

43n. C. E. 79 Baernstein. Cherry. F. L. M. G. G. EUson. E.. W. 12l7i. A. G. 160n de Groot. P. 168n Bryan.. K.. L. G.. H. 53n Bruner. 1. E. G.24n Book. D. G. 192n Clark.. A. B. 165n. 43n Dinneen. 44n Davis... S.. 15n. 142tc Campbell. Driesch.. A.. K. K.. 152?! L. 28n Austin. A. A. K.... W. 457i Duda. D.. A. W. R. 144.2 Bradner.. 43 Allport. 50n 32n Index of Authors 217 . H.. 54n Bennett. B. A. 122 Ameen... 122n J. J. 171ra Anscombe. 14n. 46n Brazier. K. 3.. A. R.. M. J.... 142n Craik. J. W. 70 M. B.. H... E.. 50 Crozier. Carmichael. 46n Bergson. 52n Chauncey. J. W.. 165n. 86 Boothe. 50to Clemente. J.. G. H.. 205n Baerends.. 61n Anthony. 28n Chomsky. H. W. S. G... F.. Farley. 42n Attneave.. K. D.. 189n. S. 46n. 69. C. B.. 96n Bartlett.. 142n Arrow. P. J. D. R. 52. 207n Brower. 86 Burton. N. 130n Colley.. G. 30n. G. R. I. W. H. D. 55n Bigelow. 44n Descartes. 168?i 14n. 146n 60n 46n Elsasser. J. 53n Boring.. 45n Estes.. F. Carroll. N.. 145n.. W. 23. E. 192 Cleveland. Festinger.. G... 3. T... 192 Ebbinghaus..9n EUis. 114.INDEX OF AUTHORS Alderstein... A.. 7 Beach. 160. 42 Binet. M. 42 Dewey. 50n Duncker. L.... L. W. 50n Bishop. 205n Dennis.. D. 45n Bernstein. W. 74 Beebe-Center. 15-16.. C. F. 46n Barker. 46n Boulding.. G. 142n Cannon. R. B. 148n Claparede.. 146n Ashby. W. 88n Alexander. M.

. J. A. 44n Murray.. 16. G. 9. C. 68n Rashevsky. 145n. L. C. W. 196 Goodnow. I. E. 160. A. C. C. 145n Jasper. D. 88n. R. 165n Harter. 119n Guthrie..... N.. E. K. 6. W. 169n.. 55n. 56n McCuUoch. 185-193 Irion. 71 LickKder.. 32n. 88 Murchison.. A.. 9n Hockett. 146n.W. N.. R. 50n Lewis. 136 Perky. 56n. M. 88n Hanfmann. 165n.. J. 198n A... 91n Pearson. Hartley. 60n. 154 Lees.. D. 125n James.... 152n Rapaport. 3. 125n MacKay. C. G. R.. 212n Gleason. 183. 179. L. D.. S. A.. A.. 173. R.. 205n Miiller. 49n. 163n Jung. 102ra Neisser. G. L. 191 Gerstenhaber... 168n Gorn. J.... H. 187. 191 Lewin. L P. J. 195. 183. L. S. 9... A. 55n Gelernter.. 53n Loeb. K. 44n Luchins. C. 172n. L. H.. H. A.. 160n.. 191 Polyani.. 42 11. 86 HaU. 121n. A. 52... C. 132n. D. 201tc Milner.. H. C. K. 173. E. J. W.. H.46 Laffal. NeweU. 15n.. 64-68. W. P. 51. G. A.. M. O... 47.. 146n Lindzey.49 McGeoch. 168. W. 1307Z. G.P.. C.. 187. 56. 44 Hovland. O. 49n. J. N. J. P. 152n Poincare. Lenkoski. 142n Heidbreder. 51.. 110 Pitts. W.. E. 51.Freud. A.. 50n. 199n. H. 10 Kreuger. M.. M. F. 182.. E. 55n. 28n. 1207z Luria.. D. 557z Rochester. D.. 54n.. 51n MacLean. I. B.. 144. 140n Pavlov. D. K. A. 3. 50n Holt. 53n. S. lln. 142n Locke.. U. W. G. E.. 212 Lashley.. J. 10 Haibt. 154n Johnson.. G. 11..3. 51. J. N. 122n Karlin. 44 Lorenz. 15n.. M. 180. 49n Riesman. D. H... lOln E. 75 Lotka. 134 Hunter. 120n Mandler. 37to. 42n Perkins. E.. M. L. 17n. 102n Kluckhohn.. F. K. Kister. 87n. 205 Jeffress. 55n. W.... F. M.. G. 50. J. S. 165n Hilgard.. 145n Holland.. K. 212 Gardner. 183n 46n Morrell. C. 168n Pribram.. C. 168n.. 44-45. S. 50ji Milton. 46n Green. 167 Polya. 205 Green. 12. L. 41n. T. 163n Hull. 119 102n. 10. M. 189 Leibnitz. J. H. 47 Kohler. Roberts. 142n Frick. 59.. G. 32n. J. 184 Moles. 69. 146n Milner... 51. 49 Plato.. 119n Minsky.. R. 146n 55n Kluckhohn. 96n.. G.. 3. G. 50n. Nissen. 144n Goldstein. March. D.. 23. 101 Miller. 44n Hebb. 3.. 213 Locke.. S. 181 Kochen. 140n McCarthy... 171n 21 8 Index of Autnors . 61. 64.. 201n McNemar. 55n. F. J. M. 168n. 102n S.. 60. 52n Galanter.

24 Shaw.. 21. 37n. 136 Walton. 131 Saltznian.. 55n White.. 56. L. B.. G. 27n. 140n Simpson. A. M. 15n. 9. 199n Rosenblueth. S. 15n.. M. M. 28. 44n. 96n.. 17n. 42. v. Whitehead. W. D. 75. 102n Ulan... Ward. von Neumann. 22 Sluckin. 134 Walden.. W.. 75n Tinbergen.. 3... 17n Whitfield. M. E. 168 J. 68 Thompson. 55n 198n 32n.. 127. 55n Underwood. 140n Zeigarnick. W. 182 W. L. 146n Taylor. 130n Samuel. T. A. 196n Schlosberg.. E. 86n. 104. H. L. B. 3. T.. F.. 55n. S... E. S.. 51n Stamm. 106. H. 16. 115n Suppes. S. B. F.. J.. A. Shannon. 43. H. W. 15n. 3... 104. F... 168. 157n Wright.. 211. D. A.. J. G.. 42 Ross. 206?! Wisdom. A. C. 18593 WeUs. 91n Sullivan. A.. S.. 127n Schneider.. 168 Thorpe. N. N. Selfridge. 27n Smith.. I. A. O.. 168. 46n Stevens. A. 46n 55n. 183n Weitzenhoffer. 199n Skinner. J. 182. H. F. S. W.. C... 50n. 86. 17n. 37n. 140n. 167 Turner.J. 44 Turing. 90n Schumann. C. 107 Simon. B. W.. 56. J..92 Russell. 55ti Scheerer. 205n Weiss.. A. la... 27n Woodworth. 91n Simon. 12071 Wells. 134n... 163n Whorf.. R.D. Stephens. 155 Wiener. 154. 146n J. N. Thorndike. H.. 120n Wundt.. Wallace.... 182. H. 16. W. O. 3. 137 Roe. L. 55n. . 96n. 96n 37.46n Ruch.. H. F. M.46n Watson. W. C. I. Simon. L.. 49n. 23. 28. 79 Tolman. 148n Yudovich. 78. M.91. R. L. T. B. S. L.. 3. 213 Weiskrantz. J. 8.. L. 140n. 142n 134n Index of Authors 219 ..46...Rock. J.. P. 76. 101.. W. 61n Troland. B. 145n. 185-193 Sherrington. 136 S. J. 13.211 Yngve. B. 32n. B. 52n.

.

213 bicycle riding. 206 automatization. 129 attention. 206. self-programming. 1 13 brain. of Plans. behaviorism. 199 reticular formation. 199 Index of Subjects "221 . 13 spontaneous. 139 S. 14. 197 amygdaloid complex. 201 posterior association areas. level of. 203. 113 anxiety. 205 vyaves. 24 adaptive concatenations. 65. 75 verbal. 184 behavior configuration of. 207. osmoreceptors. 116 cerebellum. span aspiration. 211. 199. 110. 125 subjective. 200. 12. 131 171n 208 hippocampus. 201 association. 113. 140 British Museum algorithm. 92. 208 projection systems. 13. 199 cerebral cortex. 87 borrowed Plans. 196. 200 ventricles. 199 cingulate cortex. 12 emotional. 164 ambiguities. of Plans. 198. 95 catatonia.INDEX OF SUBJECTS ablation. 82 automation. of. 163. visual cortex. 111 brightness discrimination. 199. 168 202 levels of. 78 motivated. 111 anesthesias. 91. 14. 110 behavior (Continued) stimulus control of. 116 cerebellum. 200 amygdaloid complex. 200 S. 61 multiple causation organization of. 204 anagram. 73 intentional. 206 external portion. 153 amnesias. apprehension. 204 accessibility. 199 frontal association area. 60. 109. 201 limbic systems. 207 internal core. 204 association area. 160. 91. 166 analogue computer. 100 activity patterns of. 207 subcortical centers. 109. 199. 13 of. 79 algorithms. 201 hierarchical organization of. 92. 90n ancillary Plan. 15 instinctive. of nerve. 13.

75 evaluation. 123 cybernetics. 26. of. 204 adaptive. nested. of behavior. 120 formation of Plans. 65 loop. 173 culture.82. 98 ethology. 199. 116 dependencies. 17. 84. 143 machine. 45n commitment. 77 of behavioral units. 49. 90n digital-to-analogue converter. 153 grouping. 118 of instincts. 184. cortical. 206 dual personality. 163 positive instance of. 145 ff. communication. 73 of Plans. 131 guilt. 177 sentences and. 131 165 structure. 198 coordination of Plans. 165 learning. 42. 2.. 155 dependency in. 119 computer. 63 strain. 115 heuristic Plan. 98. 178. 164. 78. 177 frontal association area. cerebral cortex. 113 feedback. 115 desertion of Plans. 179 in thinking. 177 hallucinations. 98 habit. 205 creativity. 91. 48. 111. 38. 44. 145. 67. 51. 90n digital. 123 chess. 143 compatible Plan. 198 of Plans. 114 entelechy. 15. 197 analogue. 148 depression. 207. 70. 116 communicable Plans. 116 emotions. 142 90n 46 54 electronic. 62. 44 cognitive disorganization. 206 circular reflexes. 111 death. ethical guilt. 97 consciousness. 144 character disorders. concatenation. 78. 167. 49 gambling. 165 conditioned avoidance. 77. 166 generator of Plans. 179 hierarchy of consummatory acts. 146 theory of. 91 memory of. 55. 98 detail of Plans. 69. 185 cingulate cortex. 3. 200 of brightness. 26. 160. 201 excitation of. agitated. 70 feasibility of Plans. 76 199 discrimination. 120 cortical conditioning. 208 consummatory acts. 59. 119 digital computer. 96. 141 defense mechanisms. 74. 9. halting problem. 91 flexible Plan. 97 compulsive person. 144. 156. 79 concept. 27. 163. internal representations 82. 85 instinctive. 68. 81. 116 external memory devices. 43 sensory. 7fE. 10. ethical and moral. 95. 64. 28. 89. 178. 92. 184 grammar. 89. 155 environment. 77 hierarchical organization in. 32 in organization of word list. 76. cognitive theory. 30 mechanism. 97 dynamic property. 205 conditioning. 105. execution of Plans. 96. 42. 61. 140 in organization of behavior. 156 evolution. 168. 62 ff efficiency. 77. 11 criticism of. 69. 161 conflicting Plans. 148 level of. 162 attainment. 98. 155. 41 emotional behavior. 205 confirmation of Image. 82. 155 222 Index of Subjects . 149 Plan. 48. 171 hebephrenia. 78. 199 chaining. 96. 77 control. 119.

69 hippocampus. 207 145. Porteus. 68. 162 alternative. 64. 179 mnemonic devices. 81. 171 use of. 204. 74. 129 imaginal thinking. 16 language. 140. 17. 182 involuntary Plans. 103. 78 innate releasing mechanism. 73. 106 ff. 201 interruption of Plans. 155 structure of. 175 hysteria. 202 alternative. 62. 147 meaningful discourse. 177 message source. 67 intervening variables. 76 instruction. 91. 157 instinctive Plan. 111 insight. 63 to learn. 198 external devices for. 105. 116 human kernel strings. 148 73 metaplan. 106 levels of. trace. 15. 155 verbal. 110. 116 public. 203. anesthesias in. 152 ideo-motor action. 127. 2. 207. 33 intention. effects loop. 108 speech during. 70. 188 processing languages. 74. 71. 17 imaginative. 84 internal core of brain. 47 Index of Subjects 223 . 200. 174 in computer. 206. 206. 134 lobotomy. 42 left-to-right. 38. 129. 110 infirming of. 82. 8 memorization. integration of Plans. 177 reproductive. 30 lists. 60. 189. of. 107 hypotheses. 174. 95 intelligence. 55 stochastic. 128 memory of computer. 104. 116 invariance of. 1. 129 intercalated act.. 117. 74. maze. 27. motivational aspects as Plan. 140 learning. 28 processing. 202 dynamic property of. 12 Image. 89. 37. 60 limbic systems. 170 feedback. 200. 78. 199. 74. artificial. 161 perceptual. 163. 201 Plans. 2 imagery. 74. 78 instincts. 133 meaningfulness. 201-205. 201. 75 incongruity. 14. 66 immediate. 27. 169. 136 mnemonic Plans. 93. 26. 202 inflexible Plan. 196 function. 203 127 177 73 73 of. 208 life symptoms linguistics. 10. 130. 177 imprinting. 207 space. 139 in animals. 154 hypnosis. 191 mediating organization. 83 rote. 131 imitation. 96 information. 109 inducing. 75 inner speech. 51 Markov processes. 125 means-end analysis. 173 imagining. hierarchy (Continued') in Plans. 148. 199 dynamic aspects of. 82. 52. unit. 207 machine imagery. 50 ff confirmation of. 98 revising of. 144 132. 161 definition of. 74.. 195 Plan symbolized in. 165 model 146 mechanical. 203 loss. 199. 157. 31. 131 verbal. 61 forgotten. 178. 207 homeostatic mechanisms. 59. 153 lesion of brain. 208 of. 5 fF. working. 213 introspection. 203 and limbic system. 200. 207 innate character of. 49. 67. innate Plan. 134. 137.

136 paranoid reaction. 95. 79 shared. 97 persuasion. 82. 115 parataxic modes. 201 and instincts. 17.193 78 99 of.191. 160. 29. 178 relevant. 155 for housekeeping. 16. 89. 67. 89. 78 flexible. 15 pain. 168. 73 processes of. 89. 121 planning higher-order. 111 224 Index of Subjects . 174 ancillary. 98. 74. 174 persistence. speed 120 Plans. 95 interruption of. 38. polyphase. of. 74. 72 conflicting. 32. motor motor skills. 82. reconstructing. spontaneous activity nested dependencies. 119 definition of.motion study. 167. 102.89 mnemonic. 64 96 of. 109 paired associates. 2. 120 posterior association areas. 167 feasible. 154 inflexible. 201 outline. 98.116 exhaustive. 108 nonsense syllables. 63. 64 negation. 34 heuristic. 81. 105 stored. 74. 70. 82. 69. 78. unit. 165 nonrecurrent. 49 neuropsychology. 112 96 inherited. 110. 117. 81. operationism. span of. 122 neurotic. 204 retrieval of. 63 nerve. 177 for hammering nails. 16. 148 neural nets. 128 revision of. 5. 151 negative evaluation. 103 phase sequences. 82. 78 integration of. 85 motions. 126. 98 dynamic properties ef&cient. 99 osmoreceptors. 189. 59. 163. 51 physiological limit. 121 personality. 200 motor Plan. 184 grammatical. 179 hierarchical. 93 83 execution 105. 161 several at once. 134 ff. 160. 166 voluntary. 178 symbolized in Image. 70 rigid. 64. 65. 97 complex. 61. 81. 37. 119 119 stopping. 65 polyphase motor units. 177 24 generator. 195 neurotic personality. 62. 89 working memory. 115 payofF function. 130 113 120 fixed. 96. 97 nonrecurrent Plans. method social. 143 compatible. 60. of. 13 motivation. 177 automatized. 31. 96. 155. formation of. 50. 74. 111 search. 104 accessability of. 121 pruning of. 208 posthypnotic suggestion. 13. 97 coordination of. 16 desertion of. 78. 70. 126 organizations. 115 pubKc. 116 systematic. 101 ready-made. 177 innate. 62. 67. of. 78. 100 alternative. 78 instinctive. 82 borrowed:^^13 communicable. 82. 37 source of. 130 openness of. 67 involuntary. 110 planlessness. sequence of. 156 Plans (Continued') detail of. 37 needs. 69. 33. 127 human. 113 remembering. 116 locked in. 74.

159 fF. 118 quasi-need. 105 stored Plans. 7.prediction paradigm. 44 revision of Image. 15n. 118. 169. 89 style. 100 Rorschach ink-blot test. 170 processing unit. 101 statistical theory. 168 stopping of Plans. 44 sexual activity. 91 servomechanism. of interrupted tasks. 41 reinforcement. 7. 100. 66 reticular formation. 31. 163 routines. 17 habitual. 119 rote learning. 22 reflex theorist. 47. 157 sleep. 205 shared plans. 146 sequence of acts. 119 speaking. 16. 99. 131 rules. recall. 47 stop-orders. 24 stimulus. 151. 22-25 definition of. 145 generators. 74. 141 symptoms. 48. 18. 86. 128 remembering. 160 sentence.24. 177 acquisition of. 184. 110.82. 60 problem. 191 span of apprehension. 125. 130. 115 subplans. 30. 208 magnitude. of interrupted tasks. 173. 165 verbalized. 163 simplified. 21. 7. 166 roles. 133 steady state. 146 stochastic models. 87 development of. 200 ready-made Plans. 204 repression. 13 sensory feedback. 200 of motions. 56. of lesions of Limbic systems. 152 planner. 161 problem non-numerical. 140 reinforcement. 44 conditioned. 176 re-enactment. 65. 119 definition of. 156. 207 retrieval of Plans. 177 short-term storage. 105 solution. 121 retroflex. 214 reflex. 161. 6 criticism of. 130 £F. 66 reconstructing Plans. 159 suggestion. 131 of Plans. 151 schema. 134 recitation. 89 integrated. 107 space. 115 proximal stimulus. 70 rhythmic grouping. 44. 69 reproductive instinct. 178 strategy. 129 perceptual. 118 response relation. 167. 77 circular. 46 reflex arc. 191 solving. 6 stochastic chains. 65. 93. 85 verbal. 177 Plans for. 171 of Plans.83. social. 25 psychometrics. 174 primary projection. 199 simulation. 199 priorities. 50 skiUs. 28. posthypnotic. 90 for learning. 96. 178 well-defined. 206 Index of Subjects 225 . 101 gearch. 111 suicide. 37n. 81. Plans. 139 in hypnosis. 170 stop rule. 7 schizophrenic. 33. 118 subcortical centers. 54 search. 144. 199 protaxic modes. 198 program. neighborhood of. 128 risk in Plans. 99. 121. 109. 76 resumption. 197 projection systems. 32.

156. 98. 154 taboo. 155 threshold. 175. interrupted. 125 Turing machine. 109 thinking. of previous learning. 104. 178 aloud. 205 volition. 29. 60 values. of TOTE. 53. 24. 131 translation. 122. 45n syntax. 163. 118 ventricles. 206 operational phase. 46. 186. 89 Whorfian hypothesis. 192 creative. 157 argument. 170. 65. 62. 112 tactics. 63. 52. 207 226 Index of Subjects . 44. 193 tasks. 207 perceptual. 174 valence. 25 time. 122 translating.synapse. 13. 169. 111 voluntary Plans. 173 imaginal.202 hierarchy of. 207 delayed reaction. 112 imageless. 17 during hypnosis. 29. mechanical. 200. 82. 64. 144. 25 test phase. 145. 112 working memory. 75. 63. 201 thought control. 52. 32. 42 tension system. 66 teleological test TOTE. 32 units of action. 173 thirst. 161 proximal stimulus. 67 delayed alternation. 84 talking. 12. 123 tropism. 107 idiosyncratic. 25. 74. 31 test phase. 32-38. 62. 71. 119 definition of. 37 pattern as hypothesis. 195. 155 vidll. 77 transfer. 66. 200 differences in. 49 two-phase motor units. 59. 101. 109 trait. 54 trial-and-error. 192 laws of. 201 visual cortex. 27. 32 utUity scale.

.

.

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