PREFACE

The Mothball Manual is a source for information for mothballing buildings and equipment in Saudi Aramco. The manual was compiled from information furnished from Saudi Aramco's technical personnel and input from U.S. Company experts. It is meant to be a guideline for mothballing equipment and facilities and as such does not give specific directions for each piece of equipment. Additional information including a chapter on instrumentation will be furnished as it becomes available. In this way it is hoped this manual can be kept up to date and therefore be of maximum use. If you require further information or assistance regarding this manual, please contact Roger Sarathy at 875-3520.

I.F. AL-ADEL, Coordinator Corrosion Control Division Consulting Services Dept.

Signed _______________________

AER 2365 TSI 51-156

SAUDI ARAMCO MOTHBALL MANUAL

FOR OILFIELD PRODUCTION PROCESSING AND REFINING EQUIPMENT

I II III IV V VI

INTRODUCTION PHILOSOPHY OF MOTHBALLING CORROSION OF MOTHBALLED EQUIPMENT AND PIPELINES PLANNING OF MOTHBALL PROCEDURES PROTECTIVE MATERIALS FOR MOTHBALLING GUIDELINES FOR MOTHBALLING OF SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. WELLS PIPELINES VALVES PRESSURE VESSELS TANKAGE HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT ROTATING EQUIPMENT ELECTRIC EQUIPMENT AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS FLARE SYSTEMS BOILERS AND FIRED HEATERS BUILDINGS

4 5 9 13 15

22 22 26 39 43 49 56 62 82 92 94 96 102 106

VII

MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE DURING MOTHBALLING

VIII

APPENDIX A. B. C. Extracts from Exxon Refinery Mothballing Guide for Saudi Aramco. Recommended mothballing materials in SAMS. Product Information Boiler Lay-up Procedures - Refer to GI-403.001 1

107 108 119 120 121

. operating plants and pipeline systems are being considered for mothballing for a period of 3 . The manual has been reviewed by Technical Specialists of Saudi Aramco and each of the U. and refining equipment. Saudi Aramco's recent investigation of mothballed facilities. plants and pipeline systems have indicated various mothballing procedures have given satisfactory results. oilfield production and processing equipment in Saudi Arabia and the US Companies. The basic guidelines and recommendations in this manual are not mandatory. some buildings. Companies.TSI 51-156 SAUDI ARAMCO MOTHBALL MANUAL CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION This manual provides basic guidelines and recommendations for the preparation of detailed procedures for mothballing buildings. processing. Due to long range forecasts for crude production In-Kingdom. Various plants and facilities have already been mothballed for 2 1/2 years and may remain mothballed for an additional 5 to 10 years. They are based on the experience gained over the last few years in mothballing buildings.S. whereas others are considered unsatisfactory. oilfield production.10 years.

. however. Therefore. time and effort. General Categories for Mothballing .3 years Over 3 years Over 5 years Start-up Time Less than 3 months 6 to 12 months 1 to 2 years TABLE 1.page 7. The expected recommissioning time. the plant and/or equipment that is involved is very costly in terms of capital investment or replacement value. Recommissioning with a minimum cost and delay. It is in Saudi Aramco's interest to put the equipment in such state that it can be maintained in good condition at a minimum cost.CHAPTER II PHILOSOPHY OF MOTHBALLING OBJECTIVES The need for mothballing occurs when the operation of a plant or facility is not currently needed to achieve Saudi Aramco's objectives. Refer to Chapter VI section 12 which addresses building preservation. When operational requirements dictate the return of the facilities and the equipment to active service. long term and minimum first cost mothballing. Quite often. Selecting the optimum mothballing procedure requires an economic evaluation of alternatives. 2. it is desirable to accomplish this with minimum cost. The length of shutdown anticipated is important to this evaluation. The continuation of the preservation state with a minimum of maintenance attention. effectiveness in preventing deterioration and the ease with which the plant can be reactivated. is the most significant factor. provides a comparison of basic differences between short term. the objectives of mothballing can be stated as follows: 1 Preservation of the buildings and equipment without a significant loss of useful operating life and without excessive costs. 3. The protection of shutdown equipment is always a compromise between cost of preservation. Downtime Short Term Mothball Long Term Mothball Minimum first cost Mothball 1/2 . The value of the equipment involved and the cost of maintenance are also necessary for a complete determination of the economics. The following definitions are used in this manual for mothballing equipment for different periods of downtime. The above definitions are not applicable for mothballing buildings.

Sea coast locations vary in corrosivity. 2. If the cost of mothballing. Using a hydrocarbon for a mothballing medium may also increase start-up time when internal inspection and/or hydrotesting is required prior to start-up. Mothballing for more than six months requires more preparation and observance of specific precautions (minimum first cost mothballing is an exception). Equipment disassembly and remote storage may reduce deterioration but significantly increase startup cost and duration. equipment and facilities located in the Southern area suffer more from the effects of sand than equipment and facilities located in the Northern area. Mothballing pipelines used for dry sweet gas or dry crude is less costly and less complicated than mothballing pipelines used for wet crude. 4. On the other hand.Factors Influencing Mothballing Procedures The following factors have an important influence on the choice of mothballing procedures for a certain piece of equipment or a facility: 1. Such short-term layup is not covered in this Mothball Manual. Relating Mothballing Cost to Replacement & Maintenance Costs The economics of a mothballing procedure must be considered. Nature of Product Internal protection needed for pipeline systems and pressure vessels varies with the nature of the product. 5. Climate Equipment can deteriorate rapidly in warm. Saudi Arabia has a variety of climates. has a relatively dry climate and equipment in this area is subject to less external corrosion than equipment located in the more humid Northern area and in offshore fields. and maintaining the equipment in a mothballed state is nearly equal to the cost of replacement or if the equipment is or may become obsolete. humid climates while corrosion is less in dry environments. recommissioning. depending on temperature. humidity and prevailing winds. in general. seawater or raw well water. it should be a candidate for abandonment. More extensive initial mothballing expenses may reduce routine maintenance costs and/or equipment deterioration. Recommissioning Time Time available for recommissioning is the significant factor in selecting a mothballing procedure. 3. . Length of Shutdown Facilities which will be idle less than six months require little more than the normal turnaround precautions. The southern area.

9. Obsolete in this context means that spare parts and/or competent servicing is either unavailable or excessively expensive. equipment reutilization (cannibalization) should be discouraged in short-term mothballing. Security Measures to Control Loss of Equipment Measures to control reutilization of mothballed equipment should be part of a mothball procedure.6. nitrogen may be generated within one facility and be the obvious choice as an inert media while another location may not have nitrogen readily available. instruments. mothballed within an operating plant can be routinely inspected and serviced by the plant operators with little additional cost/effort. If time is unavailable for proper planning and execution of mothballing procedures. The same pump located on an offshore GOSP which has been mothballed in its entirety would not routinely have personnel available to perform frequent mothball maintenance checks. In most cases. etc. 10. 11. Possibility of Obsolete Technology After Being Brought Back into Service Considerations should be given to the possibility that certain equipment (especially instrumentation) will be obsolete at the end of the mothball period. dry. strictly controlled in long-term situations and actively encouraged in minimum first cost mothballing. Time Required for Mothballing It may take significant time to develop an appropriate mothball plan for a facility. more costly solutions should be expected. however. 7. Availability of Protective Media The availability of the protective media for mothballing must be considered. sweet gas or dry crude may be convenient to use as an inert media. For example. . Storage Facilities Availability of local (plant) storage facilities may encourage inside storage of equipment such as small pumps. such as an electric motor driven pump. Availability and Cost of Maintenance Personnel A specific piece of equipment. 8. The implementation of different mothballing techniques requires different times. rather than leaving them in place.

Table 1 .General Categories For Mothballing Short Term Mothball Time out of service Time to restart (Snap back time) Mothballing Cost Mothballing Maintenance Cost Cannibalization Restart Cost 1/2 to 3 years Less than 3 months Medium Significant Long Term Mothball Over 3 years 6 to 12 months High Some Minimum First Cost Mothball Over 5 years 1 to 2 years (Major reconstruction) Low None Not permitted Low Strictly controlled Medium Encouraged High Only for Cathodic Protection.Lights & Communications Not available Off Off Electric Power Required Yes Yes Instrument Air Control House A/C Instrument Power On or Off On usually On usually Not available Off usually Off usually .

moisture may penetrate insulation and cause severe corrosion of the underlying steel if it is uncoated or unpainted. For insulated unpainted systems strong consideration should be given to removing the insulation from the piping and/or vessels undergoing long-term mothballing in offshore and humid areas since it is unlikely that corrosion will be avoided in these locations. Without moisture there is minimal corrosion and therefore many insulated pipes and vessels have no protective paint or coating. it is recommended that insulation be left in place over coated/painted systems in all locations. .CHAPTER III CORROSION OF MOTHBALLED EQUIPMENT AND PIPELINES GENERAL Oilfield equipment including that used in oil. it should be determined if underlying steel is protected via a coating. For short-term mothballing of coated or non-painted system. in the presence of variable ambient temperatures. however. however. For both short-term and long-term mothballing of insulated unpainted systems located offshore or in shoreline facilities. Cathodic Protection Cathodic protection systems must remain active for mothballed equipment to retain its expected life. When an insulated facility is mothballed. If corrosion is detected insulation should be removed and the damage repaired. temperature and flow. annual inspection of the insulation and underlying steel (via exposed windows) is recommended. 2. EXTERNAL CORROSION 1. Operating corrosion rates of less than 3 mpy can suddenly increase to 100 mpy during shutdown periods. they are unacceptable in mothballed facilities. A. it can experience far more damage in a short time period than in several years of normal operation. When such equipment is shutdown. is designed for operational conditions of pressure. While relatively high corrosion rates may be tolerated for short term shutdowns. Insulated Lines/Vessels Insulated systems are normally at a relatively constant temperature during routine operation which prevents moisture accumulation beneath the insulation. the insulation should be inspected and repaired to reduce the probability of moisture penetration. Insulated painted systems should be inspected every two years. gas and water production. as well as processing and transportation facilities.

When oxygen is present.metal exhibits anodic and cathodic sites. B. Oxygen ingress must be prevented in a wet system since oxygen scavengers in the mothballing fluid will rapidly be consumed if continued oxygen ingress is allowed. The presence of water causes concern because of three possible mechanisms for corrosion attack: oxygen. drift sand is dry and will cause only minor damage to piping/vessels etc. acid. INTERNAL CORROSION 1. Sand removal for protection against corrosion should always be justified from an economic standpoint. During this reaction.3. Paint Systems Paint systems should be maintained for short-term and long-term mothballing for corrosion prevention and/or aesthetics. sand control efforts should be limited to those required to maintain facility/equipment access for routine mothball maintenance. however. If wet salts are contained in the sand. In general. • Oxygen -. Iron dissolves at the anode when an electrolyte (water) is present. hydrogen is formed at the cathode which may eventually stifle the reaction (polarization). Wet Systems Equipment mothballed with free water present in the mothball media are 'wet systems'. and sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB). Since the cost of the damage may be small compared to the costs involved in removing the sand. Organic corrosion inhibitors added to the mothballing fluid are ineffective in controlling damaging corrosion in the presence of oxygen. Sand Control Drifting sand will cover plant equipment not designed or protected for buried service and therefore may limit access to the facility. 4. The initial oxygen dissolved in a water-filled vessel or pipeline will be consumed very quickly (in the corrosion process) and does not do significant damage while continued oxygen (air) ingress in a wet system will significantly increase corrosion rates. Air plus sulfides left in mothballed systems can give polythionic acids which are very corrosive and damaging to stainless steel. . No paint maintenance should be considered in minimum cost mothballing. a highly corrosive environment may occur. it combines with this hydrogen and allows the reaction to continue (depolarization). however.

Since chemical biocides will degrade over time their initial concentrations must be calculated and enough biocides added to last throughout the mothball period or the biocides must be recharged based on corrosion monitoring and bacterial population assessment. Dry Systems Equipment mothballed with the moisture content of the media controlled to avoid corrosion are known as 'dry systems'. biocides added to the initial fill fluid may give sterilization.• Acid -. thus retreatment after biocide degradation is unnecessary.g. Dryness can be specified as a dewpoint or in terms of relative humidity. • Water can be made biocidal via high pH (above 10) or use of chemical biocides.9 months. however. 2. These salts are hygroscopic and can cause corrosion without freewater. These bacteria populations can cause pitting corrosion by producing acid.H2S and/or CO2 from sour crude or in produced water can cause water in these systems to become acidic. A very dry atmosphere (-30 deg F dew point) or a controlled relative humidity of 40 percent is required to ensure protection of sensitive equipment. With the exception of sulfur handling areas. a check must be made on their compatibility. Equipment containing electrical contacts (e. Biocides presently in use have a half-life of about 6 . In this case the equipment should either be cleaned prior to mothballing (water washed. In mothballed systems containing only a small amount of water (i. + 30 deg F) conditions will ensure that free water will not be present. severe corrosion will not occur without "free water" present. they require sufficient water to cause significant damage. will retain a layer of salts on the metal surfaces. Water systems that have been in operation for an extended period of time often have established SRB colonies. instrumentation). a gas filled system which has been drained but not dried). If both biocides and oxygen scavengers are used. In general. In relatively insensitive equipment. Setting a dewpoint below what can be expected for ambient temperature (e. steamed out or chemically cleaned) or the specified dewpoint should be lowered to -40 deg F. Biocides are more effective in killing free floating bacteria than bacteria 'hidden' under slime and/or scale on the pipe or vessel wall. In systems which have not been in operation.g. SRB's will cause insignificant damage. severe acid attack is not anticipated in Saudi Aramco's mothballed facilities.e. Using high pH (above 10) water will prevent bacterial attack throughout an extended mothball period. In such cases. however. SRB -.sulfate reducing bacteria can become active in water systems that contain less than 10% dissolved salts and are oxygen free. . tanks and vessels. Equipment which previously contained high salt content fluids. this specification is sufficient. thin walled exchanger tubing and machined surfaces is very sensitive to damage from minor corrosion. biocides even in very high concentrations will not sterilize these systems. such as pipelines..

3. If the temperature drops below the dewpoint of the air and condensation occurs. . ambient mothballing may provide a good solution for equipment which is not sensitive to corrosion. the condensate will reevaporate when the temperature rises above the dewpoint. Ambient Systems Ambient systems are essentially dry systems with the dewpoint or relative humidity uncontrolled. In the relatively dry climate surrounding onshore facilities in Saudi Arabia.

6. 3. The initial objectives of the task force should be: 1. Provide mothball cost estimates. Several different technical specialties may be required to develop a complete mothball procedure for a facility. Obtain feedback on recent plant mothballing problems. long-term. 2. or minimum first cost) the subject facilities. Any routine mothball inspection/maintenance required should be an integral part of the mothball procedure with responsibility for record keeping during the mothball period and third party audit procedure clearly established. 7. . The mothball team should be organized to develop procedures based on each individual's functional specialty rather than on administrative areas. engineering and operating personnel who will be assigned to write specific mothball procedures for the related facilities and/or pipe-systems in their responsible area. Clearly define the assumptions used for developing the procedures and define the responsibility for ensuring that the assumptions do not change. instrumentation.CHAPTER IV PLANNING OF MOTHBALL PROCEDURES It is recommended that a Mothball Team be established to develop specific procedures for mothballing and recommissioning. 5. 4. rotating equipment. vessels/piping/exchangers. inspection/maintenance and recommissioning. Recommend the general philosophy to be followed in mothballing (short-term.inspection. Since mothballing is often accompanied by manpower reductions and personnel transfers. This task force should be selected from experienced maintenance. petroleum engineering and utilities. Obtain Management approval of philosophy and selected option. using this Mothball Manual for guidelines. corrosion. Write specific procedures for initial mothballing. ensuring that the maintenance tasks specified are performed continuously throughout the mothball period is difficult. These specialties would include electrical. recommissioning costs and option comparisons. Identify mothballing options and alternatives.

For example. . After these basic assumptions are made. the choice of specific procedures will often be made from uncertain probabilities. Every one or two years a review of assumptions used and procedures in effect is required to ensure a system is effectively mothballed. a system can be dried effectively or be left water filled with oxygen excluded and SRB's controlled over a 'long' period. the requirement or value of a short recommissioning period and the expected downtime must be established (more often assumed) in order to develop cost effective procedures.Because the economics involved in mothballing will normally be based primarily on poorly defined assumptions.

BB-N-411b. and gaseous nitrogen. Using a liquid N2 source is recommended if available. Normally a maximum dew point is specified with the specification adjusted to match the mothball requirements. Inert is defined as a media which is noncorrosive for oilfield applications and may include: 1. Intervals between repressurizing will increase with time from four to eight months. When leaks are detected. Experience with mothballed plants indicates some maintenance effort is required to ensure nitrogen pressure. cost $10 each) equivalent to $0. type II. therefore. type 1 grade C class 1 per Fed. Disadvantages are: • • 2. The later is provided in cylinders (180 SCF.CHAPTER V PROTECTIVE MATERIALS FOR MOTHBALLING A. valves must have packing tightened or replaced and flanges and/or threaded connections must be sealed. liquified nitrogen. Nitrogen (N2) Nitrogen is an inert gas and is available as bulk. readily available in bulk as liquified nitrogen type II and gaseous nitrogen type I. . INERT MEDIA In order to make an environment virtually noncorrosive during the mothball period. one can choose a number of alternatives. tends to dry out seals and packing leaks must be controlled Dry Sweet Fuel Gas Dry means no free water is initially present or will condense from the gas during the mothball duration. These vary from (a) monitoring positive pressure of the process fluids to (b) replacement of corrosive process fluids with an inert media. Nitrogen (or other dry gases) tend to dryout and degrade packing material and flange gaskets.06/SCF gaseous N2. Spec. perhaps longer. these must be checked regularly in order to control leakage which can be detected with a leak detector or a soap solution. The advantages of using nitrogen are: • • nonflammable and nontoxic.

Hydrocarbons tend to wet flange gaskets and valve packing which expands the material and seals against leaks. flammable can form explosive mixture with air more expensive than nitrogen in some locations leaks must be controlled tends to dry out seals and packing Dry Air Dry air is an excellent mothball media if the system is initially dry or can be thoroughly dried during the mothballing process. The advantages of using dry air are: • • • • nonflammable nontoxic no problems with disposal facilitates internal inspection The disadvantages are: • • • • 4. Some water may settle out from these liquid hydrocarbons. Quarterly check for water should be conducted thereafter. The system should be maintained at a dewpoint of +30 deg F or lower or the relative humidity controlled to 40 percent or less.The advantage of using dry fuel gas is: • inexpensive and readily available at certain locations Disadvantages are: • • • • • 3. timely remedial action can be taken to prevent loss of these mothball media. Since leaks are easily detected. and monthly draining at low points is recommended until no further water is found. it may dry out seals may form explosive mixture with hydrocarbons Other Hydrocarbons Hydrocarbons such as diesel. The advantages of using hydrocarbons are: . kerosene or nominally dry crude are good protective materials although they sometimes need the addition of corrosion inhibitors to ensure protection against any water which may be present in the system at the time of mothballing. may be expensive positive pressure may be difficult to maintain if very low dew point is required.

Water While water is normally not considered inert. decompose with time. The advantages of using water are: • • inexpensive readily available The disadvantages are: • • • possibility of pitting corrosion by SRB disposal problems if biocide is present air ingress must be prevented by positive nitrogen or gas pressure .• • • Saudi Aramco's experience in their use. readily available reusable (in some locations) Disadvantages are: • • • • flammable disposal problems (depending on location) Toxic Hydrojetting will be required before recommissioning to remove sheets of rust formed on the metal due to the water present in the hydrocarbons 5. The use of water for long term mothballing is questionable since biocides. If the mothballed facility is recommissioned before the biocide has been allowed to decompose. a biocide disposal problem may be encountered because even a low concentration of these chemicals can pose an environmental hazard. added to prevent the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria. (depending on location). This allows SRB colonies to grow and they may present a pitting problem. with proper conditioning it may be used to mothball systems and an acceptable corrosion rate can be maintained. A system mothballed with water should also be kept under positive pressure (nitrogen or sweet gas) to prevent pitting damage caused by oxygen (air) ingress.

6. corrective measures may be taken. however. In the onshore areas. the condensed water will evaporate. the percentage of time that free water exists in a system due to condensation may be relatively short and even high corrosion rates during that period are acceptable. Ambient air mothballing allows inspection of the facility and. Ambient Air Ambient air is not inert since condensation can occur when the ambient temperature drops significantly. When the temperature rises again. if corrosion is occurring. The advantages of using ambient air: • • • • inexpensive readily available accessibility of equipment to inspection nonflammable The disadvantages are: • condensation of water will cause corrosion .

Advantages Safe. Dry Air (dew point +30 deg F to -40 deg F Depends on amount and source. noncorrosive in Flammable. Fuel Gas Depends on location disposal Readily available in most locations absence of moisture. easy disposal. Ambient Air Least expensive Facilities Inspection low cost . lower the dew point the more expensive flammable. contaner noncorrosive. Water Depends on location May already be present at locations (process fluid) Relatively nontoxic (if biocide free).80/liq gal $0. Motrpgem (N ) 2 Cost Bulk $2. may be corrosive in presence 3.03/SCF or cylinders ease of disposal Depends on location Availability Available in tank truck. nontoxic.Table 2 . Other hydrocarbons including dry crude and diese 5. Flammable. nonflammable. pressure maintenance 2. required Disadvantages Dries out gaskets. potential SRB corrosion Corrosion uncontrolled 6. non- Inexpensive where available easy of moisute Nontoxic. facilities inspection Depends on location May be costly 4.Materials For Mothballing Advantages And Disadvantages Mothball Media 1. may have disposal problems Inexpensive where available Depends on location nonflammable Sensitive to air (oxygen) ingress.

however. Covering of motor. If this type of protection is vapor tight. The equipment can be moved to environmentally controlled storage. it keeps dust. Polyethylene film should not be used outdoors because it deteriorates rapidly. turbine. C. A noncorrosive environment can be maintained within the cover by using a patented CocoonTM method which utilizes a network of wire over which PVC is sprayed. These may be plywood boxes constructed over rotating equipment. Coverings will also retard oxidation or 'drying out' of greases or oils applied to machined surfaces. a cover can be installed over the equipment in place. or in situation where this is not feasible. insulated vessels or piping which have the insulation stripped and are unpainted may be an exception. and stock numbers is shown in Appendix B. VPI's which vaporize effectively in warm climates have a limited life (one to two years per vendor's literature). A listing of covering materials sealants and their stock numbers is shown in Appendix B. if required. Rust preventative greases and oils are relatively inexpensive to apply and remove but generally provide protection for only 6 to 18 months. rain. dew and salts from exposed surfaces. paint. sand. they may also render the enclosed atmosphere toxic. HOUSINGS AND COVERINGS Protective housings and coverings may be applied to reduce deterioration from the environment. etc. and compressor air inlets and taping over applied protective greases is recommended. tape coverings over exposed motor/pump shafts. A coating can be a relatively permanent industrial maintenance type paint or a rust preventative grease or oil. . If the equipment is designed for outside exposure. Vapor phase inhibitors (VPI) are more effective in small enclosures and vessels where vapor leakage is minimum. but. PROTECTIVE COATINGS Coating metal surfaces provides a protective barrier between the metal and the environment and therefore allows the equipment to be placed in an ambient environment of air and/or water where it provides added insurance from corrosion. COCOONING Both internal and external surfaces can be protected by proper storage of equipment in covered and.B. D. conditioned-air enclosures. A listing of coating materials. constructing box enclosures and/or using plastic bags is generally not encouraged. or polyethylene bags over instruments (inside only).) is generally not recommended for mothballing because of the cost involved. The application of permanent coatings (epoxy.

This cost will vary with the location (offshore or onshore). and configuration of the equipment. Automatically controlled air driers maintain moisture content below the corrosion level. . The initial cost for Cocooning expensive rotating equipment in Saudi Arabia is estimated to be 1-3 percent of its capital cost.The environment is maintained by circulating controlled-humidity (40%) air between the Cocoon and the surface of the protected equipment. Since this air is also circulated inside the equipment. The "Cocoon" method enables immediate recommissioning. both internal and external protection is provided.

and the gas phase in some fields is sour but not very aggressive in the absence of oxygen. Oxygen ingress (breathing) is expected to be minimal during short or longterm mothball. Routine annulus pressure surveys and xmas tree valve maintenance should be continued on mothballed wells. Chemical or oil addition is not recommended due to potential toxicity problems.1 Basic Considerations Wells are separated into the following types for mothballing considerations: 1. 3.2 Oil Wells No action is required for mothballing oil wells since shut-in oil wells are generally under positive pressure which excludes oxygen ingress. and the wells should be blinded at the wellhead with on-plot piping treated as part of the well flowline or lateral (TABLE 3). Adding chemical inhibitors or biocides or displacing the well with diesel is not recommended due to potential toxicity problems on start-up.3 Water Wells A. water in wet wells sinks to the bottom. Oil Wells Water Wells Gas Wells Sand encroachment at well heads should be monitored periodically and sand removed when it restricts well access. Potable Water Wells: • Free flowing: Positive pressure in the well will prevent oxygen ingress and severe corrosion attack. 1.CHAPTER VI GUIDELINES FOR MOTHBALLING OF SPECIFIC EQUIPMENT AND FACILITIES 1 WELLS 1. 1. No pressure monitoring or repressurizing is recommended. Non-free flowing: Nitrogen purge (cycle pressure to 30 psig two times) and leave with 30 psig pressure to exclude oxygen. 2. • .

. Both should be shut-in with no treatment for shortterm mothballing. For minimum first cost mothballing. circulated out of the well. Cap gas wells should be mothballed with inhibited diesel or inhibited brine for long-term and minimum first cost mothballing. This will better protect the tubulars from corrosion and avoid SRB and the need for retreatment. Non-Potable Water Wells (Injection and/or Supply) Oxygen Ingress • Free flowing: Oxygen ingress into supply wells will be effectively controlled by positive wellhead pressure. and water analysis for total iron are recommended to track the success of the mothball program in both short-term and long-term mothballing.B. Non-free flowing: Nitrogen purge (cycle pressure to 30 psig two times) and leave with 30 psig pressure to exclude oxygen. A pressure survey is recommended with quarterly surveys for the first year and annual surveys thereafter. Injection wells may lose their pressure after an extended period and may require nitrogen purging for long-term mothballing. • Chemical treating/fluid displacement: Adding corrosion inhibitor or biocide to the well bore fluid is advantageous since it will aid in reducing corrosion and reduce the possibility of SRB attack during the mothballing period. Retreatment after three or more years may be required (based on corrosion monitoring) for long-term mothballing. retreatment is not recommended since SRB attack is a potential problem and not a certainty. Corrosion Monitoring: Semi-annual coupon analysis. sessile and planktonic SRB count. sour gas wells should be mothballed by shuting in with diesel or inhibited brine. A second option is to displace the water in the well bore partially or fully with inhibited diesel. in some cases. 1.4 Gas Wells Deep. An additional recommissioning cost will be incurred for diesel filled injection wells since the diesel should not be injected into the formation and therefore must be backflowed or. No pressure monitoring or repressurizing is recommended since oxygen ingress (breathing) is expected to be minimal. A concentration of 300 ppm of a filming amine corrosion inhibitor and 300 ppm quarternary amine biocide is recommended. These analyses are not recommended for wells that have water displaced by diesel.

- Purge with N2 Lease with 30 psig pressure Do not treat with chemicals or oil No treatment - Same as short term - Same as short term c. Oil Wells Short Term Shut in under positive pressure Long Term Same as short term Minmum First Cost Same as short term 2 Water Wells a. preserve and store No treatment No treatment No treatment b.Semi annually with well head coupons and SRB count None - - None Recommissioning Concerns - - None - Replacement of tubular goods as required .Table 3-A Wells Mothballing Facility 1. Potable water wells free flowing Potable water wells non-free flowing - Remove submersible pumps. Non-potable water wellsfree flowing Maintenance/ Monitoring - - No treatment May require N2 purging Same as short term Annual pressure survey - No treatment - Purge with N2 if needed .

Deep.Table 3-B Wells Mothballing Facility d. Non-potable water wells non-free flowing Short Term Long Term Purge with N2 Leave with 30 psig pressure Treat with inhibitor or biocide (300 ppm) Treat with inhibited diesel Semi annually with well head coupons and SRB count Minmum First Cost Same as short term Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term Retreat with inhibitor or biocide 3 year interval - None Recommissioning concerns 3. sour gas wells Cap gas wells - None - None - Replacement of tubular goods as required - Shut in with inhibited brine or diesel Shut in No treatment - Same as short term - Same as short term b. - - Shut in with inhibited diesel or inhibited brine - Same as long term . Gas Wells a.

Presence of high salinity e.g. flowlines). the majority of our experience has been with relatively dry . by injecting a water soluble filming amine type corrosion inhibitor (200 ppm) into the flowline prior to shutdown. Cathodic protection systems. if present. some provisions for SRB control is required (pH adjustment. Corrosion can be further reduced. hydrocarbon gas or crude. the flowline fluid may be displaced with inhibited 'dry' crude back-flowed from the GOSP (the effectiveness of water displacement via this relatively low velocity backflowing is questionable). chemical biocide treatment. Where the line is left water filled.2 PIPELINES 2. When checking for positive pressure the liquid head should be taken into account with checks performed at both ends of the flowlines. must be left in operation.1 Basic Considerations Pipelines are divided into the following types: Flowlines Crude Transmission Lines Wet Gas Transmission Lines Dry Gas Transmission Lines NGL & Hydrocarbon Condensate Lines Water Supply/Injection Lines Utility Lines • • • • Potable Water Steam and Steam Condensate Fire Water Instrument Air In general pipeline protection during mothballing relies on the exclusion of oxygen and/or free water from the line. or alternatively. however.2 Flowlines (Trunklines) Flowlines should be shutin under positive pressure (about 5 psig) to prevent oxygen ingress. Experience with shutting in flowlines without chemical inhibition has been quite good. If lines lose pressure the leak should be stopped and repressurized with nitrogen. 2. Because water will separate from the crude over a period of time. the high salinity (above 10%) of the produced water will prevent SRB growth and exclusion of oxygen should control corrosion to an acceptable rate.

As an option. on recommissioning. Lines should be checked every six months in order to ensure the positive pressure is maintained. 2. The addition of corrosion inhibitors or biocides is not considered necessary since lack of oxygen and the natural inhibiting properties of the oil. Corrosion mitigation in crude transmission lines relies primarily on preventing oxygen ingress. . Scraping prior to mothballing is recommended. flowing the line at a high velocity (greater than 3 ft/sec) in order to reduce accumulated water is recommended. 2. The line should be fully isolated and mothballed full of crude and maintained with positive pressure (about 50 psig) to prevent oxygen ingress. When scraping is not possible. sludge. In general. scales. it is recommended coating the line with inhibitor prior to shut-in. A nominal pressure should be maintained in the shut in line by nitrogen or hydrocarbon gas.3 Crude Transmission Lines Corrosion can take place where free water separates from the oil and will increase in the presence of deposits -. hydrotesting all flowlines shut-in longer than one year is recommended.4 Wet Gas Transmission Lines Like crude transmission lines. Therefore if facilities are available. Corrosion should be monitored on a semi-annual basis by the use of coupons.sand. repressurization with nitrogen. will result in corrosion rates which should be acceptable.flowlines where only isolated failures have occurred. this will not lessen the risk of corrosion since this is dictated by the success of the water removal/cleaning operation. Not enough water will be present to support a damaging bacterial population. For short and long-term mothballing. freewater and deposits should be removed by scraping the line prior to mothballing. (Installing facilities expressly to scrape the line for mothballing is not economic). Therefore. by slugging inhibited diesel gel between two scrapers. hydrocarbon gas or crude as required is recommended. hydrocarbon gas can be used to displace the crude in the line. Flowlines should not be hydrotested immediately prior to or during mothballing since residual hydrotest water can be far more damaging than wet crude. corrosion mitigation in wet gas lines depends on preventing oxygen ingress and reducing the free water content of the line. Because these lines do not benefit from the inhibiting properties of crude oil.

7 Water Supply/Injection Lines Successful mothballing of water supply/injection lines requires the prevention of oxygen ingress. these lines may be scraped prior to mothballing in order to ensure the absence of free water. Bacterial corrosion control is also a real potential problem. For short-term mothballing the water should be treated with a filming amine type corrosion inhibitor. although oil soluble. information on the particular product's degradation and minimum effective concentration (usually 50 .100 ppm) is required in order to determine its initial concentration. some pitting is to be expected at low spot due to condensed moisture. this will reduce the risk of corrosion but this alternative is not recommended in most cases. water dispersible products generally are better film formers. a biocide treatment is recommended. A high concentration 50-100 ppm of a water soluble type is preferred. the line may be dried and filled with dry gas or nitrogen. however.6 NGL and Hydrocarbon Condensate Lines Dry NGL or condensate lines may be shut-in under nominal positive pressure since the product is non-corrosive. Because biocides degrade fairly quickly (half-life 6-9 months).5 Fuel Gas Transmission Lines Fuel gas transmission lines should not have an internal corrosion problem during mothballing. However. . Scraping is recommended prior to mothballing (where facilities exist) to ensure the lines do not contain free water. the line may be dried and filled with dry hydrocarbon gas or nitrogen. 2. In addition to the corrosion inhibitor.As an alternative. Wet NGL or condensate lines should be scraped if possible prior to shut-in. large diameter undersea lines it may be worth the added protection due to high repair/replacement costs of these facilities. in long. 2. it is not generally considered necessary. 2. Although this will reduce the risk of corrosion. they are likely to separate under stagnant conditions. As with wet gas transmission lines. It is recommended that a filming amine type corrosion inhibitor be added for short and long-term mothballing or as an alternative. Scraping is recommended prior to mothballing since corrosion is likely to form under deposits. If facilities exist.

to the air but. that severe corrosion may occur in parts of the line and not on the coupons. Oil and/or oily corrosion inhibitors are not recommended in these systems. removal of the water is preferred. Although this will increase the risk of corrosion via SRB's. Biocide treatment should be deleted for minimum first cost mothballing. oxygen must be excluded and corrosion via biological attack is possible.8. this insurance seems unwarranted. routine corrosion monitoring with coupons for SRB attack will help reduce concern. 2. if possible blown dry since residual water trapped in the system will result in corrosion and probably require line repair. In general. . Chemicals are not recommended due to toxicity problems on start-up. where applicable. They can be left full of water and oxygen excluded. However. Oxygen ingress must be prevented in the minimum first cost case (otherwise the facility has been abandoned) and scraping and corrosion inhibitor are recommended as being cost effective.1 Potable Water Potable water lines should be drained and. biocide residual testing is recommended every six months for water filled systems. Consideration may also be given to draining and drying the line and using dry air or dry gas as a mothballing medium. however.For long-term mothballing. Displacing the water with nitrogen will reduce the risk of corrosion but may not be cost effective in small systems. this will not be as cost effective as displacing the water with hydrocarbon gas or nitrogen and mothballing the line as a wet gas line. Hot condensate lines may also be blown dry and effectively preserved.8 Utility Lines 2. If the line is left filled with water.8. Coupon monitoring. bacterial control can be ensured by replacing the treated water when the biocide has degraded to an ineffective level and the corrosion rate and the bacterial population counts indicate an upward trend. unless the nitrogen is readily available. Water in cold condensate lines should be displaced with nitrogen. It must be understood. 2.2 Steam and Steam Condensate Hot steam lines should be blown with air and shut-in since the line's heat will dry the line and Additional protection may be gained by using nitrogen in addition corrosion will be minimal in dry air. SRB counts (both planktonic and sessile) and.

8.3 Fire Water Fire water systems should be shut-in as is and oxygen ingress prevented. .4 Instrument Air Instrument air is dry and not corrosive.8. 2. These systems can be shut-in without special measures.2.

repressurize with nitrogen hydrocarbon gas or crude Back flow inhibited dry crude from GOSP with WCHF if water cut is 30 percent or more None Long Term General Same as short term Minimum First Cost General Same as short term - - - - Back flow dry crude with inhibitor from GOSP with WCHF Shut-in and repressurize same as short term - Add inhibitor to crude - Recommissioning concerns - None - Pitting expected at low points WCHF .P. in operation Do not remove sand dunes Do not hydrotest lines prior to mothballing Add a water soluble filming amine type corrosion (200 ppm) to crude (wet or dry) Shut-in under positive pressure (about 5 psig) If needed.Table 4-A Pipelines Mothballing Facility 1. Flowlines Short Term General Keep C.Wet Crude Handling Facilities .

Crude Transmission Lines Short Term If facilities are available.Scrape to remove water and sludge .Displace crude in line with nitrogen gas preferred) .Maintain positive pressure Check Pressure every 6 months if dry gas procedure is used None Monitoring/ Maintenance - Check pressure every 6 months If needed. hydrocarbon gas or crude None - Recommissioning concerns - None - Pitting expected at low points Replacement likely .Table 4-B Pipelines Mothballing Facility 2. repressurize with nitrogen. scrape to remove free water and deposits Leave line full with crude under positive pressure (about 50 50 psig) Do not add corrosion inhibitor or biocide Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term - - Alternatives .

Table 4-C Pipelines Mothballing
Facility 3) Wet Gas Transmission Lines Short Term If facilities are available, scrape to remove free water and deposits Coat line with a slug of inhibited diesel gel Add 3 phase inhibitor Shut in under positive pressure Check pressure every 6 months If needed, repressurize with nitrogen or dry gas Semi annually corrosion monitoring with coupons None Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term

Alternatives Scrape to remove water and sludge Displace wet gas with nitrogen or dry fuel gas Shut in under positive pressure Same as short term Check only pressure every 6 months if nitrogen or dry gas procedure is used None None

-

-

Monitoring/ Maintenance

-

-

Recommissioning concerns

-

-

-

Replacement likely

Table 4-D Pipelines Mothballing
Facility 4) Fuel Gas Transmission Lines Short Term If facilities are available, scrape to remove free water and deposits Shut-in under positive pressure Check pressure every 6 months If needed, repressurize with nitrogen or dry gas None Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term

-

Monitoring/ Maintenance

-

-

Same as short term

-

None

Recommissioning concerns

-

-

None

-

Pitting expected at low points

Table 4-E Pipelines Mothballing
Facility 5) NGL and Condensate Lines Short Term If facilities are available, scrape to remove free water Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term

A) Dry

-

Shut-in under positive pressure

Alternatives - Evacuate and fill with nitrogen or dry fuel gas Same as short term Shut in under postive pressure

B) WET

-

If facilities are available, scrape to remove free water

-

-

Add a filming amine type corrosion inhibitor Shut in under positive pressure Check pressure every 6 months If needed, repressurize with nitrogen or dry sweet gas Semi annually corrosion monitoring with coupons None

Alternatives - Evacuate and fill with nitrogen or dry fuel gas

Monitoring/ Maintenance

-

-

Same as short term

-

None

-

Recommissioning concerns

-

-

None

-

Pitting expected at at low points

Table 4-F Pipelines Mothballing Facility 6) Well Water Supply and Injection Lines Short Term If facilities are available.Lay-up with nitrogen dry air or dry sweet gas Same as short term where applicable None Monitoring/ Maintenance - Semi annually coupon monitoring SRB counts and biocide residual testing None Recommissioning concerns - - None - Replacement likely .Displace the water with air .Displace the water with hydrocarbon gas and mothball the line is as a wet gas line or . scrape to remove deposits Treat with a filming amine type corrosion inhibitor and/or biocide depending upon the water source A high concentration (50 .Dry the line .100 ppm) of a water soluble type is preferred Prevent oxygen ingress Long Term Same as short term Replace treated water when biocide has degraded to ineffective level Minimum First Cost Same as short term Do not treat with biocide treat with biocide Prevent ingress of oxygen - - - Alternatives .

Table 4-G Pipelines Mothballing Facility 7 Utility Lines a) Potable Water Drain lines and below dry if possible Do not treat with chemicals Prevent ingress of oxygen if lines cannot be drained Same as short term Same as short term Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost Alternative Displace water with nitrogen None None None Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - None - Some pitting - Replacement likely expected if lines lefter water filled Same as short term b) Steam and Steam Condensate - Drain lines and blow dry with air or nitrogen Shut in lines Do not treat with oil and/or oily corrosion inhibitors Check every 6 months if oxygen ingress is prevented - Same as short term - Monitoring/ Maintenance - - None - None .

dried and effefitively preserved Same as short term Minimum First Cost Replacement likely c) Fire Water - Leave full Shut in Prevent oxygen ingress None - - Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning/ concerns d) Instrument Air - - None - None - Replacement likely - Same as short term - Same as short term - Shut in without special measures None - Same as short term - Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - None - None - None - None - None .Table 4-H Pipelines Mothballing Facility Recommissioning concerns Short Term None Long Term Some pitting is expected if lines not properly drained.

3. Gate Valves Ball Valves Check Valves Plug Valves Butterfly Valves Safety Valves Relief Valves Pressure Control Valves Air Relief Valves 3.1. valves should normally not be removed and.3.2 When a plant or facility is mothballed. A smaller number of valves. 2) 3.3.3 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 3. 3. 2. and the recommissioning period specified. 9. 5. are installed in pipelines (Crude or Gas transmission lines).1.1. 4. 6.3 . 3.3 VALVES 3. in general larger in size and expensive.1. Preservation of the valve in-line.1 The majority of valves are installed in process-piping and/or process pressure vessel equipment.1 Basic Considerations 3.1 General The mothballing procedures for the preservation and maintenance of valves are dependent mainly on the size and type of valves.1. 8. Mothballing procedures will involve one of the following : 1) Preservation of the entire valve including those with hydraulic. pneumatic or electric actuators.1. 7. but with some vulnerable components removed and stored in a controlled atmosphere. Preservation of valves in situ has the following advantages: 3.2 Types of Valves The following types of valves are considered: 1. they will be internally subjected to the mothballing media in the connected piping.

P. Remove oil. will generally be required after long-term mothballing is terminated. They should be recalibrated during commissioning and replaced at that time if necessary. External preservation Lubricate and grease stem bearings. Coat stem and stem threads with Denso paste plus Denso tape.4. and store piston actuators.4 Covering valves and/or actuators with plastic bags is generally ineffective and not recommended. Tighten packing.1.oil (V.).2 Treat valves the same as connected piping or pipelines. because the plastic bags or polyethylene wrappings deteriorate rapidly. Coat machined surfaces with rust preventative SAMS stock item 26-007-230/240 or equivalent.1. located in a processing facility are an integral part of the process equipment and its associated piping and will be subjected to the selected lay-up. coat. 3. such as soft sealing. Stroke after greasing (2 or 3 times). The disadvantage of valves in situ are: Replacement of components. Leave in (half) open position. Fill gear-boxes with R.- - No dismantling costs No indoor storing costs No identification problems Most valves.5 Monitoring Maintenance . where applicable in (half) open position.1.4 Recommendations 3.1. 3. Snap-back period for recommissioning will be relatively short. and they will collect sand and moisture. 3.4.1. Leave valves.3. however and spares should be made available from stock when termination of mothballing is expected. Drain valves when applicable and feasible. These components can be easily replaced.1 Internal preservation 3. Leave diaphragm actuator in place.P.I.

but discontinue onitoring/maintenance after three years.1. 3.3 Minimum First Cost Mothballing Monitoring/maintenance is not recommended.2 Long Term Mothballing Same as Short Term. 3. Add Denso paste/tape or equivalent if required.1.5.1.1 Short Term Mothballing Do not stroke Determine if packing requires re-tightening when checking pressure of the mothballing medium.5. .3.5.

Table 5 Valves Mothballing Facility Internal Short Term Same as connected piping Lubricate and grease Stroke after greasing Leave in half open position Wrap with Denso tape and Coat stem with Denso paste Do not wrap valves with plastic sheets or bages Semi annually Add Denso paste as required Do not stroke None Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term External - - Same as short term - Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term Discontinue monitoring after three years Replacement of seat. gears or actuators likely - None Recommissioning concerns - - - Same as long term .

external corrosion and/or 4.4 PRESSURE VESSELS 4.2. such as desalting traps in desalting facilities or columns in refineries. Preservation of pressure vessels includes internal protection and external protection.2. when mothballed. pressure vessels must be isolated from associated piping with blinds.1.1 Preservation of the entire pressure vessel in situ.1.1. which are part of the process equipment.1.2 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 4. The removal of the pressure vessels to other plants is encouraged when plants are mothballed at Minimum First Costs. Some are simple in construction and others. while some are made of carbon steel with an internal coating.2 4.1.4 .1 Basic Considerations 4.1. The process side of the pressure vessels require specific mothballing procedures when the pressure vessels are mothballed for Short-Term.3 4. but using a different lay-up medium than was selected for the connected process piping. are complicated. Pressure vessels will normally not be removed from a plant and stored elsewhere when a plant is mothballed. In general. For this option.2.2 4. Some pressure vessels are made of stainless steel or cladded carbon steel.1. dry or wet.1 General Pressure vessels. These types of pressure vessels.2. present different concerns than pressure vessels made of carbon steel and without an internal coating.1.1. Preservation of the entire pressure vessel in situ.1 The majority of pressure vessels are made of carbon steel. Long-Term or Minimum First Cost Mothballing.1. Mothballing procedures involve one of the following: 4. using the same lay-up medium as selected for the connected process piping. generally contain hydrocarbon products which can be either sweet or sour. 4.

The insulation should be removed when serious corrosion on the steel surface is expected to occur or is revealed during monitoring. 4.1.2.2.1.3 Recommendations 4.2. Recommissioning concerns: Significant amount of loose and flaky rust will be present on all metal surfaces due to water present in diesel and oxygen in nitrogen.1. It is recommended that the liquid from all pressure vessels be drained prior to mothballing. 4.Continue checks after one year.3. including boot-legs Isolate vessel from connected piping if required Fill with diesel or purge with nitrogen Seal vessel and maintain 5 psig nitrogen pressure for one year Check quarterly if water has collected .6 Lay-up mediums for pressure vessels are: • • • • 4.1.2. with or without inhibitor Dry-air Ambient air Dry fuel gas is recommended with care as a lay-up medium because it can form explosive mixtures with air.8 4.7 Nitrogen Diesel.pitting is not expected providing normal paint schedule is continued. The external steel surface should be coated with a suitable paint after removal of insulation.1.9 4.1 Internal Preservation for Short and Long Term Mothballing Drain liquid Clean vessel.2.5 Some pressure vessels are externally insulated.1.1. 4. which may give reason for concern when vessels will be mothballed for Long Term. annually . Hydro-jetting will be required before recommissioning.

.Discontinue checks after one year 4.3.3.should flow continuously through the process equipment and connected piping. The dry air can be supplied by instrument air compressors. The windows should be sealed off effectively. Remove insulation if steel surface is corroding Paint steel surface in accordance with Saudi Aramco Paint Manual - 4.1.1.4 External Preservation for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Insulated and non-insulated vessels do not require special treatment Discontinue normal paint schedule Do not remove insulation Monitoring/maintenance not required 4.5 Purge Preservation of the Process Side by Continuous Dry-air Technically it is feasible to preserve the process side of pressure vessels and associated pipe work by purging them with dry air.with a maximum relative humidity of 40 percent . dry instrument air .3.3 Internal Preservation for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Drain liquid Purge with ambient air (avoid any fire hazards) Close vessel Do not steam out Do not repair Monitoring/maintenance not required 4.- Check diesel leakage semi-annually and tighten gaskets or threaded connections when needed .2 External Preservation for Short or Long Term Mothballing Non-insulated vessels require no special treatment Continue normal paint schedule as required Insulated vessels should be protected by sealing off all openings in the weather jacket with plastic tape or mastic putty (Denso or equal type). Provisional windows may be cut in the insulation to enable monitoring of the underlaying steel surface.1.3.1. With this option.

Instead of purging with dry air. the process equipment can also be internally preserved by circulating the dry air (40% relative humidity) through the process equipment and connected piping. however. This option can be applied for short or Long Term Mothballing. It is. The advantages of using this option are: • • • • • Nonflammable Nontoxic No problems with disposal Facilitates internal inspection Process side of pressure vessels and associated piping will not corrode The disadvantages are: • • • Fans and air-driers are required (initial cost is expensive) Weekly monitoring of fans and air-driers is required Electric power is required . only recommended for use in plants or facilities which have been installed but not operated with hydrocarbon products. This can be achieved by flowing the air in a closed circuit through an air-drier equipped with a fan.

Table 6-A Pressure Vessels Mothballing Facility Internal Short Term Drain liquid Fill with diesel or Purge with nitrogen or dry air Semi annually for diesel leakage or Maintain 5 psig pressure for one year Then discontinue monitoring None Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Drain liquid Purge with ambient air Close Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term - None Recommissioning concerns - - None - Pitting expected at low spots where water can collect External a) Non-Insulated Vessels None None None Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - Continue normal paint schedule None - Same as short term - None - - None - Pitting and/or general corrosion expected .Surface repair likely .

Table 6-B Pressure Vessels Mothballing Facility External b) Insulated Vessels Seal off all openings in weather jacket with plastic tape or mastic putty (Denso paste) Semi annually Remove insulation if steel surface is corroding Paint steel surface None Same as short term None Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term - None Recommissioning concerns - - None - Pitting and/or general corrosion expected Surface repair likely .

Cone roof storage tanks for chemicals. 2) C. Cone roof storage tanks for hydrocarbon products at ambient temperature. leaving the tank empty.Hydrocarbon 1) Preserve the entire tank in situ. Cone Roof Tanks . Cone Roof Tanks .Water Preserve the entire tank in situ. 2) B. No monitoring/maintenance for Min. without desiccant and without monitoring/maintenance (Min.1 Basic Conditions 5. Cone Roof Tanks . but with crude level full or such that roof legs are 6 inchs from the tank bottom (Long and Short Term only). leaving the tank empty. after cleaning and drying (Short or Long Term or Min. First Cost).5 TANKAGE 5.Chemicals . and using desiccant as lay-up medium (Short or Long Term). Cone roof storage tanks for water. leaving the tank empty.1. without monitoring and without maintenance (Min.1 General The following types of tanks should be considered when mothballing equipment: Floating roof storage tanks for hydrocarbon products at ambient temperature. D. Leave tank empty. Mothballing procedures involve one of the following: A. First Cost only). First Cost only). Preserve the entire tank in situ. Floating Roof Tanks 1) Preserve the entire tank in situ. First Cost mothballing.

Long Term and Min. No monitoring/maintenance for Min. externally. First Cost mothballing). 5 or No.Long Term and Min. Cone roof tanks for chemicals should be left empty when mothballed for Short Term .1 Preservation of Floating Roof Tanks for Short or Long Term Mothballing Empty tank with roof on legs. First Cost). General corrosion is expected and internal or external repair is likely. when left empty.1. If needed. provided normal paint schedule is continued. Floating roof tanks. will present no concerns for external corrosion. (Short and Long Term). internal surfaces may also be sprayed with oil fuel. leaving the tank empty.1. First Cost.Preserve the entire tank in situ. and internal and external repair is likely when normal painting schedule is discontinued (Min. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 5.3 Recommendations 5. Cone roof tanks for hydrocarbon products are of concern when maintenance is discontinued. First Cost).6.2 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 1) Floating roof tanks and cone roof tanks are made from carbon steel. Continue normal painting schedule.1. Floating roof tanks in heavy product service. present little concern for internal corrosion. First Cost Mothballing). First Cost mothballing. These tanks. . 5. in light product service when left empty. General corrosion is expected. 5 or No. General corrosion is expected when normal painting schedule is discontinued (Min.3. Spray on all internal surfaces with fuel oil No. Cone roof tanks for water should be left empty when mothballed for Short Term . after cleaning and purging (Short or Long Term or Min. 6 for tanks on light product service. (Min. First Cost. provided all internal surfaces are sprayed periodically (once/year) with oil fuel No. when mothballed. present little concern for internal corrosion.

5 Preservation of Cone Roof Tanks (Water) for Short or Long Term Mothballing Empty tank Clean and dry Continue normal painting schedule 5.1.6 Preservation of Cone Roof Tanks (Water) for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Empty tank Clean and dry Discontinue monitoring and maintenance 5.1.1. clean and dry Use desiccant and breather valves Replace desiccant semi annually if desiccant is installed Continue normal painting schedule 5.5.3 Preservation for Cone Roof Tanks (Hydrocarbon) for Short or Long Term Mothballing Empty tank and open manways Steam out.3.3.3.7 Preservation of Cone Roof Tanks (Chemicals) for Short or Long Term Mothballing Drain the chemical product in 55 gallon drums and use elsewhere Purge with air or nitrogen. if required to remove toxic vapors .1.1.1.3.3.2 Preservation of Floating Roof Tanks for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Recommendations for long term may be applied Discontinue paint maintenance 5.4 Preservation of Cone Roof Tanks (Hydrocarbon) for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Empty tank Steam out and clean tank Purge with air or nitrogen Seal tank Do not install desiccant Discontinue monitoring and maintenance 5.3.

if required to remove toxic vapors Discontinue monitoring and maintenance .1.3.5.8 Continue normal painting schedule Preservation of Cone Roof Tanks (Chemicals) for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Drain the chemical product in 55 gallon drums and use elsewhere Purge with air or nitrogen.

5 or No. all internal surfaces to be sprayed with No. 6 oil fuel None None Monitoring/ Maintenance - Recommissioning concerns - None - - - General corrosion expected if tank is empty Internal & external repair likely . Floating Roof Tanks Short Term Leave full of crude or Lower crude level Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term Alternatives Empty tank with roof on legs Continue normal schedule Continue normal painting schedule In light product service and at low level.Table 7-A Tankage Mothballing Facility 1.

Table 7-B Tankage Mothballing Facility 2. Cone Roof Tanks a) Hydrocarbon Empty tank and open manways Steam out if required Purge with air or N2 to remove flammable or toxic vapors or gases Install desiccant Continue normal painting schedule Replace desiccant semi annually None Same as short term Same as short term Do not install desiccant Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term - None Recommissioning - - None - General corrosion expected Internal and external repair likely .

Table 7-C Tankage Mothballing Facility Cone Roof Tanks b) Water Empty tank Clean and dry Continue normal painting schedule None Same as short term Same as short term Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissoning concerns - Same as shor term - None - - None - General corrosion expected Internal and external repair likely Same as short term c) Chemicals - - Empty tank Purge with air or N2 if required to remove toxic vapors Drain product in 55 gallon drums and use elsewhere Continue normal painting schedule None - Same as short term - Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - Same as short term - None - - None - None .

1.1. Long Term and Minimum First Cost Mothballing Remove free water . 3) 6. are of concern when mothballed and not removed.1 Basic Considerations 6.3.1 Preservation of Shell and Tube Heat Exchangers for Short Term. Replacement is likely. installed in cooling towers. Wooden downcomers.1. and mothballing procedures for pressure vessels would therefore also be applicable to heat exchanger equipment.1.6 HEAT EXCHANGER EQUIPMENT 6. The wooden downcomers should be removed when Long Term or Minimum First Cost Mothballing is required. belts and motors installed in Fin-Fans. but using a different lay-up medium as selected for the connected piping. Mothballing procedures involve one of the following: 1) Preservation of the entire heat exchanger equipment in situ while using the same lay-up medium as selected for the connected piping.3 Recommendations 6. When mothballed at Minimum First Cost. Preservation of the entire heat exchanger equipment in situ. It is recommended the water system be circulated weekly when Short Term Mothballing is required. fans. there is concern for recommissioning of tubes in Shell and Tube heat exchangers and for tubes.2 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 1) 2) The specific concerns and considerations are also applicable to heat exchanger equipment. 2) 6.1 General The following types of heat exchanger equipment are considered for mothballing: Shell and Tube exchangers Fin-Fans (Air coolers) Evaporate Coolers (Combinaire) The above types of heat exchanger equipment in general form part of the process equipment.

6.P.1.P.3.1.1.3. oil.Do not treat Fill gearboxes with R.4 Preservation of Fin-Fans for Minimum First Cost Treat tubes internally as for Short Term Do not treat tubes externally Do not block fans Leave belts installed . Block fans from rotation (Short Term only) Leave belts installed . spray tubes externally with inhibited R.3.2 Preservation of Fin-Fans for Short Term or Long Term Mothballing Remove free water Treat tubes internally installed in Shell and Tube heat exchangers If Fin-Fans are located offshore and mothballed for Long term. oil (V.- Treat as pressure vessels Monitoring and maintenance remain the same as for pressure vessels Recommissioning concerns remain the same as for pressure vessels.P.3 Mothballing 6.) Treat fan motors as small motors Check semi annually for diesel leakage or maintain 5 psig nitrogen pressure for one year Check semi annually R. oil in gear box and refill when required Discontinue monitoring after 1 year 6. but tube replacement likely when mothballed at Minimum First Cost.Do not treat Treat gear boxes as for Short Term Treat fan motors as for Short Term Discontinue monitoring and maintenance Preservation of Evaporate Coolers for Short Term or Long Term Mothballing A) Cooling Tower with Plastic Downcomer Stop circulating system Drain basin Discontinue monitoring/maintenance .P.I.

1.5 Preservation of Evaporate Coolers for Minimum First Cost Mothballing Drain basin Do not remove plastic downcomer Remove wooden downcomer Discontinue maintenance General corrosion is expected and replacement of plastic downcomer and circulation system is likely .B) Cooling Tower with Wooden Downcomer Add Algacide to basin and circulate water weekly to keep wood wet Consider removal of wood and drain basin (Long Term only) Check circulation system semi annually if water is circulated weekly Discontinue monitoring/maintenance after 1 year 6.3.

External Treat as 1) None Same as short term Spray with inhibited R. oil (offshore only) None Same as short term None c) Fan-Blades - Block fan from rotation None - - None d) Belts - - None - None .Internal Tubes .P. Shell and Tube Short Term Remove free water Treat as pressure vessels Same as pressure vessels None Long Term Same as short term Minimum First Cost Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - Same as short term - None - - None - Pitting and/or general corrosion expected Tube replacement likely 2.Table 8-A Heat Exchangers Mothballing Facility 1. Fin-Fans a) b) Tubes .

oil (V.Table 8-B Heat Exchangers Mothballing Facility Fin-Fans e) Gear Box Fill with R. fans.P.O.P. oil in gear box and refill Discontinue monitoring after 1 year None Same as short term Same as short term Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost f) Fan Motor - - Same as short term Same as short term - Same as short term None Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - None - Fitting and/or general corrosion expected Replacement of tubes. belts and motors likely .) Treat as small motors Semi annually for diesel leakage or Maintain 5 psig pressure for one year Check R.I.

Table 8-C Heat Exchangers Mothballing Facility 3. Evaporate Coolers a) Cooling Tower Wooden Downcomer (Combinaire) Cooling Tower Plastic Down comers Add algacide and circulate weekly to keep wood wet Consider removal of wood Drain basin Same as long term Short Term Long Term Minimum First Cost b) - Drain basin - Drain basic - Drain basin Recommissioning concerns - None - None - General corrosion expected .

3) 7.3 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 1) Shutdown of a plant or facility with rotating equipment is complex and demanding. 6.1 Basic Considerations 7. 9.1. 12. and a mistake in the selection of the mothball procedure can result in the deterioration of expensive equipment.7 ROTATING EQUIPMENT 7. Preservation of entire rotating equipment indoors in a controlled atmosphere. 3.1 General A) The mothballing procedures for the preservation and maintenance of rotating equipment are dependent mainly on the size and type of equipment and the recommissioning period specified.1. 13. 4. 5.1. Mothballing procedures will involve one of the following: 1) 2) Preservation of the entire rotating equipment in situ. 2. Centrifugal Pumps Reciprocating Pumps Submersible Pumps Chemical Injection Pumps/Metering Pumps Centrifugal Compressors Reciprocating Compressors Gas Turbines Steam Turbines Gear Boxes Hydraulic Variable Speed Couplings Torque Convertors Tank Mixers Diesel Engine Emergency Diesel Generators 7. 10. but some vulnerable components to be removed and stored in a controlled atmosphere. 11. 14. 7. .2 Types of Rotating Equipment The following equipment is considered rotating equipment: 1. 8. Preservation of the rotating equipment in situ.

process gas compressors. such as the injection pumps. Large. etc. periodic rotor rotation assures that the rotor maintains a complete protective coating of rust preventative when the casing can only be partly filled with rust preventative. For this reason. gas and steam turbine drivers. It is recommended the cartridge be removed as one unit from the pump barrel and stored indoors when a long layup period is required. For example. bearings and seals. The cartridge type design of these pumps is such that shaft. These shafts are susceptible to "creep" (a permanent or semi-permanent bend or sag in the shaft) if the shaft of an idle machine is not turned periodically. centrifugal type rotating equipment. 3) 4) 5) A large number of high horsepower pumps which are subject to rotor sag are installed at Saudi Aramco. . Sand ingress into the close clearance components in rotating equipment. Because of leakage across the clearance between shaft and bearing/seal. the journal bearings must have a lubricant film. equipment manufacturers advise that spare rotors for such machinery be turned periodically (monthly to quarterly) or that the rotor be stored vertically if turning is not possible.2) Idle equipment is very sensitive to internal and external corrosion and will deteriorate quickly if not satisfactorily preserved. sometimes has slender and heavy shafts. The exclusion of moisture is essential to avoid pitting and oxidation of critical components such as gear teeth. blading. bearing brackets and seals can be easily removed from the pump barrel and the unit stored in a vertical position. Equipment must be properly sealed during the mothball period to prevent ingress of sand and or sand dust since this could cause seizure/damage. head flange. 4000 HP (3000 psig operating pressure) multi-stage horizontal centrifugal pumps (Ingersoll-Rand and Sulzer) are installed at the desalting facilities. Rust preventive oil provides adequate lubrication. bearing journals. is another concern. Pumps (Weir) of similar design are used for waterinjection and are even larger in capacity than brine injection pumps (15. impellers. such as shaft labyrinths. otherwise damage will occur.000 HP -3000 psig operating pressure). Note: If a rotor is to be turned while in its casing. shaft seals. diffusors.

See Appendix E & G for available rust preventatives. cylinders of rotating equipment are best protected by rust preventatives. Deisel Engine oil CD SAE 30 or SAE 40 grades are suitable in smaller systems. All internal spaces of rotating equipment should be filled with either an inert gas. ISO 46 for heavier grade oil with the addition of Vaprotec UPI should be used as rust preventative oils in large systems. crankcase. 6) Frequent starting of gas turbines will shorten turbine rotor and stator/blading life. 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) . if shutdown is to go beyond this period. reservoir. Therefore. 7. draining to shaft height should leakage across the shaft/bearing be a concern. Critical components such as bearing and journals. the rotor can be immersed in a vertical position within a container fabricated from large diameter steel pipe filled with rust preventative oil.If stored indoors. coupling. or an inert fluid to prevent corrosion damage to the machine surfaces and internal walls of the equipment. rust preventatives must be reapplied and coating repairs may be needed. (N2) rust preventative film. Storage outdoors (possibly adjacent to the machine) is also an approved method. such rotors should be coated with a thick coating of rust preventative (solvent cut-back type) and then hung vertically. mothballing procedures should avoid firing of the turbine.4 Mothball Media Selection Considerations 1) In general. The recommended media for protection of machinery internals for lay-up of mothballed equipment are listed in Table 9. Another method is sealing of the openings on the casing and filling to the top with rust preservative.1. and. Thus. In this case. machinery's internal surfaces can be coated with rust preventatives by circulating the oil through the equipment and/or oil piping by using the lube/seal oil pumps. Journal sections which are monitored by proximity vibration displacement probes should also be protected by rust preventative to avoid pitting corrosion of these highly polished surfaces. if necessary. Most rust preventative solvents (cut-back type) exposed to the atmosphere will last for a maximum of one year.

7.1.5

Mothballing Options The following options are considered for the preservation of rotating equipment: 1. Storage The ideal mothballing procedure for most rotating equipment would be to store the equipment in a suitable warehouse where dry air with a relative humidity of maximum 40% can be maintained. Unfortunately, this is not particularly feasible for large equipment. Rotating equipment which is relatively small and useable elsewhere should be removed from the processing facility and stored in a warehouse under controlled conditions such as dry air. This option is only considered viable for skid mounted proportioning pumps, diesel engines, submersible pumps and rotating equipment where economics favor indoor storing for long term mothballing. A disadvantage of this type of storage is the risk of damage during dismantling and transport of the equipment to storage. 2. Insitu When complete processing facilities, such as onshore and especially offshore GOSP's are to be mothballed, first consideration must be given as to whether the equipment can be effectively protected in situ. Preservation of rotating equipment in situ has the following advantages: No dismantling costs No indoor storing costs No identification problems. Equipment stored indoors may not be easily traced after 5 - 10 years lay-up if improperly tagged. Use of the same lay-up medium in certain cases, a pump or compressor, located in a processing facility is an integral part of the process equipment and its associated piping, and will be subjected to the same selected lay-up medium, such as instrument air purge or nitrogen blanket. No special equipment required. Removal of these pumps or compressors may require specially made drop-in spools for

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replacing the removed pumps or compressors. Considerable time may also be required to realign these machines to their drivers during the snap back period. Snap-back period for recommissioning will be relatively small.

The disadvantages are: Large rotors may loose their straightness if they cannot be rotated periodically. If a spare rotor is available and has been properly stored, the snap back period will not be jeopardized. Bent rotors may need to be returned to the manufacturer for rework and this could impact on snap back period if no spare rotor is available. Replacement of components such as bearings and seals will generally be required after mothballing is terminated. However, these can be easily replaced and spares should be available from stock. Equipment left in situ is exposed to the ambient atmosphere and protection of internals by using greases, rust preventative oils, vapor phase inhibitors, or other long-lasting preservatives is required. If the rotor is not removed, the shaft/casing gaps at the bearing housings should be sealed with a silicone caulk, and taped so that the casing can be filled completely with rust preventative media. This option provides full protection of rotating equipment which does not need to have their rotors periodically turned during a long shutdown period; however, periodic inspection and maintenance still may be required.

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7.1.5

Preparation Procedures Prior to Shutdown The following steps shall be followed prior to undertaking any preservative action to the rotating equipment: 1. 2. Stop all rotating equipment and insure the facility is not operating. If applicable, de-energize and lock out all breakers in the 34.5 kV, 13.8 kV, 4.16 kV, 2.4 kV switchgears and 480 V MCC's for electric motors and emergency diesel generators. Note: Some breakers will remain in service to provide electrical power to fire-water pump motors and/or air compressors.

Refer to Electrical Equipment, Chapter VIII for detailed Mothballing Procedures and Guidelines for Electric Motors and Emergency Diesel Generators. 3. 4. Flush and drain all rotating equipment when applicable. Purge with nitrogen if hydro-carbon gases are present or are believed to be present. Isolate pumps or compressors from line (if required). Remove and preserve coupling or spacer between pump/compressor and driver to facilitate rotating of rotor (if required). Properly tag and store spacer and/or coupling parts. Isolate gear box between pump/compressor and driver when applicable. Remove and preserve rotors along with seals and bearings (if required). Install end covers on casing openings if rotors have been removed. Seal ventilation openings. Fit turn bars on rotors if rotors remain in case. Do not weld bars on rotor shaft. Provide electric motors with a warning that they are "Energized" or "De-energized" and provide other rotating equipment with warning when space heaters have been installed. For each piece of rotating equipment, prepare a complete listing of mothballed status and procedure as defined by Saudi Aramco General Instruction Manual GI Number 1000.250. (Appendix F)

5. 6.

7. 8.

9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

7.3

Guidelines for Mothballing Specific Rotating Equipment 7.3.1 7.3.2 Centrifugal Pumps - Refer to TABLE 10 and Paragraph 7.1.3 Reciprocating Pumps - Refer to TABLE 10 7.3.2.1 General

water from these wells is less aggressive than water from deep water wells (Wasia and Biyadh formations). Drain and clean pump and prepare for indoor storage. Store in vertical position.3. Drain all the water from balance chamber and pressurematic balance tube (be careful that the oil is not - .3. This company has a service station InKingdom. are used in stripper service offshore. sludge and similar products. Disassemble pump submersible type from motor and disconnect cable from motor. Remove submersible pumps from the wells and store in a warehouse using the following procedure. Large units.Refer to TABLE 10 7. Check the electric motor to determine if it is provided with a mercury seal. This makes transport to and from a storage warehouse convenient. 7.) Note: It is recommended services be obtained from Byron Jackson when pump and motor must be removed from well. special steps are required to prevent spillage of mercury before the motor is laid horizontally.1 General Sumbersible pumps are only used in shallow water supply wells. Note: The motors of submersible pumps from Byron Jackson have a mercury shaft seal.3.Reciprocating pumps of various sizes are used by Saudi Aramco to pump slop-oil. Carefully pull riser-columns and pump from the wells. Generally. Some small size pumps are installed on portable skids. Byron Jackson Services should also overhaul the pump and motor as required and prepare them for indoor storage.3 Submersible Pumps . Because spilled mercury presents a health hazard to servicing personnel. Disassemble airline tubing and discard (low dollar value). Wind electric cable on a reel. such as 350 HP Wheatley pumps. (See instruction manual of Byron Jackson.

Skid-mounted Store indoors. Fill the injection pumps with rust inhibiting oil. Tag properly. Do not remove the injection quills. Store the motor in a vertical position. Store as one unit.5 Displace the chemicals in the injection lines with diesel oil and fill the chemical tanks with diesel.1 General All types of centrifugal compressors when preserved in situ for a long term period will require periodic maintenance.Refer to TABLE 10 7. Treat same as reciprocating pump. The rotor should also be placed in the original shipping canisters (if available) under a dry nitrogen blanket which will need to be turned periodically if mounted horizontally. 7.5. Do not disconnect pump from driver and do not remove instrument or meters from the equipment. .Refer to TABLE 10 7.4. including driver. if not turned periodically. chemical injection pumps and metering pumps are small in size and capacity.3. Oxidation of the shaft.3. Preserve in Situ (for Short Term) 7. The rotor.4 Chemical Injection Pumps/Metering Pumps .3. bearings.1 General In general.3. Two options for the preservation of these pumps are presented-one for skid-mounted pumps and one for pumps permanently installed. Clean the electric motor and prepare for indoor storage. will exhibit permanent sag. Centrifugal Compressors .- drained) and plug the balance chamber. Tag the pump and motor in such a way that they can be reassembled as one original unit. The rotor should be removed and stored indoors in a vertical position if possible. Drain and clean pump then lubricate all rotating or moving parts.

7. - Option 2 .Refer to TABLE 10 7.3. Turn on the lube oil system on a monthly basis and rotate both the HP and LP shafts 1 1/4 or 2 1/2 turns each time by ratcheting or hand barring.Rotor(s) removed and stored indoors . Mothballing options are as follows: Option 1.Refer to TABLE 10 7.6. Over grease anti-friction bearings and linkages till fresh grease appears externally. it is recommended that the HP and LP rotors be removed and placed vertically in indoor storage in order to prevent rotor sag.Preserve in Situ . Remove the load coupling and preserve indoors. 7.1 General Because removal of complete units for indoor storage is not physically possible. Circulate all oil systems in order to wet all system surfaces. 7.3.6 Reciprocating Compressor . Circulate preheated air. Fill all oil systems to maximum levels with rust preventative oil. the equipment must be preserved in situ when long term mothballing is required.blades and seals can be prevented by completely coating all metal surfaces with a rust preventive coating. Preserve in situ Short or Long Term Blank inlet and exhaust sections.7 Gas Turbines . It is recommended that compressors be left in situ and be protected internally and externally for short or long term mothball period.1 General Various large size reciprocating compressors are installed at Saudi Aramco facilities. If the rotors cannot be turned periodically. Storage of the complete unit indoors is not recommended or feasible.3.3. Seal breathers and other openings to the oil systems.

3.1 General Gearboxes are classified as (1) gears lubricated by oil in the case and (2) gears that have forced feed lubrication.9. .3. to keep moisture out of blocked turbine interior. It is not necessary to turn the rotors. dessicant on VPI fog.9 Gear Boxes 7. The case should be completely filled with a rust preventive medium.10.3.10 Hydraulic Variable Speed Couplings 7.8. Protect the machine internally and externally as recommended in Option 1.8 Steam Turbines 7.1 General Saudi Aramco operates various steam turbines (200 to 10. Removal of the rotor(s) depends on its sensitivity to sag and whether it can be turned periodically. and in order to prevent oil leakage. caulked and taped along the shaft and bearings. Treat these large steam turbines as Centrifugal Compressors.- Remove rotor(s) from the gas turbine and store indoors in a vertical position preferably in a canister. 7.3. Large steam turbines should be left in situ. 7. Use heater. Store the small steam turbines in situ if these machines are to be mothballed for long periods and do not remove rotors.000 HP) as drivers.3.1 General Hydraulic variable speed couplings are mainly used for crude loading pumps and can vary in size and capacity from a few hundred horsepower to 14000 HP. 7.3. This type of rotating equipment is very complicated and it is not recommended that any components be removed from these machines when short or long term mothballing is required.

The recommended options is: Preserve in Situ 7. therefore.P. should be properly preserved or used elsewhere.3. For either short or long term mothballing. the storage tanks can also be used for quite some time without operating tank mixers. Seal off all openings. Vaprotec (See Appendix E) Torque Convertors 7. Vaprotec.11 Disconnect hydraulic variable speed coupling from motor and pump. Lay-up for torque convertors are practically the same as those for hydraulic variable speed couplings. 7.14 Diesel Engines Diesel engines that are not used to drive emergency diesel generators. Drain and flush completely. Draining and flushing of these pieces of equipment is recommended whether the equipment is stored ndoors or preserved in situ. the procedures described for reciprocating compressors should be followed.Small hydraulic variable speed couplings can be stored in situ outdoors.15 Emergency Diesel Generators .12 Tank Mixers Tank mixers should be left on layed-up storage tanks. Internal protection of this equipment shall be achieved by partly filling the case with R. it is recommended these mixers be replaced when storage tanks are recommissioned.3.P. If needed. 7.11.3. Fill case partly with R.3. however.3. It is not recommended that the start motor and gas turbine be disconnected from the torque convertors since reinstallation is a complicated procedure.1 General Torque convertors are generally installed between a start motor and a gas turbine train. Long term protection against oxidation and corrosion is very difficult. 7. Skid-mounted or truckmounted diesel engines can be preserved indoors or insitu for short or long term mothballing. large speed couplings should be preserved in situ.

Emergency diesel generators for operating firewater pumps. airconditioning and navigation lights (offshore) should be left operable as standby units and maintenance should be performed per normal schedule. .

Oil 1) R.P.P. Oil R.P.P. Oil R. Oil Water Centrifugal Pump Casing 1) R. Oil Crude 1) R. Oil 1) R. Oil Crude R.P. Oil R. Oil NOTES on Available Media: R.P.P.P.P. Oil 1) 1) R. Oil Reciprocating Pumps Cylinders Crankcase 1) R.P.P. = Rust Preservation (Oil or Solvent Cutback Types) N2 = Nitrogen Diesel (Inhibited) or Crude Oil X = Not applicable .Table 9-A Preservation Media For Machinery/Internals Mothball Term Equipment Service a) Short b) Hydrocarbon 1) 2) 1) 1) 2) R.P.P. Oil a) Long b) Water Hydrocarbon 1) 1) R.

Oil N2 Water Cylinders X Reciprocating Pumps Crankcase Pulsation Bottles X X Centrifugal X a) Long b) Water Hydrocarbon 1) X R. Oil 1) R. Oil 1) X R.P.P.P. Compressor Short Term 1) 2) 1) 2) R. Oil 1) R.P. Oil .P.P.P. Coating & Treat as Piping X 1) Treat same as Recip. Oil N2 X R.Table 9-B Preservation Media For Machinery/Internals Mothball Term Equipment Service a) Short b) Hydrocarbon 1) R.

Oil Equipment Service Water Steam Turbines X Gas Turbines X Gear Boxes and Hyd.P. Couplings X a) Long b) Water Hydrocarbon X R.Table 9-C Preservation Media For Machinery/Internals Mothball Term a) Short b) Hydrocarbon Treat same as Centrifugal Compressor Short Term X Treat same as Centrifugal Compressor Short Term 1) Seal + Preheated Preheated Air + Operate Oil System + Turn Monthly X Treat same as Gas Turbine Short Term 1) 1) R. Oil .P.

Oil or grease See Appendix B Additional steps Install temporary cover over coupling area Treat same as 1B Same as short term Same as short term Short Term Long Term Min.000 H.P. Oil Install temporary cover over coupling area See Appendix B - Remove rotor and store vertically Caulk and tape shaft/casing gaps Fill casing and bearing housing fully with Same as short term - Leave in situ Do not turn - - Same as short term - - - Same as short term - - Same as short term - Same as short term .P.P.P. First Cost b) Vertical Can - - Same as short term - Same as short term c) Horizontal Type Lesser Than 4. Oil Fill bearing housings to normal level with R.000 H.P. Greater Tan 4.Table 10-A Rotating Equipment Mothballing Machinery Type 1) Centrifugal Pumps a) Submersible Remove and use elsewhere Leave in situ Do not turn Caulk and tape shaft/casing gaps Fill casing with R. - - Same as short term - Same as short term - Leave in situ Turn shaft monthly Fill casing to shaft height with R.

Oil Short Term Long Term Min. block in oil piping to bearings so can be filled with R.P. Oil Operate lube/seal oil systems monthly Turn shaft monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Remove and store if no manpower to turn shaft or to operate lube/seal oil systems Fill casing with R. First Cost - - - b) Refrigeration - Same as 2(a) short term Leave in situ Operate lube/seal monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Purge casing with N2. Oil If rotor not removed.P.P. dry air or fill casing to shaft height with R. Oil - - Same as 2(a) for minimum first cost Same as 2(a) for minimum first cost c) Instrument Air - - - .P. turn shaft monthly See Appendix C for additional steps Same as 2(a) short term Same as 2(a) for long term Leave in situ Do not turn shaft/ casing gaps Fill casing and bearings with R.P. oil.Table 10-B Rotating Equipment Mothballing Machinery Type 2) Centrifugal Compressors a) Process Gas Leave in situ Fill casing with N2 or fill casing to shaft height with R.

if can't seal shaft/ casings If can seal shaft/ casing. remove and store rotors Block suction and discharge flanges and install air pre-heater whether rotor removed or not If motor not removed.P.Table 10-C Rotating Equipment Mothballing Machinery Type 3) Gas Turbines Short Term Leave in situ Operate lube oil systems monthly Blind suction and discharge flanges install air pre-heater Turn shaft monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Long Term If utilities or manpower are not available to operate lube system and turn shafts. fill casing fully with R.P. Oil Leave in situ Turn shafts monthly See Appendix B for additional steps - - - Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Seal shaft/casing and completely with R.P. Oil Fill casing to shaft height with R. Oil Do not turn rotors Min.P. block oil to bearings and turn shaft monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Reove and store rotors. Oil - . First Cost Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Block in oil to bearings Block in suction and discharge flanges and install air pre-heater - - - - 4) Gears - Grease or fill bearing housing with R.

P.Table 10-D Rotating Equipment Mothballing Machinery Type 5) Reciprocating Compressors a) Utility Air If instrument air required keep compressor in service.P.P. Oil Seal off distance piece openings . Seal off distance piece openings See Appendix V for additional steps Leave in situ Remove suction valves and fill cylinder and crank shaft with R. Oil.P.P. Oil.P. remove cyclinder suction valves and fill cylinder with R. Oil Seal off distance piece openings See Appendix B for additional steps Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Remove cylinder suction valves and fill cylinder with R. Oil Turn shafts monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Seal off distance piece openings Do not turn Remove cylinder suction valves and fill cylinder with R.P. Oil Seal off distance piece openings Short Term Long Term Min. First Cost - - - - - - b) Gas Lift - - - - Remove piston and rod and store Do not rotate Remove suction valves and fill cylinder and crank case See Appendix B for additional steps - - Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Remove suction valves and fill cylinder with R.P. Oil Fill crank case completely with R. If not operated. otherwise do not operate. Oil Turn shaft monthly Fill crank case with R. Fill crank case fully with R.

P.P. Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Fill seal casing/shaft gap and casing with R.P. Oil - Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Fill seal shaft/ casing and casing fully with R. Oil Turn shaft monthly See Appendix B for additional steps Long Term Remove suction valves and fill cylinder with R.P.P.P.P. Oil Do not turn shaft See Appendix B for additional steps Min.300 SSU at 100 deg F plus Vaprotec or SAE 30/SAE 40 Crankcase oil. = Rust preservative oil with vapor phase inhibitor added.P.000 H. Oil Fill crank case with R. Oil. First Cost Leave in situ Do not turn shaft Remove suction valves and fill cyclinder with R. Oil NOTE: R. - - Remove and store Fill seal shaft/casing and casing with R.P.Table 10-E Rotating Equipment Mothballing Machinery Type 6) Reciprocating Pumps Short Term Remove suction valves and fill cyclinder with R. Oil - - - 7) Steam Turbines a) Lesser than 1. Oil to shaft height Leave in situ Operate lube system monthly cylinder and Fill casing with N2 or fill partly with R. Fill crank case fully with R.P.P.P. Note rust preservative oil should have viscosity of approximately 220 . Leave in situ Turn shaft monthly Fill casings and bearings with R. .000 H.P. Oil Same as long term b) Greater than 1.

shaft seals and insulation material.1. etc. Preservation of entire electrical equipment indoors in a controlled atmosphere. is very sensitive to internal and external corrosion and will deteriorate quickly if not satisfactorily preserved. 7.1 Basic Considerations 8. 8.1. 6. such as motors and transformers. 3.2 Types of Electrical Equipment The following equipment is considered electrical equipment: 1.3 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 1. when idle.8 ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 8. 3. Transformers Motors Substations and Switchracks Cables Batteries and Battery Chargers Generator and Associated Facilities Instrument Power Supply Junction Boxes Conduit Systems Cable Trays Security Lights 8. . 4.1 General The mothballing guidelines for the preservation and maintenance of electrical equipment are dependent mainly on the size and type of equipment. 9.1. is complex and demanding and a mistake in the selection of the mothball procedure can result in the deterioration of expensive equipment. The exclusion of moisture is essential to any protection program to avoid oxidation of critical components such as bearings. Mothballing procedures will involve one of the following: 1) 2) Preservation of entire electrical equipment in situ. 2. 2. the required mothballing term and the time required for recommissioning. Mothballing of electrical equipment. 5. Some electrical equipment. 8.

Unfortunately. providing the equipment remains energized. if not turned periodically. 4. 6.1.1. motors.4 kV switchgear and transformers. e. motors.8 kV.5. shafts of large motors are susceptible to "Creep".5 kV switchgear and transformers. Plant incoming power transformers. battery chargers and UPS inverters in a suitable warehouse.16 kV switchgear and transformers.1. 7. 5. for the following: a.16 kV. When mothballed at Min. 2. 34. . De-energize all breakers in the 34. Sand ingress into the close clearance components in electric motors and/or junction boxes is also a concern.4. d.6 General Procedures The following steps shall be followed prior to undertaking any preservative actions to the electrical equipment: 1) 2) Stop all rotating equipment and insure the plant is not operating. The majority of transformers. this is not particularly feasible for large motors and transformers. As in large centrifugal type rotating equipment. First Cost in situ.5 kV. f.4 kV switchgears. electrical equipment will quickly deteriorate if electric power is switched off. 8.8 kV switchgear and transformers. Note: Some breakers will remain in service to provide electrical power to the equipment indicated in paragraph 10. b. 4. batteries. Then the electrical power supply should be preserved only. c. and battery chargers can be preserved for Short or Long Term without recommissioning concern. 2. 480 V control centers and lighting transformers and lighting panel boards. 13. 480 V MCC's and distribution/lighting panelboards. 8.4 Mothballing Options The following options are considered for the preservation of electrical equipment which can be removed: 1) Store transformers. 13.

5 psig. Protect and seal all cable ends from weather and mechanical damage. Replace any damaged or missing parts and hardware. Remove debris around transformers semi-annually. Tighten and re-anchor loose conduits.1 Transformers Short Term .7 General Electrical Preparation Procedures De-energize equipment prior to mothballing.2 Guidelines and Recommendations for Mothballing Specific Electrical Equipment. indicating that connected equipment has been mothballed.Long Term .3) All de-nergized breakers should be padlocked and tagged. 8. to ensure pressure of 2 . Energize equipment that is to remain in service during the mothballing period. First Cost Clean and dry insulators. . Check oil level and fill semi-annually. Clean and dry terminal housings. Add additional nitrogen. when applicable. housings and panels. Clean. Repaint corroded conduit and junction boxes near the mothballed equipment. Repair seats and oil leaks. 8. Repair leaks. Check doors and covers for tight fit. Energize transformers which are required during mothballing period. Check oil level and fill. boxes and control cabinets. Repair or replace leaking cabinet door seals and junction box gaskets. Check operations of trips. Tighten all loose hardware. dry and tighten all power and control connections. Energize space heaters.Min. Apply light coat of petroleum jelly on exposed terminals. Clean equipment internally with air-hose. 8. Place silica gel in boxes. Test oil and record data. Repaint corroded or damaged areas on equipment exterior.1. Apply Denso or equivalent on junction box fasteners.2. enclosures.

trip and cranking mechanism and disconnect fingers. Short Term .8. First Cost Deenergize any part of switchgear or rack that will not be used during the mothball period. Install space heater ammeter (if not already available). 14-800-125). Check operation of space heater semi-annually.200 HP Energize space heaters. Check switchgear/rack and building heating system. Clean and grease fuse clips with contact lubricating grease (SAMS No.Long Term). in "OFF" position.3 Substations and Switchracks Short Term . Check oil level in bearing housing semi-annually. Use space heater. - . Motors less than 600 V . Tag all padlocked breakers indicating that connected equipment has been mothballed.200 HP Energize space heaters (if available) (Short Term . First Cost A. First Cost Mothballing) . Padlock all breakers. Block air-inlet. First Cost Mothballing only).Min. Wrap and seal current and potential transformers which will not be used or store transformers (Min. B. Shut off power and leave in situ (Min. such as: wheels. First Cost only). Rotate periodically.Long Term .Long Term .2.2 Motors Replace silica gel (desiccant) semi-annually. Store transformers (Min. contacts.Min. Place petroleum jelly on any movable or rusting part. 8. Place silica gel or desiccant inside cubicles which are not equipped with space heaters (Short and Long Term only). First Cost Mothballing only). Motors greater than 600 V . Replace silica gel (desiccant) semi-annually. Shut off power and leave in situ (Min.2. which will not be used.

Do not activate space heaters when equipment is mothballed at Min.Long Term A. First Cost 8. bottom.4 Cables Short Term . Ascertain operating of breakers providing power to equipment that are kept energized during the mothballing period.Battery Chargers .Inverters Short Term . Six Months: Replace silica gel inside cubicles.2. Test and calibrate relays that are still in service. Batteries . Ascertain operating of space heaters and heating system. Indoor (Short and Long Term only) Seal any open holes in switchgear cabinets.Long Term . Energize and tag breakers which are required for activating space heaters.- floor.5 Deenergize all cables which are not used during mothballing.2. but allow air ventilation at Guidelines for Monitoring/Maintenance (Short and Long Term only) Three Months: Remove debris around outdoor switchgear/rack.Min. If available. activate space heater (Short and Long Term only). Batteries (Lead-Acid Type) . Tarpaulin switchgear of racks. Clean main bus and breaker contacts that are still in service. First Cost. Two Years: 8. Energize switchgear of rack space heaters. especially in the Energize switchgear and building heating system. Outdoor (Short and Long Term only) Remove and tag all protective relays of breakers which will not be used and store indoors.

C. Inverters Shut down. Apply light coat of petroleum jelly to battery rack hardware. 8. Discontinue maintenance. Units not in service B.2. Guidelines for Maintenance Three Months: 8.- Clean battery terminals and apply light coat of nonoxidizing grease. De-energize if batteries do not remain in service and store.7 Generators and Associated Facilities . Drain electrolyte and store. Clean outside of battery cases with baking soda solution.6 Check electrolyte level and density of batteries in service. Wipe off any acid spills.Battery Chargers .Inverters Minimum First Cost Disconnect batteries and chargers and leave. Shut down inverters. Batteries . Ascertain operating of battery charger.2. Check charge rate. Store battery. Measure and record individual cell voltages. Units in service Check proper electrolyte level and density. Battery Chargers Keep energized if batteries remain in service and if A/C is on and properly maintained.

First Cost only).Cable Trays Short Term .Min. Offshore: .Long Term Remove dirt from box fasteners. Rotate periodically.Conduit Systems . Abandon and discontinue monitoring (Min.Long Term .Short Term . Check semi-annually if Denso is to be reapplied.2. 8. but do not activate space heaters (Min.Long Term A. 8.11 Security and Perimeter Fence Lights Short Term .2. Instrument Power Supply Short Term . Guidelines for Maintenance (Short and Long Term only) Three Months: 8. 8. Abandon. Apply Denso or equivalent on box fasteners.Regulators) Energize space heaters (Short and Long Term only).10 Junction Boxes . Check tarpaulin.Cable Trays Minimum First Cost Do not apply Denso on box fasteners. First Cost (Exciters .2.9 Junction Boxes .2.Min. First Cost Do not keep power on unless A/C is on (Short and Long Term). Ascertain operating of space heaters.8 Remove debris around equipment. First Cost only). Leave in situ.Long Term .Conduit Systems .Relays .

Keep energized. .12 Security and Perimeter Fence Lights Minimum First Cost A. Continue monitoring/maintenance. 8.B. Offshore: B. Onshore: Keep energized. Keep energized. Continue monitoring/maintenance. Continue monitoring/maintenance.2. Onshore: De-energize all outdoor lighting circuit breakers and abandon. Discontinue monitoring/maintenance.

First Cost b) Greater than 600V - - Same as short term - Leave in situ energized 2 Motors a) Less than 600V (lesser than 250 HP Greater than 600V (greater than 250 HP) Energize with space heaters (if available) Same as short term Shut off and leave in situ b) - 3) Substations and Switchracks a) Less than 600V - Energize with space heaters (mandatory) Block air-inlet Install space heater ammeter (if not already available Rotate periodically - Same as short term - Shut off and leave in situ If available activate space heater - Same as short term - Leave in situ but do not activate space heaters b) Greater than 600V .Table 13-A Electric Equipment Mothballing Equipment 1) Transformers (Cathodic Protection Rectifiers) a) Less than 600V Energize (follow same procedure as normal operation) Energize (follow same procedure as normal operation) Same as short term Leave in situ energized Short Term Long Term Min.

Table 13-B Electric Equipment Mothballing Equipment 4) Cables Short Term Proect (seal) all cable ends from weather and mechanical damage Long Term Same as short term Min. First Cost Same as short term 5) Batteries a) Chargers Keep energized if AC is on and properly maintained Shut down Energize with space heaters Rotate periodically Keep power on if AC is on Apply Denso or equivalent on box fasteners Same as short term Abandon b) 6) Inverter - - Shutdown Same as short term - Shutdown Leave in situ but do not activate space heaters Abandon Generator and Associated Facilities (Exciters-RelaysInstrument Power Supply Junction Boxes Conduit (Systems Cables Trays) Security Lights a) b) Offshore Onshore 7) - Same as short term - 8) - - Same as short term - Abandon 9) - Keep energized Keep energized - Keep energized Keep energized - Keep energized Abandon .

e. motor) as specified equipment. B.Disconnect electrical supplys. but removal will improve the building sealing and reduce the temptation for unauthorized removal/use.Disconnect electrical supplys. Window Units Remove from window or wall openings and seal openings with plywood and tape. seal off outside air inlet and drain freon (return to storage). Mothball components (i. seal off the outside air inlet and leave in place. . Packaged units -. compressor.9 AIR CONDITIONING SYSTEMS Air conditioning will often be left in operation during short term mothballing to prevent instrumentation degradation. Split systems -. Control Air Handling Systems A. No special precautions are required for the unit.

leave in place and operate Long Term Same as short term Min..C. First Cost Remove and seal openings with plywood and tape Control rooms included - - 2) Central Systems a) Packaged Disconnect electrical Seal air openings Leave in place Disconnect electrical Seal air openings Drain freon (return to storage) Treat component as specific equipment using nitrogen purge Semi annually pressure check None - Same as short term - Same as short term b) Split Systems - Same as short term - Same as short term Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning/ concerns - - Same as short term - None - - None - Large packaged units may require replacement .Table 14 Air Conditioning Systems Mothballing Facility 1) Window Type Short Term Remove and seal openings with plywood and tape If control rooms are provided with window type A.

lowpoint drains should be left open for ground and elevated flares to drain firewater. (Relief systems should remain in service where plant vessels/piping contain hydrocarbon gas or liquid). Bottom.10 FLARE SYSTEMS Flare systems should be isolated from the flare tip and the in-plant portion mothballed as in-plant piping. . Ground flare tips should be covered to prevent the accumulation of rainwater.

First Cost Same as short term - 2) Elevated Flares - - Same as short term - Same as short term - Monitoring/ Maintenance Recommissioning concerns - - Same as short term - Same as short term - - Replacement pilot tip likely - Extensive repair and/or replacement likely .Table 15 Flare Systems Mothballing Facility 1) Ground Flares Short Term Isolate flare system from flare tips Treat in-plant portion as in-plant piping and process vessels Cover flare tips Leave bottom low point drains open Isolate flate stack from piping Treat-in plant portion as in-plant piping Relief system to remain in service where plant vessels-piping contain hydrocarbon gas or liquid Leave bottom low point drains open In-plant portion as in-plant piping None Long Term Same as short term Min.

Lay-up procedures for mothballing fired heaters (furnaces) are generally less complex than for boilers.Refractory and External Structure.3 Guidelines for Mothballing Boilers (Short Term and Long Term) Use dry storage procedures as outlined in paragraph C7.12 years may need replacement of a majority of its refractory. Newer units may need no repair work at all.11 BOILERS AND FIRED HEATERS 11.1. repairs may be needed at shutdown (Short and Long Term only). (Short and Long Term). Thus. it may be assumed acid corrosion will occur. .1.1.302 of "Care of Power Boilers. 11. 2. Section VII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code". but common to the preservation of both are Stacks . its anchoring system and the casing plate.Burners . (Short and Long Term). 11. The extent of such repairs are dependent on the type of fuel fired and on the age of the unit.001. Guidelines of the various lay-up procedures for mothballing boilers in a steam generating plant are provided by the General Instruction Number 403. The main concern in shutting down and mothballing the fire-side of a boiler or fired heater is the potential for acid attack by condensed sulfur compounds on the refractory.1 General The mothballing guidelines for the preservation and maintenance of boilers and fired heaters are dependent on the required mothballing term and the recommissioning period specified.2 Some Specific Concerns and Considerations 1. Since heater (furnace) casings operate below the acid dew point temperature. Fired heaters and fireboxes in high sulfur fuel service for over 10 . This General Instruction provides mothballing procedures for Short Term and Long Term mothballing only and does not provide guidelines for mothballing of boilers at Minimum First Cost.1 Basic considerations 11.

But for minimum first cost mothballing note the following exceptions: Do not cap stack(s) Do not remove burners Do not wash tubes externally Do not decoke tubes internally if tubes are ferritic steel Discontinue normal paint schedule on external structure Discontinue monitoring and maintenance Recommissioning Concerns General corrosion and acid attack to the refractory expected making replacement likely.5 wt % sulfur Decoke tubes internally Wash internally with soda ash if tubes are austenitic steel Protect tubes internally the same as connected piping Dry out refractory if tubes are externally washed (use burner) Optional: apply space heater Maintain normal paint schedule for the external structure Monitoring/Maintenance Replace silica gel semi annually in mud drums and steam drums Check semi annually for diesel leakage (if applicable) Maintain 5 psig pressure on tubes (nitrogen . Wash/neutralize tubes externally with carbonate solution if fuel contains greater than 0. Cap stack(s) Remove and store burners Open all manways and if possible sidewall wall headers Install air eductors on the manway of the mud drum and steam drum Open firebox and manually clean down radiant tubes.4 Short Term .if applicable) Check space heater(s) if installed Recommissioning Concerns 11.Lay-up Procedures as outlined in Saudi Aramco General Instruction Number 403.None Long Term .1. the same procedures are recommended for mothballing boilers short term as are recommended for Long Term.Repair of refractory likely Guidelines for Mothballing Boilers In general.- - Follow Boiler .001 (where applicable). .

1.Nitrogen fuel gas) Dry out refractory if tubes are externally washed (use burner) Optional: apply space heater Maintain normal paint schedule for the external structure Monitoring/Maintenance Check semi annually for diesel leakage (if applicable) Maintain 5 psig pressure on tubes (nitrogen .Dry out only if tubes are externally washed Discontinue normal paint schedule on external structure Discontinue monitoring and maintenance Recommissioning Concerns General corrosion and acid attack to the refractory expected.Long Term) Cap stack(s) Remove and store burners and Seal openings Wash tubes externally with carbonate solution if fuel contains greater than 0.if applicable) Check space heater(s) if installed Recommissioning Concerns 11.6 Short Term .11.None Long Term .5 wt % sulfur Decoke tubes internally if necessary Wash internally with soda ash if tubes are austenitic steel Protect tubes internally as connected piping (Diesel .1.5 Some corrosion attack in boiler and tubes expected Repairs likely Guidelines for Mothballing Fired Heaters (Short Term . but with the following exceptions: Do not cap stack(s) Do not remove burners Do not wash tubes externally Do not decoke tubes internally if tubes are ferritic steel Do not use space heaters on refractory . .Repair of refractory likely Guidelines for Mothballing Fired Heaters (Minimum First Cost) In general the same procedures are recommended for Minimum First Cost mothballing of fired heaters as were recommended for Short and Long Term Mothballing.

- Replacement of refractory and repairs or replacement of burners and tubes likely .

First Cost No action No action Leave in situ 3) Tubes a) External If more than 0.Table 16-A Fired Heaters Mothballing Facility 1) 2) Stack Burners Short Term Cap Remove and store Seal openings Long Term Cap Same as short term Min.5 WT % sulfur. N2 fuel gas) Same as short term No action b) Internal Austenitic - - Same as short term - Same as short term c) Internal Ferritic - - Same as short term - Same as short term . wash tubes Decoke if necessary Soda ash wash Protect as connected piping (diesel. N2 fuel gas) Decoke if necessary Protect as connected piping (Diesel.

Table 16-B Fired Heaters Mothballing Facility 4) Refractory Short Term Dry out if tubes are externally washed (use burner) Optional: Space heater Maintain normal paint schedule Semi annually for diesel leakage Maintain 5 psig pressure on tubes Check space heater if installed None Long Term Same as short term Min. First Cost Dry out if tubes are are externally washed - 5) External Structure - - Same as short term - No action Monitoring/ Maintenance - - Same as short term - None Recommissioning concerns - - Repair of refractory likely - - General corrosion and acid attach to the refractory expected Replacement likely .

12

BUILDINGS 12.1 Basic Considerations 12.1.1 General Prior to mothballing, an economic analysis should be made of the options available for disposition of the excess building e.g. reuse within Saudi Aramco, reuse by a Non-Saudi Aramco Agency, mothball, abandon in place or demolish. Facilities Planning Department can assist in the economic analysis, including cost estimates for the options. Chapter 2 of this manual describes the philosophy of mothballing generally common to Saudi Aramco plant and buildings. In the case of plant, three levels of mothballing are relevant; short-term, long-term and minimum first cost. Due to the different nature of buildings, only one level of mothballing is applicable and is referred to in this chapter as simply 'mothballing". 12.1.2 Mothballing consideration will involve also the following: 1. Economic justification comparing costs of preservation, maintenance and recommissioning to the cost of demolision and rebuilding. Fire, safety and health hazards in keeping the building unoccupied. Effect of environment (wind, rain, humidity, heat and pollutants) and biological effects on the building and contents. The major natural environmental damage expected to mothballed buildings will come from water. If plumbing is correctly shut off and the building sealed against rain, no serious damages are likely. Security requirements. Vandalism can be a major problem in mothballed buildings. If the facility is securely sealed (and fenced where appropriate) the risk of vandalism is minimized.

2. 3.

4.

12.2

Environmental considerations Temperature fluctuations, rain exposure, moisture absorption, chemical alteration of the masonry units and the mortar, elastic and plastic strains all acting in many combinations alter the appearance, weather tightness and strength of buildings. Some of the problems arise by wood-boring insects and wood-destroying fungi which proliferate in damp or dry conditions and cause the deterioration of plaster, gypsum board, insulation, carpets etc. besides wood. Chlorides, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide and oxides of nitrogen present in the atmosphere may also cause deterioration of the cement in concrete, carbonates in limestone, exposed iron in rebar, aluminum in conduits, metal siding and trim. Electrical wiring may be

damaged by rodents if they are permitted to enter mothballed buildings. Entry of birds, bats and other animals will also cause damage to the building interior and contents. 12.3 Some specific concerns and considerations 12.3.1 The exclusion of water or high humidity (i.e. over 40%) is essential for any protection program to avoid corrosion and biological damage to the various components within the building. Heating and air conditioning systems, plumbing, sewage and fire water systems should all be drained of water completely and dried for mothballing. Condensation of moisture under the roof and in other enclosed spaces should be mitigated by proper ventilation or by preventing moisture entry from outside into a dry building. Excessive heat built up inside buildings should be avoided by blocking the sun entering the building through glass windows. All accumulations of flammable or combustible waste or rubbish and food should be removed from the building and the interior of the building should be disinfected. Protection against the entry of poisonous sewer gas, animals, vermins and vandals should be made to avoid damage to the building and its contents during the mothballed period.

12.3.2

12.3.3

12.3.4

12.3.5

12.4

Preparation for mothballing 12.4.1 A thorough inspection of the building should be made by a qualified civil inspector for structural integrity, weather proofing, damage to the exterior and interior walls, roof, flooring, framing, insulation, doors, windows and ventilation outlets. An entomological survey should be done to determine the pest control treatment required prior to mothballing. Based on inspection and survey findings remedial work may be necessary to protect the building from the environmental considerations stated in paragraph 12.2. 12.4.2 A written procedure should be developed for each building listing the inventory, actions to be taken for preservation and protection, and the periodic monitoring responsibilities by inspection and security.

12.5

General procedures

The following actions should be completed to mothball buildings. 12.5.1 12.5.2 12.5.3 Clean the inside, remove all food, rubbish and combustible waste. Shut off electricity, gas, and water supply. Drain all water from supply, return and disposal lines including fire water lines, water heaters and storage tanks. Dry utility water systems with compressed air. Block off sewer outlets and seal. Disconnect service to computer and communication systems at the switching station. Block off all ventilation and other openings that permit air circulation. Install rodent proof screens and disinfect the entire building, per entomological recommendations. Board up all windows and exterior doors except one entrance for periodic monitoring inspection. Ensure that the building is weatherproof and paint exterior walls if made of wood or metal siding, per normal maintenance schedule.

12.5.4 12.5.5 12.5.6

12.5.7

12.5.8

12.5.9

12.6

Mothballing associated equipment For mothballing air conditioning systems, utility systems, electical equipment, water tanks etc. which are associated with the building refer to the appropriate sections in the Saudi Aramco Mothball Manual.

12.7

Guidelines for monitoring/maintenance 12.7.1 Buildings which are mothballed require periodic inspection and security checks every 3 months for the first year and annualy thereafter. Monitoring inspections should include both exterior and interior checks of the building and the external condition of the associated equipment. Proper safety precautions should be followed in entering mothballed buildings for inspection.

12.7.2

elevators. rubbish Disinfect Disconnect service a) b) a) b) c) Remove from premises Shut off gas supply Block off direct sun light entering the building Board up all windows and doors Leave one entrance for inspection Disinfect interior Cover openings with insect proof Lock. secure all doors. windows. Metallic siding No action Maintain normal paint schdule Inspect and repair as necessary Mothballing Actions Weather proofing roof. other openings Ventilation systems Utility water systems Sewer systems Air conditioning/Heating Systems Electrical systems including lighting. rodents.Table 18 Buildings Mothballing Facility 1) Exterior walls a) b) 2) Concrete. food. Stone Wood. Brick. vermins and vandals a) b) c) d) 14) Security lighting and power Decide on a case by case basis Check security. doors. windows and openings Install fence if necessary 12) Exterior doors and windows 13) Protection against infestation. power. inspect inside & outside every 3 months for the first year and check annually thereafter. None Monitoring/Maintenance Recommissioning concerns . alarms emergency. etc. Fire fighting equipment 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) Block off to prevent air circulation inside building Drain & dry with compressed air Block sewer outlets & seal See Table 14 a) b) a) b) Shut off power See also Tables 13A and 13B Leave in place Do not service 8) 9) 10) 11) Carpets Communication/computer equipment Flamable & combustible materials. barricade.

It is recommended that "Inspection Guidelines for Mothballed Equipment" . The objectives and factors influencing the mothball procedures are listed in Chapter II. As explained in Chapter II. some monitoring and maintenance will be required for Long Term Mothballing. This task force should be selected from experienced maintenance. Availability and cost of maintenance personnel are important factors when equipment is mothballed for Short and Long Term. Recommendations A Mothball Task force Team should be established for each facility in a specific area (field) to develop specific procedures for mothballing and recommissioning. short-term lay-up of equipment and facilities idle less than six months requires little more than the normal turn-around precautions. engineering and operating personnel who will write the mothball procedures for the related equipment and facilities or pipe systems in their area of responsibility. as given in Chapter IV. This special audit team should report their findings directly to Saudi Aramco's Management periodically. In addition to the guidelines. It has been established that monitoring and maintenance are significant for Short Term Mothballing. DE-321351 be used as a check list for establishing the frequency of inspection and maintenance requirements during mothballing. . and low or no maintenance costs are dictated for mothballing at Minimum First Cost. it is strongly recommended that a special party audit team be established to verify mothballing records and results in all areas where facilities have been mothballed. Planning of the Mothball Procedures should be in accordance with the guidelines recommended in Chapter IV.CHAPTER VII MONITORING AND MAINTENANCE DURING MOTHBALLING Monitoring and maintenance of oilfield production processing and refining equipment depend on the objectives of mothballing. This procedure will enable Saudi Aramco's Management to determine recommissioning terms for mothballed facilities as required.Saudi Aramco Drawing No.

GI-403. Storage Preservation of Machinery . D. Recommended mothballing materials in SAMS.Issued by EXXON Chemical Company Baytown. Boiler Lay-up Procedures . Texas . Extracts from the Exxon Refinery Mothballing Guide for Saudi Aramco.001.APPENDIX A. B. C. Product information. E.

APPENDIX A Extracts from the Exxon Refinery Mothballing Guide for Saudi Arabian Oil Company. December 1982 .

keys) spacers.Legend: X AA NA NO Note: Applicable requirement As applicable to equipment Not applicable to equipment Not required or desired TECTYL is a trade mark of Valvoline Oil Company. Inc. spacers. a division of Ashland Oil. including those on bearing housing X X X X X X 6) 7) X X X X X X X X NA X X X . clean and coatwith TECTYL 506 Coat upper half of casing internals (which do not have casing vents) with TECTYL 930 Install an oil filler pipe connection on casing at convenient location and such that filler pipe iletat slightly higher elevation than top of casing If casing is separate of bearing housing. keys) should be coated TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse X X X X X X Casing 1) 2) Flush internals of heavy polymers Store stage diaphram assembly (or bladed carrier) in warehouse. Utility Centrifugal Compressor Process Services Air/N2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ High Horizontally Barrel Sundyne Speed Type Split Split Screw Axial Flow (vertical) Package Couplings 1) All couplings (hubs. install an oil filler pipe also at bearing housings AA NO AA X AA NA AA X AA NO NA NA 3) X X X X NO X 4a) X X X X X X 4b) X X X X X X Utility 5) Blind suction and discharge nozzle flanges Blind the coupling housing flange Blind or plug all casing openings.

studs and threaded connections on casing and its support pedestal with TECTYL 890 For machines which have integral interstage coolers. seal and coupling housing will fill up also). Vent trapped air from casing (where possible) to be sure all internals become coated with TECTYL 930 When level in filler pipe indicates casing is full. pins.Utility Centrifugal Compressor Process Services Air/N2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ High Horizontally Barrel Sundyne Speed Type Split Split Screw Axial Flow (vertical) Package 8) Fill compressor casing with TECTYL 930 using filler pipe per 4a. screw on cap over filler mouth. the gas side will be filled with TECTYL 930 when the compressor casing is filled (as required in earlier step) Integral gear boxes should also be filled completely with TECTYL 930 when the compressor casing is filled Note . Extend length of filler pipe as necessary to provide adequate volume for thermal expansion of TECTYL due to ambient temperature changes Coat all exposed sliding or machined surfaces.where shafts protrude through the casing. a teflon gasket should be installed (to prevent TECTYL leakage from the casing or rain leaking into casing) Lube oil systems and reservoir mounted in machinery baseplate shall be protected per section covering "Lube & Seal Oil Systems" Store inlet filter in warehouse X X X X X X 9) X X X X X X 10) X X X X X X 11) NA NA NA NA NA X 12) NA NA X NA X X 13) NA NA NA NA X NA 14) AA AA AA AA NA X 15) NA NA AA AA NA X .b (bearing.

Leave valved drain connection cracked open slightly Protect all instrumentation and control panels as described in separate section covering Instrumentation NA NA X AA NA AA 17) NA NA AA NA NA AA 18) X X X X X X .Utility Centrifugal Compressor Process Services Air/N2 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ High Horizontally Barrel Sundyne Speed Type Split Split Screw Axial Flow (vertical) Package 16) Blank off suction/discharge silencers aftercoating metal surfaces with TECTYL 890 Drain all casing cooling water jackets and plug.

lube pumps and filter on compressor frame with TECTYl 930. Cover crank shaft opening from compressor with tape. Protect all instrumentation and control panels described in separate section covering Instrumentation. Coat with TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse. (Allow some space for thermal expansion. spacers. Coat with TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse. drain and air dry. and rod packing. 2) 3) X X X X 4) X X 5) 6) X X X X 7) X X 8) X X 9) X X 10) 11) X X X X 12) X X 13) X X . Install a valved vent (at high point if possible) to permit addition of TECTYL later if required.) Do not clean or coat cylinder cooling passage. unloaders. Keep low point drain valve on water side slightly open and wire valve in this position (water side need only be flushed and air dried).Reciprocating Compressor (excluding driver) Service Process Gas Utility (Air/N2) X X 1) Remove the following: cylinder valves. Fill crankcase and crosshead compartment completely with TECTYL 930. Blank off pulsation bottles and knock out drums after coating with TECTYL 930 (fill and then drain vessels). keys) and pack of non-lube type couplings. Remove all gear type couplings (hubs. (Leave low point drain cracked open and wire valve in this position (permits self draining of any atmospheric condensation). Coat all exposed shafts and linkages with TECTYL 890. Plug inlet cooling passage. only flush with water. Coat flywheel with TECTYL 890 and cover with guard. Blind opening at rod packing box. Coat intercooler/aftercooler gas passages (not water passages) with TECTYL 930 by filling and draining. Plug all connections and vents. Blank or plug all connections on these components. Fill all lubricators. after filling cylinder and gas passages completely with TECTYL 930. Blind opening at wiper ring adjacent to crosshead compartment. Blind compressor gas inlet and discharge casing connections.

spacer keys) and coat with TECTYL 506.& Horiz. Coat and store in warehouse Hydrocarbon Service Caustic Acid Water Horizontally Mounted (Vert. Fill pump casing with TECTYL 930. Plug cooling water jackets (bearing and stuffing box) but keep low point drain valve cracked open slightly. (See Attachment) Remove gear type couplings(hubs.Centrifugal Pumps 1a) 1b) 2) Flush pumps and drain casing. Coat bearings & seals and store also.Split) Four Four Stages Stages Vertical Mounted Single Multi0 Stage Stage X X X X X AA X AA X AA X AA AA AA AA AA AA AA AA 3) AA AA AA NO X NO NO 4) AA AA AA NO AA NO NO 5) X X X X X X X 6) AA AA AA AA AA AA AA 7) X X X X X X X 8a) AA AA AA AA AA AA AA 8b) AA AA AA AA AA AA AA . Remove disc pack of non-lube type coupling.gas oil or glycol completely (leave room only for thermal expansion). Blind shaft openings on casing. Neutralize step required Fresh water flush and air dry all cooling jackets Remove rotor and store in warehouse (coat with TECTYL 506 and mount vertically if possible to avoid need to rotate). Make sure stuffing box filled. Store in warehouse. Insert tape between bearing shield (labyringth seal or deflector disc) and bearing cover. Coat space where shaft protrudes through bearing or stuffing box housings with TECTYL 890 and cover with tape. Blind shaft openings on bearing housing if pump rotor is being stored.

Note: Mechanical seals and shaft packing are not being removed for pumps which have rotors installed.Centrifugal Pumps 9) Coat all exposed machine surfaces (shafts.pedestal support) with TECTYL 890 Fill bearing housings completely with all purpose EP-1 (grease) or heavy oil. Keep pump suction and discharge block valves open if pump casing and confined piping will be purged with inert gas. Close pump suction and discharge block valves if pump casing and confined piping will be filled with antifreeze water solution. Blind suction and discharge pump flanges if pump casing will be filled with TECTYL 930.Split) Four Four Stages Stages Vertical Mounted Single Multi0 Stage Stage X X X X X X X 10) X X X X X X X 11a) AA AA AA X AA X X 11b) AA AA AA X AA X X 12a) AA AA NA AA AA AA AA 12b) AA AA NA AA AA AA AA 12c) NA AA X AA AA AA AA 12d) AA AA AA AA AA AA AA . Hydrocarbon Service Caustic Acid Water Horizontally Mounted (Vert. Note: Pumps with rotors installed do not require rotation.& Horiz. Close pump suction and discharge block valves if pump casing and confined piping will be filled with gas oil.

Fill bearing housing and gear box with all purpose EP-1 grease. shafts. spacers and keys). Neutralize step required (if caustic or acid) Blind suction and disch. Reciprocating Proportioning Gear or Steam Motor or Injection Screw Driven Driven Type Type X AA X X AA X X AA X X AA X X X X X 5) X X X X 6) X NA NA NA 7) NA AA AA AA 8) X X X 9) X X X X 10) NA X X X 11) X X NA NA 12) NA AA AA AA . Fill packing lubricator with TECTYL 930 or all purpose EP-1 grease. Fill steam end with TECTYL 930. Cover with tape. X Coat exposed piston rod. liquid end. and machined parts with TECTYL 890. cost with TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse Disc pack for non-lube type couplings should be coated and stored in similar manner. Bar piston and then drain TECTYL.Positive Displacement Pumps 1) 2) 3) 4) Flush and drain pump casing. Remove gear type couplings (hubs. Install steam end valves after coating with TECTYL 930. Bar rotor or piston to coat all surfaces. nozzles of pumps. Allow some space for thermal expansion of TECTYL. Remove and coat all valves and plate covers on liquid end with TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse. Coat all joints where shaft protrudes from casings with TECTYL 890. Fill liquid end with TECTYL 930. Coat internals of safety relief valves (which are integral with pump) with TECTYL 930.

Replace casing vent with valved pipe which extends just above casing top (serve as refiller). Coat all exposed shaft surfaces with TECTYL 890. making sure level is above gear elements and within the new filler piping. hubs) should be removed and stored in warehouse. Disc pack for non-lube type couplings should be removed. Fill casing completely with TECTYL 930. Insert teflon rope packing around shafts and bearing to provide a positive shaft seal with gear box. Coat these parts with TECTYL 506. Gear type couplings (spacer. Retighten end covers.Gear Units (Separate Boxes) 1) Loosen end covers containing shaft labyrinth oil seal from drive and driven end of gear box. keys. coated with TECTYL 506 and stored in warehouse. Blind all oil supply and drain connections on box. Applicable to all type Fans & Blower Compressors Generator Drives Special General Purpose Type Purpose Type X X X X 2) 3) X X 4) X X X X 5) 6) X X . Leave space for thermal expansion and close filler valve.

Clean and coat with TECTYL 506 and store in warehouse per manufacturer's instructions. with TECTYL 930. oil system. Spray coat of TECTYL 930 to all these interior parts and surfaces. Coat all hydraulic cylinders internally with TECTYL 930 and block in. startup drives. Protect accessories (gear boxes. Drain all cooling water passages completely. Remove power turbine section (aircraft derivative) clean and store in warehouse. air. Remove flame out sensors and store in warehouse per manufacturer's instructions. Remove inlet air filter cartridges and discard. Protect unit per manufacturer's instructions. fuel connections to gas turbine frame. Remove gasifier section (aircraft derivative) clean. and couplings) per applicable attached instructions covering these types of equipment. Remove electronic overspeed protection and governors and store in warehouse per manufacturer's instructions. store in warehouse in container provided by manufacturer. Heavy duty axial compressor and power turbine rotor assemblies to be rotated per manufacturer's instructions. Blind flanges to oil (control. Protect any motor drives per instructions covering this specific item. Coat fuel piping stop valves. Plug openings. lube). spray nozzle. Protect with TECTYL 506. Clean all stationary blading in axial compressor and turbine sections. Aircraft gasifier and power turbine rotors to be rotated per manufacturers instructions. rollers. Remove power turbine rotor assembly (heavy duty type). Clean and coat with TECTYL 506 and place in warehouse per manufacturer's instructions. Remove axial compressor rotor assembly (heavy duty type). Spray coating of TECTYL 930 to all latches.Gas Turbines 1) Purge fuel system and gas passages. bolting. Blind sections of piping for control and lube oil between machine frame and oil reservoir. Plug all vents. bearings. Protect per manufacturer instructions. Isolate these sections by installing blind at inlet air box and exhaust gas duct scroll. inlet air box to axial compressor. Aircraft Derivative Type Industrial Heavy Duty Type X X 2) X NA 3) X NA 4) X NA 5) NA X 6) NA X 7) NA X 8) X AA X X 9) 10) X X 11) X X 12) NA X 13) 14) X X 15) X X 16) X X .

Gas Turbines 17) Spray coat all adjustable nozzle control linkages with TECTYL 506. Grease all fittings with a vendor's recommended lubricant. Protect all instrument and control panels as described in separate section covering these items. Aircraft Derivative Type Industrial Heavy Duty Type AA X 18) X X 19) X X 20) X X . Low point drain valve for cooling passages should be cracked open slightly and valve handle tied to this position. Coat all machined surfaces on support pedestals and exposed bolting with TECTYL 890.

Cameron 31545-27-1. oil . Anti-seize. The SAMS stock numbers are shown. 5.SAMS 27-216-219 Silica Gel. LUBRICANTS 1. * SAMS . 6. for use in antifriction bearings of all types . oil (1 gram Vaprotec to 20 grams turbine oil) 7.Rust Inhibitive for pumps. Paper. for lubrication of ball valves . for wrapping exposed shafts and other machined surfaces after they have been greased . 4.Appendix B .SAMS 26-005-130/140 Option 1: Add 5 percent Vaprotec to engine oil Option 2: Use turbine oil and add Vaprotec as R.P. for sealing openings.SAMS 26-009-107 Lubricant. .Recommended Mothballing Materials In SAMS* A.SAMS 26-011-067 Ball Bearing Grease.SAMS 26-004-330 Crank-case Oil.SAMS 29-486-485 Tape. air compressor crankcases and other applications where these procedures specify the use of .P. Anti-seize Compound for threaded fasteners .SAMS 26-007230/240* or TECTYL 506 for protection of exposed shafts and other machined surfaces SAMS 09-611-830 Grease. Grease Compounds . All purpose Grease EP1 . 3. Ball Valve. Use as R. Greaseproof. 3. (Diesel Engine Oil).Saudi Aramco Material System. desiccant for protecting equipment from moisture .SAMS 26-004-130 2. B.SAMS 27-580-824 2. OTHER MATERIALS: 1. securing plastic protective films .

Product Information 1. TECTYL Products Denso Paste . 2.Appendix C .

Inc. (50-95 deg F. TECTYL 506 has a dielectric (insulating) strength of approximately 1000 volts per dry mil of film thickness and therefore protects electrical connections and helps prevent galvanic corrosion. The dry film is firm. Division of Ashland Oil. corrosion preventive compound. Continuous stirring or thinning is generally not required. wax base.) by spray. Apply at 10-30 deg C. If product thickens due to cold storage or loss of solvent during use. . Low Cost Protection TECTYL 506 is a one coat rust preventive. dip or brush. Long Term Protection TECTYL 506 is excellent for long term protection of metallic surfaces against corrosion in either indoor or outdoor exposure and during domestic and international shipments. rust. TECTYL 506 provides outstanding external protection of machinery. machine tools.TECTYL 506 A product of Valvoline Oil Company.tubing. automotive parts. Surface Preparation The maximum performance of TECTYL 506 can only be achieved when the metal surfaces to be protected are clean and dry. Benefits Easy Application TECTYL 506 is formulated for easy application by spray.machine rolls. dip or brush.and spare parts. scaling paint and other contaminants before applying 506. What it is TECTYL 506 is a solvent cutback. dies. amber. Remove dirt. waxy translucent. The thin film provides high coverage and low cost protection. add only aliphatic mineral spirits and only if necessary to restore consistency. Application Ensure uniform consistency prior to use.

PMCC.5 deg C 2000 hours - - 165 CAUTION TECTYL 506 cures by solvent evaporation. Typical (90 bend. Typical (2x4x1/8 in.Coverage The theoretical coverage is 650 sq.5 deg C 22. For further information. Removal TECTYL 506 can be removed if necessary with mineral spirits. Typical Approximate Air Dry Time 77 F deg (25 deg C) High Temperature Flow Point.5 microns). DIN 1623 Panels) * * ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) DIN (Deutsche Industrie Norman) 100 deg F 0.88 1.No flaking or cracking) Accelerated Corrosion Tests: 5% Salt Spray (Hours) (A) *ASTM B-117 @ 1. or any similar petroleum solvent or vapor degreasing.3 mils 650 sq ft/US Gallon 1 hour 300 deg F 10 deg F Metric 37.ft/gallon (16 sq meters/liter) at the recommended dry film thickness of 1. Min. Lab Data English Flash. . If applied to the interior of an enclosed vessel adequate ventilation is required for cure and to ensure against formation of an explosive atmosphere. Typical (125x200mm.5 microns 16 sq meters/Liter 1 hour 149.5 microns. TECTYL 506 can be removed from fabrics by normal dry cleaning procedures.6 C). consult Technical Bulletin 173. Avoid using chlorinated or highly aromatic solvents when removing from painted surfaces as these solvents may adversely affect paint.8 deg C 0.Polished Steel Panels) (B) *DIN 50021 @ 32. Typical Recommended Dry Film Thickness Theoretical Coverage. Specific Gravity @ 60 F (15.3 mils (32.3 mils.88 32. Material losses during application will vary and must be considered when estimating job requirements. Typical Low Temperature Flexibility.

Surface Preparation The maximum performance of TECTYL 890 can only be achieved when the metal surfaces to be protected are clean and dry. bolts. large chains and cables. TECTYL 890 will not corrode brass. asphaltic base corrosion preventive compound. Application Ensure uniform consistency prior to use. Division of Ashland Oil. zinc. nuts. Remove dirt. . scaling paint and other contaminants before applying TECTYL 890. TECTYL 890 is primarily designed for the protection of non-precision parts such as exterior surfaces. add only aliphatic mineral spirits and only if necessary to restore consistency. aluminum or steel. The dry film is firm. Low Cost Protection TECTYL 890 is a single coat rust preventive. What it is TECTYL 890 is a solvent cutback. black asphaltic type. cadmium.TECTYL 890 A product of Valvoline Oil Company. If product thickens due to cold storage or loss of solvent during use. dip or brush. Benefits Easy Application TECTYL 890 is formulated for easy application by spray or brush. magnesium. TECTYL 890 provides outstanding outdoor protection. Apply at 5-30 deg C (40-95 deg F) by spray. Inc. Continuous stirring or thinning is generally not required. rust. Long Term Protection TECTYL 890 is excellent for long term protection of metallic surfaces against corrosion in either indoor or outdoor exposure and during domestic and international shipments. The film provides high coverage and lowcost protection.

If applied to the interior of an enclosed vessel adequate ventilation is required for cure and to ensure against formation of an explosive atmosphere. TECTYL 890 can be removed from fabrics by normal dry cleaning procedures.5 hour 175 deg F Pass Metric 37. consult Technical Bulletin 173. Method 4001 @ 2.S. Typical Approximate Air Dry Time 77 deg F(25 deg C) High Temperature Flow Point. Removal TECTYL 890 can be removed if necessary with mineral spirits.Coverage The theoretical coverage is 450 square feet per U. Specific Gravity @ 60 F(15.6 mils.Typical Recommended Dry Film Thickness Theoretical Coverage. Min. gallon (11 sq meters/liter) at the recommended dry film thickness of 2. MIL-P-116 Preservative. Typical (A) (B) Fed.Scratch Test. minimum Low Temperature Adhesion. Military Specification.6 mils 450 sq ft/U. For further information.STD 791. CAUTION TECTYL 890 cures by solvent evaporation.6 mils. Lab Data English Flash.200 hours 100 deg F 0. Gallon 1.5 hour 79 deg C Pass * ASTM (American Society for Testing and Materials) Applicable U.6 C). PMCC. Material losses during application will vary and must be considered when estimating job requirements.6 mils (65 microns). Type P-1. . MIL-C-16173D. No Flanking at 0 deg F Accelerated Corrosion Tests: 20% Salt Spray (Hours). or any similar petroleum solvent.S.8 deg C 0. typical 600 hours 1. Typical Weather-o-Meter @ 2.92 2.S.meters/Liter 1. Grade 1. Avoid using chlorinated or highly aromatic solvents when removing from painted surfaces as these solvents may adversely affect paint.92 65 microns 11 sq.

. the minimum recommended film thickness is about 0. alkalis and salts. it can be put on with a minimum of surface preparation. recommended when not overlaid with Densotape. not even on hot flanges because. 0. 26 cu. When used as a protective coating (rather than as primer). including airless pray.g. However. One great advantage of petroleum base putty over bitumens. 25. It remains soft and flexible even after extended weathering. The easiest method for extensive applications is by steam blasting. passivating agents (tannin. Characteristics : Temperature Limit Density Flash Point Fire Point Flammability (Denso Tape) Film Thickness Spraying : : : : : : : Packing : USE OF DENSO PASTE FOR CORROSION PROTECTION OF NUTS AND BOLTS Denso Paste is a petrolatum base gel containing siliceous fillers and organic rust preventatives. per ASTM D-92. pitches. 550 deg F (288 deg C) min. 3. 131 deg F (55 deg C) max. per ASTM D-92. if used as recommended.10 inch (2. in/lb (925 cm3/kg). Importantly.2 kg (7 lb) cartons. Although both of these products are judged capable of providing long-term corrosion protection of exposed hardware.1 in (2. De Vilbiss Model UB 1 and APA/663. amines). Denso Paste is better suited for the intended application. there would be no need to remove Denso Paste before recommissioning.DENSO PASTE PROPERTIES Composition : Saturated petroleum hydrocarbon (petrolatum). inert fillers (slate or china clay). asphalt. Denso Paste can be removed by scraping and solvent wiping. Denso Paste has a butter-like consistency like light grease and can be applied by various techniques. etc is easy of removal. Though quite easily damaged due to its softness. 450 deg F (232 deg C) min. it is sufficiently tough to survive atmospheric storm conditions. the small quantities involved are not considered a personnel or fire hazard. The upper temperature limit is 55o C but more heat resistant formulations could be developed for hot climates. Denso Paste is impervious to water and quite resistant to acids. Heavy duty airless spray unit (e. Non-drying. Impervious to water. napthenic oil. 500 mg tubes. alkalis and salts. Highly resistant to mineral acids. Compressor capacity 15 CFM at 50-80 psi (normal spray pressure 40 psi). All that is necessary is that loose rust be removed which can be achieved by simple wire brushing.5 mm) min. These products have been successfully used for atmospheric corrosion protection for many decades. Non-hardening. Flame Spread Index 22 per ASTM E-162.5 mm). It is closely related to familiar Denso Tape for which it is used as a primer.4 kg (56 lb) drums.

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