This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
This Document is prepared using OCR from the Original Document
Fuels for IC Engines The main fuel for IC engines is derived from crude petroleum which is a mixture of many hydrocarbon compounds Crude oil is made up almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen with some traces of other species It varies from 83% to 87% carbon and 11% to 14% hydrogen by weight The crude oil mixture which is taken from the ground is separated into component products by cracking and/or distillation using thermal or catalytic methods lt is entirely possible, but not economically feasible to convert almost completely the crude petroleum into gasoline and diesel fuel
Page | 1
The Paraffin family (Alkanes) open chain structure (aliphatic hydrocarbons) with general formula CnH2n+2 - The critical compression ratio (CR) for audible knock in an SI engine decreases rapidly as the length of the chain of the normal members is increased - Thus the normal paraffins in the volatility range of gasoline are poor SI fuels The reference scale to measure SI knock has been established by arbitrarily selecting two primary reference fuels – iso-octane (2,2,4 trimethyl pentane) has been arbitrarily assigned an “octane rating” of 100 while n-heptane has been assigned an “octane rating” of zero The knock ratings of the fuels are in rough proportion to the self-ignition temperatures In progressing downward with higher carbons, the suitability of the fuels tor SIE progressively decreases, and for CI engines, progressively increases – thus, hexadecane (cetane) has a low self-ignition temperature and therefore it is a good fuel to prevent knock in a CIE The reference scale for measuring CI knock is based upon hexadecane and heptamethylnonane as primary fuels with assigned values of 100 cetane and 15 cetane respectively Interestingly, the air-fuel ratio (AFR) for the chemically correct mixture is essentially constant even though the fuel structure and phase change Because of this constancy, various fuels can be supplied to SIE without changing the carburettor adjustment Also that the energy content per unit volume of mixture is essentially constant and therefore the power output of the engine is not affected by a change in fuels (unless knock is present) The fuels of this family are stable, clean burning and do not attack gaskets or metals
Page | 2
The Olefin family (Alkenes) - the mono-olefins have open-chain structures (aliphatic olefins) with general formula CnH2n The physical properties correspond closely to similar compounds in the paraffin family and are also clean burning and a higher octane rating Because of the free bond, the olefins are chemically active and unite readily with hydrogen to form the corresponding paraffin or naphthene When they unite with oxygen, they form an undesirable residue, gum which can cause smog The Di-olefin family - diolefins have two double bonds with a general formula CnH2n+2 These are undesirable fuel components because, upon storage, reactions take place that lead to coloring of the fuel and, also, to the formation of a cloudy gum The Naphthene or Cycloparaffin family (Cyclanes) - have the same general formula as the olefins but are saturated, ring-structure compounds These are desirable components of motor gasoline The Aromatic family (Benzene derivatives) - ring-structured hydrocarbons with general formula CnH2n+6 These are excellent gasoline fuels and can be selectively produced by catalytic cracking or by thermal cracking at high temperatures (1200° F) Benzene or benzol is an excellent blending agent to raise the octane ratings of low-grade fuels The aromatics have the highest densities of the HC and therefore have the highest heating values per unit volume These fuels are stable in storage, smoky in burning with high solvency powers The Alcohols - are a partial oxidation product of petroleum with a chain structure of the general formula R-OH, where R is the paraffin group They have good antiknock qualities with octane ratings in excess of 100 Alcohols absorb water from atmosphere They also require a different AFR than gasoline Gas - or natural gas can be associated or unassociated The composition of gas varies widely with methane usually predominating - from 60 to 98% and with percentages of ethane and other paraffins along with carbon dioxide, helium, and nitrogen A "sour gas" is one which contains hydrogen sulphide, otherwise, it is called "sweet gas" - Before the gas enters the pipeline it must be sweetened, dehydrated, and liquid HC removed Synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) are produced from solid wastes, petroleum crudes or fractions, or coal Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) may be propane, butane, or a mixture of the two Natural gas and LPG are excellent fuels for the SIE, home, and gas-diesel with low emission pollutants LNG and CNG are the two other versions of natural gas Page | 3
Characteristics of Modern Gasoline Modern gasoline may be made up of straight-run gasoline (from fractional distillation), cracked gasoline (from catalytic cracking), reformate (from catalytic reforming), alkylate and polymerized gasolines (produced from gases), with some butane or propane to achieve the desired Reid vapour pressure The two most important characteristics of gasoline are its volatility and octane number The gasoline sold on the market is a blend of a number of products produced in several processes The gasoline, irrespective of its origin, should have the properties listed as follows: Desirable Properties of Gasoline Knock characteristics - the octane rating - the fuel should have an octane rating to fit the€ engine requirements - The tests for determining octane number are performed using the ASTM-CFR (Cooperative Fuel Research) engine, a variable compression ratio engine Two octane numbers are: research octane number (RON) and motor octane number (MON), the former is generally higher High octane fuels enable high compression ratios to be used - give increased power output and improved economy Typically, a CR of 7.5 requires 85 octane fuel, while a CR of 10.0 would require 100 octane fuel Volatility - expressed in terms of the volume percentage that is distilled at or below fixed temperatures - If the fuel is too volatile It will start the engine readily When it is used at high ambient temperatures, the fuel is liable to vaporise in the fuel lines and form vapour locks - If the fuel is not sufficiently volatile The engine will be difficult to start, especially at tow ambient temperatures - In general, the fuel with the lowest distillation temperatures is the best - Dilution of the lube oil may occur when the fuel condenses of fails to vaporise in the engine - The volatility also influences the cold start fuel economy SIE are started on very rich mixtures, and continue to operate on rich mixtures until they reach their normal operating temperature - Increasing the volatility of the gasoline at low temperatures will evidently improve the fuel economy during and after starting - Gasoline stored for a long lime in vented tanks is said to go stale, the loss of more volatile components that are necessary for easy engine starting Gum and Varnish Deposits - the fuel should not deposit either gum or varnish in the engine Corrosion - the fuel and the products of combustion should be non-corrosive Cost - the fuel should be inexpensive Page | 4
Additives Used in Gasoline In order to achieve the required properties of gasoline, as well as for other purposes, various additives are used: - Antiknock - to reduce or eliminate the knock in SIE Previously TEL or TML were used along with some scavengers; now-adays, MTBE or TBA are used - Deposit modifiers - to alter the chemical character of combustion chamber deposits and so reduces surface ignition and spark plug fouling - usually, phosphorous and boron compounds are used - Antioxidants - are used to prevent gum formation-amines of amount 0.5 to 6.5 kg per 1000bbl - Detergents - are used to prevent deposits in carburetor and manifold - alkyl amine phosphates, of amount, 5 kg per 1000 bbl - Lubricants- to lubricate valve guides and upper cylinder regions - 0.1 to 0.5 percent light mineral oil - Metal deactivators - to destroy the catalytic activity of traces of copper - amine derivatives, of amount, 0.5 kg per 1000 bbl - Anti-rust agents - to prevent rust and corrosion arising from water (and air) - fattyacid amines, sulfonates or alkyl phosphates, of amount 0.5 to 6.5 kg per 1000 bbl - Anti-icing agents - to prevent "gasoline freeze” from water in fuel and throttle-plate icing from water in air – methyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohols of about 1% each are used for the purpose; sometimes, a surface-action agent, such as ammonia salts or phosphates (about 0.005%) is also used Characteristics of CI Engine Fuels The most important characteristic of diesel fuel is the cetane number which indicates how readily the fuel self-ignites - usually, the self-ignition temperatures of the normal paraffins decrease as the length of chain increases - Cetane (hexadecane, C16H34) is the primary standard of the cetane scale, with an arbitrary rating of 100 (isocetane, heptamethylnonane (HMN) is at the bottom of the scale with a cetane number 15) while other paraffins have cetane ratings which vary almost linearly with the length of the chain - thus the straight-run gasoline fuels which might be poor SI fuels, are desirable for CIE The other important characteristic is the viscosity, especially for lower-grade fuels used in the larger engines, may need to have heated fuel lines Another problem with diesel fuels is that, at low temperatures, the high molecular weight components can precipitate to form waxy deposit (cold filter plugging point) The requirements for a good CI fuel cannot be as simply stated as those for gasoline - Because of the added complexity of the CIE from its heterogeneous combustion process, which is strongly affected by injection characteristics Some of the desirable characteristics are listed below: Page | 5
- Knock characteristics - if an engine runs on a fuel with too low cetane number, there will be diesel knock Diesel knock is caused by too rapid combustion and is the result of a long ignition delay period, since during this period fuel is injected and mixes with air to form a combustible mixture Ignition occurs only after the pressure and temperature have been above certain limits for sufficient time, and fuels with high cetane numbers are those that self-ignite readily - The minimum cetane number of the good grade diesel fuel is 50 and for the other is 45 - Starting characteristics - the fuel should start the engine easily - requires high volatility to form readily combustible mixture, a high cetane rating so that the self-ignition temperature is low - Smoke and odour - the fuel should not produce smoke or odour after combustion - Corrosion and wear - should not cause corrosion before combustion, or corrosion and wear after combustion - directly related to sulphur, ash, and residue contents of the fuel - Handling ease - should be liquid that will readily flow under all conditions - measured by the pour point and viscosity of fuel, the fuel should also have a high flash point since an advantage of the CIE is its use of fuel with low fire hazards Flash point of diesel fuel is at least 55°C, while that for petrol and kerosene are about - 4O°C and 30°C respectively Additives in diesel fuel to improve the cetane number are referred to as "ignition accelerators" – their concentrations are greater than those of antiknock additives used in petrol - By adding 1% v/v of amyl nitrate, C5H11ONO2 increases the cetane number by about 6; ethyl nitrate, C2H5ONO2 and ethyl nitrite, C2H5ONO are other effective substances Ignition delay is most pronounced at slow speeds because of the reduced temperature and pressure during compression - Cold-starting can be a problem, and under severe conditions, heaters may be needed, also excess fuel may be injected - Sometimes, volatile fuels with high cetane numbers, such as ether, can be added to the intake air Sometimes a cetane index is used, as the only information needed is fuel viscosity and density with no need for engine tests - The cetane index can be used only for straight petroleum distillates without additives - Other fuels that are suitable for diesel engines are derived from coal and vegetable oils
Page | 6
Tests for Diesel Viscosity - is exactly defined as the ratio of shearing stress in a fluid to the rate of shear, and is a measure of the resistance of the fluid to flow - Viscosity changes rapidly with temperature, thus the test temperature must be specified The viscosity of the fuel exerts a strong influence on the shape of the fuel spray - high viscosity causes low atomization and high penetration of the spray jet - In small combustion chambers, the effect of viscosity may be critical The SU viscosity required for most high-speed engines ranges between 35 and 70 sec (100°F) Gravity - is an indication of the density or mass per unit volume of the fuel - defined as the mass of a unit volume of fluid (at 60°F) to that of the same volume of water (at 60°F) - The API gravity is defined in terms of the specific gravity API Gravity= [(141.5/sp. Gr. At 60°F/60°F) - 131.5] - In general, high API gravities imply high cetane fuels Sulphur - Corrosion and increased wear is caused in the engine along with carbon deposits on the piston and rings and deterioration of lub oil due to the presence of sulphur in fuels - Sulphur trioxide is formed during diesel combustion which may attack lub oil on the cylinder walls to form resinous materials that harden to form varnish and carbon - SO3 may also form sulphuric acid Sulphur content over 1.0% is detrimental, while amounts of 0.5% are economically feasible Carbon Residue - is the result of the fuel burned with a limited amount of oxygen - In the Conradson carbon test, a sample of the fuel in a crucible is heated to a high temperature for a relatively long period of time; the percentage by mass of residue to the original sample is the carbon residue - High carbon residues contribute to deposits in the combustion chamber and around nozzle tips, thus interfering with the spray shape Ash - In testing for ash, the fuel is heated until the vapours can be ignited - when the flame dies away, any carbonaceous material is oxidized by heating in a flame or muffle furnace the unburned residue is called ash - The ash content is a measure of the abrasiveness of the products of combustion that could cause wear in the engine Water and Sediment - of all specifications for diesel, the cleanliness factor is probably the€ most important because of the precisely flitted parts in the fuel pump and nozzle Flash Point - is the lowest temperature of the fuel that allows inflammable vapours to be formed - It is found by heating the fuel slowly and then sweeping a flame across the surface of the liquid, a distinct Rash is obtained at the flash Point - It is important for safety purposes and serves as a measure of the fire hazard Page | 7
Distillation - range should be as low as possible without unduly affecting the flash point, the burning quality, or the viscosity of the fuel Ignition Quality - The ease of igniting the fuel in the engine by autoignition is called the ignition quality of the fuel: the diesel index number (Dl) has been empirically found to correlate, approximately, the cetane number of most commercial fuels which is defined as: DI = [aniline point (°F) x API Gravity (60°F)]/100 - The DI and the cetane rating of the fuel for most high-speed diesels should be of the order of 50-60 - Cetane ratings below 40 may cause exhaust smoke, with increased fuel consumption and loss of power Pour Point - is determined by cooling s sample of oil in a test jar until, when the jar is displaced from the vertical to horizontal position, no perceptible movement of the fuel will occur (within 5 secs) Relation Between Cetane Rating and DI
Heating Value - or the heat of combustion is determined by burning the fuel with oxygen in a bomb and noting the temperature rise of a cooling bath - If all of the water vapour can be condensed, the HHV is obtained, if none of the water vapour is condensed, the LHV is obtained
Page | 8
Page | 9
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.