# TIMBER DESIGN

PROPERTIES OF WOOD
a.) EDGE GRAIN – growth rings are not approximately at right angles with the surface lumber.

b.) FLAT GRAIN – face is approximately tangent to the growth ring.

c.) CROSS GRAIN – is the deviation of the direction of the fibers of the wood from a line parallel to the edges of the piece. MODULUS OF ELASTICITY (E) - is the measure of stiffness and durability of materials of a beam, it is the measurement of the resistance to deflection. COMPRESSION - ability of wood to resist compressive stresses, depends upon the direction of the load with respect to the grain of wood then in compression perpendicular to grain. TENSION PARALLEL TO GRAIN - same as unit fiber stress in bending. SHEARING STRESS - ability of timber to resist slippage of one part another along the grain. In beam, it is known as the horizontal shear. NOMINAL SIZE - is the same as undressed size. Dressed size is the actual dimension of a finished product.

WOODEN BEAM
BEAM AND BENDING BEAM – is a structural member subjected to bending flexure induced by traversed loads. BENDING MOMENT – is the summation of moment taken to left or right of the section about the neutral axis.

TWO TYPES OF BENDINGS
a.) SYMMETRICAL BENDING – is that in which the plane of application of the load is perpendicular to any principal area.

W

b.) UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING – the application of the load is not at any principal axes but causes both the major and minor axis. W

CONDITIONS OF EQUILIBRIUM

) 2.) The summation of external shear.) The summation of tensile stress is equal to the summation of compressive stress. VE is equal to summation of resisting shear.) 3.) The summation of external moment ME is equal to summation of resisting moment. The beam must be safe from allowable shear stress.) The beam must be safe from flexural bending. VR ∑FV = 0. RESISTING MOMENT OF RECTANGULAR BEAM . ∑FE = ∑VR 3.) 4. ME VE COMPRESSION MR VR TENSION FOUR MAJOR CONSIDERATION OF BENDING DESIGN 1. The beam must be safe from end bearing and end connection. ∑FH = 0 2. The beam must be safe from deflection.1.

OTHER FORMULA FOR FLEXURAL STRESS: Rectangular: S= bh2 . fb = 6M 24 bh2 S= π (R4 . fb = 4M 4 πr3 S= bh2 . The resisting moment must be equal or > the external moment. fb = 6M 6 bh2 S= πr3 .r4) 4R Triangle: Tube: FLOOR SYSTEM .

d dx X C .A.S TRIBUTARY AREA FLOORING JOIST GIRDER (Main Beam) COLUMN / POST DERIVATION OF FLEXURAL FORMULA: W ELASTIC CURVE N.

c = d 12 2 .A. M = fb dAx = f ∫ dAx c I = ∫ dAx2 FOR RECTANGULAR SECTION: fb = f fb = Mc I f = Mc I where: fb = 12Md/2 bd2 fb = 6M bd2 I = bd3 .By Ratio and Proportion Stress Diagram f c = fb x f = c fb x f=x f c therefore: fb = f Summing of Moment from N.

A wooden beam 150 mm x 250 mm is to carry the loads shown. 150mm 15 Kn 250mm 6 Kn / m 2m 14 1m ∑MA =0 RB = 15 (2) + 6 (3) (1.5) 3 RA = 19 kN Mmax = 16 KN-m fb = 6M bd2 = 6 (16) (1000)2 150 (250) 2 fb = 10.ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: 1. Determine the maximum flexural stress of the beam.24 MPa .5) 2 -13 -19 16 3 RB = 19 kN ∑MB =0 RA = 15 (2) + 6 (3) (1.

For what max.2. What is the value of P? P W 6m 2m . If the max. A timber beam 100 mm x 300 mm x 8 m carries he loading as shown. value of w will the shear be zero under P. flexural stress is 9 MPa.

75P ∑MB =0 RA = 2P + 8w (4) 8 RA = 0.25P Solve for P: P = 8(750) P = 6000N 3. carry a floor joist load at 5 KN/m2.25P)(1000)2 (100)(300)2 4.25P 2w = 0.25P + 4w V&P=0 Then: Substitute P = 8w 4.∑MA =0 RB = 6P + w(8) (4) 8 RB = 4w + 0.05 w = 0.25P) fb = 6M bd2 9MPa = 6(3)(4w + 0.75 KN ≈ 750 N 0 = (4w + 0. A floor joist 50 mm x 200 mm simply supported on a 4 m span. Compute the centerline spacing between the joists to develop a bending stress of 8 MPa.5 = 4w + 0. What safe floor load could be carried on a centerline spacing of 0.5 = 4w + 2.25P) – 6w (8w) 0 = -2w +0.40 m? .25P P = 8w Mmax = 3 (4w + 0.

w = ? Mmax = wL2 8 = 0.) s = 0.8P)(1000) 2 (50)(200)2 P = 3.) Mmax = wL2 8 = 5s(4) 8 Mmax = 10s KN-m fb = 6M bd2 8 = 6(10s)(1000) 2 (50)(200)2 s = 0.40m .40(P)(4) 2 8 Mmax = 0.27m 2 b.80P fb = 6M bd2 8 = 6(0.33 KN-m HORIZONTAL SHEARING STRESS General Equation fv = VQ .W 6m 50mm 200 mm Sol’n: a.

Compute the required section modulus from the flexural or solve for bh².A.Ib where: fv = shear stress. select adequate section. b/h = ¼ or R/h ≤ 20 . shear. bending moment and max. MPa V = shear force or Vmax.) Load Analysis – compute the loads.) Determine the max. 2. V and M diagram to shown the loads their location. the beam will be required to support and make a dimension sketch (beam). 3/2 ≥ 4/3 for trapezoidal section DESIGN OF BEAMS PROCEDURE: 1. KN or N Q = statistical moment I = moment of inertia FOR RECTANGULAR SECTION (DERIVATION) where: h/4 h/2 N. eq’n FOR ANY SECTION fv = VQ Ib V {bh2 } = 8 3 bh · b 12 fv = 3V = 3V 2bh 2A fv = k(V/A) k = 3/2 for rectangular k = 4/3 for circular k = 2 for circular thinning k = bet. h I = bh3 12 Q = h · bh 4 2 2 Q = bh 8 b Substitute Q in the gen.

Moment and Max Shear L. revise the section. Gs = 0.8 KPa.5 m o.79 [2. LL = 4.5 m 0.79 + 1920 w = 1984.) Investigate/ analyze the beam selected for bending and horizontal shear if it falls.L + L.L = 4800(0. = 0. thick T&G flooring on floor joist are supported by girders spaced @ 2.4) L. [1] Load Analysis w = D.c.L D.L = 64.3.L = 64.] Max. Investigate the beam for deflection.L + L.L. Design the floor joist using 63% stress grade guijo .65(9810)(0.4 m Data: flooring: T & G = 1” Joist = 63% Stress grade fb = 17.79 N/m w = D.89 Mpa Soln. TRIBUTARY AREA FLOORNG 2.65.1 Mpa fv = 1.L = 1920 W L/2 L/2 Vmax = wL . Problem: The second floor of an apartment building is a constructed out of 1 in.0254)(0.4) D.

59) 2 [3.51 MPa < 1.61(2.2 = 1984.4 mm ≈ 50 mm .47 MPa < 17.76 2 2 50(150) = 2032.61 N/m fb = 6M LL = 1920 N/m bd2 therefore: = 6(1587.61 +1920 fb = 8.99 N Mmax = wL2 8 = 1984.5) fv = 0.62)(1000) bh2 2 bh = 544.89 MPa 2 SAFE Vmax = 2540.61(2.5) 8 fv = 3 · V Mmax = 1587.1 = 6(1550.98)(1000) w = DL + LL 50(150) 2 = 112.050)(0.62 N-m Mmax FLEXURE: fb = MC = 6M I bd2 17.98 N-m 2 A Vmax = wL 3 · 2540.79(2.007.50)/2 Vmax = 2480.19 (129.077.59 mm ≈ 150 mm b = 32.15) = 112.79 + (0.76 N Adopt: 50 mm x 150 mm floor joist b = 1 = b= h h 4 4 therefore: bh2 = h · h2 4 h3 = 544.79 (2.1 MPa w = 2032.19 mm3 4 therefore: h = 129.19 mm3 therefore: b= 544.077.] ANALYSIS w = DL + LL from flexure DL = 64.61 N/m SAFE Mmax = wL2 8 from shear 2 = 2032.5) 2 8 Mmax = 1550.65)(9810)(0.

43s(3)[2/3(3) + 2] 2(5) R2 = 35. back up a dam restraining water deep (3 m).81 (3) P = 29.83s .43 KN-m Solving the reactions due to fluid pressure ∑MR1 = 0 R2 = 29. Compute the centerline spacing of the timber to cause a flexural stress of 7 MPa. supported at top and bottom.43s(3)[(1/3)(3)] (2)5 R1 =8.PROBLEM: Timber 200 mm x 300 mm and 5 m long.32s 2m 5m ∑MR2 = 0 R1 = 29. P P =f h = 9.

43(s) 3 _ y = 9.34m Mmax = 8.83s – 4.905s(x2) x = 1.81)s(1.5(9.5(9.Solving for x and Mmax: in terms of s: by ratio & proportion _ _ y/ x = 29.81s)x2 0 = 8.56s)(1000)2 200(300) 2 s = 0.34] Mmax = 26.34 m ∑ MA = Mmax y VA 2m R1 MA X = 1.34) .56s Therefore: fb = 6M bd2 7 = 6(26.83s(3.81(s)(x) ∑ fv = 0 VA = 0 = 8.0.83s – 0.79 mm .34)[(1/3) 1.

d = bd1 2 b d1 OR d1 = 3 · V · d 2 fv b LENGTH OF A NOTCH V ZQ R = Vmax = ½(ZQ)b therefore: L = 2Vmax ZQb where: .NOTCHED BEAMS b d1 d THE REQUIRED ARE GIVEN BY: fv = 3 · V or 3 · V 2 A 2 bd fv = 3 · V .

3. Data: For 80% guijo W fb = 21. 4.26 Mpa . Unit load method Method of superposition Conjugate method Double integration 3 – Moment Equation Example: Design the beam shown using 80% stress grade guijo. 2. = kwL2 EI where: k = numerical coeff. Use a portion of E ranging from ½ to ¾ if the deflection is due to a constant load like DL. Use full value of Young’s Modulus of Elasticity.L = length of the notch ZQ = allowable stress in compression DEFLECTION OF BEAMS Allowable Limits: L/360 L/700 L/200 L/480 L/360 to the given = for beams carrying plastered ceiling = for beams carrying a line of shafting = for railroad stringer = for beams supporting concrete forms of R.C. 2. depending on the load of the beam w = total load.8 Mpa fv = 2. if the deflection is due to transmit loads like live loads. slabs or beams = for all other unless specified 1. 5.4 Mpa Za = 4. KN/m L = span in meter E = Modulus of Elasticity I = Moment of Inertia METHODS IN CALCULATING DEFLECTIONS 1.

33 mm say 300mm b = 67.6)(1000) 100(300) 4.75)+10(3)+1.55 KN.6 x 1000) · 300 2.25)-1.67 6 Rb = 6.6 KN Mmax = 17.55 KN.4 100 d1 = 134.4 = 3/2·9.26 Mpa d= d= 3/2 · V/fv · d or h b 3/2 (9.1.26(100) L = 45.07 mm fvall > fvact safe! Adopt:100X300mm (BEAM) 3.16 d = 134.5 1.) DEPTH OF THE NOTCH L = 2V ZQb ZQ = 4.48 A 2.M Vmax = 9.8 N/mm² = 6(17.0 1.60KN 2.5 Reactions: ∑Ma =0 Rb = 2(4.8 Mpa fv = 2.08 mm say 100mm try: 100X 300 mm BEAM. fb = 6M bh² 21.m)(1000²) bh² bh² = 4.) TRIAL SECTION LOAD: fb = 21.4 KN ∑Ma =0 Ra = 10(3)+2(4.4 Mpa for flexure: b = h/4 h/4· h² = 4.5)(5.16 mm .67 6 Ra = 12.83 x106 CHECK FROM fv LENGTH OF THE NOTCH fv = 3/2 Vmax = .5 3.83 x106 h = 268.5)(.6(1000) L= 2(9.

a. FIGURE: 200 mm 40 mm CONECTION 100 mm 20 mm SOLUTION: a.A. DET.) Solve for N. Theorem) . (V.) Shearing stress of the N.A.) Shearing stress @ the junction bet.45. shearing force of 60 KN. two pieces of wood.07 ANALYSIS OF IRREGULAR SECTION: Problem: The T – section is the cross – section of the beam formed by the joining two regular pieces of wood together the beam is subjected to a max. b.

57x106 (200) b.28 MPa Ib 10.000) = 3.A1 = 200 (40) = 8. Q = 200(40)(14) Q = 112.28 MPa Ib 10.79 MPa For: b = 200 mm.57x106 (200) fv = 31. Q = 200(34)(17) Q = 115.57x106 mm4 fv = VQ = 60(1000)(115.57x106 (200) fv = 3. neglect beam weight.000 mm3 fv = VQ = 60(1000)(112.000 A2 = 100 (20) = 2. .000 mm3 fv = VQ = 60(1000)(112.600) = 3.28 MPa Ib 10.000 mm² _ 10.000 AT = 10.) Shear stress from the joint For: b = 20 mm. Q = 20(100)(56) Q = 112.600 mm3 Solve for I (by transfer formula) INA = I + Ad² = [200(40) + 8000(14)² + 20(100) 12 3 + 200(56)² ] 12 INA = 10.000 y = 8000(20) + 2000(90) _ therefore: y = 34 mm from top for: b = 200. if fbALL = 10.18 MPa PROBLEM: Determine the safe concentrated load P @ the center of the trapezoidal section having a simple span of ? m.000) = 3.34 MPa.

A 41.15x106 mm4 fb = MC I 10.5) + 14375 (14.89 mm FOR INA INA = I + Ad² = [75 (125) 3 + 9375 (12.67) yb = 49.75 KN + 115 (125) (8.22 REF (ў) N.67 115 mm APPLIED LOAD P Solution: Mmax = PL/4 = 6P/4 Mmax = 1.A.22) 2 2 ] BEAMS LATERALLY UNSUPPORTED Allowable Extreme Fiber Stress: .61 8.: 3m eq’n 1 A1 = 75(125) = 9375 mm² A2 = 2[1/2 (115) (125)] = 14375 mm² AT = 23750 mm² By V.34 = 1.61)2 ] + 2 [115 (125) 36 3 12 INA = 27.75 mm 62.5 12.5P (49.89) (1000)² INA P = 3. Theorem: 23750 yb = 9375 (62.5P 3m From: fb = MC I Locate N.

45 MPa < 0.when the span with no lateral supports exceeds 20 times the width of L > 20 B where: f = allowable extreme fiber stress for a beam laterally supported fb or fp = allowable extreme finer stress for the timber when beam is laterally supported L = unsupported span of the beam b = width of the beam PROBLEM: A beam having a span length of 4. Assume weight of wood is 0.5 KN at the third points of the span.5 KN Mmax =20.5) (1000) 2 (150) (300) fv = 0.7 = 6 (20.53x106 13.5 KN R2 = 13. Given: fb = 9.5 1.7 MPa fv = 0.53x106 but: b = d/4 . the beam is laterally unsupported.25 therefore: d = 292.83 MPa ok! CHECK: L/b > 20 L/b = 4500 = 30 > 20 ok! R1 = 13.25) (1000) 2 bd2 therefore: bd2 = 12.5 1.3 KN/m Sol’n: from flexure: fb = 6M bd2 9.f = fb [1 – L 100b the member or: ] . If the allowable bending stress is 9. d/2 try: b = d/2 d/2 (d) = 12.7 MPa for a beam laterally supported and an allowable shearing stress of 0.5 13.5 1.5 KN Vmax = 13.5 20.64 mm ≈300 mm b = 146.5 m has two concentrated load of 13.25 KN-m .31 mm ≈ 150 mm try: 150 mm x 300 mm From Shearing fv = 3/2 (V/A) = 3 (13.83 MPa.3 KN/m3.83 MPa g = 6. Design the approximate size of the beam to carry these loads.

83 ok! Then: fb = 6M bd2 = 6 (20.32 MPa > 6.71 20.97 MPa < 7.96 20.79 MPa not ok! Revise the Dimension: bd2 = 12.96 KN-m 14.53x106 d = 368. = 6.13 From Shearing: fv = 3 (14.30) = 0.88 20.5 1.150 Considering the weight of the beam: 13.21 -13.13) (1000) 150 (300) fv = 0.13 KN Mmax = 20.52 MPa ok! .5 1.7 1 – 4500 100(150) f = 6.28 KN/m Vmax = 14.96) (1000)2 200 (375)2 fb = 4.52 MPa From Bending: f = 9.5 1.79 MPa [ ] [ ] fb = 6M bd2 = 6 (20.3 (0.15) (0.17 mm ≈ 200 mm try: 200mm x 375 mm f = 9.71 0.88 -14.47 < 0.13 13.7 1 – 4500 100 (200) f = 7.66 mm ≈ 375 mm b = 92.5 13.96) (1000)2 100 (300)2 fb = 9.21 -0.5 Beam wt.

BEAM IN UNSYMMETRICAL BENDING METHOD 1: MOMENT RESOLUTION METHOD W WN Where: Wn = Wcos∅ WT WT = Wsin∅ a. Due to tangential load WT d b fbWT = fbW + fbf ≤ fbALL (Bi-axial Bending) METHOD 2: JACOBY’S METHOD tanß= d2/b2 tan£ = Ix/Iy tan£ WN W WT Y =b where: y = ½ (dcosß + bsinß) I = bd/2[(dcos ß) 2 + (bsinß)2] (dcosß + bsin£) 2IX 2IY fbT = 6MT bd2 . Due to normal load fbN = 6MN bd2 WN d b b.

6) cos20° = 0. g = 5. Determine the max. 0.66 KN/m WDL = 0.6) + 1 (0. purlin spaced at 0. E = 13.6 Sol’n: WDL = Wt roof + Wt purlins = 0.09 KN/m fbALL ≥ fbACT fbALL = 10.77 (0.5 m fbACT = fbN + fbT PROBLEM: In the figure shown.5 m and a 63% stress grade tanguile is used.10 (0. flexural stress of the beam if the allowable deflection is limited to 10 mm.8 GPa.C.6 m O.9 MPa 1.6 0. determine the flexural stress of the beam. E = 13. the support @ A is 12 mm below the level of B.6 KN/m3 SPACING OF RIVETS/BOLTS IN BUILT-UP BEAMS: . It carries uniform load of 7. PROBLEM: A 100 mm x 200 mm beam 6 m long is supported @ the ends and at midspan.8 GPa.5 KN/m exceeding its own weight.434 KN/m WTOTAL = 1.6) WDL = 0. if it has a single span of 1. If the beam is 75 mm x 150 mm.PROBLEM: Check the adequacy of 50 mm x 70 mm.

and secured by screw spaced 50 mm apart. The beam section is a box beam built-up as shown.PROBLEM: A distributed load w (KN/m) is applied over the entire length of the simply supported beam 4 m long. Determine the maximum value of w if fb = 10 MPa.80 MPa and the screws have a shearing strength of 800 N each. PROBLEM: Three planks 75 mm x 200 mm are bolted together to form a built-up beam with 100 mm∅ bolt in a single row-spaced 125 mm apart. fv = 0. If the bolts can develop 90 MPa shear. what is the safe uniform load a cantilever beam with 3 m span could carry neglecting beam weight. .