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Presented to the Review of U.S. Human Spaceflight Plans Committee June 17, 2009
Side-Mount Shuttle Derived Vehicle Concepts Have Matured Via Several Major Design Studies
1990’s NASA sponsored Shuttle C
66 mt to LEO
72.1 mt to LEO
60 mt to LEO
68 mt to LEO
2005 Exploration Systems Architecture Study (ESAS)
2009 HLV Concept
2004 – 2005 Shuttle Derived Launch Vehicle Industry Team Concept B
All performance quotes are net payload (consistent 10% performance reserves)
HLV Configuration • 4.5-m inner diameter payload carrier • Modified Shuttle boat tail / Avionics • Existing 4-segment RSRBs • Existing ET design 3 .544.0 g max • 7.684 lb at liftoff • 647 psf max q • 3.
RCS systems – Block II . Nitrogen.fly existing Shuttle assets. OMS.Block I upgrade to fly new capabilities as Shuttle spares run out 4 . Cooling systems . avionics and software • No change to External Tank • No change to Solid Rocket Boosters • No change to SSMEs • Use existing Avionics • Use existing Flight Software • Use/modify SEI tools (Acoustic.Design Approach Two block design approach: – Block I . Structures. Aerodynamic. Cryo. Loads) • Existing pad structure • Launch and Ground Control software • Simplify High-risk aft interface • Delete Fuel cells.
Use Existing Space Shuttle Infrastructure/Facilities 5 .
Block I & Block II HLV Carrier Design Payload Envelopes Block I & II Block I & II Block II Earth Departure Stage 6 .
Use Block I+ hardware where required. NEW MPS HW to support new SSME’s. Replace Sband HW with OTS Sband equipment. New/Alt PSE and level sensors. Replace PDA and Control Assy Need to turn on manufacturing of Hyd Hose & vlvs. AA. RGA. Turn on production of O2/H2 manifold assy’s. Upgrade EMEC/AMEC . * Jointly delete AC and hydraulic requirements from new SSME controllers 7 . Block II New RGA ATVC New GPC MDM New Minor FSW updates to accommodate hardware I/F changes and new GPS looka-like HW. ATVC GPC MDM EIU DBIA Latest OI FSW revision with minor updates to deliver a new OI release. Use Block I+ hardware. *Delete AC inverters. Develop New/Alt PCMMU. and servoactuator.Systems Architecture Phasing Strategy One Fault Tolerant GNC DPS HW DPS SW C&T Instrumentation EPD&C APU/HYD ECLSS/ATCS MPS Block I IMU. New NSP COMSEC. New Primary batteries. Use Block I+ hardware Upgrade DSC’s and combine with new MDM’s. Incorporate GCIL function in new MDM/DSC. APU APU controller Fuel tank & HW Exhaust ducts Hyd Hose & vlvs Servoactuator Accumulator Manifold & Duct assy Feedlines Replenish lines FCV Ghe Tank Valves PSE Level sensors Umbilical Assy Manifold Assy Block I 4-6 flights Same s Block I New DBIA *EIU New Minor FSW updates to accommodate Hardware I/F changes. Turn on NSLD production of duct assy’s. Replace MTU with IRIG generator. NSP COMSEC S-band HW MTU PCMMU DSC GCIL EMEC/AMEC AC Inverters PDA Control Assy. *Replace hydrazine APU and hyd with electromechanical system.
run @ 100% run @ 104.5%.HLV SSME Utilization • The Current Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) [also Known as RS 25] has a well established engineering History • More than 100 flight engines with over 1million seconds of hot fire time • Well known reliability in all modes of operation. Engine Shutdown • Established knowledge base for manufacturing. test and integration into flight vehicle • Hardware is readily available for Block I and Test Flights • Currently 14 flight engines supporting the SSP • Existing inventory of hardware to support HLV • Hot fire test stands exist to support HLV use of SSME • KSC infrastructure exists to support HLV use of SSME • RS 25E (Expendable) has been extensively studied • Channel Wall Nozzle.e. Reduced Inspection 8 . i. 109% . 106%. Non-refurbished turbopumps. start .
0B FY10 0 0 FY11 343 347 FY12 533 600 FY13 984 930 FY14 1.$Millions DDT&E Sums Block I = $2.500 2.HLV $ROM Cost Estimates DDT&E HLV $ROM Cost Estimate Block I + Block II DDT&E ISS Mission (without Transfer Stage $) 2.000 1.265 712 FY15 903 0 FY16 0 0 9 Total = $6.6B .6B Block II = $4.000 500 0 Block II DDT&E $ Block I DDT&E $ Annual Inflation Rate = 1.500 Block II DDT&E $ Block I DDT&E $ 1.035% Then Year.
HLV Development Schedule ATP Phase A MCR Formulation ATP Phase B ATP Phase C/D/E First Flight SRR DCR Concept Definition PDR Preliminary Design CDR Detailed Design & Development TRR Development Testing Qual FRR Long Lead Procure & Fab First Flight Unit Procure & Fab Qual Test Unit IACO KSC Integ IACO 10 .
RSRM.MPLM (expend) + Unpressurized logistics • Barge delivers ISS payloads and then deorbits expendable payloads 11 . 140. ET-122 (139.Initial ISS Logistics Design Reference Mission • Use available Shuttle assets: -SSME. 141. MPS • Fly Shuttle Launch Profile • New 7. Avionics -APU’s.5m Payload Carrier (PLC) • Payload . 94) -Flight Software. TVC.Barge/Pallets .
029 lb Net Payload = 72 mt to 30 x 120 nmi 51.7 nmi Mach = 5.6 sec Alt = 161 kft Mach = 3.HLV Flight Profile for ISS DRM Upper stage start Circularize 120 nmi orbit MECO SSME T = 511.6 deg inclination) .5% ISS Mission Dependent 7.6 deg orbit from KSC Payload Volume LEO payload to 51.79 q = 0.00 Attitude Control Provided by Carrier Attitude Control Provided by Payload Upper stage Boosters (existing) ET-94 LWT/Propulsion Module/Carrier 4-segment RSRB 3 SSME @ 104.5 m x 30 m 72 mT 12 Existing or Modified Upper Stage Gross mass = 4.83 q = 19 lb/ft2 Ocean recovery Launch Max q = 650 psf Max g = 3.2 nmi 30 x 120 nmi ET/Carrier/Propulsion Expendable Pacific Ocean Impact Carrier Fairings Separation T = 185 sec Alt = 43.533.4 lb/ft2 SRB Separation T = 124.0 sec Alt = 61.
4 days after launch Example ISS Payload: Stage & MPLM + Unpressurized Logistics Up to 60 mt available 120 nmi orbit Propulsion maneuver to circularize Phasing with ISS Launch with HLV into 30 x 120 nmi orbit Entry over Pacific Ocean EARTH 13 .Design Reference Mission 220 nmi orbit Arrive at International Space Station Propulsion maneuvers to ISS/Rendezvous & Docking ~ 2 .
2 mt • Available: 11.6 deg MECO: 72 mt • Orion w/o LAS: 21.6 mt • MPLM: 13.HLV-CEV Option 2 .3 mt (unpressurized logistics w/carriers) • Aft mounted propulsion conducts 160 ft/sec circularization burn (GNC by Orion) • Orion separates from logistics carrier .docks with forward adapter on ASE frame • Orion propulsion used for all subsequent orbit maneuvers to and from ISS • Sufficient propellants in lunar version Orion Service Module for maneuvers 14 .2 mt (full propellant load) • ASE Structure w/docking adapter: 16 mt (estimated) • 120 nmi circularization propulsion: 1.ISS Crew & Logistics HLV to 51.
5% Circularization stage 7.8 nmi Mach = 5.75 q = 0.316 lb Payload = 21 mt CEV + 25 mt Logistics 120 nmi east orbit from KSC .5 m x 25 m 72 mt 15 Payload Carrier/Propulsion Module Logistics carrier w/docking adapter Payload Volume Net LEO payload Gross liftoff mass = 4.Block II HLV ISS Crew & Logistics Launch Circularization burn 120 x 120 nmi Jettison Launch Abort System T = 155 sec MECO SSME T = 507 sec Alt = 61.541.4 lb/ft2 SRB Separation Attitude Control T = 124.2 nmi 30 x 120 nmi orbit Expendables Pacific Ocean Carrier Fairings Separation T = 185 sec Alt = 43.6 sec Provided by Carrier Alt = 161.80 q = 19 lb/ft2 Ocean recovery Attitude Control Provided by Orion CEV Launch Boosters (existing) Max q = 645 psf Max g = 3.3 kft Mach = 3.00 4-segment RSRM 3 SSME @ 104.
Block II HLV Heavy-lift Flight Profile –Lunar Lander 16 .
Block II HLV Heavy-lift Flight Profile .Orion 17 .
2 mt TLI CEV Available: 22.8 mt Service Module Expended 120 nmi departure orbit LSAM Launch #1 HLV Cargo HLV Crew (4seg/SSME) CEV Launch #2 Crew Module Direct Entry Land or Water Landing EARTH 18 .Block II HLV Split Mission LOR Human Lunar Scenario MOON LOI of LSAM Earth Departure Stage #2 Expended Ascent docks with CM/SM Low Lunar Orbit LOI of CEV by EDS Ascent Expended Net TLI LSAM Required: 35.1 mt TLI LSAM Available: 39.0 mt Earth Departure Stage #1 Expended Net TLI CEV Required: 20.
6 nmi) 30 x 120 nmi orbit (Upper stages determined by mission types) 2.398 lbm 3 x SSME 396.046 lbm 1 x J2-X 293.784 lbm 57.994 lbm (includes ASE) Stage at MECO (59.57 22.Cargo Block II HLV .569 lbf SL.932 lbm 385.095 lbm 74.94 Mlbf @ SL 267 s @ Vac 1.211.47 22.1. 490.94 Mlbf @ SL 267 s @ Vac 1.847 lbf Vac 452.980 lbm (includes ASE) Stage at Mach 17.895 lbm 73.862 lbm (81.7 nmi 364.0 s 4.5-m internal dia Carrier Mass Upper Staqe Gross Mass Burnout Mass Usable Propellant # of Engines/ Type Engine Thrust Stage Engine Isp Total LV Gross Liftoff Mass 4.0 s 4.94 Mlbf @ SL 267 s @ Vac 1.Cargo Block II HLV .227 lbm 2.644 lbm 198.48 18.HLV Characteristics Vehicle Characteristics First Stage Boosters Gross Mass Burnout Mass Useable Propellant # of Engines/ Type Engine Thrust (each) Stage Engine Isp 2.060 lbm (includes ASE) Stage at Mach 19.793.744 lbm (82.00 gs 1.705 lbm 2 x 4-segment SRB 2.784 lbm 57.559 lbm 203.211.596.664.277 lbm 2.19 s 48.211.095 lbm 74.19 s 53.19 s 50.3 nmi 363. 490.662.046 lbm 1 x J-2x 293.9 mt) (Orbited EDS not included) Jettison 14 Klb LAS at 155 sec 639 psf 2.596.454 lb (79.589.398 lbm 3 x SSME 396.111 lbm 1.049 lbm (92.932 lbm 385.1 mt) (Orbited EDS not included) 616 psf 2.784 lbm 57.311 lbm 1.56 gs 1.589.2.705 lbm 2 x 4-segment SRB 2.1 mt) 178.1 mt) 182.31 gs 1.1 mt) Net payload (@28.569 lbf SL.569 lbf SL.544.227 lbm 2.621 lbm 36.705 lbm 2 x 4-segment SRB 2.664.596.589.847 lbf Vac 452.5 deg) 157.575 lbm 327.311 lbm 1.942 lbm 327.008 lb (71.398 lbm 3 x SSME 396. 59.Crew External Tank Gross Mass Burnout Mass Usable Propellant Propulsion/Carrier Main Propulsion Gross Mass # of Engines/ Type Engine Thrust (each @ 104.883 lb @ 185 sec 19 . 490.932 lbm 385.735 lbm (90.883 lb @ 185 sec 2.988 lbm 37.306 lb @ 185 sec Block I HLV .2 mt) Net payload = gross delivery reduced by 10% Flight Conditions Max dynamic pressure Max acceleration Liftoff Thrust/Weight Jettison upper carrier fairings 647 psf 3.750 lbf Vac 448. 55.847 lbf Vac 452.684 lbm Gross Delivery (120 x 120 nmi) 174.847.750 lbf Vac 448.5%) Stage Engine Isp 7.
3 mt + 1.9 mt (net payload) as shown in the following examples: Lunar Reference Vehicle with Suborbital Staging (4-seg SRB.5 mt + 7.0 mt 91. J-2X EDS) 81.9 mt . 104.HLV Growth Options The HLV has growth potential up to 91.1 mt SSME at 109% 5-segment SRBs SSME EDS Total Potential Lift + 2.5% SSME.
Duration • No Engine Out Capability • TBD Carrier Subsystems Total HLV LOV ~1 in 186 ~1 in 158 .HLV Reliability from the Shuttle PRA Contributor SSME RSRM SRB only Total SRB External Tank Subtotal (Shuttle Systems Only) Payload Carrier High Reliability Scenario 1 in 300 1 in 1550 1 in 2104 1 in 893 1 in 4762 ~1 in 214 ~1 in 1400 Low Reliability Scenario 1 in 250 1 in 1550 1 in 2104 1 in 893 1 in 4762 ~1 in 188 ~1 in 1000 Assumptions for SSMEs • 3 SSMEs • 104% Power Level • 540 sec.
Probability of HLV LOC with LAS 10000 Probability of HLV LOV (1/N) HLV Improves the Shuttle Reliably By an Order of Magnitude 1000 100 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% Probability of LAS Success (%) .
NOT FOR PUBLIC RELEASE 24 . Houston.SPACE SHUTTLE PROGRAM NASA Johnson Space Center. Texas Payload Separation Design Presenter Date Mack Page Henderson 6/02/09 24 • Spring loaded separation actuator along Payload centerline • ET vent forces are used in assist mode • SSP worst-on-worst staging ICs • No Active attitude control ET Tumble Valve 200 lbs • 20.000 lbs spring rate with a 6 inch stroke (10K lb on each body) • ET Tumble Valve put back into the ET and activated Spring • 40s and 800 lb vent forces GO2/LH2 Vents 800 lbs ~ 2ft aft of sep plane Mechanism 10000 lbs No major Separation issues identified Pre-Decisional Information .
Near Field Payload Separation –Max Body Rates Body Rates at Separation P = -0.38 deg/sec Q = -0.62 deg/sec R = -0.30 deg/sec 25 .
Conclusions • HLV Design is less capable than the current baseline • A significant amount of study of this concept is required by the broader community • Some benefits: – HLV makes maximum use of Shuttle assets – HLV retains essential contractor and civil servant skills • Potential support for ISS for both crew and cargo • Foundational Heavy Lift capability to support a variety of architectures 26 .
Backup 27 .
5 segment SRB New Parachutes New Cargo Carrier New Fairing New Main Propulsion New Launch Abort Systems Harden Crawler Roadway Modify MLP New MLP New Launch Tower Certify Engine (Human Rating) New Payload Processing New Flame Trench New Pad Escape Mods to VAB New starts Total new system starts x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x 15 x x x x x x 20 35 x x x x x x 18 18 x 8 8 Ares 1.Only One Unique New Start for HLV Element HLV Ares 1 Ares 5 Direct New Core stage New Tank New Boat Tail New Prop Feed Lines New Software New RCS New Interstage New Upper Stage New Upper Stage Engine New 5 or 5. Ares 5. Direct Unique New Starts HLV Unique New start 28 .
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