'"What Is Art?" (Russian: ? [Chto takoye iskusstvo?]; 1897) is an essay by Leo Tolstoy in which he argues against numerous aesthetic theories which define art in terms of the good, truth, and especially beauty. In Tolstoy's opinion, art at the time was corrupt and decadent, and artists had been misled.
"What is Art?" develops the aesthetical theories that bloomed at the end of the eighteenth century and during the nineteenth century, thus criticizing the realistic position (held since Plato that regarded imitative position as the highest value) and the shallow, existing link between art and pleasure. Tolstoy's addition to previously existing theories that stressed the emotional importance of art pivots on the value of communication-as-infection, which leads him to reject bad or counterfeit art since those are harmful to society inasmuch as they damage the people's ability to separate good art from bad art. Dedicated to Art researchers

According to Tolstoy, art must create a specific emotional link between artist and audience, one that "infects" the viewer. Thus, real art requires the capacity to unite people via communication (clearness and genuineness are therefore crucial values). This aesthetic conception led Tolstoy to widen the criteria of what exactly a work of art is. He believed that the concept of art embraces any human activity in which one emitter, by means of external signs, transmits previously experienced feelings. Tolstoy offers an example of this: a boy that has experienced fear after an encounter with a wolf later relates that experience, infecting the hearers and compelling them to feel the same fear that he had experienced²that is a perfect example of a work of art. As communication, this is good art, because it is clear, it is sincere, and it is singular (focused on one emotion). However, genuine "infection" is not the only criterion for good art. The good art vs. bad art issue unfolds into two directions. One is the conception that the stronger the infection, the better is the art. The other concerns the subject matter that accompanies this infection, which leads Tolstoy to examine whether the emotional link is a feeling that is worth creating. Good art, he claims, fosters feelings of universal brotherhood. Bad art inhibits such feelings. All good art has a Christian message, because only Christianity teaches an absolute brotherhood of all men. However, this is "Christian" only in a limited meaning of the word. Art produced by artistic elites is almost never good, because the upper class has entirely lost the true core of Christianity. Furthermore, Tolstoy also believed that art that appeals to the upper class will feature emotions that are peculiar to the concerns of that class. Another problem with a great deal of art is that it reproduces past models, and so it is not properly rooted in a contemporary and sincere expression of the most enlightened cultural ideals of the artist's time and place. To cite one example, ancient Greek art extolled virtues of strength, masculinity, and heroism according to the values derived from its mythology. However, since Christianity does not embrace these values (and in some sense values the opposite, the meek and humble), Tolstoy believes that it is unfitting for people in his society to continue to embrace the Greek tradition of art.

Among other artists, he specifically condemns Wagner and Beethoven as examples of overly cerebral artists, who lack real emotion. Furthermore, Beethoven's Symphony No. 9 cannot claim to be able to "infect" their audience, as it pretends, with the feeling of unity and therefore cannot be considered good art. Children's songs and folk tales are superior to the work of Wagner and Beethoven.

Art is a human activity consisting in this, that one man consciously, by means of certain external signs, hands on to others feelings he has lived through, and that other people are infected by these feelings and also experience them The feelings with which the artist infects others may be most various - very strong or very weak, very important or very insignificant, very bad or very good: feelings of love for one's own country, selfdevotion and submission to fate or to God expressed in a drama, raptures of lovers described in a novel, feelings of voluptuousness expressed in a picture, courage expressed in a triumphal march, merriment evoked by a dance, humor evoked by a funny story, the feeling of quietness transmitted by an evening landscape or by a lullaby, or the feeling of admiration evoked by a beautiful arabesque - it is all art.

Kind of art

Literary art

People sometimes differentiate between "literature" and some popular forms of written work. The terms "literary fiction" and "literary merit" serve to distinguish between individual works. Critics may exclude works from the classification "literature," for example, on the grounds of bad grammar or syntax, unbelievable or disjointed story, or inconsistent characterization. Sometimes, a work may be excluded based on its prevailing subject or theme: genre fiction such as romances, crime fiction, (mystery), science fiction, horror or fantasy have all been excluded at one time or another from the literary pantheon, and depending on the dominant mode, may or may not come back into vogue.

[edit] History
Main article: History of Literature

Old book bindings at the Merton College, Oxford library. The Epic of Gilgamesh is one of the earliest known literary works. This Babylonian epic poem arises from stories in Sumerian. Although the Sumerian stories are older ( probably dating to at least 2100 B.C.), it was probably composed around 1900 BC. The epic deals with themes of heroism, friendship, loss, and the quest for eternal life. Different historical periods have emphasized various characteristics of literature. Early works often had an overt or covert religious or didactic purpose. Moralizing or prescriptive literature stems from such sources. The exotic nature of romance flourished from the Middle Ages onwards, whereas the Age of Reason manufactured nationalistic epics and philosophical tracts. Romanticism emphasized the popular folk literature and emotive involvement, but gave way in the 19th-century West to a phase of realism and naturalism, investigations into what is real. The 20th century brought demands for symbolism or psychological insight in the delineation and development of character. visual arts The visual arts are art forms that create works which are primarily visual in nature, such as ceramics, drawing, painting, sculpture, printmaking, design, crafts, and often modern visual arts (photography, video, and filmmaking) and architecture. These definitions should not be taken too strictly as many artistic disciplines (performing arts, conceptual art, textile arts) involve aspects of the visual arts as well as arts of other types. Also included within the visual arts[1] are the applied arts[2] such as industrial design, graphic design, fashion design, interior design and decorative art.[3] As indicated above, the current usage of the term "visual arts" includes fine art as well as the applied, decorative arts and crafts, but this was not always the case. Before the Arts and Crafts Movement in Britain and elsewhere at the turn of the 20th century, the term artist was often restricted to a person working in the fine arts (such as painting, sculpture, or printmaking) and not the handicraft, craft, or applied art media. The distinction was emphasized by artists of the Arts and Crafts Movement who valued vernacular art forms as much as high forms.[4] Art schools made a distinction between the fine arts and the crafts maintaining that a craftsperson could not be considered a practitioner of art. The increasing tendency to privilege painting, and to a lesser degree sculpture, above other arts has been a feature of Western art as well as East Asian art. In both regions painting has been seen

as relying to the highest degree on the imagination of the artist, and the furthest removed from manual labour - in Chinese painting the most highly valued styles were those of "scholarpainting", at least in theory practiced by gentleman amateurs. The Western hierarchy of genres reflected similar attitudes. Filmmaking is the process of making a motion-picture, from an initial conception and research, through scriptwriting, shooting and recording, animation or other special effects, editing, sound and music work and finally distribution to an audience; it refers broadly to the creation of all types of films, embracing documentary, strains of theatre and literature in film, and poetic or experimental practices, and is often used to refer to video-based processes as well Performance art Performance art refers largely to a performance which is presented to an audience but which does not seek to present a conventional theatrical play or a formal linear narrative, or which alternately does not seek to depict a set of fictitious characters in formal scripted interactions. It therefore will often include some form of action or spoken word which is a form of direct communication between the artist and audience, rather than a script written beforehand. It often entails a dramatic performer who is directly aware of and in communication with the audience, much the same as a singer or juggler in a concert or variety show might be said to perform directly for an audience, rather than creating a fictitious character who inhabits a fictitious dramatic setting on the stage. Performance art often breaks the fourth wall, meaning that the performance artist does not seek to behave as if unaware of the audience. Some performance art may utilize a script or create a fictitious dramatic setting, but still constitutes performance art in that it does not seek to follow the usual dramatic norm of creating a fictitious setting with a linear script which follows conventional real-world dynamics; rather, it would intentionally seek to satirize or to transcend the usual real-world dynamics which are used in conventional theatrical plays. In this way, the performance work itself partakes of a form of direct communication with the audience, by relying on the audience's familiarity with nominal dramatic premises and norms, in order to go beyond them or circumvent them, even if the characters within the work themselves do not evince such awareness. Although performance art could be said to include relatively mainstream forms of performance such as dance, music, and circus-related things like fire breathing, juggling, and gymnastics, these are normally instead known as the performing arts. Performance art is a term usually reserved to refer to a more conceptual art which conveys a content-based meaning in a more drama-related sense, rather than being simple performance for its own sake for entertainment purposes. Furthermore, performance art can include any type of physical stage performance which is not an exhibition of direct artistry such as theater, music or dance, but rather incorporates satirical or conceptual elements; an example of this is Blue Man Group. In performance art, the actions of an individual or a group at a particular place and in a particular time constitute the work. Performance art can happen anywhere, in any venue or setting and for any length of time. Performance art can be any situation that involves four basic elements: time,

utilizing robots and machines without people. and the sonic qualities of timbre and texture. performance. meter. 510 BC). may also be seen as an offshoot of performance art. In some cases. Medium Sound Originating culture various Originating era Paleolithic Music is an art form whose medium is sound. the free encyclopedia Music A painting on an Ancient Greek vase depicts a music lesson (ca. the performer's body and a relationship between performer and audience. and articulation).space. Common elements of music are pitch (which governs melody and harmony). rhythm (and its associated concepts tempo. The word derives from Greek (mousike). dynamics. but works like Survival Research Laboratories' pieces. Music Music From Wikipedia. Music ranges from strictly organized compositions (and their . Performance art traditionally involves the artist and other actors. "(art) of the Muses.the audience unwittingly becomes part of that performance. and even the definition of music vary according to culture and social context. significance."[1] The creation.

through improvisational music to aleatoric forms. Music can be divided into genres and subgenres. "There is no noise.[6] The Hurrian song. 20th-century composer John Cage thought that any sound can be music. By all accounts there is no single and intercultural universal concept defining what music might be. The Divje Babe flute."[3] History Main article: History of music Prehistoric eras Main article: Prehistoric music Prehistoric music can only be theorized based on findings from paleolithic archaeology sites. carved from bones in which lateral holes have been pierced.. References in the Bible Main article: History of music in the biblical period . and occasionally controversial. Flutes are often discovered. post-modern viewpoint: "The border between music and noise is always culturally defined²which implies that. found on clay tablets that date back to the approximately 1400 BC. saying. a fine art. is the oldest surviving notated work of music. and auditory art. only sound.[4] India has one of the oldest musical traditions in the world²references to Indian classical music (marga) can be found in the ancient scriptures of the Hindu tradition. is thought to be at least 40." music may be classified as a performing art. the Vedas.000 years old. there is rarely a consensus . Within "the arts. sometimes open to individual interpretation. However. There is also a strong connection between music and mathematics. for example. To many people in many cultures music is an important part of their way of life. carved from a cave bear femur. Instruments. these are thought to have been blown at one end like the Japanese shakuhachi.[5] The earliest and largest collection of prehistoric musical instruments was found in China and dates back to between 7000 and 6600 BC. although the dividing lines and relationships between music genres are often subtle. such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus Valley Civilization archaeological sites."[2] Musicologist Jean-Jacques Nattiez summarizes the relativist. Common sayings such as "the harmony of the spheres" and "it is music to my ears" point to the notion that music is often ordered and pleasant to listen to. even within a single society.. Greek philosophers and ancient Indian philosophers defined music as tones ordered horizontally as melodies and vertically as harmonies. in short. this border does not always pass through the same place.recreation in performance).

He . the Arab scholar alFarabi wrote a book on music titled Kitab al-Musiqi al-Kabir ("Great Book of Music"). 960. a sudden and unexplained upsurge of large choirs and orchestras. was not restricted to a priestly class which is how the shepherd boy David appears on the scene as a minstrel to King Saul.[8] In the 9th century.21 identifies Jubal as the father of all such as handle the harp and pipe. have also discovered common links between theatrical and musical activity in the classical cultures of the Hebrews with those of the later cultures of the Greeks and Romans. This has led some scholars to believe that the prophet Samuel was the patriarch of a school. One finds in the biblical text. perhaps the earliest in recorded history. c. which would be virtually inconceivable without lengthy. "Hebrew litany was accompanied by a rich musical tradition:"[7] "While Genesis 4. The common area of performance is found in a "social phenomenon called litany. in I Samuel 10 and the texts that follow."David with his harp" Paris Psalter. musicians and singers had a prominent role in ancient Greek theater." a form of prayer consisting of a series of invocations or supplications. a curious thing happens. but also sacred-rite musicians. celebration and spiritual ceremonies. the Pentateuch is nearly silent about the practice and instruction of music in the early life of Israel."[7] Antiquity Music was an important part of cultural and social life in Ancient Greece: mixed-gender choruses performed for entertainment. consisting of thoroughly organized and trained musical groups. The Journal of Religion and Theatre notes that among the earliest forms of litany. methodical preparation. Then. This public music school. Constantinople Music and theatre scholars studying the history and anthropology of Semitic and early JudeoChristian culture. writes Alfred Sendrey. which taught not only prophets and holy men.

by Filippino Lippi The era of Baroque music (1600±1750) began when the first operas were written and when contrapuntal music became prevalent. Pérotin and Guillaume de Machaut. the invention. the central tradition of which was called Gregorian chant. and the concerto. especially the special kind called a kithara. During the Baroque period. the lyre. Greek musical literacy created a flowering of development. several major music forms were defined that lasted into later periods when they were expanded and evolved further. The introduction of commercial printing helped to disseminate musical styles more quickly and across a larger area. Thomas Morley and Orlande de Lassus. German Baroque composers wrote for small ensembles including strings. eventually became the basis for Western religious music and classical music. composers and singers used a smooth polyphony for sacred musical compositions. Instruments included the double-reed aulos and the plucked string instrument. Music was an important part of education in ancient Greece. the only European repertory that survives from before about 800 is the monophonic liturgical plainsong of the Roman Catholic Church. mixedgender choruses performed for entertainment. brass. and clavichord. Eastern Europe and the Byzantine Empire changed Greek music. Allegory of Music. Later. The music of the Classical period (1750± . as well as choirs. Prominent composers from this era are Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina. harpsichord. Alongside these traditions of sacred and church music there existed a vibrant tradition of secular song.[9] Western cultures The music of Greece was a major part of ancient Greek theater. Examples of composers from this period are Léonin. including the fugue. and woodwinds. celebration and spiritual reasons. and boys were taught music starting at age six. From the Renaissance music era (1400± 1600). the sonata. In Ancient Greece.[10] Composers from the Baroque era include Johann Sebastian Bach. pipe organ. During the Medieval music era (500±1400). George Frideric Handel and Georg Philipp Telemann. much of the surviving music of 14th century Europe is secular. Greek music theory included the Greek musical modes. which is still used in Arabic music. By the middle of the 15th century.played and invented a variety of musical instruments and devised the Arab tone system of pitch organisation. influences from the Roman Empire.

Asian music covers the music cultures of Arabia. the traditional art or court music of China. There are a lot of songs emphasising love and other social issues. the science and art of music. See also: Music of Iran. expressive style. having a scale of twelve notes to an octave (5 + 7 = 12) as does European-influenced music. the symphony. Persian music is the music of Persia and Persian language countries: musiqi. The now popular instrumental music was dominated by further evolution of musical forms initially defined in the Baroque period: the sonata. In Beethoven's case. and the emotional and expressive qualities of music came to take precedence over technique and tradition.[11] The Indus Valley civilization has sculptures that show dance[12] and old musical instruments. and functions of music were developed. It has its own unique systems of musical notation. musical instruments and styles or musical genres. and based on a single melody line or raga rhythmically organized through talas. These new melodies tended to be almost voice-like and singable. The late 19th century saw a dramatic expansion in the size of the orchestra. Hindustani music was influenced by the Persian performance practices of the Afghan Mughals.[13] The Rigveda has elements of present Indian music. Music of Tajikistan. During this era. with the addition of the new form. the sound and performance of music (Sakata 1983). like the seven holed flute. Central Asia. 20th and 21st century music Main article: 20th century music . motifs (developed organically) came to replace melody as the most significant compositional unit. with Ludwig van Beethoven and Franz Schubert as transitional composers who introduced a more dramatic. and the concerto. often featuring a prominent melody with accompaniment. has a history stretching over around three thousand years. with a musical notation to denote the metre and the mode of chanting.1800) is characterized by homophonic texture.[14] Indian classical music (marga) is monophonic. Carnatic music popular in the southern states. the majority of the songs are addressed to the Hindu deities. as well as musical tuning and pitch. Chinese classical music. East Asia. and Southeast Asia. and muzik. South Asia. Chinese music is pentatonic-diatonic. Classical music Indian classical music is one of the oldest musical traditions in the world. In 1800. is largely devotional. the Romantic era (1800±1890s) in music developed. Joseph Haydn and Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart are among the central figures of the Classical period. Later Romantic composers such as Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Gustav Mahler created complex and often much longer musical works. and in the role of concerts as part of urban society. Music of Uzbekistan. Music of Afghanistan. They used more complex chords and used more dissonance to create dramatic tension. Various types of stringed instruments and drums have been recovered from Harrappa and Mohenjo Daro by excavations carried out by Sir Mortimer Wheeler. existing genres. forms.

Performance Main article: Performance . since the 1970s. The sound of rock often revolves around the electric guitar or acoustic guitar. rock music branched out into different subgenres.Double bassist Reggie Workman. Along with the guitar or keyboards. as well as the more classical influenced genre of progressive rock and several types of experimental rock genres. and it uses a strong back beat laid down by a rhythm section of electric bass guitar. ranging from blues rock and jazzrock fusion to heavy metal and punk rock. including the acousmatic [15] and Musique concrète schools of electronic composition. and the swung note. improvisation. The invention of sound recording and the ability to edit music gave rise to new sub-genre of classical music. ranging from New Orleans Dixieland (1910s) to 1970s and 1980s-era jazz-rock fusion. Jazz evolved and became a significant genre of music over the course of the 20th century. Arnold Schoenberg. jazz has also incorporated music from 19th and 20th century American popular music. piano. and keyboard instruments such as organ."[18] In the late 1960s and early 1970s. and during the second half of that century. and a catchy melody.[16] From its early development until the present. The focus of art music was characterized by exploration of new rhythms. blues. rockabilly. analog synthesizers and digital ones and computers since the 1990s. drums. tenor saxophone player Pharoah Sanders. from its early 20th century inception." it "has three chords. a strong. Rock music is a genre of popular music that developed in the 1960s from 1950s rock and roll.[17] Jazz has. syncopation. The style's West African pedigree is evident in its use of blue notes. there was a vast increase in music listening as the radio gained popularity and phonographs were used to replay and distribute music. rock music did the same. and sounds. spawned a variety of subgenres. and country music. insistent back beat. Igor Stravinsky. and drummer Idris Muhammad performing in 1978 With 20th century music. polyrhythms. Jazz is an American musical art form that originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States from a confluence of African and European music traditions. saxophone and blues-style harmonica are used as soloing instruments. styles. In its "purest form. and John Cage were all influential composers in 20th century art music. or.

" Different musical traditions have different attitudes towards how and where to make changes to the original source material. Musicians will sometimes add improvisation to a well-rehearsed idea to create a unique performance. Often. while rehearsal is vigorous repetition of an idea until it has achieved cohesion. is often seen as more intimate than symphonic works. Aural tradition Many types of music. and the songs were handed down orally. and in the Western Art music tradition. such as in Bali. music festivals or music competitions. include strong traditions of group performance. All cultures include a mixture of both. such as in Indian classical music. such as traditional blues and folk music were originally preserved in the memory of performers. When the composer of music is no longer known. A performance can either be rehearsed or improvised. Many cultures include strong traditions of solo and performance. which is music for a small ensemble with only a few of each type of instrument. Improvisation is a musical idea created without premeditation. a musical work is performed once its structure and instrumentation are satisfactory to its creators. from quite strict. and performance may range from improvised solo playing for one's enjoyment to highly planned and organised performance rituals such as the modern classical concert. however. Ornamentation Main article: Ornament (music) . Chamber music. A culture's history may also be passed by ear through song. or aurally (by ear).Chinese Naxi musicians Performance is the physical expression of music. religious processions. Other cultures. to those that demand improvisation or modification to the music. it can evolve and change. this music is often classified as "traditional. as it gets performed.

broadcasting or film production companies. churches and synagogues. The detail included explicitly in the music notation varies between genres and historical periods. In general. For example. and music schools. For example. In the 19th century. art music for solo performers may give a general instruction such as to perform the music expressively. without describing in detail how the performer should do this. The performer was expected to know how to use tempo changes. . this sign indicates that the musician should perform a trill a rapid alternation between two notes. ranging from aesthetic pleasure. or performance approach.In a score or on a performer's music part. such as trills and turns. musicians and singers are expected to know the performance conventions and styles associated with specific genres and pieces. art music notation from the 17th through the 19th century required performers to have a great deal of contextual knowledge about performing styles. Professional musicians sometimes work as freelancers. the "lead sheet" for a jazz tune may only indicate the melody and the chord changes. accentuation. However. Professional musicians are employed by a range of institutions and organisations. or as an entertainment product for the marketplace. music notated for solo performers typically indicated a simple. art music notation often became more explicit and used a range of markings and annotations to indicate to performers how they should play or sing the piece. in the 17th and 18th century. The performers in the jazz ensemble are expected to know how to "flesh out" this basic structure by adding ornaments. and they do not derive their income from music. performers were expected to know how to add stylistically appropriate ornaments. and pauses (among other devices) to obtain this "expressive" performance style. unadorned melody. symphony orchestras. improvised music. religious or ceremonial purposes. In popular music and jazz. Amateur musicians compose and perform music for their own pleasure. including armed forces. harmony. In the 20th century. music notation almost always indicates only the basic framework of the melody. seeking contracts and engagements in a variety of settings. Production Main article: Music production Jean-Gabriel Ferlan performing at a 2008 concert at the collège-lycée Saint-François Xavier Music is composed and performed for many purposes. and chordal accompaniment.

A distinction is often made between music performed for the benefit of a live audience and music that is performed for the purpose of being recorded and distributed through the music retail system or the broadcasting system. Beginning amateur musicians take lessons with professional musicians. such as jazz and blues. amateur musicians attain a professional level of competence. Composition does not always mean the use of notation. or an aspect of music that is not clear. However. and therefore has a "standard" interpretation. Examples of this range from wind chimes. whereas interpretation is generally used to mean either individual choices of a performer.. The process of a performer deciding how to perform music that has been previously composed and notated is termed interpretation. advanced amateur musicians perform with professional musicians in a variety of ensembles and orchestras. even more freedom is given to the performer to engage in improvisation on a basic melodic. which is material that is spontaneously "thought of" (imagined) while being performed. or rhythmic framework. not preconceived. Composers and song writers who present their own music are interpreting. there are also many cases where a live performance in front of an audience is recorded and distributed (or broadcast). and they are able to perform in professional performance settings. Music can also be determined by describing a "process" that creates musical sounds.e. Composition Main article: Musical composition An old songbook showing a composition "Composition" is often classed as the creation and recording of music via a medium by which others can interpret it (i. In some musical genres. Many cultures use at least part of the concept of preconceiving musical material. or the known sole authorship of one individual. The greatest latitude is given to the performer in a style of performing called free improvisation. In some cases. harmonic. Even when music is notated precisely. there are still many decisions that a performer has to make. The standard body of choices and techniques present at a given time and a given place is referred to as performance practice. In community settings. just as much as those who perform the music of others or folk music. Improvised music usually follows stylistic or genre conventions and even "fully composed" includes some freely chosen material. as held in western classical music. Different performers' interpretations of the same music can vary widely. through . paper or sound).There are often many links between amateur and professional musicians. or composition.

the standard musical notation is the lead sheet. which indicates the location of the notes to be played on the instrument . occurs within some kind of time. hymn-style) arrangement of a traditional piece entitled Adeste Fideles. along with instructions on how to perform the music. In Western Art music. the pitches and rhythm of the music is notated. an Italian expression that indicates that the tempo of the piece changes to suit the expressive intent of the performer. from a written system of musical notation. it is considered to be in rubato time. which notates the melody. An understanding of music's formal elements can be helpful in deciphering exactly how a piece is constructed. and is associated with such composers as John Cage. which are the music notation for the individual performers or singers. The music can be performed entirely from memory. and parts. and thus employs time as a musical element." In popular music. Morton Feldman. or some combination of both. guitarists and electric bass players often read music notated in tablature (often abbreviated as "tab"). Study of composition has traditionally been dominated by examination of methods and practice of Western classical music. chords. but the definition of composition is broad enough to include spontaneously improvised works like those of free jazz performers and African drummers such as the Ewe drummers. Even random placement of random sounds. When music is written down. which include all the music parts of an ensemble piece. Music from random elements is called Aleatoric music. This is a homorhythmic (i.e. In popular music. particularly in large ensembles such as jazz "big bands. Music can be composed for repeated performance or it can be improvised: composed on the spot. and in some cases an understanding of historical performance programs that select sounds. When a piece appears to have a changing time-feel. the study of performance practice. which is referred to as the rhythm of a piece of music. and structure of the music. and Witold Lutos awski. the most common types of written notation are scores. What is important in understanding the composition of a piece is singling out its elements. Scores and parts are also used in popular music and jazz. jazz. The study of how to read notation involves music theory. Notation is the written expression of music notes and rhythms on paper using symbols. harmony.. Written notation varies with style and period of music. lyrics (if it is a vocal piece). in standard two-staff format for mixed voices. A universal element of music is how sounds occur in time. and blues. which occurs in musical montage. Notation Main article: Musical notation Sheet music is written representation of music.

form. a stringed. or monody. human physiology. Improvisation is a major part of some types of music. A melody is a series of notes sounding in succession. although harmony can also be implied by a melody that outlines a harmonic structure. solo performers and singers improvised virtuoso cadenzas during concerts. and texture. These are. structure. Improvisation is often considered an act of instantaneous composition by performers.using a diagram of the guitar or bass fingerboard. Broadly. The notes of a melody are typically created with respect to pitch systems such as scales or modes. expressive qualities (dynamics and articulation). usually this means at the same time. jazz. allocation of voices. Notated music is produced as sheet music. belief. In the Western art music tradition. improvisation was an important skill during the Baroque era and during the Classical era. Pitch is a subjective sensation. heterophony. harmony (harmonic function). . beat or pulse. Vertical sonority refers to considering the relationships between pitches that occur together. rhythm. homophony. the key of a piece determines the scale used. Some have applied acoustics. melody. In a grand sense. timbre or color. and form or structure. or conception of or about music. music theory distills and analyzes the parameters or elements of music ± rhythm. Musical texture is the overall sound of a piece of music commonly described according to the number of and relationship between parts or lines of music: monophony. music theory may include any statement. To perform music from notation requires an understanding of both the rhythmic and pitch elements embodied in the symbols and the performance practice that is associated with a piece of music or a genre. but are not limited to: pitch. In music written using the system of major-minor tonality. such as blues. melody.[19] People who study these properties are known as music theorists. improvisation played a smaller role in Western Art music. Theory Main article: Music theory Music theory encompasses the nature and mechanics of music. However. reflecting generally the lowness or highness of a sound. Music has many different fundamentals or elements. fretted instrument. polyphony. called measures or bars. and jazz fusion. Western music theory generally divides the octave into a series of 12 notes that might be included in a piece of music. texture. Meter animates time in regular pulse groupings. in which instrumental performers improvise solos and melody lines. Harmony is the study of vertical sonorities in music. and psychology to the explanation of how and why music is perceived. Tabulature was also used in the Baroque era to notate music for the lute. in the 20th and 21st century. harmony. Improvisation Musical improvisation is the creation of spontaneous music. Notes can be arranged into different scales and modes. It often involves identifying patterns that govern composers' techniques and examining the language and notation of music. Rhythm is the arrangement of sounds and silences in time. where compositional techniques are employed with or without preparation.

This is relevant because it indicates that music is a deeper cognitive process than unexamined phrases such as. Recent examples of deaf musicians include Evelyn Glennie. and a harpsichordist perform in Salzburg The field of music cognition involves the study of many aspects of music including how it is processed by listeners. who composed many famous works even after he had completely lost his hearing. theme and variations. yet are vastly intricate and complex. Analysis is the effort to describe and explain music. strophic. and performing music as a given. and Chris Buck. Popular Music often makes use of strophic form often in conjunction with Twelve bar blues. Examples of common forms of Western music include the fugue. Rather than accepting the standard practices of analyzing.[20] Expressive Qualities are those elements in music that create change in music that are not related to pitch. composing. a flautist. They include Dynamics and Articulation. canon. and emotional responses to music are also major areas of research in the field. A well-known deaf musician is the composer Ludwig van Beethoven. Deaf people can experience music by feeling the vibrations in their body. sometimes called "Color" or "Tone Color" is the quality or sound of a voice or instrument. and rondo. . a highly acclaimed percussionist who has been deaf since age twelve. sonata-allegro. a virtuoso violinist who has lost his hearing. on a local and global level. a process that can be enhanced if the individual holds a resonant. Cognition Further information: Hearing (sense) and Psychoacoustics A chamber music group consisting of stringed instrument players. Also. Questions regarding musical innateness.Timbre. research in the field seeks to uncover commonalities between the musical traditions of disparate cultures and possible cognitive "constraints" that limit these musical systems. "pleasing to the ear" suggests. much research in music cognition seeks instead to uncover the mental processes that underlie these practices. Form is a facet of music theory that explores the concept of musical syntax. hollow object. which may seem intuitively simple. Much research in music cognition seeks to uncover these complex mental processes involved in listening to music. rhythm or timbre. the invention.

and express themselves by cheering. punk. dance. Musical performances take different forms in different cultures and socioeconomic milieus. concertos. and electronica have all been considered non-music by some critics when they were first introduced. in the 1980s and 1990s. there is often a divide between what types of music are viewed as a "high culture" and "low culture. or venue where non-"art" music is performed may have a lower socioeconomic status.[citation needed] For example. audience. Even though the performers. and theatres.[citation needed] Such themes are examined in the sociology of music. they argued that this distinction was based largely on the socioeconomics standing or social class of the performers or audience of the different types of music. bebop-era jazz. Stravinsky ballet scores. blues. or music. sometimes called sociomusicology. punk rock. there can be a strong resistance from academic music experts and popular culture. the music that is performed. serialism. rap. with the audience sitting quietly in seats. whereas the audience for Classical symphony concerts typically have above-average incomes. Late-period Beethoven string quartets.Sociology This Song Dynasty (960 1279) painting. or ska may be very complex and sophisticated.[citation needed] Rather. such as blues. However. and are typically heard in formal concerts in concert halls and churches. is often pursued in departments of sociology. where the audience may be able to drink. musicologists studying this perceived divide between "high" and "low" musical genres argued that this distinction is not based on the musical value or quality of the different types of music. Music is experienced by individuals in a range of social settings ranging from being alone to attending a large concert. jazz. hip hop. When composers introduce styles of music that break with convention. entitled the "Night Revels of Han Xizai. but not limited to. and country²are often performed in bars. and solo works. media studies. and is closely related to the field of ethnomusicology. The sociological study of music. soul. and modern-era symphonies. Romantic. the audience for a rap concert in an inner-city area may have below-average incomes. Classical. In Europe and North America. nightclubs." shows Chinese musicians entertaining guests at a party in a 10th century household. more advanced "art music" from the popular styles of music heard in bars and dance halls. Until the later 20th century. funk." "High culture" types of music typically include Western art music such as Baroque. the division between "high" and "low" musical forms was widely accepted as a valid distinction that separated out better quality. Other types of music²including. .

Some musical styles focus on producing a sound for a performance. In many cultures. composers. even of essentially live styles. and the 1979 revised Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works in the United Kingdom." Recording. in the presence. or as one of the musicians. In industrialized . since virtually everyone is involved in some sort of musical activity. while others focus on producing a recording that mixes together sounds that were never played "live. an increasing number of moviehouse orchestra musicians found themselves out of work. including the Audio Home Recording Act of 1992 in the United States. a digital medium. the most traditional way is to hear it live. often uses the ability to edit and splice to produce recordings considered better than the actual performance. recordings and live performances have also become more accessible through computers. One 1929 ad that appeared in the Pittsburgh Press features an image of a can labeled "Canned Music / Big Noise Brand / Guaranteed to Produce No Intellectual or Emotional Reaction Whatever"[23] Since legislation introduced to help protect performers. which are both analog sound storage mediums. there is less distinction between performing and listening to music. and a CD (above). Live music can also be broadcast over the radio. The American Federation of Musicians (AFM) took out newspaper advertisements protesting the replacement of live musicians with mechanical playing devices. with their prerecorded musical tracks.[21] During the 1920s live musical performances by orchestras. The music that composers make can be heard through several media. television or the Internet. often communal. As talking pictures emerged in the early 20th century.Media and technology Further information: Computer music A 12-inch (30-cm) 331 3 rpm record (left).[22] With the coming of the talking motion pictures. publishers and producers. devices and Internet in a form that is commonly known as Music-On-Demand. those featured performances were largely eliminated. pianists. a 7-inch 45 rpm record (right). and theater organists were common at first-run theaters.

no longer only download and listen to MP3s.[25] Business Main article: Music industry The music industry refers to the business industry connected with the creation and sale of music. became more common than experiencing live performance. YouTube also has a large community of both amateur and professional musicians who post videos and comments. roughly in the middle of the 20th century. listening to music through a recorded form. YouTube users. a disc jockey uses disc records for scratching. It consists of record companies. MySpace has made social networking with other musicians easier. a consumer who both creates and consumes. Some music labels are "independent. It has thus become economically viable to offer products that very few people are interested in. and the creation of thousands of niche markets. suggests that while the economic model of supply and demand describes scarcity. and greatly facilitates the distribution of one's music. Manifestations of this in music include the production of mashes. For example. Sometimes. for example. there has been a shift from a traditional consumer role to what they call a "prosumer" role.countries. In the 2000s. such as sound recording or watching a music video. an activity of Japanese origin centered on a device that plays voice-eliminated versions of well-known songs. labels and publishers that distribute recorded music products internationally and that often control the rights to those products. performers can follow the lyrics as they sing over the instrumental tracks. Internet The advent of the Internet has transformed the experience of music. in his book The Long Tail: Why the Future of Business is Selling Less of More. Williams. or computers. partly through the increased ease of access to music and the increased choice. so a company can afford to make its whole inventory available online.[citation needed] Professional musicians also use YouTube as a free publisher of promotional material. in their book Wikinomics. Many smaller ." while others are subsidiaries of larger corporate entities or international media groups. Computers and many keyboards can be programmed to produce and play Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) music. Digital storage costs are low. Audiences can also become performers by participating in karaoke. and of trading music on file sharing sites or buying it online in the form of digital files had a major impact on the traditional music business. Most karaoke machines also have video screens that show lyrics to songs being performed. remixes. Consumers' growing awareness of their increased choice results in a closer association between listening tastes and social identity. the increasing popularity of listening to music as digital music files on MP3 players. According to Don Tapscott and Anthony D.[24] Another effect of the Internet arises with online communities like YouTube and MySpace. giving customers as much choice as possible. and some 20th century works have a solo for an instrument or voice that is performed along with music that is prerecorded onto a tape. but also actively create their own. iPods. and music videos by fans. the Internet retail model is based on abundance. Chris Anderson. live performances incorporate prerecorded sounds.

listening. and in some school systems. most North American and European universities have some type of musical ensembles that non-music students are able to participate in. or orchestras. At the university level. such as choirs. and learn about the history of Western art music. In secondary schools students may have the opportunity to perform some type of musical ensembles. improving the ability to recall intermediate-level musical techniques. Some students also take private music lessons with a teacher. an online store that sells digital files of songs over the Internet. and creating an environment more conducive to learning in other areas. Amateur musicians typically take lessons to learn musical rudiments and beginner. Some companies did well with the change to a digital format. jazz bands. such as the Indonesian Institute of the Arts in Yogyakarta. music classes may be available. counting. such as Apple's iTunes. The study of Western art music is increasingly common outside of North America and Europe. such as choirs. children often learn to play instruments such as the recorder. The incorporation of music training from preschool to post secondary education is common in North America and Europe.independent CD stores went out of business as music buyers decreased their purchases of CDs. and cooperation while also promoting understanding of language.[26] In elementary schools. sing in small choirs. Involvement in music is thought to teach basic skills such as concentration. Education Non-professional Main article: Music education A Suzuki violin recital with students of varying ages. though. marching bands. concert bands. marching bands. students in most arts and humanities programs can receive credit for taking music courses. or orchestras. or a music appreciation course that focuses on listening to music and learning about different musical styles. which typically take the form of an overview course on the history of music. . and many labels had lower CD sales. In addition.

and the cultural study of music. and comparative musicology or ethnomusicology. in musicology or music theory). or DMA. for example in the field of psychoacoustics. Western universities and colleges are widening their curriculum to include music of non-Western cultures. Graduates of undergraduate music programs can go on to further study in music graduate programs. during which time the student will complete advanced courses and undertake research for a dissertation. is typically awarded to students studying musicology. or the musical aspects of sounds produced by non-human animals. voice or composition. the study of music was one of the Quadrivium of the seven Liberal Arts and considered vital to higher learning. the Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) (e. The DMA is a relatively new degree that was created to provide a credential for professional performers or composers that want to work as university professors in musical performance or composition. Within the quantitative Quadrivium. Research in musicology has often been enriched by cross-disciplinary work. was the study of rational proportions. ou les Dauphins d'Arion (1983).Mus. The Master of Music degree. music history. Zoomusicology is the study of the music of non-human animals. which takes one to two years to complete.g. takes three to five years of study after the Master's degree. The Master of Arts degree. including the Bachelor of Music. The PhD. and performances. At the same time. and China. Academia Musicology is the study of the subject of music. including a B. or music theory. ethnomusicology. which takes one to two years to complete and often requires a thesis.. in Music History and Literature. musique. is typically awarded to students studying the performance of an instrument. or a B. or music theory. with Honors in Music. music.A. These degrees provide students with a grounding in music theory and music history. education. and more recently. which is required for students who want to work as university professors in musicology. or the classical music programs that are available in Asian countries such as South Korea. such as the music of Africa or Bali (e.A. nature. Students can pursue the undergraduate study of musicology. or more accurately harmonics. "do animals have music?" François-Bernard Mâche's Musique. and the Bachelor of Arts (with a major in music) typically take three to five years to complete. As George Herzog (1941) asked. a study of "ornitho-musicology" using a technique of Nicolas Ruwet's Language. and music theory through several different types of degrees. the Master of Arts. projects. the Doctor of Musical Arts. music history. a B. Gamelan music). Japan. and includes advanced courses.g. The DMA takes three to five years after a Master's degree. a B. and many students also study an instrument or learn singing technique as part of their program.Indonesia. The study of music of non-western cultures. with concentration in music. one is more likely to encounter a division of the discipline into music theory. Graduate degrees include the Master of Music. music history. Undergraduate university degrees in music. poésie (1972) .A. In contemporary scholarship. music history. In Medieval times. The earliest definitions defined three subdisciplines: systematic musicology. historical musicology. is called ethnomusicology. the Bachelor of Music Education. mythe. and ethnomusicology.

but by the mind that perceives it. Jean-Jacques Nattiez (1990). is devoted to the analysis and synthesis of music materials. shows that bird songs are organised according to a repetition-transformation principle. then music is uniquely human. first applied to atonal music. Speculative music theory. This includes the documented classical traditions of Asian countries outside the influence of Western Europe.paradigmatic segmentation analysis. generally as preparation for composition. even of music of the common practice period. much of the history of music that is taught deals with the Western civilization's art music." Music theory is the study of music. for example tuning systems. may take many other forms. Theory. Ethnomusicology Main article: Ethnomusicology Ethnomusicologist Frances Densmore recording Blackfoot chief Mountain Chief for the Bureau of American Ethnology (1916) Ethnomusicology In the West. More broadly it refers to any study of music. it is a human being who decides what is and is not musical. usually related in some form with compositional concerns. If we acknowledge that sound is not organised and conceptualised (that is. and from . as well as the folk or indigenous music of various other cultures. What is most commonly taught in beginning music theory classes are guidelines to write in the style of the common practice period. or tonal music. The history of music in other cultures ("world music" or the field of "ethnomusicology") is also taught in Western universities. physics. and may include mathematics. Musical set theory is the application of mathematical set theory to music. even when the sound is not of human origin. Popular styles of music varied widely from culture to culture. contrasted with analytic music theory. made to form music) merely by its producer. and anthropology. generally in a highly technical manner outside of other disciplines. argues that "in the last analysis.

As world cultures have come into greater contact. as well as internationally (especially since the 1960s). Indian music. a Rhodian fiddler. or techniques.[28] He noted that music has an "excellent power . and spiritual²to help clients to improve or maintain their health. There is a host of music classifications..a lover more enamoured. Among the largest of these is the division between classical music (or "art" music). Music therapy Main article: Music therapy Music therapy is an interpersonal process in which the therapist uses music and all of its facets² physical. One of the earliest mentions of Music Therapy was in Al-Farabi's (c.. and for practical and artistic communication. social. the United States bluegrass style contains elements from Anglo-Irish. physical handicaps. For example. Canus. (such as folk music. Many current music festivals celebrate a particular musical genre. country music. It is also used to: improve learning. and is still widely heard and performed in South Asia. the scholar Robert Burton's The Anatomy of Melancholy argued that music and dance were critical in treating mental illness. in others they are addressed through the relationships that develop between the client and therapist. mental. are claimed by both jazz and classical music. and popular music (or commercial music ± including rock music. It has also a large repertoire of styles. Scottish. their indigenous musical styles have often merged into new styles. Music has been used not only for entertainment." [29][30][31] In . Irish. Carnatic. used music to "make a melancholy man merry. 872 ± 950) treatise Meanings of the Intellect. and facilitate a host of other health-related activities. substance abuse. world music. Hindustani. build self-esteem. emotional. . and Dhrupad styles. Music therapy is used with individuals of all ages and with a variety of conditions. Some genres do not fit neatly into one of these "big two" classifications. Different cultures emphasised different instruments. many of which are caught up in the argument over the definition of music. for example. developmental disabilities. medical problems. or uses for music.. is one of the oldest and longest living types of music. and aging.period to period. Indian music has mainly three forms of classical music. which described the therapeutic effects of music on the soul. In the 17th century. while Gershwin's Porgy and Bess and Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story are claimed by both opera and the Broadway musical tradition. which were able to fuse in the United States' multi-ethnic society. including: psychiatric disorders." He pointed out that in Antiquity. which involve only percussion music such as the talavadya performances famous in South India. but also for expel many other diseases" and he called it "a sovereign remedy against despair and melancholy. sensory impairments. In some instances. German and African instrumental and vocal traditions.[27] Music has long been used to help people deal with their emotions.. or jazz music). and pop music). communication disorders. aesthetic. the client's needs are addressed directly through music. Some works. Genres of music are determined as much by tradition and presentation as by the actual music. like George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue. support physical exercise. interpersonal problems. a religious man more devout. for ceremonies. especially melancholia. reduce stress.

November 2006, Dr. Michael J. Crawford[32] and his colleagues also found that music therapy helped schizophrenic patients.[33] In the Ottoman Empire, mental illnesses were treated with music.[34]

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation, search This article is about the dance form. For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation).

Painting of ballet dancers by Edgar Degas, 1872.

Ballet is a formalized kind of performance dance, which originated in the Italian Renaissance courts of the 15th century, and which was further developed in France, England, and Russia as a concert dance form. The early portions preceded the invention of the proscenium stage and were presented in large chambers with most of the audience seated on tiers or galleries on three sides of the dancing floor. It has since become a highly technical form of dance with its own vocabulary. It is primarily performed with the accompaniment of classical music and has been influential as a form of dance globally. Ballet has been taught in ballet schools around the world, which use their own cultures and societies to inform the art. Ballet dance works (ballets) are choreographed and performed by trained artists, include mime and acting, and are set to music (usually orchestral but occasionally vocal). It is a poised style of dance that incorporates the foundational techniques for many other dance forms. This genre of dance is very hard to master and requires much practice. It is best known in the form of Late Romantic Ballet or Ballet Blanc, which preoccupies itself with the female dancer to the exclusion of almost all else, focusing on pointe work, flowing, precise acrobatic movements, and often presenting the dancers in the conventional short white French tutu. Later developments include expressionist ballet, Neoclassical ballet, and elements of Modern dance.

y y y y y y y y y

1 Etymology 2 History 3 Classical ballet 4 Neoclassical ballet 5 Contemporary ballet 6 Gallery 7 See also 8 References 9 External links

[edit] Etymology
The word ballet comes from the French and was borrowed into English around 1630. The French word in turn has its origin in Italian balletto, a diminutive of ballo (dance) which comes from Latin ballo, ballare, meaning "to dance",[1][2] which in turn comes from the Greek " " (ballizo), "to dance, to jump about".[3][4]

[edit] History
Main article: History of ballet

Harlequin and Columbina from the mime theater at Tivoli Gardens, Copenhagen, Denmark.

Ballet emerged in the late fifteenth-century Renaissance court culture of Italy as a dance interpretation of fencing, and further developed in the French court from the time of Louis XIV

in the 17th century. This is reflected in the largely French vocabulary of ballet. Despite the great reforms of Noverre in the eighteenth century, ballet went into decline in France after 1830, though it was continued in Denmark, Italy, and Russia. It was reintroduced to western Europe on the eve of the First World War by a Russian company: the Ballets Russes of Sergei Diaghilev, who came to be influential around the world. Diaghilev's company came to be a destination for many of the Russian trained dancers fleeing the famine and unrest that followed the Bolshevik revolution. These dancers brought many of the choreographic and stylistic innovations that had been flourishing under the czars back to their place of origin. In the 20th century, ballet continued to develop and has had a strong influence on broader concert dance. For example, in the United States, choreographer George Balanchine developed what is now known as neoclassical ballet. Subsequent developments now include contemporary ballet and post-structural ballet, seen in the work of William Forsythe in Germany.

[edit] Classical ballet
Main article: Classical ballet

Classical ballet is the most methodical of the ballet styles; it adheres to traditional ballet technique. There are variations relating to area of origin, such as Russian ballet, French ballet, Danish Bournonville ballet and Italian ballet, although most ballet of the last two centuries is ultimately founded on the teachings of Blasis. The most well-known styles of ballet are the Russian Method, the Italian Method, the Danish Method, the Balanchine Method or New York City Ballet Method, and the Royal Academy of Dance and Royal Ballet School methods, derived from the Cecchetti method, created in England. The first pointe shoes were actually regular ballet slippers that were heavily darned at the tip. It would allow the girl to briefly stand on her toes to appear weightless. It was later converted to the hard box that is used today. Classical ballet adheres to these rules:
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Everything is turned out. When the feet are not on the floor, they're pointed. When the leg is not bent, it's stretched completely. Posture, alignment, and placement are vital.

[edit] Neoclassical ballet
Main article: Neoclassical ballet

New York State Theater, home of the New York City Ballet

Neoclassical ballet is a ballet style that uses traditional ballet vocabulary but is less rigid than the classical ballet. For example, dancers often dance at more extreme tempos and perform more technical feats. Spacing in neoclassical ballet is usually more modern or complex than in classical ballet. Although organization in neoclassical ballet is more varied, the focus on structure is a defining characteristic of neoclassical ballet.

Scene from Act 4 of Swan Lake, Vienna State Opera, 2004

Balanchine brought modern dancers in to dance with his company, the New York City Ballet. One such dancer was Paul Taylor, who, in 1959, performed in Balanchine's Episodes. Balanchine worked with modern dance choreographer Martha Graham, expanding his exposure to modern techniques and ideas. During this period, Tetley began to consciously combine ballet and modern techniques in experimentation. Tim Scholl, author of From Petipa to Balanchine, considers George Balanchine's Apollo in 1928 to be the first neoclassical ballet. Apollo represented a return to form in response to Serge Diaghilev's abstract ballets.

[edit] Contemporary ballet
Main article: Contemporary ballet

A ballet dancer

he worked with various modern choreographers. She choreographed Deuce Coupe for them in 1973. Arms in Cecchetti's "Spanish fourth" position. an exemplar of Kirov Ballet training. Nacho Duato's Compañia Nacional de Danza. using pop music and a blend of modern and ballet techniques. most notably Twyla Tharp. George Balanchine is often considered to have been the first pioneer of contemporary ballet through the development of neoclassical ballet. Twyla Tharp also worked with the Joffrey Ballet company. including floor work and turn-in of the legs. although it permits a greater range of movement that may not adhere to the strict body lines set forth by schools of ballet technique. Traditionally "classical" companies. Following Baryshnikov's appointment as artistic director of American Ballet Theatre in 1980. These include Alonzo King and his company. One dancer who danced briefly for Balanchine was Mikhail Baryshnikov. such as the Kirov Ballet and the Paris Opera Ballet. Both these pieces were considered innovative for their use of distinctly modern movements melded with the use of pointe shoes and classically trained dancers²for their use of "contemporary ballet". also regularly perform contemporary works. Alonzo King's Lines Ballet. Today there are many contemporary ballet companies and choreographers. founded in 1957 by Robert Joffrey. Many of its concepts come from the ideas and innovations of 20th century modern dance. . The Joffrey Ballet continued to perform numerous contemporary pieces. who has worked extensively with the Frankfurt Ballet and today runs The Forsythe Company. in 1986 she created In The Upper Room for her own company. Tharp choreographed Push Comes To Shove for ABT and Baryshnikov in 1976. and Ji í Kylián. currently the artistic director of the Nederlands Dans Theatre. Complexions Contemporary Ballet. It takes its technique and use of pointe work from classical ballet. many choreographed by co-founder Gerald Arpino. William Forsythe. under the direction of Dwight Rhoden.Contemporary ballet is a form of dance influenced by both classical ballet and modern dance.

see Dancer (disambiguation). For other uses. search For other uses. see Dance (disambiguation). see Dancing (disambiguation). "Dancer" redirects here. Dance Modern dance . the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation.[edit] Gallery Pas de deux of Don Quixote Don Quixote by the Cuban National Ballet A scene from The Nutcracker Dance From Wikipedia. "Dancing" redirects here. For other uses.

usually rhythmic and to music. Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social. aesthetic. patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance).[1] used as a form of expression. Motion in ordinarily inanimate objects may also be described as dances (the leaves danced in the wind).Originating culture various Originating era Antiquity Dancers in a city square Russian dancer in Alanya Dance is an art form that generally refers to movement of the body. artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to virtuoso . while martial arts kata are often compared to dances. Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans. Gymnastics. cultural. social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting. and is also performed by other animals (bee dance. figure skating and synchronized swimming are sports that incorporate dance.

Ballet. Choreography is the art of creating dances. no matter what style. African dance is interpretive. has something in common. The person who creates (i. social or performed for an audience. Ballroom. but also physics. Waltz. Dance can be participatory. Breakdancing and Krumping are related to the hip hop culture.e.techniques such as ballet. Dancing has evolved many styles. Dance can embody or express ideas. emotions or tell a story. Dance movements may be without significance in themselves. and Tango are classical styles of dance while Square and the Electric Slide are forms of step dances. competitive or erotic. It can also be ceremonial.. choreographs) a dance is known as the choreographer. such as in ballet or European folk dance. injuries may occur. . It not only involves flexibility and body movement. Every dance. or have a gestural vocabulary/symbolic system as in many Asian dances. If the proper physics is not taken into consideration.

1790) Origins and history of dance Main article: History of dance Dance does not leave behind clearly identifiable physical artifacts such as stone tools. Translated caption: A cheerful dance awakens love and feeds hope with lively joy.2 Dances of Sri Lanka o 6.2 The influence of African American dance 7 See also 8 References 9 External links Eighteenth century social dance.1 Ballet (Florence.2.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 Origins and history of dance 2 Dance classification and genres o 2.1 Dancing and music 3 Dance studies and techniques 4 Dance competitions 5 Dance occupations 6 Dance by ethnicity or region o 6.1 Bhangra in the Punjab  6.2 20th century concert dance  6.2 In Europe and North America  6. . hunting implements or cave paintings. Concert (or performance) dance  6.1 India  6.1. It is not possible to say when dance became part of human culture.

Dance has certainly been an important part of ceremony. and ethnic dance. One of the earliest structured uses of dances may have been in the performance and in the telling of myths.[2] Another early use of dance may have been as a precursor to ecstatic trance states in healing rituals. Archeology delivers traces of dance from prehistoric times such as the 9. Dance is still used for this purpose by many cultures from the Brazilian rainforest to the Kalahari Desert. dance was one of the methods of passing these stories down from generation to generation. celebrations and entertainment since before the birth of the earliest human civilizations. rituals. 3300 BC. Kandyan dances originate. ceremonial. Many contemporary dance forms can be traced back to historical. Partner Dancing in Art Dance at Bougival by Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1882 83) . from a magic ritual that broke the spell on a bewitched king.[3] Sri Lankan dances goes back to the mythological times of aboriginal yingyang twins and "yakkas" (devils). traditional. It is also linked to the origin of "love making." Before the production of written languages. 250 years ago. According to a Sinhalese legend.000 year old Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka paintings in India and Egyptian tomb paintings depicting dancing figures from c. It was also sometimes used to show feelings for one of the opposite gender.

disco.Eadweard Muybridge's phenakistoscope "A Couple Waltzing" (c. Ballroom dancing is an art although it may incorporates many fitness components using an artistic state of mind. performance dance. Although dance is often accompanied by music. social dance etc. it can also be presented independently or provide its own accompaniment (tap dance). Dance is performed for various purposes like ceremonial dance. Dancing and music See also: Category:Music genres Many early forms of music and dance were created and performed together. tango. salsa. partner dance and group dance. waltz. .1893) Dance classification and genres Main articles: List of basic dance topics and List of dances Dance categories by number of interacting dancers are mainly solo dance. Some musical genres also have a parallel dance form such as baroque music and baroque dance whereas others developed separately: classical music and classical ballet. Dance performed without music is said to be danced to its own rhythm[citation needed]. erotic dance. Dance presented with music may or may not be performed in time to the music depending on the style of dance. This paired development has continued through the ages with dance/music forms such as: jig. electronica and hip-hop.

England An amateur dancesport competition at MIT .Saman Dance from Gayo people of Sumatra. Wells. Indonesia Morris dancing in the grounds of Wells Cathedral.

Today these studies are an integral part of many universities' arts and humanities programs. which permit a wide variety of dance styles. postcolonial theory. Choreography. Major types of dance competitions include: y y Competitive dance. Dance therapy or dance-movement therapy. Laban Movement Analysis and somatic studies Academic degrees are available from BA (Hons) to PhD and other postdoctoral fellowships. hiphop. area studies. By the late 20th century the recognition of practical knowledge as equal to academic knowledge lead to the emergence of practice research and practice as research. encompassing the dance-related aspects of anthropology. ethnography. distinguished primarily by the style or styles of dances performed. monetary prizes. with some dance scholars taking up their studies as mature students after a professional dance career. in which a variety of theater dance styles such as acro. Havana. Dance competitions A dance competition is an organized event in which contestants perform dances before a judge or judges for awards and. A large range of dance courses are available including: y y y y y y Professional practice: performance and technical skills Practice research: choreography and performance Ethnochoreology. cultural studies. Open competitions. Dance and technology: new media and performance technologies. and Dance moves In the early 1920s. . in some cases. A popular example of this is the TV program So You Think You Can Dance. etc. There are several major types of dance competitions. ballet. in 2008 Dance studies and techniques See also: Dance theory.Professional dancers at the Tropicana Club. lyrical. gender studies. jazz. Musical analysis and history) began to be considered an academic discipline. Cuba. and tap are permitted. critical theory. dance studies (dance practice.

y y Dancesport. dance teaching. There are university programs and schools associated with professional dance companies for specialised training in classical dance (e. There are also smaller. more rarely may work on contract as the resident choreographer for a specific dance . which only permit a single dance style. dance therapist and choreographer. and may be recognised by a dance sport federation.g. dance team. yoga) or Pilates instruction to achieve financial stability.S. either in dance related roles (e. the Screen Actors Guild and Actors' Equity Association. Most dance teachers are self employed. privately owned dance studios where students may train in a variety of dance forms including competitive dance forms (e..g. Professional dancers often need to supplement their income. Today. ballroom dance. In the U. The unions help determine working conditions and minimum salaries for their members. Professional dancers are usually employed on contract or for particular performances/productions. and Irish dance. etc. such as highland dance. dance sport coaches. Single-style competitions. Dance occupations There are different careers connected with dancing: Dancer. Choreographer Choreographers are generally university trained and are typically employed for particular projects or. For dance forms without an association structure such as Salsa or Tango Argentino they may not have formal training. strong competition pressure and low pay. which is focused exclusively on ballroom and latin dance. Latin dance. Dancesport coaches Dancesport coaches are tournament dancers or former dancesports people. many professional dancers are members of unions such as the American Guild of Musical Artists. Dance teachers Dance teacher and operators of dance schools rely on reputation and marketing. dance sport coach. dance teacher. Dancer Dance training differs depending on the dance form. Popular examples of this are TV programs Dancing with the Stars and Strictly Come Dancing. The professional life of a dancer is generally one of constantly changing work situations.) as well as ethnic/traditional dance forms. Ballet) and modern dance. there are various dances and dance show competitions on Television and the Internet.g.

The Natyashastra categorised dance into four groups and into four regional varieties. . and the inclusion of dramatic or expressive acting or abhinaya. Bharata Muni's Natyashastra (literally "the text of dramaturgy") is the one of the earlier texts. some body positions. and indeed the two concepts have ever since been linked in Indian culture. and so on. abstract. interpretive. and folk dances sorted by origin India South indian folk Dance like a horse known as Poi Kal Kudirai Main article: Dance in India During the first millennium BCE in India. A choreographic work is protected intellectual property. concepts of regional geography has altered and so have regional varieties of Indian gait. has been traced to present day Mithila-Orissa region's dance form of Odissi. In the matter of dance. and. ritual. Though the main theme of Natyashastra deals with drama. However. the dancers of nearly all the styles wear bells around their ankles to counterpoint and complement the percussion. indicate influence of dances in cultural interactions between different regions. the mudras. Therefore. dance is also widely featured. The Indian classical music tradition provides the accompaniment for the dance. Dances like "Odra Magadhi". which after decades long debate. regional. naming the groups: secular. Dancers may undertake their own choreography. all Indian classical dances are to varying degrees rooted in the Natyashastra and therefore share common features: for example.[4] From these beginnings rose the various classical styles which are recognised today. The text elaborates various hand-gestures or mudras and classifies movements of the various limbs of the body. many texts were composed which attempted to codify aspects of daily life. Dance by ethnicity or region Main article: List of ethnic. and as percussion is such an integral part of the tradition.

patriotism or social issues. love. Copenhagen.Bhangra in the Punjab Main article: Bhangra The Punjab area overlapping India and Pakistan is the place of origin of Bhangra. Denmark In Europe and North America Concert (or performance) dance Main article: Concert dance . Bhangra is not just music but a dance. The dance combines many aspects including Sinhalese cosmology. It combines ancient "Ayurvedic" concepts of disease causation with psychological manipulation.[5] Harlequin and Columbine from the mime theater at Tivoli Gardens. sing Boliyaan (lyrics) and dance.It developed further with the Vaisakhi festival of the Sikhs. a celebration of the harvest where people beat the dhol (drum). the dances also has an impact on the classical dances of Sri Lanka. Dances of Sri Lanka Main article: Dances of Sri Lanka The devil dances of Sri Lanka or "yakun natima" are a carefully crafted ritual with a history reaching far back into Sri Lanka's pre-Buddhist past. It is widely known both as a style of music and a dance. Its music is coordinated by a musical instrument called the 'Dhol'. It is mostly related to ancient harvest celebrations.

see Modern dance. The relationship of music to dance serves as the basis for Eurhythmics. During the reign of Louis XIV. drama. costumes and dance. developed by Rudolf Steiner and Marie Steiner-von Sivers. New York City 20th century concert dance Main article: 20th century concert dance At the beginning of the 20th century. The first ballet dance academy was the Académie Royale de Danse (Royal Dance Academy). Eurythmy. song. Members of the court nobility took part as performers. was formed. dance became more codified. associated with the Academy. and ballet masters were licensed by the French government. opened in Paris in 1661. combines formal elements reminiscent of traditional dance with the new freer style. devised by Emile JaquesDalcroze. himself a dancer. the first institutionalized ballet troupe. and introduced a complex new vocabulary to dance. Isadora Duncan. important founders of the new style such as Martha Graham and Doris Humphrey began their work. Denis. Since this time. The influence of African American dance . which was influential to the development of Modern dance and modern ballet through artists such as Marie Rambert. there was an explosion of innovation in dance style characterized by an exploration of freer technique. Shortly thereafter. In the 1920s. this troupe began as an all-male ensemble but by 1681 opened to include women as well. Early pioneers of what became known as modern dance include Loie Fuller.Ballet Main article: Ballet Ballet developed first in Italy and then in France from lavish court spectacles that combined music. poetry. Professional dancers began to take the place of court amateurs.[2] A small dance company rehearses for an outdoor performance in Stuyvesant Cove Park in Manhattan. a wide variety of dance styles have been developed. Mary Wigman and Ruth St.

tap dance. Other dances. rather than in dance studios. For Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions. In earlier times. see MIME. actor")[1] is someone who uses mime as a theatrical medium or as a performance art. disco. "imitator.Main article: African American dance African American dances are those dances which have developed within African American communities in everyday spaces. . hip hop dance and breakdance. jazz dance. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. involving miming. such a performer was referred to as a mummer. Mimes Jean and Brigitte Soubeyran A mime artist (from Greek " "²mimos. swing dance. or the acting out a story through body motions. such as the lindy hop with its relationship to rock and roll music and rock and roll dance have also had a global influence. Miming is to be distinguished from silent comedy. Mime artist From Wikipedia. without use of speech. see Mime (disambiguation). For other uses. schools or companies and its derivatives. search "Mime" redirects here. in English. in which the artist is a seamless character in a film or sketch.

used masks in the training of his actors. (October 2010) Prior to the work of Étienne Decroux there was no major treatise on the art of mime. and so any recreation of mime as performed prior to the twentieth century is largely conjecture. However. . a pupil of his.The performance of pantomime originates at its earliest in Ancient Greece. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. which was largely restricted to intertitles.[2] Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 In film 2 On stage and street 3 In literature 4 Greek and Roman mime 5 In non-Western theatre traditions 6 Notable mime artists 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit] In film This section does not cite any references or sources. Jacques Copeau. In early nineteenth century Paris. Étienne Decroux. the twentieth century also brought a new medium into widespread usage: the motion picture. mime played an important role in films prior to advent of talkies (films with sound or speech). was highly influenced by this and started exploring and developing the possibilities of mime and developed corporeal mime into a highly sculptural form. In Medieval Europe. taking it outside of the realms of naturalism. based on interpretation of diverse sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Jean-Gaspard Deburau solidified the many attributes that we have come to know in modern times²the silent figure in whiteface. the name is taken from a single masked dancer called Pantomimus. This often demanded a highly stylized form of physical acting largely derived from the stage. The restrictions of early motion picture technology meant that stories had to be told with minimal dialogue. Jacques Lecoq contributed significantly to the development of mime and physical theatre with his training methods. The mimetic style of film acting was used to great effect in German Expressionist film. early forms of mime such as mummer plays and later dumbshows evolved. strongly influenced by Commedia dell'arte and Japanese Noh theatre. although performances were not necessarily silent. Thus.

but through film. relying instead on many subtle expertly choreographed visual gags.Silent film comedians like Charlie Chaplin. Indeed. who has descended into poverty and drunkenness after being abandoned by his beloved. The Last Butterfly. However. contemporary mimes.[4] Jacob Appel's Pushcart short-listed story. Mime is also a popular art form in street theatre and busking. [edit] In literature Canadian author Michael Jacot's first novel. they would have a profound influence on mimes working in live theatre even decades after their death. Traditionally. sometimes employ vocal sounds when they perform. Harold Lloyd and Buster Keaton learned the craft of mime in the theatre. these sorts of performances involve an actor wearing tight black and white clothing with white facial makeup. tells the story of a mime artist in Nazi-occupied Europe who is forced by his oppressors to perform for a team of Red Cross observers. Coulrophobia. Hans Schneir. with Marcel Marceau and his character "Bip" being the most famous. would mime out the movements of every single character in his films and ask his actors to repeat them. contemporary mimes often perform without whiteface. Chaplin may be the most well-documented mime in history.[3] Nobel laureate Heinrich Böll's The Clown relates the downfall of a mime artist. The famous French comedian. While mime acts are often comical they can also be very serious. while refraining from speaking.[5] [edit] Greek and Roman mime This section requires expansion. Similarly. [edit] On stage and street Mime has been performed onstage. . Tati. writer and director Jacques Tati achieved his initial popularity working as a mime. and indeed his later films had only minimal dialogue. depicts the tragedy of a landlord whose marriage slowly collapses after he rents a spare apartment to an intrusive mime artist. while traditionally mimes have been completely silent. like Chaplin before him.

Tragic pantomime was developed by Pulad s of Kilikia. Classical Indian musical theatre.[6] The Roman emperor Trajan banished pantomimists. Nero himself acted as a mime. analogous performances are evident in the theatrical traditions of other civilizations. The Natya Shastra. Caligula favored them. an ancient treatise on theatre by Bharata Muni. . although often erroneously labeled a "dance. Recitation. comic pantomime was developed by Bathullos of Alexandria. or mukhabinaya. mentions silent performance. and landscapes. music. and mime illusions to play different characters. and even percussive footwork sometimes accompany the performance. Marcus Aurelius made them priests of Apollo. actions.[7] [edit] In non-Western theatre traditions While most of this article has treated mime as a constellation of related and historically linked Western theatre genres and performance techniques. an array of hand positions.A Mime artist on the Ponte Sant'Angelo The first recorded pantomime actor was Telest s in the play Seven Against Thebes by Aeschylus." is a group of theatrical forms in which the performer presents a narrative via stylized gesture.

the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. though often referred to as a dance form. hand signals and body motions. see The Dramas. search For other uses. see Drama (disambiguation). followed by actor detailing without background support of narrative song. The Japanese Noh tradition has greatly influenced many contemporary mime and theatre practitioners including Jacques Copeau and Jacques Lecoq because of its use of mask work and highly physical performance style. Butoh. Literature Major forms Novel · Poem · Drama Short story · Novella Genres Epic · Lyric · Drama Romance · Satire Tragedy · Comedy Tragicomedy . has been adopted by various theatre practitioners as well. "Dramas" redirects here.In Kathakali. stories from Indian epics are told with facial expressions. Drama From Wikipedia. Performances are accompanied by songs narrating the story while the actors act out the scene. For the indie rock band.

presupposes collaborative modes of production and a collective form of reception. which is derived from "to do" .Media Performance (play) · Book Techniques Prose · Verse History and lists Outline of literature Index of terms History · Modern history Books · Writers Literary awards · Poetry awards Discussion Criticism · Theory · Magazines Drama is the specific mode of fiction represented in performance. Thalia was the Muse of comedy (the laughing face). It is this narrow sense that the film and television industry and film studies adopted to describe "drama" as a genre within their respective media. it has also been used to describe the more high-brow and serious end of the dramatic output of radio. drama). They are symbols of the ancient Greek Muses.[6] Drama is often combined with music and dance: the drama in opera is sung throughout. is directly influenced by this collaborative production and collective reception. unlike other forms of literature.[1] The term comes from a Greek word meaning "action" (Classical Greek: . Drama in this sense refers to a play that is neither a comedy nor a tragedy²for example. Thalia and Melpomene. while Melpomene was the Muse of tragedy (the weeping face). The enactment of drama in theatre. performed by actors on a (Classical Greek: stage before an audience. Considered as a genre of poetry in general. Zola's Thérèse Raquin (1873) or Chekhov's Ivanov (1887). 429 BC) by Sophocles are among the supreme masterpieces of the art of drama. drao).[5] "Radio drama" has been used in both senses²originally transmitted in a live performance. 335 BC)²the earliest work of dramatic theory.[3] The two masks associated with drama represent the traditional generic division between comedy and tragedy.[2] The early modern tragedy Hamlet (1601) by Shakespeare and the classical Athenian tragedy Oedipus the King (c.[4] The use of "drama" in the narrow sense to designate a specific type of play dates from the 19th century. The structure of dramatic texts. the dramatic mode has been contrasted with the epic and the lyrical modes ever since Aristotle's Poetics (c. musicals include spoken dialogue and songs. and some forms of drama have regular musical .

performers devise a dramatic script spontaneously before an audience.5 Modern and postmodern 2 Asian drama o 2.1 Opera o 3.[7] In certain periods of history (the ancient Roman and modern Romantic) dramas have been written to be read rather than performed.1 Classical Athenian drama o 1. the drama does not pre-exist the moment of performance.[8] In improvisation. for example).3 Creative drama 4 Collaborative play writing 5 Legal status o 5.1 Indian o 2.accompaniment (melodrama and Japanese N .2 Chinese o 2.[9] Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 History of Western drama o 1.4 Elizabethan and Jacobean o 1.2 Pantomime o 3.1 UK 6 See also 7 Notes 8 Sources 9 External links [edit] History of Western drama [show]v · d · e History of Western theatre [edit] Classical Athenian drama [show]v · d · e Classical Athenian drama .3 Medieval o 1.3 Japanese 3 Forms of drama o 3.2 Roman drama o 1.

[22] Five years later.[19] While Greek drama continued to be performed throughout the Roman period. which usually consisted of three tragedies and one satyr play (though exceptions were made. Their origins remain obscure. While . Rome encountered Greek drama. each offering a single comedy. when the satyr play was introduced. Roman theatre was more varied. and the comic writers Aristophanes and. as with Euripides' Alcestis in 438 BC).[22] No plays from either writer have survived. however. lyric and epic).[14] The competition ("agon") for tragedies may have begun as early as 534 BC. official records ("didaskaliai") begin from 501 BC. extensive and sophisticated than that of any culture before it.[17] [edit] Roman drama [show]v · d · e Roman and Byzantine theatre Following the expansion of the Roman Republic (509±27 BC) into several Greek territories between 270±240 BC. from the late 4th century. comedy. he had been writing plays for more than 25 years.[20] From the beginning of the empire. has survived to this day: we have a small number of complete texts by the tragedians Aeschylus. although when it won first prize at the City Dionysia competition in 472 BC. "middle comedy" (4th century BC) and "new comedy" (late 4th century to 2nd BC).[13] Aeschylus' historical tragedy The Persians is the oldest surviving drama. though by the 5th century BC they were institutionalised in competitions held as part of festivities celebrating the god Dionysus. Menander.[12] Only a small fraction of the work of five dramatists. around the Mediterranean and reached England. interest in full-length drama declined in favour of a broader variety of theatrical entertainments.[18] From the later years of the republic and by means of the Roman Empire (27 BC-476 AD).[15] Tragic dramatists were required to present a tetralogy of plays (though the individual works were not necessarily connected by story or theme). who were a traditional part of the performance of non-dramatic poetry (dithyrambic. Comedy was officially recognised with a prize in the competition from 487 to 486 BC. the year 240 BC marks the beginning of regular Roman drama. Sophocles and Euripides. while interacting with the chorus and its leader ("coryphaeus"). Five comic dramatists competed at the City Dionysia (though during the Peloponnesian War this may have been reduced to three). Gnaeus Naevius also began to write drama. and the satyr play.[11] Historians know the names of many ancient Greek dramatists.Western drama originates in classical Greece. not least Thespis. theatre spread west across Europe.[21] The first important works of Roman literature were the tragedies and comedies that Livius Andronicus wrote from 240 BC.[10] The theatrical culture of the city-state of Athens produced three genres of drama: tragedy. however.[16] Ancient Greek comedy is traditionally divided between "old comedy" (5th century BC). who is credited with the innovation of an actor ("hypokrites") who speaks (rather than sings) and impersonates a character (rather than speaking in his own person).

[26] All of the six comedies that Terence wrote between 166 and 160 BC have survived. such as was seen on the Elizabethan stages.[27] [edit] Medieval [show]v · d · e Medieval theatre In the Middle Ages. wrote between 205 and 184 BC and twenty of his comedies survive.[26] No early Roman tragedy survives. he was admired for the wit of his dialogue and his use of a variety of poetic meters. but his double-plots enabled a sophisticated presentation of contrasting human behaviour. the Roman comic dramatists abolished the role of the chorus in dividing the drama into episodes and introduced musical accompaniment to its dialogue (between one-third of the dialogue in the comedies of Plautus and two-thirds in those of Terence). the complexity of his plots. while the other is the Stoic philosopher Seneca. [edit] Elizabethan and Jacobean Main article: English Renaissance theatre . historians know of three early tragedians²Quintus Ennius. their successors tended to specialise in one or the other. Octavia. for example. but in former times it was mistakenly attributed to Seneca due to his appearance as a character in the tragedy.[28] Historians do not know who wrote the only extant example of the fabula praetexta (tragedies based on Roman subjects). Mystery plays were presented on the porch of the cathedrals or by strolling players on feast days. the more popular of the two. his Phaedra. though it was highly regarded in its day. Miracle and mystery plays. along with moralities and interludes. drama in the vernacular languages of Europe may have emerged from religious enactments of the liturgy. was sometimes denounced. drama was firmly established in Rome and a guild of writers (collegium poetarum) had been formed.both dramatists composed in both genres.[22] By the beginning of the 2nd century BC. Marcus Pacuvius and Lucius Accius.[24] In re-working the Greek originals.[25] From the time of the empire.[25] Plautus. of which his farces are best known. later evolved into more elaborate forms of drama. Andronicus was most appreciated for his tragedies and Naevius for his comedies. all of which are fabula crepidata (tragedies adapted from Greek originals).[25] The action of all scenes is set in the exterior location of a street and its complications often follow from eavesdropping. in which he often combined several Greek originals. which led to a separation of the subsequent development of each type of drama. was based on Euripides' Hippolytus.[27] Nine of Seneca's tragedies survive. the work of two tragedians survives²one is an unknown author.[23] The Roman comedies that have survived are all fabula palliata (comedies based on Greek subjects) and come from two dramatists: Titus Maccius Plautus (Plautus) and Publius Terentius Afer (Terence).

and Caryl Churchill. Harold Pinter. [edit] Asian drama [edit] Indian Main articles: Theatre in India and Sanskrit drama . Many of these plays were written in verse.[30] In terms of the traditional theoretical discourse of genre. [edit] Modern and postmodern [show]v · d · e Modern drama The pivotal and innovative contributions of the 19th-century Norwegian dramatist Henrik Ibsen and the 20th-century German theatre practitioner Bertolt Brecht dominate modern drama. Ibsen's work has been described as the culmination of "liberal tragedy". particularly iambic pentameter. each inspired a tradition of imitators. Authors of this period drew some of their storylines from Greek mythology and Roman mythology or from the plays of eminent Roman playwrights such as Plautus and Terence. while Brecht's has been aligned with an historicised comedy. enhancing the image of the Tudor monarchy. Jean Genet. George Bernard Shaw. meta-theatricality. Tennessee Williams. and social critique. both modernist and realist. Thomas Middleton. Anton Chekhov. Friedrich Dürrenmatt. Eugène Ionesco. Dario Fo.One of the great flowerings of drama in England occurred in the 16th and 17th centuries. Federico García Lorca. and Ben Jonson were prominent playwrights during this period. Heiner Müller. which include many of the greatest playwrights of the modern era. Arthur Miller. Maurice Maeterlinck.[31] Other important playwrights of the modern era include August Strindberg. such authors as Christopher Marlowe. Vladimir Mayakovsky. Frank Wedekind. Eugene O'Neill. Luigi Pirandello. historical plays celebrated the lives of past kings.[29] The works of both playwrights are. Ernst Toller. in their different ways. Samuel Beckett. As in the medieval period. In addition to Shakespeare. incorporating formal experimentation.

Famous early playwrights include Bhasa. Asvaghosa.[32] in addition to Bengali films such as The Apu Trilogy. The theory of rasa described in the text has been a major influence on modern Indian cinema. . Their stories have often been used for plots in Indian drama and this practice continues today. which dates back to the 2nd millennium BC. playwrights and (after a fashion) producers. and Emperor Harsha (famous for Nagananda. Ratnavali and Priyadarsika).A scene from Indian musical drama yakshagana' Indian drama (nautanki) is traced back to certain dramatic episodes described in the Rigveda. The dramas dealt with human concerns as well as the gods. the great epics of India. udraka (famous for The Little Clay Cart). many plays drew their plot lines from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. particularly Bollywood. The nature of the plays ranged from tragedy to light comedy. specific instructions and advice for actors. For instance. Da in. which itself has had a major influence on world cinema. The earliest theoretical account of Indian drama is Bharata Muni's Natya Shastra (literally "Scripture of Dance".[33] Drama was patronized by the kings as well as village assemblies. though it sometimes translated as "Science of Theatre'") that may be as old as the 3rd century BC. and The Recognition of Shakuntala). the proper designs for theatres. the types of people who are allowed to be drama critics and. most especially. Early examples include the Yama-Yami episode and other Rigvedic dialogue hymns. The text specifically describes the proper way one should go about staging a Sanskrit drama. Kalidasa (famous for Vikrama and Urvashi. It addresses a wide variety of topics including the proper occasions for staging a drama. Malavika and Agnimitra. Dramatists often worked on pre-existing mythological or historical themes that were familiar to the audience of the age.

because the music seemed to be more important than the dramatic aspects in these works. [edit] Forms of drama [edit] Opera Western opera is a dramatic art form. Noteworthy is the huge influence of the German 19th century composer Richard Wagner on the opera tradition. Being strongly intertwined with western classical music. with many military commanders having their own troupes and sometimes performing themselves. Today it is often called Chinese opera although this normally refers specifically to the popular form known as Beijing Opera and Kunqu. which arose during the Renaissance in an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama tradition in which both music and theatre were combined. Chinese opera has seen a more conservative development over a somewhat longer period of time.[34] Ky gen is the comic counterpart to N drama. The performers were generally male (for both male and female roles). It developed in the 14th and 15th centuries and has its own musical instruments and performance techniques. is another comic form. To restore the connection with the traditional Greek drama. the opera has undergone enormous changes in the past four centuries and it is an important form of theatre until this day. although female amateurs also perform N dramas. [edit] Pantomime Main article: Pantomime . developed from the 17th century. which includes dance. and dance into a complete aesthetic performance experience. Kabuki drama. he called them "music dramas". and to emphasize the equal importance of music and drama in these new works. which were often handed down from father to son. there have been many other forms of theatre in China. N drama was supported by the government. he entirely renewed the operatic format. It concentrates more on dialogue and less on music. and particularly the military. [edit] Japanese Japanese N drama is a serious dramatic form that combines drama. although N instrumentalists sometimes appear also in Ky gen. It is still performed in Japan today. In his view.[edit] Chinese Main article: Chinese opera Chinese theatre has a long and complex history. there was no proper balance between music and theatre in the operas of his time. music.

Moving Pictures (disambiguation) and Film (disambiguation). see Photographic film. see Film stock. Illinois[citation needed]. establishing the first academic use of drama in Evanston. and good always triumphs over evil. see Movie (disambiguation). A 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera. Its roots in the United States began in the early 1900s. this kind of play is also very entertaining making it a very effective way of reaching many people. Film From Wikipedia. these characters include the villain (doctore). "Movie" and "Moving picture" redirect here. and with some help from the audience the hero/heroine saves the day. a popular introductory camera in film schools . This kind of play uses stock characters seen in masque and again commedia dell'arte. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. [edit] Creative drama Creative drama includes dramatic activities and games used primarily in educational settings with children. For other uses. the lovers etc. These plays usually have an emphasis on moral dilemmas. search This article is about motion pictures or movies. For motion picture film. the clown/servant (Arlechino/Harlequin/buttons). usually there is a lesson learned. Winifred Ward is considered to be the founder of creative drama in education. For still photography film.These stories follow in the tradition of fables and folk tales.

is a story conveyed with moving images. Film is considered to be an important art form. the silver screen. Viewers perceive motion due to a psychological effect called beta movement. a viewer has the illusion that motion is occurring. Films are made up of a series of individual images called frames. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions by using dubbing or subtitles that translate the dialogue into the language of the viewer. a source of popular entertainment and a powerful method for educating ² or indoctrinating ² citizens. while in Europe the term film is preferred. The origin of the name "film" comes from the fact that photographic film (also called film stock) has historically been the primary medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Additional terms for the field in general include the big screen. the cinema and the movies. or by creating images using animation techniques or visual effects. The viewer cannot see the flickering between frames due to an effect known as persistence of vision. including picture.World cinema y y African cinema Asian cinema East Asian cinema South Asian cinema Southeast Asian cinema West Asian cinema y y y y European cinema Latin American cinema North American cinema Oceanian cinema A film. The process of filmmaking has developed into an art form and industry. Many other terms exist for an individual motion picture. . It is produced by recording photographic images with cameras. picture show. When these images are shown rapidly in succession. affect them. also called a movie or motion picture. in turn. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication. photo-play and flick. which reflect those cultures. A common name for film in the United States is movie. moving picture. and. whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after the source has been removed.

2 Technology o 7.3 Criticism 3 Industry 4 Associated fields 5 Terminology used o 5.3 Independent o 7.Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y y y y y y 1 History 2 Theory o 2.3 Film.2 Montage o 2.5 Fan film 8 Distribution 9 Animation 10 Future state 11 See also 12 Notes 13 References 14 External links History Main article: History of film .4 Open content film o 7.1 Language o 2.1 Preview o 5.1 Crew o 7. or other art form? 6 Education and Propaganda 7 Production o 7.2 Trailer o 5.

is arguably the first "motion picture. actors. Commercial versions of these machines were coin operated. depending on how rapidly the crank was turned. the entire visual picture at any one time). by Louis Le Prince. In the 1860s.A clip from the Charlie Chaplin silent film The Bond (1918) Preceding film by thousands of years. such as mise en scene (roughly. Moving visual and aural images were not recorded for replaying as in film. With the development of celluloid film for still photography. costumes. sets. mechanisms for producing two-dimensional drawings in motion were demonstrated with devices such as the zoetrope. The pictures were shown at a variable speed of about 5 to 10 pictures per second." though it was not called by this name.[2][3][4] and later near the year 1600. production. Light is inverted through a small hole or lens from outside. Naturally the images needed to be carefully designed to achieve the desired effect. storyboards. plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts. it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. and projected onto a surface or screen. A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene. the world's earliest film produced using a motion picture camera. audiences.[5] This technology required a person to look into a viewing machine to see the pictures which were separate paper prints attached to a drum turned by a handcrank. These machines were outgrowths of simple optical devices (such as magic lanterns) and would display sequences of still pictures at sufficient speed for the images on the pictures to appear to be moving. direction. creating a moving image. it was perfected by Giambattista della Porta. 1888 . An 1878 experiment by English photographer Eadweard Muybridge in the United States using 24 cameras produced a series of stereoscopic images of a galloping horse. and the underlying principle became the basis for the development of film animation. but it is not preserved in a recording. mutoscope and praxinoscope. and scores. Much terminology later used in film theory and criticism applied. Anthemius of Tralles used an early type of camera obscura in the 6th century[1] The camera obscura was further described by Alhazen in his Book of Optics (1021). a phenomenon called persistence of vision.

musicians would start to fit the mood of the film at any given moment. Ignoring Dickson's early sound experiments (1894). and Fritz Lang. Early motion pictures were static shots that showed an event or action with no editing or other cinematic techniques. By the early 1920s.W. but these innovative silent films had gained a hold on the public imagination. new technology allowed filmmakers to attach to each film a soundtrack of speech. Buster Keaton and others. an early narrative film. However in the 1920s. so exhibited. along with the contributions of Charles Chaplin. Around the turn of the 20th century. most films came with a prepared list of sheet music for this purpose. came to be known as "motion pictures". in many ways inspired by the meteoric war-time progress of film through Griffith. with complete film scores being composed for major productions. and led quickly to the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience. commercial motion pictures were purely visual art through the late 19th century. or talkies. quickly caught up with American film-making and continued to further advance the medium. European filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein. Griffith in The Birth of a Nation (1914) and Intolerance (1916). These reels. typified most prominently by the great innovative work of D. Murnau. Eventually. theater owners would hire a pianist or organist or a full orchestra to play music that would cover noises of projector. The rise of European cinema was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I when the film industry in United States flourished with the rise of Hollywood. A shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902). These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures". In the 1920s. Other techniques such as camera movement were realized as effective ways to portray a story on film. The scenes were later broken up into multiple shots of varying sizes and angles. music and sound effects synchronized with the action on the screen.By the 1880s the development of the motion picture camera allowed the individual component images to be captured and stored on a single reel. W. Rather than leave the audience with noise of early cinema projectors. F. . films began developing a narrative structure by stringing scenes together to tell narratives.

and thus could be considered a valid fine art. Director Ingmar Bergman famously said. the succeeding decades saw changes in the production and style of film. critics from the analytical philosophy tradition. On the other hand. as the industry in America came to view color as essential to attracting audiences in its competition with television. the one who invented a new language. then a repetition of this. Béla Balázs. Formalist film theory. The public was relatively indifferent to color photography as opposed to black-and-white. Japanese New Wave and New Hollywood) and the rise of film school educated independent filmmakers were all part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century.The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of so-called "natural" color. Since the decline of the studio system in the 1960s. which is a language understood by the audience to indicate a conversation. structuralist film theory. Indian New Wave. By the end of the 1960s. try to clarify misconceptions used in theoretical studies and produce analysis of a film's vocabulary and its link to a form of life.[citation needed] but as color processes improved and became as affordable as black-and-white film. James Monaco wrote a classic text on film theory titled "How to Read a Film". Digital technology has been the driving force in change throughout the 1990s and into the 2000s. which remained a black-and-white medium until the mid1960s. followed by another actor¶s right profile speaking. and Siegfried Kracauer. It was started by Ricciotto Canudo's The Birth of the Sixth Art. influenced by Wittgenstein. "[Andrei] Tarkovsky for me is the greatest [director]. led by Rudolf Arnheim. More recent analysis spurred by Jacques Lacan's psychoanalysis and Ferdinand de Saussure's semiotics among other things has given rise to psychoanalytical film theory. indicating the first actor is having a memory of their own past." Examples of the language are a sequence of back and forth images of one actor's left profile speaking. more and more movies were filmed in color after the end of World War II. Various New Wave movements (including the French New Wave. Theory Main articles: Film theory and Philosophy of language film analysis Film theory seeks to develop concise and systematic concepts that apply to the study of film as art. color had become the norm for film makers. feminist film theory and others. as it captures life as a reflection. and this gave rise to realist theory. life as a dream. then changing to a scene of a younger actor who vaguely resembles the first actor. Montage . Another example is zooming in on the forehead of an actor with an expression of silent reflection. color was adopted more gradually as methods evolved making it more practical and cost effective to produce "natural color" films. André Bazin reacted against this theory by arguing that film's artistic essence lay in its ability to mechanically reproduce reality not in its differences from reality. emphasized how film differed from reality. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians. true to the nature of film. Language Film is considered to have its own language.

the influence of reviews is extremely important. They also tend to be affiliated with colleges or universities. Mass marketed action. as illustrated in the gang fight scene of director Francis Ford Coppola¶s film. as in a ballet or opera. and what effect they have on people. These film critics attempt to come to understand how film and filming techniques work. critics have an important impact on films. Rumble Fish. or sometimes in up-market magazines. Criticism Main article: Film criticism Film criticism is the analysis and evaluation of films. This line of work is more often known as film theory or film studies. and true film critics are those who take a more academic approach to films. Some claim that movie marketing is now so intense and well financed that reviewers cannot make an impact against it. Industry Main article: Film industry . magazines. this usually backfires as reviewers are wise to the tactic and warn the public that the film may not be worth seeing and the films often do poorly as a result. For prestige films such as most dramas. these works can be divided into two categories: academic criticism by film scholars and journalistic film criticism that appears regularly in newspapers and other media.Main article: Montage Parallels to musical counterpoint have been developed into a theory of montage. Despite this. and broadcast media mainly review new releases.g. In general. extended from the complex superimposition of images in early silent film[citation needed] to even more complex incorporation of musical counterpoint together with visual counterpoint through mise en scene and editing. and comedy films tend not to be greatly affected by a critic's overall judgment of a film. However. Rather than having their works published in newspapers or appear on television. Normally they only see any given film once and have only a day or two to formulate opinions. The plot summary and description of a film that makes up the majority of any film review can still have an important impact on whether people decide to see a film. especially those of certain genres. the cataclysmic failure of some heavily promoted movies which were harshly reviewed.. However. Conversely. Poor reviews will often doom a film to obscurity and financial loss. their articles are published in scholarly journals. Others note that positive film reviews have been shown to spark interest in little-known films. as well as the unexpected success of critically praised independent movies indicates that extreme critical reactions can have considerable influence. Film critics working for newspapers. there have been several films in which film companies have so little confidence that they refuse to give reviewers an advanced viewing to avoid widespread panning of the film. It is argued that journalist film critics should only be known as film reviewers. e. The impact of a reviewer on a given film's box office performance is a matter of debate. horror.

industries of pre-existing industries may deal specifically with film. local scenes to their catalogue and. quickly enough. import and screen additional product commercially. . as in film theory and analysis. providing recognition each year to films. Sub. Product placement. and toys. and Propaganda Derivative academic Fields of study may both interact with and develop independently of filmmaking. Upon seeing how successful their new invention. The Oberammergau Passion Play of 1898[citation needed] was the first commercial motion picture ever produced. or psychological on subliminal effects of a flashing soda can during a screening. Other regional centers exist in many parts of the world. and motion pictures became a separate industry that overshadowed the vaudeville world. such as product placement in advertising. Other pictures soon followed. divisions of film propaganda in authoritarian governments. The Academy Awards (also known as "the Oscars") are the most prominent film awards in the United States. due to the costly and risky nature of filmmaking. In the United States today. the Lumières quickly set about touring the Continent to exhibit the first films privately to royalty and publicly to the masses. From 1931 to 1956. export. ostensibly based on their artistic merits. Dedicated theaters and companies formed specifically to produce and distribute films. Yet many filmmakers strive to create works of lasting social significance. film was also the only image storage and playback system for television programming until the introduction of videotape recorders. such as film criticism. and its product.[citation needed] Though the expense involved in making movies has led cinema production to concentrate under the auspices of movie studios. Charlie Chaplin had a contract that called for an annual salary of one million dollars. These fields may further create derivative fields. a notorious example being Kevin Costner's Waterworld. recent advances in affordable film making equipment have allowed independent film productions to flourish. Associated fields Further information: Film history. found local entrepreneurs in the various countries of Europe to buy their equipment and photograph. such as a movie review section in a newspaper or a television guide. Already by 1917. while motion picture actors became major celebrities and commanded huge fees for their performances. Fields of academic study have been created that are derivative or dependent on the existence of film. much of the film industry is centered around Hollywood. Film theory. the Indian film industry's Hindi cinema which produces the largest number of films in the world. Film criticism. film history. In each country. such as Mumbai-centered Bollywood. There is also a large industry for educational and instructional films made in lieu of or in addition to lectures and texts. Sub-industries can spin off from film. Profit is a key force in the industry.The making and showing of motion pictures became a source of profit almost as soon as the process was invented.[6] Whether the ten thousand-plus feature length films a year produced by the Valley pornographic film industry should qualify for this title is the source of some debate. such as popcorn makers. many films have large cost overruns. was in their native France. they would normally add new.

a "candle and bell". usually 60 minutes or more. "Cinema" either broadly encompasses both films and movies. Strictly speaking. An "independent" is a film made outside of the conventional film industry. and an image of a movie camera in profile. Please improve this article and discuss the issue on the talk page. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. of a segment of film stock. A "DVD" is a digital format which may be used to reproduce an analogue film.Terminology used This article needs additional citations for verification. compared to an earlier historic aspect ratios. "Film" refers to the media onto which a visual image is shot. means "film". "Film" is more often used when considering artistic. The "silver screen" refers to classic black and white films before color. (July 2010) This article includes a list of references. though these terms are still in general use. as where to go for fun on a date. "Talkies" refers to early movies or films having audible dialogue or analogue sound. (July 2010) The examples and perspective in this section may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. while "videotape" ("video") was for many decades a solely analog media onto which moving images could be recorded and electronically (rather than optically) reproduced. but its sources remain unclear because it has insufficient inline citations. The expression 'Sight and Sound'. or a two faced Janus image. as studies in a university class. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. both capitalized when referring to a category of art. usually screened with other shorts. (December 2009) Most people use "film" and "movie" interchangeably[citation needed]. while "Lets Go to the Movies" would be about the history of entertaining movies. but are films and movies without an audible dialogue. as in the films Tarkovsky. Please help to improve this article by introducing more precise citations where appropriate. a book titled "How to Read a Film" would be about the aesthetics or theory of film. not to contemporary films without color. or technical aspects. or preceding a feature length film. The following icons mean film .[8] A "short" is a film that is not as long as a feature length film. A "screening" or "projection" is the projection of a film or video on a screen at a public or private theater. usually but not always of a film. "Widescreen" and "Cinemascope" refers to a larger width to height in the frame. though they may have a musical soundtrack. and to this end it may seem improper for work in other 'moving image' media to be referred to as a "film" and the action of shooting as "filming". "Motion pictures´ or "Moving pictures" are films and movies. For example. or "feature film". "Silent films" need not be silent. as in the film journal of the same name. not just a musical accompaniment. and can commercially stand by itself without other films in a ticketed screening. but of a video or DVD when of sufficient . "Movies" more often refers to entertainment or commercial aspects. is of a conventional full length. theoretical.[7] A "feature length film". or is roughly synonymous with ³Film´.

Since then. Any film may also have a "sequel". but the name has stuck. A "double feature" is a screening of two independent. may result in recutting or even refilming certain sections (Audience response). A "preview" is a screening in advance of the main release. which if unexpectedly negative. Before the 1970s. which portrays events following those in the film. credits were usually at the beginning of a film. such as a "porn" for a film with explicit sexual content. Bride of Frankenstein is an early example. feature films. A "showing" is a screening or viewing on an electronic monitor. rights sold for individual showings. an example being Butch and Sundance: The Early Days. stand-alone. shorthand for asserting an overly commercial rather than artistic intent or outcome. such as the James Bond series. Previews are sometimes used to judge audience reaction. entertaining and not highbrow. before the public film premiere itself. Expressions for Genres of film are sometimes used interchangeably for "film" in a specific context. Trailers are now shown before the film (or the A movie in a double feature program) begins. but is released after that film. we have a "series". Credits is a list of the people involved in making the film. usually for the purposes of corporate promotions. A "release" is the distribution and often simultaneous screening of a film. "Sales" refers to tickets sold at a theater. or more currently. A Post-credits scene is a scene shown after the end of the credits. or as a descriptive adjective to refer to a film originating with people who ordinarily work near Los Angeles. or other art form? .projection quality. "Hollywood" may be used either as a pejorative adjective. on whose screen they are shown. The term "trailer" comes from their having originally been shown at the end of a film programme. Film. the credits roll at the end of most films. because patrons tended to leave the theater after the films ended. is sometimes called a "Prequel". as in "too Hollywood". Trailer Main article: Film trailer Trailers or previews are film advertisements for films that will be exhibited in the future at a cinema. A "viewing" is a watching of a film. Ferris Bueller's Day Off has a post-credit scene in which Ferris tells the audience that the movie is over and they should go home. Preview A preview performance refers to a showing of a movie to a select audience. A film which portrays events that occur earlier than those in another film. That practice did not last long. or "cheese" for films that are light. When there are a number of films with the same characters.

When the purpose is primarily educational. in whole or in part. or more marginally. the means to produce a film depend on the content the filmmaker wishes to show. Another example is audience participation films. as in the films of Werner Herzog. The act of making a film can. Similarly. Film production can therefore take as little as one person with a camera (or without it. extras and crewmembers for a live-action. such as some of the films of Michael Moore. or more subtly. Film may be propaganda. where the audience dresses up in costume from the film and loudly does a karaoke-like reenactment along with the film. in and of itself. Production Main article: Filmmaking At its core. Examples are recordings of lectures and experiments. feature-length epic. such as Stan Brakhage's 1963 film Mothlight). which could stand-alone but is accompanied by a performance may still be referred to as a film. and propaganda by others.Film may be combined with performance art and still be considered or referred to as a ³film´. The more involved the production. They may also be works of political protest. these main stages are defined as: 1. on a different level from the film itself. The necessary steps for almost any film can be boiled down to conception. The same film may be considered educational by some. planning. as in the subtleties within the films of Tarkovsky. the films of Andrei Tarkovsky. a film is called an "educational film". A "road movie" can refer to a film put together from footage from a long road trip or vacation. the playing of a film can be considered to fall within the realm of political protest art. US war film trailers during World War II. Development 2. such as the films made by Leni Riefenstahl in Nazi Germany. In a typical production cycle of a Hollywood-style film. or thousands of actors. be considered a work of art. Education and Propaganda Main articles: Education and Propaganda Film is used for education and propaganda. when there is a live musical accompaniment to a silent film. and distribution. as at a midnight movies screening of The Rocky Horror Picture Show. Pre-production . execution. revision. but a film. and the apparatus for displaying it: the zoetrope merely requires a series of images on a strip of paper. For example. or artistic films made under Stalin by Eisenstein. Performance art where film is incorporated as a component is usually not called film. as in the films of Wajda. the more significant each of the steps becomes. a film based on a classic novel.

The third year. Distribution This production cycle usually takes three years. Communication between production and crew generally passes through the director and his/her staff of assistants. and production special effects. electrics (i. Technology Film stock consists of transparent celluloid. The crew interacts with but is also distinct from the production staff. The second year comprises preproduction and production. quiet camera design ² allowing sound recorded on-set to be usable without requiring large "blimps" to encase the camera. their assistants.3. research indicates most films were shot between 16 frame/s and 23 frame/s and projected from 18 frame/s on up (often reels included instructions on how fast each scene should be shown). The bigger the production. such as writers and editors. The first year is taken up with development. post-production and distribution. Stock widths and the film format for images on the reel have had a rich history.e. the crew handles everything in the photography phase: props and costumes. 24 frames per second was chosen because it was the slowest (and thus cheapest) speed which allowed for sufficient sound quality. sound. though 1000 frames per minute (16 frame/s) is generally cited as a standard silent speed. the more resources it takes.. most feature films are not only artistic works. Crew Main article: Film crew A film crew is a group of people hired by a film company. though most large commercial films are still shot on (and distributed to theaters) as 35 mm prints. Other than acting. Caterers (known in the film industry as "craft services") are usually not considered part of the crew. Cellulose nitrate was the first type of film base used to record motion pictures. the actors who appear in front of the camera or provide voices for characters in the film. the invention of more sophisticated filmstocks and lenses. company representatives. Medium-to-large crews are generally divided into departments with well defined hierarchies and standards for interaction and cooperation between the departments. managers. for the purpose of producing a film or motion picture. but due to its flammability was eventually replaced by safer materials. sets. Production 4. . Originally moving picture film was shot and projected at various speeds using hand-cranked cameras and projectors. Crew are distinguished from cast. consisting of producers. and those whose primary responsibility falls in pre-production or post-production phases. acetate. Improvements since the late 19th century include the mechanization of cameras ² allowing them to record at a consistent speed. and the more important financing becomes. lights). or polyester base coated with an emulsion containing light-sensitive chemicals. employed during the "production" or "photography" phase. a constant speed was required for the sound head. Post-production 5. shooting. but for-profit business entities.[9] When sound film was introduced in the late 1920s.

Some films in recent decades have been recorded using analog video technology similar to that used in television production. green. or other major studio systems. These approaches are extremely beneficial to moviemakers. Creative. Modern digital video cameras and digital projectors are gaining ground as well. Digital methods have also been used to restore films. An independent film (or indie film) is a film initially produced without financing or distribution from a major movie studio. but for live-action pictures many parts of the soundtrack are usually recorded simultaneously. black and white films on safety bases and color films preserved on Technicolor imbibition prints tend to keep up much better. and the development of synchronized sound.allowing directors to film in increasingly dim conditions. film is not limited to motion pictures. or blue filters (essentially a reverse of the Technicolor process). Film preservation of decaying film stock is a matter of concern to both film historians and archivists. and the motion picture industry is exploring many alternatives. assuming proper handling and storage. Independent Main article: Independent film Independent filmmaking often takes place outside of Hollywood. historic films have problems in terms of preservation and storage. Some studios save color films through the use of separation masters ² three B&W negatives each exposed through red. and often has importance as primary historical documentation. since the technology developed as the basis for photography. Film has also been incorporated into multimedia presentations. Most movies on cellulose nitrate base have been copied onto modern safety films. As a medium. However. especially because footage can be evaluated and edited without waiting for the film stock to be processed. The soundtrack can be recorded separately from shooting the film. although their continued obsolescence cycle makes them (as of 2006) a poor choice for long-term preservation. due to their high decay rates. and as of 2005 most major motion pictures are still recorded on film. Preservation is generally a higher-concern for nitrate and single-strip color films. . allowing sound to be recorded at exactly the same speed as its corresponding action. and technological reasons have all contributed to the growth of the indie film scene in the late 20th and early 21st century. business. It can be used to present a progressive sequence of still images in the form of a slideshow. and to companies interested in preserving their existing products in order to make them available to future generations (and thereby increase revenue). Yet the migration is gradual.

the cost of professional film equipment and stock was also a hurdle to being able to produce. and consumer level software such as Apple's Final Cut Express and iMovie. FireWire connections and non-linear editing system pro-level software like Adobe Premiere Pro. the arrival of highresolution digital video in the early 1990s. But the advent of consumer camcorders in 1985. particularly in lead roles. Technologies such as DVDs. create and edit the sound and music. direct. the costs of big-budget studio films also leads to conservative choices in cast and crew. while the means of production may be democratized. The arrival of internet-based video outlets such as YouTube and Veoh has further changed the film making landscape in ways that are still to be determined. the hardware and software for post-production can be installed in a commoditybased personal computer. financing. today. the means of production have become more democratized. up from 10% in 1987). Both production and post-production costs have been significantly lowered. Sony Vegas and Apple's Final Cut Pro. Filmmakers can conceivably shoot and edit a movie. Open content film . and marketing remain difficult to accomplish outside the traditional system. distribution. However. have lowered the technology barrier to movie production significantly. the studios rarely produce films with unknown actors. Most independent filmmakers rely on film festivals to get their films noticed and sold for distribution. Also. Before the advent of digital alternatives. There is a trend in Hollywood towards co-financing (over two-thirds of the films put out by Warner Bros.The Lumière Brothers On the business side.[10] A hopeful director is almost never given the opportunity to get a job on a big-budget studio film unless he or she has significant industry experience in film or television. in 2000 were joint ventures. or star in a traditional studio film. and mix the final cut on a home computer. Since the introduction of DV technology. and more importantly. and Microsoft's Windows Movie Maker make movie-making relatively inexpensive.

usually after the film is no longer being shown in theaters. created by fans rather than by the source's copyright holders or creators. Fan films vary tremendously in length. Today. The development of television has allowed films to be broadcast to larger audiences. established 1905. but some of the more notable films have actually been produced by professional filmmakers as film school class projects or as demonstration reels. The identity of the first theater designed specifically for cinema is a matter of debate. some films that are rejected by their own studios upon completion are distributed through these markets. . typically. but it is produced through open collaborations. Before the 1970s. one film is the featured presentation (or feature film). or other major studio systems. and indeed. VCD and SelectaVision ² see also videodisc). all mass marketed feature films were made to be shown in movie theaters. candidates include Tally's Electric Theatre. and a "B picture" of lower quality rented for a percentage of the gross receipts. Fan film Main article: Fan film A fan film is a film or video inspired by a film. Like independent filmmaking. because admission typically cost a nickel (five cents).[12] Thousands of such theaters were built or converted from existing facilities within a few years. Some films are now made specifically for these other venues. its source material is available under a license which is permissive enough to allow other parties to create fan fiction or derivative works.[13] In the United States. these theaters came to be known as nickelodeons. being released as made-for-TV movies or direct-to-video movies. and Internet downloads may be available and have started to become revenue sources for the film companies. television program. established 1902 in Los Angeles. Typically. there were "double features". Recording technology has also enabled consumers to rent or buy copies of films on VHS or DVD (and the older formats of laserdisc. a high quality "A picture" rented by an independent theater for a lump sum.Main article: Open content film An open content film is much like an independent film. comic book or a similar source. the bulk of the material shown before the feature film consists of previews for upcoming movies and paid advertisements (also known as trailers or "The Twenty"). Fan filmmakers have traditionally been amateurs. Distribution Main articles: Film distribution and Film release When it is initially produced. a feature film is often shown to audiences in a movie theater or cinema.[11] and Pittsburgh's Nickelodeon. from short faux-teaser trailers for non-existent motion pictures to rarer full-length motion pictures. than a traditional copyright. Historically. open source filmmaking takes place outside of Hollywood. The production values on these films are often considered to be of inferior quality compared to theatrical releases in similar genres.

When the frames are strung together and the resulting film is viewed at a speed of 16 or more frames per second. is painted and drawn directly onto pieces of film. as an incentive to theaters to keep movies in the theater longer. about 26% of Hollywood movie studios' worldwide income came from box office ticket sales. whether generated as a computer graphic.[14] This section requires expansion with: optical disc distribution. cable. and adapted by other studios as cartoons moved from movie theaters to television. made famous by moviemakers like Norman McLaren. Cameraless animation. the majority of animation for TV and movies comes from professional animation studios. Limited animation is a way of increasing production and decreasing costs of animation by using "short cuts" in the animation process. However. there is an illusion of continuous movement (due to the persistence of vision). Several independent animation producers have gone on to enter the professional animation industry. Generating such a film is very labor intensive and tedious. This method was pioneered by UPA and popularized by Hanna-Barbera.The movie theater pays an average of about 50-55% of its ticket sales to the movie studio. or by repeatedly making small changes to a model unit (see claymation and stop motion). the field of independent animation has existed at least since the 1950s. According to a 2000 study by ABN AMRO. and pay-per-view). However. Len Lye and Stan Brakhage. as film rental fees. though the development of computer animation has greatly sped up the process. and then photographing the result with a special animation camera. today's barrage of highly marketed movies ensures that most movies are shown in first-run theaters for less than 8 weeks. . often limited-release movies that start in only a few theaters and actually grow their theater count through good word-of-mouth and reviews. 46% came from VHS and DVD sales to consumers. there is a specific style of animation that depends on film. or by photographing a drawn image. with animation being produced by independent studios (and sometimes by a single person).[15] Although most animation studios are now using digital technologies in their productions. and 28% came from television (broadcast.[14] The actual percentage starts with a number higher than that. and decreases as the duration of a film's showing continues. Because animation is very time-consuming and often very expensive to produce. There are a few movies every year that defy this rule. and then run through a projector. Animation Main article: Animation Animation is the technique in which each frame of a film is produced individually.

still offers an equivalent resolution in the range of 500 mega pixels. a new approach which will allow for easier and quicker distribution of films (via satellite or hard disks). Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. motion picture cinemas continued. Ultra HD. film is still a relative newcomer in the pantheon of fine arts. with digital scanning and post production providing good results. with proper exposure and processing. the development of the home video market and a surge of online copyright infringement. and large LCD or plasma screens enabled people to select and view films at home with greatly improved audio and visual reproduction[citation needed] . a development which may give local theaters a reprieve from their predicted demise.[citation needed] The cinema now faces a new challenge from home video by the likes of a new High Definition format. Once again industry analysts predicted the demise of the local cinema. (April 2009) While motion picture films have been around for more than a century. Currently the super-16 format is seeing use as a capture medium. These new technologies provided audio and visual that in the past only local cinemas had been able to provide: a large. the development of digital DVD players. 1080p in Blu-ray offers a pixel resolution of 1920×1080 a leap from the DVD offering of 720×480 and the paltry 330×480 offered by the first home video standard VHS[citation needed].[16] The resolving power of film. and it's ability to capture an image which can later be scanned to a digital format. a future digital video format. film began to become more respected as an artistic medium by contrast due the low general opinion of the quality of average television content[citation needed]In the 1980s. which can provide full HD 1080p video playback at near cinema quality[citation needed]Video formats are gradually catching up with the resolutions and quality that film offers. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.[citation needed] In the 1990s and 2000s.[19] Despite the rise of all new technologies. the nature and structure of film prevents an apples to apples comparison with regard to resolution. will offer a massive resolution of 7680×4320. home theater amplification systems with surround sound and subwoofers. Despite competition from television's increasing technological sophistication over the 1960s and 1970s[citation needed]such as the development of color television and large screens.[17] [18] Despite advances in digital capture. when television became widely available. In fact with the rise of television's predominance. Blu-ray. In the 1950s. 2007 was a record year in film that showed the highest ever box-office grosses. industry analysts[who?] predicted the demise of local movie theaters[citation needed]. strengthening film studio expectations for the future[citation needed]. highquality multi-speaker sound system. will ensure that film remains a viable medium for some time to come. Local cinemas will be changing in the 21st century and moving towards digital screens. A 35mm film frame. However. clear widescreen presentation of a film with a full-range. industry analysts again wrongly predicted the death of the local cinemas. Many expected film to suffer as a result of the effects listed above but it has flourished. when the widespread availability of inexpensive videocassette recorders enabled people to select films for home viewing.Future state This section does not cite any references or sources. . film still offers unsurpassed ability to capture fine detail beyond what is possible with digital image sensors.

New York Performing arts Major forms Dance · Music · Opera · Theatre · Circus Minor forms Magic · Puppetry Genres Drama · Tragedy · Comedy · Tragicomedy · Romance · Satire · Epic · Lyric view · talk · edit Theatre (or theater. search For other uses. however. theatre focuses almost . see Theatre (disambiguation). see spelling differences) is a branch of the performing arts. Lincoln Center. Any performance may be considered theatre.Theatre From Wikipedia. as a performing art. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. Interior of the New York State Theater.

combining the other performing arts. utilizing speech.[5] This story of the god Osiris was performed annually at festivals throughout the civilization. as a result of the human tendency for storytelling. presenting o 5.1 Drama o 3.exclusively on live performers creating a self-contained drama.2 Musical theatre o 3. and spectacle. The word derives from the Ancient Greek theatron ( ) meaning "the seeing place. marking the beginning of a long relationship between theatre and religion.[1] A performance qualifies as dramatic by creating a representational illusion. into a single artistic form. Since its inception. often as well as the visual arts."[3] Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 History 2 Technical aspects of theatre 3 Types o 3.[2] By this broad definition. theatre has come to take on many forms. theatre had existed since the dawn of man.3 Comedy 4 Theatrical philosophy 5 Theatre organization and administration o 5.2 Producing vs.1 Repertory companies o 5. music. . gesture. dance.[4] The first recorded theatrical event was a performance of the sacred plays of the myth of Osiris and Isis in 2500 BC in Egypt.3 Unions 6 Collaborative play writing 7 See also 8 References 9 External links [edit] History Main article: History of theatre Panoramic view of the Hellenic theatre at Epidaurus. The word theatre means "place for seeing".

[6] In the modern world these works have been adapted and interpreted in thousands of different ways in order to serve the needs of the time. and actors.[12] Other Eastern forms were developed throughout China. and representations of two of the forms. Greek plays made use of mythological characters.[10] Chinese theatre also dates back to around the same time. came to stand for the theatre itself: a symbol that survives today. dramaturge. plays are usually produced by a production team that commonly includes a scenic or set designer. likening Creon to Hitler and Thebes to defeated Germany. sound designer. of comedy and tragedy.and 2nd-century Rome as a decorative theme. shadow plays and marionette productions) and live passion plays known as ta'ziya. The artistic staff is assisted by technical theatre personnel who handle creation and execution of the production.[11] Japanese forms of Kabuki. Italy. both within the home and in public spaces. France.[13] [edit] Technical aspects of theatre Main article: Stagecraft Theatre is a highly collaborative endeavour. stage manager. and Southeast Asia. costume designer. The history of Eastern theatre is traced back to 1000 BC with the Sanskrit drama of ancient Indian theatre. taking on many alternate forms in Spain. and theatre architecture. recorded in medieval adab literature.[9] A uniquely North American theatre developed with the colonization of the new world. including satyr plays. and Russia in the 16th. In particular.The ancient Greeks began formalising theatre as an art. Live secular plays were known as akhraja. 17th and 18th centuries. [edit] Types [edit] Drama .[8] Western theatre continued to develop under the Roman Empire. Noh. video designer or fight director. props mistress or master and production manager. acting as a career.[7] The theatre masks of Greek performance became widely adopted in 1st. developing strict definitions of tragedy and comedy as well as other forms. Korea. Depending on the production. Examples are offered by Antigone. Shia Islamic plays revolved around the shaheed (martyrdom) of Ali's sons Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali. The most popular forms of theatre in the medieval Islamic world were puppet theatre (which included hand puppets. The Greeks also developed the concepts of dramatic criticism. this team may also include a composer. though they were less common than puppetry and ta'ziya theatre. in medieval England. playwrights. used in 1944 by Anouilh to make a statement about the Nazi occupation of France. The general trend over the centuries was away from the poetic drama of the Greeks and the Renaissance and toward a more realistic style. Although the most recognisable figures in theatre are the directors. and by Brecht in 1948. lighting designer. where actors re-enact episodes from Muslim history. and continued to thrive. and Kyogen date back to the 17th century AD. especially following the Industrial Revolution. Like the religious plays of ancient Egypt.

dance routines. Musical theatre includes spectacle as well. also Greek. means to do.Main article: Drama Drama (literally translated as action. contemporary Broadway musicals often include lavish costumes and sets supported by million dollar budgets. Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music. notably works of William Shakespeare and Christopher Marlowe. songs. from a verbal root meaning "To do") is the branch of theatre in which speech. [edit] Comedy Main article: Comedy Theatre productions that use humour as a vehicle to tell a story qualify as comedies. and French drama. Classical forms of drama. [edit] Musical theatre Main article: Musical theatre Yakshagana a musical drama from India Music and theatre have always had a close relationship. are still performed today. either from written text (plays). or improvised is paramount. . classic English drama. A companion word dran. For instance. including Greek and Roman drama. for instance works of Molière. vaudeville. This may include a modern farce such as Boeing Boeing or a classical play such as As You Like It. and spoken dialogue. Modern musical theatre emerged from the variety. and music hall genres of the late 19th and early 20th century.

Strasberg. two actors. Bertolt Brecht. [edit] Theatrical philosophy There is a variety of philosophies. and Hagen acting methods. and some are based on purely "artistic" concerns. controversial or taboo subject matter in a deliberately humorous way is referred to as black comedy. which include: y Broadway theatre and West End theatre . and Spectacle. Music. some on theatre as event. [edit] Theatre organization and administration There are many modern theatre movements which go about producing theatre in a variety of ways.[14] The 17th century Spanish writer Lope de Vega wrote that for theatre one needs "three boards. Konstantin Stanislavski is considered to be the father of theater technique.[15] Others notable for their contribution to theatrical philosophy are Konstantin Stanislavski. Some are connected to political or spiritual ideologies. Some processes focus on a story. artistic processes. According to Aristotle's seminal theatrical critique Poetics. and some on theatre as catalyst for social change. Stanislavsky. these first new methods helped to blaze the way for future theorists and ultimately lead to the wide range of techniques that are studied and used today: such as the Meisner. and Jerzy Grotowski. Roman Forum stage in New Jerusalem theater. Theatre can be performed with no money at all or on a grand scale with multi-million dollar budgets. and one passion". and the majority of modern western theatre theory is derived from Stanislavski's "system" in one form or another. as he was the first person to ever write about it. This diversity manifests in the abundance of theatre sub-categories. Orson Welles.[16] Many of Stanislavski's students rejected his system and began to create their own. Character. Peter Brook. Language. largest open-air theatre in the world. and theatrical approaches to creating plays and drama.Theatre expressing bleak. Idea. there are six elements necessary for theatre: Plot. Antonin Artaud. Theatrical enterprise varies enormously in sophistication and purpose. People involved vary from professionals to hobbyists to spontaneous novices.

These companies are able to perform these various pieces upon request and often perform works for years before retiring them. A rental theatre allows the independent companies to seek out the space. as well as dance companies. They do. presenting The Carré Theatre in Amsterdam. Most dance companies operate on this repertory system. do not have their own theatre venue. . repertory companies rehearse multiple shows at one time. The Royal National Theatre in London performs on a repertory system. Both rental and presenting theatres have no full time resident companies. sometimes have one (or multiple) part time resident companies. however.y y y y y y y Community theatre Dinner theatre Fringe theatre Off-Broadway and Off West End Off-Off-Broadway Regional theatre Summer stock theatre [edit] Repertory companies While most modern theatre companies rehearse one piece of theatre at a time. in addition to other independent partner companies who arrange to use the space when available. retire the piece. the Netherlands In order to put on a piece of theatre. this theatre (and its corresponding theatre company) are called a resident theatre or a producing theatre. When a theatre company is the sole company in residence at a theatre venue. both a theatre company and a theatre venue are needed. Other theatre companies. because the venue produces its own work. [edit] Producing vs. and begin rehearsing a new show. while a presenting theatre seeks out the independent companies to support their work by presenting them on their stage. perform that piece for a set "run". These companies will therefore either perform at rental theatres or at presenting theatres.

See also Acting as an art Presentational acting and Representational acting From Wikipedia. search µPresentational acting¶ and the related µrepresentational acting¶ are critical terms used within theatre aesthetics and criticism. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. the Stage Directors and Choreographers Society (SDC). Due to the same terms being applied to certain approaches to acting that contradict the broader theatrical definitions. and the International Alliance of Theatrical Stage Employees (IATSE. the terms have come to acquire often overtly contradictory senses. often internationally.[1] . for designers and technicians). These performances can take place outside or inside. in a non-traditional performance space. Many theatres require that their staff be members of these organizations. however. and site specific theatre. many performance groups have challenged the theatre-space and have since been putting on work in non-theatrical spaces. being presented at a different theatre in each city. and include street theatre.However. A touring company is an independent theatre or dance company that travels. [edit] Unions There are many theatre unions including Actors Equity Association (for actors and stage managers).

9 µPresentational acting¶. Conversely. the terms describe two contrasting functional relationships between the actor and the audience that a performance can create. p. the aside directed to the audience. They appear to be cases of µbreaking frame¶. for instance). Keir Elam. in other plays the performers create a range of different relationships towards the audience (for example.[4] [edit] Presentational acting Conventionalized presentational devices include the apologetic prologue and epilogue. most Shakespearean dramas have certain characters who frequently adopt a downstage µplatea¶ playing position that is in direct contact with the audience. While usual. The type of theatre that uses µpresentational acting¶ in the first sense (of the actor-audience relationship) is often associated with a performer using µrepresentational acting¶ in the second sense (of their methodology). these chiastic correspondences do not match up in all cases of theatrical performance. in this sense.[2] (Shakespeare's use of punning and wordplay. The Semiotics of Theatre and Drama. and so on.[2] In the other (more specialized) sense. since they bring attention to bear on the fictional status of the characters. for example.[3] The collision of these two senses can get quite confusing. often has this function of indirect contact. the terms describe two contrasting methodological relationships between the actor and his or her character in performance. the type of theatre that uses µrepresentational acting¶ in the first sense is often associated with a performer using µpresentational acting¶ in the second sense. gestures or other signs that indicate that the character or actor is aware of the audience's presence. and other modes of direct address. but in practice they are licensed means of confirming the frame by pointing out the pure facticity of the representation. [edit] The actor-audience relationship In every theatrical performance the manner in which each individual actor treats the audience establishes. looks.)[4] .In the most common sense (that which relates the specific dynamics of theatre to the broader aesthetic category of µrepresentational art¶ or µmimesis¶ in drama and literature). on the very theatrical transaction (in soliciting th audience¶s indulgence. In some plays all of the actors may adopt the same attitude towards the audience (for example. while other characters behave as if unaware of the audience¶s presence). whether directly by addressing them or indirectly through a general attitude or specific use of language. the induction (much used by Ben Jonson an by Shakespeare in The Taming of the Shrew). These premeditated and µcomposed¶ forms of actor-audience persuasion are in effect metadramatic and metatheatrical functions. since the actor is required to step out o his role and acknowledge the presence of the public. refers to a relationship that acknowledges the audience. the play-within-the-play. sustains or varies a particular kind of actor-audience relationship between them. the entire cast of a production of a Chekhovian drama will usually ignore the audience until the curtain call).

While the former derives its primary strength from the immediacy of the physical act of histrionic delivery. in this sense. [edit] Stanislavski's typology Stanislavski considered the French actor Coquelin (1841-1909) to be one of the best examples of "an artist of the school of representation". The actor behaves as if a fourth wall was present. She developed this use from a far more ambiguous formulation offered by the seminal Russian theatre practitioner Constantin Stanislavski in chapter two of his acting manual An Actor Prepares (1936). ideas. and images of artificial persons' thoughts and actions. refers to a relationship in which the audience is studiously ignored and treated as 'peeping tom' voyeurs by an actor who remains in-character and absorbed in the dramatic action.[5] [edit] The actor-character relationship The use of these critical terms (in an almost directly opposed sense from the critical mainstream usage detailed above) to describe two different forms of the actor-character relationship within an actor's methodology originates from the American Method actor and teacher Uta Hagen.[edit] Representational acting µRepresentational acting¶. rather it relates to the issue of function. which maintains an absolute autonomy of the dramatic fiction from the reality of the theatre.[6] . Robert Weimann argues that: Each of these theatrical practices draws upon a different register of imaginary appeal and "puissance" and each serves a different purpose of playing. the latter is vitally connected with the imaginary product and effect of rendering absent meanings. But the distinction is more than epistemological and not simply a matter of poetics.

Stanislavski calls this creation artisto-rol). 'art of representation'. and his own 'experiencing the role'. In Stanislavski's approach. Uta Hagen's decision to use 'presentational' as a synonym for Stanislavski's 'experiencing the role' served to compound the confusion. . without concerning himself with the external realities of the theatre. whilst on-stage the actor experiences the distinction between the two (the philosopher and dramatist Diderot calls this psychological duality the actor's 'paradox'). given that the theatre that is often associated with his own 'experiencing the role' approach (realistic. 'overacting'. not acknowledging the audience) is 'representational' in the wider critical sense. however.[7] They are: 'forced acting'. or a combination of the actor's personality and the role (in Russian. adhere to a mode of theatrical performance that starts with the subjective experience of the actor.[12][13] Many types of drama in the history of theatre do make use of the presentational 'outside' and its many possible interactions with the representational 'inside'²Shakespeare.[9] In the art of representation approach. who takes action under the circumstances of the character. [edit] Confusion of terms Stanislavski's choice of the phrase 'art of representation' to describe an artistic approach that diverges from his own has led to some confusion. and trusts that a form will follow. Stanislavski's fictional persona Tortsov offers a series of critiques. while the 'art of representation' incorporates the results of the rehearsal process in a "finished" form. They deem it more useful for the actor to focus exclusively on the fictional. mechanical acting. subjective reality of the character (via the actor's "emotional memory" or "transferences" from his own life). 'the exploitation of art'. Representational Both Stanislavski and Hagen. goes to some lengths to insist that two of them deserve to be evaluated as 'art' (and only two of them): his own approach of µexperiencing the role¶ and that of the µart of representation¶."[12] [edit] Presentational vs. and only lead to false. by the time the actor reaches the stage. he or she no longer experiences a distinction between his or her self and the character. from the actor's perspective.Further information: Art of representation In "When Acting is an Art".[11] part of the reason she preferred to refer to them more clearly as "formalistic acting" and "realistic acting. One common misrepresentation of Stanislavski is the frequent confusion of the first five of these categories with one another. during the course of which he defines different forms and approaches to acting. in their text books for actors. Both teachers were fully aware of the 'outside' to the dramatic fiction.[10] Both approaches use 'living the role' or identifying with the character during rehearsals.[8] The distinction between Stanislavski's 'experiencing the role' and 'representing the part' (which Stanislavski identifies with the French actor Coquelin) turns on the relationship that the actor establishes with their character during the performance. 'mechanical acting'. these considerations do not help the performance. having watched his students' first attempts at a performance. the actor has created a 'third being'. Restoration comedy. Stanislavski. but they believed that. Stanislavski's approach undertakes this process at all times onstage.

In Brecht. when she contemplates her humiliation in Rome at the hands of Octavius Caesar. Hagen's opinion (backed up by conversations with Brecht himself and the actress who was directed by him in the original production of "Mother Courage") was that. in regard to presentational vs. How to play Brecht. representational has been a controversial subject of much critical and practical discussion. and audience members. It was written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD in classical India and is traditionally attributed to the Sage Bharata. dance and music. She saw definitions of "style" as something tagged by others onto the result. search ) is an ancient Indian treatise The Natya Shastra (Sanskrit: N tya stra on the performing arts. However. to name a few significant examples. having nothing to do with the actor's process. ." Acting as an medium Natya Shastra From Wikipedia.and Brecht.215-217). for the actor. and that the "creator" (actor) need only explore the subjective content of the playwright's world. the presentational dimension is a structural part of the meaning of the drama as a whole. Brecht always intended it to be about the character's subjective reality²including the direct audience addresses. both Stanislavski and Hagen applied their processes of acting towards these types of drama as well. Opponents of the Stanislavski/Hagen approach have argued that this complexity is unavailable to a purely 'naturalistic' treatment that recognizes no distinction between actor and character nor acknowledges the presence of the actual audience. The very structure of the play was enough to accomplish his desired "alienation. the interaction between the two dimensions²representational and presentational² forms a major part of his 'epic' dramaturgy and receives sophisticated theoretical elaboration through his conception of the relation between mimesis and Gestus. though there are many other metatheatrical aspects in operation in these plays.2. A good example is the line spoken by Cleopatra in act five of Antony and Cleopatra (1607).[14] They may also argue that it is not only a matter of the interpretation of individual moments. scholars. Shakespearean drama assumed a natural. Hagen stated that style is a label given to the "final product" by critics. fully aware of their unique requirements to the audience. encompassing theatre.[15] This structural dimension is most visible in Restoration comedy through its persistent use of the aside. That this was to be spoken by a boy in a dress in a theatre is an integral part of its dramatic meaning. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. 'Fourth wall' performances foreclose the complex layerings of theatrical and dramatic realities that result from this contact and that are built into Shakespeare's dramaturgy. she imagines mocking theatrical renditions of her own story: "And I shall see some squeaking Cleopatra boy my greatness in the posture of a whore" (5. direct and often-renewed contact with the audience on the part of the performer.

is attributed to the muni (sage) Bharata and is believed to have been written during the period between 200 BC and 200 AD. r for r ga (melodic framework). which now contains 6000 slokas. taking on many roles. However. an argument can be made that the Natya Shastra is the foundation of the fine arts in India. indicating that Bharata may be a generic name.1 Title and setting 2 Performance Art Theory o 2. in traditional usage Bharata has been iconified as muni or sage. it has come to influence music. The Natya Shastra is based upon the much older Gandharva Veda (appendix to Sama Veda) which contained 36000 slokas [1]. he is called Bharata" (35. and the work is strongly associated with this personage. Unfortunately there are no surviving copies of the Natya Veda. and ta for t la (rhythm). dance. makeup. there are scholars who believe that it may have been written by various authors at different times. some authors suggesting that it may be the work of several persons. While it primarily deals with stagecraft. However. Whether his/her name really was Bharata is open to question[2]: near the end of the text we have the verse: "Since he alone is the leader of the performance.91[3]). and literature as well. and virtually every other aspect of stagecraft. Though many scholars believe most slokas were transmitted only through the oral tradition. The document is difficult to date and Bharata's historicity has also been doubted. Kapila Vatsyayan has argued[2] that based on the unity of the text. It is very important to the history of Indian classical music because it is the only text which gives such detail about the music and instruments of the period. classical Indian dance. Thus. music.The Natya Shastra is incredibly wide in its scope. It covers stage design.1 Rasa 3 Music 4 Impact 5 List of chapters 6 See also 7 References 8 Other books and references 9 External links [edit] Date and authorship The text. It has been suggested that Bharata is an acronym for the three syllables: bha for bh va (mood). The most authoritative commentary on the Natya Shastra is Abhinavabharati by Abhinavagupta. and the many instances of coherent reference of later chapters from earlier text. [edit] Title and setting . Contents [hide] y y y y y y y y y 1 Date and authorship o 1. the composition is likely that of a single person.

that by body part motions (angika). acting. N tya. The discourse is set in a frame where a number of munis approach Bharata.Written in Sanskrit. and the highest . to a detailed analysis of musical scales and movements (murchhanas). Four kinds of abhinaya (acting. The answer to this question comprises the rest of the book. Individual chapters deal with aspects such as makeup.performance.000 sutras. The title can be loosely translated as A compendium of Theatre or a A Manual of Dramatic Arts. n ya=drama. The principles for stage design are laid down in some detail. or n aka means Dramatic Arts. costume. or histrionics) are described . to an analysis of dance forms that considers several categories of body movements. incorporated in 36 chapters. this word does not include dance or music. to the structure of the stage or mandapa. which suggests that Bharata may have had a number of disciples whom he trained. At one point he mentions that he has a hundred "sons" who will spread this knowledge. leading to a broad theory of aesthetics (rasas). asking him about n yaveda (lit. that by speech (vAchika). or verse stanzas. etc. [edit] Performance Art Theory Classical Indian dance: the inheritor of the Natya Shastra The Natya Shastra ranges widely in scope. and their impacts on the viewer. veda=knowledge). but etymologically the root na refers to "dance". Some passages are composed in a prose form. which is thus loosely a dialogue. the text consists of 6. A large section deals with meanings conveyed by the performance (bhavas) get particular emphasis. that by costumes and makeup (AhArya). In contemporary usage. Bharata describes 15 types of drama ranging from one to ten acts. directing. from issues of literary construction. Bharata says that all this knowledge is due to Brahma.

mode. (sAttvika)[4]. Vaachikabhinaya is an important part of Yakshagana" The N tyash stra delineates a detailed theory of drama comparable to the Poetics of Aristotle. For example. and the rasas (emotional responses) that they inspire in the audience. eyebrows. pity. heroism. etc. the playwright. Each rasa experienced by the audience is associated with a specific bhava portrayed on stage. and that plays should mix different rasas but be dominated by one. [edit] Rasa Main article: Rasa (aesthetics) "A Yakshagana artist expressing emotions on stage. [edit] Music After the Samaveda. Bharata refers to bhavas. It was considered the defining treatise of Indian classical music until the 13th century. He argues that there are eight principal rasas: love. by means of internal emotions. terror and comedy. ear. in order for the audience to experience srngara (the 'erotic' rasa). expressed through minute movements of the lips. the imitations of emotions that the actors perform. the Natyashastra was the first major text that dealt with music at length. which dealt with ritual utterances of the Vedas. actors and musician work together to portray the bhava called rati (love). anger. disgust. when the stream bifurcated into Hindustani classical music . awe.

the best between Shadja and Tar Shadja. It also deals with the rasas and bhavas that may be evoked by music. totalling 22 rutis in a Saptak). particularly its application to vocal. states that there exists a natural consonance between notes. y o The second principle. Their role in invoking emotions are emphasized. the stronghold of the Hindu kingdoms. Re. often treated as law. Dha. while explaining Shadja grama and Madhyam grama in chapters 28 and 30 of Bharat Natya Shastra. the placement of other notes in the scale is determined. and Carnatic classical music in South India. Sarana Chatushtai in recent centuries has been demonstrated and proven by Avinash Balkrishna Patwardhan in the year 1998 on flute as well as on sitar (this has also helped him develop a methodology for producing perfectly tuned flutes for different thatas). and refers to the fact that once this note (often referred to as "sa" and notated S) is fixed. While much of the discussion of music in the Natyashastra focuses on musical instruments. the next best between Shadja and Pancham. thus compositions emphasizing the notes gandhara or rishabha are said to be related to tragedy (karuna rasa) whereas rishabha is to be emphasized for evoking heroism (vIra rasa). Bharata Muni. defining note of the scale or grama. Ga. the note is ever-present and unchanging. . Principle of Consonance: Consists of two principles: y o y The first principle states that there exists a fundamental note in the musical scale which is Avinashi ( ) and Avilopi ( ) that is. due to the influence of Persian and Arab music. Jatis are elaborated in greater detail in the text Dattilam. it also emphasizes several theoretical aspects that remained fundamental to Indian music: y Establishment of Shadja as the first. To prove the utility of rutis in music. The word Shadja ( ) means 'giving birth to six'. corresponding to 4-3-2-4-4-3-2. Ni Sa. North India and Pakistan. y The Natyashastra also suggest the notion of musical modes or jatis which are the origin of the notion of the modern melodic structures known as ragas. composed around the same time as the Natyashastra. Ma. expounded the Sarana Chatushtai ± the only experiment according to Bharata to obtain the correct physical configuration of ruti Swara arrangement to Shadja Grama notes on any musical instrument (Sa. The Natyashastra also suggests several aspects of musical performance. This is the only known correct interpretation of the Bharata Muni's Sarana Chatushtai after Bharata Muni himself and probably Sharang Dev. instrumental and orchestral compositions.

. Indian dance and music find their root in the Natyashastra. Much of the terminology and structure of Indian classical music and Indian classical dance were defined by it.[edit] Impact Natyashastra remained an important text in the fine arts for many centuries. Nataka. (February 2007) Bharata was an ancient Indian musicologist who authored the Natya Shastra.). Bharata Muni From Wikipedia. The structures of music outlined in the Natya Shastra retain their influence even today. Besides propounding the theory of three types of acting Bharata has discussed in detail classical Indian vocal \ instrumental music and dance since they are integral to Sanskrit drama. and theater. work that unifies the raga structure in music)[5]. what is known to the west as drama is but one among these. The Natyashastra comprises 36 chapters and it is possible that it was a creation of more than one scholar. dated to between roughly 400 BC and 200 BC. The analysis of body forms and movements also influenced sculpture and the other arts in subsequent centuries[2]. and outlines a theory of artistic analysis) and Sharngadeva's Sangita Ratnakara (13th c. namely. search This article does not cite any references or sources. Bharata also outlines a set of rasas or moods / emotions which were to be influential in defining the nature of Indian dance. Bharata classified Sanskrit theatrical forms (Natya\Rupaka) into ten types. a theoretical treatise on ancient Indian dramaturgy and histrionics. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Bharata is considered as the father of Indian theatrical art forms. The classical dance form Bharata Natyam is codified in the Natya Shastra. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. most importantly we may include Matanga's Brihaddesi (5th-7th c. music. Many commentaries have expanded the scope of the Natya Shastra. as seen in the seminal work Hindustani Sangeetha Padhathi[6] by Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande from the early 20th century. The theory of rasa described in the text has also been a major influence on modern Indian cinema especially in the Malayalam Film Industry. Abhinavagupta's Abhinavabharati (which unifies some of the divergent structures that had emerged in the intervening years. so much so that it is sometimes referred to as the fifth veda.

[edit] See also Rasa (aesthetics) From Wikipedia. the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Navarasa) Jump to: navigation. . reads or hears such a work. Although the concept of rasa is fundamental to many forms of Indian art including dance. and the huge regional differences even within one style. search Performing the Sring ra rasa in Koodiyattam A rasa (Sanskrit lit. 'juice' or 'essence') denotes an essential mental state and is the dominant emotional theme of a work of art or the primary feeling that is evoked in the person that views. musical theatre. the treatment. cinema and literature. usage and actual performance of a particular rasa differs greatly between different styles and schools of abhinaya. interpretation. music.

Contents [hide] y y y y 1 The Rasas o 1. Presiding deity: Vishnu. Colour: yellowish Adbhutam ( ) Wonder. could come into vogue. Presiding deity: Rudra. Mercy. H syam ( ) Laughter. Colour: yellow [edit] Navarasa Abhinavagupta suggested a ninth rasa when only eight were accepted and it had to undergo a good deal of struggle between the sixth and the tenth centuries. Presiding deity: Pramata. Attractiveness. B bhatsam ( ) Disgust. and the aura of an angry person is red. Terror. Presiding deity: Shiva.[1] y y y y y y y y ng ram ( ) Love. Comedy.1 Navarasa o 1. There are 4 pairs of rasas. Mirth. The Aura of a frightened person is black. deity: Vishnu. Aversion. Colour: grey. has a presiding deity and a specific colour. Colour: white. Raudram ( ) Fury. an ancient work of dramatic theory. Hasya arises out of Sringara. according to N tyas stra.2 The Rasas in the Performing Arts  1. Colour: red.1 The Bhavas 2 Influence on cinema 3 Notes 4 See also [edit] The Rasas Bharata Muni enunciated the eight Rasas in the N tyas stra. in literature): Additional rasas: y y V tsalya ( Bhakti ( ) Parental Love ) Spiritual Devotion However. Colour: blue Bhay nakam ( ) Horror. Bharata Muni established the following. For instance.2. Colour: light green. before it could be accepted by the majority of the Alankarikas. y ntam Peace or tranquility. . Presiding deity: Brahma. two more appeared later (esp. Presiding deity: Yama. Colour: blue In addition to the nine Rasas. Presiding deity: Kala. the colours and the relationship between these additional rasas have not been specified. and the expression Navarasa (the nine rasas). Each rasa. the presiding deities. Amazement. K ru yam ( ) Compassion. Presiding deity: Indra. Colour: black V ram ( ) Heroic mood.

. Eight more emotional features are to be added. and Aacharya Abhinavagupta mentions Bhakti in his commentary on the Natya Shastra. They are described by Bharata Muni in the N tyas stra. a rasa is an emotion inspired in an audience by a performer. Anubhava. It is the Bhagavata that gave the great impetus to the study of Bhakti from an increasingly aesthetic point of view. Rasas are created by bhavas: the gestures and facial expressions of the actors.[2] [edit] The Rasas in the Performing Arts Indian performing arts. and Uddipana. it was still struggling. as the name signifies. the excitants. the emotion of Bhakti as a feeling of adoration towards God was long considered only a minor feeling fit only for Stothras. which he strove with great effort to establish. including Tyagaraja. as an important accessory sentiment of the Shanta Rasa. However. namely. Sanchari Bhavas are those crossing feelings which are ancillary to a permanent mood. Vibhavas means Karana or cause: it is of two kinds . the personal or human object and substratum. had the service of some distinguished advocates. an ancient work of dramatic theory. but not capable of being developed into a separate rasa as the sole theme of a whole poem or drama. Anubhavas and Sanchari Bhavas.Alambana. The N tyas stra carefully delineates the bhavas used to create each rasa. Bhakti also soon began to loom large and despite the lukewarmness of the great run of Alankarikas. just as Shantha slowly attained a state of primacy that it was considered the Rasa of Rasas. which is called Sthayi Bhava. A Rasa is the developed relishable state of a permanent mood. In the tenth century. the Saatvika Bhavas. This development towards a relishable state results by the interplay on it of attendant emotional conditions which are called Vibhavas.Raudram rasa of the destructive fury of goddess Durga in Bharatanatyam In the literary compositions. means the ensuants or effects following the rise of the emotion.[3] Expressing Rasa in classical Indian dance form is referred to as Rasa-abhinaya.

The latter is indebted to the Rasa method of classical Sanskrit drama. Odissi. Kathakali and others." The rasa method of performance is clearly apparent in Malayalam Cinema and internationally-acclaimed parallel Bengali films directed by Satyajit Ray. while the Pandanallur style expressions are more limited in scope. The Rasa method of performance is one of the fundamental features that differentiate Indian cinema from that of the Western world. The opposite of this interpretation is Balasaraswathi's school of subtle and understated abhinaya of the devadasis. Manipuri. which itself has had a large influence on world cinema.[4] [edit] Notes Balkrishna samas Nine rasas: . empathetic "emotions are conveyed by the performer and thus felt by the audience. The abhinaya of the Melattur style of abhinaya remains extremely rich in variations of the emotions. There were serious public debates when Balasaraswathi condemned Rukmini Devi's puritanistic interpretations and applications of Sringara rasa. [edit] The Bhavas The Natyasastra identifies eight rasas with eight corresponding Bhava (mood): y y y y y y y y Rati (Love) Hasya (Mirth) Soka (Sorrow) Krodha(Anger) Utsaha (Energy) Bhaya (Terror) Jugupsa (Disgust) Vismaya (Astonishment) [edit] Influence on cinema Rasa has been an important influence on the cinema of India. Kuchipudi. The duality of this kind of a rasa imbrication" shows in The Apu Trilogy (1955±1959)." in contrast to the Western Stanislavski method where the actor must become "a living. such as Bharatanatyam. Kudiyattam. In the Rasa method. in the sense that the complicated doctrine of Rasa "centers predominantly on feeling experienced not only by the characters but also conveyed in a certain artistic way to the spectator.The theory of rasas still forms the aesthetic underpinning of all Indian classical dance and theatre. The expressions used in Kudiyattam or Kathakali are extremely exaggerated theatrical expressions. breathing embodiment of a character" rather than "simply conveying emotion. kathak.

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