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Mass media is used to communicate to large numbers of people. It is a useful method for raising an issue, encouraging debate and for making an issue more salient. The information is presented through various media and the public can generally choose to read, listen, view or disregard the material offered. The only way to ensure the media cover your project is through paid advertising, but this is expensive and there is still no guarantee that your target group will take in your information. If paid advertising is not possible, there is value in examining opportunities to access community-service information for both print and electronic media. Publicity, such as a media release, is the most popular and useful method for achieving possible coverage of your project. Careful selection of the media that are most likely to be accessed by your target group will also improve the reach of your information.

Types of Media and Their Characteristics

In terms of overall advertising expenditures, media advertising is still dominated by Press and television, which are of comparable size (by value of 'sales'). Posters and radio follow some way behind, with cinema representing a very specialist medium. Press In the United Kingdom, spending is dominated by the national and regional newspapers, the latter taking almost all the classified advertising revenue. The magazines and trade or technical journal markets are about the same size as each other, but are less than half that of the newspaper sectors.

National newspapers - These are still traditionally categorized, from the media buyer's viewpoint, on the basis of class; even though this is of declining importance to many advertisers. They are obviously best matched to national advertisers who are happy with black and white advertisements, although colour is now available - and high-quality colour is available in some supplements. National newspapers in general, and the quality Press in particular, are supposed to carry more `weight' with their readers so that an advertisement placed in one is taken more seriously than a comparable one in a regional newspaper, although it may be more transitory

Regional newspapersThese may be dailies, which look and perform much like the nationals, or weeklies, which are more specialized, though they dominate the classified advertising market. There is usually much more advertising competing for the reader's attention, and the weekly newspaper is now largely the province of the 'free-sheet'typically delivered free to all homes in a given areawhich earn revenue from their high proportion of advertising, and accordingly having the least `weight' of all. MagazinesThese offer a more selective audience (which is more `involved', with the editorial content at least). Magazines are traditionally categorized into general interest, special interest and trade or technical. The advertiser will, therefore, be able to select those that match the specific profile demanded by the advertising strategy. The weight, or `authority', of magazines is correspondingly high, and they may be kept for a considerable time for use as reference - and passed to other readers (so that `readership' figures may be much higher than `circulation' figures). They can offer excellent colour printing; but, again, the clutter of many competing advertisements may reduce the impact of the advertiser's message. Trade and technical - In the trade and professional fields there are now a significant number of 'controlled circulation' magazines. These are like the `free Press', in that they are delivered free to the recipients; but, at least in theory, those recipients should have been carefully screened to ensure that they are of value to the advertisers - and the circulation can, if properly controlled, represent a wide cross-section of the buyers, and influencers, in the advertiser's target audience. The rates for positioning are usually more varied than for newspapers, with premiums being paid for facing editorial matter and, of course, for colour

Posters This is something of a specialist medium, which is generally used in support of campaigns using other media. On the other hand, some advertisers, particularly those in brewing and tobacco, have successfully made significant use of the medium; although, to achieve this, they have developed the requisite expertise to make efficient use of its peculiarities. This industry is also known as Out of Home Media. However, this category is not limited to posters and billboards. It may involve the use of media space in

airports, malls, convenience stores, etc., and it could even tie into guerilla marketing, a nontraditional approach to advertising that may involve grassroots tactics (e.g. posting branded stickers or static clings to buildings, restrooms, and other surfaces in metropolitan areas). Electronic Media: Electronic media are media that use electronics or electromechanical energy for the end-user(audience) to access the content. This is in contrast to static media (mainly print media), which today are most often created electronically, but don't require electronics to be accessed by the end-user in the printed form. The primary electronic media sources familiar to the general public are better known as video recordings, audio recordings, multimedia presentations, slide presentations, CDROM andonline content. Most new media are in the form of digital media. However, electronic media may be in either analog or digital format.Although the term is usually associated with content recorded on a storage medium, recordings are not required for live broadcasting and online networking. Any equipment used in the electronic communication process (e.g. television, radio, telephone,desktop computer, game console, handheld device) may also be considered electronic media.

Television This is normally the most expensive medium, and as such is generally only open to the major advertisers, although some regional contractors offer more affordable packages to their local advertisers. It offers by far the widest coverage, particularly at peak hours (roughly 7.0010.30 p.m.) and especially of family audiences. Offering sight, sound, movement and colour, it has the greatest impact, especially for those products or services where a 'demonstration' is essential; since it combines the virtues of both the 'story-teller' and the `demonstrator'. To be effective, these messages must be simple and able to overcome surrounding family life distractionsespecially the TV remote.

Satellite televisionlong believed the medium of the future, as once was cable television has largely fulfilled that expectation in the US. It is now an important feature in other countries, though terrestrial 'freeview' broadcasting poses a challenge.

Radio Radio advertising has increased greatly in recent years, with the granting of many more licenses. It typically generates specific audiences at different times of the dayadults at breakfast, housewives, and commuters during rush hours. It can be a cost-effective way of reaching these audiencesespecially since production costs are much cheaper than television, though the lack of visual elements may limit the message. In radio advertisnig we need to identify the timing of radio listeners, like many people listen on time when they are stuck with the traffic, and many of the listeners they listen at night time. Internet/Web Advertising This rapidly growing marketing force borrows much from the example of press advertising, but the most effective useadopted by search enginesis interactive. Mobile Advertising Personal mobile phones have become an attractive advertising media to network operators, but are relatively unproven and remain in media buyers' sidelines.

Electronic Media & Advertisement Marketing

The electronic media such as radio and television provides for the effective use of the 'sight' and 'hearing' senses. While radio stimulates the imagination and is a portable and low cost medium, television has visual and sound capabilities. You have also studied that the audio visual character of television makes it a magic medium allowing us to watch the world from our homes. You have also learnt in your earlier lessons that immediacy and timeliness are important characteristics of the electronic media. Hence there is no delay in their reception. With an enormous dissemination capacity, the electronic media has a pivotal role to play in information transfer, education, culture, health, politics etc. Access to media, a basic understanding of the spoken language and very little training is enough to use many of the services in electronic media. With the advance in technology, it has become very easy and economical to cover vast geographical areas through the electronic media. However, electronic media like television has changed the living habits, styles and values of people. Many

researches show that viewing television can affect the behaviour of viewers, especially children. Advertising Marketing is the promotion of a companys products and services carried out primarily to drive sales of the products and services but also to build a brand identity and communicate changes or new product /services to the customers. Advertising has become an essential element of the corporate world and hence the companies allot a considerable amount of revenues as their advertising budget. There are several reasons for advertising some of which are as follows:
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Increasing the sales of the product/service Creating and maintaining a brand identity or brand image. Communicating a change in the existing product line. Introduction of a new product or service. Increasing the buzz-value of the brand or the company.

Thus, several reasons for advertising and similarly there exist various media which can be effectively used for advertising. Broadcast advertising Television, Radio and the Internet

Broadcast advertising is a very popular advertising medium that constitutes of several branches like television, radio or the Internet. Television advertisements have been very popular ever since they have been introduced. The cost of television advertising often depends on the duration of the advertisement, the time of broadcast (prime time/peak time), and of course the popularity of the television channel on which the advertisement is going to be broadcasted. The radio might have lost its charm owing to the new age media however the radio remains to be the choice of small-scale advertisers. The radio jingles have been very popular advertising media and have a large impact on the audience, which is evident in the fact that many people still remember and enjoy the popular radio jingles. Covert Advertising Advertising in Movies

Covert advertising is a unique kind of advertising in which a product or a particular brand is incorporated in some entertainment and media channels like movies, television shows or even sports. There is no commercial in the entertainment but

the brand or the product is subtly( or sometimes evidently) showcased in the entertainment show. Some of the famous examples for this sort of advertising have to be the appearance of brand Nokia which is displayed on Tom Cruises phone in the movie Minority Report, or the use of Cadillac cars in the movie Matrix Reloaded. Surrogate Advertising Advertising Indirectly

Surrogate advertising is prominently seen in cases where advertising a particular product is banned by law. Advertisement for products like cigarettes or alcohol which are injurious to heath are prohibited by law in several countries and hence these companies have to come up with several other products that might have the same brand name and indirectly remind people of the cigarettes or beer bottles of the same brand. Common examples include Fosters and Kingfisher beer brands, which are often seen to promote their brand with the help of surrogate advertising. Public Service Advertising Advertising for Social Causes

Public service advertising is a technique that makes use of advertising as an effective communication medium to convey socially relevant messaged about important matters and social welfare causes like AIDS, energy conservation, political integrity, deforestation, illiteracy, poverty and so on. David Oglivy who is considered to be one of the pioneers of advertising and marketing concepts had reportedly encouraged the use of advertising field for a social cause. Oglivy once said, "Advertising justifies its existence when used in the public interest - it is much too powerful a tool to use solely for commercial purposes.". Today public service advertising has been increasingly used in a non-commercial fashion in several countries across the world in order to promote various social causes. In USA, the radio and television stations are granted on the basis of a fixed amount of Public service advertisements aired by the channel. Celebrity Advertising

Although the audience is getting smarter and smarter and the modern day consumer getting immune to the exaggerated claims made in a majority of

advertisements, there exist a section of advertisers that still bank upon celebrities and their popularity for advertising their products. Using celebrities for advertising involves signing up celebrities for advertising campaigns, which consist of all sorts of advertising including, television ads or even print advertisements.


What is SWOT ? SWOT analysis is a strategic planning method used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieve that objective. A SWOT analysis may be incorporated into the strategic planning model. Strategic Planning has been the subject of much research.[citation needed]
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Strengths: characteristics of the business or team that give it an advantage over others in the industry. Weaknesses: are characteristics that place the firm at a disadvantage relative to others. Opportunities: external chances to make greater sales or profits in the environment. Threats: external elements in the environment that could cause trouble for the business.

First, the decision makers have to determine whether the objective is attainable, given the SWOTs. If the objective is NOT attainable a different objective must be selected and the process repeated. Once key issues have been identified with your SWOT analysis, they feed into marketing objectives. SWOT can be used in conjunction with other tools for audit and analysis, such as PEST analysis and Porter's Five-Forces analysis. So SWOT is a very popular tool with marketing students because it is quick and easy to learn. During the SWOT exercise, list factors in the relevant boxes. It's that simple. Below are some FREE examples of SWOT analysis - click to go straight to them

The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective. These come from within the company's unique value chain. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories:
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Internal factors The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. External factors The opportunities and threats presented by the external environment to the organization. -

The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their impact on the organization's objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4P's; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix. SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade companies to compile lists rather than think about what is actually important in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats.

In strengths youll get good products but that could mean anything. Under weaknesses you get equally general and vacuous points such as the price is too high USE OF SWOT ANALYSIS The usefulness of SWOT analysis is not limited to profit-seeking organizations. SWOT analysis may be used in any decision-making situation when a desired endstate (objective) has been defined. Examples include: non-profit organizations, governmental units, and individuals. SWOT analysis may also be used in pre-crisis planning and preventive crisis management. SWOT analysis may also be used in creating a recommendation during a viability study/survey. Using SWOT to analyse the market position of a small management consultancy with specialism in HRM.[8]
Weaknesses Opportunities Threats Shortage of consultants Well established Large consultancies at operating level rather position with a well operating at a minor than partner level defined market niche level Expertise at partner Unable to deal with Identified market for Other small level in HRM multi-disciplinary consultancy in areas consultancies looking consultancy assignments because of other than HRM to invade the size or lack of ability marketplace Strengths ReputationIn marketplace


The internet and modern telecommunications has changed social networks and socialization greatly. It has opened up our ability to communicate over vast distances at near light speed. We now have many more ways in which to communicate in synchronous time with people at distances. Our asynchronous communication (like message boards and social networking) can now involve many more people than with non-electronic media. To electronic media communication is the anonymity. We can be who we choose to be, or we can allow our strengths to overcome our weaknesses in ways that cannot be achieved offline. For example, a physically unattractive person can allow

their personality to shine, without the difficulty of having to overcome people's prejudice against their looks. This can also work to eliminate racial and gender prejudice. y A broader perspective on the world around us that we would have never found out about had we been forced to simply rely on our own head. y It gives us insight into controversies by typically presenting two sides of the issue.It is very balanced, and not liberal like many people think, because it is designed to reflect the facts. y Penetration or market reach y Active community members who are willing to become brand evangelists y Resources in terms of time and manpower, your team is able to respond quickly and effectively y Management or the C-level executives support the social media medium and give you the go ahead news, information, global perspectives, entertainment. y Now - interactive too - you can voice your feelings/opinions in-depth coverage of topics & issues. y Instant news, breaking news from around the world right in your homes. y Public message & service especially by the govt-controlled forms of media. highlighting issues & mobilizing public opinion y Mostly electronic in nature y Can be communicated within no time y Vast geographical coverage possible y Outreach is more and audiences are heterogeneous. y Messages can be communicated within no time. y Messages can be communicated to large number of people at a time. y Variety of audio, video, text can be used in one single medium. y Great possibility of recording and archiving the content for future use.

Some people who use their physical presence as a form of communication are handicapped and need to learn new tools. Also, some will say that our lack of physical contact in electronic relationships degrades those relationships to being less than human, since humans require a certain level of physical interaction.

y Electronic media do not convey nuances of human interaction, including body language, facial expression, and voice tone. y Our improved breadth of communication (broad distances and broad audiences), we've lost a great deal of depth in our communication. We are losing a depth in our relationships with each other, and the depth of history and self-understanding that came from smaller communication circles. y It can be biased in one direction like Fox news is very conservative, and trying to get the facts about Obama from just that source is near impossible. It can be not biased enough. There is a sort of rule in media that says all stories must be balanced, so they try to bring the one dissenter of a bill that allows say blacks and whites to room together in college and gives him just as much time as the 50,000 supporters of the bill. y The high cost of advertising space y Possible distortion (dilution or exaggeration) of information during editing y Communication is generally one-way (letters to the editor and talk-back radio overcome this to a limited degree) y Added headlines or leading paragraphs may not support the main message. y Trouble scaling or maintaining a social media campaign. y Lack of tools or resources to track and monitor social media campaign results. y Not effective social media presence or campaign, meaning goals are not being met. y Tough to train or convince management team on social media principles y Feedback mechanisms are slow y Expensive medium y Limited access in rural areas

Opportunities :

Career Prospects The proliferation of TV channels particularly a number of 24/7 channels have opened up career opportunities in electronics media. Career options are there in public broadcasting agencies like Doordarshan and All India Radio or in private broadcasters. One can be a field reporter, writer, editor, researcher, correspondent and in-studio anchor, presenter and news analysts. These professionals also can work in a number of fields like direction, production, camera, graphics, editing, sound, programme research, script

Career Prospects Lucrative career opportunities are there for creative and talented people, in the field of media. Numerous reputed media organizations/groups like Times Group, UTV, Adlabs, Sony, Sahara Group, Mukta Arts, absorb competent and trained media personnel. Option of becoming RJ, anchor, news reporter, VJ is also there. Advertising also offers lucrative job opportunities. One can work in media planning department, client-servicing personnel, or in creative team. Career Prospects The career prospects in this field are very bright, offering plethora of opportunities. Since it is developing as a comprehensive field, one could find lucrative job opportunities in public relations, newspaper, radio, television, publishing houses, advertising agencies, government organizations and many more. Remuneration The minimum salary as per government directive has to be Rs. 5500 to Rs. 9000 for reporters and senior reporters, Rs. 5000 to Rs. 10,500 for the chief reporters and sub-editors, and Rs. 7500 to 12000 for editors. Private sector even offers higher remuneration including lucrative various fringe benefits. However salaries offered depend on the company one is working with. Field journalists are given travel and stay expenses as well as allowances are additional with all pay packets. Self-employed also have good earning depending upon the nature and extension of their business.writing etc. Moreover one can open his own TV/RM Radio channel.

y Creating/joining online presence on sites where the company currently doesnt exist, i.e. facebook. y New target or niche markets that are untapped. y Promotions, discounts, offers that can be utilized through social media platforms. y Partnerships with a publisher or advertiser. y Penetration into a new geographical market.