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1.0 INTRODUCTION

Lean is a challenging concept for organization to implement in real world class manufacturing, and Total Preventative Maintenance (TPM) is required for an effective lean initiative. No single standard exist that promises successful implementation or guaranteed returns. Philosophically, TPM resembles Total Quality Management (TQM) in several aspects, such as total commitment to the program by upper level management is required, employees must be empowered to initiate corrective action, and a long range outlook must be accepted as TPM may take a year or more to implement and is an on-going process. Maintenance is a combination of technical, and management actions to ensure an item can perform the required function when needed. The recent view of maintenance is all about preserving the functions of physical assets. In other words, maintenance is process of carrying out tasks that serve the central purpose of ensuring the machines are capable of doing what the users want them to do, and when they want them to do it. Efficiency and effectiveness of equipment plays a dominant role in modern manufacturing industry to determine the performance of the organizational production function as well as the level of success achieved in the organization [1]. The possible maintenance policies can be grouped under four main headings which are corrective, preventive, predictive and detective. Apart from detective maintenance, the major problem that companies have struggled with is how to make the choice between the other three. This has led to the increasing interest within industry in TPM concept and implementation. TPM is a method, which involves total participation on all levels and functions in an organization in order to raise overall effectiveness of equipment used in the production. TPM could be considered as result of Preventive Maintenance (PM) and TQM combination because major elements of TPM are employees, processes and equipment. In manufacturing industries, TPM is one of the very important factory maintenance methodologies that are used throughout a product life cycle that try to optimize the effective use of production installations [2]. After few decades, Malaysia manufacturing sector has developed a tremendous performance and attracted a huge number of foreign capital investment to the industries. These excellent performances have enabled the Malaysian 1

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manufacturers to enjoy an important competitive advantage in the global market, especially in terms of cost and quality. However, as time passed, the impact of equipment efficiency has become more and more critical as the widespread utilization and application of highly sophisticated and automated machines in the industry increases [1]. TPM seeks to engage all levels and functions in an organization to maximize the overall effectiveness of production equipment. This method further tunes up existing processes and equipment by reducing mistakes and accidents. The goal is the total elimination of all losses, including breakdowns, equipment setup and adjustment losses, idling and minor stoppages, reduced speed, defects and rework, spills and process upset conditions, and startup and yield losses. The ultimate goals of TPM are zero equipment breakdowns and zero product defects, which lead to improved utilization of production assets and plant capacity. According to previous researches, total participation from all employees including top management and operators are vital in TPM implementation. Moreover, the role of top management stimulates the contribution of operators to achieve zero breakdowns, zero stoppages and safer working environment [3]. Whereas maintenance departments are the traditional center of preventive maintenance programs, TPM requests to involve workers in all departments and levels, from the operator to senior executives and manager in order to ensure effective equipment operation. All these complicated equipment and machines thus became very crucial and costly to manufacturers to perform the maintenance activity. Many organizations began to realize that the continuity of this excellent performance must be supported by a strong backbone of efficient and effective equipment [1]. Hence, implementing TPM in the manufacturing industry has emerged as an important operational strategy to overcome the production losses due to equipment inefficiency and inability to functions. Nevertheless, problems still occur on site due to inadequate control procedure in maintenance operation. The control procedures that are inadequate are associated with inventory, parts, materials, craft pool, and management information systems. This means the use of ineffective management tools of the past must be updated with effective tools and technologies that are consistent with the other business segments in the organization. One

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of the key tools that have been effectively implemented in manufacturing operations is Computerized Manufacturing Maintenance System (CMMS).

CMMS are required to manage and control asset, plant, and equipment maintenance in today¶s manufacturing plants. A CMMS is much more than just a way to schedule PM. By using a CMMS, an organization can create equipment logs to record events associated with a piece of equipment; create work orders automatically according to a schedule or manually from service requests; record authorized uses of equipment; and track scheduled services or PMs, training, maintenance history, employee time, downtime of a device, parts inventory, purchase orders, and much more. To operate a world-class maintenance organization, we need precise information combined with the ability to act quickly in response to impending emergencies. Today CMMS technologies can help an organization to reach the goal of eliminating the vast majority of unscheduled equipment repairs. CMMS is now a central component of many companies¶ maintenance departments, and it offers support on a variety of levels in the organizational hierarchy [4]. Indeed, a CMMS is a means of achieving world class maintenance, as it offers a platform for decision analysis and thereby acts as a guide to management.

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2.0 DISCUSSION 2.1 HISTORY OF TPM Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) refers to a management system for optimizing the productivity of manufacturing equipment through systematic equipment maintenance involving employees at all levels. Under TPM, everyone is involved in keeping the equipment in good working order to minimize production losses from equipment repairs, assists, set-ups, and the same order. In the early manufacturing industry, maintenance of the equipments and machines is not practiced to be preventive, and predominantly involves just the act of repairing a piece of equipment after it breaks down. Factory managers sooner or later realized the importance of preventing equipment breakdowns in order to boost productivity. Thus, systems for subjecting equipment to scheduled maintenance activities in order to prevent unexpected breakdowns became popular. Under this plan, equipment maintenance is the sole responsibility of technical staff.

According to [3], before the 1950s, maintenance was conducted on the basis of Breakdown Maintenance (BM), meaning, maintenance is fixing the machine when it gets faulty. In the early 1950s, PM became dominant in Japan. Using PM techniques, maintenance schedules designed to keep machines operational were developed. However, this technique often resulted in machines being over-serviced in an attempt to improve production. Manufacturer's maintenance schedules had to be followed to the letter with little thought as to the realistic requirements of the machine. There was little or no involvement of the machine operator in the maintenance program and maintenance personnel had little training beyond what was contained in often inadequate maintenance manuals PM is a concept that encourages following instructions for equipment operations and maintenance provided by manufacturers in order to prevent equipments from possible breakdowns. Japanese imported PM from America and developed it later. Although PM reduced downtime, it was not so good, because it requires periodical actions and shutdowns during which, some components should be changed even if they are still in a good condition. PM was used for more than two decades in Japan. 4

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During the 1960s, the organizations focused more on productive maintenance, which considers reliability, maintenance and economic efficiency in plant design. In the 1970s, the emphasis was on taking the advantages of PM through total participation of the employees. This approach led them to add the word ³Total´ to PM and TPM was born. The concept of µproductive maintenance¶ emerged, rolling into one system the following: preventive maintenance, equipment reliability engineering, equipment maintainability engineering, and equipment engineering economics. Below this system, the technical or engineering group still has the main responsibility for equipment maintenance. The concept of TPM wherein everyone from the operator to top management owns equipment maintenance came about shortly after [8]. TPM which was proposed by Seiichi Nakajima has been beneficial to maintenance systems since 1971 [8]. Based on the definition of the Japanese Institute of Plant Maintenance (JIPM) [9], TPM is a system for equipment maintenance throughout its entire life cycle in all departments, such as planning, manufacturing, and maintenance. Historically, there are three eras of maintenance in Japan, where TPM originated [8]. The first era, is known as preventive maintenance era (1950¶s) that emphasizes on establishing maintenance functions. The second era (1960¶s) is the introduction of productive maintenance, where maintenance prevention, reliability, maintainability engineering took place. However, the third era, total productive maintenance in 1970¶s put emphasis on total employee participation and strong support from top management. The employee involvement is nonetheless very essential particularly the operator who operates the equipment. Any abnormalities detected can be triggered as soon as possible with regards to training and education and, provided sufficiently. Moreover, it is very important to follow-up on any training and education program in order to ensure operators commitment; skills and knowledge are at exceptional level [2]. TPM embraces various disciplines to create a manufacturing environment in which everyone feels that it is his or her responsibility to keep the equipment running and productive. Thus, in general, the goal of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment through the involvement of all employees in the organization in the various departments like production, maintenance, technical services, and stores. The most efficient 5

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way to maximize output is to eliminate the major causes that prevent the equipment from being effective.

2.2 TPM CONCEPT AND PRINCIPLE TPM is a maintenance program concept with the aim of emergency and unscheduled maintenance prevention. Results are less down time and more effective use of the equipments and machines [5]. Under TPM, operators no longer limit themselves to simply using the machine and calling the technician when a breakdown occurs. Operators can inspect, clean, lubricate, adjust, and even perform simple calibrations on their respective equipment. This frees the technical workforce for higher-level preventive maintenance activities that require more of their technical expertise. Management should also show interest in data concerning equipment uptime, utilization, and efficiency. In short, everyone understands that zero breakdowns, maximum productivity, and zero defects are goals to be shared by everyone under TPM. Aside from eliminating equipment downtimes, improving equipment productivity, and zeroing out defects, TPM has the following goals: improvement of personnel effectiveness and sense of ownership, reduction of operational costs, reduction of throughput times, and customer satisfaction down the road. TPM activities are carried out in small teams with specific tasks. Every level in the over-all organization must be represented by a team or more. In fact, TPM is a continuous improvement program. The goal of TPM is to increase production and raise the morale of the employees as well as increasing their job satisfaction [5]. According to JIPM [9], the goal of TPM is to increase the productivity of plant and equipment. Consequently, maximized output will be achieved through the effort of minimizing input by improving and maintaining equipment at optimum levels to reduce its life cycle cost. Cost-effectiveness is a result of an organization¶s ability to eliminate the causes of the µsix big losses¶ that reduce equipment effectiveness. JIPM also identified what they refer to as the six big losses. These are as follows:1. Reduced yield (from start up to start-up to stable production).

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2. Process defects. 3. Reduced speed. 4. Idling and minor stoppages. 5. Set-up and adjustment. 6. Equipment failure. The JIPM also states that ³Both operations and maintenance departments should accept the responsibility of keeping equipment in good condition. To eliminate the waste and losses hidden in a typical factory environment, we must acknowledge the central role of workers in managing the production process. No matter how thoroughly plants are automated or how many robots are installed, people are ultimately responsible for equipment operation and maintenance. Every aspect of a machines performance, whether good or bad, can be traced back to a human act or omission. Therefore, no matter how advanced the technology is, people play a key role in maintaining the optimum performance of the equipment.´ Basically, TPM operates through the 8 important pillars to support its implementation effectively, which: 1. Increase overall equipment effectiveness 2. Training and education 3. Autonomous maintenance 4. Early equipment management 5. Planned maintenance 6. Quality maintenance 7. Office TPM 8. Safety, health and environment All the 8 pillars put a strong emphasis on continuous process improvement through comprehensive and systematic maintenance management. The issue of ensuring uninterrupted daily operation, zero accidents and breakdowns, administrative, training and education etc are highlighted sufficiently. However, the most important thing to ensure successful TPM implementation relies on strong support and commitment from top management [3]. Figure 2.1 shows the pillars of TPM and their roles in Zero Break downs, Zero Defects and Zero Accidents

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Figure 2.1: Pillars of TPM and their roles in Zero Break downs, Zero Defects and Zero Accidents [9]

The effectiveness of TPM can be measured in terms of the overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), which is a function of equipment availability, performance efficiency, and quality rate. Note that OEE is a function of equipment availability, performance efficiency, and quality. That is, OEE = (availability efficiency) × (performance efficiency) × (quality rate) Where, Availability = Available time - downtime x 100 Available time 2.2.2) (2.2.1)

Performance rate = Ideal cycle time x Processed Quantity x 100 Operating time (2.2.3)

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Quality rate = Processed Quantity ± defective quantity x 100 Processed quantity (2.2.4)

OEE will increase as equipment availability, equipment performance and quality rate increase accordingly. High equipment availability means that chronic and sporadic losses are very low. Hence, a manager can use the output of OEE to identify the causes of time losses and to reduce these losses [2]. Generally, TPM puts emphasis on equipment losses elimination. These losses can be categorized into three main categories; namely downtime, speed losses and defects [8].

2.3 CMMS: RELATIONSHIP IN TPM CMMS are computer-based software programs used to control work activities and resources, as well as to monitor and report work execution. CMMS are tools for data capture and data analysis. CMMS is an essential management tool for managing asset preservation. Today, asset preservation is of primary concern to all organizations and they should take seriously their strategic planning and asset life cycle costing. An effective CMMS should be able to support this area by gathering relevant information in order to perform this process.

Figure 2.2: The life cycle of an assets and its conclusion in CMMS [6] 9

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The primary purpose of a CMMS is to capture the maintenance history of an organization. In real terms most CMMS perform the basic function of raising work orders to cover repairs and maintenance of buildings, plant and equipment. They provide a scheduling facility for maintenance for planned preventive works against maintainable assets. And also they generally collect costing details for the labor and materials related to the work performed. The major features of CMMS include the processing of maintenance data to give in useful information on which management decisions are based. This information can be analyzed or evaluated with respect to previous results such that performance over a period of time can be assessed. Managers will therefore find it convenient in making use of the available data to plan for present and future goals. There is also the advantage of printing out this information in hard copy at any desired period. Other useful information, such as work done in the maintenance department and its total costs (TC), lists of jobs worked on during a period, and inventory taking, can be presented in a manner that will greatly ease both the technical and administrative task of maintenance. Through networking of the systems, information can be passed efficiently between the maintenance department and the organization¶s management [4]. CMMS can be said as software used to implement TPM in real world class manufacturing. The primary purpose of a CMMS is to capture the maintenance history of an organization. In real terms most CMMSs perform the basic function of raising work orders to cover repairs and maintenance of buildings, plant and equipment. They provide a scheduling facility for maintenance for planned preventive works against maintainable assets. CMMS also generally collect costing details for the labor and materials related to the work performed. At this point in the evolution of these manufacturing systems, it is assumed the systems are integrated and computerized. The use of these systems to support manufacturing operations has been established as both cost effective and fundamental to the profitability of most operations. The CMMS can be used to analyze budgets, downtime, supplies, screening of applicants, etc. The database programs in CMMS systems contain structured data on workers¶ names; job titles; daily; weekly or yearly schedules. The data processed on CMMS can be stored permanently or retrieved much faster for future use or modifications. Also, 10

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CMMS can be used in maintenance planning and scheduling, coordinating people, and controlling resources and costs of maintenance functions. It can also be used in such areas as the analysis of a week¶s activity and budget proposals [4]. CMMS are also an effective alternative in improving company profitability. This monograph addresses the notion that good methods for data collection and evaluation in the maintenance area can result in using maintenance operations as a profit center. The fundamental requirement to implement this profit-driven process is a CMMS and a staff skilled to operate the CMMS as a business tool. Nowadays, CMMS become one of the vital systems in world class manufacturing organizations. According to [10] CMMS can support condition based monitoring (CBM) of machines and assets, to offer insight into wear and imminent failures. It can also track the movement of spare parts and requisition replacements when necessary and allows operators to report faults faster, thus enabling maintenance staff to respond to problems more quickly. CMMS can facilitate improvement in the communication between operations and maintenance personnel, and is influential in ameliorating the consistency of information passed between these two departments. It provides maintenance planners with historical information necessary for developing PM schedules, maintenance managers with information in a form that allows for more effective control of their department¶s activities. The CMMS software also offers accountants information on machines to enable capital expenditure decisions to be taken and it affords senior management a crucial insight into the state of asset healthcare within their organization. Ideally a CMMS is a means to achieving world-class maintenance, by offering a platform for decision analysis and thereby acting as a guide to management. CMMS packages are able to provide management with reports and statistics, detailing performance in key areas and highlighting problematic issues. Maintenance activities are consequently more visible and open to scrutiny. Managers can rapidly discover which policies work, which machines are causing problems, where overspend is taking place, and so on, thereby revealing information that can be used as the basis for the systematic management of maintenance. Thus, by tracking asset ³health´ in an organized and systematic manner, maintenance management can start to see how to improve the current state of affairs [10].

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2.4 IMPLEMENTATION OF TPM AND CMMS TPM is focused primarily on keeping machinery functioning optimally and minimizing equipment breakdowns and associated waste by making equipment more efficient, conducting preventative, corrective, and autonomous maintenance, mistake-proofing equipment, and effectively managing safety and environmental issues To begin applying TPM concepts to plant maintenance activities, the entire work force must first be convinced that upper level management is committed to the program. The first step in this effort is to either hire or appoint a TPM coordinator. It is the responsibility of the coordinator to sell the TPM concepts to the work force through an educational program. There are 12 steps to implement TPM that proposed by [5]. All these steps can be divided into several phase which are preparation phase, introduction phase, implementations of pillar and consolidation and stabilization phase. Preparation phase is done through step 1 until step 5. y y y y y Step 1: Formal announcement regarding decision of top management for starting TPM Step 2: Introductory education and publicity campaign Step 3: TPM promotions Step 4: Establishment of basic TPM policies and goals Step 5: Prepare a master plan for implementation

Introduction phase is done through step 6 by having kick-off meeting. The organizations can hold a meeting with all employees attending and top managements will present about TPM and their goals. Implementations of pillars are prepared throughout step 7 until step 11. Finally, the organization must sustain full TPM implementation and raise TPM levels by means of TPM process audits and raising TPM team goals. However, several factors can be considered as barriers and pitfalls to TPM implementation, for examples sticking to a rigid schedule regardless of results, lack of sufficient resources for a successful implementation, resistance to change, lack of understanding the benefits of TPM implementation, lack of analysis capability and so on. The major problem to implement TPM is lack of organizations of data and information of maintenance programs and management. 12

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Several factors are driving the need for information to aid maintenance management. First, the amount of information available, even to quite modest organizations, continues to increase almost exponentially. Secondly, data-life-time is diminishing as a result of the shopfloor realities, which are real-time in nature, and the rapid pace of change. The initiative now is to acquire data about individual machines, based upon real interactions rather than deduced behavior from historical data. Finally, the way that data is being accessed has changed. The days of legacy maintenance systems of large batch reports, where the focus was on data throughput, are being replaced by dynamic, online queries, created on-the-fly, and with answers in seconds rather than days [5]. To overcome this problem, CMMS was introduced to the manufacturing organizations that implement TPM. Through CMMS, the organizations can systematize the data for maintenance plans and avoid any problems occur due to lack of data organizations. Maintenance is one area in which computing has been applied, and CMMS have existed, in one form or another, for several decades. The software has evolved from relatively simple mainframe planning of maintenance activity to Windows-based, multi-user systems that cover a multitude of maintenance functions. The capacity of CMMSs to handle vast quantities of data purposefully and rapidly has opened up new opportunities for maintenance, facilitating a more deliberate and considered approach to managing an organization¶s assets [10]. Due to research conducted by [10], most existing off-the-shelf software packages, especially CMMS and enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems, tend to be ³black holes´. This term is coined by the author as a description of systems greedy for data input that seldom provide any output in terms of decision support. Companies consume a significant amount of management and supervisory time compiling, interpreting and analyzing the data captured within the CMMS. Companies then encounter difficulties analyzing equipment performance trends and their causes as a result of inconsistency in the form of the data captured and the historical nature of certain elements of it. In short, companies tend to spend a vast amount of capital in acquisition of off-the-shelf systems for data collection and their added value to the business is questionable. In that research paper [10], an investigation of the characteristics of computerized maintenance management systems (CMMS) is carried out to highlight the need for them in

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industry and identify their current deficiencies. A proposed model provides a decision analysis capability that is often missing in existing CMMS. The proposed model employs a hybrid of intelligent approaches. This hybrid system is analogous to the Holonic concept. Holonic concept is the combination of fixed rules and flexible strategies. The Holonic concept is shown in Figure 2.3 below.

Figure 2.3: Holonic Form [10] The main practical implication of that paper is the proposal of an intelligent model that can be linked to CMMS to add value to data collected in the form of provision of decision support capabilities. A further implication is to identify the need for information to aid maintenance, followed by the provision of reasons for current deficiencies in existing off-theshelf CMMS. It is therefore proposed that such a model could be attached as an intelligent module to existing CMMS and thus filling a black hole with an intelligent black box that adds value to the business.

2.5 TPM AND CMMS ADOPTION IN MALAYSIA: AN EXAMPLE In this section, we will discuss about a research conducted by [4]. This research is carried out to study the application of CMMS called PMMS in Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS).

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For history, on 11th May 1978, this Malaysian company, PCSB a wholly owned subsidiary of Petroliam Nasional Berhad (PETRONAS) was born as its exploration and production arm. PCSB¶s domestic operations are divided into three regions which are Peninsular Malaysia Operations (PMO), Sarawak Operations (SKO) and Sabah Operations (SBO). Effective 1st April 2002, these regional operations were put under PCSB¶s Division called Domestic and South East Asia Division (DOMSEA). PMO started its operation in April 1984 (the first production of division in PCSB) with the commencement of gas production from the Duyong field. Its main office is located at PETRONAS Office Complex in Kerteh about 110 km south of Kuala Terengganu. PMO is supported by Kemaman Supply Base (KSB) in terms of warehousing and logistics activities, Kerteh Helibase for helicopter services, Onshore Gas Terminal (OGT) at Paka for gas receiving facilities and Terengganu Crude Oil Terminal (TCOT) at Paka for crude receiving facilities. Nowadays, PMO operates sixteen producing fields namely Duyong, Dulang, Bekok,Kepong, Tiong, Tinggi, Pulai, Malong, Sotong, Anding, Resak, Abu-Cluster, Puteri and Angsi. There are a total of thirty three platforms, two Floating Storage and Offloading facilities (FSO), two Floating Production, Storage and Offloading facility (FPSO), and one Onshore Gas Terminal (OGT). There are 20,936 equipments under PCSB¶s maintenance [4]. PCSB has developed CMMS software which known as PETRONAS Maintenance Management System (PMMS). PMMS is a supported by the System Application Production (SAP R/3). The system is an combined suite of Order Entry, Scheduling, Manufacturing, Inventory and Financial software. Additionally, it integrates Enterprise Resources Planning (ERP) system that consists of several modules, namely Plant Maintenance (PM), Finance (FI), Human Resources (HR), and Material Management (MM), which supported by many functions in the day-to-day operations. PMMS is a maintenance strategy based on continual renewal so that plant and equipment are in good condition and hence free of age related defects. PMMS covers Asset Management, Work Management, and Performance Management. Asset Management in PMMs is essential in order to ensure that a complete maintenance master data is captured in the system, including plant asset structure, tag number, equipment master, Bill of Material, maintenance plans and data consistency in master data. Asset Management covers two areas - Plant Asset Structure (PAS) and Planned Preventive Maintenance Plan (PPM) [4].

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PAS allows the user to control system management according to functional location or process oriented criteria and to manage the individual inventory maintenance resources. This will enable the planning, execution and analysis of the maintenance works through the system. The example of a PAS for PSCB is shown in Figure 2.4 below:

Figure 2.4: An Example of PAS [4] From the research, the procedure in PAS is categorized by level. Level 1 until 3 is the selection process of the asset, investing the asset, making proper assessment of risks, and developing proper strategies to save the assets from exposure to risks. Level 4 is a process that execution of the Plant Maintenance System. Level 5 is a Functional Location where a place in technical system. Level 6 is Equipment Master which is a identifiable physical asset, upon which all notifications and work order can be carried out where costs and history can be recorded. Level 7 is refer to the bill of materials (BOM). BOM is the term used to describe the raw materials, sub-assemblies, intermediate assemblies, sub-components, components, parts and the quantities of each needed to manufacture an end item. PPM in other hand is created to automatically generate preventive maintenance orders when the preventive maintenance work is due. According to the researched by [4], the following important details are important in PPM. 16

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1. Maintenance Strategy and Functional Location ± specifies the time interval when the preventive maintenance work is done. Once the preventive maintenance plan is finalized, maintenance strategies can be generated. 2. Objects List - specifies all the equipment where the preventive maintenance is to be carried out. 3. General Task List (GTL) - a grouping on task list for work order. General task list used to describe the steps or operations of the preventive maintenance activities to be carried out. Spare parts, materials and tools may also be specified in the task list. 4. Work Center - indicates which group in the maintenance department is responsible to carry out this job. Three functions in Work Center are for costing, scheduling and capacity planning. Work Management can be defined as a documented and tested step-by-step method aims to ensure the efficient work order is processed by standardizes maintenance business processes across all operation units. It include detailed information on topics such as organizing an work, setting and implementing work order, and choosing employees to execute the work. There are six main stage in work management which are: i. ii. iii. iv. v. vi. Work identification Pre-planning Planning Scheduling Work execution Reporting and feedback

In PMMS, work management consist work identification, pre-planning, planning, scheduling, work execution, and reporting and feedback. It is a work order creation and tracking system design for asset PMO, custodian, or contractors to manage work orders for their infrastructure. Performance Management is a data collection from all the maintenance work that was done at the organization. It will be extracted from the SAP system and stored in the SAP Business Warehouse (BW) and Carigali Maintenance Management Performance System (CMMPS) for analysis and reporting. It is aims to enable the users to generate accurate reports to analyze the efficiency and effectiveness of their maintenance work. It 17

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is also to provide Operations Unit with a feedback mechanism to track their progress towards best practice. The findings show that asset management, work management and performance management are the vital factors for PMMS. Asset management aims to assists organization to better manage the allocation, distribution, and productive use of its assets. The system facilitates the management of assets with the objective of capturing information on assets and tracking of the assets through the entire assets life cycle of asset registration, assignment or allocation, transfer, stock checking, maintenance, and eventually disposal or reported lost. Work management facilitates the management of construction, maintenance, and operations work request by automating and streamlining the processes required to initiate, track, design, estimate, schedule, construct, and close work request. By tracking and analyzing information, and distributing it across the enterprise, these systems enable the PMO to increase the efficiency, accuracy and speed of the entire work cycle. Last but not least performance management facilitates performance information to inform and program decision making and resource allocation. To summarize, PMMS can result in major benefits in terms of money and time to PETRONAS. However, it requires a great deal of thinking and effort. Besides, the monitoring system for maintenance management has been improved by PMMS. PMMS provides awareness for the importance of the maintenance in PCSB which involving all level of employees.

2.6 BENEFITS OF TPM AND CMMS TPM provided a lot of benefits to the organizations. Maintaining equipments in a satisfactory way will result in fewer defects. This means that wastes by processes would be eliminated. TPM prolongs the life span of the equipments. It means that the intervals between the investments of the companies on new equipments get longer and therefore has an indirect effect on the usage of resources for new equipment manufacturing. TPM also reduces the use of cleaning materials and hazardous chemicals, which are harmful to humans and the environment. This maintenance plan will increases return on investment by increasing the productivity. TPM enhances job satisfaction by creating a pleasant work environment and a better employees¶ involvement. TPM overall will lowers maintenance 18

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costs, lowers production costs, reduces accidents and increases customer satisfaction by means of better quality, right quantity and reasonable lead-time. Implement CMMS through TPM programs helps the organization to manage all data, schedule, and history of maintenance systematically. A CMMS is primarily designed to facilitate a shift in emphasis from reactive to preventive maintenance. It achieves this shift by allowing maintenance professional to set up automatic PM work order generation. A CMMS can also provide historical information which is then used to adjust PM system setup over time to minimize repairs that are unnecessary, while still avoiding run-to-failure repairs. As a result, maintenance of the equipment and machines can be done smoothly and prevent any troubles to occur during the maintenance process. In my view there are other factors to consider beyond the basic CMMS functions. This has to do with many of the issues related to effective and efficient. History takes time to collect and mature into useful information. This information can be analyzed to guide and compare against future requirements in areas such as strategic planning, life cycle costing, budgets and resourcing. It is at this point that the benefits of a CMMS are realized and obtained. One of the most important issues is the quality of the implementation process of the CMMS. It is this that has the greatest effect on the efficient collection, maintenance and reporting from a historical database. It pays large returns on the investment to ensure that consultants with a good technical/software background conduct the implementation process. The best thing to do is to choose a CMMS package that is scalable, innovative and constantly being enhanced with the changing needs of the industry. The maintenance monitoring system utilizes modern technology to create a convenient, reliable, and complete maintenance tracking and decision-making system [7]. A CMMS can significantly assist the process of asset preservation and as demonstrated throughout this document, it is an essential part of an organization¶s maintenance. With implementation of CMMS in TPM, the company can plan TPM more effectively and successfully and become a world class manufacturing company.

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3.0 CONCLUSION

TPM has been recognized as an important methodology to improve equipment effectiveness and CMMS is an important metric for TPM adoption. In order to reach manufacturing excellence in a company, the first step is creating Lean thinking. Lean is a culture and is a philosophy for quality improvement. It starts with revolutionizing the minds of employees. TPM is a method and CMMS is software to adopt and manage TPM. Many organizations implement TPM before establishing a Lean thinking. Companies use TPM to increase their productivity and equipment efficiency without trying to motivate the operators to take part in the program actively and voluntarily. The employees regard TPM as just another improvement program, which merely serves targets and strategies of the company. A company should raise employees¶ responsibility and enthusiasm toward their job. This can be achieved by transferring the message through trainings and meetings, stating that everyone has his/her share in success of the company and all the roles are important.

Furthermore, all employees should obtain a common view by understanding targets and goals of the company. The success TPM implementation is highly dependent on the training. Mistake-proofing and problem solving are two competences that are under focus in Lean and TPM and must be highlighted during the training program. It can be concluded that the extent of both the human and process oriented strategies would lead to higher TPM implementation in the organization. However, the impact of human oriented strategy is found to be greater than process-oriented strategy in fostering higher extent of TPM implementation as the changes and adoption in the organization are much more related to human issues. Thus the management has to balance both these strategies in order to achieve the maximal effect of implementation. 4.0 REFERENCES

1. One Yoon Seng, Muhammad Jantan, T. Ramayah (2003) µImplementing Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) in Malaysian Manufacturing Organization: An Operational Strategy Study¶. 20

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10. Ashraf W. Labib (2004) µA Decision Analysis Model for Maintenance Policy Selection

Using CMMS¶ Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering, Vol.10 (3), pp 191-202.

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