1)2008 is combination of vista and windows 2003r2. Some new services are introduced in it 1.

RODC one new domain controller introduced in it [Read-only Domain controllers.] 2. WDS (windows deployment services) instead of RIS in 2003 server 3. shadow copy for each and every folders 4.boot sequence is changed 5.installation is 32 bit where as 2003 it is 16 as well as 32 bit, that’s why installation of 2008 is faster 6.services are known as role in it 7. Group policy editor is a separate option in ads 2) The main difference between 2003 and 2008 is Virtualization, management. 2008 has more inbuilt components and updated third party drivers Microsoft introduces new feature with 2k8 that is Hyper-V Windows Server 2008 introduces Hyper-V (V for Virtualization) but only on 64bit versions. More and more companies are seeing this as a way of reducing hardware costs by running several 'virtual' servers on one physical machine. If you like this exciting technology, make sure that you buy an edition of Windows Server 2008 that includes Hyper-V, then launch the Server Manger, add Roles. 3) In Windows Server 2008, Microsoft is introducing new features and technologies, some of which were not available in Windows Server 2003 with Service Pack 1 (SP1), that will help to reduce the power consumption of server and client operating systems, minimize environmental byproducts, and increase server efficiency. Microsoft Windows Server 2008 has been designed with energy efficiency in mind, to provide customers with ready and convenient access to a number of new power-saving features. It includes updated support for Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI) processor power management (PPM) features, including support for processor performance states (Pstates) and processor idle sleep states on multiprocessor systems. These features simplify power management in Windows Server 2008 (WS08) and can be managed easily across servers and clients using Group Policies.

Windows 2000/2003 Active Directory domains utilize a Single Operation Master method called FSMO (Flexible Single Master Operation), as described in Understanding FSMO Roles in Active Directory. The five FSMO roles are:
• • • • •

Schema master - Forest-wide and one per forest. Domain naming master - Forest-wide and one per forest. RID master - Domain-specific and one for each domain. PDC - PDC Emulator is domain-specific and one for each domain. Infrastructure master - Domain-specific and one for each domain.

In most cases an administrator can keep the FSMO role holders (all 5 of them) in the same spot (or actually, on the same DC) as has been configured by the Active Directory installation process. However, there are scenarios where an administrator would want to move one or more of the FSMO roles from the default holder DC to a different DC. The transferring method is described in the Transferring FSMO Roles article, while seizing the roles from a non-operational DC to a different DC is described in the Seizing FSMO Roles article.

The following table summarizes the FSMO default locations: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure Number of DCs holding this Original DC holding the FSMO role role One per forest One per forest One per domain One per domain One per domain The first DC in the first domain in the forest (i. including the Forest Root Domain. any Tree Root Domain.In order to better understand your AD infrastructure and to know the added value that each DC might possess. With that knowledge in hand.e. . the Forest Root Domain) The first DC in a domain (any domain. or any Child Domain) Method #2: Use the GUI The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of some of the AD snap-ins. one can accomplish this task by many means. an AD administrator must have the exact knowledge of which one of the existing DCs is holding a FSMO role. and what role it holds. How to find out which DC is holding which FSMO role? Well. Use this table to see which tool can be used for what FSMO role: FSMO Role Schema Domain Naming RID PDC Emulator Infrastructure AD Users and Computers snap-in Which snap-in should I use? Schema snap-in AD Domains and Trusts snap-in Method #3: Use the Ntdsutil command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Ntdsutil command. This article will list a few of the available methods. and better prepare him or herself in case of a non-scheduled cease of operation from one of the DCs. Method #1: Know the default settings The FSMO roles were assigned to one or more DCs during the DCPROMO process. the administrator can make better arrangements in case of a scheduled shut-down of any given DC.

click Run.. Microsoft Windows [Version 5. and then press ENTER again. and then click OK. click Start. type ?. and then press ENTER. On any domain controller. where <servername> is the name of the server you want to use. fsmo maintenance: connections server connections: 1.Caution: Using the Ntdsutil utility incorrectly may result in partial or complete loss of Active Directory functionality. Type connect to server <servername>. server connections: 1. and then press ENTER again. 1.. C:\WINDOWS>ntdsutil ntdsutil: 1. At the FSMO maintenance: prompt. Connected to server100 using credentials of locally logged on user. server connections: q fsmo maintenance: 1. type Select operation target. fsmo maintenance: Select operation target select operation target: . 1. At the server connections: prompt.3790] (C) Copyright 1985-2003 Microsoft Corp. type q. and then press ENTER. Type connections.2. and then press ENTER. and then press ENTER. Type roles. ntdsutil: roles fsmo maintenance: Note: To see a list of available commands at any of the prompts in the Ntdsutil tool. type Ntdsutil in the Open box. server connections: connect to server server100 Binding to server100 .

CN=NTDS Settings.DC=dpetri. type netdom query /domain:<domain> fsmo (where <domain> is the name of YOUR domain).CN=NTDS Settings.CN=Default-First-SiteName.DC=net PDC .CN=NTDS Settings. Type q 3 times to exit the Ntdsutil prompt.DC=dpetri. and then click OK. found in the Windows 2000 Resource Kit (and can be downloaded here: Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools).CN=Default-First-SiteName. and then press ENTER again.CN=NTDS Settings.CN=SERVER100.DC=net RID .CN=C onfiguration.CN=Conf iguration. 2.CN=Servers. Download Windows XP SP1 Deploy Tools).CN=SERVER100. click Run.dpetri.CN=NTDS Settings. In the Command Prompt window.CN=Si tes.CN=Servers. Netdom.DC=dpetri.DC=dpetri.CN=Conf iguration.cmd. At the select operation target: prompt.DC=net select operation target: 1.CN=Sites.CN=C onfiguration.net . 1.CN=SERVER100. On any domain controller. The Support Tools pack can be found in the \Support\Tools folder on your installation CD (or you can Download Windows 2000 SP4 Support Tools.DC=dpetri. click Start. Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb).CN=Sites. Another Note: Microsoft has a nice tool called Dumpfsmos.1. Method #4: Use the Netdom command The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command.CN=Sites. type List roles for connected server.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Sites. select operation target: List roles for connected server Server "server100" knows about 5 roles Schema . C:\WINDOWS>netdom query /domain:dpetri fsmo Schema owner server100.CN=SERVER100. This tool is basically a one-click Ntdsutil script that performs the same operation described above.net Domain role owner server100.CN=Configuration. You must either download it separately (from here Download Free Windows 2000 Resource Kit Tools) or by obtaining the correct Support Tools pack for your operating system.CN=Servers.CN=SERVER100.CN=Default-FirstSite-Name.CN=Default-First-SiteName.CN=Servers.CN=Servers.DC=net Infrastructure .dpetri.DC=net Domain .exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. type CMD in the Open box.

1. Install the package before attempting to use the tool. Right-click the server that is now listed in the left-pane. type REPLMON in the Open box. 2. and click to select the server you want to query. In the Add Server to Monitor window. . Note: You can download THIS nice batch file that will do all this for you (1kb). In the site list select your site. But Replmon can also provide valuable information about the AD. Close the CMD window. Right-click Monitored servers and select Add Monitored Server. On any domain controller. 1.exe is a part of the Windows 2000/XP/2003 Support Tools. 1. 1. Click Finish. mostly with those that are related with AD replication.PDC role server100. and also about other objects and settings.dpetri. expand it.net RID pool manager server100.net Infrastructure owner server100.net The command completed successfully.dpetri.dpetri. such as GPOs and FSMO roles. Replmon can be used for a wide verity of tasks. click Run. select the Search the Directory for the server to add. and then click OK. click Start. and select Properties. Method #5: Use the Replmon tool The FSMO role holders can be easily found by use of the Netdom command. Replmon. about any DC. Make sure your AD domain name is listed in the drop-down list. Just like Netdom.

1. Click on the FSMO Roles tab and read the results. 1. Click Ok when you're done. .

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